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Sample records for igsstation-2482 ons0 doy

  1. El maltrato de género en «Te doy mis ojos» (2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosendo BUGARÍN GONZÁLEZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro país son escasas y de muy reciente aparición las películas que tratan sobre la violencia de género desde una óptica de rechazo y denuncia. Probablemente la más representativa sea Te doy mis ojos. Su visionado pretende contribuir a concienciar y a hacer reflexionar al espectador sobre la grave dad de esta lacra en nuestra sociedad. No cabe duda de que para llevar a cabo este proyecto, sus respon sables tuvieron que emprender una muy seria y rigurosa labor de investigación. En efecto, este film es un auténtico manual (o incluso tratado sobre maltrato de género. En él se recoge prácticamente “todo” lo relacionado con este problema de salud: el círculo de la violencia, el plan de huída, las consultas sanitarias que no detectaron el problema, el sufrimiento de la víctima, su necesidad de apoyo y acompañamiento así como el contexto del maltratador.

  2. Cuadros en movimiento: la pintura en el cine: Relaciones intermediales en La hora de los valientes [Mercero 1998] y Te doy mis ojos [Bollaín 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Gimeno Ugalde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to study the relationship between cinema and painting from an intermedial perspective by analysing two Spanish films: La hora de los valientes (Antonio Mercero 1998 and Te doy mis ojos (Icíar Bollaín 2003. We intend to compare how the respective directors use painting to construct and enrich the cinematographic story and to analyse what narrative and artistic role the paintings play in the filmic text. The study of the two films will serve to illustrate our initial hypothesis, that painting is used not only for artistic and narrative purposes, but also to make the spectator a witness of a twofold drama: the individual and the collective. The exchange of looks which permeates the diegesis places painting to the forefront, whilst determining the interpretation of the filmic textBasándonos en un enfoque teórico intermedial, el presente artículo tiene como objeto estudiar las relaciones entre cine y pintura a partir de dos películas españolas: La hora de los valientes [Antonio Mercero 1998] y Te doy mis ojos [Icíar Bollaín 2003]. Nos proponemos cotejar cómo los respectivos directores introducen la pintura para construir y enriquecer el relato cinematográfico y analizar qué función narrativa y estética cumplen los cuadros en el texto fílmico. El estudio de ambos filmes nos servirá para demostrar nuestra hipótesis inicial: la pintura se emplea no solo con fines estéticos y narrativos, sino también para convertir al espectador en testigo de un doble drama, el individual y el colectivo. El juego de miradas que atraviesa la diégesis sitúa a la pintura en un primer plano, a la vez que determina la lectura del texto fílmico

  3. Movement behaviour and video tracking of Milnesium tardigradum Doyère, 1840 (Eutardigrada, Apochela)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shcherbakov, D.; Schill, R.O.; Brümmer, F.; Blum, M.

    2010-01-01

    Tardigrades or ‘water-bears’ live in moist environments with a high degree of gaseous exchange. In tardigrades, locomotion is essential, e.g. for feeding, to find sexual partners and to adjust the level of hydration by moving to wetter or dryer environments. Here we report on the movement behaviour

  4. Dando vida me doy vida: Una experiencia de investigación acción con familias

    OpenAIRE

    Arce-Chavarría, Eilyn

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación acción participativa, expresa mi compartir con nueve de catorce familias del estudiantado que asiste al centro de educación especial para el cual trabajo, y cursan los niveles de intervención temprana (0 a 3 años de edad), preescolar (3 a 6 años y 6 meses de edad) y primer ciclo (6 años y 6 meses a 9 años de edad). Seis de las familias participantes estaban compuestas por papá y mamá y las otras tres solo por la madre. Incorpora seis tardes d...

  5. Dando vida me doy vida: Una experiencia de investigación acción con familias

    OpenAIRE

    Arce-Chavarría, Eilyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the result of a participatory action research project.  It expresses my experiences with nine of the fourteen families of students attending the special education school where I work.  Students are in Early Intervention (0-3 years old), Kinder Garden (3-6 and a half years old) and the first cycle of elementary school (6 years and 6 months to 9 years old). Six of the participating families included a father and a mother, while the other three only included the mother. I met six t...

  6. Sodium confluent rates of flow values, on 0,5 mixer, of a sodium italian SS-050 circuit component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium lines on different temperatures, during an emergency drainage on 0,5 mixer was found. To future valuation by DIMEC of tensions that occurs on that component of SS-050, the confluent rates of flow values were calculated. (L.M.J.) [pt

  7. Effect of detector collimator and sample thickness on 0.662 MeV multiply Compton-scattered gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2006-01-01

    The simultaneous effect of detector collimator and sample thickness on 0.662 MeV multiply Compton-scattered gamma photons was studied experimentally. An intense collimated beam, obtained from 6-Ci 137 Cs source, is allowed to impinge on cylindrical aluminium samples of varying diameter and the scattered photons are detected by a 51 mmx51 mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector placed at 90 o to the incident beam. The full energy peak corresponding to singly scattered events is reconstructed analytically. The thickness at which the multiply scattered events saturate is determined for different detector collimators. The parameters like signal-to-noise ratio and multiply scatter fraction (MSF) have also been deduced and support the work carried out by Shengli et al. [2000. EGS4 simulation of Compton scattering for nondestructive testing. KEK proceedings 200-20, Tsukuba, Japan, pp. 216-223] and Barnea et al. [1995. A study of multiple scattering background in Compton scatter imaging. NDT and E International 28, 155-162] based upon Monte Carlo calculations

  8. «De le soe desfortune e de tute le soe prosperitade ne fece doy libri»: un «Apollonio di Tiro» ritrovato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sacchi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Un manoscritto del XV secolo oggi conservato alla Rare Book and Manuscript Library presso la Pennsylvania State University di Philadelphia conserva un volgarizzamento acefalo fin qui inedito della Historia Apollonii regis Tyri di area italiana nord-occidentale. L’edizione critica del testo è preceduta da un breve profilo della traduzione, particolarmente fedele alla fonte latina anche nei dettagli in genere modificati dagli autori medievali, e da un esame linguistico che mette in evidenza sia la prevalenza dei tratti di koinè italiana settentrionale sia gli indizi di una provenienza piemontese.A manuscript owned today by the Rare Book and Manuscript Library of the Pennsylvania State University in Philadelphia contains, among other texts, an acephalous vernacularization of the Historia Apollonii regis Tyri from north-west Italy till now unpublished. The critical edition is introduced by a brief outline of the translation, particularly accurate even in details normally modified by medieval authors, and a linguistic study which points out the predominance of features belonging to the north-italian koine as well as some clues of a Piedmontese origin.

  9. Violencia doméstica y nuevos modelos de mujer: "Te doy mis ojos"o la importancia de la mirada femenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Blanco García

    2006-12-01

    mujeres. La llamada violencia doméstica, cuestión que trata de comprenderse en la citada película, es un grave problema social, razón por la cual debería ser, en la medida de lo posible, erradicado; pero también es un problema sociológico que necesita por ello ser explicado en términos científicos, lo que en buena medida nos ayudará al primer propósito, ligando con ello la teoría y la práctica.

  10. Comparative Investigation on 0.4 inch SBLOCA Scenario with Single and Dual Train Passive Safety Injection Systems using SMART-ITL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun-Sik; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Jeon, Byong-Guk; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Yun, Eun-Koo; Choi, Nam-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ho; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Bang, Yoon-Gon; Kim, Myoung-Jun; Seo, Chan-Jong; Yi, Sung-Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Standard Design Approval (SDA) for SMART was certificated in 2012 at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). In December 2015, Saudi Arabia and Korea started conducting a three-year project of Pre-Project Engineering (PPE) to prepare a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and to review the feasibility of constructing SMART reactors in Saudi Arabia. In addition, an Integral Test Loop for the SMART design (SMART-ITL, or FESTA) has been constructed and it finished its commissioning tests in 2012. Consequently, a set of Design Base Accident (DBA) scenarios have been simulated using SMART-ITL. In this paper, a comparative investigation was performed on 0.4 inch SBLOCA scenario with single and dual train passive safety injection systems using SMART-ITL. In this paper, the effect of the train number of PSIS on a SBLOCA scenario is investigated for a break size of 0.4 inch. The single and dual train tests show a similar trend in general but the injected water migrates slightly differently in the RV and is discharged through the break nozzle. The parameters of the RV pressure, RV water level, accumulated break mass, and injection flowrates from the CMT and SIT were compared. Compared with the single train test, the increased injection rates from the two trains of the PSIS during the dual train test raised the RV water level, ensuring the safety of the reactor core.

  11. Efficient photocatalytic reductive dechlorination of 4-chlorophenol to phenol on {0 0 1}/{1 0 1} facets co-exposed TiO_2 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Guodong; Wei, Meng; Yuan, Songdong; Chang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 4-Chlorophenol is dechlorinated over {0 0 1}/{1 0 1} co-exposed TiO_2 nanocrystals. • Photo-electrons are accumulated on {1 0 1} facets due to surface heterojunction. • Fluorine will trap photoelectrons to depress the dechlorination performance. • Sufficient isopropanol promotes the dechlorination activity and selectivity. - Abstract: 4-chlorophenol could be efficiently photoreductively dechlorinated over anatase TiO_2 nanocrystals with co-exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets, which were synthesized and further characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Although fluorine could adsorb on {0 0 1} facets to decrease their surface energy, enabling TiO_2 to expose high energy {0 0 1} facets, the surface bonded fluorine might depress the photoreductive dechlorination efficiency of 4-chlorophenol, attributed to the electron trapping role of surface ≡Ti−F groups. Due to the formation of a surface heterojunction between {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets in a single TiO_2 nanocrystal, electrons and holes were spontaneously self-separated and selectively migrate to {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets, respectively. Electron trapping experiments demonstrated that photogenerated electrons are the responsible for the reductive dechlorinaton of 4-chlorophenol to phenol. To avoid the oxidative degradation of 4-chlorophenol by holes and ensure sufficient electrons to reductively dechlorinate the substrate, moderate scavengers were required in the reaction system and dissolved oxygen, which might deplete electron on TiO_2, also should be removed. With the optimal scavengers, the conversion efficiency of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) achieved 97.5% and the selectivity for phenol was 92.5%, which were much higher than that of commercial TiO_2 P25.

  12. Efficient photocatalytic reductive dechlorination of 4-chlorophenol to phenol on {0 0 1}/{1 0 1} facets co-exposed TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Guodong; Wei, Meng; Yuan, Songdong [College of Chemistry and chemical engineering, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for High Efficient Utilization of Solar Energy, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China); Chang, Qing, E-mail: changqinghust@163.com [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 4-Chlorophenol is dechlorinated over {0 0 1}/{1 0 1} co-exposed TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. • Photo-electrons are accumulated on {1 0 1} facets due to surface heterojunction. • Fluorine will trap photoelectrons to depress the dechlorination performance. • Sufficient isopropanol promotes the dechlorination activity and selectivity. - Abstract: 4-chlorophenol could be efficiently photoreductively dechlorinated over anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with co-exposed {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets, which were synthesized and further characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Although fluorine could adsorb on {0 0 1} facets to decrease their surface energy, enabling TiO{sub 2} to expose high energy {0 0 1} facets, the surface bonded fluorine might depress the photoreductive dechlorination efficiency of 4-chlorophenol, attributed to the electron trapping role of surface ≡Ti−F groups. Due to the formation of a surface heterojunction between {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets in a single TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal, electrons and holes were spontaneously self-separated and selectively migrate to {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets, respectively. Electron trapping experiments demonstrated that photogenerated electrons are the responsible for the reductive dechlorinaton of 4-chlorophenol to phenol. To avoid the oxidative degradation of 4-chlorophenol by holes and ensure sufficient electrons to reductively dechlorinate the substrate, moderate scavengers were required in the reaction system and dissolved oxygen, which might deplete electron on TiO{sub 2}, also should be removed. With the optimal scavengers, the conversion efficiency of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) achieved 97.5% and the selectivity for phenol was 92.5%, which were much higher than that of commercial TiO{sub 2} P25.

  13. Self-limiting growth of ZnO films on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrates by atomic layer deposition at low temperatures using diethyl-zinc and nitrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Chung, Ping-Han; Lai, Hung-Wei; Su, Hsin-Lun; Lyu, Dong-Yuan; Yen, Kuo-Yi; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Kung, Chung-Yuan; Gong, Jyh-Rong

    2009-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of zinc oxide (ZnO) films on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrates was conducted at low temperatures by using diethyl-zinc (DEZn) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) as precursors. It was found that a monolayer-by-monolayer growth regime occurred at 300 deg. C in a range of DEZn flow rates from 5.7 to 8.7 μmol/min. Furthermore, the temperature self-limiting process window for the ALD-grown ZnO films was also observed ranging from 290 to 310 deg. C. A deposition mechanism is proposed to explain how saturated growth of ZnO is achieved by using DEZn and N 2 O. Transmission spectroscopic studies of the ZnO films prepared in the self-limiting regime show that the transmittances of ZnO films are as high as 80% in visible and near infrared spectra. Experimental results indicate that ZnO films with high optical quality can be achieved by ALD at low temperatures using DEZn and N 2 O precursors.

  14. El cine en E/LE: explotación didáctica de “Te doy mis ojos” (Icíar Bollaín, 2003 para el trabajo del español oral (conversacional y coloquial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Azuar Bonastre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo primordial de esta propuesta es propiciar el desarrollo y aprendizaje del lenguaje oral (conversacional y coloquial por medio del material cinematográfico.La destreza oral suele ser el objetivo último de todo estudiante; en ésta, el dominio delos recursos de la conversación, que es el prototipo discursivo de lo oral, se hacen imprescindibles, así como los del lenguaje coloquial, variedad más auténtica de lo oral,con suma frecuencia de uso en el español actual.

  15. Meson-exchange effets on 0+-O- β-decay transitions in A = 206 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchbach, M.

    1986-10-01

    It is shown that the renormalization of the weak-axial charge density due to the mesonic exchange effects leads to a reduction of the one-body shell-model log ft-values for the β-decays 206 Hg(0 + ) → 206 Tl(0 - ), and 206 Tl(0 - ) → 206 Pb(0 + ) by about two units and gives a satisfactory agreement with experiment. (author)

  16. n-type diamond growth by phosphorus doping on (0 0 1)-oriented surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Okushi, Hideyo

    2007-01-01

    The properties of phosphorus incorporation for n-type doping of diamond are discussed and summarized. Doping of (0 0 1)-oriented diamond is introduced and compared with results achieved on (1 1 1) diamond. This review describes detailed procedures and conditions of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth and characteristics of electrical properties of phosphorus-doped diamond. The phosphorus incorporation was characterized by SIMS analysis including mapping. n-type conductivity is evaluated by Hall-effect measurements over a temperature regime of 300-1000 K. The crystal perfection of (0 0 1)-oriented n-type diamond is also evaluated by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction and cathodoluminescence analyses. The results show that phosphorus atoms are incorporated into the diamond network during (0 0 1) CVD diamond growth and that phosphorus acts as a donor as in (1 1 1)-oriented diamond. This result eliminates the restriction on substrate orientation, which had previously created a bottleneck in the development of diamond electronic devices. (review article)

  17. On 0-Complete Partial Metric Spaces and Quantitative Fixed Point Techniques in Denotational Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1994, Matthews introduced the notion of partial metric space with the aim of providing a quantitative mathematical model suitable for program verification. Concretely, Matthews proved a partial metric version of the celebrated Banach fixed point theorem which has become an appropriate quantitative fixed point technique to capture the meaning of recursive denotational specifications in programming languages. In this paper we show that a few assumptions in statement of Matthews fixed point theorem can be relaxed in order to provide a quantitative fixed point technique useful to analyze the meaning of the aforementioned recursive denotational specifications in programming languages. In particular, we prove a new fixed point theorem for self-mappings between partial metric spaces in which the completeness has been replaced by 0-completeness and the contractive condition has been weakened in such a way that the new one best fits the requirements of practical problems in denotational semantics. Moreover, we provide examples that show that the hypothesis in the statement of our new result cannot be weakened. Finally, we show the potential applicability of the developed theory by means of analyzing a few concrete recursive denotational specifications, some of them admitting a unique meaning and others supporting multiple ones.

  18. Influence Factors Regarding the Effectiveness of Automated Ballistic Comparison on 0.38 Special Caliber Bullets and Cartridge Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Lehi Sudy; Vieira Muterlle, Palloma

    2018-03-01

    Factors influencing effectiveness of automated comparisons, test-fired bullets, and cartridge cases from 0.38 Special revolvers were logged into the Evofinder ® Ballistic ID System. Tests were performed as follows: First test correlated test-fires of the same type, second test compared different types of ammunition components, third test replicated the second test in a larger database, and fourth test replicated the third test with students having no previous firearm identification experience. System effectiveness with projectiles in the first test was 0.89. With cartridge cases, effectiveness was 0.79 with combined results, but analysis of separate results by breech face and firing pin revealed low effectiveness by breech face (0.40). In the second, third, and fourth tests, effectiveness with projectiles were 0.61, 0.51, and 0.44. In addition, these tests had effectiveness with cartridge cases equivalent to 0.55, 0.43, and 0.44. Results are useful to establish routine protocols, system improvements, or comparative assessment of other electronic systems. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Growth of epitaxial Pt thin films on (0 0 1) SrTiO{sub 3} by rf magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahsay, A. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Polo, M.C., E-mail: mcpolo@ub.edu [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ferrater, C.; Ventura, J. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rebled, J.M. [Departament d’Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia IN 2UB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Varela, M. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The growth of platinum thin film by rf magnetron sputtering on SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1) substrates for oxide based devices was investigated. Platinum films grown at temperatures higher than 750 °C were epitaxial ([1 0 0]Pt(0 0 1)//[1 0 0]STO(0 0 1)), whereas at lower temperatures Pt(1 1 1) films were obtained. The surface morphology of the Pt films showed a strong dependence on the deposition temperature as was revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). At elevated temperatures there is a three-dimensional (3D) growth of rectangular atomically flat islands with deep boundaries between them. On the other hand, at low deposition temperatures, a two-dimensional (2D) layered growth was observed. The transition from 2D to 3D growth modes was observed that occurs for temperatures around 450 °C. The obtained epitaxial thin films also formed an atomically sharp interface with the SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1) substrate as confirmed by HRTEM.

  20. Surface Nb-ALLOYING on 0.4C-13Cr Stainless Steel: Microstructure and Tribological Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengwang; You, Kai; Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yihui; Wang, Zhenxia; Liu, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    0.4C-13Cr stainless steel was alloyed with niobium using double glow plasma surface alloying and tribological properties of Nb-alloyed steel such as hardness, friction and wear were measured. Effects of the alloying temperature on microstructure and the tribological behavior of the alloyed steel were investigated compared with untreated steel. Formation mechanisms of Nb-alloyed layers and increased wear resistance were also studied. The result shows that after surface Nb-alloying treatment, the 0.4C-13Cr steel exhibits a diffusion adhesion at the alloyed layer/substrate interface and improved tribological property. The friction coefficient of Nb-alloyed steel is decreased by about 0.3-0.45 and the wear rate after Nb-alloying is only 2-5% of untreated steel.

  1. Non-agglomerated silicon nanoparticles on (0 0 1) silicon substrate formed by PLA and their photoluminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jun; Tu Hailing; Wang Lei

    2009-01-01

    In this work, non-agglomerated silicon nanoparticles formed on Si(0 0 1) substrate were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) and their photoluminescence (PL) properties were studied. The controllable parameters in PLA process include mainly pulsed laser energy, target-to-substrate distance and buffer gas pressure. In particular, the effect of buffer gas pressure on the formation of non-agglomerated and size-controlled silicon nanoparticles has been discussed. The results show that non-agglomerated and size-controlled silicon nanoparticles can be fabricated with particle size in the range of 2-10 nm when Ar buffer gas pressure was varied from 50 to 10 Pa. Most of these nanoparticles are in form of single crystal with less surface oxidation in the as-deposited samples. The PL peak positions are located at 581-615 nm for Si nanoparticles with size of 2-10 nm. When exposed to air for up to 60 days, the core/shell structure of Si nanoparticles would be formed, which in turn could be responsible for the blue shift of PL peak position. Pt noble metal coating has passivation effect for surface stabilization of Si nanoparticles and shows relatively satisfied time-stability of PL intensity. These results suggest that the Si nanoparticles prepared by PLA have a large potential for the fabrication of optically active photonic devices based on the Si technology.

  2. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BA opplied 6 doys of ter onthesis a. Taking the terminal raceme as a whole, the treatments did not show significant differences with respect to the total number of flowers produced and those flowers that developed into pods. Figure 1 shows the daily pattern of pod abscission as influenced by BA applied at different times.

  3. Chaos and dynamics on 0.5--300 ps time scales in vibrationally excited acetylene: Fourier transform of stimulated-emission pumping spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pique, J.P.; Chen, Y.; Field, R.W.; Kinsey, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A recently proposed technique based on the Fourier transform of the spectrum is applied to the stimulated-emission pumping spectrum of acetylene at --26 500 cm/sup -1/ above the vibrational ground state. Correlations on two different time scales (--3 and --45 ps) were found from analysis of low-resolution (0.3 cm/sup -1/) and high-resolution (0.05 cm/sup -1/) spectra, respectively. Additional structure produced dynamic information on a wider (0.5--300 ps) time scale. The results show that acetylene at 26 500 cm/sup -1/ is in the transition from the regular to the chaotic regime

  4. Cut points on 0-10 numeric rating scales for symptoms included in the edmonton symptom assessment scale in cancer patients: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. Oldenmenger (Wendy); P.J. de Raaf (Pleun); C. de Klerk (Cora); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContext: To improve the management of cancer-related symptoms, systematic screening is necessary, often performed by using 0-10 numeric rating scales. Cut points are used to determine if scores represent clinically relevant burden. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to

  5. Composition modulation analysis of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}P layers grown on (0 0 1) germanium substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, C.E.; Araujo, D. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e IM y QI, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Gutierrez, M., E-mail: marina.gutierrez@uca.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e IM y QI, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Miguel-Sanchez, J.; Rodriguez-Messmer, E. [Isofoton, C/ Severo Ochoa 50, 29590 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The development of new photovoltaic approach to improve costs and efficiencies is focused on the new materials and new technologies. InGaP is, in this sense, a key material for solar conversion. In particular, in the solar concentration approach, this material is part of multiple junction solar cells. Its low lattice mismatch with germanium and its adequate bandgap make it very promising. This paper shows how compositional modulation can affect the InGaP emitter and the AlGaAs tunnel junctions. The influence of the growth conditions, on the compositional modulation and misfit and threading dislocations, in In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P layers is demonstrated by TEM on purposely grown single InGaP layers. High resolution electron microscopy (HREM) intensity profiles showed no elastic lattice related modulation.

  6. SIFT-based dense pixel tracking on 0.35 T cine-MR images acquired during image-guided radiation therapy with application to gating optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, Thomas R., E-mail: tmazur@radonc.wustl.edu, E-mail: hli@radonc.wustl.edu; Fischer-Valuck, Benjamin W.; Wang, Yuhe; Yang, Deshan; Mutic, Sasa; Li, H. Harold, E-mail: tmazur@radonc.wustl.edu, E-mail: hli@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To first demonstrate the viability of applying an image processing technique for tracking regions on low-contrast cine-MR images acquired during image-guided radiation therapy, and then outline a scheme that uses tracking data for optimizing gating results in a patient-specific manner. Methods: A first-generation MR-IGRT system—treating patients since January 2014—integrates a 0.35 T MR scanner into an annular gantry consisting of three independent Co-60 sources. Obtaining adequate frame rates for capturing relevant patient motion across large fields-of-view currently requires coarse in-plane spatial resolution. This study initially (1) investigate the feasibility of rapidly tracking dense pixel correspondences across single, sagittal plane images (with both moderate signal-to-noise and spatial resolution) using a matching objective for highly descriptive vectors called scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors associated to all pixels that describe intensity gradients in local regions around each pixel. To more accurately track features, (2) harmonic analysis was then applied to all pixel trajectories within a region-of-interest across a short training period. In particular, the procedure adjusts the motion of outlying trajectories whose relative spectral power within a frequency bandwidth consistent with respiration (or another form of periodic motion) does not exceed a threshold value that is manually specified following the training period. To evaluate the tracking reliability after applying this correction, conventional metrics—including Dice similarity coefficients (DSCs), mean tracking errors (MTEs), and Hausdorff distances (HD)—were used to compare target segmentations obtained via tracking to manually delineated segmentations. Upon confirming the viability of this descriptor-based procedure for reliably tracking features, the study (3) outlines a scheme for optimizing gating parameters—including relative target position and a tolerable margin about this position—derived from a probability density function that is constructed using tracking results obtained just prior to treatment. Results: The feasibility of applying the matching objective for SIFT descriptors toward pixel-by-pixel tracking on cine-MR acquisitions was first retrospectively demonstrated for 19 treatments (spanning various sites). Both with and without motion correction based on harmonic analysis, sub-pixel MTEs were obtained. A mean DSC value spanning all patients of 0.916 ± 0.001 was obtained without motion correction, with DSC values exceeding 0.85 for all patients considered. While most patients show accurate tracking without motion correction, harmonic analysis does yield substantial gain in accuracy (defined using HDs) for three particularly challenging subjects. An application of tracking toward a gating optimization procedure was then demonstrated that should allow a physician to balance beam-on time and tissue sparing in a patient-specific manner by tuning several intuitive parameters. Conclusions: Tracking results show high fidelity in assessing intrafractional motion observed on cine-MR acquisitions. Incorporating harmonic analysis during a training period improves the robustness of the tracking for challenging targets. The concomitant gating optimization procedure should allow for physicians to quantitatively assess gating effectiveness quickly just prior to treatment in a patient-specific manner.

  7. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  8. Numerical Modeling of Water Fluxes in the Root Zone of Irrigated Pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, M. K.; Deb, S.

    2010-12-01

    Information is still limited on the coupled liquid water, water vapor, heat transport and root water uptake for irrigated pecan. Field experiments were conducted in a sandy loam mature pecan field in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Three pecan trees were chosen to monitor diurnal soil water content under the canopy (approximately half way between trunk and the drip line) and outside the drip line (bare spot) along a transect at the depths of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 cm using TDR sensors. Soil temperature sensors were installed at an under-canopy locations and bare spot to monitor soil temperature data at depths of 5, 10, 20, and 40 cm. Simulations of the coupled transport of liquid water, water vapor, and heat with and without root water uptake were carried out using the HYDRUS-1D code. Measured soil hydraulic and thermal properties, continuous meteorological data, and pecan characteristics, e.g. rooting depth, leaf area index, were used in the model simulations. Model calibration was performed for a 26-day period from DOY 204 through DOY 230, 2009 based on measured soil water content and soil temperature data at different soil depths, while the model was validated for a 90-day period from DOY 231 through DOY 320, 2009 at bare spot. Calibrated parameters were also used to apply the model at under-canopy locations for a 116-day period from DOY 204 to 320. HYDRUS-1D simulated water contents and soil temperatures correlated well with the measured data at each depth. Numerical assessment of various transport mechanisms and quantitative estimates of isothermal and thermal water fluxes with and without root water uptake in the unsaturated zone within canopy and bare spot is in progress and will be presented in the conference.

  9. Understanding long-term (1982-2013) patterns and trends in winter wheat spring green-up date over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sisi; Mo, Xingguo; Liu, Zhengjia; Baig, Muhammad Hasan Ali; Chi, Wenfeng

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring the spring green-up date (GUD) has grown in importance for crop management and food security. However, most satellite-based GUD models are associated with a high degree of uncertainty when applied to croplands. In this study, we introduced an improved GUD algorithm to extract GUD data for 32 years (1982-2013) for the winter wheat croplands on the North China Plain (NCP), using the third-generation normalized difference vegetation index form Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g NDVI). The spatial and temporal variations in GUD with the effects of the pre-season climate and soil moisture conditions on GUD were comprehensively investigated. Our results showed that a higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.44, p the improved algorithm relative to GUD from the MCD12Q2 phenology product. In spatial terms, GUD increased from the southwest (less than day of year (DOY) 60) to the northeast (more than DOY 90) of the NCP, which corresponded to spatial reductions in temperature and precipitation. GUD advanced in most (78%) of the winter wheat area on the NCP, with significant advances in 37.8% of the area (p the interannual scale, the average GUD advanced from DOY 76.9 in the 1980s (average 1982-1989) to DOY 73.2 in the 1990s (average 1991-1999), and to DOY 70.3 after 2000 (average 2000-2013), indicating an average advance of 1.8 days/decade (r = 0.35, p the pre-season temperature, our findings underline that the effect of the pre-season soil moisture on GUD should also be considered. The improved GUD algorithm and satellite-based long-term GUD data are helpful for improving the representation of GUD in terrestrial ecosystem models and enhancing crop management efficiency.

  10. Effects of late defoliations on chemical and sensory characteristics of cv. uva longanesi wines

    OpenAIRE

    Tessarin, P; Boliani, A. C; Botelho, R. V; Rusin, C; Versari, A; Parpinello, G. P; Rombolà, A. D

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of late leaf removal on the berry and wine composition and on wine sensory characteristics of Uva Longanesi, a late maturing red Italian grape variety, which wines are characterized by high levels of alcohol and excessive astringency, the latter apparently intensified by late defoliation practices. During 2008 season, spur-pruned trained vines were submitted to manual defoliation (4 basal leaves) at the onset (DEF I, 210 DOY) or at the end (DEF II, 23...

  11. OBSERVATIONS OF THE HELIOSHEATH AND SOLAR WIND NEAR THE TERMINATION SHOCK BY VOYAGER 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Richardson, J. D.; Stone, E.; McDonald, F. B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the principal features of 24 hr averages of the magnetic field strength variations B(t) and their relationships to the plasma and energetic particles observed prior to and after the crossing of the termination shock (TS) by Voyager 2 (V2). The solar wind (pre-TS crossing) and heliosheath (post-TS crossing) data extend from day of year (DOY) 1 through 241, 2007 and from 2007 DOY 245 through 2008 DOY 80, respectively. In the solar wind, two merged interaction regions (MIRs) were observed in which the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure in the solar wind was relatively low. Strong magnetic fields and low values of beta were also observed just prior to its crossing of the TS. The predicted correlation between peaks in the intensity of energetic particles in the solar wind when V2 crossed the heliospheric current sheet from positive to negative magnetic polarity in the solar wind was not observed. In the heliosheath, V2 observed a feature characterized by large enhancements of the density N and the proton temperature T, a small increase in speed V, and a depression in B. The distributions of 24 hr averages of B and beta were approximately log-normal in both the solar wind and the heliosheath. A unipolar region was observed for 73 days in the heliosheath, as the heliospheric current sheet moved toward the equatorial plane to latitudes lower than V2.

  12. Using MODIS Data to Predict Regional Corn Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Young Ban

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple approach was developed to predict corn yields using the MoDerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data product from two geographically separate major corn crop production regions: Illinois, USA and Heilongjiang, China. The MOD09A1 data, which are eight-day interval surface reflectance data, were obtained from day of the year (DOY 89 to 337 to calculate the leaf area index (LAI. The sum of the LAI from early in the season to a given date in the season (end of DOY (EOD was well fitted to a logistic function and represented seasonal changes in leaf area duration (LAD. A simple phenology model was derived to estimate the dates of emergence and maturity using the LAD-logistic function parameters b1 and b2, which represented the rate of increase in LAI and the date of maximum LAI, respectively. The phenology model predicted emergence and maturity dates fairly well, with root mean square error (RMSE values of 6.3 and 4.9 days for the validation dataset, respectively. Two simple linear regression models (YP and YF were established using LAD as the variable to predict corn yield. The yield model YP used LAD from predicted emergence to maturity, and the yield model YF used LAD for a predetermined period from DOY 89 to a particular EOD. When state/province corn yields for the validation dataset were predicted at DOY 321, near completion of the corn harvest, the YP model, including the predicted phenology, performed much better than the YF model, with RMSE values of 0.68 t/ha and 0.66 t/ha for Illinois and Heilongjiang, respectively. The YP model showed similar or better performance, even for the much earlier pre-harvest yield prediction at DOY 257. In addition, the model performance showed no difference between the two study regions with very different climates and cultivation methods, including cultivar and irrigation management. These results suggested that the approach described in this paper has potential for application to

  13. Phyllanthus muellerianus and C6H15NO3 synergistic effects on 0.5 M H2SO4-immersed steel-reinforced concrete: Implication for clean corrosion-protection of wind energy structures in industrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Omotosho, Olugbenga Adeshola; Popoola, Abimbola Patricia Idowu; Loto, Cleophas Akintoye

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract and C6H15NO3 (triethanolamine: TEA) synergistic effects on reinforcing-steel corrosion-inhibition and the compressive-strength of steel-reinforced concrete immersed in 0.5 M H2SO4. This is to assess suitability of the synergistic admixture usage for wind-energy steel-reinforced concrete structures designed for industrial environments. Steel-reinforced concrete specimens were admixed with individual and synergistic designs of Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract and C6H15NO3 admixtures and immersed in the 0.5 M H2SO4. Electrochemical monitoring of corrosion potential, as per ASTM C876-91 R99, and corrosion current were obtained and statistically analysed, as per ASTM G16-95 R04, for modelling noise resistance. Post-immersion compressive-strength testing then followed, as per ASTM C39/C39M-03, for detailing the admixture effect on load-bearing strength of the steel-reinforced concrete specimens. Results showed that while individual Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract concentrations exhibited better inhibition-efficiency performance than C6H15NO3, synergistic additions of C6H15NO3 to Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract improved steel-rebar corrosion-inhibition. Thus, 6 g Phyllanthus muellerianus + 2 g C6H15NO3 synergistically improved inhibition-efficiency to η = 84.17%, from η = 55.28% by the optimal chemical or from η = 74.72% by the optimal plant-extract admixtures. The study also established that improved compressive strength of steel-reinforced concrete with acceptable inhibition of the steel-rebar corrosion could be attained through optimal combination of the Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract and C6H15NO3 admixtures.

  14. Dual-band LTCC antenna based on 0.95Zn2SiO4-0.05CaTiO3 ceramics for GPS/UMTS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Gang; Li, Yu-Xia; Guo, Mei

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a compact low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) dual-band antenna by using the electromagnetic coupling effect concept for global positioning system (GPS) and universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) applications. The overall dimension of the antenna is 8.6 mm × 13.0 mm × 1.1 mm. It consists of double meander lines and a via hole line. The top meander line operates at the upper band, and the bottom radiating patch is designed for the lower band. The via-hole line is employed to connect the double meander lines. Because of the effect of the coupled line, total dimension of the proposed antenna is greatly reduced. With the 2.5: voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) impedance bandwidth definition, the lower and upper bands have the bandwidths of 110 MHz and 150 MHz, respectively. The proposed antenna is successfully designed, simulated, and analyzed by a high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). And the antenna is manufactured by using the 0.95Zn2SiO4-0.05CaTiO3 ceramics (εr = 7.1, tanδ = 0.00038) that is prepared by ourselves. The results show that the antenna is compact, efficient, and of near omnidirectional radiation pattern. Project supported by the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20133718120009), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Provence, China (Grant Nos. ZR2013FQ002 and ZR2014FQ006), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M551935), the Qingdao Municipality Postdoctoral Science Foundation, China, and the Scientific Research Foundation of Shandong University of Science and Technology for Recruited Talents, China (Grant Nos. 2013RCJJ042 and 2014RCJJ052).

  15. Comment on "Zircon U-Th-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating on 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Japan" by Hisatoshi Ito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillong, M.; Schmitt, A. K.; Bachmann, O.

    2015-04-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of eight zircon reference materials and synthetic zircon-hafnon end-members indicate that corrections for abundance sensitivity and molecular zirconium sesquioxide ions (Zr2O3+) are critical for reliable determination of 230Th abundances in zircon. Other polyatomic interferences in the mass range 223-233 amu are insignificant. When corrected for abundance sensitivity and interferences, activity ratios of (230Th)/(238U) for the zircon reference materials we used average 1.001 ± 0.010 (1σ error; mean square of weighted deviates MSWD = 1.45; n = 8). This includes the 91500 and Plešovice zircons, which were deemed unsuitable for calibration of (230Th)/(238U) by Ito (2014). Uranium series zircon ages generated by LA-ICP-MS without mitigating (e.g., by high mass resolution) or correcting for abundance sensitivity and molecular interferences on 230Th such as those presented by Ito (2014) are potentially unreliable.

  16. Why the slip of 1/2 (3 3 1] dislocations on {0 1 3) in C11.sub.b ./sub. behaves differently at low and high temperatures?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav; Inui, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 632, May (2015), s. 44-47 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0144 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100411202 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high-temperature alloys * intermetallics * atomic scale structure * dislocations * mechanical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.014, year: 2015

  17. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: (i) start of the first greening between day of the year (DOY) 108-119 (mean 113), (ii) end of greening, and (iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), (iv) re-sprouting 19-38 days after the frost, and (v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166-184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were not affected by the low temperatures of -5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage, and recovery within one stand.

  18. La falta de Laclau: lo imaginario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Aibar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En la obra de Laclau hay una clara deficiencia: la del registro de lo Imaginario. La no inclusión de ese registro en el andamiaje conceptual que sostiene a la teoría de la hegemonía, hace que la misma sea endeble en sus principales desarrollos. En este artículo doy cuenta, a la luz de la obra de Lacan, del silencio teórico de Laclau, para después explorar las consecuencias de dicho silencio para el análisis político.

  19. Geomagnetic Storm Impact On GPS Code Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uray, Fırat; Varlık, Abdullah; Kalaycı, İbrahim; Öǧütcü, Sermet

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the geomagnetic storm impact on GPS code processing with using GIPSY/OASIS research software. 12 IGS stations in mid-latitude were chosen to conduct the experiment. These IGS stations were classified as non-cross correlation receiver reporting P1 and P2 (NONCC-P1P2), non-cross correlation receiver reporting C1 and P2 (NONCC-C1P2) and cross-correlation (CC-C1P2) receiver. In order to keep the code processing consistency between the classified receivers, only P2 code observations from the GPS satellites were processed. Four extreme geomagnetic storms October 2003, day of the year (DOY), 29, 30 Halloween Storm, November 2003, DOY 20, November 2004, DOY 08 and four geomagnetic quiet days in 2005 (DOY 92, 98, 99, 100) were chosen for this study. 24-hour rinex data of the IGS stations were processed epoch-by-epoch basis. In this way, receiver clock and Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) Cartesian Coordinates were solved for a per-epoch basis for each day. IGS combined broadcast ephemeris file (brdc) were used to partly compensate the ionospheric effect on the P2 code observations. There is no tropospheric model was used for the processing. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Application Technology Satellites (JPL ATS) computed coordinates of the stations were taken as true coordinates. The differences of the computed ECEF coordinates and assumed true coordinates were resolved to topocentric coordinates (north, east, up). Root mean square (RMS) errors for each component were calculated for each day. The results show that two-dimensional and vertical accuracy decreases significantly during the geomagnetic storm days comparing with the geomagnetic quiet days. It is observed that vertical accuracy is much more affected than the horizontal accuracy by geomagnetic storm. Up to 50 meters error in vertical component has been observed in geomagnetic storm day. It is also observed that performance of Klobuchar ionospheric correction parameters during geomagnetic storm

  20. High Time-Resolved Kinetic Temperatures of Solar Wind Minor Ions Measured with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitzek, N. P.; Berger, L.; Drews, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    Solar wind heavy ions with an atomic number Z > 2 are referred to as minor ions since they represent a fraction of less than one percent of all solar wind ions. They can be therefore regarded as test particles, only reacting to but not driving the dynamics of the solar wind plasma, which makes them a unique diagnostic tool for plasma wave phenomena both in the solar atmosphere and the extended heliosphere. In the past, several studies have investigated the kinetic temperatures of minor ions, but due to low counting statistics these studies are based on ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) recorded over time periods of several hours. The Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer as part of the Charge, ELement and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) onboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) provides solar wind heavy ion 1D radial VDFs with excellent charge state separation, an unprecedented cadence of 5 minutes and very high counting statistics, exceeding similar state-of-the-art instruments by a factor of ten. In our study, based on CTOF measurements at Langrangian point L1 between DOY 150 and DOY 220 in 1996, we investigate systematically the influence of the VDF time resolution on the derived kinetic temperatures for solar wind silicon and iron ions. The selected ion set spans a wide range of mass-per-charge from 3 amu/e heavy ions with ion-cyclotron waves.

  1. An Investigation of the Ionospheric Disturbances Due to the 2014 Sudden Stratospheric Warming Events Over Brazilian Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, R.; Batista, I. S.; Jonah, O. F.; de Abreu, A. J.; Fagundes, P. R.; Venkatesh, K.; Denardini, C. M.

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigates the ionospheric F region response in the Brazilian sector due to sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events of 2014. The data used for this work are obtained from GPS receivers and magnetometer measurements during day of year (DOY) 01 to 120, 2014 at different stations in the equatorial and low-latitude regions in the Brazilian sector. In addition, the data obtained from Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellites during DOY 01 to 75 of 2014 are used. The main novelty of this research is that, during the 2014 SSW events, daytime vertical total electron content (VTEC) shows a strong increase on the order of about 23% and 11% over the equatorial and low-latitude regions, respectively. We also observed that the nighttime VTEC (SSW days) is increased by 8% and 33% over equatorial and low-latitude regions, respectively. The magnetometer measurements show a strong counterelectrojet during the SSW days. The results show an amplification of the 0.5 day and 2-16 day periods in the VTEC and equatorial electrojet during the SSWs. The occurrences of ionospheric irregularities during the SSW events are around 84% and 53% in the equatorial and low-latitude regions, respectively, which is less frequent when compared with those during the pre-SSW periods.

  2. Spherical Slepian as a new method for ionospheric modeling in arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadfard, Hossein; Hossainali, Masoud Mashhadi

    2016-03-01

    From the perspective of the physical, chemical and biological balance in the world, the Arctic has gradually turned into an important region opening ways for new researchers and scientific expeditions. In other words, various researches have been funded in order to study this frozen frontier in details. The current study can be seen in the same milieu where researchers intend to propose a set of new base functions for modeling ionospheric in the Arctic. As such, to optimize the Spherical Harmonic (SH) functions, the spatio-spectral concentration is applied here using the Slepian theory that was developed by Simons. For modeling the ionosphere, six International GNSS Service (IGS) stations located in the northern polar region were taken into account. Two other stations were left out for assessing the accuracy of the proposed model. The adopted GPS data starts at DOY 69 (Day of Year) and ends at DOY 83 (totally 15 successive days) in 2013. Three Spherical Slepian models respectively with the maximal degrees of K=15, 20 & 25 were used. Based on the results, K=15 is the optimum degree for the proposed model. The accuracy and precision of the Slepian model are about 0.1 and 0.05 TECU, respectively (TEC Unit=1016 electron/m2). To understand the advantage of this model, it is compared with polynomial and trigonometric series which are developed using the same set of measurements. The accuracy and precision of trigonometric and polynomial models are at least 4 times worse than the Slepian one.

  3. Development of estimation method for crop yield using MODIS satellite imagery data and process-based model for corn and soybean in US Corn-Belt region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kang, S.; Jang, K.; Ko, J.; Hong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Crop productivity is associated with the food security and hence, several models have been developed to estimate crop yield by combining remote sensing data with carbon cycle processes. In present study, we attempted to estimate crop GPP and NPP using algorithm based on the LUE model and a simplified respiration model. The state of Iowa and Illinois was chosen as the study site for estimating the crop yield for a period covering the 5 years (2006-2010), as it is the main Corn-Belt area in US. Present study focuses on developing crop-specific parameters for corn and soybean to estimate crop productivity and yield mapping using satellite remote sensing data. We utilized a 10 km spatial resolution daily meteorological data from WRF to provide cloudy-day meteorological variables but in clear-say days, MODIS-based meteorological data were utilized to estimate daily GPP, NPP, and biomass. County-level statistics on yield, area harvested, and productions were used to test model predicted crop yield. The estimated input meteorological variables from MODIS and WRF showed with good agreements with the ground observations from 6 Ameriflux tower sites in 2006. For examples, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 to 0.98 for Tmin and Tavg ; from 0.68 to 0.85 for daytime mean VPD; from 0.85 to 0.96 for daily shortwave radiation, respectively. We developed county-specific crop conversion coefficient, i.e. ratio of yield to biomass on 260 DOY and then, validated the estimated county-level crop yield with the statistical yield data. The estimated corn and soybean yields at the county level ranged from 671 gm-2 y-1 to 1393 gm-2 y-1 and from 213 gm-2 y-1 to 421 gm-2 y-1, respectively. The county-specific yield estimation mostly showed errors less than 10%. Furthermore, we estimated crop yields at the state level which were validated against the statistics data and showed errors less than 1%. Further analysis for crop conversion coefficient was conducted for 200 DOY and 280 DOY

  4. An Extended Fourier Approach to Improve the Retrieved Leaf Area Index (LAI in a Time Series from an Alpine Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwen Quan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An extended Fourier approach was presented to improve the retrieved leaf area index (LAIr of herbaceous vegetation in a time series from an alpine wetland. The retrieval was performed from the Aqua MODIS 8-day composite surface reflectance product (MYD09Q1 from day of year (DOY 97 to 297 using a look-up table (LUT based inversion of a two-layer canopy reflectance model (ACRM. To reduce the uncertainty (the ACRM inversion is ill-posed, we used NDVI and NIR images to reduce the influence of the soil background and the priori information to constrain the range of sensitive ACRM parameters determined using the Sobol’s method. Even so the uncertainty caused the LAIr versus time curve to oscillate. To further reduce the uncertainty, a Fourier model was fitted using the periodically LAIr results, obtaining LAIF. We note that the level of precision of the LAIF potentially may increase through removing singular points or decrease if the LAIr data were too noisy. To further improve the precision level of the LAIr, the Fourier model was extended by considering the LAIr uncertainty. The LAIr, the LAI simulated using the Fourier model, and the LAI simulated using the extended Fourier approach (LAIeF were validated through comparisons with the field measured LAI. The R2 values were 0.68, 0.67 and 0.72, the residual sums of squares (RSS were 3.47, 3.42 and 3.15, and the root-mean-square errors (RMSE were 0.31, 0.30 and 0.29, respectively, on DOY 177 (early July 2011. In late August (DOY 233, the R2 values were 0.73, 0.77 and 0.79, the RSS values were 38.96, 29.25 and 27.48, and the RMSE values were 0.94, 0.81 and 0.78, respectively. The results demonstrate that the extended Fourier approach has the potential to increase the level of precision of estimates of the time varying LAI.

  5. Monitoring Bare Soil Freeze–Thaw Process Using GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry: Simulation and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuerui Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Frozen soil and permafrost affect ecosystem diversity and productivity as well as global energy and water cycles. Although some space-based Radar techniques or ground-based sensors can monitor frozen soil and permafrost variations, there are some shortcomings and challenges. For the first time, we use GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry (GPS-IR to monitor and investigate the bare soil freeze–thaw process as a new remote sensing tool. The mixed-texture permittivity models are employed to calculate the frozen and thawed soil permittivities. When the soil freeze/thaw process occurs, there is an abrupt change in the soil permittivity, which will result in soil scattering variations. The corresponding theoretical simulation results from the forward GPS multipath simulator show variations of GPS multipath observables. As for the in-situ measurements, virtual bistatic radar is employed to simplify the analysis. Within the GPS-IR spatial resolution, one SNOTEL site (ID 958 and one corresponding PBO (plate boundary observatory GPS site (AB33 are used for analysis. In 2011, two representative days (frozen soil on Doy of Year (DOY 318 and thawed soil on DOY 322 show the SNR changes of phase and amplitude. The GPS site and the corresponding SNOTEL site in four different years are analyzed for comparisons. When the soil freeze/thaw process occurred and no confounding snow depth and soil moisture effects existed, it exhibited a good absolute correlation (|R| = 0.72 in 2009, |R| = 0.902 in 2012, |R| = 0.646 in 2013, and |R| = 0.7017 in 2014 with the average detrended SNR data. Our theoretical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that GPS-IR has potential for monitoring the bare soil temperature during the soil freeze–thaw process, while more test works should be done in the future. GNSS-R polarimetry is also discussed as an option for detection. More retrieval work about elevation and polarization combinations are the focus of future development.

  6. Aves ocasionales en la Sabana de Bogotá y las Lagunas de Fúquene y de Tota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrero José Ignacio

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available En números anteriores de esta misma revista publiqué algunas listas preliminares anotando la presencia ocasional de ciertas aves en la Sabana de Bogotá y la Laguna de Fúquene. A continuación hago mención de otras especies que he encontrado en las mismas localidades o también en la Laguna de Tota, Boyacá, a 3015 metros de altitud. Por considerarlo de importancia desde el punto de vista de la distribución geográfica, doy también datos referentes a la presencia de un ave migratoria norteamericana (Colymbus niqricollis californicus en la Laguna de Tota.

  7. Las revistas latinoamericanas de economía y la encrucijada actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supelano Sarmiento Alberto

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Siguiendo el ejemplo mexicano, deseo comenzar con la palabra gracias, esa palabra que expresan todas las lenguas. La gracia es un don, y aquél que lo recibe, lo agradece. Se me ha dado el don de participar en este encuentro y doy las gracias: gracias a la doctora Alicia Girón, directora del instituto de Investigaciones Económicas de la Universidad Autónoma de México y gracias al doctor Salvador Rodríguez, director de Problemas del Desarrollo: caballero andante que hace unos meses recorría los caminos de América Latina para invitarnos a compartir nuevas aventuras y desventuras. Celebro que su empeño nos haya congregado. Espero que esta reunión inicie nuevas andaduras.

  8. Análisis de los contenidos matemáticos en los libros de divulgación matemática

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Ángela María

    2017-01-01

    La realización de este trabajo de investigación se centra en el análisis de los contenidos matemáticos que existen en libros de divulgación matemática, por lo tanto la pregunta a la que doy respuesta es “¿Existen contenidos de geometría y medida para sexto curso de primaria en libros de divulgación matemática de secundaria?”. Para empezar, debía acotar el campo de estudio, tanto en curso como en contenidos. El curso elegido fue sexto de primaria, por tener algunos contenidos relacionados c...

  9. Editorial Volumen 1 Nro. 2 (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Les doy la bienvenida a este segundo número. Un excelente equilibrio entre fisiología, política y religión; con artículos atravesados por, o que cuestionan, la visión tántrica de sujeto. Los cuatro trabajos seleccionados sintetizan el espíritu presentado en el primer número: un enfoque multidisciplinario sobre un único objeto de estudio —el Hombre y su relación con el universo en el que se desarrolla—. Abstract Welcome to our second issue, which is an excellent balance between physiology, politics, and religion. All its articles are driven by, or question, the tantric viewpoint of the human subject. The four selected works synthesize the spirit presented in the first issue: a multidisciplinary approach on a single object of study —man and his relationship with the universe where he realizes.

  10. COMPRESSIBLE 'TURBULENCE' OBSERVED IN THE HELIOSHEATH BY VOYAGER 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the multiscale structure of the compressible 'turbulence' observed in the high-resolution (48 s) observations of the magnetic field strength B made by Voyager 2 (V2) in the heliosheath behind the termination shock from 2007 DOY 245.0-300.8 and in a unipolar region from 2008 DOY 2.9-75.6. The magnetic field strength is highly variable on scales from 48 s to several hours in both intervals. The distributions of daily averages and 48 s averages of B are lognormal in the post-termination shock (TS) region and Gaussian in the unipolar region, respectively. The amplitudes of the fluctuations were greater in the post-TS region than in the unipolar region, at scales less than several hours. The multiscale structure of the increments of B is described by the q-Gaussian distribution of nonextensive statistical mechanics on all scales from 48 s to 3.4 hr in the unipolar region and from 48 s to 6.8 hr in the post-TS region, respectively. The amplitudes of the fluctuations of increments of B are larger in the post-TS region than in the unipolar region at all scales. The probability density functions of the increments of B are non-Gaussian at all scales in the unipolar region, but they are Gaussian at the largest scales in the post-TS region. Time series of the magnitude and direction of B show that the fluctuations are highly compressive. The small-scale fluctuations are a mixture of coherent structures (semi-deterministic structures) and random structures, which vary significantly from day to day. Several types of coherent structures were identified in both regions.

  11. Growing season temperature and precipitation variability and extremes in the U.S. Corn Belt from 1981 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Shulski, M.

    2013-12-01

    ,35, growth range limits for corn), and the sum of growing degree days between 20°C and 22°C (GDD20,22, optimal growth range for corn). And the precipitation-based indices include: cumulative precipitation, consecutive dry days, and number of extreme precipitation events in June. As to the decadal trend analysis in climatic factors, Sen's Nonparametric Estimator of Slope and the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test are used. In the U.S. Corn Belt, annual mean Tavg ranges from 5.7°C to 14.7°C, and annual cumulative precipitation ranges from 396 mm to 1,203 mm. According to the decadal trend of annual mean Tavg and annual cumulative precipitation, 30 stations (45%) demonstrate a warm and dry trend, and 28 stations demonstrate a warm and wet trend. In monthly scale, Jun mean Tmin presents the most significantly increasing trend, and no significant decreasing or zero trend is detected from 1981 to 2012. During the climatological corn growing season, BD ranges from 76 to 128 DOY, ED ranges from 276 to 316 DOY, and GSL ranges from 150 to 242 days. From 1981 to 2012, BD is significantly advanced at the rate of 1 to 8 DOY per decade, ED is significantly delayed at the rate of 1 to 5 per decade, and GSL is significantly prolonged at the rate of 1 to 11 days per decade.

  12. Monitoring intra-annual dynamics of wood formation with microcores and dendrometers in Picea abies at two different altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudia; Palombo, Caterina; Tognetti, Roberto; La Porta, Nicola; Anichini, Monica; Giovannelli, Alessio; Emiliani, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Seasonal analyses of cambial cell production and day-by-day stem radial increment can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Intra-annual dynamics of wood formation were determined with microcores and dendrometers and related to climatic signals in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The seasonal dynamics of these processes were observed at two sites of different altitude, Savignano (650 m a.s.l.) and Lavazè (1800 m a.s.l.) in the Italian Alps. Seasonal dynamics of cambial activity were found to be site specific, indicating that the phenology of cambial cell production is highly variable and plastic with altitude. There was a site-specific trend in the number of cells in the wall thickening phase, with the maximum cell production in early July (DOY 186) at Savignano and in mid-July (DOY 200) at Lavazè. The formation of mature cells showed similar trends at the two sites, although different numbers of cells and timing of cell differentiation were visible in the model shapes; at the end of ring formation in 2010, the number of cells was four times higher at Savignano (106.5 cells) than at Lavazè (26.5 cells). At low altitudes, microcores and dendrometers described the radial growth patterns comparably, though the dendrometer function underlined the higher upper asymptote of maximum growth in comparison with the cell production function. In contrast, at high altitude, these functions exhibited different trends. The best model was obtained by fitting functions of the Gompertz model to the experimental data. By combining radial growth and cambial activity indices we defined a model system able to synchronize these processes. Processes of adaptation of the pattern of xylogenesis occurred, enabling P. abies to occupy sites with contrasting climatic conditions. The use of daily climatic variables in combination with plant functional traits obtained by sensors and/or destructive sampling could provide a suitable tool to better

  13. GPS, BDS and Galileo ionospheric correction models: An evaluation in range delay and position domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zishen; Li, Min; Yuan, Yunbin; Huo, Xingliang

    2018-05-01

    The performance of GPS Klobuchar (GPSKlob), BDS Klobuchar (BDSKlob) and NeQuick Galileo (NeQuickG) ionospheric correction models are evaluated in the range delay and position domains over China. The post-processed Klobuchar-style (CODKlob) coefficients provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) and our own fitted NeQuick coefficients (NeQuickC) are also included for comparison. In the range delay domain, BDS total electrons contents (TEC) derived from 20 international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) stations and GPS TEC obtained from 35 Crust Movement Observation Network of China (CMONC) stations are used as references. Compared to BDS TEC during the short period (doy 010-020, 2015), GPSKlob, BDSKlob and NeQuickG can correct 58.4, 66.7 and 54.7% of the ionospheric delay. Compared to GPS TEC for the long period (doy 001-180, 2015), the three ionospheric models can mitigate the ionospheric delay by 64.8, 65.4 and 68.1%, respectively. For the two comparison cases, CODKlob shows the worst performance, which only reduces 57.9% of the ionospheric range errors. NeQuickC exhibits the best performance, which outperforms GPSKlob, BDSKlob and NeQuickG by 6.7, 2.1 and 6.9%, respectively. In the position domain, single-frequency stand point positioning (SPP) was conducted at the selected 35 CMONC sites using GPS C/A pseudorange with and without ionospheric corrections. The vertical position error of the uncorrected case drops significantly from 10.3 m to 4.8, 4.6, 4.4 and 4.2 m for GPSKlob, CODKlob, BDSKlob and NeQuickG, however, the horizontal position error (3.2) merely decreases to 3.1, 2.7, 2.4 and 2.3 m, respectively. NeQuickG outperforms GPSKlob and BDSKlob by 5.8 and 1.9% in vertical component, and by 25.0 and 3.2% in horizontal component.

  14. Spatio-temporal characteristics of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) in the East African region via ionospheric tomography during the year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, T.; Damtie, B.; Bires, A.; Yizengaw, E.; Cilliers, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the characteristics of the EIA in the East African sector inferred from ground-based GPS receivers via ionospheric tomography during the year 2012. For the analysis, we developed and used a 2D ionospheric tomography imaging software based on Bayesian inversion approach. To reconstruct ionospheric electron density form slant Total Electron Content (sTEC) measurements, we selected a chain of ten ground-based GPS receivers with stations' codes and geomagnetic coordinates: ARMI (3.03 °S, 109.29 °E), DEBK (4.32 °N, 109.48 °E), ASOS (1.14 °N, 106.16 °E), NEGE (3.60 °S, 111.35 °E), SHIS (3.26 °N, 110.62 °E), ASAB (4.91 °N, 114.34 °E), SHEB (7.36 °N, 110.60 °E), EBBE (9.54 °S, 104.10 °E), DODM (16.03 °S, 109.04 °E) & NAMA (11.49 °N, 113.60 °E). The temporal, spatial and storm-time characteristics of the EIA and the hourly, day-to-day and seasonal variations of the maximum electron density of F2 region (NmF2) at 15.29°S geomagnetic latitude are presented. We found that the magnitude of the peak and the width/thickness of the EIA pronounced during the equinox and weakened during the solstice seasons at 2100 LT. It is also observed that the EIA persisted for longer time in equinox season than the solstice season. The spatial appearance of the northern and southern anomalies are observed starting from 6.12 ° N and 10 ° S respectively along geomagnetic latitude during equinox season. The EIA is localized between 180 km and 450 km along the altitude during December solstice. The analysis on the NmF2 demonstrated a significant dependence on local time, day and season of the year. We also investigated the storm response of the EIA for the magnetic storm of Day Of the Year (DOY) 274-276. It is observed that the disturbance dynamo related composition change (O/N2 ratio) resulted in a well-developed EIA with an increase in the peak and the width of the EIA at 2100 LT on DOY 275 (main phase of the storm) compared to 274 (initial phase of the storm

  15. Solar activity indices as a proxy for the variation of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) over Bahir Dar, Ethiopia during the year 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Tsegaye; Tilahun, Samson; Damtie, Baylie

    2017-09-01

    This paper was aimed at investigating the solar variations of vTEC as a function of solar activity parameters, EUV and F10.7 radio flux. The daily values of ionospheric vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) were observed using a dual frequency GPS receiver deployed at Bahir Dar (11.6°N and 37.36°E), Ethiopia. Measurements were taken during the period of 2010-2014 for successive five years and analysis was done on only quiet day observations. A quadratic fit was used as a model to describe the daily variation of vTEC in relation to solar parameters. Linear and non-linear coefficients of the vTEC variations were calculated in order to capture the trend of the variation. The variation of vTEC have showed good agreement with the trend of solar parameters in almost all of the days we consider during the period of our observations. We have explicitly observed days with insignificant TECU deviation (eg. modeling with respect to EUV, DOY = 49 in 2010 and modeling with respect to F10.7, DOY = 125 in 2012 and the like) and days with maximum deviation (about 50 TECU). A maximum deviation were observed, on average, during months of equinox whereas minimum during solstice months. This implies that there is a need to consider more parameters, including EUV and F10.7, that can affect the variation of vTEC during equinox seasons. Relatively, small deviations was observed in modeling vTEC as a function of EUV compared to that of the variation due to F10.7 cm flux. This may also tell us that EUV can be more suitable in modeling the solar variation of vTEC especially for longterm trends. Even though, the linear trend of solar variations of vTEC was frequently observed, significant saturation and amplification trends of the solar variations of vTEC were also observed to some extent across the months of the years we have analyzed. This mixed trend of the solar variation of vTEC implies the need for thorough investigation on the effect of solar parameters on TEC. However, based on

  16. Spring photosynthetic onset and net CO2 uptake in Alaska triggered by landscape thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C; Arneth, Almut; Pugh, Thomas A M; Smith, Ben; Steiner, Nicholas; Luus, Kristina; Commane, Roisin; Benmergui, Josh; Stofferahn, Eric; Liu, Junjie; Rödenbeck, Christian; Kawa, Randy; Euskirchen, Eugenie; Zona, Donatella; Arndt, Kyle; Oechel, Walt; Miller, Charles

    2018-04-24

    The springtime transition to regional-scale onset of photosynthesis and net ecosystem carbon uptake in boreal and tundra ecosystems are linked to the soil freeze-thaw state. We present evidence from diagnostic and inversion models constrained by satellite fluorescence and airborne CO 2 from 2012 to 2014 indicating the timing and magnitude of spring carbon uptake in Alaska correlates with landscape thaw and ecoregion. Landscape thaw in boreal forests typically occurs in late April (DOY 111 ± 7) with a 29 ± 6 day lag until photosynthetic onset. North Slope tundra thaws 3 weeks later (DOY 133 ± 5) but experiences only a 20 ± 5 day lag until photosynthetic onset. These time lag differences reflect efficient cold season adaptation in tundra shrub and the longer dehardening period for boreal evergreens. Despite the short transition from thaw to photosynthetic onset in tundra, synchrony of tundra respiration with snow melt and landscape thaw delays the transition from net carbon loss (at photosynthetic onset) to net uptake by 13 ± 7 days, thus reducing the tundra net carbon uptake period. Two global CO 2 inversions using a CASA-GFED model prior estimate earlier northern high latitude net carbon uptake compared to our regional inversion, which we attribute to (i) early photosynthetic-onset model prior bias, (ii) inverse method (scaling factor + optimization window), and (iii) sparsity of available Alaskan CO 2 observations. Another global inversion with zero prior estimates the same timing for net carbon uptake as the regional model but smaller seasonal amplitude. The analysis of Alaskan eddy covariance observations confirms regional scale findings for tundra, but indicates that photosynthesis and net carbon uptake occur up to 1 month earlier in evergreens than captured by models or CO 2 inversions, with better correlation to above-freezing air temperature than date of primary thaw. Further collection and analysis of boreal evergreen species over

  17. A Unified Model for BDS Wide Area and Local Area Augmentation Positioning Based on Raw Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Tu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a unified model for BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS wide area and local area augmentation positioning based on raw observations has been proposed. Applying this model, both the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK and Precise Point Positioning (PPP service can be realized by performing different corrections at the user end. This algorithm was assessed and validated with the BDS data collected at four regional stations from Day of Year (DOY 080 to 083 of 2016. When the users are located within the local reference network, the fast and high precision RTK service can be achieved using the regional observation corrections, revealing a convergence time of about several seconds and a precision of about 2–3 cm. For the users out of the regional reference network, the global broadcast State-Space Represented (SSR corrections can be utilized to realize the global PPP service which shows a convergence time of about 25 min for achieving an accuracy of 10 cm. With this unified model, it can not only integrate the Network RTK (NRTK and PPP into a seamless positioning service, but also recover the ionosphere Vertical Total Electronic Content (VTEC and Differential Code Bias (DCB values that are useful for the ionosphere monitoring and modeling.

  18. Robots como ferramenta pedagógica nos primeiros anos a aprendizagem como participação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÓNIA MATILDE PINTO CORREIA MARTINS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe y analiza un proyecto realizado con dos grados del 1er ciclo de enseñanza básica en Portugal (2doy 3er grado que trabajaron en conjunto con robots, tomando el aprendizaje como un fenómeno intrín-secamente relacionado a la participación en comunidades de práctica (Lave, 1996; Lave; Wenger, 1991. Se pretende caracterizar a los participantes, a la metodología de trabajo implementada, describirlos artefactos utilizados (robots y escritura de una historia y analizar la relación de los participantes con los robots, así como los patrones de participación que se relevaron con este tipo de trabajo. Se busca enfatizar e las contribuciones derivadas de la participación en ambientes sociales digitales para el aprendizaje de los alumnos, como la participación y la negociación conjunta de significados, la importancia de que los robots y la historia hayan sido “construidos” por los alumnos y la existencia de un repertorio compartido y un emprendi-miento conjunto.

  19. Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) intensity gradients in the heliotail during year 2003, using Cassini/INCA measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialynas, K; Krimigis, S M; Mitchell, D G; Roelof, E C

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we use all-sky energy-resolved (5-55 keV) energetic neutral atom (ENA) maps obtained by the Ion and Neutral CAmera (INCA) on board Cassini during the time period DOY 265/2003 to 268/2003, to investigate the properties of the peak-to-basin ENA emissions in the direction of the heliotail. Our conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) a relatively smooth boundary (called t ransition region ) between the very low (basin) and high (tail) ENA emissions from the heliosheath, with a spatial width of ∼30° deg in ecl. longitude, that no theory had predicted to date, is identified in the energy range of 5-55 keV; (2) the ENA intensity gradient in this transition region is almost invariant as a function of both ecl. Latitude and energy, with an average value of ∼2.4% per degree; (3) the deduced partial plasma pressure distributions in the 5-55 keV energy range are consistent with the ENA intensity distributions in the same energy range, while the ENA intensity gradient translates to a corresponding partial pressure gradient that occurs in the transition region; and (4) this partial pressure gradient is possibly not consistent with a tail magnetic field configuration that is similar to the measured magnetic fields by the Voyagers in the nose hemisphere

  20. La época de los militares. Representaciones, categorías y clasificaciones de ex-obreros de Swift en torno a la violencia política y estatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Bretal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo abordo los modos en que los ex-obreros del frigorífico Swift de Berisso, evocan los acontecimientos más resonantes de la violencia política, paraestatal y estatal en la década de 1970, ligados a la fábrica. Para ello analizo los relatos, construidos con entrevistas en profundidad, de los ex-obreros que en aquellos años fueron militantes de izquierda y de otros con diversas orientaciones políticas y actitudes frente a la organización gremial. Por un lado, exploro las huellas del disciplinamiento social en las vivencias narradas y el desdibujamiento de su significación en algunos casos. Por otro lado, doy cuenta de la heterogeneidad de sentidos atribuidos a dos expresiones nativas que estructuran los relatos y aluden a dos agrupamientos sociales: los que estaban metidos en algo y lo que no estaban metidos en nada. Muestro el carácter difuso de la frontera entre ambos grupos y algunas valoraciones en torno a la igualación de violencias

  1. La crianza de niños, niñas y adolescentes en contextos de pobreza urbana persistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Ierullo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el presente artículo me propongo problematizar las tensiones ydesafíos en relación con las prácticas de crianza y cuidado de niños, niñas y adolescentes en contextosde pobreza urbana persistente. Estas conclusiones surgen de un trabajo de campo realizado endistintas zonas del área metropolitana de Buenos Aires, en el marco del programa Piubamas. Dichoproyecto combinó distintas técnicas de recolección de datos -entrevistas, observación participante,grupos focales, etc.- a través de las cuales se facilitó la comprensión del objeto en su complejidad.En el artículo pongo en evidencia la consolidación de prácticas defensivas de cuidado en losbarrios populares, así como también la extensión de las acciones hacia los individuos adolescentes.Igualmente doy cuenta del surgimiento de un conjunto de prácticas de crianza y cuidado que excedenla esfera doméstica.

  2. Explicitación, defensa y crítica genética a la correlación en Sartre

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    Josué Nazahed Franco Bonifaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lo que presento aquí son tres asuntos: el primero es dar cuenta de la propuesta onto-fenomenológica de Sartre como monismo fenoménico, y lo esencial de lo que ello implica; el segundo es desacreditar la crítica de Serrano de Haro contra Sartre, haciendo ver simplemente al lector que lo fundamental de la conciencia en su unidad implica un saber retencional y, que dicha unidad, es de dos tipos; por último, doy cuenta de la debilidad de la ontología de Sartre y me dedico a exhibir sus inconsecuencias. What I present here are three matters: first, is to account about Sartre´s onto-phenomenology proposal as phenomenic monism, and the essential thing of what it implies; second, to discredit the Serrano de Haro´s criticism against Sartre, making simply to the reader to see that the fundamental of the consciousness in its unit involves a retencional knowledge and, this mentioned unit, is of two types; at last, I account for the weakness of Sartre´s ontology and devote myself to exhibit its inconsistencies.

  3. Precise Point Positioning with Partial Ambiguity Fixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-06-10

    Reliable and rapid ambiguity resolution (AR) is the key to fast precise point positioning (PPP). We propose a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) method, in which an elevation and standard deviation criterion are first used to remove the low-precision ambiguity estimates for AR. Subsequently the success rate and ratio-test are simultaneously used in an iterative process to increase the possibility of finding a subset of decorrelated ambiguities which can be fixed with high confidence. One can apply the proposed PAR method to try to achieve an ambiguity-fixed solution when full ambiguity resolution (FAR) fails. We validate this method using data from 450 stations during DOY 021 to 027, 2012. Results demonstrate the proposed PAR method can significantly shorten the time to first fix (TTFF) and increase the fixing rate. Compared with FAR, the average TTFF for PAR is reduced by 14.9% for static PPP and 15.1% for kinematic PPP. Besides, using the PAR method, the average fixing rate can be increased from 83.5% to 98.2% for static PPP, from 80.1% to 95.2% for kinematic PPP respectively. Kinematic PPP accuracy with PAR can also be significantly improved, compared to that with FAR, due to a higher fixing rate.

  4. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia; Guerra, Marcelo; Colaco, Waldeciro; Meunier, Isabelle; Camara, Terezinha R.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F 1 ) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F 2 ), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F 2 ) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F 2 ) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L -1 NAA + 5.0 mg L -1 KIN and 2.0 mg L -1 NAA + 1.0 mg L -1 KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  5. La crianza de niños, niñas y adolescentes en contextos de pobreza urbana persistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Ierullo, Colombia.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available (analítico: Con el presente artículo me propongo problematizar las tensiones y desafíos en relación con las prácticas de crianza y cuidado de niños, niñas y adolescentes en contextos de pobreza urbana persistente. Estas conclusiones surgen de un trabajo de campo realizado en distintas zonas del área metropolitana de Buenos Aires, en el marco del programa Piubamas. Dicho proyecto combinó distintas técnicas de recolección de datos -entrevistas, observación participante, grupos focales, etc.- a través de las cuales se facilitó la comprensión del objeto en su complejidad. En el artículo pongo en evidencia la consolidación de prácticas defensivas de cuidado en los barrios populares, así como también la extensión de las acciones hacia los individuos adolescentes. Igualmente doy cuenta del surgimiento de un conjunto de prácticas de crianza y cuidado que exceden la esfera doméstica.

  6. Área de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales: una visión en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Lou, María Asunción

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    La intención de mi colaboración en este número de la Revista Arbor dedicado a «Ciencia y Tecnología en el CSIC: una visión de género», no es hacer un análisis exhaustivo del área y de su problemática de género. Más bien voy a dedicar estas líneas a realizar un breve relato histórico y un análisis puntual, a modo de foto fija, del momento actual, en base a la información recogida en diferentes documentos del CSIC para los datos cuantitativos y, lo que es más importante, en base a las experiencias personales de científicas (entre las que incluyo la propia después de treinta y seis años en el organismo, con diferentes orígenes académicos, que se dedican también a distintas líneas de investigación en los Institutos que componen el área. A todas ellas les doy las gracias y citaré sus valiosas y acertadas opiniones.

  7. High-tech processing of secondary resources of winemaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kasyanov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The information about problems and prospects of development of food production processes based on high-tech and knowledge-intensive technical solutions is presented. To accomplish these objectives the problems of rational growing of grapes, intensive methods of production of conventional and concentrated grape juice, application of CO2ditartration for the removal of wine stone were solved.White and red table grapes, grape pomace, grape seed oil, protein and CO2-meal are the objects of the research. To evaluate the quality of raw materials, intermediate and finished products such devices as gas-liquid and thin-layer chromatography, and spectrophotometer were used. Obtaining of grape juice of white and red grapes with content of tartaric acid salts less than 1 %, food drying products and products of processing of grape pomace are the intermediate results of the research. Grape juice in flexible packages of «Pure-Pak» and «Doy-pack» types, CO2-extracts of seeds and skins of grapes and protein CO2-meal are the final objects of the research. Performed research allows us to make conclusions about expediency of high-tech methods of processing of raw materials for obtaining food products.

  8. Effect of medium composition and explant size on embryogenic calli formation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz local genotypes

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    ENNY SUDARMONOWATI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important tropical crop species used for human consumption, feed and raw material for various industries. Genetic transformation through embryogenic tissues is known as an effective method for cassava genetic improvements. Objective of this study was to obtain a suitable medium and length of explants to induce embryogenic callus on friable embryogenic callus (FEC as a target for genetic transformation. Immature leaf lobes (1-3 mm, 3-5 mm and larger than 5 mm in length of local genotypes of cassava (Adira 4. Menti, Iding, Gebang, Rawi and Timtim-29 cultured in vitro were used as explants. The explants were incubated for 2 and 4 weeks on MS (Murashige-Skoog or GD (Greshooff & Doy semi solid medium containing 10 mg/L picloram, 6 mg/L NAA supplemented with 4% sucrose and 4 µM CuSO4. Results showed that the highest percentage (100% of embryogenic calli formation for 4 weeks obtained by culturing Iding of 3-5 mm length on GD semi solid medium, whereas the lowest (33% one obtained by incubation 5 mm leaf lobe of Timtim-29 on the same medium. The most suitable medium for callus induction was GD, whereas the optimum length of explants was 5 mm or larger. Further study needs to be done to obtain friable embryogenic calli (FEC by employing different concentration of picloram and varying other critical factors.

  9. Satellite-based ET estimation using Landsat 8 images and SEBAL model

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    Bruno Bonemberger da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estimation of evapotranspiration is a key factor to achieve sustainable water management in irrigated agriculture because it represents water use of crops. Satellite-based estimations provide advantages compared to direct methods as lysimeters especially when the objective is to calculate evapotranspiration at a regional scale. The present study aimed to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET at a regional scale, using Landsat 8 - OLI/TIRS images and complementary data collected from a weather station. SEBAL model was used in South-West Paraná, region composed of irrigated and dry agricultural areas, native vegetation and urban areas. Five Landsat 8 images, row 223 and path 78, DOY 336/2013, 19/2014, 35/2014, 131/2014 and 195/2014 were used, from which ET at daily scale was estimated as a residual of the surface energy balance to produce ET maps. The steps for obtain ET using SEBAL include radiometric calibration, calculation of the reflectance, surface albedo, vegetation indexes (NDVI, SAVI and LAI and emissivity. These parameters were obtained based on the reflective bands of the orbital sensor with temperature surface estimated from thermal band. The estimated ET values in agricultural areas, native vegetation and urban areas using SEBAL algorithm were compatible with those shown in the literature and ET errors between the ET estimates from SEBAL model and Penman Monteith FAO 56 equation were less than or equal to 1.00 mm day-1.

  10. The Acceleration of Thermal Protons and Minor Ions at a Quasi-Parallel Interplanetary Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, J.; Lario, D.; Lepri, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    We compare the results from self-consistent hybrid simulations (kinetic ions, massless fluid electrons) and spacecraft observations of a strong, quasi-parallel interplanetary shock that crossed the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) on DOY 94, 2001. In our simulations, the un-shocked plasma-frame ion distributions are Maxwellian. Our simulations include protons and minor ions (alphas, 3He++, and C5+). The interplanetary shock crossed both the ACE and the Wind spacecraft, and was associated with significant increases in the flux of > 50 keV/nuc ions. Our simulation uses parameters (ion densities, magnetic field strength, Mach number, etc.) consistent with those observed. Acceleration of the ions by the shock, in a manner similar to that expected from diffusive shock acceleration theory, leads to a high-energy tail in the distribution of the post-shock plasma for all ions we considered. The simulated distributions are directly compared to those observed by ACE/SWICS, EPAM, and ULEIS, and Wind/STICS and 3DP, covering the energy range from below the thermal peak to the suprathermal tail. We conclude from our study that the solar wind is the most significant source of the high-energy ions for this event. Our results have important implications for the physics of the so-called `injection problem', which will be discussed.

  11. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation; Efeitos do estadio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiacao gama na formacao de calos derivados de anteras de tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais. E-mail: lilia@truenet.com.br; Guerra, Marcelo [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica. Lab. de Citogenetica Vegetal; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Radioagronomia; Meunier, Isabelle [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Camara, Terezinha R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais

    1999-12-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F{sub 1}) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F{sub 2}) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 5.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN and 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 1.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  12. A polysaccharide of Dendrobium officinale ameliorates H2O2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes via PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Yi; Guo, Ying; Si, Jin-Ping; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Gui-Bo; Liu, Jing-Jing

    2017-11-01

    Dendrobium officinale is one valuable traditional Chinese medicine, which has skyscraping medicinal value. Polysaccharide is the main active ingredient in D. officinale; its antioxidant activity is a hot research topic nowadays. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathological progress of a variety of cardiovascular disease, as one of key factors of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. This research adopts a model of H 2 O 2 induction-H9c2 cardiomyocytes apoptosis, aiming to study the effect of Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharide (DOP-GY) for cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by oxidative stress and its possible mechanism. Our results showed that pretreatment of DOP-GY (low dose: 6.25μg/mL, medium dose: 12.5μg/mL, high dose: 25μg/mL) followed by a 2h incubation with 200μM H 2 O 2 elevated the survival rate, cutted the LDH leakage, reduced lipid peroxidation damage, improved the activity of the endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, the pretreatment of DOP-GY significantly inhibited the production of ROS, declined of the mitochondrial membrane potential, down-regulated pro-apoptosis protein and up-regulated anti-apoptosis protein. The protective effect was correlated with the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signal pathway. Collectively, these observations suggest that DOY-GY has the potential to exert cardioprotective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Species diversity and morphometrics of tardigrades from a medium-size city in the Neotropical Region: Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina

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    Peluffo, J. R.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Tardigrade diversity was studied in a medium-sized city in the Neotropical Region: Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina. Samples were collected between February 1999 and January 2000 from lichens and mosses growing on sidewalk trees of the urban and periurban area. Five species of tardigrades were found, i.e., Echiniscus rufoviridis du Bois-Reymond Marcus, 1944, Macrobiotus areolatus Murray, 1907, Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri (Doyère, 1840, Milnesium cf. tardigradum and a non-described species of Macrobiotus. Only one species, M. cf. tardigradum, was found in areas with high levels of vehicle traffic. Results are compared with those from cities in the Nearctic and Palearctic regions. Measurements and pt index values (percentage ratios between the length of the structure considered and the buccal tube length are provided for M. areolatus, R. oberhaeuseri and M. cf. tardigradum. Amongst the characters considered, the pt index for the stylet support insertion shows the least intraspecific variation. This character is also independent from body length and buccal-tube length.

  14. El Investigador Como Instrumento Flexible de la Indagación

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    Carmen de la Cuesta Benjumea

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La reflexividad convierte al investigador en actor de su estudio e instrumento de la indagación con que construye el diseño, como producto de las decisiones que toma. Esto se mostrará con una investigación sobre el cuidado familiar de pacientes con demencia avanzada. En la construcción de la pregunta me presento como sujeto situado (Rosaldo, 1991 y en el desarrollo del estudio como parte del mundo social (Hammersley y Atkinson, 1995; aquí doy cuenta de las oportunidades, ajustes y dificultades que lo moldearon. Con ello pretendo ilustrar el carácter emergente de un estudio, y en concreto resaltar que el investigador lo construya a través de múltiples y superpuestos procesos sociales. Los investigadores cualitativos reconocen su presencia, tratan de comprenderla y explicar sus efectos (Rossman y Rallis, 1998. La reflexividad contribuye a la validez y desde el punto de vista del interaccionismo simbólico, el proceso reflexivo dota al investigador de un self indagador.

  15. "Andar, narrar". Experiencias a/r/tográficas basadas en el paseo como propuesta de intervención en diferentes contextos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez Morales

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el presente trabajo se pretende exponer una serie de experiencias a/r/tográfica  ligadas a la acción de andar como práctica artística, educativa y de investigación al mismo tiempo con la intención de poner en práctica formas de hacer que favorezcan dinámicas de relación con el entorno como espacio social y de intercambio. Para ello, doy cuenta del recorrido que me lleva a exponer  la acción de andar como práctica artística, propuesta de intervención e investigación educativa al mismo tiempo. En este sentido, entiendo la acción de andar desde un posicionamiento crítico, artístico y pedagógico, y por tanto político, con la intención de generar conocimiento basado en procesos artísticos y abrir ese medio a nuevos recorridos por explorar en ámbitos de educación formal y no formal. De esta manera, a lo largo de la investigación surgen espacios intermedios muy enriquecedores al vincular ambas prácticas en una misma acción, desde la mirada relacional y en continuo movimiento que propone la a/r/tografía.

  16. Net CO2 exchange rates in three different successional stages of the 'Dark Taiga' of central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeser, C.; Schulze, E.D.; Montagnani, L.

    2002-01-01

    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of successional stages of the Abies-dominated dark taiga was measured in central Siberia (61 deg N, 90 deg E) during the growing season of the year 2000 using the eddy covariance technique. Measurements started before snow melt and canopy activity in spring on day of year (DOY) 99 and lasted until a permanent snow cover had developed and respiration had ceased in autumn DOY 299. Three stands growing in close vicinity were investigated: 50 yr-old Betula pubescens ('Betula stand', an early successional stage after fire), 250 yr-old mixed boreal forest, representing the transition from Betula-dominated to Abies-dominated canopies, and 200-yr-old Abies sibirica ('Abies stand', representing a late successional stage following the mixed boreal forest). The mixed boreal forest had a multi-layered canopy with dense under story and trees of variable height and age below the main canopy, which was dominated by Abies sibirica, Picea obovata and few old Betula pubescens and Populus tremula trees. The Abies stand had a uniform canopy dominated by Abies sibirica. This stand appears to have established not after fire but after wind break or insect damage in a later successional stage. The stands differed with respect to the number of days with net CO 2 uptake (Betula stand 89 days, mixed boreal forest 109 days, and Abies stand 135 days), maximum measured LAI (Betula 2.6 m 2 /m 2 , mixed boreal forest 3.5 m 2 /m 2 and Abies stand 4.1 m 2 /m 2 ) and basal area (Betula stand 30.2 m 2 /ha, mixed boreal forest 35.7 m 2 /ha, and Abies stand 46.5 m 2 /ha). In the mixed boreal forest, many days with net daytime CO 2 release were observed in summer. Both other sites were almost permanent sinks in summer. Mean daytime CO 2 exchange rates in July were 8.45 mol/m 2 /s in the Betula stand, 4.65 mol/m 2 /s in the mixed boreal forest and 6.31 mol/m 2 /s in the Abies stand. Measured uptake for the growing season was 247.2 g C/m 2 in the Betula stand, 99.7 g C/m 2

  17. Short-term estimation of GNSS TEC using a neural network model in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Arthur Amaral; Borges, Renato Alves; Paparini, Claudia; Ciraolo, Luigi; Radicella, Sandro M.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents a novel Neural Network (NN) model to estimate Total Electron Content (TEC) from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements in three distinct sectors in Brazil. The purpose of this work is to start the investigations on the development of a regional model that can be used to determine the vertical TEC over Brazil, aiming future applications on a near real-time frame estimations and short-term forecasting. The NN is used to estimate the GNSS TEC values at void locations, where no dual-frequency GNSS receiver that may be used as a source of data to GNSS TEC estimation is available. This approach is particularly useful for GNSS single-frequency users that rely on corrections of ionospheric range errors by TEC models. GNSS data from the first GLONASS network for research and development (GLONASS R&D network) installed in Latin America, and from the Brazilian Network for Continuous Monitoring of the GNSS (RMBC) were used on TEC calibration. The input parameters of the NN model are based on features known to influence TEC values, such as geographic location of the GNSS receiver, magnetic activity, seasonal and diurnal variations, and solar activity. Data from two ten-days periods (from DoY 154 to 163 and from 282 to 291) are used to train the network. Three distinct analyses have been carried out in order to assess time-varying and spatial performance of the model. At the spatial performance analysis, for each region, a set of stations is chosen to provide training data to the NN, and after the training procedure, the NN is used to estimate vTEC behavior for the test station which data were not presented to the NN in training process. An analysis is done by comparing, for each testing station, the estimated NN vTEC delivered by the NN and reference calibrated vTEC. Also, as a second analysis, the network ability to forecast one day after the time interval (DoY 292) based on information of the second period of investigation is also assessed

  18. Use of the isotope flux ratio approach to investigate the C18O16O and 13CO2 exchange near the floor of a temperate deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bartlett

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopologues of CO2, such as 13CO2 and C18OO, have been used to study the CO2 exchange between land and atmosphere. The advent of new measuring techniques has allowed near-continuous measurements of stable isotopes in the air. These measurements can be used with micrometeorological techniques, providing new tools to investigate the isotope exchange in ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of the isotope flux ratio method (IFR near the forest floor of a temperate deciduous forest and to study the temporal dynamics of δ18O of CO2 flux near the forest floor by comparing IFR estimates with estimates of δ18O of net soil CO2 flux provided by an analytical model. Mixing ratios of 12C16O2, 13CO2 and C16O18O were measured within and above a temperate deciduous forest, using the tunable diode laser spectroscopy technique. The half-hourly compositions of the CO2 flux near the forest floor (δ13CF and δ18OF were calculated by IFR and compared with estimates provided by a modified Keeling plot technique (mKP and by a Lagrangian dispersion analysis (WT analysis. The mKP and IFR δ18OF estimates showed good agreement (slope = 1.03 and correlation, R2 = 0.80. The δ13CF estimates from the two methods varied in a narrow range of −32.7 and −23‰; the mean (± SE mKP and IFR δ13CF values were −27.5‰ (±0.2 and −27.3‰ (±0.1, respectively, and were statistically identical (p>0.05. WT analysis and IFR δ18OF estimates showed better correlation (R2 = 0.37 when only turbulent periods (u*>0.6 m s−1 were included in the analysis. The large amount of data captured (~95 % of half-hour periods evaluated for the IFR in comparison with mKP (27 % shows that the former provides new opportunities for studying δ18OF dynamics within forest canopies. Values of δ18OF showed large temporal variation, with values ranging from −31.4‰ (DOY 208 to −11.2‰ (DOY 221. Precipitation events caused substantial variation (~8

  19. Efeitos do estádio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiação gama na formação de calos derivados de anteras de tomate Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina R. Brasileiro

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido visando: (I determinar a influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de anteras de tomate sobre a formação de calos e (II analisar o efeito da radiação gama no cultivo in vitro de anteras. No primeiro experimento, anteras de híbridos de tomate IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F1 foram cultivadas em três meios nutritivos. Apesar da formação de calos ter sido induzida em todos os estádios de desenvolvimento, variando de prófase I à micrósporo mononucleado, a freqüência de calos produzidos decresceu com o avanço do estádio de desenvolvimento e se apresentou de forma semelhante nos meios testados. Anteras contendo meiócitos em estádio de prófase I mostraram maior freqüência de formação de calos. Tanto o comprimento da antera quanto o do botão floral apresentaram correlação significativa com o estádio de desenvolvimento. No segundo experimento, sementes e botões florais dos híbridos IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F2, IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F2 e IPA 8 x 217.1 (F2 foram submetidos à radiação gama e suas anteras foram cultivadas em dois meios descritos por Gresshoff & Doy (1972, contendo 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 5,0 mg L-1 de cinetina e 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 1,0 mg L-1 de cinetina. Não foram constatadas diferenças significativas, no que se refere à formação de calos, para os genótipos e doses estudadas - 200 Gy, para sementes e 20 Gy, para botões florais.Two experiments were carried (I to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4 - F1 were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mononucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest

  20. Root phenology at Harvard Forest and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramoff, R. Z.; Finzi, A.

    2013-12-01

    maximum growth period. In contrast, root growth was characterized by multiple production peaks. Q. rubra root growth experienced many small flushes around day of year (DOY) 156 (early June) and one large peak on 234 (late August). T. canadensis root growth peaked on DOY 188 (early July), 234.5 (late August) and 287 (mid-October). However, particular phenological patterns varied widely from site to site. Despite large spatial heterogeneity, it appears that Q. rubra experiences greater overall root production as well as more allocation to roots during the growing season. The storage pool of nonstructural carbohydrates experiences a mid-summer drawdown in Q. rubra but not T. canadensis roots. Timing of belowground C allocation to root growth and nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation may be regulated by climate factors as well as endogenous factors such as vessel size, growth form, or tradeoffs in C allocated between plant organs. Plant roots supply substrate to microbial communities and hence their production feeds back to other plant and soil processes that affect ecosystem C fluxes.

  1. INTERVIEW WITH VICENTE TALANQUER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucia Castiblanco Abril

    2017-01-01

    de formación docente dentro de este y no en el de educación. Así surgió el programa de formación en el que actualmente trabajo. Dentro de este programa doy cursos sobre planeación y evaluación en educación de las ciencias, pero también doy cursos de química en los niveles introductorios. Cuando fui contratado en la Universidad de Arizona tuve más tiempo para dedicarme a la investigación educativa en química y crear un grupo de investigación en esa área. También comencé a investigar sobre pensamiento docente con los colegas que creamos el programa de formación de profesores. Este programa se ofrece solo a nivel de pregrado, pues en mi universidad la formación de maestros a nivel posgrado ocurre en el colegio de educación. Los docentes que quieren hacer posgrado en el colegio de ciencias solo pueden completar maestrías y doctorados en cada disciplina científica, pero sin el componente de educativo.

  2. Analysing the mechanisms of soil water and vapour transport in the desert vadose zone of the extremely arid region of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chaoyang; Yu, Jingjie; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Yichi

    2018-03-01

    The transport of water and vapour in the desert vadose zone plays a critical role in the overall water and energy balances of near-surface environments in arid regions. However, field measurements in extremely dry environments face many difficulties and challenges, so few studies have examined water and vapour transport processes in the desert vadose zone. The main objective of this study is to analyse the mechanisms of soil water and vapour transport in the desert vadose zone (depth of ∼350 cm) by using measured and modelled data in an extremely arid environment. The field experiments are implemented in an area of the Gobi desert in northwestern China to measure the soil properties, daily soil moisture and temperature, daily water-table depth and temperature, and daily meteorological records from DOYs (Days of Year) 114-212 in 2014 (growing season). The Hydrus-1D model, which simulates the coupled transport of water, vapour and heat in the vadose zone, is employed to simulate the layered soil moisture and temperature regimes and analyse the transport processes of soil water and vapour. The measured results show that the soil water and temperatures near the land surface have visible daily fluctuations across the entire soil profile. Thermal vapour movement is the most important component of the total water flux and the soil temperature gradient is the major driving factor that affects vapour transport in the desert vadose zone. The most active water and heat exchange occurs in the upper soil layer (depths of 0-25 cm). The matric potential change from the precipitation mainly re-draws the spatio-temporal distribution of the isothermal liquid water in the soil near the land surface. The matric potential has little effect on the isothermal vapour and thermal liquid water flux. These findings offer new insights into the liquid water and vapour movement processes in the extremely arid environment.

  3. Mapping cropping patterns in irrigated rice fields in West Java: Towards mapping vulnerability to flooding using time-series MODIS imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianturi, Riswan; Jetten, V. G.; Sartohadi, Junun

    2018-04-01

    Information on the vulnerability to flooding is vital to understand the potential damages from flood events. A method to determine the vulnerability to flooding in irrigated rice fields using the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was proposed in this study. In doing so, the time-series EVI derived from time-series 8 day 500 m spatial resolution MODIS imageries (MOD09A1) was used to generate cropping patterns in irrigated rice fields in West Java. Cropping patterns were derived from the spatial distribution and phenology metrics so that it is possible to show the variation of vulnerability in space and time. Vulnerability curves and cropping patterns were used to determine the vulnerability to flooding in irrigated rice fields. Cropping patterns capture the shift in the vulnerability, which may lead to either an increase or decrease of the degree of damage in rice fields of origin and other rice fields. The comparison of rice field areas between MOD09A1 and ALOS PALSAR and MOD09A1 and Agricultural Statistics showed consistent results with R2 = 0.81 and R2 = 0.93, respectively. The estimated and observed DOYs showed RMSEs = 9.21, 9.29, and 9.69 days for the Start of Season (SOS), heading stage, and End of Season (EOS), respectively. Using the method, one can estimate the relative damage provided available information on the flood depth and velocity. The results of the study may support the efforts to reduce the potential damages from flooding in irrigated rice fields.

  4. Application of DSSAT models for an agronomic adaptation strategy under climate change in Southern of Italy: optimum sowing and transplanting time for winter durum wheat and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many climate change studies have been carried out in different parts of the world to assess climate change vulnerability and adaptation capacity of agricultural crops for determined environments characterized from climatic, pedological and agronomical point of view. The objective of this study was to analyse the productive response of winter durum wheat and tomato to climate change and sowing/transplanting time in one of most productive areas of Italy (i.e. Capitanata, Puglia, using CERES-Wheat and CROPGRO cropping system models. Three climatic datasets were used: i a single dataset (50 km x 50 km provided by the JRC European centre for the period 1975-2005; two datasets from HadCM3 for the IPCC A2 GHG scenario for time slices with +2°C (centred over 2030-2060 and +5°C (centred over 2070-2099, respectively. All three datasets were used to generate synthetic climate series using a weather simulator (model LARS-WG. No negative yield effects of climate change were observed for winter durum wheat with delayed sowing (from 330 to 345 DOY increasing the average dry matter grain yield under forecasted scenarios. Instead, the warmer temperatures were primarily shown to accelerate the phenology, resulting in decreased yield for tomato under the + 5°C future climate scenario. In general, under global temperature increase by 5°C, early transplanting times could minimize the negative impact of climate change on crop productivity but the intensity of this effect was not sufficient to restore the current production levels of tomato cultivated in southern Italy.

  5. Notas de la Dirección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Marco

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el orgullo de colombiano y de Rector de la Universidad Nacional, doy testimonio de la dedicacion, perseverancia, amor a la ciencia y a la patria, de Los profesores del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, emblema de La comunidad cientifica nacional. A partir de su fundación el 30 de octubre de 1936, la misión del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales-Museo de Historia Natural, ha sido la de estudiar en forma sistemática el suelo patrio, sus elementos y sus productos naturales con arreglo a las normas modernas de la Botánica, la Zoología, la Geología y la Antropología. Ha contribuido el Instituto a l0 largo de sus primeros cincuenta años al adelanto de las ciencias naturales y de sus diversas ramas de aplicación en Colombia, haciendo metódica la enseñanza universitaria de las mismas y' promoviendo la formación de personal idóneo dedicado a la investigación especializada en el campo de la sistemática y de la taxonomía, como medios indispensables para configurar los inventarios botánico y zoológico del país y contribuir en las actividades investigativas en los campos de la Antropología y la Geología.

  6. Ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning with hourly data for global single receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan; Guo, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) can improve precise point positioning (PPP) performance significantly. IAR for PPP became a highlight topic in global positioning system (GPS) community in recent years. More and more researchers focus on this issue. Progress has been made in the latest years. In this paper, we aim at investigating and demonstrating the performance of a global zero-differenced (ZD) PPP IAR service for GPS users by providing routine ZD uncalibrated fractional offsets (UFOs) for wide-lane and narrow-lane. Data sets from all IGS stations collected on DOY 1, 100, 200 and 300 of 2010 are used to validate and demonstrate this global service. Static experiment results show that an accuracy better than 1 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical could be achieved in ambiguity-fixed PPP solution with only hourly data. Compared with PPP float solution, an average improvement reaches 58.2% in east, 28.3% in north and 23.8% in vertical for all tested stations. Results of kinematic experiments show that the RMS of kinematic PPP solutions can be improved from 21.6, 16.6 and 37.7 mm to 12.2, 13.3 and 34.3 mm for the fixed solutions in the east, north and vertical components, respectively. Both static and kinematic experiments show that wide-lane and narrow-lane UFO products of all satellites can be generated and provided in a routine way accompanying satellite orbit and clock products for the PPP user anywhere around the world, to obtain accurate and reliable ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions.

  7. The May October energy budget of a Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Kessler, A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes measurements of the Hartheim forest energy budget for the 157-day period of May 11 Oct. 14, 1992. Data were collected as 30-min means. Energy available to the forest was measured with net radiometers and soil heat flux discs; sensible heat exchange between the canopy and atmosphere was measured with two “One-Propeller Eddy Correlation” (OPEC) systems, and latent energy (evapotranspiration or ET) was determined as a residual in the surface energy balance equation. Net rediation, change in thermal storage, and sensible heat flux were verified by independent measurements during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX, May 11 12), and again during the “HartX2” experiment over 20 days late in the summer (Sep. 10 29). Specifically, sensible heat estimates from the two adjacent OPEC sensor sets were in close agreement throughout the summer, and in excellent agreement with measurements of sonic eddy correlation systems in May and September. The eddy correlation/energy balance technique was observed to overestimate occurrence of dew, leading to an underestimate of daily ET of about 5%. After taking dew into account, estimates of OPEC ET totaled 358 mm over the 5.1-month period, which is in quite good agreement with an ET estimate of 328 mm from a hydrologic water balance. An observed decrease in forest ET in July and August was clearly associated with low rainfall and increased soil water deficit. The OPEC system required only modest technical supervision, and generated a data yield of 99.5% over the period DOY 144 288. The documented verification and precision of this energy budget appears to be unmatched by any other long-term forest study reported to date.

  8. Maluco, una aproximación a la noción del inter-sujeto y sus aportes desde el socioconstrucionismo Reading "Maluco": socio-constructionist account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe González Gutiérrez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo de reflexión describo las relaciones que ofrece el enfoque socioconstruccionista a la lectura de la novela Maluco, del escritor uruguayo Napoleón Baccino Ponce de León, como expresión de la Nueva Novela Histórica Latinoamericana y, con este pretexto, doy cuenta de la importancia de considerar el sentido de lo intersubjetivo como la característica fundamental a la hora de construir críticas literarias diferentes y pertinentes sobre la novela histórica en América Latina. Asimismo, intento actualizar y renovar la identidad y sentidos del narrador como una experiencia concreta de construcción de la realidad y mostrar cómo la ficción es una opción real para la invención de realidades intersubjetivas. This article offers a socioconstructionist reading of the novel Maluco, by the Uruguayan writer Napoleon Baccino Ponce de Leon. The book can be seen as an expression of the New Historical Novel in Latin America. I argue that intersubjectivity is the key feature in building a different and more appropriate literary critique of the historical novel in Latin America. I also attempt to update and renew the importance of the narrator's identity and experience in the construction of reality, and to show that fiction is a real option for the invention of intersubjective realities.

     

  9. MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH FLUCTUATIONS IN THE HELIOSHEATH: VOYAGER 1 OBSERVATIONS DURING 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the ''microscale fluctuations'' of the magnetic field strength B on a scale of several hours observed by Voyager1 (V1) in the heliosheath during 2009. The microscale fluctuations of B range from coherent to stochastic structures. The amplitude of microscale fluctuations of B during 1 day is measured by the standard deviation (SD) of 48 s averages of B. The distribution of the daily values of SD is lognormal. SD(t) from day of year (DOY) 1 to 331, 2009, is very intermittent. SD(t) has a 1/f or 'pink noise' spectrum on scales from 1 to 100 days, and it has a broad multifractal spectrum f(α) with 0.57 ≤ α ≤ 1.39. The time series of increments SD(t + τ) – SD(t) has a pink noise spectrum with α' = 0.88 ± 0.14 on scales from 1 to 100 days. The increments have a Tsallis (q-Gaussian) distribution on scales from 1 to 165 days, with an average q = 1.75 ± 0.12. The skewness S and kurtosis K have Gaussian and lognormal distributions, respectively. The largest spikes in K(t) and S(t) are often associated with a change in B across a data gap and with identifiable physical structures. The 'turbulence' observed by V1 during 2009 was weakly compressible on average but still very intermittent, highly variable, and highly compressible at times. The turbulence observed just behind the termination shock by Voyager 2 was twice as strong. These observations place strong constraints on any model of 'turbulence' in the heliosheath.

  10. Effect Of Explant Source And Different Medium Culture On Friable Embryogenic Callus Induction Of Four Cultivars Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simplice Prosper Yandia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain Friable Embryogenic Callus FEC for protoplast isolation we have evaluated in this research the competance for Friable Embryogenic Callus FEC of four cassava cultivars M61033 Rendre Yalipe and Six-mois in media containing MS supplemented with 8mgl 24-D MS supplemented with 10 mgl BAP and GD supplemented with 12mgl picloram using apical bud AB and immature leaves lobes ILL as explants. In general in the medium GD12mgl picloram the highest efficiencies of FEC ranged from 58 to 87 and the highest score of FEC ranged from 4.2 to 5.4 with explants AB however we have observed with explants ILL the efficiencies of somatic embryos ranged form 41 to 75 and the score ranged from 4.1 to 4.4. The mediums MS28 mgl 24-D have induced with explants AB the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 43 to 57 and the score ranged from 3.1 to 3.8 however with ILL explants the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 39 to 49 and the score ranged from 2.9 to 3.7. The least FEC were observed in the medium MS210 mgl BAP with BA explants however the efficiencies ranged from 6 to 11 and the score ranged from 1.1 to 1.8. Whereas the efficiencies of FEC with ILL explants ranged from 4 to 7 and the score ranged from 0.5 to 0.8. All of four cultivars showed capability of producing FEC although their efficiency varied according to gonotype donors explants and medium taking into acount. Abbreviations GD Gressoff and Doy MS Murashige and Skoog 24-dichloro phenoxyacetic acid BAP Benzylamino-purin-Acid AB Apical Bud ILL Immature Leaves lobes

  11. Characterizing the multi–scale spatial structure of remotely sensed evapotranspiration with information theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Brunsell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A more thorough understanding of the multi-scale spatial structure of land surface heterogeneity will enhance understanding of the relationships and feedbacks between land surface conditions, mass and energy exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere, and regional meteorological and climatological conditions. The objectives of this study were to (1 quantify which spatial scales are dominant in determining the evapotranspiration flux between the surface and the atmosphere and (2 to quantify how different spatial scales of atmospheric and surface processes interact for different stages of the phenological cycle. We used the ALEXI/DisALEXI model for three days (DOY 181, 229 and 245 in 2002 over the Ft. Peck Ameriflux site to estimate the latent heat flux from Landsat, MODIS and GOES satellites. We then applied a multiresolution information theory methodology to quantify these interactions across different spatial scales and compared the dynamics across the different sensors and different periods. We note several important results: (1 spatial scaling characteristics vary with day, but are usually consistent for a given sensor, but (2 different sensors give different scalings, and (3 the different sensors exhibit different scaling relationships with driving variables such as fractional vegetation and near surface soil moisture. In addition, we note that while the dominant length scale of the vegetation index remains relatively constant across the dates, the contribution of the vegetation index to the derived latent heat flux varies with time. We also note that length scales determined from MODIS are consistently larger than those determined from Landsat, even at scales that should be detectable by MODIS. This may imply an inability of the MODIS sensor to accurately determine the fine scale spatial structure of the land surface. These results aid in identifying the dominant cross-scale nature of local to regional biosphere

  12. On the sensitivity of Land Surface Temperature estimates in arid irrigated lands using MODTRAN

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2015-11-29

    Land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface moisture status. However, in order to retrieve the ET with an accuracy approaching 10%, LST should be retrieved to within 1 ◦C or better, disregarding other elements of uncertainty. The removal of atmospheric effects is key towards achieving a precise estimation of LST and it requires detailed information on water vapor. The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) onboard Landsat 8 captures data in two long wave thermal bands with 100-meter resolution. However, the US Geological Survey has reported a calibration problem of TIRS bands caused by stray light, resulting in a higher bias in one of its two bands (4% in band 11, 2% in band 10). Therefore, split-window algorithms for the estimation of LST might not be reliable. Our work will focus on the impact of using different atmospheric profiles (e.g. weather prediction models, satellite) for the estimation of LST derived from MODTRAN by using one of the TIRS bands onboard Landsat 8 (band 10). Sites with in-situ measurements of LST are used as evaluation sources. Comparisons between the measured LST and LST derived based on different atmospheric profile inputs to MODTRAN are carried out from 2 Landsat-overpass days (DOY 153 and 160 2015). Preliminary results show a mean absolute error of around 3 ◦C between in-situ and estimated LST over two different crops (alfalfa and carrot) and bare soil.

  13. Aves marinas de las costas e islas colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available La lista de aves marinas que presento en este artículo se refiere en su mayor parte a especies que varios autores (véase Obras citadas han señalado en las costas e islas marítimas de Colombia o en las aguas extraterritoriales del Mar Caribe y del Océano Pacífico inmediatamente próximas a este país. Los ejemplares examinados que menciono fuera de tales referencias pertenecen casi todos a la colección ornitológica del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales y se señalan con las siglas ICN. Unos pocos son del museo de historia natural del Colegio Biffi, en Barranquilla, a cuyo custodio, el Hermano Hildeberto María, doy las gracias por haberme permitido examinarlos. Los que señalo con las palabras Exped. Askoy, seguidas de un numero (de la serie del American Museum of Natural History, forman parte de una interesante colección que nos envió en 1942 el doctor Robert Cushman Murphy, actual Director del Departamento de Aves del American Museum of Natural History, Nueva York. Estos fueron obtenidos por la expedición oceanográfica que, bajo la dirección del doctor Murphy, realizaron en la goleta "Askoy" varios miembros de aquel museo, acompañados por el Comandante Eduardo Fallon, de la Marina Colombiana, en aguas del Pacifico desde Panamá hasta el Ecuador. La Expedición de la "Askoy", que duró de febrero a mayo de 1941, exploró varias bahías y ensenadas en el litoral del Chocó y del Departamento del Valle, así como las islas de Gorgona y Gorgonilla al norte de la costa de Nariño, y el peñón inhabitado de Malpelo, posesión oceánica colombiana situada a unos 500 kilómetros al occidente de Buenaventura, en la latitud de 3° 59' 07" N. y la longitud de 81° 34' 27" W. de Greenwich, según posición determinada por Murphy (1936, I, p. 319, fig. 49 .

  14. Land Surface Phenologies and Seasonalities of Croplands and Grasslands in the US Prairie Pothole Region Using Passive Microwave Data (2003-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, W. G.; Henebry, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Grasslands and wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) have been converted to croplands in recent years. Crops cultivated in the PPR are also changing: spring wheat and alfalfa/hay are being switched to corn and soybean due to biofuel demand. According to the USDA Cropland Data Layer (CDL) from 2003 to 2015, spring wheat significantly decreased (r2 = 0.74), while corn and soybeans significantly increased (r2 = 0.86). We characterized land surface phenologies and land surface seasonalities across the PPR using the finer temporal (twice daily) but much lower spatial (25 km) resolution Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR: blended from AMSR-E and AMSR2) enhanced land surface parameters for 2003-2015 (DOY 91-330 annual cycles). We tracked the temporal development of these land surface parameters as a function of accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD) based on the AMSR retrieved air temperature data. Growing degree-days (GDD) revealed distinct seasonality typical to temperate grasslands and croplands. GDD peaks were 23°C and it peaks at 1700°C AGDD. Precipitable water vapor (V) displayed seasonality comparable to GDD. Vegetation optical depth (VOD) revealed distinct land surface phenologies for grasslands versus croplands. We explored the changing crop fractions within the 25 km AMSR pixels using the CDL. Crop-dominated sites VOD time series caught the early spring growth, ploughing, and crop growth dynamics. In contrast, the VOD time series at grass-dominated sites exhibited a lower but more extended amplitude throughout the non-frozen season. VODs peaked at 1.6 and 1.3 for croplands and grasslands, respectively. Croplands peaked about a month later than grasslands (2200 °C AGDD vs. 1600 °C AGDD). The other parameters available from the AMSR dataset—soil moisture (sm), and fractional open water (fw)—together with the AGDD time series constructed from the AMSR air temperature data revealed the passage of storm systems during the growing season. Soil

  15. Changing risk of spring frost damage in grapevines due to climate change? A case study in the Swiss Rhone Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael; Fuhrer, Jürg; Holzkämper, Annelie

    2018-01-01

    Late spring frost is a severe risk during early plant development. It may cause important economic damage to grapevine production. In a warming climate, late frost risk either could decline due to the reduction in frost days and an advancement of the last day of frost or increase due to a more pronounced shift forward of the start of the active growing period of the plants. These possibilities were analyzed in a case study for two locations in the lower Swiss Rhone Valley (Sion, Aigle) where viticulture is an important part of agriculture. Twelve phenology models were calibrated for the developmental stage BBCH09 (bud burst) using measured or reconstructed temperature data for two vineyards in Changins (1958 to 2012) and Leytron (1977 to 2014) together with observed phenological data. The day of year (DOY) for BBCH09 was then modelled for the years 1951 to 2050 using the best performing phenology model in combination with ten downscaled and bias-corrected climate scenarios. A 100-day period starting with BBCH09 was defined, during which daily mean and minimum temperatures were used to calculate three frost risk indices in each year. These indices were compared between the periods 1961-1990 (reference) and 2021-2050 (climate change scenario). Based on the average of the ensemble of climate model chains, BBCH09 advanced by 9 (range 7-11) (Aigle) and 7 (range 5-8) (Sion) days between the two time periods, similar to the shift in the last day of frost. The separate results of the different model chains suggest that, in the near future, late spring frost risk may increase or decrease, depending on location and climate change projections. While for the reference, the risk is larger at the warmer site (Sion) compared to that at the cooler site (Aigle), for the period 2021-2050, small shifts in both phenology and occurrence of frost (i.e., days with daily minimum temperature below 0 °C) lead to a small decrease in frost risk at the warmer but an increase at the cooler

  16. Changing risk of spring frost damage in grapevines due to climate change? A case study in the Swiss Rhone Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael; Fuhrer, Jürg; Holzkämper, Annelie

    2018-06-01

    Late spring frost is a severe risk during early plant development. It may cause important economic damage to grapevine production. In a warming climate, late frost risk either could decline due to the reduction in frost days and an advancement of the last day of frost or increase due to a more pronounced shift forward of the start of the active growing period of the plants. These possibilities were analyzed in a case study for two locations in the lower Swiss Rhone Valley (Sion, Aigle) where viticulture is an important part of agriculture. Twelve phenology models were calibrated for the developmental stage BBCH09 (bud burst) using measured or reconstructed temperature data for two vineyards in Changins (1958 to 2012) and Leytron (1977 to 2014) together with observed phenological data. The day of year (DOY) for BBCH09 was then modelled for the years 1951 to 2050 using the best performing phenology model in combination with ten downscaled and bias-corrected climate scenarios. A 100-day period starting with BBCH09 was defined, during which daily mean and minimum temperatures were used to calculate three frost risk indices in each year. These indices were compared between the periods 1961-1990 (reference) and 2021-2050 (climate change scenario). Based on the average of the ensemble of climate model chains, BBCH09 advanced by 9 (range 7-11) (Aigle) and 7 (range 5-8) (Sion) days between the two time periods, similar to the shift in the last day of frost. The separate results of the different model chains suggest that, in the near future, late spring frost risk may increase or decrease, depending on location and climate change projections. While for the reference, the risk is larger at the warmer site (Sion) compared to that at the cooler site (Aigle), for the period 2021-2050, small shifts in both phenology and occurrence of frost (i.e., days with daily minimum temperature below 0 °C) lead to a small decrease in frost risk at the warmer but an increase at the cooler

  17. Quantifying the impact of daily and seasonal variation in sap pH on xylem dissolved inorganic carbon estimates in plum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erda, F G; Bloemen, J; Steppe, K

    2014-01-01

    In studies on internal CO2 transport, average xylem sap pH (pH(x)) is one of the factors used for calculation of the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the xylem sap ([CO2 *]). Lack of detailed pH(x) measurements at high temporal resolution could be a potential source of error when evaluating [CO2*] dynamics. In this experiment, we performed continuous measurements of CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and stem temperature (T(stem)), complemented with pH(x) measurements at 30-min intervals during the day at various stages of the growing season (Day of the Year (DOY): 86 (late winter), 128 (mid-spring) and 155 (early summer)) on a plum tree (Prunus domestica L. cv. Reine Claude d'Oullins). We used the recorded pH(x) to calculate [CO2*] based on T(stem) and the corresponding measured [CO2]. No statistically significant difference was found between mean [CO2*] calculated with instantaneous pH(x) and daily average pH(x). However, using an average pH(x) value from a different part of the growing season than the measurements of [CO2] and T(stem) to estimate [CO2*] led to a statistically significant error. The error varied between 3.25 ± 0.01% under-estimation and 3.97 ± 0.01% over-estimation, relative to the true [CO2*] data. Measured pH(x) did not show a significant daily variation, unlike [CO2], which increased during the day and declined at night. As the growing season progressed, daily average [CO2] (3.4%, 5.3%, 7.4%) increased and average pH(x) (5.43, 5.29, 5.20) decreased. Increase in [CO2] will increase its solubility in xylem sap according to Henry's law, and the dissociation of [CO2*] will negatively affect pH(x). Our results are the first quantifying the error in [CO2*] due to the interaction between [CO2] and pH(x) on a seasonal time scale. We found significant changes in pH(x) across the growing season, but overall the effect on the calculation of [CO2*] remained within an error range of 4%. However, it is possible that the error could be more

  18. Precise orbit determination for BDS3 experimental satellites using iGMAS and MGEX tracking networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Yuan, Yongqiang; Zhu, Yiting; Huang, Jiande; Wu, Jiaqi; Xiong, Yun; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Xin

    2018-04-01

    In this contribution, we focus on the precise orbit determination (POD) for BDS3 experimental satellites with the international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (iGMAS) and Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) tracking networks. The datasets of DOY (day of year) 001-230 in 2017 are analyzed with different processing strategies. By comparing receiver clock biases and receiver B1I-B3I DCBs, it is confirmed that there is no obvious systematic bias between experimental BDS3 and BDS2 in the common B1I and B3I signals, which indicates that experimental BDS3 and BDS2 can be treated as one system when performing combined POD. With iGMAS-only BDS3 stations, the 24-h overlap RMS of BDS3 + BDS2 + GPS combined POD is 24.3, 16.1 and 8.4 cm in along-track, cross-track and radial components, which is better than BDS3-only POD by 80-90% and better than BDS3+BDS2 combined POD by about 10%. With more stations (totally 20 stations from both iGMAS and MGEX) and the proper ambiguity resolution strategy (GEO ambiguities are float and BDS3 ambiguities are fixed), the performance of BDS3 POD can be further improved to 14.6, 7.9 and 3.7 cm, respectively, in along-track, cross-track and radial components, which is comparable to the performance of BDS2 POD. The 230-day SLR validations of C32, C33 and C34 show that the mean differences of - 3.48 , 7.81 and 8.19 cm can be achieved, while the STD is 13.35, 13.46 and 13.11 cm, respectively. Furthermore, the 230-day overlap comparisons reveal that C31 most likely still uses an orbit-normal mode and exhibits similar orbit modeling problems in orbit-normal periods as found in most of the BDS2 satellites.

  19. Comentario a la presentación del Libro "Los Versos Melánicos"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez Vesga

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Apreciados señoras y señores, académicos: Todos plenos de títulos y honores nos reunimos hoy -menos endémicos- esquivando las funciones de doctores en torno a la obra de Efraím Otero y su relación un tanto iconoclasta de una vida que vivió por el alero de la medicina nuclear, que no le basta para hacer feliz su alma de poeta a Dios gracias, o gracias a algún hado y su saeta.

    Como ven no fallé ni un ápice en la rima pero sí -y totalmente- en la mesura aún así, contrario un tris la compostura y procedo a saludar a la Junta Directiva. Al Secretario Perpetuo que tiene un apellido muy difícil de rimar en nuestro idioma lo llamaré Hernando-como hemos convenido- Además … él sabe que es en broma. Sigue ahora nuestro augusto Presidente cuyo caso es todo lo contrario pues rimar con Juan en este horario bien merece un elogio del ausente. El Vicepresidente -aquí si estoy desamparado- fue para mí casi imposible, y “doy lo” que me pidan, aún doy mi doctorado, por rimar por fin con Cuellar o con Zoilo.

    A Germán Peña -Secretario- ahora elijo, por él siento especial y muy curiosa inclinación, por un lado, porque conocí bien a su hijo y por otro, a causa del vinito que tomamos al final de cada reunión. El último en la lista es Es guerra el Tesorero de Marly, muy activo calculista ha resultado con él no parece que nos faltará el dinero para darle buen sentido a las políticas de estado. Ahora bien, más que conceptos eruditos de un sesudo estudio literario quiero leerles mis versos favoritos a manera de muy corto comentario. El libro de Efraím, que he disfrutado tiene forma de auto-biografía como Juan de Castellanos ha rimadocada evento y sentimiento de su vida.

    Capítulo primero

    Inicia recordando lecturas escolares e incluye medievales y renacentistas repasando luego versos populares y algunas ocurrencias de amigos repentistas. Entre éstas leeré un verso muy sabroso que nos dice

  20. Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, C.; Benedek, G.; Rapisarda, A.; Tsallis, C.

    the glass transition in thermal systems / A. Coniglio ... [et al.] -- Supersymmetry and metastability in disordered systems / I. Giardinu, A. Cavagna and G. Parisi -- The metastable liquid-liquid phase transition: from water to colloids and liquid metals / G. Franzese and H. E. Stanley -- Optimization by thermal cycling / A. Möbius, K. H. Hoffmann and C. Schön -- Ultra-thin magnetic films and the structural glass transition: a modelling analogy / S. A. Cannas ... [et al.] -- Non-extensivity of inhomogeneous magnetic systems / M. S. Reis ... [et al.] -- Multifractal analysis of turbulence and granular flow / T. Arimitsu and N. Arimitsu -- Application of superstatistics to atmospheric turbulence / S. Rizzo and A. Rapisarda -- Complexity of perceptual processes / F. T. Arecchi -- Energetic model of tumor growth / P. Castorina and D. Zappalá -- Active Brownian motion - stochastic dynamics of swarms / W. Ebeling and U. Erdmann -- Complexity in the collective behaviour of humans / T. Vicsek -- Monte Carlo simulations of opinion dynamics / S. Fortunato -- A Merton-like approach to pricing debt based on a non-Gaussian asset model / L. Borland, J. Evnine and B. Pochart -- The subtle nature of market efficiency / J.-P. Bouchaud -- Correlation based hierarchical clustering in financial time series / S. Miccichè, F. Lillo and R. N. Mantegna -- Path integrals and exotic options: methods and numerical results / G. Bormetti ... [et al.] -- Aging of event-event correlation of earthquake aftershocks / S. Abe and N. Suzuki -- Aging in earthquakes model / U. Tirnakli -- The Olami-Feder-Christensen model on a small-world topology / F. Caruso ... [et al.] -- Networks as Renormalized models for emergent behavior in physical systems / M. Paczuski -- Energy landscapes, scale-free networks and Apollonian packings / J. P. K. Doye and C. P. Massen -- Epidemic modeling and complex realities / M. Barthélemy ... [et al.] -- The importance of being central / P. Crucitti and V. Latora.

  1. Observing Arctic Ecology using Networked Infomechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, N. C.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Hollister, R. D.; Tweedie, C. E.; Welker, J. M.; Gould, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    2012. Once compiled and quality controlled, all of our data are freely available online via the Arctic Observing Network's Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS). Here we present some of our findings to show how our results can be advantageous to various disciplines including plant ecology, hydrology, geology, atmospheric sciences, and remote sensing. For instance, we found that albedo decreases with increasing NDVI after initial green-up and loss of dead standing litter (DOY 174-184), displaying an r2 of 0.90 in 2012 at Toolik Lake. This relationship is vital for determining phonological events via remote sensing and understanding the surface energy balance that impacts atmospheric processes, weather and climate, the hydrologic cycle, and ecophysiological progression throughout the short arctic growing season. Scaling these data to larger scales, which is critical to future monitoring of the potential impacts of climate change on arctic vegetation, is facilitated by linkage of measurements along the NIMS transects and manual vegetation measurements in the 1 km2 sample grids with frequent low-altitude aerial photography.

  2. Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg. Plantadas de sementes: IV - Produtividade de 29 plantas existentes na travessa Itororó, Belém, Pá Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.: IV - Study of 29 rubber trees of the travessa Itororó, Belém, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1960-01-01

    remembered, however, that during the every day period of tapping the plants passed through regular hibernation. The study of the plants as a group presented the following results, respectively for every other doy and daily tapping systems: a 10.3% of the plant population yielded 27.0 and 24.9% of the total latex production; b 24.1% of the plant population yielded 49.5 and 45.0% of the total latex production; c 48.3% of the plant population yielded 75.8 and 70.7% of the total latex production; d 75.9% of the plant population yielded 92,7 and 90.4% of the total latex production.

  3. Aspectos Históricos y Sociales del Transplante Hepático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Moreno González

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resultados en la Comunidad Económica Europea (Cee. Estado del Arte

    Hoy es un día muy especial por haberme permitido acercarme a esta insigne Corporación, y a pesar de mis escasos méritos, recibirme como Miembro Honorario de la misma.

    Me doy cuenta de que entro a la Academia Nacional de Medicina que fue establecida por la Ley 71 de 1890, gracias al deseo expreso de los doctores Jorge Holguín, Adriano Tribín, Enrique de Narváez y Miguel Angel Peñarredonda de transformar la Sociedad nacida en el año de 1873 para el estudio y adelanto de las ciencias médicas y naturales, solidarizar al cuerpo médico y darle unidad al ejercicio profesional. Me parece sentir las voces gentiles de augustos caballeros como Manuel Plata Azuero, catedrático de Terapéutica y hábil parlamentario; Nicolás Osorio, eximio investigador y Decano de la Universidad; Liborio Zerda, extraordinario naturalista, apóstol de la educación; Leoncio Barreto, catedrático, farmaceuta y obstetra de gran prestigio; Evaristo García, catedrático polifacético y profundo humanista; y el joven médico bugueño Abraham Aparicio, más tarde Concejal y Alcalde de esta maravillosa ciudad de Bogotá. Reciban y acepten con benevolencia este recuerdo que me embarga al entrar en esta sede, sintiendo con fuerza el honor que ustedes me hacen al introducirme en esta Academia.

    Acercarme hoy a Colombia es volver a disfrutar del paisaje andino, del recuerdo de las vasijas y botellas quimbaya, excelsos orfebres de la orilla del río Cauca; sorprenderme de nuevo con el inolvidable trabajo del oro de los chibchas o estremecerme frente a los monumentos y cámaras funerarias megalíticas de la cultura de San Agustín con sus enormes estatuas de piedra de tipo zoomorfo que, tanta fuerza expresiva poseen.

    España se introdujo en el arte colombiano, especialmente con el mudéjar que tan importantes ejemplos tiene aquí en el presbiterio de las Iglesias de

  4. On the Existence of Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ben Othman

    2007-01-01

    A is a continuous function on [0,ω, positive and differentiable on (0,ω, and ψ is a nonnegative function on (0,ω×[0,∞ such that t↦tψ(x,t is continuous on [0,∞ for each x∈(0,ω. We give asymptotic behavior for positive solutions using a potential theory approach.

  5. Herbicidas no transplante de mudas de sisal (Agave sisalana perr. Weed control and herbicide selectivity to sisal (Agave sisalana perr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1980-01-01

    ; a hoed check and a not hoed check. Trifluralin was applied on September 24, 1976, the bulbils were transplanted on the 29th of the same month and the PRE herbicides applied on the 30th. Weed control was evaluated at 67 and 114 days after PRE application. The grass control was over 90% by trifluralin, bromacil and terbacil, around 80% by simazine and below 75% by the remaining herbicides. The broadleaves were controlled at a level of 90 to 100% by bromacil and terbacil and 80 to 85% by simazine. None of the herbicides affected the growth of sisal plants during the considered period of 600 days. At 550 days the area covered by weeds was evaluated. Terbacil controlled still 75 and 95% of the total quantity of weeds, at the lower and higher doyes, respectively, trifluralin controlled 60 to 70% and the remainder below 45%. For final evaluation at 600 days, crop stand, number of plants with sprouts, number of leaves per plant and crop condition were considered. The treatments with best weed control also showed the best scores for crop development, partly due to their selectivity to sisal.

  6. Palabras del Señor Académico Don Jaime Posada Díaz. Director de la Academia Colombiana de la Lengua y Presidente del Colegio Máximo de las Academias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rodriguez

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Señora Ministra de Salud, doctora María Teresa Forero de Saade; señor Presidente, doctor Gilberto Rueda Pérez; señor Presidente de la Corporación, doctor José Félix Patiño; señores miembros salientes y electos de las Mesas Directivas; señores Presidentes de las Academias y Sociedades que integran el Colegio Máximo; señores Exministros de Estado, miembros del Cuerpo Diplomático; señor Presidente de la Cruz Roja Nacional, doctor Guillermo Rueda Montaña; señores Académicos y Rectores Universitarios, señores profesores, amigos todos:

    En razón de la trascendencia de la convocatoria de esta noche y dada la presencia de los miembros de la Junta Directiva, el Colegio Máximo de las Academias ha resuelto que la jornada de esta noche sea la primera reunión plenaria del Colegio en el trimestre inicial de 1998.

    Se posesionan hoy el Presidente y la nueva Junta Directiva de la Academia Nacional de Medicina integrada por los doctores José Félix Patiño Restrepo, Presidente; Juan Mendoza-Vega, Vicepresidente; Hernando Groot Liévano, Secretario Perpetuo; Joaquín Silva Silva, Secretario General y Hernando Forero Caballero, Tesorero.

    En representación del Colegio Máximo de las Academias Colombianas, les doy una cordial y merecida bienvenida y felicito a la Academia Nacional de Medicina por el afortunado escogimiento.

    Simultáneamente me corresponde agradecer al Presidente y a la Junta que terminan, y que en anteriores ocasiones fueron reelegidos, agradecer la activa y provechosa colaboración que prestaron a las tareas del Colegio Máximo los doctores Gilberto Rueda Pérez, Presidente, Roberto de Zubiría, Vicepresidente; Hernando Groot, Secretario Perpetuo; Zoilo Cuéllar, Secretario y Gonzalo López, Tesorero, merecen la gratitud por la buena voluntad creativa que mostraron en todo momento.

    Al doctor Gilberto Rueda Pérez le correspondió una gestión de altísimas responsabilidades, no sólo en la

  7. Pasteur en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Bárcenas lsaacs

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Simposio Internacional sobre Inmunización y Producción de Vacunas, Bogotá, 29 de Septiembre de 1985.

    La Sociedad Colombiana de Historia de la Medicina recibió del Comité Organizador de la reunión que hoy nos congrega, la solicitud de presentar el tema de la influencia de Luís Pasteur en la América Latina. La Sociedad mencionada tuvo a bien encargarme de tan honroso cometido; sin embargo, habida cuenta de la vastedad de nuestro continente, del largo tiempo que se requiere para consultar responsable y juiciosamente archivos y bibliotecas en los diferentes países, además de los viajes que hubiera sido necesario realizar, decliné tan atractiva y desafiante tarea, pero propuse, en cambio, que se me permitiera abordar el tema circunscribiéndolo a Colombia.

    Me doy cuenta cabal de que lo que diga pudiera parecer estrecho o parroquial a este distinguido concurso de personalidades provenientes de tan diversas latitudes. No obstante, me atrevo a creer que lo que aconteció en Colombia al advenimiento de las ideas y de los descubrimientos de Pasteur, no debe diferir demasiado de lo sucedido en otras naciones, a las cuales Bolívar agrupó en una sola cuando dijo “para nosotros la patria es América”.

    Con la salvedad expresada, trataré de cumplir con la generosa designación que he recibido de la Sociedad Colombiana de Historia de la Medicina, a la cual me complazco en pertenecer y a cuyo presidente y Junta Directiva agradezco la distinción que me hacen.

    En este año de 1985 se cumplen y se celebran cien de la primera aplicación humana de la vacuna antirrábica debida a Pasteur. Se conmemora también el centenario de la muerte de Víctor Hugo, uno de los más grandes escritores y poetas de la humanidad. Siempre he creído que estos dos hijos insignes de la Francia del Siglo XIX, se distinguieron por el respeto, el afecto y la admiración que les profesaron sus contemporáneos y entre

  8. Aspectos ecológicos da tripanossomíase americana: XVII - Desenvolvimento da domiciliação triatomínea regional, em centro de endemismo de Triatoma sordida Ecological aspects of South American trypanosomiasis: XVII - The domiciliation development of local triatominae populations in the Triatoma sordida endemic center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1983-06-01

    mobilidade dos habitantes locais. O papel desempenhado pelo R. neglectus foi pouco expressivo embora, à semelhança de T. sordida, tenha facilmente desenvolvido colônias em galinheiros experimentais. A participação proporcional dos dois principais triatomíneos na composição específica das populações domiciliadas, observada antes e após o expurgo em cinco diferentes ocasiões, foi avaliada pelos respectivos percentuais dentro do número total e edificações (casas e anexos encontradas positivas. Os resultados mostraram aumento constante da proporção correspondente a T. sordida e diminuição da referente a T. infestans. Atribuiu-se a fatores educacionais e habitacionais maior influência sobre a domiciliação desta espécie do que na daquela. Observou-se também indícios sobre a possibilidade de dispersão ativa de T. infestans. Nas áreas rurais, os anexos peridomiciliares revelaram-se como ecótopos de concentração para o início da domiciliação de triatomíneos silvestres, em especial modo, de T. sordida. As áreas com pequeno número de anexos, aparentemente permanecem negativas por tempo mais prolongado, levando a supor que a domiciliação encontre ali maiores dificuldades de se desenvolver.The results of observations made on triatominae bug domiciliation, after house cleaning using chemical substances, are reported. The work was carried out during the period January 1975 to January 1979. The region studied is part of the endemic center formed by the "cerrados" (doy up-land forests of Central Brazil. Original local bug domiciliation found before house treatment, was composed of Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida populations. After desinsectization, surveillance research showed the start and development of a new, thowgh slower, domiciliation procedure, leading to house infection rates well below those initially found. After house cleaning, these values varied from 1.9 to 5.7%, comparing with 40.4% in the initial survey. This situation continued

  9. Discurso de Orden Pronunciado por el Dr. Carlos Sanmartín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sanmartín

    1992-12-01

    el centenario del nacimiento de tan ilustre colombiano.

    En el libro de bautismos No. 15, folio 56, de la pequeña población de Iza, sita en el Valle de Sogamoso, dice: “En Iza, a veintinueve de noviembre de 1891, bauticé solemnemente a un niño de cuatro días de nacido a quien llamé Luis Benigno, hijo legítimo de Timoteo Patiño y Mercedes Camargo; abuelos paternos Domingo (Patiño y Valeria Ramos; maternos, Remigio (Camargo y Bárbara Bayona. Fueron padrinos Telésforo Bayona y Domitila Fonseca, a quienes advertí lo necesario. Doy fe Rubén Salcedo”.

    Su niñez transcurrió en Iza y allí, en la escuela pública y en el Colegio de Pesca hizo los estudios de primaria. Los de secundaria los inició en el Colegio Sugamuxi de Sogamoso y los terminó en el Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario de Bogotá; este Colegio y su rector, Monseñor Rafael María Carrasquilla, tuvieron gran influencia sobre Luis Patiño. En 1914 recibió su diploma de Bachiller y fue elegido para la honrosa posición de Colegial de Número de ese centro docente.

    Siempre estuvo orgulloso de haberse formado en esos claustros y siempre recordó con respeto, afecto y gratitud a Monseñor Carrasquilla; estos sentimientos los expresó bellamente en repetidas ocasiones, por ejemplo, en su tesis de grado de 1922, a la cual me referiré más adelante, y en el discurso que pronunció en 1968 cuando ingresó a la Academia Colombiana de la Lengua tratando doctamente el tema del léxico médico.

    Relatar y comentar en una ocasión como esta que hoy nos congrega la vida, las múltiples actividades, las muchas realizaciones de Luis Patiño Camargo y las numerosas distinciones que recibió y todo lo que sobre él se ha escrito, sería tarea de varias horas. Existe un gran caudal de información al respecto, gracias al escrupuloso cuidado con que él conservaba correspondencia, documentos, publicaciones, etc., ya la excelente labor de recopilación y ordenamiento, que con

  10. Present and future strategies for neutrinoless double beta decay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    doubled exposure, with signal shape analysis to discard Compton events, a heavy ... sonable amount to put stringent (and competitive) limits on 0νDBD. ..... with an impressive reduced electronic noise and an almost eliminated risk of de-.

  11. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  12. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a class of functions and their reciprocals to be logarithmically completely monotonic

    OpenAIRE

    Lv Yu-Pei; Sun Tian-Chuan; Chu Yu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We prove that the function F α,β (x) = x α Γ β (x)/Γ(βx) is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β) : β > 0, β ≥ 2α + 1, β ≥ α + 1}{(α, β) : α = 0, β = 1} and that [F α,β (x)]-1 is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β ...

  13. Regularity of the Speed of Biased Random Walk in a One-Dimensional Percolation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantert, Nina; Meiners, Matthias; Müller, Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    We consider biased random walks on the infinite cluster of a conditional bond percolation model on the infinite ladder graph. Axelson-Fisk and Häggström established for this model a phase transition for the asymptotic linear speed \\overline{v} of the walk. Namely, there exists some critical value λ c>0 such that \\overline{v}>0 if λ \\in (0,λ c) and \\overline{v}=0 if λ ≥ λ c. We show that the speed \\overline{v} is continuous in λ on (0,∞) and differentiable on (0,λ c/2). Moreover, we characterize the derivative as a covariance. For the proof of the differentiability of \\overline{v} on (0,λ c/2), we require and prove a central limit theorem for the biased random walk. Additionally, we prove that the central limit theorem fails to hold for λ ≥ λ c/2.

  14. Radiation tolerance of the WorldFIP fieldbus interface

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Thijs

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises on radiation tests on the main components for the WorldFIP fieldbus interface. The chipset based on 0.6 \\mu­m technology has a total dose tolerance of 100 Gy (Co-60) and in standalone mode, no functional interrupts from single events have been observed during proton irradiation (60 MeV). The chipset based on 0.5 \\mu­m technology has a total dose tolerance of 150 Gy (Co-60) but shows a sharp increase in the single event cross section after a dose of 70 Gy. Finally, it was found that the chipset based on 0.5 \\mu­m technology operates reliable in standalone mode in a magnetic field up to 4.6 kGauss.

  15. Ignition access in a D-3He helical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitarai, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    Ignition access in a D- 3 He helical reactor is studied based on 0-dimensional particle and power balance equations for deuterium, tritium, helium-3, alpha ash, proton ash, electron density and temperature. The calculations are based on the following experimental facts observed in LHD. (author)

  16. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Peacekeeper in Minuteman Silos, F.E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Services and Facilities • .......... Uti I .ties. . % ? Energy Resources - - 0 Transportati on * 0) • ::::: ’:’::::’ ::::: Land Use - - :::~: i...RNs, 31 LPNs, 31 nurses aides, 3 pharmacists , 2 dieticians, 3 physical therapists, and 18 specialized technicians. The physician staff levels of

  17. Development of Numerical Estimation in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Booth, Julie L.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined kindergartners', first graders', and second graders' numerical estimation, the internal representations that gave rise to the estimates, and the general hypothesis that developmental sequences within a domain tend to repeat themselves in new contexts. Development of estimation in this age range on 0-to-100 number lines…

  18. On the minimal travel time needed to collect n items on a circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelly; van Zwet, Willem R.

    2004-01-01

    Consider n items located randomly on a circle of length 1. The locations of the items are assumed to be independent and uniformly distributed on [0,1). A picker starts at point 0 and has to collect all n items by moving along the circle at unit speed in either direction. In this paper we study the

  19. On the minimal travel time needed to collect $n$ items on a circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van Zwet, Willem R.; van der Geer, Sarah; Wegkamp, Marten

    2012-01-01

    Consider $n$ items located randomly on a circle of length 1. The locations of the items are assumed to be independent and uniformly distributed on $[0,1)$. A picker starts at point 0 and has to collect all n items by moving along the circle at unit speed in either direction. In this paper we study

  20. On the minimal travel time needed to collect n items on a circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van Zwet, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    Consider n items located randomly on a circle of length 1. The locations of the items are assumed to be independent and uniformly distributed on [0, 1). A picker starts at point 0, and he has to collect all n items by moving along the circle at unit speed in either direction. In this paper we study

  1. qnrD, a Novel Gene Conferring Transferable Quinolone Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky and Bovismorbificans Strains of Human Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Hasman, Henrik; Xia, S.

    2009-01-01

    ')Ib-cr, and mutations in gyrA and parC. Plasmid DNA was extracted from all four isolates and transformed into Escherichia coli TG1 and DH10B cells by electroporation, and transformants were selected on 0.06 mu g/ml ciprofloxacin containing brain heart infusion agar plates. Resistance to ciprofloxacin...

  2. On Fréchet theorem in the set of measure preserving functions over the unit interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hsiang Chou

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the Fréchet theorem in the set of measure preserving functions over the unit interval and show that any measure preserving function on [0,1] can be approximated by a sequence of measure preserving piecewise linear continuous functions almost everywhere. Some application is included.

  3. Mechanical Properties of 0.14wt%C – 0.56wt%Mn – 0.13wt%Si ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercritical heat treatment on 0.14wt%C – 0.56wt%Mn – 0.13wt%Si structural steel has been investigated. Specimens for single quenching and those for double quenching were prepared for intercritical heat treatment. The heat treatment of the experimental steel was based on intercritical annealing in the ferrite + ...

  4. 78 FR 55230 - Waiver for Marking Sunken Vessels With a Light at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... search term. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this rule, call or email Mr. Paul Crissy, Coast Guard; telephone 202-372-1093 email [email protected] . If you have questions on... #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER...

  5. On a direct algorithm for the generation of log-normal pseudo-random numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Chamayou, J M F

    1976-01-01

    The random variable ( Pi /sub i=1//sup n/X/sub i//X/sub i+n/)/sup 1/ square root 2n/ is used to generate standard log normal variables Lambda (0, 1), where the X/sub i/ are independent uniform variables on (0, 1). (8 refs).

  6. Sesquilinear forms corresponding to a non-semibounded Sturm-Liouville operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleige, Andreas; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk; Winkler, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Let - DpD be a differential operator on the compact interval [-b, b] whose leading coefficient is positive on (0, b] and negative on [b,0), with fixed, separated, self-adjoint boundary conditions at h and b and an additional interface condition at 0. The self-adjoint extensions of the corresponding

  7. Complete Monotonicity of a Difference Between the Exponential and Trigamma Functions and Properties Related to a Modified Bessel Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Feng; Berg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, the authors find necessary and sufficient conditions for a difference between the exponential function αeβ/t, α, β > 0, and the trigamma function ψ (t) to be completely monotonic on (0,∞). While proving the complete onotonicity, the authors discover some properties related to the fi...

  8. Genetic diversity in African nutmeg (Monodora myristica) accessions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-10-15

    Oct 15, 2014 ... The purity of DNA was determined by calculating the ratio of absorbance at 260 nm to that of 280 nm. DNA concentration and purity was also determined by running the samples on 0.8% agarose gel. Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were carried out in a Peltier thermal cycler (BioRAD DNA engine) using ...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by volume (ppmv), dry basis. Qsd = Volumetric flow rate of gases entering or exiting the add-on...). 0.0416 = Conversion factor for molar volume, kg-moles per cubic meter (mol/m3) (@ 293 Kelvin (K) and... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B...

  10. A General Iterative Method for a Nonexpansive Semigroup in Banach Spaces with Gauge Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonrat Nammanee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study strong convergence of the sequence generated by implicit and explicit general iterative methods for a one-parameter nonexpansive semigroup in a reflexive Banach space which admits the duality mapping Jφ, where φ is a gauge function on [0,∞. Our results improve and extend those announced by G. Marino and H.-K. Xu (2006 and many authors.

  11. Performance and economy of production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed fermented wild cocoyam corm (FWCC) as a partial replacement for maize. Two hundred and forty (240) Nera black laying birds were randomly allocated to four experimental diets formulated on 0, 10, 20 and 30% FWCC as graded replacement ...

  12. The Voronovskaya theorem for some operators of the Szasz-Mirakjan type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucina Rempulska

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We give the Voronovskaya theorem for some operators  of the Szasz-Mirakjan type defined in the space of functions continuous on [0,+infinity and having the polynomial grouth at infinity. Some approximation properties of these operators are given in [2], [4].

  13. THE EFFECTS OF INTERCRITICAL HEAT TREATMENTS ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercritical heat treatment on 0.14wt%C 0.56wt%Mn 0.13wt%Si struc- ... Table 1: Chemical composition of the steel used (wt. %) with its critical temperature (calculated). C. Mn. Si. Ni. S ... primary austenitic grain size hardening and.

  14. relationship of status of polymorphic rapd bands with genotypic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and. Technology .... Amplified Polymorphic DNA) have been ... DNA quantification was done by visualising under UV light after electrophoresis on 0.8% (w/v) agarose gel. The. DNA was again diluted in TE buffer to 5 μg μl-1.

  15. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... This paper deals with the problems of detecting a chirp signal of motion target against a ... The study utilized a method to determine and characterize signals for ... Based on 0 master oscillator requirements for coherent radar application are ..... Finally, if the noise level increases, the obtained slope becomes.

  16. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis bone erosions by 2 different dedicated extremity MRI units and conventional radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Anne; Vestergaard, Aage; Døhn, Uffe Møller

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ability of 2 different dedicated extremity magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI) units and conventional radiography (CR) for identifying bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints. METHODS: CR and 2 MRI-examinations (on 0.2T Esaote...

  17. Effect of carbon source concentration and culture duration on retreivability of bacteria from certain estuarine, coastal and offshore areas around the peninsular India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goltekar, R.C.; Krishnan, K.P.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Paropkari, A.L.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    ) and retrievable plate counts as colony forming units (CFU). Retrievability was improved by decreasing nutrient concentration in the culture medium. Maximum retrievability of 10^4 CFU ml^–1 was obtained on 0.1% nutrient strength (100% corresponds to 8 g l^–1...

  18. Holdaway's analysis of the nose prominence of an adult Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-02

    Jan 2, 2015 ... Background: Facial beauty is a function of harmonious balance among all parts of the ... facial structures should play an important part in the assessment of patients before .... traced on 0.003‑mm matte acetate sheets (MASEL,.

  19. Representations for the decay parameter of a birth-death process based on the Courant-Fischer theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the decay parameter (the rate of convergence of the transition probabilities) of a birth-death process on $\\{0,1,...\\}$, which we allow to evanesce by escape, via state 0, to an absorbing state -1. Our main results are representations for the decay parameter under four different scenarios,

  20. Representations for the decay parameter of a birth-death process based on the Courant-Fischer Theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    We study the decay parameter (the rate of convergence of the transition probabilities) of a birth-death process on $\\{0,1,...\\}$, which we allow to evanesce by escape, via state 0, to an absorbing state -1. Our main results are representations for the decay parameter under four different scenarios,

  1. Development of Vaccines to Prevent Wound Infections due to Anaerobic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    containing an inoculum that included anaerobes ( Eubacterium , Clostridium, Bacteroides, Peptococcus, and Fusobacterium) and aerobes (E. coli, enterococcus) in a...serogroups of the Bacteroides spp . based on 0-antigens have been described. (11-13) Type-specific antisera raised in rabbits against twenty distinct

  2. Keanekaragaman Mirabilis jalapa L. Berdasarkan Pola Pita Isozim Peroksidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mirabilis jalapa L. is a gardening plant which growth easily planted because their beautiful color and flower’s ornaments. The aims of the research were to find out the variation of isozyme band of peroxidase (PER and their close relationship of M. jalapa cultivated based on their different flower’s color. The method used in this study was polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis. The collecting data were analyzed using calculation of association coefficient (Gower’s coefficient with cluster analysis used for similarities of their arithmetic. The results showed that in M. jalapa were found 21 variation of isozyme bands of peroxidase (PER from 8 Rf of 0.04; 0.08; 0.20; 0.28; 0.36; 0.48; 0,60; and 0.64. M. jalapa with white and red nodes flower’s (BIN and white and red line flower’s (GAR have the nearest genetic relationship with similarity index of 0.76. M. jalapa with white and red nodes flower’s (BIN and white and red line flower’s (GAR joined with red flower’s (MER on 0.73 of similarity index then joined with white flower’s (PUT on 0.64 of similarity index and yellow flower’s (KUN on0.49 of similarity index. At least, M. jalapa with orange flower’s (ORA joined with M. jalapa cultivars on 0.41 of similarity index.

  3. Release from the Crabtree effect by hypoxic cell radiosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustea, I.; Bara, A.

    1979-01-01

    The Crabtree effect can be observed when the 0 2 consumption of tumour cells or of mammalian cells grown in culture is measured in physiological medium containing glucose. The effect of 2 hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, misonidazole and NDPP, on the 0 2 consumption of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells was compared in media with and without glucose. A stimulatory effect on 0 2 consumption was found for 5-20 mM misonidazole as well as for 0.5mM NDPP, both in media containing 10 -2 M glucose. Thus glucose induced a Crabtree effect in Ehrlich tumour cells, expressed as 38-45% inhibition of 0 2 consumption relative to that in the same medium without glucose. The stimulatory effect of misonidazole and NDPP on 0 2 utilization in medium with glucose undoubtedly appeared as a release from the Crabtree effect. (author)

  4. Inverse resonance problems for the Schrödinger operator on the real line with mixed given data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Chuan; Yang, Chuan-Fu

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we study inverse resonance problems for the Schrödinger operator on the real line with the potential supported in [0, 1]. In general, all eigenvalues and resonances cannot uniquely determine the potential. (i) It is shown that if the potential is known a priori on [0, 1 / 2], then the unique recovery of the potential on the whole interval from all eigenvalues and resonances is valid. (ii) If the potential is known a priori on [0, a], then for the case a>1/2, infinitely many eigenvalues and resonances can be missing for the unique determination of the potential, and for the case alogarithmic derivative values of eigenfunctions and wave-functions at 1 / 2, can uniquely determine the potential.

  5. Inverse Spectral Results for AKNS Systems with Partial Information on the Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, R. del; Grebert, B.

    2001-01-01

    For the AKNS operator on L 2 ([0,1],C 2 ) it is well known that the data of two spectra uniquely determine the corresponding potential φ a.e. on [0,1] (Borg's type Theorem). We prove that, in the case where φ is a-priori known on [a,1], then only a part (depending on a) of two spectra determine φ on [0,1]. Our results include generalizations for Dirac systems of classical results obtained by Hochstadt and Lieberman for the Sturm-Liouville case, where they showed that half of the potential and one spectrum determine all the potential functions. An important ingredient in our strategy is the link between the rate of growth of an entire function and the distribution of its zeros

  6. New Definition and Properties of Fuzzy Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Ming; Qin Yingbing

    2006-01-01

    Let X = (x1,x2 ,…,xn ) and F(X) be a fuzzy set on a universal set X. A new definition of fuzzy entropy about a fuzzy set A on F(X), e*, is defined based on the order relation "≤" on [0,1/2] n. It is proved that e* is a σ-entropy under an additional requirement. Besides, some entropy formulas are presented and related properties are discussed.

  7. 106例儿童孤独症的临床特征分析%Clinical Analysis for 106 Cases of Childhood Autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新波; 柯晓燕; 罗硕军; 林节

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of childhood autism. Methods Clinical analysis for 106 casesof clildhood autism by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) .Results Onset age on0~ 11 month's autism are severe than11 ~ 23 month and 24 ~ 36 month, especially on human relatedness, use of body, relation to objects, visual responsiveness,auditory responsiveness, verbal sommunication and global impression. Cocnclusion The chnical features of childhood autismrelate to onset age.

  8. On Quadratic Variation of Martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where D ( [ 0 , ∞ ) , R ) denotes the class of real valued r.c.l.l. functions on [ 0 , ∞ ) such that for a locally square integrable martingale ( M t ) with r.c.l.l. paths,. Ψ ( M . ( ) ) = A . ( ). gives the quadratic variation process (written usually as [ M , M ] t ) of ( M t ) . We also show that this process ( A t ) is the unique increasing ...

  9. A one-dimensional gravitationally interacting gas and the convex minorant of Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suidan, T M

    2001-01-01

    The surprising connection between a one-dimensional gravitationally interacting gas of sticky particles and the convex minorant process generated by Brownian motion on [0,1] is studied. A study is made of the dynamics of this 1-D gas system by identifying three distinct clustering regimes and the time scales at which they occur. At the critical moment of time the mass distribution of the gas can be computed in terms of functionals of the convex minorant process

  10. Meeting Air Training Command’s Future Airspace Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    submitted its report to the President on 22 January 1935 . Several recommendations for change were made. * The Commission suggested air transportation...Pi.rmr epre becoming big business. Emphasis was shitting to ,r ’,: t routes and nationwide systems. These first airways werp nothinq more tinan e on 0...rinw- air accidents. The first traffic control centers were establi-ieo by th airline -ompanies in December 1935 . The Newark, New Jersey, office was f

  11. The Structure of the Class of Maximum Tsallis–Havrda–Chavát Entropy Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. García

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A maximum entropy copula is the copula associated with the joint distribution, with prescribed marginal distributions on [ 0 , 1 ] , which maximizes the Tsallis–Havrda–Chavát entropy with q = 2 . We find necessary and sufficient conditions for each maximum entropy copula to be a copula in the class introduced in Rodríguez-Lallena and Úbeda-Flores (2004, and we also show that each copula in that class is a maximum entropy copula.

  12. Assessment of the healing activity of jucá pods [Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) L. P. Queiroz] in cutaneous lesions of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Frascisca Gomes Carvalho; Faculdade de Saúde, Ciencias Humanas e Tecnológicas do Piauí; Sampaio, João Paulo da Silva Sampaio; Faculdade de Saúde, Ciencias Humanas e Tecnológicas do Piauí; Araújo, Maurycio Macedo dos Santos Araújo; Faculdade de Saúde, Ciencias Humanas e Tecnológicas do Piauí; Pinto, Lucielma Salmito Soares; Faculdade de Saúde, Ciencias Humanas e Tecnológicas do Piauí; Rocha, Antônio José; Universidade Federal do Ceará

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the healing activity of the powdered pod of L. ferrea in cutaneous wound healing in preclinical test in rats. Eighteen rats were divided into two groups: the positive control group (PCG) treated with Kollagenase® and the experimental group (EG) treated with an ointment prepared with the powder of Libidibia ferrea. The lesions were clinically evaluated on 0 - 21st days, when histopathological analysis was also performed. In this study, the clinical analysis showed t...

  13. Residues of Malathion and Metabolites in and on the Cotton Leaf vs. Toxicity to the Boll Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.A. Wolfenbarger

    2002-01-01

    Malathion was applied at 12 and 16 oz [A.l.]/a to cotton near Mercedes, TX, in 1995 and sampled on 0, 2, 4 and 6 d posttreatment to determine residues of malathion, malaoxon, and iso-malathion. Residues were then compared to determine toxicity to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Residues of malathion comprised 99% of the leaf washes and 100% of the leaf...

  14. 30-MM Tubular Projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    on this point. 10 *. Ir- , .- * .. - , -. . 7 t , . - %, ’. . .. . l. , * H k " 1 . F *. i References 1. Stephen J. Price, Rotating Band for High...0% ON 0 w 41 6 *l *- -- 4* N N H .- .𔃾-4P- ’ ’-൝ 0 tn K Table 10. Inspection of Hisparm Suiza sabot (mass in graw ) 12 Pusher plate * "’ Item 1 2 3

  15. Heat Transfer and Cooling in Gas Turbines (Le Transfert Thermique et le Refroidissement dans les Turbines a Gaz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Chan. H. W.; Scesa. S. Heat Tranfer to a Turbulent Boundary Lay-r Down- stream of an Injection Slot ASME-Paper 57-A-36, 1957 [18 Papell , S. S. Effect on...0.60 intermediate section of the lateral wall. 0.50 f 6. CONCLUSIONS 40 60 80100 fta "LP a"Pl" S (WThe comparison between predicted and actual test

  16. Influence of visual observational conditions on tongue motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Liu, Xuimei; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of visual observational conditions on performance during a standardized tongue-protrusion training (TPT) task and to evaluate subject-based reports of helpfulness, disturbance, pain, and fatigue due to the observational conditions on 0-10 numerical rating scales. Forty...... regarding the level of disturbance, pain or fatigue. Self-observation of tongue-training facilitated behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning compared with model-observation but not compared with control....

  17. Introducing a simple and economical method to purify Giardia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Then they solved in distilled water. The second step of purification was done by adding them on 0.85 M sucrose and centrifugation at. 1600 g and 4°C for 10 min. In this step, fecal particles remained from the first step of purification were trapped in the middle phase and the cysts settled at bottom of the tubes ...

  18. Magnetic study of superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, T.R.; Gupta, A.; Koren, G.; Laibowitz, R.B.; Dimos, D.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic and transport measurements on 0.3 micron thick films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 - x made by a laser ablation technique show critical current densities of up to 40X10 6 amps/cm 2 . At 77K the transport data gives J c ∼5x10 6 amps/cm 2 while magnetic data is 40 % lower. Comparison is made with evaporated films

  19. Existence of solutions to differential inclusions with primal lower nice functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Fetouci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of absolutely continuous solutions to the differential inclusion $$ \\dot{x}(t\\in F(x(t+h(t,x(t, $$ where F is an upper semi-continuous set-valued function with compact values such that $F(x(t\\subset \\partial f(x(t$ on [0,T], where f is a primal lower nice function, and h a single valued Caratheodory perturbation.

  20. FOURIER COEFFICIENTS OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO LOCALIZED HAAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belkina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We construct a nontrivial example of a continuous function f* on [0, 1]² which is orthogonal to tensor products of Haar functions supported on intervals of the same length. This example clarifies the possible behaviour of Fourier coefficients of continuous functions with respect to a localized Haar system. The function f* has fractal structure. We give lower bounds on its smoothness.

  1. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... room temprerature on = 0.3 and 0.5 samples are reported. It is interesting to know that Ca substitutes for both La and Ba site with concomitant displacement of La onto Ba site. Superconductivity studies show that maximum c is obtained for = 0.5, = 1.0 sample (c ∼ 75 K), for La1.5Dy0.5Ca1Ba2Cu5O (La-2125).

  2. Hochstadt-Lieberman Type Theorem for a Non-Symmetric System of First-Order Ordinary Differential Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trooshin, Igor; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2003-04-01

    We consider an eigenvalue problem for a nonsymmetric first order differential operator Au( x ; ) = ( {matrix { 0 & 1 ŗ1 & 0 ŗ} } ; ){{du} / {dx}}( x ; ) + Q( x ; )u( x ; ), 0 < x < 1 , where Q is a 2 × 2 matrix whose components are of C1 class on [0, 1]. Assuming that Q(x) is known in the half interval of (0, 1), we prove the uniqueness in an inverse eigenvalue problem of determining Q(x) from the spectra.

  3. General methods for analyzing bounded proportion data

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Abu

    2017-01-01

    This thesis introduces two general classes of models for analyzing proportion response variable when the response variable Y can take values between zero and one, inclusive of zero and/or one. The models are inflated GAMLSS model and generalized Tobit GAMLSS model. The inflated GAMLSS model extends the flexibility of beta inflated models by allowing the distribution on (0,1) of the continuous component of the dependent variable to come from any explicit or transformed (i.e. logit or truncated...

  4. Existence and Estimates of Positive Solutions for Some Singular Fractional Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Mâagli

    2014-01-01

    fractional boundary value problem:Dαu(x=−a(xuσ(x, x∈(0,1 with the conditions limx→0+⁡x2−αu(x=0, u(1=0, where 1<α≤2, σ∈(−1,1, and a is a nonnegative continuous function on (0,1 that may be singular at x=0 or x=1. We also give the global behavior of such a solution.

  5. The neutrino masses in SO(10) grand unified theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontaris, G.K.; Vergados, J.D.; Ioannina Univ.

    1987-01-01

    The neutrino masses and mixing are investigated in an SO(10) model in which the ten-dimensional and 126-dimensional representations are allowed to obtain vacuum expectation values. The parameters specifying the heavy Majorana neutrino mass matrix are constrained from the cosmological bound of light neutrino masses and the limits from ν μ ↔ ν τ oscillations. The implications of our model on 0ν-ββ decay and muon-number violating processes are explored. (orig.)

  6. Prandtl boundary layer expansions of steady Navier-Stokes flows over a moving plate

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yan; Nguyen, Toan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer theory in the inviscid limit for steady incompressible Navier-Stokes flows. The stationary flows, with small viscosity, are considered on $[0,L]\\times \\mathbb{R}_{+}$, assuming a no-slip boundary condition over a moving plate at $y=0$. We establish the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer expansion and its error estimates.

  7. Use of Life Cycle Costing in the Development of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    exn zec . SEC CLASS.I:CA’,ON 0 T- S PAGE A , .r er ea;T Or-s a’e ObsOlet’ e U S o-l,,Q Oe t s1- i UNCLASSIFIED Approved for public release... Peter H. Billing, National Forest Products Association 3. Steve Byrne, Lawrence Berkley Laboratories 4. Kevin Cavanaugh, National Concrete Masonry

  8. The Role of Sequence Markers on Reading and Recall: A Comparison of Native and Nonnative English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-15

    ORGANIZATION PEPOPT NVBER S; 6a E O c PEPFC=V’NG CPC;% ZA " ON 6o OrFiCE SYMBOL 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANZA - ON 0 University of Califor-ia (If appi cable...readers. Experimental Aging Research, 7, 253-268. McLeod, B., & McLaughlin, B. (1986). Restructuring or automatization? Reading in a second language

  9. Universality of collapsing two-dimensional self-avoiding trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, D P

    2009-01-01

    Results of a numerically exact transfer matrix calculation for the model of interacting self-avoiding trails are presented. The results lead to the conclusion that at the collapse transition, self-avoiding trails are in the same universality class as the O(n = 0) model of Bloete and Nienhuis (or vertex-interacting self-avoiding walk), which has thermal exponent ν = 12/23, contrary to previous conjectures. (fast track communication)

  10. Studies of the corrosion and cracking behavior of steels in high temperature water by electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.F.; Bullerwell, J.; Steward, F.R.

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical methods were used to study the corrosion and cracking behavior of five Fe-Cr alloy steels and 304L stainless steel in high temperature water. A layer of magnetite film forms on the metal surface, which decreases the corrosion rate in high temperature water. Passivity can be achieved on A-106 B carbon steel with a small content of chromium, which cannot be passivated at room temperature. The formation rate and the stability of the passive film (magnetite film) increased with increasing Cr-content in the steels. A mechanistic model was developed to simulate the corrosion and cracking processes of steels in high temperature water. The crack growth rate on steels was calculated from the maximum current of the repassivation current curves according to the slip-oxidation model. The highest crack growth rate was found for 304L stainless steel in high temperature water. Of the four Fe-Cr alloys, the crack growth rate was lower on 0.236% Cr- and 0.33% Cr-steels than on 0.406% Cr-steel and 2.5% Cr-1% Mo steel. The crack growth rate on 0.33% Cr-steel was the smallest over the tested potential range. A higher temperature of the electrolyte led to a higher rate of electrochemical dissolution of steel and a higher susceptibility of steel to cracking, as shown by the positive increase of the electrochemical potential. An increase in Cr-content in the steel is predicted to reduce the corrosion rate of steel at high temperatures. However, this increase in Cr-content is predicted not to reduce the susceptibility of steel to cracking at high temperatures. (author)

  11. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  12. Numerical Schemes for Rough Parabolic Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deya, Aurelien, E-mail: deya@iecn.u-nancy.fr [Universite de Nancy 1, Institut Elie Cartan Nancy (France)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of numerical approximation schemes for a class of parabolic equations on (0,1) perturbed by a non-linear rough signal. It is the continuation of Deya (Electron. J. Probab. 16:1489-1518, 2011) and Deya et al. (Probab. Theory Relat. Fields, to appear), where the existence and uniqueness of a solution has been established. The approach combines rough paths methods with standard considerations on discretizing stochastic PDEs. The results apply to a geometric 2-rough path, which covers the case of the multidimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H>1/3.

  13. Structural and optical properties of GaN thin films grown on Al2O3 substrates by MOCVD at different reactor pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillén-Cervantes, A.; Rivera-Álvarez, Z.; López-López, M.; Ponce-Pedraza, A.; Guarneros, C.; Sánchez-Reséndiz, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    GaN thin films grown by MOCVD on (0 0 0 1) Al 2 O 3 substrates at different growth pressures were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman, and photoluminescence at room temperature. It was found that there is an optimum pressure of 76 Torr at which the structural and optical properties of the GaN samples are superior. On the other hand samples grown at higher pressure exhibited hexagonal surface pits and surface spirals. The results showed that the growth pressure strongly influences the morphology, and significantly affects the structural and optical properties of the GaN epilayers.

  14. Strong composition dependence of resistive switching in Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films on semiconducting substrates and its thermodynamic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Moradi, Omid; Şen, Canhan; Sen, Canhan; Boni, A. G.; Pintilie, L.; Mısırlıoğlu, Burç; Misirlioglu, Burc

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we report on the variability of the Schottky effect in solution processed Ba1-xSrxTiO3 films (BST, x = 0, 0.5) grown on 0.5% Nb doped SrTiO3 substrates with top Pt electrodes (NSTO/BST/Pt). The films display leakage currents accompanied by varying degrees of hystereses in the current-voltage measurements. The magnitude of the leakage and hystereses depend on the Sr content. We focus on the current-voltage (I-V) behavior of our samples in the light of thermodynamic theory of ferr...

  15. On the Generation of Stress and Deformation in Elastic Solids by High Powered Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    or R1R = a2 P( (Y-l) (39) 0 Finally, Pf P(R) a’ f (40) with R = (2a(y+l)c ft)1/ 2 (41) This result differs slightly from that of Nielsen who writes R...distributions, measured above and 97 below ielting , i.e., T ÷T + U and T - T + U, respectively U - d(t) + e(t)x + fVt)x0 on 0 < x < a (21a) U - a(t

  16. The influence of reduced tillage on water regime and nutrient leaching in a loamy soil

    OpenAIRE

    Baigys, Giedrius; Gaigalis, Kazimieras; Kutra, Ginutis

    2006-01-01

    The effect of tillage technologies and terms on soil moisture regime and nitrate leaching was studied in field trials carried out on 0.76-1.36-ha fields. The study site was arranged in Pikeliai village (Kėdainiai district). The soil prevailing in the study site is Endocalcari - Endohypogleic Cambisol, sandy light loam and sandy loam on deeper layers of sandy loam and sandy light loam. The arable horizon contains sandy light loam, which is characteristic of the soils prevailing in the Middle L...

  17. Global Geopotential Modelling from Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    individual component of b , corresponding in position to in c , can be written -m b’=(a ) D T - _ I p (ti)(w nm hrm obs ) - i anm ) 2(obs) (2.85) nm is... 4C 0* =ONO~ ~ ’on; 0 N N MiC0𔃺.~Ci2 -0 to % ~0 M44* 2NCOcz0 T O N -r10-t-m 0 - S- e a (A CL: t A 101= 00010 tag- N Mn -53 3.3 Results According to

  18. Associations between built environment and active transport in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars

    to and from school (very safe to very unsafe). - Area median household income (statistic records). GIS measures: -Individual network distance from home to school. -Index consisting of summed rank-score of the following three components (1-14 each; summed 3-42): Pedshed: ‘Area of 2 km school service area’ / ‘2...... km school buffer (euclidean)’1). Vehicular Traffic Exposure: ‘Length of larger roads (>6 meters wide)’ / ’minor roads (...-day active commuting was 0.58 (pdistance. To have an ‘unsafe’ or ‘very unsafe’ route to school was associated with an OR on 0.50 (p

  19. Familial Risks of Kidney Failure in Sweden: A Nationwide Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Akrawi, Delshad Saleh; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Zöller, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The value of family history as a risk factor for kidney failure has not been determined in a nationwide setting. AIM: This nationwide family study aimed to determine familial risks for kidney failure in Sweden. METHODS: The Swedish multi-generation register on 0-78-year-old subjects were linked to the Swedish patient register and the Cause of death register for 1987-2010. Individuals diagnosed with acute kidney failure (n = 10063), chronic kidney failure (n = 18668), or unspecifie...

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on glucose and sodium chloride solutions for injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakoza, G.N.; Grigor'eva, O.L.; Mart'yanova, B.M.; Vorob'eva, E.N.; Kuznetsova, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of 40% glucose solution with 0.5-4.0 Mrads di not affect the detoxicating properties of glucose or its ability to raise blood sugar levels. Such doses had no effect on the toxicological properties of 40% glucose solution and on 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The biological and physicochemical properties of 40% solution and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions irradiated with sterilizing doses showed no significant alterations during storage for one and three years, respectively. It is concluded that the solutions studied may be sterilized by radiation. (auth.)

  1. Investigation of ionizing radiation effect on albumin aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizikov, A.M.; Adeeva, L.N.; Ogryzkova, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    Gamma radiation effect on 0.1-0.5%-albumin aqueous solutions has been investigated; variations of viscosity and optical density of solutions at pH medium different values and completeness of protein separation owing to radiation coagulation have been determined. It is shown that due to radiation coagulation it is possible to quantitatively separate albumin from irradiated aqueous solutions. The albumin coagulation is caused by OH radicals the action of which on albumin macromolecules results in destruction of intramolecular bonds and albumin conformation transformations

  2. Minimal Regge model for meson--baryon scattering: duality, SU(3) and phase-modified absorptive cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egli, S.E.

    1975-10-01

    A model is presented which incorporates economically all of the modifications to simple SU(3)-symmetric dual Regge pole theory which are required by existing data on 0 -1 / 2 + → -1 / 2 + processes. The basic assumptions are no-exotics duality, minimally broken SU(3) symmetry, and absorptive Regge cuts phase-modified by the Ringland prescription. First it is described qualitatively how these assumptions suffice for the description of all measured reactions, and then the results of a detailed fit to 1987 data points are presented for 18 different reactions. (auth)

  3. Remedial Investigation Report, Presidio Main Installation, Presidio of San Francisco. Volume 5: Figures 7-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    YFO U A .. SOIL BORING1 3 . 4 SURFACE SOIL SAM SSURFACES COVERE S::::::::::::::::i-•. PAVEMENT OR BUll ...EXPLANW SOIL BORING .A SURFACE SOIL SAIN LII. PVMNOR BUll .5____iSTAIN ED AREAS LITHOOGY E/DUNOTES: 1. ALL...WCALXI ~q~qJO~i II~ %~1, z U 0 a LL 0 L c 0S-0 F- tr C14 Uj- Ui -Z w- z zow w0 m Z z z 0 0on coLi/ in z On.. 0 LL -J Ua. z C 0 w D TIPo 44f -lot a26

  4. Micro-syntheses for the use of carbon 13 or carbon 14. Micro-preparations of methyl alcohol, methyl iodide, and sodium acetate labeled in the methyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, C.; Pichat, L.

    1951-11-01

    Apparatus and technique are described in detail for (1) reduction of CO 2 to CH 3 OH with LiAlH 4 , (2) conversion of the methanol to CH 3 I by HI, (3) formation of the Mg Grignard reagent, and (4) addition of inactive CO 2 to form CH 3 COOH. All these operations have been carried out on 0.005 moles. Methyl-labeled Na acetate has been prepared in 67% yield based on the Ba 14 CO 3 used as starting material. (author) [fr

  5. System reliability analysis with natural language and expert's subjectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onisawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces natural language expressions and expert's subjectivity to system reliability analysis. To this end, this paper defines a subjective measure of reliability and presents the method of the system reliability analysis using the measure. The subjective measure of reliability corresponds to natural language expressions of reliability estimation, which is represented by a fuzzy set defined on [0,1]. The presented method deals with the dependence among subsystems and employs parametrized operations of subjective measures of reliability which can reflect expert 's subjectivity towards the analyzed system. The analysis results are also expressed by linguistic terms. Finally this paper gives an example of the system reliability analysis by the presented method

  6. Remarks on Risk-Sensitive Control Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaldi, Jose-Luis; Robin, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the asymptotic behavior of the discounted risk-sensitive control problem for periodic diffusion processes when the discount factor α goes to zero. If u α (θ,x) denotes the optimal cost function, θ being the risk factor, then it is shown that lim { α to 0}α u α (θ,x)=ξ(θ) where ξ(θ) is the average on ]0,θ[ of the optimal cost of the (usual) infinite horizon risk-sensitive control problem

  7. Accuracy of small diameter sheathed thermocouples for the core flow test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.L.; Kollie, T.G.

    1979-04-01

    This report summarizes the research and development on 0.5-mm-diameter, compacted, metal sheathed thermocouples. The objectives of this research effort have been: to identify and analyze the sources of temperature measurement errors in the use of 0.5-mm-diameter sheathed thermocouples to measure the surface temperature of the cladding of fuel-rod simulators in the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) at ORNL; to devise methods for reducing or correcting for these temperature measurement errors; to estimate the overall temperature measurement uncertainties; and to recommend modifications in the manufacture, installation, or materials used to minimize temperature measurement uncertainties in the CFTL experiments

  8. Muentz-Szasz type approximation in direct products of spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedletskii, A M

    2006-01-01

    We consider the problem of completeness of the system of exponentials exp{-λ n t}, Re λ n >0, in direct products E=E 1 x E 2 of the spaces E 1 =E 1 (0,1) and E 2 =E 2 (1,∞) of functions defined on (0,1) and (1,∞), respectively. We describe rather broad classes of spaces E 1 and E 2 such that the well-known condition of Szasz is necessary for the completeness of the above system in E and sufficient for this completeness

  9. High density harp for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.; Crist, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities

  10. High density harp for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.

    1993-05-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities

  11. On the rate of convergence in de Finetti's representation theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Mijoule, Guillaume; Peccati, Giovanni; Swan, Yvik

    2016-01-01

    A consequence of de Finetti's representation theorem is that for every infinite sequence of exchangeable 0-1 random variables $(X_k)_{k\\geq1}$, there exists a probability measure $\\mu$ on the Borel sets of $[0,1]$ such that $\\bar X_n = n^{-1} \\sum_{i=1}^n X_i$ converges weakly to $\\mu$. For a wide class of probability measures $\\mu$ having smooth density on $(0,1)$, we give bounds of order $1/n$ with explicit constants for the Wasserstein distance between the law of $\\bar X_n$ and $\\mu$. This...

  12. The 1986 ARI Survey of U.S. Army Recruits: Tabular Descriptions of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    channels. 0... C 0 ON 0C NCAA Basketball playoffs . 0..0-0. 0.0 C Movies with commercials ON R NBA - regular season on cable only channels C .0 0 3 0...high school? ONLY ONCE.) as’ (MARK ALL THAT APPLY) m 0 Football mn 0 Basketball m 0 Swimming EN "- Baseball - 0 Track m 0 Soccer "- This Is not a test...SFL Football . .0 0C 0 0 cable only channels. 0 ,. P NCAA Basketball - B Movies without commeicials regular season games . ... 0 0, . G on cable only

  13. The CUORE/CUORICINO project: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brofferio, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 1-t bolometer detector, aiming at the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, cold dark matter, and solar axions with extremely high sensitivity, has been proposed (CUORE project). At the moment, the construction of a 420 kg array of 56 TeO 2 bolometers (CUORICINO project) has been approved and is financed. CUORICINO will be a feasibility test for CUORE, while increasing the present sensitivity on 0νββ half-life of 130 Te (1 x 10 23 yr, 90% C.L.) The scale of the art of CUORICINO, together with the physical motivations and the technical feasibility of the CUORE project are briefly discussed [ru

  14. Universal bounds on spectral measures of one-dimensional Schrödinger operators

    CERN Document Server

    Remling, C

    2002-01-01

    Consider a Schrödinger operator $H=-d^2/dx^2+V(x)$ on $L_2(0,\\infty)$ and suppose that an initial piece of the potential $V(x)$, $0on $[0,N]$. So in a sense (and perhaps somewhat surprisingly) the behavior of $V(x)$ becomes less important if $x$ grows. The results of this paper are developments of classical work of Chebyshev and Markov on orthogonal polynomials.

  15. Microbial community structure of surface sediments from a tropical estuarine environment using next generation sequencing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Kuchi, N.; Kale, D.; Anil, A.C.

    are of nearly identical length (~50 km each), are highly productive and dynamic systems and have wide mouth regions and longer flushing periods. In this study, Chicalim (15°24'10.92"N, 73°51'8.55"E) and Siridao (15°25'41.89"N, 73°52'38.84"E) were sampled..., Australia). The DNA was extracted using bead beating and column purification which was performed according to the manufacturer's guidelines. The metagenomic DNA was quantified by Eppendorf-Biospectrometer, and run on 0.8% agarose gel. The gel was viewed...

  16. Existence and Global Asymptotic Behavior of Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Fractional Dirichlet Problems on the Half-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Bachar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are interested in the following fractional boundary value problem: Dαu(t+atuσ=0, t∈(0,∞, limt→0⁡t2-αu(t=0, limt→∞⁡t1-αu(t=0, where 1<α<2, σ∈(-1,1, Dα is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, and a is a nonnegative continuous function on (0,∞ satisfying some appropriate assumptions related to Karamata regular variation theory. Using the Schauder fixed point theorem, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of a positive solution. We also give a global behavior of such solution.

  17. Training induced cortical plasticity compared between three tongue training paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different training types and secondary to test gender differences on the training-related cortical plasticity induced by three different tongue training paradigms: 1. Therapeutic tongue exercises (TTE), 2. Playing computer games......) (control) were established using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at three time-points: (1) before tongue training, (2) immediately after training, (3) 1 h after training. Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue were evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales (NRS) after training....... The resting motor thresholds of tongue MEPs were lowered by training with TDS and TPT (Ptraining with TDS and TPT (P

  18. Enhanced growth of highly lattice-mismatched CdSe on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jyh-Shyang; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Hsiao-Hua; Ke, Han-Xiang; Tong, Shih-Chang; Yang, Chu-Shou; Wu, Chih-Hung; Shen, Ji-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates the improvement of the molecular beam epitaxial growth of zinc-blende CdSe on (0 0 1) GaAs substrate with a large lattice mismatch by introducing a small amount of Te atoms. Exposing the growing surface to Te atoms changes the reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern from spotty to streaky together with (2 × 1) surface reconstruction, and greatly reduces the full width at half maximum of the X-ray rocking curve and increases the integral intensity of room-temperature photoluminescence by a factor of about nine.

  19. The CUORE/CUORICINO project: Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brofferio, C.

    2000-01-01

    A 1-t bolometer detector, aiming at the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, cold dark matter, and solar axions with extremely high sensitivity, has been proposed (CUORE project). At the moment, the construction of a 42-kg array of 56 TeO 2 bolometers (CUORICINO project) has been approved and is financed. CUORICINO will be a feasibility test for CUORE, while increasing the present sensitivity on 0νββ half-life of 130 Te (1 x 10 23 yr, 90% C.L.). The state of the art of CUORICINO, together with the physical motivations and the technical feasibility of the CUORE project, is briefly discussed

  20. The Data Transfer Kit: A geometric rendezvous-based tool for multiphysics data transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slattery, S. R.; Wilson, P. P. H.; Pawlowski, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Data Transfer Kit (DTK) is a software library designed to provide parallel data transfer services for arbitrary physics components based on the concept of geometric rendezvous. The rendezvous algorithm provides a means to geometrically correlate two geometric domains that may be arbitrarily decomposed in a parallel simulation. By repartitioning both domains such that they have the same geometric domain on each parallel process, efficient and load balanced search operations and data transfer can be performed at a desirable algorithmic time complexity with low communication overhead relative to other types of mapping algorithms. With the increased development efforts in multiphysics simulation and other multiple mesh and geometry problems, generating parallel topology maps for transferring fields and other data between geometric domains is a common operation. The algorithms used to generate parallel topology maps based on the concept of geometric rendezvous as implemented in DTK are described with an example using a conjugate heat transfer calculation and thermal coupling with a neutronics code. In addition, we provide the results of initial scaling studies performed on the Jaguar Cray XK6 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for a worse-case-scenario problem in terms of algorithmic complexity that shows good scaling on 0(1 x 104) cores for topology map generation and excellent scaling on 0(1 x 105) cores for the data transfer operation with meshes of O(1 x 109) elements. (authors)

  1. The Healing Effect of Sesame Oil, Camphor and Honey on Second Degree Burn Wounds in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghardoost, Reza; Mousavi Majd, Seyed GholamReza; Tebyanian, Hamid; Babavalian, Hamid; Malaei, Leila; Niazi, Mitra; Javdani, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Many studies were carried out to improve sophisticated dressings to accelerate healing processes and reduce the microbial burden in burn wounds. This study evaluated the healing effect of herbal ointment containing extract of sesame oil, camphor and honey on second degree burn wounds in rats in comparison with daily dressing oil vaseline. Forty rats were randomly assigned to two equal groups. A deep second degree burn was formed on the back of each rat with using a standard burning technique. The burns were dressed daily with herbal ointment containing extract of sesame oil, camphor and honey in group 1, dressing oil vaseline in group 2. The response to treatment was evaluated by digital photography during the treatment on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Histological scoring was undertaken for scar tissue samples on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Considerable epithelization in the herbal ointment group vs. the control group over the study period was noted. Neovascularization was significantly higher in herbal ointment treated rats as well. In terms of difference of wound surface area, maximal healing was noticed in herbal ointment extract of sesame oil, camphor and honey group and the minimal repair in the control group. The greatest rate of healing was in the herbal ointment group containing sesame oil, camphor and honey, so the herbal ointment as a suitable substitute for dressing and healing of burn wound injuries is recommended.

  2. The Data Transfer Kit: A geometric rendezvous-based tool for multiphysics data transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, S. R.; Wilson, P. P. H. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Pawlowski, R. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Data Transfer Kit (DTK) is a software library designed to provide parallel data transfer services for arbitrary physics components based on the concept of geometric rendezvous. The rendezvous algorithm provides a means to geometrically correlate two geometric domains that may be arbitrarily decomposed in a parallel simulation. By repartitioning both domains such that they have the same geometric domain on each parallel process, efficient and load balanced search operations and data transfer can be performed at a desirable algorithmic time complexity with low communication overhead relative to other types of mapping algorithms. With the increased development efforts in multiphysics simulation and other multiple mesh and geometry problems, generating parallel topology maps for transferring fields and other data between geometric domains is a common operation. The algorithms used to generate parallel topology maps based on the concept of geometric rendezvous as implemented in DTK are described with an example using a conjugate heat transfer calculation and thermal coupling with a neutronics code. In addition, we provide the results of initial scaling studies performed on the Jaguar Cray XK6 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for a worse-case-scenario problem in terms of algorithmic complexity that shows good scaling on 0(1 x 104) cores for topology map generation and excellent scaling on 0(1 x 105) cores for the data transfer operation with meshes of O(1 x 109) elements. (authors)

  3. High performance GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-z} film preparation by non-fluorine chemical solution deposition approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.T.; Pu, M.H.; Wang, W.W. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)] [Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)] [Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Biaxially textured GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}-z films with Tc above 93 K have been prepared on (0 0 l) by non-fluorine CSD approach. Nanoparticles with homogeneous distribution are introduced into the GdBCO films as effective pinning centers. A high Jc (77 K, 0 T) of 2.28 MA/cm{sup 2} with slow decreasing Jc-B behavior is observed in the films. Biaxially textured GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-z} (GdBCO) films with T{sub c} above 93 K have been prepared on (0 0 l) LaAlO{sub 3} substrate by self-developed non-fluorine polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition (PA-CSD) approach. The GdBCO films show smooth and crack-free morphology. Many nanoscale particles with homogeneous distribution are observed in the GdBCO films, which have not been observed yet in the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-z} (YBCO) films prepared by the same processing technique. Besides a high J{sub c} (77 K, 0 T) of 2.28 MA/cm{sup 2}, the optimized GdBCO films show a better J{sub c}-B behavior and an improved high-field J{sub c}, compared to the YBCO films.

  4. On sets of convergence and divergence of multiple orthogonal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yachenko, M I; Kazaryan, K S

    2002-01-01

    Multiple Fourier series with respect to uniformly bounded orthonormal systems (ONSs) are studied. The following results are obtained. Theorem 1. Let Φ={φ n (x)} n=1 ∞ be a complete orthonormal system on [0,1] that is uniformly bounded by M on this interval, assume that m≥2, and let Φ(m)={φ n (x)} nelement ofN m , where φ n (n)=φ n 1 (x 1 )...φ n m (x m ). Then there exists a function f(x) element of L([0,1] m ) cubically diverges on some measurable subset H of [0,1] m with μ m (H)≥1-(1-1/M 2 ) m . Theorem 3. For M>1 and an integer m≥2 let E be an arbitrary measurable subset of [0,1] such that μ(E)=1-1/M 2 . Then there exists a complete orthonormal system Φ on [0,1] uniformly bounded by M there such that the multiple Fourier series of each function f(x) element of L([0,1] m ) with respect to the product system Φ(m) cubically converges to f(x) a.e. on E m . Definitive results in this direction are established also for incomplete uniformly bounded ONSs

  5. Hydrogen diffusion along grain boundaries in erbium oxide coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Wei; Chikada, Takumi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion of interstitial atomic hydrogen in erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. Hydrogen diffusivity in bulk, on (0 0 1) surface, and along Σ13 (4–3–1)/[1 1 1] symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) were evaluated in a temperature range of 673–1073 K, as well as hydrogen diffusion barriers. It was found that H diffusion shows the faster on (0 0 1) surface than along GBs and in bulk. Also, energy barrier of H diffusion in bulk estimated by DFT and MD methods is somewhat higher than that along GBs evaluated in the experiments. This suggests that H diffusion in Er 2 O 3 coatings depends on GBs rather than bulk. In addition, with a correction of GB density, the simulated diffusivity along GBs in MD simulations is in good agreement with the experimental data within one order of magnitude. The discrepancy of H diffusivity between the experiments and the simulations should be reduced by considering H concentration, H diffusion direction, deviations of the initial configuration, vacancy defects, etc

  6. Neurospora ribosomal DNA sequences are indistinguishable within cell types but distinguishable among heterothallic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, C.; Dutta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    High molecular nuclear DNAs were isolated from three developmental cell types of N. crassa: conidia, mycelia and germinated conidia, and from mycelial cells of two other heterothallic species, N. intermedia and N. sitophila. These nuclear DNAs were treated with several restriction enzymes: EcoR1, Bam H1, Hind III, Hinc II, Bgl II, Sma I and Pst 1. All seven restriction enzymes were tested on 0.7% agarose gels. EcoR1, Hind III, Pst 1, and Hinc II showed band differences among the species, but not among the cell types. Southern blot transfers of restricted DNA gels were then hybridized with 32 P-labelled pMF2 rDNAs (probe). This later DNA was prepared from N. crassa rDNA cloned into pBR322 plasmid, obtained from Dr. Robert Metzenberg of the University of Wisconsin. Autoradiograms of these hybrids between southern blots and probe DNA revealed similar rDNA band patterns confirming the observations on restriction gels. In the case of EcoR1 restriction analysis there were differences in fragments on 0.7% agarose gel, but after hybridization of southern blots no differences in band patterns were seen in autoradiograms. This raises the question whether the background bands were all of rDNA sequences. These studies are being continued using ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of N. crassa rDNAs cloned in pBR322 plasmid

  7. A comparison of systemic photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP and with trimethylpsoralen (TMP in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaske Vandana

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral 8-MOP and TMP were compared in the PUVA therapy for vitiligo. Group A (25 cases was initiated on 0.3 mg/kg of 8-MOP with 1/2 Joule/cm2 of UVA and weekly increments of 1/2 Joule/ cm2 and Group B was started on 0.6 mg/kg of TMP with 1 Joule/cm2 of UVA and weekly increments of 1 Joule/cm2. Therapy was given thrice a week. Repigmentation was evaluated by using a 0-6 scale. At the end of 60 sittings, on acceptable cosmetic response was seen over the face, neck and upper extremities in both groups, while trunk and lower extremities showed lesser response. 8-MOP gave earlier response, needing a lower cumulative UVA dose i.e. 75 J/cm2 as compared to TMP i.e. 106 J/cm2. Phototoxicity was seen more often with 8-MOP. In conclusion, in Indians, 8-MOP is the drug of choice in PUVA therapy of vitiligo provided precautions against phototoxicity are adequate.

  8. Clinical and parasitological evaluation of pour-on fluazuron and ivermectin for treating canine demodicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa P. Souza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of pour-on formulations of fluazuron and ivermectin in different therapeutic protocols for treatment of demodicosis by means of quantifying mites with skin scraping, histological and clinical evaluation in dogs. Eighteen dogs with skin scrapings positive for Demodex canis were evaluated, divided into three groups. All the animals were treated every 14 days, completing 6 treatments for each animal (days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70. In group 1, pour-on 2.5% fluazuron was used at the dose of 20mg/kg; in the group 2 pour-on 2.5% fluazuron at a dose of 20 mg/kg in association with pour-on 0.5% ivermectin at the dose of 0.6mg/kg; and in group 3, pour-on 0.5% ivermectin alone was used, at the dose of 0.6mg/kg. The treatment was evaluated and monitored through skin scrapings and clinical follow-up of the lesions every 14 days for 84 days, and through histopathological examination at the end of each treatment protocol. The success rate was defined as the percentage of dogs in each group that had negative skin scrapings after the treatment: this was 16.67% for group 1, and 50% for groups 2 and 3. The reduction in mite counts reached effectiveness of 67.66%, 88.99% and 84.29% for groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant difference between the number of mites before and after treatment in groups 2 and 3. The histopathological examination revealed that only group 1 showed no significant difference in the intensity of infestation between days 0 and 84. Clinically, there was no significant difference between the evaluation before and after treatment in the three groups. pour-on 2.5% fluazuron and pour-on 0.5% ivermectin were not effective for treating canine demodicosis, either in association or as single therapy, when applied every 14 days for a period of 70 days. Quantification of mites using skin scrapings and histological evaluation proved to be ineffective

  9. Dietary flaxseed administered post thoracic radiation treatment improves survival and mitigates radiation-induced pneumonopathy in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Cengel, Keith A; Tyagi, Sonia; Tan, Kay-See; Hagan, Sarah; Pietrofesa, Ralph; Dukes, Floyd; Arguiri, Evguenia; Heitjan, Daniel F; Solomides, Charalambos C

    2011-01-01

    Flaxseed (FS) is a dietary supplement known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Radiation exposure of lung tissues occurs either when given therapeutically to treat intrathoracic malignancies or incidentally, such as in the case of exposure from inhaled radioisotopes released after the detonation of a radiological dispersion devise (RDD). Such exposure is associated with pulmonary inflammation, oxidative tissue damage and irreversible lung fibrosis. We previously reported that dietary FS prevents pneumonopathy in a rodent model of thoracic X-ray radiation therapy (XRT). However, flaxseed's therapeutic usefulness in mitigating radiation effects post-exposure has never been evaluated. We evaluated the effects of a 10%FS or isocaloric control diet given to mice (C57/BL6) in 2 separate experiments (n = 15-25 mice/group) on 0, 2, 4, 6 weeks post a single dose 13.5 Gy thoracic XRT and compared it to an established radiation-protective diet given preventively, starting at 3 weeks prior to XRT. Lungs were evaluated four months post-XRT for blood oxygenation levels, inflammation and fibrosis. Irradiated mice fed a 0%FS diet had a 4-month survival rate of 40% as compared to 70-88% survival in irradiated FS-fed mouse groups. Additionally, all irradiated FS-fed mice had decreased fibrosis compared to those fed 0%FS. Lung OH-Proline content ranged from 96.5 ± 7.1 to 110.2 ± 7.7 μg/ml (Mean ± SEM) in all irradiated FS-fed mouse groups, as compared to 138 ± 10.8 μg/ml for mice on 0%FS. Concomitantly, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and weight loss associated with radiation cachexia was significantly decreased in all FS-fed groups. Inflammatory cell influx to lungs also decreased significantly except when FS diet was delayed by 4 and 6 weeks post XRT. All FS-fed mice (irradiated or not), maintained a higher blood oxygenation level as compared to mice on 0%FS. Similarly, multiplex cytokine analysis in the BAL fluid revealed a significant decrease

  10. Dietary flaxseed administered post thoracic radiation treatment improves survival and mitigates radiation-induced pneumonopathy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arguiri Evguenia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flaxseed (FS is a dietary supplement known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Radiation exposure of lung tissues occurs either when given therapeutically to treat intrathoracic malignancies or incidentally, such as in the case of exposure from inhaled radioisotopes released after the detonation of a radiological dispersion devise (RDD. Such exposure is associated with pulmonary inflammation, oxidative tissue damage and irreversible lung fibrosis. We previously reported that dietary FS prevents pneumonopathy in a rodent model of thoracic X-ray radiation therapy (XRT. However, flaxseed's therapeutic usefulness in mitigating radiation effects post-exposure has never been evaluated. Methods We evaluated the effects of a 10%FS or isocaloric control diet given to mice (C57/BL6 in 2 separate experiments (n = 15-25 mice/group on 0, 2, 4, 6 weeks post a single dose 13.5 Gy thoracic XRT and compared it to an established radiation-protective diet given preventively, starting at 3 weeks prior to XRT. Lungs were evaluated four months post-XRT for blood oxygenation levels, inflammation and fibrosis. Results Irradiated mice fed a 0%FS diet had a 4-month survival rate of 40% as compared to 70-88% survival in irradiated FS-fed mouse groups. Additionally, all irradiated FS-fed mice had decreased fibrosis compared to those fed 0%FS. Lung OH-Proline content ranged from 96.5 ± 7.1 to 110.2 ± 7.7 μg/ml (Mean ± SEM in all irradiated FS-fed mouse groups, as compared to 138 ± 10.8 μg/ml for mice on 0%FS. Concomitantly, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL protein and weight loss associated with radiation cachexia was significantly decreased in all FS-fed groups. Inflammatory cell influx to lungs also decreased significantly except when FS diet was delayed by 4 and 6 weeks post XRT. All FS-fed mice (irradiated or not, maintained a higher blood oxygenation level as compared to mice on 0%FS. Similarly, multiplex cytokine analysis in the

  11. Dietary flaxseed administered post thoracic radiation treatment improves survival and mitigates radiation-induced pneumonopathy in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo [Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Allergy and Critical Care Division, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cengel, Keith A [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Tyagi, Sonia [Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Allergy and Critical Care Division, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Tan, Kay-See [Biostatistics & Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hagan, Sarah [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Pietrofesa, Ralph; Dukes, Floyd; Arguiri, Evguenia [Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Allergy and Critical Care Division, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Heitjan, Daniel F [Biostatistics & Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Solomides, Charalambos C [Department of Pathology, Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States)

    2011-06-24

    Flaxseed (FS) is a dietary supplement known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Radiation exposure of lung tissues occurs either when given therapeutically to treat intrathoracic malignancies or incidentally, such as in the case of exposure from inhaled radioisotopes released after the detonation of a radiological dispersion devise (RDD). Such exposure is associated with pulmonary inflammation, oxidative tissue damage and irreversible lung fibrosis. We previously reported that dietary FS prevents pneumonopathy in a rodent model of thoracic X-ray radiation therapy (XRT). However, flaxseed's therapeutic usefulness in mitigating radiation effects post-exposure has never been evaluated. We evaluated the effects of a 10%FS or isocaloric control diet given to mice (C57/BL6) in 2 separate experiments (n = 15-25 mice/group) on 0, 2, 4, 6 weeks post a single dose 13.5 Gy thoracic XRT and compared it to an established radiation-protective diet given preventively, starting at 3 weeks prior to XRT. Lungs were evaluated four months post-XRT for blood oxygenation levels, inflammation and fibrosis. Irradiated mice fed a 0%FS diet had a 4-month survival rate of 40% as compared to 70-88% survival in irradiated FS-fed mouse groups. Additionally, all irradiated FS-fed mice had decreased fibrosis compared to those fed 0%FS. Lung OH-Proline content ranged from 96.5 ± 7.1 to 110.2 ± 7.7 μg/ml (Mean ± SEM) in all irradiated FS-fed mouse groups, as compared to 138 ± 10.8 μg/ml for mice on 0%FS. Concomitantly, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and weight loss associated with radiation cachexia was significantly decreased in all FS-fed groups. Inflammatory cell influx to lungs also decreased significantly except when FS diet was delayed by 4 and 6 weeks post XRT. All FS-fed mice (irradiated or not), maintained a higher blood oxygenation level as compared to mice on 0%FS. Similarly, multiplex cytokine analysis in the BAL fluid revealed a significant decrease of

  12. Conference Proceedings Manoeuvring Aerodynamics Held in Toulouse, France on 1-2 May 1991 (La Manoeuvrabilite par l’Aerodynamique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    speed 20 rn/sec 150.0 PP ~ 0.0 ftbw .0 0 t0 20 30 40 50 40 P.0. Td OPW Ow) 20.0 f~ Flgure 6: VarItOn of -14te burnt frequency with tunnel 0M.0 sped -osan...than du to fieW res, td It had been slow. that the lWi of the 60 aellos wtlh the hIt e. This detad is held lore aid yating momen genraledm we omble on...0AD)-OS ).Or.... U.S 0.6 .11 D0.2.0 :. D -15 1.2 D1.9 .1.2D.,t9 .0. ED - 0 .01 D 00 -0.1 M 0.0 -071y 0o C1.0.8 L5-.5 .0.6 L53 - .5 .0.7 135. 0

  13. A ±6 ms-Accuracy, 0.68 mm2, and 2.21 μW QRS Detection ASIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chieh Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare issues arose from population aging. Meanwhile, electrocardiogram (ECG is a powerful measurement tool. The first step of ECG is to detect QRS complexes. A state-of-the-art QRS detection algorithm was modified and implemented to an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC. By the dedicated architecture design, the novel ASIC is proposed with 0.68 mm2 core area and 2.21 μW power consumption. It is the smallest QRS detection ASIC based on 0.18 μm technology. In addition, the sensitivity is 95.65% and the positive prediction of the ASIC is 99.36% based on the MIT/BIH arrhythmia database certification.

  14. Performance of Polycrystalline Photovoltaic and Thermal Collector (PVT on Serpentine-Parallel Absorbers Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa Mustofa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of an unglazed polycrystalline photovoltaic-thermal PVT on 0.045 kg/s mass flow rate. PVT combine photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors, forming a single device that receive solar radiation and produces heat and electricity simultaneously. The collector figures out serpentine-parallel tubes that can prolong fluid heat conductivity from morning till afternoon. During testing, cell PV, inlet and outlet fluid temperaturs were recorded by thermocouple digital LM35 Arduino Mega 2560. Panel voltage and electric current were also noted in which they were connected to computer and presented each second data recorded. But, in this performance only shows in the certain significant time data. This because the electric current was only noted by multimeter device not the digital one. Based on these testing data, average cell efficieny was about 19%, while thermal efficiency of above 50% and correspondeng cell efficiency of 11%, respectively

  15. Performance of Polycrystalline Photovoltaic and Thermal Collector (PVT on Serpentine-Parallel Absor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of an unglazed polycrystalline photovoltaic-thermal PVT on 0.045 kg/s mass flow rate. PVT combine photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors, forming a single device that receive solar radiation and produces heat and electricity simultaneously. The collector figures out serpentine-parallel tubes that can prolong fluid heat conductivity from morning till afternoon. During testing, cell PV, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures were recorded by thermocouple digital LM35 Arduino Mega 2560. Panel voltage and electric current were also noted in which they were connected to computer and presented each second data recorded. But, in this performance only shows in the certain significant time data. This because the electric current was only noted by multimeter device not the digital one. Based on these testing data, average cell efficiency was about 19%, while thermal efficiency of above 50% and correspondent cell efficiency of 11%, respectively.

  16. Photosensitivity of nanocrystalline ZnO films grown by PLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayouchi, R.; Bentes, L.; Casteleiro, C.; Conde, O.; Marques, C.P.; Alves, E.; Moutinho, A.M.C.; Marques, H.P.; Teodoro, O.; Schwarz, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the properties of ZnO thin films grown by laser ablation of ZnO targets on (0 0 0 1) sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ), under substrate temperatures around 400 deg. C. The films were characterized by different methods including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS analysis revealed that the films are oxygen deficient, and XRD analysis with θ-2θ scans and rocking curves indicate that the ZnO thin films are highly c-axis oriented. All the films are ultraviolet (UV) sensitive. Sensitivity is maximum for the films deposited at lower temperature. The films deposited at higher temperatures show crystallite sizes of typically 500 nm, a high dark current and minimum photoresponse. In all films we observe persistent photoconductivity decay. More densely packed crystallites and a faster decay in photocurrent is observed for films deposited at lower temperature

  17. Influence of channel length and layout on TID for 0.18 μm NMOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xue; Wang Xin; Xi Shanbin; Lu Wu; Guo Qi; He Chengfa; Li Yudong; Sun Jing; Wen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Different channel lengths and layouts on 0.18 μm NMOS transistors are designed for investigating the dependence of short channel effects (SCEs) on the width of shallow trench isolation (STI) devices and designing in radiation hardness. Results show that, prior to irradiation, the devices exhibited near-ideal I-V characteristics, with no significant SCEs. Following irradiation, no noticeable shift of threshold voltage is observed, radiation-induced edge-leakage current, however, exhibits significant sensitivity on TID. Moreover, radiation-enhanced drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and channel length modulation (CLM) effects are observed on short-channel NMOS transistors. Comparing to stripe-gate layout, enclosed-gate layout has excellent radiation tolerance. (authors)

  18. Solar cell contact pull strength as a function of pull-test temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Four types of solar cell contacts were given pull-strength tests at temperatures between -173 and +165 C. Contacts tested were: (1) solder-coated titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (2) palladium-containing titanium-silver contacts on n-p cells, (3) titanium-silver contacts on 0.2-mm-thick n-p cells, and (4) solder-coated electroless-nickel-plated contacts on p-n cells. Maximum pull strength was demonstrated at temperatures significantly below the air mass zero cell equilibrium temperature of +60 C. At the lowest temperatures, the chief failure mechanism was silicon fracture along crystallographic planes; at the highest temperatures, it was loss of solder strength. In the intermediate temperatures, many failure mechanisms operated. Pull-strength tests give a good indication of the suitability of solar cell contact systems for space use. Procedures used to maximize the validity of the results are described.

  19. INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF AN IMIDAZOLE COMPOUND ON ECDYSIOSYNTHETIC ORGANS IN MEALWORMS UNDER IN VIVO AND IN VITRO CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N SOLTANI-MAZOUNI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available KK-42, an imidazole derivative was tested on adult females of Tenebrio molitor L. (Insecta: Coleoptera. The compound was applied topically (1, 5, 10 mg/insect on 0- or 2-day old adult females or added to the culture medium (1 and 10 mM of abdominal sternites explanted from newly ecdysed pupae or ovaries removed from 2- and 4-day old adult females. Ecdysteroid measurements using an enzymo-immunoassay demonstrated that this compound applied on newly emerged adult females reduced the hormonal amounts in ovaries. However, when applied later, i.e. on 2-day old females corresponding to the beginning of the vitellogenesis, it had no significant effect on the amount of ovarian ecdysteroids with the lowest dose. Finally, the compound was also tested on the in vitro production of ecdysteroids. The amount of ecdysteroid released into the culture medium by ovaries or integumental explants were significantly reduced by KK-42.

  20. Statistical mechanics of the $N$-point vortex system with random intensities on $R^2$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Neri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of N -point vortices on $mathbb{R}^2$ is considered under the hypothesis that vortex intensities are independent and identically distributed random variables with respect to a law $P$ supported on $(0,1]$. It is shown that, in the limit as $N$ approaches $infty$, the 1-vortex distribution is a minimizer of the free energy functional and is associated to (some solutions of the following non-linear Poisson Equation:$$ -Delta u(x = C^{-1}int_{(0,1]} rhbox{e}^{-eta ru(x- gamma r|x|^2}P(hbox{d}r, quadforall xin mathbb{R}^2, $$where $displaystyle C = int_{(0,1]}int_{mathbb{R}^2}hbox{e}^{-eta ru(y - gamma r|y|^2}hbox{d} yP(hbox{d}r$

  1. Study of submelt laser induced junction nonuniformities using Therma-Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosseel, E.; Bogdanowicz, J; Clarysse, T.

    2010-01-01

    to standard and micro-four-point probe sheet resistance data, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Hall measurements obtained during earlier studies. Besides the impact of the nonuniformities on the “conventional” thermal wave signal, they found a strong correlation to the dc reflectance of the probe laser...... both at macroscopic and microscopic levels. In this work, the authors present high resolution Therma-Probe® measurements to assess the junction nonuniformity on 0.5 keV boron junctions and zoom in on the effect of temperature variations and multiple subsequent laser scans. The results are compared...... (lambda = 675 nm). The dc probe reflectance is dominated by free carriers and is highly correlated to the sheet resistance both on blanket wafers and on real device wafers. ©2010 American Vacuum Society...

  2. Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial revascularization: a randomized trial of prophylactic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyras, D H; Stothert, J C; Kaiser, G C; Barner, H B; Codd, J E; Willman, V L

    1979-02-01

    The success of prophylactic digitalization in reducing the incidence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT) was studied in 140 randomly grouped, consecutive patients undergoing myocardial revascularization operations. The test group received either 1 or 1.5 mg. of digoxin the day before operation and were maintained postoperatively on 0.25 mg. of digoxin daily. There was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the incidence of SVT in the treated patients (17 of 61 or 27.8 percent) vs. the untreated patients (nine of 79 or 11.4 percent). There was no significant difference in SVT with the two digitalization dosage levels (31.6 percent with 1 mg. vs. 21.7 percent with 1.5 mg.). Prophylactic digitalization demonstrates no benefit in the prevention of SVT following myocardial revascularization and may, in fact, predispose the patient to these arrhythmias.

  3. Fabrication of InN/InGaN multiple quantum well structures by RF-MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurouchi, M.; Muto, D.; Takado, S.; Araki, T.; Nanishi, Y. [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Na, H.; Naoi, H. [Center for Promotion of The 21st Century COE Program, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Miyajima, T. [Optoelectronics Laboratory, Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    InN/InGaN multiple quantum well structures have been fabricated on InN templates grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrates by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The structures were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and satellite peaks up to the 3rd order were observed. From InN/InGaN multiple quantum well structures with different well widths, photoluminescence (PL) emission from the well layers was observed at 77 K, and the PL peak energy slightly blueshifted with decreasing the well width. This dependence can be explained by combined effects of quantum size effect, quantum confined Stark effect, and band filling effect. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Test beam results of LHCb scintillating fibre tracker prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Sebastian; Comerma, Albert; Gerick, David; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Kecke, Matthieu; Leverington, Blake; Mazorra de Cos, Jose; Mitzel, Dominik; Neuner, Max; Uwer, Ulrich; Han, Xiaoxue [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: LHCb-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    During the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC, the LHCb detector will undergo a major upgrade to meet the challenges of running at a higher luminosity. The current Inner and Outer Tracking system will not be sufficient to deal with the envisaged increased detector occupancy and higher radiation levels and will be replaced by a single tracking detector based on 0.250 mm diameter plastic scintillating fibres. The fibres are wound to multilayer ribbons 2.4 m long and read out by 128 channel silicon photomultiplier arrays. The Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) tracker will cover a total active area of 360 m{sup 2}, arranged in 12 layers. The performances of prototype modules having 6 and 8 layers of fibre have been tested at the SPS at CERN. This talk focuses on basic properties of the prototype modules such as spatial resolution, single hit efficiency and light yield measured during the test beam campaigns in 2015.

  5. A Speedy Yet Simple Tip to Align Imbricated Anterior Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklecha, Bhuwan; Tekale, Pawankumar Dnyandeo; Sonawane, Shivprasad V; Shah, Pratik Rajesh; Patil, Harshal Ashok

    2017-05-01

    Correction of dental crowding can be achieved with several orthodontic procedures like extraction of teeth, proximal stripping etc. In contemporary orthodontic practice, resolution of incisor crowding is most commonly achieved by the use of canine lacebacks. This method takes time, requires frequent activations and taxes anchorage since it involves the "PULL" mechanics. In order to overcome these disadvantages, mostly the time factor, we devised a method of using open coil NiTi spring on 0.016" SS wire piggy backed on the 0.014" heat activated NiTi base arch wire ligated only at the canines. This method, resolved the incisor crowding in almost one third of the time taken with the use of canine lacebacks. Moreover, the result was more physiologic since light continuous force was applied with the spring and it essentially eliminated the anchorage loss since it involved "PUSH" mechanics.

  6. Cryopreservation of in vitro grown nodal segments of Rauvolfia serpentina by PVS2 vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Avik; Bhattacharya, Sabita

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the cryopreservation by PVS2 vitrification of Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth ex kurz, an important tropical medicinal plant. The effects of type and size of explants, sucrose preculture (duration and concentration) and vitrification treatment were tested. Preliminary experiments with PVS1, 2 and 3 produced shoot growth only for PVS2. When optimizing the PVS2 vitrification of nodal segments, those of 0.31 - 0.39 cm in size were better than other nodal sizes and or apices. Sucrose preculture had a positive role in survival and subsequent regrowth of the cryopreserved explants. Seven days on 0.5 M sucrose solution significantly improved the viability of nodal segments. PVS2 incubation for 45 minutes combined with a 7-day preculture gave the optimum result of 66 percent. Plantlets derived after cryopreservation resumed growth and regenerated normally.

  7. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The history is described of the discovery of microwave radiation of the cosmic background using the 20-foot horn antenna at the Bell Laboratories back in 1965. Ruby masers with travelling wave were used, featuring the lowest noise in the world. The measurement proceeded on 7 cm. In measuring microwave radiation from the regions outside the Milky Way continuous noise was discovered whose temperature exceeded the calculated contributions of the individual detection system elements by 3 K. A comparison with the theory showed that relict radiation from the Big Bang period was the source of the noise. The discovery was verified by measurements on the 20.1 cm wavelength and by other authors' measurements on 0.5 mm to 74 cm, and by optical measurements of the interstellar molecule spectrum. (Ha)

  8. Review of Cryogenic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Al-Li Alloys and Alloy 2219

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    I-. 00 CL IVI cc to ,/WeY -S3~o~ 3unow I- I-141 o . S. I : i a z m 2c z3 z 2 z a zz a - aa ao o C b on 0m fm 8f 04 ef Ift 4 4 4 4 0 N 0 0 .4.0m...James, Dennis Rule, and Hassell Ledbetter for providing us with preprints and data. We would also like to thank the many authors who have been so...Space Company, Report No. LAC 07-4774 D, 14 pp. (1989). 10. Welpmann, K., Lee , Y. T., and Peters, M., "Low Temperature Deformation Behavior of 8090

  9. Bessel harmonic analysis and approximation of functions on the half-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonov, Sergei S

    2007-01-01

    We study problems of approximation of functions on [0,+∞) in the metric of L p with power weight using generalized Bessel shifts. We prove analogues of direct Jackson theorems for the modulus of smoothness of arbitrary order defined in terms of generalized Bessel shifts. We establish the equivalence of the modulus of smoothness and the K-functional. We define function spaces of Nikol'skii-Besov type and describe them in terms of best approximations. As a tool for approximation, we use a certain class of entire functions of exponential type. In this class, we prove analogues of Bernstein's inequality and others for the Bessel differential operator and its fractional powers. The main tool we use to solve these problems is Bessel harmonic analysis

  10. Fatigue properties and impedance analysis of potassium sodium niobate-strontium titanate transparent ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Fan, Huiqing; Lei, Shenhui; Wang, Ju; Tian, Hailin [Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highly transparent ferroelectric ceramics based on 0.9K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}-0.1SrTiO{sub 3} were prepared using a pressure-less solid-state sintering method without using hot isostatic pressing and spark plasma sintering. An independence electromechanical response of bipolar switching cycles (S{sub 33} only degraded 3.2 % up to 10{sup 7} cycles) was presented in this transparent ceramics, which indicated an extremely stable property under electric field. From impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, it was concluded that such optical transparency and fatigue-resistant behaviors were mainly attributed to the lower density of oxygen vacancies in the ceramics. (orig.)

  11. Development of a low-cost inductively coupled argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripson, P.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to drastically reduce running costs of an inductively coupled plasma. This is done by reducing the argon consumption from 20 l/min to about 1 l/min. First, a sample introduction system operating on 0.1 l/min of carrier argon is described. This system ensures a high ratio of plasma argon and carrier argon even at the low total argon consumptions intended. Next, the developed low consumption plasma is presented. In the proposed design, air is blown perpendicularly against the outside of the torch. A different coil has been developed to make air-cooling efficient. Preliminary data on coupling efficiency for the air-cooled plasma are presented. A similarly low argon consumption has been achieved with water as an external coolant medium. It is concluded that a cheaper alternative to the current ICP has become available. (Auth.)

  12. Optical characterization of In xGa1-xN alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartner, M.; Kruse, C.; Modreanu, M.; Tausendfreund, A.; Roder, C.; Hommel, D.

    2006-01-01

    InGaN layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) either directly on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrates or on GaN-template layers deposited by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). We combined spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), Raman spectroscopy (RS), photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements to investigate optical properties, microstructure, vibrational and mechanical properties of the InGaN/GaN/sapphire layers. The analysis of SE data was done using a parametric dielectric function model, established by in situ and ex situ measurements. A dielectric function database, optical band gap, the microstructure and the alloy composition of the layers were derived. The variation of the InGaN band gap with the In content (x) in the 0 g = 3.44-4.5x. The purity and the stability of the GaN and InGaN crystalline phase were investigated by RS

  13. The effect of alloying and treatment on martensite transformation during deformation in Fe-Cr-Mn steels with unstable austenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinov, L.S.; Konop, V.I.; Sokolov, K.N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect is studied of alloying with chromium (6-10%), silicon (1-2%), molybdenum (1-3%), and copper (2%), the heat treatment conditions, and the deformation conditions, or the martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of Fe-Cr-Mn steels of the transitional class based on 0G8AM2S. It is shown that appropriate alloying and treatment, taking into account the degree of stability of the austenite, can ensure a complex of high mechanical properties of the steels investigated. For instance, the treatment of steel 0Kh10AG8MD2S by the technique: hardening+ 40% deformation at 400 deg C + 10% deformation at room temperature has yielded the following mechanical properties: sigmasub(B)=150 kgf/mm 2 , sigmasub(T)=110 kgf/mm 2 , sigma=18%, psi=32%

  14. Exploring Various Monte Carlo Simulations for Geoscience Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, R.

    2010-12-01

    Computer simulations are increasingly important in geoscience research and development. At the core of stochastic or Monte Carlo simulations are the random number sequences that are assumed to be distributed with specific characteristics. Computer generated random numbers, uniformly distributed on (0, 1), can be very different depending on the selection of pseudo-random number (PRN), or chaotic random number (CRN) generators. Equidistributed quasi-random numbers (QRNs) can also be used in Monte Carlo simulations. In the evaluation of some definite integrals, the resulting error variances can even be of different orders of magnitude. Furthermore, practical techniques for variance reduction such as Importance Sampling and Stratified Sampling can be implemented to significantly improve the results. A comparative analysis of these strategies has been carried out for computational applications in planar and spatial contexts. Based on these experiments, and on examples of geodetic applications of gravimetric terrain corrections and gravity inversion, conclusions and recommendations concerning their performance and general applicability are included.

  15. Exploring pseudo- and chaotic random Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J. A. Rod; Zhang, Zhan

    2011-07-01

    Computer simulations are an increasingly important area of geoscience research and development. At the core of stochastic or Monte Carlo simulations are the random number sequences that are assumed to be distributed with specific characteristics. Computer-generated random numbers, uniformly distributed on (0, 1), can be very different depending on the selection of pseudo-random number (PRN) or chaotic random number (CRN) generators. In the evaluation of some definite integrals, the resulting error variances can even be of different orders of magnitude. Furthermore, practical techniques for variance reduction such as importance sampling and stratified sampling can be applied in most Monte Carlo simulations and significantly improve the results. A comparative analysis of these strategies has been carried out for computational applications in planar and spatial contexts. Based on these experiments, and on some practical examples of geodetic direct and inverse problems, conclusions and recommendations concerning their performance and general applicability are included.

  16. Exploring Monte Carlo Simulation Strategies for Geoscience Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J.; Grebenitcharsky, R.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Computer simulations are an increasingly important area of geoscience research and development. At the core of stochastic or Monte Carlo simulations are the random number sequences that are assumed to be distributed with specific characteristics. Computer generated random numbers, uniformly distributed on [0, 1], can be very different depending on the selection of pseudo-random number (PRN), quasi-random number (QRN) or chaotic random number (CRN) generators. In the evaluation of some definite integrals, the expected error variances are generally of different orders for the same number of random numbers. A comparative analysis of these three strategies has been carried out for geodetic and related applications in planar and spherical contexts. Based on these computational experiments, conclusions and recommendations concerning their performance and error variances are included.

  17. Fabrication of Ultrasensitive Transition Edge Sensor Bolometric Detectors for HIRMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David; Brekosky, Regis; Franz, David; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Kutyrev, Alexander; Mikula, Vilem; Miller, Timothy; Moseley, S. Harvey; Oxborrow, Joseph; Rostem, Karwan; hide

    2017-01-01

    The high resolution mid-infrared spectrometer (HIRMES) is a high resolving power (R approx. 100,000) instrument operating in the 25-122 micron spectral range and will fly on board the Stratospheric Observatory for Far-Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) in 2019. Central ot HIRMES are its two transition edge sensor (TES) bolometric cameras, an 8x16 detector high resolution array and a 64x16 detector low resolution array. Both types of detectors consist of MoAu TES fabricated on leg-isolated Si membranes. Whereas the high resolution detectors, with noise equivalent power (NEP) approx. 2 aW/square root of (Hz), are fabricated on 0.45 micron Si substrates, the low resolution detectors, with NEP approx. 10 aW/square root of (Hz), are fabricated on 1.40 micron Si. Here we discuss the similarities and difference in the fabrication methodologies used to realize the two types of detectors.

  18. Scalar-mediated double beta decay and LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, L. [Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Centro-Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Helo, J.C. [Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Centro-Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena,Avenida Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Hirsch, M. [AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València,Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Kovalenko, S.G. [Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Centro-Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-12-23

    The decay rate of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay could be dominated by Lepton Number Violating (LNV) short-range diagrams involving only heavy scalar intermediate particles, known as “topology-II” diagrams. Examples are diagrams with diquarks, leptoquarks or charged scalars. Here, we compare the LNV discovery potentials of the LHC and 0νββ-decay experiments, resorting to three example models, which cover the range of the optimistic-pessimistic cases for 0νββ decay. We use the LHC constraints from dijet as well as leptoquark searches and find that already with 20/fb the LHC will test interesting parts of the parameter space of these models, not excluded by the current limits on 0νββ-decay.

  19. Inverse spectral results for Schroedinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, L.; Raoux, T.; Faupin, J.

    2009-01-01

    We pursue the analysis of the Schroedinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux [''Inverse spectral results for Schroedinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces,'' Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L 1 with their difference in L p (1≤p k,1 spaces having their difference in W k,p , where 1≤p≤+∞, k(set-membership sign)(0,1,2). It is proved that two potentials in W k,1 ([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to W k,p ([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase

  20. Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Raoux, T.

    2009-03-01

    We pursue the analysis of the Schrödinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux ["Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces," Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L1 with their difference in Lp (1≤p<∞), we consider here potentials in Wk,1 spaces having their difference in Wk,p, where 1≤p≤+∞, k ɛ{0,1,2}. It is proved that two potentials in Wk,1([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to Wk,p([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase.

  1. Development of PCR method for diagnosing of honey bee American Foulbrood disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modirrousta, H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available American foulbrood (AFB disease is caused by the sporeforming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae larvae. Traditional diagnosis is based on culture technique is time and laboratory work consuming. In this study with standard strain, PCR was developed by specific primers and PCR products were electrophoresed on 0.8 % agarose gel. The PCR primers were selected on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene and amplify a 700-bp amplicon. Detection limits were determined for suspensions of bacteria and spores and also honey and larvae experimentally contaminated. The lowest number of bacteria and spores that were able to detect were respectively 28, 33, 330 and 243 cfu /ml. This PCR technique can be used to identification of the presence of Paenibacillus larvae larvae spores in honey samples, brood samples or on the colonies that grow on medium.

  2. Lower and Upper Solutions Method for Positive Solutions of Fractional Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Darzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the lower and upper solutions method and fixed-point theorems to prove the existence of positive solution to fractional boundary value problem D0+αut+ft,ut=0, 0on 0,1×0,∞. As an application, one example is given to illustrate the main result.

  3. Ninety-Day Subchronic Oral Toxicity Study of Pyridostigmine Bromide in Rats. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    k k OHC H HH HH H HHqH HqH HH H 04 0 -- L rC 1 140 )aNL 0 CNC H~~~ ~ ~ *- HH HHHHHH (𔃻~~~ U) O’ 0 H~~ ’. 44NN r r A O1N~DLALAA0O~0LALA 𔃺-H...m N N N C4 m - 000 n 4 H ON. ON0H E-4~- H H H HHHCN C ) 1 H r Z r-r-r- r- LO M O 0 V o H’.O 𔃺CY) 04 HO HO Ni m O m C1 N HH T1 - HHHHHH H0H H 0 2OO 0

  4. CeCo5 thin films with perpendicular anisotropy grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Hildebrandt, E.; Major, M.; Komissinskiy, P.; Radulov, I.; Alff, L.

    2018-04-01

    Buffer-free, highly textured (0 0 1) oriented CeCo5 thin films showing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were synthesized on (0 0 1) Al2O3 substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Ce exists in a mixture of Ce3+ and Ce4+ valence states as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The first anisotropy constant, K1, as measured by torque magnetometry was 0.82 MJ/m3 (8.2 ×106erg /cm3) . A maximum coercivity of 5.16 kOe with a negative temperature coefficient of -0.304%K-1 and a magnetization of 527.30 emu/cm3 was measured perpendicular to the film plane at 5 K. In addition, a large anisotropy of the magnetic moment of 15.5% was observed. These magnetic parameters make CeCo5 a potential candidate material for spintronic and magnetic recording applications.

  5. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  6. Well-Posedness of Nonlocal Parabolic Differential Problems with Dependent Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlocal boundary value problem for the parabolic differential equation v'(t+A(tv(t=f(t  (0≤t≤T,  v(0=v(λ+φ,  0<λ≤T in an arbitrary Banach space E with the dependent linear positive operator A(t is investigated. The well-posedness of this problem is established in Banach spaces C0β,γ(Eα-β of all Eα-β-valued continuous functions φ(t on [0,T] satisfying a Hölder condition with a weight (t+τγ. New Schauder type exact estimates in Hölder norms for the solution of two nonlocal boundary value problems for parabolic equations with dependent coefficients are established.

  7. Bovine annulus fibrosus cell lines isolated from intervertebral discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kraus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult bovine (Bos taurus intervertebral disc is primarily comprised of two major tissue types: The outer annulus fibrosus (AF and the central nucleus pulposus (NP. We isolated several primary cell lineages of passage (P 0 cells from the AF tissue omitting typically used enzymatic tissue digestion protocols. The cells grow past p10 without signs of senescence in DMEM + 10% FCS on 0.1% gelatin coated/uncoated surfaces of standard cell culture plates and survive freeze-thawing. Preliminary analysis of the AF derived cells for expression of the two structural genes Col1a1 and Col2a1 was performed by PISH recapitulating the expression observed in vivo.

  8. Minimizing unbalance response of the CRBRP sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Marrujo, F.G.

    1979-04-01

    The unbalance response characteristics of the vertical pumps for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant are investigated. Finite-element shell and beam models representative of the pump-motor structure including the rotating assembly are developed to assess structural stiffnesses of dominant joints as well as the foundation support stiffness so as to exclude the danger of resonant excitation during normal operation. Less than four mils peak-to-peak vibration amplitude at the pump tank discharge nozzle results from just 10% frequency separation between the first rocking mode and the maximum operating speed of 1116 RPM, based on 0.5% modal damping ratio and balance quality grade of ISO/ANSI G2.5 for the rotating components: motor rotor, pump shaft, Bendix diaphragm-type flexible coupling, and centrigual double-suction impeller. Several design options are explored for raising shaft critical speed beyond 125% of maximum operating speed

  9. Parameter masks for close talk speech segregation using deep neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A deep neural networks (DNN based close talk speech segregation algorithm is introduced. One nearby microphone is used to collect the target speech as close talk indicated, and another microphone is used to get the noise in environments. The time and energy difference between the two microphones signal is used as the segregation cue. A DNN estimator on each frequency channel is used to calculate the parameter masks. The parameter masks represent the target speech energy in each time frequency (T-F units. Experiment results show the good performance of the proposed system. The signal to noise ratio (SNR improvement is 8.1 dB on 0 dB noisy environment.

  10. Fatigue mechanisms in unidirectional glass-fibre-reinforced polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamstedt, E.K.; Berglund, L.A.; Peijs, T.

    1999-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene modified with maleic anhydride (MA-PP) reinforced by continuous longitudinal glass fibres have been investigated. The most prominent effect of the modification with maleic anhydride in the composite is a stronger fibre/matrix interface. The effects of interfac......Polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene modified with maleic anhydride (MA-PP) reinforced by continuous longitudinal glass fibres have been investigated. The most prominent effect of the modification with maleic anhydride in the composite is a stronger fibre/matrix interface. The effects...... of interfacial strength on fatigue performance and on the underlying micromechanisms have been studied for these composite systems. Tension-tension fatigue tests (R = 0.1) were carried out on 0 degrees glass-fibre/PP and glass-fibre/ MA-PP coupons. The macroscopic fatigue behaviour was characterized in terms...

  11. Stability analysis of Kamimura-Dawson diffusion in a collisionless plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    It has been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally that the cross-field particle diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to density for a highly collisionless plasma in the presence of a sheared magnetic field. The asymptotic solution of the corresponding one-dimensional model equation n/sub t/ = [ln(n/n 0 )]/sub x/x on 0 0 is shown to have the form ln(n/n 0 ) = epsilon2/sup 1/2/ sin πx+epsilon 2 psi 2 (x)+epsilon 3psi 3 (x)+0(epsilon 4 ) where epsilon = A exp(-π 2 t/n 0 ), psi 2 and psi 3 are known functions, and the amplitude A alone is dependent on the initial data. The asymptotic behavior of the particle distribution can therefore be predicted from knowledge of the distribution at some earlier time

  12. Zn Thin Film Deposition for Fe Layer Shielding Use the Sputtering Technique on Cylindrical Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunanto; Tjipto Sujitno, BA; Suprapto; Simbolon, Sahat

    2002-01-01

    Deposition of thin film on Fe substrate use sputtering technique on cylindrical form was carried out. The purpose of this research is to protect Fe due to the corrosion with Zn thin film. Sputtering method was proposed to protect a component of complex form. Substrate has functioned as anode, meanwhile target in cylindrical form as a cathode. Argon ion from anode bombard Zn with enough energy for releasing Zn. Zn atom would scatter and some of then was focused on the anode. For testing Zn atom on Fe by using XRF and corrosion rate with potentiostat. It was found that corrosion rate was decreased from 0.051 mpy to 0.031 mpy on 0.63 % of Fe substrate. (author)

  13. Salinity reduction benefits European eel larvae: Insights at the morphological and molecular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Mazurais, David; Servili, Arianna

    2018-01-01

    . Moreover, larvae were able to keep energy metabolism related gene expression (atp6, cox1) at stable levels, irrespective of the salinity reduction. As such, when reducing salinity, an energy surplus associated to reduced osmoregulation demands and stress (lower nkcc, aqp and hsp expression), likely......European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a euryhaline species, that has adapted to cope with both, hyper- and hypo-osmotic environments. This study investigates the effect of salinity, from a morphological and molecular point of view on European eel larvae reared from 0 to 12 days post hatch (dph......). Offspring reared in 36 practical salinity units (psu; control), were compared with larvae reared in six scenarios, where salinity was decreased on 0 or 3 dph and in rates of 1, 2 or 4 psu/day, towards iso-osmotic conditions. Results showed that several genes relating to osmoregulation (nkcc2α, nkcc2β, aqp1...

  14. Enhanced flux pinning properties in superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−z} films by a novel chemical doping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.T., E-mail: wtwang@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Pu, M.H.; Lei, M.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Z. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Pure and Co-doped YBCO films were prepared by newly-developed chemical method. • The doped films have much denser and smoother surface microstructures. • Significantly enhanced fux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute Co-doped flm. -- Abstract: Pure and cobalt-doped superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−z} (YBCO) films were prepared on (0 0 l) LaAlO{sub 3} substrate by a newly developed polymer-assisted metal organic deposition method. The cobalt-doped YBCO films display much denser and smoother surface microstructures and the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} spans a small range of 1.7 K with the doping levels. Significantly enhanced flux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute cobalt-doped film. This may be attributed to the good grain connections and the effective flux pinning centers introduced by cobalt doping.

  15. Effect of chitosan coatings on postharvest green asparagus quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Miao; Jiang, Hengjun; Ren, Gerui; Huang, Jianying; Wang, Xiangyang

    2013-02-15

    Fresh postharvest green asparagus rapidly deteriorate due to its high respiration rate. The main benefits of edible active coatings are their edible characteristics, biodegradability and increase in food safety. In this study, the quality of the edible coatings based on 0.50%, 0.25% high-molecular weight chitosan (H-chitosan), and 0.50%, 0.25% low-molecular weight chitosan (L-chitosan) on postharvest green asparagus was investigated. On the basis of the results obtained, 0.25% H-chitosan and 0.50% L-chitosan treatments ensured lower color variation, less weight loss and less ascorbic acid, decrease presenting better quality of asparagus than other concentrations of chitosan treatments and the control during the cold storage, and prolonging a shelf life of postharvest green asparagus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies on the Validity of the Hydraulic Analogy to Supersonic Flow. Parts 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-05-01

    LLJ ui i o it CL 0 - M zoJ~w V 00 z 0 CLr W 0 USAF TR 5985 PART fl OD CD CD USA - R 98 PART I ON% 0 0> w a 0...N0 ,𔃺N 0 0 0 W~) tD 49 N r *(D 0 o 0 o ’-4 4 I? - --- 4904 part t * 6 4 -S+ 0~ U- a) eq Lo) W OD.- U N ev N li x rq 0 * 0 co 0 0 0o coN to -o NH 0 VO...4 1ý U4 0 6 0 16 U td to q _ 4 . N4 . - - % _ U ~ 0 4.4 a ~ V4 o u - - Val Ln N Ln Lo4 * 0 a 0N 0 0 0 0 "" 0 O 0 0 000 0 0 -Q CV 4 N N) P- F-4

  17. The effects spicing on quality of mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Akarca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 3 different spice mixes were added just after blanching to mozzarella cheese produced by high moisture production method. The dough was kneaded and filled into to fibrous cases. After filling process, cheeses were stored for 28 days at 4 °C and 85 % of relative humidity. The following characteristics were measured: color parameters, milk acidity, total dry matter, maturation index, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, coagulase positive staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, species of Lactococcus bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, lipolytic bacteria and mold /yeast count were examined on 0, 5, 15,21 and 28 days after storage. Although L* (lightness and a* (redness values decreased during storage period, while moreover b* (yellowness values increased. In addition acidity, dry matter and maturation index values increased during storage. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus spp., lipolytic bacteria and mold/ yeast counts decreased, but proteolytic bacteria count increased.

  18. Classical solutions of mixed problems for quasilinear first order PFDEs on a cylindrical domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Czernous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We abandon the setting of the domain as a Cartesian product of real intervals, customary for first order PFDEs (partial functional differential equations with initial boundary conditions. We give a new set of conditions on the possibly unbounded domain \\(\\Omega\\ with Lipschitz differentiable boundary. Well-posedness is then reliant on a variant of the normal vector condition. There is a neighbourhood of \\(\\partial\\Omega\\ with the property that if a characteristic trajectory has a point therein, then its every earlier point lies there as well. With local assumptions on coefficients and on the free term, we prove existence and Lipschitz dependence on data of classical solutions on \\((0,c\\times\\Omega\\ to the initial boundary value problem, for small \\(c\\. Regularity of solutions matches this domain, and the proof uses the Banach fixed-point theorem. Our general model of functional dependence covers problems with deviating arguments and integro-differential equations.

  19. A wavelet phase filter for emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, E.T.; Lin, B.

    1995-01-01

    The presence of a high level of noise is a characteristic in some tomographic imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET). Wavelet methods can smooth out noise while preserving significant features of images. Mallat et al. proposed a wavelet based denoising scheme exploiting wavelet modulus maxima, but the scheme is sensitive to noise. In this study, the authors explore the properties of wavelet phase, with a focus on reconstruction of emission tomography images. Specifically, they show that the wavelet phase of regular Poisson noise under a Haar-type wavelet transform converges in distribution to a random variable uniformly distributed on [0, 2π). They then propose three wavelet-phase-based denoising schemes which exploit this property: edge tracking, local phase variance thresholding, and scale phase variation thresholding. Some numerical results are also presented. The numerical experiments indicate that wavelet phase techniques show promise for wavelet based denoising methods

  20. Muentz-Szasz type approximation in direct products of spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedletskii, A M [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-31

    We consider the problem of completeness of the system of exponentials exp{l_brace}-{lambda}{sub n}t{r_brace}, Re {lambda}{sub n}>0, in direct products E=E{sub 1} x E{sub 2} of the spaces E{sub 1}=E{sub 1}(0,1) and E{sub 2}=E{sub 2}(1,{infinity}) of functions defined on (0,1) and (1,{infinity}), respectively. We describe rather broad classes of spaces E{sub 1} and E{sub 2} such that the well-known condition of Szasz is necessary for the completeness of the above system in E and sufficient for this completeness.

  1. Extreme flood event analysis in Indonesia based on rainfall intensity and recharge capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narulita, Ida; Ningrum, Widya

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is very vulnerable to flood disaster because it has high rainfall events throughout the year. Flood is categorized as the most important hazard disaster because it is causing social, economic and human losses. The purpose of this study is to analyze extreme flood event based on satellite rainfall dataset to understand the rainfall characteristic (rainfall intensity, rainfall pattern, etc.) that happened before flood disaster in the area for monsoonal, equatorial and local rainfall types. Recharge capacity will be analyzed using land cover and soil distribution. The data used in this study are CHIRPS rainfall satellite data on 0.05 ° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution, and GSMap satellite rainfall dataset operated by JAXA on 1-hour temporal resolution and 0.1 ° spatial resolution, land use and soil distribution map for recharge capacity analysis. The rainfall characteristic before flooding, and recharge capacity analysis are expected to become the important information for flood mitigation in Indonesia.

  2. Measurement of the two neutrino double beta decay half-life of Zr-96 with the NEMO-3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyriades, J. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91405 Orsay (France); Arnold, R. [IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Augier, C. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91405 Orsay (France); Baker, J. [INL, Idaho National Laboratory, 83415 Idaho Falls (United States); Barabash, A.S. [ITEP, Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Basharina-Freshville, A. [University College London, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Bongrand, M. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91405 Orsay (France); Broudin-Bay, G. [Universite Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Brudanin, V. [JINR, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Caffrey, A.J. [INL, Idaho National Laboratory, 83415 Idaho Falls (United States); Chapon, A. [LPC, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14032 Caen (France); Chauveau, E. [Universite Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Daraktchieva, Z. [University College London, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Durand, D. [LPC, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14032 Caen (France); Egorov, V. [JINR, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Fatemi-Ghomi, N. [University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Flack, R. [University College London, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Guillon, B. [LPC, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14032 Caen (France); Hubert, Ph. [Universite Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Jullian, S. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2010-12-08

    Using 9.4 g of {sup 96}Zr isotope and 1221 days of data from the NEMO-3 detector corresponding to 0.031 kg y, the obtained 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay half-life measurement is T{sub 1/2}{sup 2{nu}=}[2.35{+-}0.14(stat){+-}0.16(syst)]x10{sup 19} yr. Different characteristics of the final state electrons have been studied, such as the energy sum, individual electron energy, and angular distribution. The 2{nu} nuclear matrix element is extracted using the measured 2{nu}{beta}{beta} half-life and is M{sup 2{nu}=}0.049{+-}0.002. Constraints on 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay have also been set.

  3. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  4. Far infrared and Raman response in tetragonal PZT ceramic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buixaderas, E.; Kadlec, C.; Vanek, P.; Drnovsek, S.; Ursic, H.; Malic, B.

    2015-07-01

    PbZr{sub 0}.38Ti{sub 0}.62O{sub 3} and PbZr{sub 0}.36Ti{sub 0}.64{sub O}3 thick films deposited by screen printing on (0 0 0 1) single crystal sapphire substrates and prepared at two different sintering temperatures, were studied by Fourier-transform infrared reflectivity, time-domain TH{sub z} transmission spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The dielectric response is discussed using the Lichtenecker model to account for the porosity of the films and to obtain the dense bulk dielectric functions. Results are compared with bulk tetragonal PZT 42/58 ceramics. The dynamic response in the films is dominated by an overdamped lead-based vibration in the TH{sub z} range, as known in PZT, but its evaluated dielectric contribution is affected by the porosity and roughness of the surface. (Author)

  5. Determination of trace elements in aerosols from the antarctic peninsula by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, A.L.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this work the neutron activation method was applied to carry out multielemental analysis in aerosols collected in the Brazilian Station 'Comandante Ferraz', located on King George Island, at the Antarctic Peninsula, during 1986 and 1987. The aerosols were collected on 0.45 μum Millipore-MF filter paper, type HA. The analytical method was based on the simultaneous irradiations of filters and synthetic standards in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor under a thermal neutron flux of about 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 . The induced radioactivity was measured in a gamma ray spectrometer after suitable cooling times. Samples were irradiated twice, with irradiation times varying from 5 minutes to 24 hours. The elements Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Sb, La, Au and Th were determined with concentration levels from ng/m 3 to pg/m 3 [pt

  6. Scalar-mediated double beta decay and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, L.; Helo, J.C.; Hirsch, M.; Kovalenko, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    The decay rate of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay could be dominated by Lepton Number Violating (LNV) short-range diagrams involving only heavy scalar intermediate particles, known as “topology-II” diagrams. Examples are diagrams with diquarks, leptoquarks or charged scalars. Here, we compare the LNV discovery potentials of the LHC and 0νββ-decay experiments, resorting to three example models, which cover the range of the optimistic-pessimistic cases for 0νββ decay. We use the LHC constraints from dijet as well as leptoquark searches and find that already with 20/fb the LHC will test interesting parts of the parameter space of these models, not excluded by the current limits on 0νββ-decay.

  7. The CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments at LNGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addabbo, A.; Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Branca, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Davis, C. J.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Leder, A.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Napolitano, T.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a 1-ton scale bolometric experiment devoted to the search of the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) in 130Te. The CUORE detector consists of an array of 988 TeO2 crystals operated at 10 mK. CUORE-0 is the CUORE demonstrator: it has been built to test the performance of the upcoming CUORE experiment and represents the largest 130Te bolometric setup ever operated. CUORE-0 has been running at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy) from 2013 to 2015. The final CUORE-0 analysis on 0νββ and the corresponding detector performance are presented. The present status of the CUORE experiment, now in its final construction and commissioning phase, are discussed. The results from assembly of the detector and the commissioning of the cryostat are reported.

  8. Large area silicon drift detectors for x-rays -- New results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanczyk, J.S.; Patt, B.E.; Tull, C.R.; Segal, J.D.; Kenney, C.J.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.

    1998-01-01

    Large area silicon drift detectors, consisting of 8 mm and 12 mm diameter hexagons, were fabricated on 0.35 mm thick high resistivity n-type silicon. An external FET and a low-noise charge sensitive preamplifier were used for testing the prototype detectors. The detector performance was measured in the range 75 to 25 C using Peltier cooling, and from 0.125 to 6 micros amplifier shaping time. Measured energy resolutions were 159 eV FWHM and 263 eV FWHM for the 0.5 cm 2 and 1 cm 2 detectors, respectively (at 5.9 keV, -75 C, 6 micros shaping time). The uniformity of the detector response over the entire active area (measured using 560 nm light) was < 0.5%

  9. Mechanical design and analysis of LHC inner triplet quadrupole magnets at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, N; Bossert, R; Chichili, D R; Fehér, S; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Makarov, A A; Nobrega, A; Novitski, I; Orris, D; Ozelis, J P; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J C; Yadav, S; Zlobin, A V

    2000-01-01

    A series of model magnets is being constructed and tested at Fermilab in order to verify the design of high gradient quadrupole magnets for the LHC interaction region inner triplets. The 2 m models are being built in order to refine the mechanical and magnetic design, optimize fabrication and assembly tooling, and ensure adequate quench performance. This has been carried out using a complementary combination of analytical and FEA modeling, empirical tests on 0.4 m mechanical assemblies and testing of model magnets during fabrication and under cryogenic conditions. The results of these tests and studies have led to improvements in the design of the magnet end restraints, to a preferred choice in coil end part material, and to a better understanding of factors affecting coil stress throughout the fabrication and operational stages. (8 refs).

  10. Solution of the Stieltjes truncated matrix moment problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim M. Adamyan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The truncated Stieltjes matrix moment problem consisting in the description of all matrix distributions \\(\\boldsymbol{\\sigma}(t\\ on \\([0,\\infty\\ with given first \\(2n+1\\ power moments \\((\\mathbf{C}_j_{n=0}^j\\ is solved using known results on the corresponding Hamburger problem for which \\(\\boldsymbol{\\sigma}(t\\ are defined on \\((-\\infty,\\infty\\. The criterion of solvability of the Stieltjes problem is given and all its solutions in the non-degenerate case are described by selection of the appropriate solutions among those of the Hamburger problem for the same set of moments. The results on extensions of non-negative operators are used and a purely algebraic algorithm for the solution of both Hamburger and Stieltjes problems is proposed.

  11. Iridium-191m radionuclide angiocardiography detection and quantitation of left-to-rigth shunts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treves, S.; Fujii, A.; Cheng, C.; Kuruc, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether Iridium-191m (Ir-191m) could replace Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) in the detection and quantitation of left-to-right shunts. It was demonstrated that Ir-191m radionuclide angiography is a safe, rapid, and accurate method for the detection and quantitation of left-to-right shunts with very low radiation dose to the patient. It is also possible with this radiotracer to evaluate other aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the circulation such as ventricular function, patency of major vessels, renal and cerebral perfusion. Further improvements on 0s-191 production, generator design and gamma cameras would expand the use of this ultrashort-lived radionuclide

  12. Design of a High Linearity Four-Quadrant Analog Multiplier in Wideband Frequency Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul kareem Mokif Obais

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode four quadrant analog multiplier in the wideband frequency rangeis designed using a wideband operational amplifier (OPAMP and squaring circuits. The wideband OPAMP is designed using 10 identical NMOS transistorsand operated with supply voltages of ±12V. Two NMOS transistors and two wideband OPAMP are utilized in the design of the proposed squaring circuit. All the NMOS transistors are based on 0.35µm NMOStechnology. The multiplier has input and output voltage ranges of ±10 V, high range of linearity from -10 V to +10 V, and cutoff frequency of about 5 GHz. The proposed multiplier is designed on PSpice in Orcad 16.6

  13. Search for Multiphoton Signatures of a Higgs Boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atramentov, Oleksiy Vladimirovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis we describe a search for a fermiophobic Higgs boson in 3γ+X events. The study has been performed on 0.83 fb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector that resides at one of the interaction regions of the Tevatron collider, the world's highest energy accelerator. This study was motivated by a fairly recent phenomenological paper [33] where it was noticed that in certain class of models (2HDM Type I and THM) the multi-photon final states like this one become detectable at the luminosity that has been collected by the D0 experiment by 2006. The mechanism that permits such final state becomes available when the conventional higgs production mechanism (higgs strahlung) are suppressed. This leads to the fact that Higgs boson with mass (mhf < 90 GeV/c2) lower than the current limit has not been excluded.

  14. Modeling Nurse Scheduling Problem Using 0-1 Goal Programming A Case Study Of Tafo Government Hospital Kumasi-Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Agyei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problem of scheduling nurses at the Out-Patient Department OPD at Tafo Government Hospital Kumasi Ghana is presented. Currently the schedules are prepared by head nurse who performs this difficult and time consuming task by hand. Due to the existence of many constraints the resulting schedule usually does not guarantee the fairness of distribution of work. The problem was formulated as 0-1goal programming model with the of objective of evenly balancing the workload among nurses and satisfying their preferences as much as possible while complying with the legal and working regulations.. The developed model was then solved using LINGO14.0 software. The resulting schedules based on 0-1goal programming model balanced the workload in terms of the distribution of shift duties fairness in terms of the number of consecutive night duties and satisfied the preferences of the nurses. This is an improvement over the schedules done manually.

  15. Double beta decay: Comparison of theory to experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    I review ββ decay in the standard model and as a test of Majorana neutrino masses and right-handed couplings. A summary is given of some of the nuclear physics issues involved in evaluating 2 ν and 0ν matrix elements. Dirac and pseudoDirac limits are discussed to illustrate how quantities constrained on 0ν ββ decay depend on the parameters of the mass matrix. Implications of 0ν ββ decay for models with 17 keV neutrinos, for models with massive Majorana neutrinos, and for Majorons are discussed. It is argued that a recent remeasurement of the total ββ decay rate of 126 Te is important in constraining (nonstandard) Majoron models

  16. Corporate array of micromachined dipoles on silicon wafer for 60 GHz communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, M. O.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, an antenna array operating at 60 GHz and realized on 0.675 mm thick silicon substrate is presented. The array is constructed using four micromachined half-wavelength dipoles fed by a corporate feeding network. Isolation between the antenna array and its feeding network is achieved via a ground plane. This arrangement leads to maximizing the broadside radiation with relatively high front-to-back ratio. Simulations have been carried out using both HFSS and CST, which showed very good agreement. Results reveal that the proposed antenna array has good radiation characteristics, where the directivity, gain, and radiation efficiency are around 10.5 dBi, 9.5 dBi, and 79%, respectively. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. [A clinical study of gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge on preventing the complication of teeth extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong-hai; Lu, Chang-shou

    2008-10-01

    To study the clinical effect of Gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge on preventing the complication of teeth extraction. 672 teeth were divided into experimental group and control group semi-randomly. All teeth were extracted after local anesthesia and sockets were cleaned. Gelatamp colloidal silver gelatin sponge was implanted into socket in experimental group and nothing was implanted into alveolar socket in control group. The complication of teeth extraction was observed on 0.5 h, 2 d and 7 d after extraction. The incidence rate of complication was calculated. The incidence rate of complication of teeth extraction in experimental group was 7.72%, which was lower than that of control group (24.43%). There was significant difference in the incidence rates of complication between experimental group and control group (P colloidal silver gelatin sponge can prevent the occurrence of complication of teeth extraction, this can be used in clinic.

  18. Sun-Earth Connections: How the Sun Knocks Out My Cell Phone from 150 Million Kilometers Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.

    2014-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPE) threaten many elements of critical infrastructure. A 2013 study by Lloyds of London and Atmospheric and Environmental Research recently found that if a worst-case solar event like the 1859 Carrington Event struck our planet now, it could result on $0.6-$2.36 trillion in damages to the economy. In March 2014, researchers Y. D. Liu et al. revealed that just such an event had narrowly missed Earth in July 2012. The event was observed by the STEREO A spacecraft. In this presentation, we examine how the sun can pack such a punch from 150 million km away, the threats such solar particle events pose, their mechanisms and the efforts NASA and other space agencies are carrying out to understand and mitigate such risks.

  19. How the Sun Knocks Out My Cell Phone from 150 Million Kilometers Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPE) threaten many elements of critical infrastructure. A 2013 study by Lloyds of London and Atmospheric and Environmental Research recently found that if a worst-case solar event like the 1859 Carrington Event struck our planet now, it could result on $0.6-$2.36 trillion in damages to the economy. In March 2014, researchers Y. D. Liu et al. revealed that just such an event had narrowly missed Earth in July 2012. The event was observed by the STEREO A spacecraft. In this presentation, we examine how the sun can pack such a punch from 150 million km away, the threats such solar particle events pose, their mechanisms and the efforts NASA and other space agencies are carrying out to understand and mitigate such risks.

  20. Numerical calculation for flow field of servo-tube guided hydraulic control rod driving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Keyu; Han Weishi

    2010-01-01

    A new-style hydraulic control rod driving mechanism was put forward by using servo-tube control elements for the design of control rod driving mechanism. The results of numerical simulation by CFD program Fluent for flow field of hydraulic driving cylinder indicate that the bigger the outer diameter of servo-tube, the smaller the resistance coefficient of variable throttle orifice. The zero position gap of variable throttle orifice could be determined on 0.2 mm in the design. The pressure difference between the upper and nether surfaces of piston was mainly created by the throttle function of fixed throttle orifice. It can be effectively controlled by changing the gap of variable throttle orifice. And the lift force of driving cylinder is able to meet the requirement on the design load. (authors)

  1. Flat-panel video resolution LED display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareberg, P. G.; Kennedy, D. I.

    The system consists of a 128 x 128 element X-Y addressable LED array fabricated from green-emitting gallium phosphide. The LED array is interfaced with a 128 x 128 matrix TV camera. Associated electronics provides for seven levels of grey scale above zero with a grey scale ratio of square root of 2. Picture elements are on 0.008 inch centers resulting in a resolution of 125 lines-per-inch and a display area of approximately 1 sq. in. The LED array concept lends itself to modular construction, permitting assembly of a flat panel screen of any desired size from 1 x 1 inch building blocks without loss of resolution. A wide range of prospective aerospace applications exist extending from helmet-mounted systems involving small dedicated arrays to multimode cockpit displays constructed as modular screens. High-resolution LED arrays are already used as CRT replacements in military film-marking reconnaissance applications.

  2. Two Universality Properties Associated with the Monkey Model of Zipf's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perline, Richard; Perline, Ron

    2016-03-01

    The distribution of word probabilities in the monkey model of Zipf's law is associated with two universality properties: (1) the power law exponent converges strongly to $-1$ as the alphabet size increases and the letter probabilities are specified as the spacings from a random division of the unit interval for any distribution with a bounded density function on $[0,1]$; and (2), on a logarithmic scale the version of the model with a finite word length cutoff and unequal letter probabilities is approximately normally distributed in the part of the distribution away from the tails. The first property is proved using a remarkably general limit theorem for the logarithm of sample spacings from Shao and Hahn, and the second property follows from Anscombe's central limit theorem for a random number of i.i.d. random variables. The finite word length model leads to a hybrid Zipf-lognormal mixture distribution closely related to work in other areas.

  3. Exogenous proline relieves growth inhibition caused by NaCl in petunia cells: Metabolism of L-[15M]-proline followed by 15N NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyser, J.W.; Chacon, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Exogenous proline stimulated the growth of Petunia hybrida cells on 195 mM NaCl 10-fold as compared with cells grown on 195 mM CaCl medium minus proline. L-[ 15 N]-proline was fed to cells growing on 0 and 195 mM CaCl, and its metabolism was followed by 15 N NMR analysis of cell extracts. Total proline and amino acids were determined by ninhydrin assay. Proline and primary amino acids were easily resolved in NMR spectra and the amount of 15 N-label which remained in proline was determined. Reduced catabolism of proline in cells grown on NaCl was evident. The role of exogenous proline in conferring increased NaCl tolerance in this nonhalophyte will be discussed

  4. Combining thermodynamic principles with Preisach models for superelastic shape memory alloy wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doraiswamy, S; Rao, A; Srinivasa, A R

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple model for simulating the response of a superelastic shape memory alloy wire based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, which can simulate the full thermomechanical response including internal hysteresis loops, at different temperatures, with minimal data input. The key idea is to separate the dissipative response and the elastic response of shape memory alloys using a Gibbs potential based formulation, and then use a Preisach model for the dissipative part of the response. This enables better handling of the features observed in the superelastic response such as those due to changes in temperature and internal hysteresis loops. We compare the predicted response with experiments performed on 0.75 mm NiTi shape memory alloy wires at three different temperatures

  5. Experimental investigation of saturation depth of 0.662 MeV gamma rays in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Manpreet; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2007-01-01

    The effect of target thickness on 0.662 MeV multiply Compton scattered gamma photon has been studied experimentally. An intense collimated beam, obtained from 6-Ci 137 Cs source, is allowed to impinge on a rectangular copper target of varying thickness and the scattered photons are detected by a properly shielded NaI(TI) scintillation detector, having dimensions 51 φ mm x 5l mm, placed at 90 deg to the incident beam. The subtraction of events under the analytically reconstructed full energy peak from the events recorded under the observed inelastic peak results in multiply scattered events having energy same as in single scattering. The target thickness at which the number of multiply scattered events saturates has also been determined. The signal-to-noise ratio is found to be decreasing with increasing target thickness. Monte Carlo calculation supports the present experimental results. (author)

  6. Tongue controlled computer game: A new approach for rehabilitation of tongue motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of tongue-disability, age and gender on motor performance for a tongue training paradigm involving playing a computer game using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). Design: Two controlled observational studies. Setting: A neurorehabilitation center and a dental...... school. Participants: In Study 1, eleven tongue-disabled patients with symptoms of dysphagia and dysarthria and 11 age-and sex-matched controls participated in tongue training. In Study 2, 16 healthy elderly and 16 healthy young participants volunteered. Intervention: In study 1 and study 2, the tongue....... Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales (NRS) were compared between groups. Results: In study 1, tongue-disabled patients performed poorer than healthy controls (P=0.005) and with a trend of a gender difference (P=0.046). In study 2, healthy...

  7. Age hardening of a sintered Al-Cu-Mg-Si-(Sn) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, D.; Schaffer, G.B.; Drennan, J.

    2005-01-01

    The age hardening response of a sintered Al-3.8 wt% Cu-1.0 wt% Mg-0.70 wt% Si alloy with and without 0.1 wt% Sn was investigated. The sequence of precipitation was characterised using transmission electron microscopy. The ageing response of the sintered Al-Cu-Mg-Si-(Sn) alloy is similar to that of cognate wrought 2xxx series alloys. Peak hardness was associated with a fine, uniform dispersion of lath shaped precipitates, believed to be either the β'or Q' phase, oriented along α directions and θ' plates lying on {0 0 1} α planes. Natural ageing also resulted in comparable behaviour to that observed in wrought alloys. Porosity in the powder metallurgy alloys did not significantly affect the kinetics of precipitation during artificial ageing. Trace levels of tin, used to aid sintering, slightly reduced the hardening response of the alloy. However, this was compensated for by significant improvements in density and hardness

  8. Dust Removal Technology Demonstration for a Lunar Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Chen, A.; Immer, C. D.; Csonka, M.; Hogue, M. D.; Snyder, S. J.; Rogriquez, M.; Margiotta, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS), an active dust mitigation technology with applications to solar panels, thermal radiators, optical systems, visors, seals and connectors. This active technology is capable of removing dust and granular material with diameters as large as several hundred microns. In this paper, we report on the development of three types of EDS systems for NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU). A transparent EDS 20 cm in diameter with indium tin oxide electrodes on a 0.1 mm-thick polyethylene terephtalate (PET) film was constructed for viewport dust protection. Two opaque EDS systems with copper electrodes on 0.1 mm-thick Kapton were also built to demonstrate dust removal on the doors of the HDU. A lotus coating that minimizes dust adhesion was added to one of the last two EDS systems to demonstrate the effectiveness of the combined systems.

  9. Photoemission electronic states of epitaxially grown magnetite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalecki, R.; Kolodziejczyk, A.; Korecki, J.; Spiridis, N.; Zajac, M.; Kozlowski, A.; Kakol, Z.; Antolak, D.

    2007-01-01

    The valence band photoemission spectra of epitaxially grown 300 A single crystalline magnetite films were measured by the angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) at 300 K. The samples were grown either on MgO(0 0 1) (B termination) or on (0 0 1) Fe (iron-rich A termination), thus intentionally presenting different surface stoichiometry, i.e. also different surface electronic states. Four main features of the electron photoemission at about -1.0, -3.0, -5.5 and -10.0 eV below a chemical potential show systematic differences for two terminations; this difference depends on the electron outgoing angle. Our studies confirm sensitivity of angle resolved PES technique on subtleties of surface states

  10. TEM of nanostructured metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnthaler, H.P.; Waitz, T.; Rentenberger, C.; Mingler, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructuring has been used to improve the mechanical properties of bulk metals and alloys. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including atomic resolution is therefore appropriate to study these nanostructures; four examples are given as follows. (1) The early stages of precipitation at RT were investigated in an Al-Mg-Si alloy. By high resolution TEM it is shown that the precipitates lie on (0 0 1) planes having an ordered structure. (2) In Co alloys the fronts of martensitic phase transformations were analysed showing that the transformation strains are very small thus causing no surface relief. (3) Re-ordering and recrystallization were studied by in situ TEM of an Ni 3 Al alloy being nanocrystalline after severe plastic deformation. (4) In NiTi severe plastic deformation is leading to the formation of amorphous shear bands. From the TEM analysis it is concluded that the amorphization is caused by plastic shear instability starting in the shear bands

  11. Electrochemical Oxidation of PAHs in Water from Harbor Sediment Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2010-01-01

    generated oxidant solution with a free chlorine concentration of 2 gL-1. Both strategies resulted in a successful degradation of 5 PAHs to fulfil the discharge limit on 0.010 µgL-1. The intermixing-with-oxidant approach can also be applied as a method to address the actual sediment matrix....... of the discharge water addressing primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are by-products of incomplete combustion of organic materials with recalcitrant and strong mutagenic/carcinogenic properties, due to their benzene analogue structures. PAHs are hydrophobic compounds and their persistence...... evidence for the importance of the indirect oxidation mechanism in the degradation of the PAHs. The proof-of-concept study was conducted both by a direct treatment approach and an intermixing-with-oxidant approach, where the contaminated water was intermixed in different ratios with an electrochemically...

  12. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a tool for evaluation of cellular alteration during Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor M. Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.

  13. Official Guard and Reserve Manpower Strengths and Statistics: FY 1989 Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    S0- 5.8 co It0. 0 m a* t7 N 𔃾 in o𔃾 t N o - n-K, 0 mI- IZ 0 N m i an N 0o cm a, . KZK UK 14i N~’ 47 𔃾 N 0’ 0 D- 0 00a, c KlS K K I NNN 7n 𔃾 𔃾 No...W C, 00C0F)a*P m 00 on 0..0.....P00Mlso0 do w .P- 638%1 P 1 KZK ~ ~ P)goMK II- .8 4N i 40. 8 4 I.5M!.4M0󈧣U . * . P) woo- 3. 30 K 30A- N C4 in4C i K

  14. Total dose effects on the matching properties of deep submicron MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxin; Hu Rongbin; Li Ruzhang; Chen Guangbing; Fu Dongbing; Lu Wu

    2014-01-01

    Based on 0.18 μm MOS transistors, for the first time, the total dose effects on the matching properties of deep submicron MOS transistors are studied. The experimental results show that the total dose radiation magnifies the mismatch among identically designed MOS transistors. In our experiments, as the radiation total dose rises to 200 krad, the threshold voltage and drain current mismatch percentages of NMOS transistors increase from 0.55% and 1.4% before radiation to 17.4% and 13.5% after radiation, respectively. PMOS transistors seem to be resistant to radiation damage. For all the range of radiation total dose, the threshold voltage and drain current mismatch percentages of PMOS transistors keep under 0.5% and 2.72%, respectively. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Enhanced flux pinning properties in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7−z films by a novel chemical doping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.T.; Pu, M.H.; Lei, M.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Cheng, C.H.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Pure and Co-doped YBCO films were prepared by newly-developed chemical method. • The doped films have much denser and smoother surface microstructures. • Significantly enhanced fux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute Co-doped flm. -- Abstract: Pure and cobalt-doped superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−z (YBCO) films were prepared on (0 0 l) LaAlO 3 substrate by a newly developed polymer-assisted metal organic deposition method. The cobalt-doped YBCO films display much denser and smoother surface microstructures and the superconducting transition temperature T c spans a small range of 1.7 K with the doping levels. Significantly enhanced flux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute cobalt-doped film. This may be attributed to the good grain connections and the effective flux pinning centers introduced by cobalt doping

  16. Electrochemical trench etching of silicon triggered via mechanical nanocontacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassilloud, R.; Michler, J. [EMPA, Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Schmuki, P. [Department of Materials Science, LKO, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstrasse 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-12-01

    We report a method to produce microstructures on silicon wafers using a microscratching technique followed by a subsequent electrochemical trench etching in hydrofluoric-based electrolyte. Micro-scratches are used to trigger macropore formation. We show that mask-less dissolved trenches with aspect ratios up to 1:7 are formed at the scratched regions on (0 0 1)Si surface. The micro-scratches orientate the macropores formation by aligning them in the scratching direction. We propose that dislocations formed during scratching are firstly dissolved leading to the formation of V-shape grooves. The V-shape geometries obtained by this way are used to initiate the macropores nucleation; i.e. due to the geometry, an avalanche current occurs at the grooves base and thus induces local dissolutions of the substrate. High rate local dissolutions are achieved by back-side illumination of the Si wafer. (author)

  17. Zero- vs. one-dimensional, parametric vs. non-parametric, and confidence interval vs. hypothesis testing procedures in one-dimensional biomechanical trajectory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Todd C; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark A

    2015-05-01

    Biomechanical processes are often manifested as one-dimensional (1D) trajectories. It has been shown that 1D confidence intervals (CIs) are biased when based on 0D statistical procedures, and the non-parametric 1D bootstrap CI has emerged in the Biomechanics literature as a viable solution. The primary purpose of this paper was to clarify that, for 1D biomechanics datasets, the distinction between 0D and 1D methods is much more important than the distinction between parametric and non-parametric procedures. A secondary purpose was to demonstrate that a parametric equivalent to the 1D bootstrap exists in the form of a random field theory (RFT) correction for multiple comparisons. To emphasize these points we analyzed six datasets consisting of force and kinematic trajectories in one-sample, paired, two-sample and regression designs. Results showed, first, that the 1D bootstrap and other 1D non-parametric CIs were qualitatively identical to RFT CIs, and all were very different from 0D CIs. Second, 1D parametric and 1D non-parametric hypothesis testing results were qualitatively identical for all six datasets. Last, we highlight the limitations of 1D CIs by demonstrating that they are complex, design-dependent, and thus non-generalizable. These results suggest that (i) analyses of 1D data based on 0D models of randomness are generally biased unless one explicitly identifies 0D variables before the experiment, and (ii) parametric and non-parametric 1D hypothesis testing provide an unambiguous framework for analysis when one׳s hypothesis explicitly or implicitly pertains to whole 1D trajectories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Status of the GERDA Experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brugnera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda is a low background experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS of the INFN designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ of 76Ge. In its first phase, high purity germanium diodes inherited from the former Heidelberg-Moscow and Igex experiments are operated “bare” and immersed in liquid argon, with an overall background environment of 10−2 cts/(keV·kg·yr, a factor of ten better than its predecessors. Measurements on two-neutrino double beta decay (2νββ giving T1/22ν=(1.88±0.10×1021 yr and recently published background model and pulse shape performances of the detectors are discussed in the paper. A new result on 0νββ has been recently published with a half-life limit on 0νββ decay T1/20ν>2.1×1025 yr (90% C.L.. A second phase of the experiment is scheduled to start during the year 2014, after a major upgrade shutdown. Thanks to the increased detector mass with new designed diodes and to the introduction of liquid argon instrumentation techniques, the experiment aims to reduce further the expected background to about 10−3 cts/(keV·kg·yr and to improve the 0νββ sensitivity to about T1/20ν>1.5×1026 yr (90% C.L..

  19. A re-assessment of the thermodynamic properties of iodine condensed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arblaster, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In the low temperature region below 298.15 K all previous reviews included highly discrepant experimental data points which should have been rejected. In the present review these data points have been rejected leading to a smooth specific heat curve similar to that obtained for solid bromine. The current values, especially at 298.15 K therefore differ considerably from other reviews but it is suggested are more acceptable. → For temperatures above 298.15 K previous reviews carried out unnecessary corrections to the experimental enthalpy measurements and therefore arrived at distorted values for the thermodynamic properties and since these corrections differed from one review to the next then the situation existed where different sets of thermodynamic tables existed and there was no way to suggest which was the correct one. In the present review the experimental values have been used without correction for calibration and therefore again represent a superior set of tables. → Since iodine is solid at room temperature then the question arises as to whether or not to divide the thermodynamic tables in to low temperature values based on 0 K and high temperature values based on 298.15 K. In this paper the values are based on 0 K only to be consistent with the analogues chlorine and bromine. However if in the opinion of the referees the divide ought to be used in this can be achieved quite easily. - Abstract: Thermodynamic properties of iodine have been calculated to 500 K. Specific heat anomalies accepted for the solid phase in previous reviews have been eliminated and a smooth specific heat curve derived. Corrections previously applied to high temperature solid and liquid enthalpy measurements were shown to be unnecessary.

  20. The effects of L-arginine, D-arginine, L-name and methylene blue on channa striatus-induced peripheral antinociception in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Sulaiman, Mohd Rosian; Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat; Ali, Daud Israf

    2005-08-03

    To determine the involvement of nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) pathway in aqueous supernatant of haruan (Channa striatus) fillet (ASH) antinociception using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test. The ASH was prepared by soaking fresh haruan fillet in chloroform:methanol (CM) (2/1 (v/v)) for 72 h followed by evaporation of the upper layer supernatant to remove any solvent residues. The supernatant was then subjected to a freeze-drying process (48 h) followed by doses preparation. Subcutaneous (SC) administration of ASH alone (0.170, 0.426 and 1.704 mg/kg) exhibited a dose-dependent antinociception. On the other hand, 20 mg/kg (SC) of L-arginine and MB exhibited a significant nociception and antinociception, while D-arginine and L-NAME did not produce any effect at all. Pre-treatment with L-arginine was found to significantly reverse the three respective doses of ASH antinociception; pre-treatment with D-arginine did not produce any significant change in the ASH activity; pre-treatment with L-NAME only significantly increased the 0.170 and 0.426 mg/kg ASH antinociception; and pre-treatment with MB significantly enhanced the respective doses of ASH antinociception, respectively. Furthermore, co-treatment with L-NAME significantly enhanced the L-arginine reversal effect on 0.426 mg/kg ASH antinociception. In addition, MB significantly reversed the L-arginine nociception on 0.426 mg/kg ASH. These finding suggest ASH antinociception involves the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. The presence of NO was found to reverse ASH antinociceptive activity while blocking of cGMP system enhanced it.

  1. Relation cellular- molecular between serum IL10 levels and hyperalgesia variation in adjuvant- induced arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenab Akhtari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding to the important anti-inflammatory role of IL10 during inflammation process and hyperalgesia and edema variation during CFA-induced arthritis and also the increase of Spinal mu opioid receptor (mOR expression, in this study researchers investigate the role of serum IL10 level on mOR expression and edema and hyperalgesia variation during different stages of Complete Freund`s Adjuvant (CFA - induced arthritis in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Mono-arthritis was induced by CFA and inflammatory symptoms (hyperalgesia and edema were assessed on 0, 3, 7, 14th and 21st days of study. Anti-IL10 was administered during the 21 days of study in different experimental groups. mOR expression were detected by western blotting on 0, 3,7, 14th and 21st days of study. Data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 19 with using one way ANOVA (post hoc Tokey's. Results: Our results showed that anti-IL10 administration in AA group (Adjuvant Arthritis caused an increase in the paw volume and hyperalgesia until 21st of study. Our study stated that there were no significant differences in spinal mOR expression between AA and AA+anti-IL10rats. Conclusion: Our study confirmed that anti-IL10administration caused to hyperalgesia and edema during AA inflammation. Also these findings suggested that mOR expression increased in chronic phase of AA inflammation, however an increase in the level of spinal mu opioid receptor (mOR expression during AA inflammation is not mediated directly via the effect of serum IL-10.

  2. Laser iridotomy to treat uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome secondary to reverse pupillary block in sulcus-placed intraocular lenses: Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmanjit; Modabber, Milad; Safran, Steven G; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2015-10-01

    To present cases of uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema (UGH) syndrome due to reverse pupillary block in sulcus-placed posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) that were managed with laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Community-based subspecialty clinics. Retrospective interventional case series. A chart review of patients with a sulcus-placed PC IOLs presenting with UGH syndrome and reverse pupillary block with posterior iris bowing as diagnosed by gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography was carried out. Laser peripheral iridotomy was performed in the eyes included in the study. The main outcome measure was clinical resolution of UGH syndrome. The study included 6 eyes of 6 patients with a mean age of 59.8 years (range 43.0 to 66.0 years) who presented with unilateral UGH syndrome a mean of 28.7 months (range 0.3 to 84.0 months) after PC IOL implantation. All patients were previously myopic, with 5 (83.3%) having a history of vitrectomy. The mean axial length was 27.0 mm ± 1.4 (SD). An LPI was used to treat the reverse pupillary block with resultant improvement in iris profile and resolution of UGH syndrome in all eyes. The mean intraocular pressure decreased from 30.5 ± 10.0 mm Hg on 0.5 ± 0.8 glaucoma medications to 15.5 ± 3.2 mm Hg postoperatively on 0.7 ± 1.2 medications. The UGH syndrome due to reverse pupillary block occurred after sulcus-placed PC IOLs in susceptible patients, those with axial myopia, and post-vitrectomized eyes. The cases were managed with LPIs. Dr. Ahmed is a consultant to Alcon Laboratories, Inc. and Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment experiences among LGBT veterans with discrimination-based trauma exposure: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipherd, Jillian C; Ruben, Mollie A; Livingston, Nicholas A; Curreri, Andrew; Skolnik, Avy A

    2018-01-01

    Past research suggests that rates of trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are elevated among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans compared to heterosexual and cisgender veterans. Given higher rates of trauma exposure and PTSD, and the culture associated with the Department of Defense's history of policies excluding LGBT people, it is important to understand if LGBT veterans are seeking PTSD treatment following discrimination-based traumatic events, where they seek care, and if they are satisfied with treatment. This study aimed to describe the experiences of discrimination-based trauma-exposed LGBT veterans' (n = 47) experiences with PTSD treatment, including location of treatment (Veterans Health Administration [VHA] versus non-VHA) and satisfaction with care. The majority of veterans had received a PTSD diagnosis from a health-care provider in their lifetimes (78.72%, n = 37), and over half reported currently experiencing PTSD symptoms. Approximately 47% of LGBT veterans with discrimination-based trauma histories preferred to seek PTSD treatment exclusively at VHA (46.81%) or with a combination of VHA and non-VHA services (38.30%). Veterans who received PTSD treatment exclusively from VHA reported higher satisfaction ratings (7.44 on 0-9 scale) than veterans who received PTSD treatment exclusively from outside VHA (5.25 on 0-9 scale). For veterans who sought PTSD treatment at both VHA and non-VHA facilities, there were no significant differences regarding satisfaction ratings for their PTSD treatment in the two settings. Results are discussed in terms of VHA's continued efforts to establish equitable, patient-centered health care for all veterans and the importance of non-VHA facilities to recognize veteran identities.

  4. Snake River Sockeye salmon habitat and limnological research. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuscher, D.; Taki, D.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.; Luecke, C.; Budy, P.; Gross, H.P.; Steinhart, G.

    1994-06-01

    In 1993 we completed research directed at characterizing the 0. nerka populations and their interactions with other fish species in five Sawtooth Valley Lakes. Historically, Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellow Belly Lakes provided Snake River sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawning and rearing habitat (Evermann 1896; Bjornn 1968). All of these lakes, with exception to Yellow Belly, still support 0. nerka populations. In chapter 1 of this report we describe 0. nerka spawning locations and densities, tributary fry recruitment, and results from a habitat survey completed in Redfish Lake. In chapter 2 we review foraging habits of fish that may compete with, or prey on 0. nerka populations. Kokanee fry emergence from Fishhook Creek in 1993 was 160,000. Fry emergence increased nearly five fold over that reported in 1992. Interestingly, spawning densities in 1991 and 1992 were somewhat similar (7,200 and 9,600, respectively). Discharge from Fishhook Creek was markedly higher in 1992 and may have caused the better egg to fry survival. 0. nerka spawning on sockeye beach appeared limited (< 100 fish). Additionally, sockeye beach was the only area that wild or residual sockeye were located. Of 24 adult sockeye released into Redfish Lake, from the brood stock program, two were found spawning in the south end of the lake. Results from the habitat survey indicated that substrate composition on sockeye beach is poor. 0. nerka diet patterns shifted from chironomid prey in June zooplankton prey in September. Rainbow trout consumed a broadrange of prey, with few instances of significant diet overlap with 0. nerka. Northern squawfish, bull char, and lake trout preyed on 0. nerka. Utilization of 0. nerka by predators was greatest in September

  5. The regeneration of thermal wound on mice skin (Mus Musculus) after Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser irradiation for cancer therapy candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsari, R.; Nahdliyatun, E.; Winarni, D.

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the regeneration of mice skin tissue (Mus Musculus) irradiated by Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser and morphological change due to Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser irradiation compared to conventional heating (hairdryer). The 2-3 month of twenty-seven mice were used for experimental animals. Mice were incised in the dorsum by the damage effect of laser energy dose (therapeutic dose) of 29.5 J/cm2 with 10 seconds of exposure time, 10 Hz of repetition rate, and 100 pulses of the given single pulse energy. The mice skin tissue was injuried by hairdryer to get burned effect. Mice were divided into three groups, Group I (control) were not treated by anything, Group II were treated by Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser irradiation and sacrificed on (0, 1, 3, 5) days, and Group III were treated by hairdryer then sacrificed on (0, 1, 3, 5) days. Pathology examination showed that the energy of 29,5 J/cm2 dose produced the hole effect (ablation) through the hypodermic layer caused by optical breakdown and collagen coagulation. Thus, the 60 °C temperature of burn showed coagulation necrosis because piknosis discovered in the injured area. The regeneration process showed that the mice skin tissue's ability to regenerate was irradiated by fast laser because of the focus of Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser. It was showed by the scab releases on third day and completely reepithelialization formation on the fifth day. The collagen fibers distribution was same as normal skin tissue on day 5 and so did angiogenesis. Therefore, Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser can be applied for problems of dermatology medical therapies, especially melasma, nevus of ota and tatto therapy. For skin cancer therapy application, energy dose of unregenerated skin tissue is chosen because the death expected effect is permanent.

  6. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, S.; Rashid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  7. Depressed polymorphonuclear cell functions in periparturient cows that develop postpartum reproductive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rafiqul; Kumar, Harendra; Singh, Gyanendra; Krishnan, Binsila B; Dey, Sahadeb

    2017-09-01

    The study was planned to see if there is any important and significant changes in the PMN function in cows suffering from postpartum reproductive diseases (PRD). Blood sampling was done from 41 pregnant cows on 15 days prepartum (-15d), calving day (0d), 15 days (15d) and 30 days (30d) postpartum and thorough gynaecological examination was performed on 0d, 15d, 30d and 45d for diagnosis of PRD like retained placenta (RP), clinical metritis (CM), clinical endometritis (CE) and delayed involution of uterus (DIU). The heparinised blood was used for isolation of PMN leukocytes for estimation of superoxide (SO), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in each group of cows. The SO production (ΔOD) was greater for normal (0.19 ± 0.05) than cows suffering from RP (-0.12 ± 0.09), CM (-0.15 ± 0.13) and CE (-0.07 ± 0.05) at -15d. The mean value was greater for normal cows (0.12) than the cows with PRD (0.05 to 0.9) at 30d. The H 2 O 2 production was greater for normal than cows with PRD at all sampling days and significantly greater than cows with RP and CE at 15d (p cows on 0d. The depressed capability of the PMN from the cows with PRD to produce SO, H 2 O 2 and MPO during the periparturient period indicated their association with the development of RP, CM and CE.

  8. Assessment of right ventricular oxidative metabolism by PET in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing cardiac resynchronisation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuti, Juhani; Naum, Alexandru; Stolen, Kira Q.; Kalliokoski, Riikka [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Sundell, Jan [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Medicine, Turku (Finland); Engblom, Erik; Koistinen, Juhani; Airaksinen, K.E. Juhani [University of Turku, Department of Medicine, Turku (Finland); Ylitalo, Antti [Satakunta Central Hospital, Department of Medicine, Pori (Finland); Nekolla, Stephan G. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Munich (Germany); Bax, K.E. Jeroen J. [Leiden University, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2004-12-01

    Right ventricular (RV) performance is known to have prognostic value in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) has been found to enhance left ventricular (LV) energetics and metabolic reserve in patients with heart failure. The interplay between the LV and RV may play an important role in CRT response. The purpose of the study was to investigate RV oxidative metabolism, metabolic reserve and the effects of CRT in patients with CHF and left bundle brach block. In addition, the role of the RV in the response to CRT was evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who had undergone implantation of a biventricular pacemaker 8{+-}5 months earlier were studied under two conditions: CRT ON and after CRT had been switched OFF for 24 h. Oxidative metabolism was measured using [{sup 11}C]acetate positron emission tomography (K{sub mono}). The measurements were performed at rest and during dobutamine-induced stress (5 {mu}g/kg per minute). LV performance and interventricular mechanical delay (interventricular asynchrony) were measured using echocardiography. CRT had no effect on RV K{sub mono} at rest (ON: 0.052{+-}0.014, OFF: 0.047{+-}0.018, NS). Dobutamine-induced stress increased RV K{sub mono} significantly under both conditions but oxidative metabolism was more enhanced when CRT was ON (0.076{+-}0.026 vs 0.065{+-}0.027, p=0.003). CRT shortened interventricular delay significantly (45{+-}33 vs 19{+-}35 ms, p=0.05). In five patients the response to CRT was striking (32% increase in mean LV stroke volume, range 18-36%), while in the other five patients no response was observed (mean change +2%, range -6% to +4%). RV K{sub mono} and LV stroke volume response to CRT correlated inversely (r=-0.66, p=0.034). None of the other measured parameters, including all LV parameters and electromechanical parameters, were associated with the response to CRT. In responders, RV K{sub mono} with CRT OFF was significantly lower

  9. Soil pH Errors Propagation from Measurements to Spatial Predictions - Cost Benefit Analysis and Risk Assessment Implications for Practitioners and Modelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, P. R.; Libohova, Z.; Seybold, C. A.; Wills, S. A.; Peaslee, S.; Beaudette, D.; Lindbo, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The measurement errors and spatial prediction uncertainties of soil properties in the modeling community are usually assessed against measured values when available. However, of equal importance is the assessment of errors and uncertainty impacts on cost benefit analysis and risk assessments. Soil pH was selected as one of the most commonly measured soil properties used for liming recommendations. The objective of this study was to assess the error size from different sources and their implications with respect to management decisions. Error sources include measurement methods, laboratory sources, pedotransfer functions, database transections, spatial aggregations, etc. Several databases of measured and predicted soil pH were used for this study including the United States National Cooperative Soil Survey Characterization Database (NCSS-SCDB), the US Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database. The distribution of errors among different sources from measurement methods to spatial aggregation showed a wide range of values. The greatest RMSE of 0.79 pH units was from spatial aggregation (SSURGO vs Kriging), while the measurement methods had the lowest RMSE of 0.06 pH units. Assuming the order of data acquisition based on the transaction distance i.e. from measurement method to spatial aggregation the RMSE increased from 0.06 to 0.8 pH units suggesting an "error propagation". This has major implications for practitioners and modeling community. Most soil liming rate recommendations are based on 0.1 pH unit increments, while the desired soil pH level increments are based on 0.4 to 0.5 pH units. Thus, even when the measured and desired target soil pH are the same most guidelines recommend 1 ton ha-1 lime, which translates in 111 ha-1 that the farmer has to factor in the cost-benefit analysis. However, this analysis need to be based on uncertainty predictions (0.5-1.0 pH units) rather than measurement errors (0.1 pH units) which would translate in 555-1,111 investment that

  10. A Monte Carlo simulation study comparing linear regression, beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression and fractional logit regression at recovering average difference measures in a two sample design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Christopher; Moineddin, Rahim

    2014-01-24

    response data are generated from a discrete multinomial distribution with support on (0,1). The linear regression model, the variable-dispersion beta regression model and the fractional logit regression model all perform well across the simulation experiments under consideration. When employing beta regression to estimate covariate effects on (0,1) response data, researchers should ensure their dispersion sub-model is properly specified, else inferential errors could arise.

  11. Diffusion-weighted imaging helps differentiate multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica-related acute optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hailin; He, Huijin; Zhang, Fang; Sha, Yan; Tian, Guohong

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values between multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-related acute optic neuritis (ON) patients and predict their optic nerve atrophy of optic coherence tomography (OCT) parameters. Nineteen MS and 15 NMO-related acute ON patients who underwent a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence in 3.0 Tesla MR scanner and a follow-up OCT examination after 6 months were included. The ADC values, thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) between MS and NMO related ON were assessed. The mean ADC value of the NMO-ON, (0.691 ± 0.195[SD]) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, was significantly smaller (P = 0.0133) than that of MS-ON. The mean ADC value of MS-ON, (0.879 ± 0.144) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, was significantly smaller (P < 0.0001) than that of control group, (1.025 ± 0.067) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s. Using an ADC value smaller than 0.830 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s as the threshold value for differentiating MS-ON from NMO-ON patients, the highest accuracy of 76.7%, with 75.0% sensitivity and 78.3% specificity, was obtained. The ADC value measured at the acute stage of ON was correlated with the thickness of the RNFL (r = 0.441; P = 0.006) and the GCC (r = 0.526; P < 0.0001) after 6 months. The ADC value might be helpful for differentiating MS-ON from NMO-ON patients. The decreased ADC value was correlated with optic nerve atrophy on OCT. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1780-1785. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Hydrogen production and enzyme activities in the hyperthermophile Thermococcus paralvinellae grown on maltose, tryptone and agricultural waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Hensley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermococcus may be an important alternative source of H2 in the hot subseafloor in otherwise low H2 environments such as some hydrothermal vents and oil reservoirs. It may also be useful in industry for rapid agricultural waste treatment and concomitant H2 production. Thermococcus paralvinellae grown at 82°C without sulfur produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L-1 at rates of 5-36 fmol H2 cell-1 h-1 on 0.5% (wt vol-1 maltose, 0.5% (wt vol-1 tryptone, and 0.5% maltose + 0.05% tryptone media. Two potentially inhibiting conditions, the presence of 10 mM acetate and low pH (pH 5 in maltose-only medium, did not significantly affect growth or H2 production. Growth rates, H2 production rates, and cell yields based on H2 production were the same as those for Pyrococcus furiosus grown at 95°C on the same media for comparison. Acetate, butyrate, succinate, isovalerate and formate were also detected as end products. After 100 h, T. paralvinellae produced up to 5 mmol of H2 L-1 of medium when grown on up to 70% (vol vol-1 waste milk from cows undergoing treatment for mastitis with the bacterial antibiotic Ceftiofur and from untreated cows. The amount of H2 produced by T. paralvinellae increased with increasing waste concentrations, but decreased in P. furiosus cultures supplemented with waste milk above 1% concentration. All mesophilic bacteria from the waste milk that grew on Luria Bertani, Sheep’s Blood (selective for Staphylococcus, the typical cause of mastitis, and MacConkey (selective for Gram-negative enteric bacteria agar plates were killed by heat during incubation at 82°C. Ceftiofur, which is heat labile, was below the detection limit following incubation at 82°C. T. paralvinellae also produced up to 6 mmol of H2 L-1 of medium when grown on 0.1-10% (wt vol-1 spent brewery grain while P. furiosus produced < 1 mmol of H2 L-1. Twelve of 13 enzyme activities in T. paralvinellae showed significant (p<0.05 differences across six different growth conditions

  13. Differential effects of physical activity and sleep duration on cognitive function in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Kato

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although exercise and sleep duration habits are associated with cognitive function, their beneficial effects on cognitive function remain unclear. We aimed to examine the effect of sleep duration and daily physical activity on cognitive function, elucidating the neural mechanisms using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Methods: A total of 23 healthy young adults (age 22.0 ± 2.2 years participated in this study. Exercise amount was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer. We evaluated total sleep time (TST and sleep efficiency by actigraphy. Cognitive function was tested using the N-back task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, and the Continuous Performance Test–Identical Pairs (CPT-IP, and the cortical oxygenated hemoglobin levels during a word fluency task were measured with NIRS. Results: Exercise amount was significantly correlated with reaction time on 0- and 1-back tasks (r = −0.602, p = 0.002; r = −0.446, p = 0.033, respectively, whereas TST was significantly correlated with % corrects on the 2-back task (r = 0.486, p = 0.019. Multiple regression analysis, including exercise amount, TST, and sleep efficiency, revealed that exercise amount was the most significant factor for reaction time on 0- and 1-back tasks (β = −0.634, p = 0.002; β = −0.454, p = 0.031, respectively, and TST was the most significant factor for % corrects on the 2-back task (β = 0.542, p = 0.014. The parameter measured by WCST and CPT-IP was not significantly correlated with TST or exercise amount. Exercise amount, but not TST, was significantly correlated with the mean area under the NIRS curve in the prefrontal area (r = 0.492, p = 0.017. Conclusion: Exercise amount and TST had differential effects on working memory and cortical activation in the prefrontal area. Daily physical activity and appropriate sleep duration may play an important role in working memory. Keywords: Cortical

  14. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor. Part 11 (Methuen, Mass-Winsted, Minnesota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

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  15. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  16. Anaerobic digestion for treatment of stillage from cellulosic bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhuoli; Mohan, Gayathri Ram; Ingram, Lonnie; Pullammanappallil, Pratap

    2013-09-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of stillage from a cellulosic ethanol process that uses sugarcane bagasse as feedstock was investigated. A biochemical methane potential (BMP) of 200 ml CH4 at STP (g VS)(-1) was obtained. The whole stillage was separated into two fractions: a fraction retained on 0.5 mm screen called residue and a fraction passing through 0.5 mm screen called filtrate. About 70% of total methane yield of stillage was produced from the filtrate. The filtrate was anaerobically digested in a 15 L semi-continuously fed digester operated for 91 days at HRTs of 21 and 14 days and organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.85 and 2.39 g COD L(-1) d(-1). The methane yield from the stillage from the digester was about 90% of the yield from the BMP assays. The influent soluble COD (sCOD) was reduced from between 35.4 and 38.8 g COD (L(-1)) to between 7.5 and 8 g COD (L(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epitaxial growth and structural characterization of Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, W.; Lemee, N.; Holc, J.; Kosec, M.; Blinc, R.; Karkut, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    We have grown lead iron niobate thin films with composition Pb(Fe 1/2 Nb 1/2 )O 3 (PFN) on (0 0 1) SrTiO 3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The influence of the deposition conditions on the phase purity was studied. Due to similar thermodynamic stability spaces, a pyrochlore phase often coexists with the PFN perovskite phase. By optimizing the kinetic parameters, we succeeded in identifying a deposition window which resulted in epitaxial perovskite-phase PFN thin films with no identifiable trace of impurity phases appearing in the X-ray diffractograms. PFN films having thicknesses between 20 and 200 nm were smooth and epitaxially oriented with the substrate and as demonstrated by RHEED streaks which were aligned with the substrate axes. X-ray diffraction showed that the films were completely c-axis oriented and of excellent crystalline quality with low mosaicity (X-ray rocking curve FWHM≤0.09 deg.). The surface roughness of thin films was also investigated by atomic force microscopy. The root-mean-square roughness varies between 0.9 nm for 50-nm-thick films to 16 nm for 100-nm-thick films. We also observe a correlation between grain size, surface roughness and film thickness.

  18. Effect of load, area of contact, and contact stress on the tribological properties of polyimide bonded graphite fluoride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A pin-on-disk type of friction and wear apparatus was used to study the effect of load, contact stress and rider area of contact on the friction and wear properties of polyimide-bonded graphite fluoride films. Different rider area contacts were obtained by initially generating flats (with areas of 0.0035, 0.0071, 0.0145, and 0.0240 cm) on 0.476-cm radius hemispherically-tipped riders. Different projected contact stresses were obtained by applying loads of 2.5-to 58.8-N to the flats. Two film wear mechanisms were observed. The first was found to be a linear function of contact stress and was independent of rider area of contact. The second was found to increase exponentially as the stress increased. The second also appeared to be a function of rider contact area. Wear equations for each mechanism were empirically derived from the experimental data. In general, friction coefficients increased with increasing rider contact area and with sliding duration. This was related to the build-up of thick rider transfer films.

  19. Effect of load, area of contact, and contact stress on the wear mechanisms of a bonded solid lubricant film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A pin on disk type of friction and wear apparatus was used to study the effect of load, contact stress and rider area of contact on the friction and wear properties of polyimide bonded graphite fluoride films. Different rider area contacts were obtained by initially generating flats (with areas of 0.0035, 0.0071, 0.0145, and 0.0240 cm) on 0.476-cm radius hemispherically tipped riders. Different projected contact stresses were obtained by applying loads of 2.5- to 58.8-N to the flats. Two film wear mechanisms were observed. The first was found to be a linear function of contact stress and was independent of rider area of contact. The second was found to increase exponentially as the stress increased. The second also appeared to be a function of rider contact area. Wear equations for each mechanism were empirically derived from the experimental data. In general, friction coefficients increased with increasing rider contact area and with sliding duration. This was related to the build up of thick rider transfer films.

  20. Recent activities of the ESARDA working group on NDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, R.J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The European Safeguards Research and Development Association, ESARDA, has one of the largest coordinated safeguards and development programs in the world. There are several working groups for specific R and D activities. One of these is the ''ESARDA Working Group on Techniques and Standards for non-Destructive Analysis''. The NDA working group has initiated the international project of the preparation of uranium oxide certified reference materials for the gamma spectrometric determination of the enrichment, which are made in a collaboration with the US NBS and the European Communities' Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, CBNM, at Geel. The possibility of a similar type of reference material for Pu isotopic abundance measurements is investigated at CBNM, and the pilot samples may become available for intercomparisons. Safeguards acceptability and users manual have been considered carefully. The working group has undertaken an intercomparison on the determination of plutonium isotopic ratios by gamma spectrometry, using NBS-SRM's-946, -947 and 948. A new exercise on 0,5 gram samples of seven different isotopic compositions samples will be executed under the name PIDIE (Plutonium Isotopic Determination Intercomparison Exercise)

  1. Effect of essential oil compound on shedding and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, W Q; Hofacre, C L; Mathis, G F; Faltys, G

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of an essential oil blend (EO; carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, lemon) administered in drinking water on the performance, mortality, water consumption, pH of crop and ceca, and Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg fecal shedding and colonization in broiler birds following Salmonella Heidelberg challenge and feed withdrawal. Chicks were randomly assigned to water treatments containing 0.05, 0.025, or 0.0125% EO or untreated controls. Treatments were administered in drinking water on 0 to 7 and 35 to 42 d. One-half of the chicks were challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg and placed in pens with unchallenged chicks on d 1. Performance, mortality, water consumption, and pH were determined during the 42-d study. Prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg was determined on drag swabs (0, 14, and 42 d) and in the ceca and crops (42 d). The 0.05% EO administered in drinking water significantly (P water significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio and increased weight gain compared with controls, but did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in the crops. The EO in drinking water did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in ceca or fecal shedding in broilers. The EO used in the study may control Salmonella Heidelberg contamination in crops of broilers when administered in drinking water and therefore may reduce the potential for cross-contamination of the carcass when the birds are processed.

  2. Application of various surface passivation layers in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Youn; Lee, Soo Hong

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have used different techniques for surface passivation: conventional thermal oxidation (CTO), rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The surface passivation qualities of eight different single and combined double layers have been investigated both on phosphorus non-diffused p-type Float Zone (FZ) silicon wafers and on diffused emitters (100 Ω/□ and 40 Ω/□). CTO/SiN 1 passivates very well not only on a non-diffused surface (τ eff = 1361 μs) but also on an emitter (τ eff = 414 μs). However, we concluded that RTO/SiN 1 and RTO/SiN 2 stacks were more suitable than CTO/SiN stacks for surface passivation in solar cells since those stacks had relatively good passivation qualities and suitable optical reflections. RTO/SiN 1 for rear-surface passivation and RTO/SiN 2 for front-surface passivation were applied to the fabrication of solar cells. We achieved efficiencies of 18.5 % and 18.8 % on 0.5 Ω-cm (FZ) silicon with planar and textured front surfaces, respectively. An excellent open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 675.6 mV was obtained for the planar cell.

  3. Thermal desorption (TD) study of heterogeneous catalytic reactions--4. Nonuniformity of Pt/. gamma. -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozanov, V V [Inst. Chem. Phys. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R.; Sklyarov, A V; Gland, J

    1979-10-01

    Programed TD of n-heptane adsorbed on 0.6-3% by wt Pt/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ laboratory catalysts with different dispersities of the metallic phase showed the formation of toluene at 160/sup 0/-260/sup 0/C with spectral maxima at about 200/sup 0/ and 230/sup 0/C and a benzene desorption maxima at 300/sup 0/C. The desorption of both benzene and the high-temperature form of toluene decreased with decreased dispersity of the catalyst and was not observed with the catalyst characterized by an average Pt particle size of 1000 A. Toluene adsorbed on the same catalysts showed a TD peak of benzene at 300/sup 0/C. With commercial Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ reforming catalysts, up to five toluene desorption peaks were observed at 200/sup 0/-360/sup 0/C, suggesting the presence of active sites with different activities and concentrations on the catalyst surface. Experiments on TD of deuterated n-heptane suggested different reaction mechanisms associated with different types of active sites and the formation of low- and high-temperature forms of toluene. Only the latter had a maximum coinciding with a TD peak of D/sub 2/ (240/sup 0/C), probably formed by dehydrogenation of adsorbed diene or olefin intermediates.

  4. Highly efficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2-y}S{sub y}/CdS thin-film solar cells by using diethylselenide as selenium precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Ankur A.; Dhere, Neelkanth G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Conventional furnace selenization process was optimized to achieve effective selenization using diethylselenide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}Se (DESe). An optimized quantity of Na was added to improve V{sub oc}, FF and morphology. Sputter-deposited CuGa and In metallic precursors were homogenized in an inert atmosphere prior to the introduction of DESe followed by rapidly heating to the maximum process temperature to avoid formation of detrimental binary phases. Selenization was carried out in the temperature range 475-515 C followed by sulfurization in dilute H{sub 2}S. Solar cells were completed by depositing CdS heterojunction partner layer, i:ZnO/ZnO:Al window-bilayer and metallic contact fingers. PV conversion efficiency of 13.7% with a V{sub oc} of 540 mV, J{sub sc} of 38.3 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 66.3% were obtained on 0.442 cm{sup 2} cell areas. The process can be easily scaled-up for economic large-scale manufacture. (author)

  5. Quantification of biofilm structures by the novel computer program COMSTAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, A; Nielsen, A T; Hentzer, M; Sternberg, C; Givskov, M; Ersbøll, B K; Molin, S

    2000-10-01

    The structural organization of four microbial communities was analysed by a novel computer program, COMSTAT, which comprises ten features for quantifying three-dimensional biofilm image stacks. Monospecies biofilms of each of the four bacteria, Pseudomonas: putida, P. aureofaciens, P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa, tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were grown in flow chambers with a defined minimal medium as substrate. Analysis by the COMSTAT program of four variables describing biofilm structure - mean thickness, roughness, substratum coverage and surface to volume ratio - showed that the four Pseudomonas: strains represent different modes of biofilm growth. P. putida had a unique developmental pattern starting with single cells on the substratum growing into micro-colonies, which were eventually succeeded by long filaments and elongated cell clusters. P. aeruginosa colonized the entire substratum, and formed flat, uniform biofilms. P. aureofaciens resembled P. aeruginosa, but had a stronger tendency to form micro-colonies. Finally, the biofilm structures of P. fluorescens had a phenotype intermediate between those of P. putida and P. aureofaciens. Analysis of biofilms of P. aureofaciens growing on 0.03 mM, 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM citrate minimal media showed that mean biofilm thickness increased with increasing citrate concentration. Moreover, biofilm roughness increased with lower citrate concentrations, whereas surface to volume ratio increased with higher citrate concentrations.

  6. Breast MRI at 7 Tesla with a bilateral coil and T1-weighted acquisition with robust fat suppression: image evaluation and comparison with 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Ryan; Storey, Pippa; McGorty, KellyAnne; Klautau Leite, Ana Paula; Babb, James; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Wiggins, Graham C.; Moy, Linda; Geppert, Christian

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the image quality of T1-weighted fat-suppressed breast MRI at 7 T and to compare 7-T and 3-T images. Seventeen subjects were imaged using a 7-T bilateral transmit-receive coil and 3D gradient echo sequence with adiabatic inversion-based fat suppression (FS). Images were graded on a five-point scale and quantitatively assessed through signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), fibroglandular/fat contrast and signal uniformity measurements. Image scores at 7 and 3 T were similar on standard-resolution images (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.1-1.6 mm 3 ), indicating that high-quality breast imaging with clinical parameters can be performed at 7 T. The 7-T SNR advantage was underscored on 0.6-mm isotropic images, where image quality was significantly greater than at 3 T (4.2 versus 3.1, P ≤ 0.0001). Fibroglandular/fat contrast was more than two times higher at 7 T than at 3 T, owing to effective adiabatic inversion-based FS and the inherent 7-T signal advantage. Signal uniformity was comparable at 7 and 3 T (P < 0.05). Similar 7-T image quality was observed in all subjects, indicating robustness against anatomical variation. The 7-T bilateral transmit-receive coil and adiabatic inversion-based FS technique produce image quality that is as good as or better than at 3 T. (orig.)

  7. Effects of Fruit of Rosa Canina L.Extract on the Level of Plasma Glucose in Male Diabet-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammad Eini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent chronic and complex metabolic diseases of human , which hyperglycemia can be mentioned as its prominent characteristic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of fruit of Rosa canina (R.c. extract in healthy and diabetic rats. Method: A total of 72 Wistar male rats were divided into six group: control,  STZ (diabetic control,  R.c. control (50 mg/kg, R.c. control (100 mg/kg and two experimental groups with 50, and 100 mg/kg of extract dose. Diabetes was induced using streptozotocine (60 mg/kg; IP, and blood collection was carried out on 0, 2 and 4 hours after the oral administration of the extracts. Results: The levels of plasma glucose were determined by spectrophotometric method. In order to statistically analyze the study data, ANOVA test was performed. There was a significant difference between groups concerning the plasma glucose concentration (P<0.0001, which the lowest concentration between diabetes groups was observed in the two experimental groups. Moreover, R.c. had a marked hypoglycemic effect on diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: R.c. extract in hyperglycemic status demands to be further studied in order to control and prevent its complications.

  8. CIGS thin films, solar cells, and submodules fabricated using a rf-plasma cracked Se-radical beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Shogo; Yamada, Akimasa; Shibata, Hajime; Fons, Paul; Niki, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Coevaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) film growth using a rf-plasma cracked Se-radical beam (R-Se) source leads to a significant reduction in the amount of raw Se source material wasted during growth and exhibits unique film properties such as highly dense, smooth surfaces and large grain size. R-Se grown CIGS solar cells also show concomitant unique properties different from conventional evaporative Se (E-Se) source grown CIGS cells. In the present work, the impact of modified surfaces, interfaces, and bulk crystal properties of R-Se grown CIGS films on the solar cell performance was studied. When a R-Se source was used, Na diffusion into CIGS layers was enhanced while a remarkable diffusion of elemental Ga and Se into Mo back contact layers was observed. Improvements in the bulk crystal quality as manifested by large grain size and increased Na concentration with the use of a R-Se source is expected to be effective to improve photovoltaic performance. Using a R-Se source for the growth of CIGS absorber layers at a relatively low growth temperature, we have successfully demonstrated a monolithically integrated submodule efficiency of 15.0% (17 cells, aperture area of 76.5 cm 2 ) on 0.25-mm thick soda-lime glass substrates.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of noble metal-modified TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diak, Magdalena; Grabowska, Ewelina; Zaleska, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO 2 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Pd and Ag NPs-loaded enhanced the photocatalytic activity under visible irradiation. • Photodeposition is an effective method to obtain noble metal NPs on TiO 2 surface. - Abstract: Pt, Pd, Ag and Au nanoparticles were photodeposited on the {0 0 1} crystal facets of the TiO 2 anatase nanosheets. Morphological and surface characterization of the samples as well as photocatalytic activity were studied. The influence of metal precursor concentration used during photodeposition (0.05−0.5%) on size of formed metal nanoparticles together with UV and vis-mediated activity of Pt, Pd, Ag or Au−TiO 2 was investigated. Generally, samples obtained by photodeposition of noble metal nanoparticles using their 0.2% precursor solutions revealed highest activity in phenol degradation reaction under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The photoactivity of the as-prepared samples with respect to the modified metal species was ordered Ag≅Pd > Au > Pt. TEM analysis showed that photodeposited metal nanoparticles appeared only on {0 0 1} facets of TiO 2 . The average degradation rate of phenol in the presence of Pd and Ag−TiO 2 was 0.5 μmol dm −3 min −1 after 60 min of irradiation under visible light, and was five times higher than that of pure TiO 2 nanosheets

  10. A novel preconcentration technique for the PIXE analysis of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.M.; Robertson, J.D.; Majidi, V.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of using dried algae as a novel preconcentration technique for the analysis of water samples by PIXE was examined. 5 mg of dried algae powder were mixed with 5 mL of single- and multi-metal solutions. The algae cells were then collected by filtration on 0.6 um polycarbonate membranes and analyzed by PIXE using a dual energy irradiation. When C. vulgatis was used on mixed metal solutions, linear responses were observed for Ag + , Ba 2+ , and Cd 2+ in the concentration range from 10 ng/g to 1 ug/g; for Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ from 10 ng/g to 5 ug/g; and for Hg 2+ from 10 ng/g to 10 ug/g. When S. bacillaris was used, linear responses were observed from 10 ng/g up to 10 ug/g for all of the metal cations investigated. The PIXE results demonstrated that metal binding at low concentrations involves replacement of sodium on the cell wall and that at high concentrations magnesium is also replaced

  11. The structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of LiAlB{sub 4} under pressure from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayran, Ceren; Aydin, Sezgin [Department of Physics, Sciences Faculty, Gazi University, 06500, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    The structural, elastic, mechanical, and electronic properties of lithium aluminum tetraboride (LiAlB{sub 4}) under hydrostatic pressure have been investigated by using first-principles density functional theory calculations. The effects of pressure on the lattice parameters, volume, and bond lengths are studied. It is indicated from the calculated elastic constants that LiAlB{sub 4} compound is mechanically stable on 0-40 GPa pressure range. And, by means of these elastic constants set, some mechanical properties such as bulk, shear and Young's moduli, and then Poisson's ratio are determined as a function of pressure. Also, the ductile or brittle nature of LiAlB{sub 4} is examined. Additionally, using the first-principles data obtained from the geometry optimizations, the hardness of LiAlB{sub 4} is calculated, and its nature is investigated under pressure. Furthermore, in order to reveal the effects of pressure on the electronic and binding behavior of the compound, band structures, total and partial density of states, charge densities, Mulliken atomic charges, and bond overlap populations are searched as a function of pressure. To check the stability of the compound, phonon dispersion curves are calculated. And, the results are compared with the other convenient borides. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Electrothermal plasma gun as a pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, R.W.; Bourham, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The NCSU electrothermal plasma gun SIRENS has been used to accelerate plastic (Lexan polycarbonate) pellets, to determine the feasibility of the use of electrothermal guns as pellet injectors. The use of an electrothermal gun to inject frozen hydrogenic pellets requires a mechanism to provide protective shells (sabots) for shielding the pellet from ablation during acceleration into and through the barrel of the gun. The gun has been modified to accommodate acceleration of the plastic pellets using special acceleration barrels equipped with diagnostics for velocity and position of the pellet, and targets to absorb the pellet's energy on impact. The length of the acceleration path could be varied between 15 and 45 cm. The discharge energy of the electrothermal gun ranged from 2 to 6 kJ. The pellet velocities have been measured via a set of break wires. Pellet masses were varied between 0.5 and 1.0 grams. Preliminary results on 0.5 and 1.0 g pellets show that the exit velocity reaches 0.9 km/s at 6 kJ input energy to the source. Higher velocities of 1.5 and 2.7 km/s have been achieved using 0.5 and 1.0 gm pellets in 30 cm long barrel, without cleaning the barrel between the shots

  13. Anticalculus efficacy of a new dentifrice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena, Carmen; Forner, Leopoldo; Vento, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    The Volpe and Manhold Index (VMI) was used to evaluate the anticalculus efficacy of the dentifrice Fluor Kin antisarro, used on adults twice a day for 2 minutes over 3 months, in comparison with the dentifrice Lacer. A clinical study in which 48 adults took part was designed. The presence of calculus was determined at baseline (VMI), a tartrectomy was performed, and the patients were instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 2 minutes, using a medium-bristled toothbrush with a commercial dentifrice containing 0.2% aldioxa and 1.9% sodium monofluorophosphate. Three months later, VMI was determined again. After 2 weeks, a new tartrectomy was performed on the same patients, and the subjects were instructed to brush their teeth as before, this time with the study dentifrice based on 0.32% sodium fluoride, 4.1% tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, 2.0% PVM/MA (methylvinylether/maleic acid) copolymer (Gantrez S), 1.0% provitamin B5, and 0.2% vitamin B3. After an additional 3 months, dental calculus was determined again. The study dentifrice showed a significant reduction in VMI in relation to the initial situation (P = .009). There were also significant differences in VMI values between the 2 dentifrices (P = .010). VMI differences were not significant for either dentifrice when analyzed by gender, tobacco use, and toothbrushing frequency before starting the study. Brushing twice a day for 2 minutes with Fluor Kin antisarro effectively reduces supragingival calculus.

  14. Crossover from negative to positive magnetoresistance in superconductor/ferromagnet composites thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, O. [Centro de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Narino, Ciudad Universitaria Torobajo, Pasto (Colombia); Baca, E. [Grupo de Ingenieria de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Fuchs, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Moran, O., E-mail: omoranc@unal.edu.c [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568 Medellin (Colombia)

    2010-11-15

    Thick films of ((Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}){sub 0.95}/(LaSr{sub 0.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 3}){sub 0.05} [(Bi-2223){sub 0.95}(LSMO){sub 0.05}] composites were fabricated on (0 0 1)-oriented LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by a simple melting-quenching-annealing method and their structural, morphological and magnetoelectrical properties carefully studied. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns suggested a highly oriented growth along the c-axis of LSMO. This preferred orientation, with the crystal c-axis being perpendicular to the plane of the substrate, was considered to be indicative of a textured growth mode. Electrical and magnetic measurements showed the presence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in the composite at temperatures above room temperature and below T{approx}50 K, respectively. A clear crossover from negative to positive magnetoresistance was observed at {approx}80 K in a magnetic field as strong as 5 T.

  15. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hayyim, G; Kochba, J

    1983-07-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of ;Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K(+) and Cl(-) accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl(-). (d) Removal of Ca(2+) from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change.

  16. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hayyim, Gozal; Kochba, Joshua

    1983-01-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of `Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na+ and Cl− uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K+ and Cl− accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl−. (d) Removal of Ca2+ from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16663067

  17. Double-beta decay with majoron emission in GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Sabine

    2015-07-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay with emission of one or two majorons (0 νββχ( χ)) is predicted by several beyond-Standard-Model theories. This article reviews the results of a search for 0 νββχ( χ) of 76Ge using data from the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, located underground at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The analysis comprised data with an exposure of 20.3 kg·yr from the first phase of the experiment. No indication of contributions to the observed energy spectra was detected for any of the majoron models. The lower limit on the half-life for the ordinary majoron model (spectral index n = 1 was determined to be T {1/2/0 νβ } > 4.2 · 1023 yr (90% quantile). This limit and the limits derived for the other majoron modes constitute the most stringent limits on 0 νββχ( χ) decay of 76Ge measured to date.

  18. Hydrothermal growth of upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ruixia; Yang, Ping; Dong, Xiaobin; Jia, Changchao; Li, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals were hydrothermally fabricated. • The ZnO sheets were prepared with sodium oxalate at 70 °C without any surfactant. • The preferable adsorption of oxalate anions causes the formation of ZnO sheet. • The continuous growth in six directions leads to the formation of hexagonal sheets. - Abstract: Large-scale upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals were fabricated on Zn substrate using sodium oxalate as structure-directing agent by a hydrothermal method at low temperature (70 °C) without any surfactant. The sheets are about 3–5 μm in dimension and 100–300 nm in thickness. The strong and narrow diffraction peaks of ZnO indicate that the sample has a good crystallinity and size. The morphology of sheet-like ZnO varied with the concentrations of sodium oxalate and reaction time. The sheet-like ZnO would transform into rod-like ones when sodium oxalate was substituted by equivalent sodium acetate. The formation of sheet-like ZnO is attributed to the preferable adsorption of oxalate anions on (0 0 0 1) face of ZnO, which inhibits the intrinsic growth of ZnO. Additionally, the continuous growth in six (0 1 −1 0) directions that have the lowest surface energy leads to the formation of hexagonal sheets

  19. Management of knee osteoarthritis with cupping therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asim Ali; Jahangir, Umar; Urooj, Shaista

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy at a clinical setting for knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Cupping was performed on 0-6(th) day; 9-11(th) day and 14(th) day, i.e., 11 sittings follow-up to determine longer term carryover of treatment effects utilizing both objective and subjective assessment. The assessment was performed before and after treatment spreading over a period of 15 days. The results of this study shows significant and better results in the overall management of knee osteoarthritis, particularly in relieving pain, edema, stiffness and disability. The efficacy of treatment with cupping therapy in relieving signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis is comparable to that of acetaminophen 650 mg thrice a day orally, in terms of analgesia, anti-inflammatory and resolution of edema with minimal and temporary side-effects like echymosis and blister formation while as control drug has greater side-effects particularly on upper gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended that further studies are conducted with a larger study samples and of longer duration.

  20. Management of knee osteoarthritis with cupping therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Ali Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy at a clinical setting for knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Cupping was performed on 0-6 th day; 9-11 th day and 14 th day, i.e., 11 sittings follow-up to determine longer term carryover of treatment effects utilizing both objective and subjective assessment. The assessment was performed before and after treatment spreading over a period of 15 days. The results of this study shows significant and better results in the overall management of knee osteoarthritis, particularly in relieving pain, edema, stiffness and disability. The efficacy of treatment with cupping therapy in relieving signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis is comparable to that of acetaminophen 650 mg thrice a day orally, in terms of analgesia, anti-inflammatory and resolution of edema with minimal and temporary side-effects like echymosis and blister formation while as control drug has greater side-effects particularly on upper gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended that further studies are conducted with a larger study samples and of longer duration.

  1. High current photoemission with 10 picosecond uv pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.

    1990-06-01

    The quantum efficiency and the optical damage threshold of various metals were explored with 10 ps, 266 nm, UV laser pulses. Efficiencies for Cu, Y, and Sm were: 1.4, 5, and 7 x 10 -4 , with damage thresholds about 100, 10, and 30 mJ/cm 2 . This would permit over 1 μC/cm 2 or current densities exceeding 100 kA/cm 2 . High charge and current densities of up to 66 kA/cm 2 were obtained on 0.25 mm diam cathodes, and 21 kA/cm 2 on a 3 mm diam yttrium cathode. The maximum currents were limited by space charge and the dc field. The experiments with small area illumination indicate that the emitted electrons spread transversely due to Coulomb repulsion and their initial transverse velocity. This increases the effective area above the cathode, reduces the space charge effect and increases emission density on the cathode. The quantum efficiency can be increased substantially by enhancing the field on the surface by either a suitable electrode geometry or microstructures on it. 14 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  2. No evidence for an open vessel effect in centrifuge-based vulnerability curves of a long-vesselled liana (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Anna L; Pratt, R Brandon

    2012-06-01

    Vulnerability to cavitation curves are used to estimate xylem cavitation resistance and can be constructed using multiple techniques. It was recently suggested that a technique that relies on centrifugal force to generate negative xylem pressures may be susceptible to an open vessel artifact in long-vesselled species. Here, we used custom centrifuge rotors to measure different sample lengths of 1-yr-old stems of grapevine to examine the influence of open vessels on vulnerability curves, thus testing the hypothesized open vessel artifact. These curves were compared with a dehydration-based vulnerability curve. Although samples differed significantly in the number of open vessels, there was no difference in the vulnerability to cavitation measured on 0.14- and 0.271-m-long samples of Vitis vinifera. Dehydration and centrifuge-based curves showed a similar pattern of declining xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) with declining water potential. The percentage loss in hydraulic conductivity (PLC) differed between dehydration and centrifuge curves and it was determined that grapevine is susceptible to errors in estimating maximum K(s) during dehydration because of the development of vessel blockages. Our results from a long-vesselled liana do not support the open vessel artifact hypothesis. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Bendable Electro-Acoustic Transducer Fabricated Utilizing Frequency Dispersion of Elastic Modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tetsu; Ohga, Juro

    2013-09-01

    To realize the speaker diaphragm that can be united with a flexible display without deteriorating lightweight properties and flexibility, a novel bendable electro-acoustic transducer (BEAT) based on 0-3-type piezoelectric composites has been developed. To overcome the trade-off between flexibility and the transmission efficiency of vibration energy, a viscoelastic polymer that has local maximum points in the loss factor as well as large frequency dispersion in the storage modulus near room temperature was employed as the matrix of the piezoelectric composite layer. Against the comparatively slow (10 Hz or less) deformation from the outside, the viscoelastic matrix is viscous enough to prevent cracking and delamination. On the other hand, in the audible range (20 Hz to 20 kHz), the matrix is elastic enough to transmit piezoelectric vibration energy, maintaining a moderately large loss factor as well as a high sound velocity. For the first time, we successfully demonstrated a rollable speaker that can continue to generate a high-quality sound while being rolled and unrolled repeatedly onto a cylinder with a curvature radius of 4 mm.

  4. Stability and dewetting kinetics of thin gold films on Ti, TiOx and ZnO adhesion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Brian T.; Cheung, Jeffrey; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Jones, Jacob L.; Nagarajan, Valanoor

    2013-01-01

    We present an in situ high-temperature confocal laser microscopy study on the thermal stability of 40 nm thick gold thin films grown on 40 nm Ti, TiO x and ZnO adhesion layers on (0 0 1) Si. In situ observation of the dewetting process was performed over a wide range of set temperatures (400–800 °C) and ramp rates (10–50 °C min −1 ) for each gold/adhesion layer combination. We found that significant dewetting and subsequent formation of gold islands occurs only at and above 700 °C for all adhesion layers. The dewetting is driven to equilibrium for gold/ZnO compared to gold/Ti and gold/TiO x as confirmed by ex situ X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy characterization. Quantification of the in situ data through stretched exponential kinetic models reveals an underlying apparent activation energy of the dewetting process. This energy barrier for dewetting is higher for gold/Ti and gold/TiO x compared to gold/ZnO, thus confirming the ex situ observations. We rationalize that these apparent activation energies correspond to the underlying thermal stability of each gold/adhesion layer system

  5. Microstructure and transport properties of [0 0 1]-tilt bicrystal grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductor, cobalt-doped BaFe2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between microstructure and transport properties of bicrystal grain boundary (BGB) junctions were studied in cobalt-doped BaFe 2 As 2 (BaFe 2 As 2 :Co) epitaxial films grown on [0 0 1]-tilt bicrystal substrates of MgO and (La, Sr)(Al, Ta)O 3 with misorientation angles θ GB = 3–45°. The θ GB of BaFe 2 As 2 :Co BGBs were exactly transferred from those of the bicrystal substrates. No segregation of impurities was detected at the BGB junction interfaces, and the chemical compositions of the BGBs were uniform and the same as those in the bulk film regions. A transition from a strongly-coupled GB behavior to a weak-link behavior was observed in current density–voltage characteristics under self-field around θ GB ∼ 9°. The critical current density decreased from (1.2–1.6) × 10 6 A/cm 2 of the intragrain transport to (0.7–1.1) × 10 5 A/cm 2 of θ GB = 45° because supercurrent becomes more governed by Josephson current with increasing θ GB .

  6. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 20 (Tru & Associates Inc-VTM Group Joint Venture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    0)0000 . 00N.I Mai N 0 00 00 0 0 O-N 0 4 W 000000" 00000 0000000000 4CG a N C I 0(0) .N O 0 a a a 00N0I 0N40 acca 00O -44I- 406c()6-000004000c00NN 0...4Cq N ftŔ CV)~ f6 .C 40 8080 a0 00Vm nOItoM N 8-4CN3 N 41-4 00D 001011 -4 IP-N~ aN C1 ( N4N W N W-4CY3 N 1P-F- m= 000)0 P. rp5- 04 001-01.4 CN N 8-4N0...ZZ Uh 0))0-40 U OOOONN NNP4N* CGONN 10000000000 C0to00 o 000 U IOCC C 0C000 000 0o 000M 40000IO 000an -c -4 x4 Q f6 % U -- 4NNNNN NN04 -4 -4N" N NN

  7. Assimilation of formaldehyde and other C1-compounds by Gliocladium deliquescens and Paecilomyces varioti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Kenji; Kurane, Ryuichiro; Murata, Machiko

    1975-01-01

    Two fungi were isolated from soil which grew on 0.1--0.2% formaldehyde as the sole carbon source, and identified as Gliocladium deliquescens and Paecilomyces varioti. Both the strains could grow on 5% methanol and 5% Na-formate, while the former could grow even on 7% methanol. Metabolic pathways were traced through two dimensional paper chromatography and autoradiographic techniques using 14 C-formaldehyde, 14 C-methanol or 14 C-CO 2 as substrates. The intracellular metabolites were persued and their quantitative variation with time was measured. Along with the fact that serine and malate appeared in the earlier time, then appeared organic acids and amino acids belonging to TCA cycle, and the fact that hydroxy-pyruvate reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities were much stronger in methanol culture than in ethanol culture, it was concluded that the two fungi followed the serine pathway in assimilating C 1 -compounds. Oxidation enzymes of methanol and formaldehyde were also studied, and an oxidizing system was found besides usual NAD linked methanol or formaldehyde dehydrogenases. (auth.)

  8. Leach testing of SYNROC and glass samples at 85 and 200/degree/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.; Ringwood, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Leach tests were conducted on 0.5 g disc samples of SYNROC and two glass types using distilled water at 85 and 200/degree/C. No leaching was detected for SYNROC at either temperature. Thus, the upper limit on leach rate for SYNROC is <0.005 g/m/sup 2/d. Waste glass PNL 76-68 had leach rates of 1.4 g/m/sup 2/ d at 85/degree/C and 8.9 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C, while 73-1 glass frit had a leach rate of 41 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C. The leach tests were repeated in the presence of rock powders. Again, no leaching was measurable for SYNROC. PNL 76-68 glass had leach rates between 4 and 23 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C and 73-1 frit leached at rates between 29 and 176 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C. Tests were also conducted on crushed glass samples (PNL 76-68, 100-200 /mu/m size fraction). Bulk leach rates were calculated based on measurement of Ca, Cs, and U in the leach solutions. The results of the leach tests show that SYNROC is several orders of magnitude more resistant to leaching than glass

  9. Efficient Numerical Methods for Analysis of Square Ratio of κ-μ and η-μ Random Processes with Their Applications in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir V. Milovanović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We will provide statistical analysis of the square ratio of κ-μ and η-μ random processes and its application in the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR based performance analysis of wireless transmission subjected to the influence of multipath fading, modelled by κ-μ fading model, and undesired occurrence of co-channel interference (CCI, distributed as η-μ random process. First contribution of the paper is deriving exact closed expressions for the probability density function (PDF and cumulative distribution function (CDF of square ratio of κ-μ and η-μ random processes. Further, a verification of accuracy of these PDF and CDF expressions was given by comparison with the corresponding approximations obtained by the high-precision quadrature formulas of Gaussian type with respect to the weight functions on (0,+∞. The computational procedure of such quadrature rules is provided by using the constructive theory of orthogonal polynomials and the MATHEMATICA package OrthogonalPolynomials created by Cvetković and Milovanović (2004. Capitalizing on obtained expression, important wireless performance criteria, namely, outage probability (OP, have been obtained, as functions of transmission parameters. Also, possible performance improvement is observed through a glance at SC (selection combining reception employment based on obtained expressions.

  10. A New CMOS Posicast Pre-shaper for Vibration Reduction of CMOS Op-Amps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulzadeh, M.; Ghaznavi-Ghoushchi, M. B.

    2010-06-01

    Posicast-based control is a widely used method in vibration reduction of lightly damped oscillatory systems especially in mechanical fields. The target systems to apply Posicast method are the systems which are excited by pulse inputs. Using the Posicast idea, the input pulse is reshaped into a new pulse, which is called Posicast pulse. Applying the generated Posicast pulse reduces the undesired oscillatory manner of under-test systems. In this paper, a fully CMOS Pulse pre-shaper circuit for realization of Posicast command is proposed. Our design is based on delay-and-add approach for the incoming pulses. The delay is done via a modified Schmitt Trigger-like circuit. The adder circuit is implemented by a simple non-binary analog adder terminated by a passive element. Our proposed design has a reasonable flexibility in configuration of time delay and amplitude of the desired pulse-like shapes. The delay is controlled via the delay unit and the pre-shaped pulse's amplitudes are controlled by an analog adder unit. The overall system has 18 MOS transistors, one small capacitor, and one resistor. To verify the effectiveness of the recommended method, it is experienced on a real CMOS Op-Amp. HSPICE simulation results, on 0.25u technology, show a significant reduction on overshoot and settling time of the under-test Op-Amp. The mentioned reduction is more than 95% in overshoot and more than 60% in settling time of the system.

  11. Pine Defensive Monoterpene α-Pinene Influences the Feeding Behavior of Dendroctonus valens and Its Gut Bacterial Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letian Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to plant defense chemicals has negative effects on insect feeding activity and modifies insect gut microbial community composition. Dendroctonus valens is a very destructive forest pest in China, and harbors a large diversity and abundance of gut microorganisms. Host pine defensive chemicals can protect the pines from attack by the holobiont. In this study, boring length of D. valens feeding on 0 mg/g α-pinene and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media for 6 and 48 h were recorded, and their gut bacterial communities were analyzed in parallel. Nine milligram per gram α-pinene concentration significantly inhibited boring length of D. valens and altered its gut microbial community structure after 6 h. The inhibition of boring length from 9 mg/g α-pinene in diets ceased after 48 h. No significant differences of the bacterial communities were observed between the beetles in 0 and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 48 h. Our results showed that the inhibition of the feeding behavior of D. valens and the disturbance to its gut bacterial communities in 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 6 h were eliminated after 48 h. The resilience of gut bacterial community of D. valens may help the beetle catabolize pine defense chemical.

  12. Application of the carbon dioxide-barium hydroxide hydrate gas-solid reaction for the treatment of dilute carbon dioxide-bearing gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, G.L.

    1983-09-01

    The removal of trace components from gas streams via irreversible gas-solid reactions in an area of interest to the chemical engineering profession. This research effort addresses the use of fixed beds of Ba(OH) 2 hydrate flakes for the removal of an acid gas, CO 2 , from air that contains approx. 330 ppM/sub v/ CO 2 . Areas of investigation encompassed: (1) an extensive literature review of Ba(OH) 2 hydrate chemistry, (2) microscale studies on 0.150-g samples to develop a better understanding of the reaction, (3) process studies at the macroscale level with 10.2-cm-ID fixed-bed reactors, and (4) the development of a model for predicting fixed-bed performance. Experimental studies indicated fixed beds of commercial Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O flakes at ambient temperatures to be capable of high CO 2 -removal efficiencies (effluent concentrations 99%), and an acceptable pressure drop (1.8 kPa/m at a superficial gas velocity of 13 cm/s). Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O was determined to be more reactive toward CO 2 than either Ba(OH) 2 .3H 2 O or Ba(OH) 2 .1H 2 O. A key variable in the development of this fixed-bed process was relative humidity. Operation at conditions with effluent relative humidities >60% resulted in significant recrystallization and restructuring of the flake and subsequent pressure-drop problems

  13. Determination of radium-226 by high-resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Condition were determined under which high resolution and accurate and reliable results can be obtained. Refractory solids are dissolved completely by fusion with KF and Ba-133 tracer. The fluoride cake is then transposed with sulfuric acid to a pyrosulfate fusion. Radium is precipitated with barium by addition of lead perchlorate to a dilute HCl solution of the pyrosulfate cake. The resulting insoluble sulfates are dissolved in an alkaline solution of DTPA and the Ra and Ba sulfates are reprecipitated with acetic acid to produce very small crystals. The precipitate is mounted on 0.1-μm membrane filter and analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Water samples are partially evaporated and treated similarly. Resolution, almost as good as with actinides electrodeposited on polished steel plates, is about 60 keV full-width-half-maximum with 100 μg of barium on a 1-inch filter with a 450 mm 2 detector at 20% counting efficiency. Recovery is about 97%. One solid sample can be prepared for counting in less than 2 hours. Methods are discussed for ensuring reliability of the results. Severe contamination of the surface-barrier detector by polonium-210 and recoil products is discussed

  14. Feynman's Operational Calculi: Spectral Theory for Noncommuting Self-adjoint Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferies, Brian; Johnson, Gerald W.; Nielsen, Lance

    2007-01-01

    The spectral theorem for commuting self-adjoint operators along with the associated functional (or operational) calculus is among the most useful and beautiful results of analysis. It is well known that forming a functional calculus for noncommuting self-adjoint operators is far more problematic. The central result of this paper establishes a rich functional calculus for any finite number of noncommuting (i.e. not necessarily commuting) bounded, self-adjoint operators A 1 ,..., A n and associated continuous Borel probability measures μ 1 , ?, μ n on [0,1]. Fix A 1 ,..., A n . Then each choice of an n-tuple (μ 1 ,...,μ n ) of measures determines one of Feynman's operational calculi acting on a certain Banach algebra of analytic functions even when A 1 , ..., A n are just bounded linear operators on a Banach space. The Hilbert space setting along with self-adjointness allows us to extend the operational calculi well beyond the analytic functions. Using results and ideas drawn largely from the proof of our main theorem, we also establish a family of Trotter product type formulas suitable for Feynman's operational calculi

  15. Simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol, Bis(2-ethylehxyl) phathalate in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Jeonju University, Chonju (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    A comprehensive analytical method of endocrine disruptors[i.e., nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) in meat or pork samples was developed. The method employed closed culture tube extraction with dichloromethane and solvent exchange to iso-hexane and SPE 92g) aminopropyl column, followed by determination on gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in the single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. For the multipoint recovery of nonylphenol, octylphenol and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate OP, NP were shown good recoveries in 0.125 {approx} 1.25 {mu}g/g range of concentration, and BEHP more good recoveries on 0.0125 {approx} 12.5 {mu}g/g wide range of concentration. The present method was applied to beef or pork samples of mart and butcher in Cheonju city and near cheonju. The range of concentrations was respectively, 0.06 {approx} 0.24 {mu}g/g in bis (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), but octylphenol (OP) was not dec ted in any samples. This method provides a powerful analytical tool to investigate a wide range of endocrine disruptors in biological samples of limited quantity. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Time monitoring of radio jets and magnetospheres in the nearby young stellar cluster R Coronae Australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Takami, Michihiro; Yan, Chi-Hung; Karr, Jennifer; Chou, Mei-Yin; Ho, Paul T.-P.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Costigan, Gráinne; Manara, Carlo Felice; Forbrich, Jan; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2014-01-01

    We report Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 8-10 GHz (λ = 3.0-3.7 cm) monitoring observations toward the young stellar object (YSO) cluster R Coronae Australis (R CrA), taken from 2012 March 15 to 2012 September 12. These observations were planned to measure the radio flux variabilities in timescales from 0.5 hr to several days, to tens of days, and up to ∼200 days. We found that among the YSOs detectable in individual epochs, in general, the most reddened objects in the Spitzer observations show the highest mean 3.5 cm Stokes I emission, and the lowest fractional variabilities on <200 day timescales. The brightest radio flux emitters in our observations are the two reddest sources IRS7W and IRS7E. In addition, by comparing our observations with observations taken from 1996 to 1998 and 2005, we found that the radio fluxes of these two sources have increased by a factor of ∼1.5. The mean 3.5 cm fluxes of the three Class I/II sources, IRSI, IRS2, and IRS6, appear to be correlated with their accretion rates derived by a previous near-infrared line survey. The weakly accreting Class I/II YSOs, or those in later evolutionary stages, present radio flux variability on <0.5 hr timescales. Some YSOs were detected only during occasional flaring events. The source R CrA went below our detection limit during a few fading events.

  17. EFEITO AUXILIAR DO CERUMINOLÍTICO NA TERAPIA TÓPICA DE CÃES (Canis lupus familiaris COM OTITE EXTERNA CERUMINOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Negri Mueller

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the help effect of ceruminolytic in ceruminous external otitis in dog’s ears. Dogs with bilateral ceruminous external otitis, whose ears were evaluated by palpation, inspection, otoscopy and fungal and bacterial culture were studied. For the treatment, carried out twice a day during 15 days, the animals were divided into two groups, A and B. The animals in group A were treated with ceruminolytic and otological solution, containing, respectively, salicylic acid and aminoglycoside, while the animals in group B were treated only with otological solution. Clinical and microbiologic evaluations were performed on 0 and 15 days of treatment. Twenty dogs (n=40 ears, with at least erythema in the otoscopy and moderate to intense ceruminous exsudate. Besides these, we observed more erythema (n=16 in both groups and exsudate in the acoustic conch (n=14 and n=11, respectively, groups A and B and itch (n=13 and n=11, respectively, groups A and B. On the 15th day, we observed reduction of all clinical signals, except stenosis, which did not change in any of the groups, and pain, which increased in group A. The microorganisms Malassezia pachydermatis e Staphylococcus sp. reduced in treatment B with statistical significance. Bacteria were more sensitive to gentamicin. The use of ceruminolytic associated to otological solution reduced the external ottis clinical signals, mainly exsudate and smell in the acoustic conch and the quantity of cerumen in the otoscopy, without interfering in the microorganisms reduction.

  18. Axial Fatigue Tests at Zero Mean Stress of 24S-T and 75S-T Aluminum-alloy Strips with a Central Circular Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, W C; Mayer, M JR

    1948-01-01

    Axial fatigue tests at zero mean stress have been made on 0.032- and 0.064-inch 24S-T and 0.032-inch 75S-T sheet-metal specimens 1/4, 1/2, 1, and 2 inches wide without a hole and with central holes giving a range of hole diameter D to specimen width W from 0.01 to 0.95. No systematic difference was noted between the results for the 0.032-inch and the 0.064-inch specimens although the latter seemed the more consistent. In general the fatigue strength based on the minimum section dropped sharply as the ration D/W was increased from zero to about 0.25. The plain specimens showed quite a pronounced decrease in fatigue strength with increasing width. The holed specimens showed only slight and rather inconclusive evidence of this size effect. The fatigue stress-concentration factor was higher for 75S-T than for 24S-T alloy. Evidence was found that a very small hole would not cause any reduction in fatigue strength.

  19. Test results of the experimental laser device for potato tubers radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrik, S.S.; Korzun, O.S.

    2007-01-01

    Results of 3 year investigation of the influence of the presowing low intensity laser radiation treatment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers with the help of laser device with various spectral composition and exposition on plant growth, development and productivity and potato tubers quality and starch content in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were presented. Presowing tubers treatment of potato cultivars Sante, Yavar and Arkhideya was realized by He-Ne, Ar-, Cu (in course of 3 and 5 minutes) and CO2 (in course of 5 seconds) lasers. Research results have shown that presowing treatment with CO2 laser promoted the higher (on 1,7-6,6%) potato germination capacity in comparison with the control variant without radiation treatment. Height of potato plants of Sante variety after radiation treatment fell behind the control ones. Haulm quantity per one plant and yield quality did not depend on radiation treatment Treatment with CO2 laser exercised the stimulatory action on productivity of Sante variety without changing the starch content in tubers. Tuber weight increased up to 0,4 kg (0,2 kg in the control variant). Similar effect for Arkhideya and Yavar varieties was obtained after Cu-laser treatment in course of 5 minutes. Radiation treatment with He-Ne laser caused the increased starch accumulation (on 0,4-0,6% in comparison with the control variant) in potato tubers of all studied varieties

  20. Future combustion methods for biomethane powered tractor engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prehn, Sascha; Harndorf, Horst; Wichmann, Volker; Beberdick, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Biomethane represents an alternative to fossil fuels (petrol, diesel), not only in the on-road sector. Methane-based fuels come in focus of farmers in the agriculture sector, due to cost constraints, increasing regulation of pollutant emissions and reduction of carbondioxid. To represent a monovalent gas operation, a functional model is derived from a series diesel engine for agricultural use. On the test engine, systematic studies on the combustion process are carried out by cylinder pressure indication and exhaust-emission measurement. Combustion under stoichiometric conditions (with or without exhaust gas recirculation) as well as the conversion of fuel from excess air is observed. The study shows that with a natural-gas engine, a complex post-treatment system of exhaust gas (DOC + DPF + SCR) that is typically for diesel engines can be dispensed with. The exhaust gas limits in force since 2014 and a limitation of methane on 0,5 g/kWh can be met with a stoichiometric combustion concept and a three way catalytic converter optimized for the methane oxidation.

  1. Effect of measurement time of the day on the relationship between temperature and soil CO2 efflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dařenová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated effect of the time of the day when manual measurements of soil CO2 efflux are performed on estimates of seasonal sums of released carbon from the soil. We subsampled continuous measurement of soil CO2 efflux into six sets of data in accordance to the time of the day when the measurements were taken – 0 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 16 h and 20 h. To estimate seasonal carbon flux from the soil we used continuously measured soil temperature and parameters R10 (soil CO2 efflux normalized for temperature of 10 °C and Q10 (the proportional change in CO2 efflux caused by 10 °C increase in temperature calculated from continuous measurements and from measurements taken at individual hours. Values of Q10 calculated from 12 h and 16 h data were lower than Q10 calculated from continuous measurements. On the contrary, Q10 at 0 h, 4 h, 8 h and 20 h were higher. Seasonal carbon flux from the soil based on 0 h, 4 h and 8 h measurements was overestimated compare to the flux calculated from continuous measurements. On the contrary, measurements at 12 h, 16 h and 20 h measurements underestimated the carbon flux. The under- or overestimation was significant for 0 h, 4 h, 8 h and 20 h data sub-sets.

  2. Anodic polarization of carbon graphite electrodes in chloride fluoride melts zirconium containing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyapustin, A.A.; Kanashin, Yu.P.; Nichkov, I.F.; Smyshlyaev, V.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Polarization of carbon graphite anodes in zircorium containing chloride fluoride melts of the KCl-K 2 ZrF 6 -KF composition at molar ratios [F]:[Zr] being equal to 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 has been studied. K 2 ZrF 6 concentration constitutes 25; 18.9; 15.2; 12.7; 11.8% (by mass), correspondingly. Vitreous carbon (VC-2500), high purity graphite and graphite EhG-0 have been used as anodic materials. Anodic polarization curves have been obtained under electrotype steady-state conditions at 973, 1023, 1073 K. Influence of concentration of fluorine ions in melt on polarization of carbon graphite anodes is shown. Content growth of fluorine ions in melt leads to shift of steady-state anode potentials to their negative values regardless a graphite mark. The most con siderable potential shift on 0.5 V takes plase at molar ratio [F]:[Zr] increasing from 6 to 12. Temperature increase, as measurements showed, doesn't influence greatly on polarization curve shape

  3. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  4. Structural characterization and magnetic properties of steels subjected to fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.H.; Tang, F.; Biner, S.B.; Jiles, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Studies have been made on the effects of residual stress and microstructure on the variations of magnetic properties of steels during fatigue. Strain-controlled fatigue tests have been conducted on 0.2wt% C steel samples which were (1) cold-worked (2) cold-worked and annealed at 500 deg. C to relieve residual stress, and (3) annealed at 905 deg. C to produce a ferrite/pearlite structure. The changes of surface microstructure were studied by SEM replica technique. The dislocation structures of samples fatigued for different numbers of cycle were studied by TEM. In the initial stage of fatigue coercivity was found to behave differently for samples which have different residual stress levels. In the intermediate stage the magnetic hysteresis parameters became stable as the dislocation cell structure developed in the samples. In the final stage the magnetic parameters decreased dramatically. The decrease rate is related to the propagation rate of fatigue cracks observed in the SEM study, which was found to be dependent on the sample microstructure. The present results indicate that the magnetic inspection technique is able to differentiate the residual stress effects from the fatigue damage induced by cyclic loading, and therefore it is possible to detect the onset of fatigue failure in steel components via measurements of the changes in magnetic properties.--This work was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, under grant number CMS-9532056

  5. Association of gastrocnemius tendon calcification with chondrocalcinosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foldes, K. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Lenchik, L. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Jaovisidha, S. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Clopton, P. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States); Sartoris, D.J. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Objective. Chondrocalcinosis of the knee is a common radiological finding in the elderly. However, visualization of chondrocalcinosis may be difficult in patients with advanced cartilage loss.The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of gastrocnemius tendon calcification that might serve as a radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with painful knees. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 37 knee radiographs in 30 consecutive patients (29 men, 8 women; mean age 67 years, age range 37-90 years) with painful knees who had radiographic evidence of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and gastrocnemius tendon calcification was determined. For a control group, we evaluated knee radiographs in 65 consecutive patients with knee pain (54 men, 11 women; mean age 59 years, age range 40-93 years) who had no radiological signs of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of gastrocnemius tendon calcification in the control group was determined. Results. Gastrocnemius tendon calcification was 41% sensitive, 100% specific, and 78% accurate in predicting chondrocalcinosis. The gastrocnemius tendon was calcified on 15 of 37 (41%) radiographs in the experimental group and on 0 of 67 radiographs in the control group. In the chondrocalcinosis group, 23 (62%) had posterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 14 (38%) had anterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 31 (84%) had medial meniscus calcification, and 36 (97%) had lateral meniscus calcification. Conclusions. Our results show that gastrocnemius tendon calcification is an accurate radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with knee pain. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN CaCO3 DAN WAKTU PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KADAR VITAMIN C PADA PROSES PENGHAMBATAN PEMATANGAN BUAH TOMAT (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Kartika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know the influence of CaCO3 addition and storage duration to vitamine C concentrate in ripe obstruction process of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Calcium carbonate(CaCO3 which is added 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8 percent of weight and storage duration were 0; 2; 4; 6; 8; 10 and 12 days. Vitamine C was determined by using iodometric titration method. The data obtained were then analized by ANOVA test and LSD test. The result showed that CaCO3 addition could influence vitamine C concentrate in ripe obstruction process of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill on standard 5% and 1% with  Ftest > Ftabel (5% and 1% or F(7.6667 > F(2.50 and 3.60 and storage duration could influence vitamine C concentrate in ripe obstruction process of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill on standard 5% and 1% with Ftest > Ftabel (5% and 1% or F(1204.2222 > F(2.32 and 3.07. Based on the result LSD test on significant standard 5% (0.0143 and 1% (0.0190, optimum vitamine C concentrate were 0.8589 mg/10 g on 0.2% of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 addition and 10 days of storage duration. Keywords : ANOVA, CaCO3, LSD, tomato, vitamine C, storage duration

  7. Breast MRI at 7 Tesla with a bilateral coil and T1-weighted acquisition with robust fat suppression: image evaluation and comparison with 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ryan; Storey, Pippa; McGorty, KellyAnne; Klautau Leite, Ana Paula; Babb, James; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Wiggins, Graham C.; Moy, Linda [New York University Langone Medical Center, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Geppert, Christian [Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-11-15

    To evaluate the image quality of T1-weighted fat-suppressed breast MRI at 7 T and to compare 7-T and 3-T images. Seventeen subjects were imaged using a 7-T bilateral transmit-receive coil and 3D gradient echo sequence with adiabatic inversion-based fat suppression (FS). Images were graded on a five-point scale and quantitatively assessed through signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), fibroglandular/fat contrast and signal uniformity measurements. Image scores at 7 and 3 T were similar on standard-resolution images (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.1-1.6 mm{sup 3}), indicating that high-quality breast imaging with clinical parameters can be performed at 7 T. The 7-T SNR advantage was underscored on 0.6-mm isotropic images, where image quality was significantly greater than at 3 T (4.2 versus 3.1, P {<=} 0.0001). Fibroglandular/fat contrast was more than two times higher at 7 T than at 3 T, owing to effective adiabatic inversion-based FS and the inherent 7-T signal advantage. Signal uniformity was comparable at 7 and 3 T (P < 0.05). Similar 7-T image quality was observed in all subjects, indicating robustness against anatomical variation. The 7-T bilateral transmit-receive coil and adiabatic inversion-based FS technique produce image quality that is as good as or better than at 3 T. (orig.)

  8. Pricing Strategies in the Remanufacturing Market for the Uncertain Market Size in the Second Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liurui Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our main endeavor is to investigate the effect of the uncertain market size in the second period on the pricing strategies in the remanufacturing market. Observing the previous research, we find that the market size in the second period is always supposed to be certain. However, there is substantial empirical and experimental evidence that the market size in reality deviates from this assumption. In fact, though the market size in the first period is definitized, it is difficult to confirm the change of the market scale in the second period, since this change is affected by all kinds of elements, such as the awareness of environmental protection, some consumers’ psychological factors, and the related governments’ policies. Hence, we pay attention to the case in which the change rate of the market scale in the second period is random variable. We suppose that this rate satisfies uniform distribution on [0,2]. Underlying this assumption, we further provide an insight into the game-playing relationship between original equipment manufacturers (OEMs and remanufacturers. Moreover, we delicately and subtly incorporate the game theory, stochastic analysis, adversarial risk analysis (ARA, and optimization methods into the pricing strategies in the remanufacturing market. Last but not least, considerable efforts and attempts have been made to subtly test the sensitivity of an optimal solution to the different parameters.

  9. Deuterium oxide normalizes blood pressure and vascular calcium uptake in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasdev, S.; Prabhakaran, V.; Sampson, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effect of 25% deuterium oxide in drinking water on systolic blood pressure, uptakes of calcium, and rubidium 86 by aortas of Dahl salt-sensitive rats on 0.4% (low) and 8% (high) sodium chloride (salt) diet. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups. Groups I and II were on the low salt diet and groups III and IV on the high salt diet from 6 weeks of age. Additionally, at 10 weeks of age groups I and III were placed on 100% water and groups II and IV on 25% deuterium oxide. At 14 weeks, systolic blood pressure, uptakes of calcium, and rubidium 86 by aortas were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in rats on the high salt diet as compared with those on the low salt diet. Deuterium oxide intake normalized systolic blood pressure and aortic calcium uptake but not aortic rubidium 86 uptake in hypertensive rats on the high salt diet. Deuterium oxide had no effect on blood pressure or aortic calcium uptake in rats on the low salt diet. The parallel increase in systolic blood pressure and vascular calcium uptake suggests that increased calcium uptake mechanisms are associated with hypertension in salt-sensitive Dahl rats. Furthermore, deuterium oxide appears to normalize elevated blood pressure in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats by normalizing elevated vascular (aortic) calcium uptake

  10. Association of gastrocnemius tendon calcification with chondrocalcinosis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foldes, K.; Lenchik, L.; Jaovisidha, S.; Clopton, P.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. Chondrocalcinosis of the knee is a common radiological finding in the elderly. However, visualization of chondrocalcinosis may be difficult in patients with advanced cartilage loss.The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of gastrocnemius tendon calcification that might serve as a radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with painful knees. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 37 knee radiographs in 30 consecutive patients (29 men, 8 women; mean age 67 years, age range 37-90 years) with painful knees who had radiographic evidence of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and gastrocnemius tendon calcification was determined. For a control group, we evaluated knee radiographs in 65 consecutive patients with knee pain (54 men, 11 women; mean age 59 years, age range 40-93 years) who had no radiological signs of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of gastrocnemius tendon calcification in the control group was determined. Results. Gastrocnemius tendon calcification was 41% sensitive, 100% specific, and 78% accurate in predicting chondrocalcinosis. The gastrocnemius tendon was calcified on 15 of 37 (41%) radiographs in the experimental group and on 0 of 67 radiographs in the control group. In the chondrocalcinosis group, 23 (62%) had posterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 14 (38%) had anterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 31 (84%) had medial meniscus calcification, and 36 (97%) had lateral meniscus calcification. Conclusions. Our results show that gastrocnemius tendon calcification is an accurate radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with knee pain. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Optical characterization of In xGa 1- xN alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, M.; Kruse, C.; Modreanu, M.; Tausendfreund, A.; Roder, C.; Hommel, D.

    2006-10-01

    InGaN layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) either directly on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrates or on GaN-template layers deposited by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). We combined spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), Raman spectroscopy (RS), photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements to investigate optical properties, microstructure, vibrational and mechanical properties of the InGaN/GaN/sapphire layers. The analysis of SE data was done using a parametric dielectric function model, established by in situ and ex situ measurements. A dielectric function database, optical band gap, the microstructure and the alloy composition of the layers were derived. The variation of the InGaN band gap with the In content ( x) in the 0 < x ≤ 0.14 range was found to follow the linear law Eg = 3.44-4.5 x. The purity and the stability of the GaN and InGaN crystalline phase were investigated by RS.

  12. Hypolipidemic action of curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, P S; Srinivasan, K

    1997-01-01

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were maintained on 0.5% curcumin containing diet for 8 weeks. Blood cholesterol was lowered significantly by dietary curcumin in these diabetic animals. Cholesterol decrease was exclusively from LDL-VLDL fraction. Significant decrease in blood triglyceride and phospholipids was also brought about by dietary curcumin in diabetic rats. In a parallel study, wherein diabetic animals were maintained on a high cholesterol diet, the extents of hypercholesterolemia and phospholipidemia were still higher compared to those maintained on control diet. Curcumin exhibited lowering of cholesterol and phospholipid in these animals also. Liver cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid contents were elevated under diabetic conditions. Dietary curcumin showed a distinct tendency to counter these changes in lipid fractions of liver. This effect of curcumin was also seen in diabetic animals maintained on high cholesterol diet. Dietary curcumin also showed significant countering of renal cholesterol and triglycerides elevated in diabetic rats. In order to understand the mechanism of hypocholesterolemic action of dietary curcumin, activities of hepatic cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase and HMG CoA reductase were measured. Hepatic cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase activity was markedly higher in curcumin fed diabetic animals suggesting a higher rate of cholesterol catabolism.

  13. Fabrication of Fully Inkjet-Printed Vias and SIW Structures on Thick Polymer Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sangkil; Shamim, Atif; Georgiadis, Apostolos; Aubert, Herve; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel fully inkjet-printed via fabrication technology and various inkjet-printed substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) structures on thick polymer substrates are presented. The electrical properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) are thoroughly studied up to 8 GHz utilizing the T-resonator method, and inkjet-printable silver nanoparticle ink on PMMA is characterized. A long via fabrication process up to 1 mm utilizing inkjet-printing technology is demonstrated, and its characteristics are presented for the first time. The inkjet-printed vias on 0.8-mm-thick substrate have a resistance of ∼ 0.2~ Ω . An equivalent circuit model of the inkjet-printed stepped vias is also discussed. An inkjet-printed microstrip-to-SIW interconnect and an SIW cavity resonator utilizing the proposed inkjet-printed via fabrication process are also presented. The design of the components and the fabrication steps are discussed, and the measured performances over the microwave frequency range of the prototypes are presented.

  14. Resistance of solanum species to phytophthora infestans evaluated in the detached-leaf and whole-plant assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, K.P.; Saleem, M.Y.; Asghar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of 82 tomato genotypes belonging to 8 Solanum and a Lycopersicon species against Phytophthora infestans causing late blight was determined using detached-leaf and whole-plant assays. None of the test genotypes was immune or highly resistant. Of the 82 commercial and wild genotypes only TMS-2 (male-sterile and characterized by indeterminate growth) belonging to Lycopersicon esculentum was resistant with severity index of 2.4 in the detached-leaf assay on 0-5 scale (where 5 was highly susceptible) and percent disease index (%DI) of 23.3% under the whole-plant assay. Among the remaining genotypes, 41 were susceptible and 40 were highly susceptible under the detached-leaf assay, while 18 were susceptible and 63 were highly susceptible under the whole-plant assay. However, there was a significant difference in %DI for genotypes under the whole-plant assay. The response of whole-plants to inoculation with P. infestans in the detached-leaf assay was similar in all cases. The overall screening results indicate that TMS-2 is a good source of resistance and it can be useful for the development of tomato hybrid cultivars resistant to late blight. (author)

  15. Storm-time ionization enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dmitriev

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ion density enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere during a Bastille storm on 15–16 July 2000 and Halloween storms on 29–31 October 2003 were studied using data from ROCSAT-1/IPEI experiment. Prominent ion density enhancements demonstrate similar temporal dynamics both in the sunlit and in the nightside hemispheres. The ion density increases dramatically (up to two orders of magnitude during the main phase of the geomagnetic storms and reaches peak values at the storm maximum. The density enhancements are mostly localized in the region of a South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA, which is characterized by very intense fluxes of energetic particles. The dynamics of near-Earth radiation was studied using SAMPEX/LEICA data on >0.6 MeV electrons and >0.8 MeV protons at around 600 km altitude. During the magnetic storms the energetic particle fluxes in the SAA region and in its vicinity increase more than three orders of magnitude. The location of increased fluxes overlaps well with the regions of ion density enhancements. Two mechanisms were considered to be responsible for the generation of storm-time ion density enhancements: prompt penetration of the interplanetary electric field and abundant ionization of the ionosphere by enhanced precipitation of energetic particles from the radiation belt.

  16. Higher order Riesz transforms associated with Bessel operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Jorge J.; Fariña, Juan C.; Martinez, Teresa; Rodríguez-Mesa, Lourdes

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we investigate Riesz transforms R μ ( k) of order k≥1 related to the Bessel operator Δμ f( x)=- f”( x)-((2μ+1)/ x) f’( x) and extend the results of Muckenhoupt and Stein for the conjugate Hankel transform (a Riesz transform of order one). We obtain that for every k≥1, R μ ( k) is a principal value operator of strong type ( p, p), p∈(1,∞), and weak type (1,1) with respect to the measure dλ( x)= x 2μ+1 dx in (0,∞). We also characterize the class of weights ω on (0,∞) for which R μ ( k) maps L p (ω) into itself and L 1(ω) into L 1,∞(ω) boundedly. This class of weights is wider than the Muckenhoupt class mathcal{A}p^μ of weights for the doubling measure dλ. These weighted results extend the ones obtained by Andersen and Kerman.

  17. Future combustion methods for biomethane powered tractor engines; Zukuenftige Brennverfahren fuer biomethanbetriebene Traktormotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prehn, Sascha; Harndorf, Horst [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kolbenmaschinen und Verbrennungsmotoren; Wichmann, Volker [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Maschinenlabor; Beberdick, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Biomethane represents an alternative to fossil fuels (petrol, diesel), not only in the on-road sector. Methane-based fuels come in focus of farmers in the agriculture sector, due to cost constraints, increasing regulation of pollutant emissions and reduction of carbondioxid. To represent a monovalent gas operation, a functional model is derived from a series diesel engine for agricultural use. On the test engine, systematic studies on the combustion process are carried out by cylinder pressure indication and exhaust-emission measurement. Combustion under stoichiometric conditions (with or without exhaust gas recirculation) as well as the conversion of fuel from excess air is observed. The study shows that with a natural-gas engine, a complex post-treatment system of exhaust gas (DOC + DPF + SCR) that is typically for diesel engines can be dispensed with. The exhaust gas limits in force since 2014 and a limitation of methane on 0,5 g/kWh can be met with a stoichiometric combustion concept and a three way catalytic converter optimized for the methane oxidation.

  18. Methionine metabolism and ethylene formation in etiolated pea stem sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, N.; Kende, H.

    1979-01-01

    Stem sections of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were incubated overnight on tracer amounts of L-[U- 14 C]methionine and, on the following morning, on 0.1 millimolar indoleacetic acid to induce ethylene formation. Following the overnight incubation, over 70% of the radioactivity in the soluble fraction was shown to be associated with S-methylmethionine (SMM). The specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved closely paralleled that of carbon atoms 3 and 4 of methionine extracted from the tissue and was always higher than that determined for carbon atoms 3 and 4 of extracted SMM. Overnight incubation of pea stem sections on 1 millimolar methionine enhanced indoleacetic acid-induced ethylene formation by 5 to 10%. Under the same conditions, 1 millimolar homocysteine thiolactone increased ethylene synthesis by 20 to 25%, while SMM within a concentration range of 0.1 to 10 millimolar did not influence ethylene production. When unlabeled methionine or homocysteine thiolactone was applied to stem sections which had been incubated overnight in L-[U- 14 C]methionine, the specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved was considerably lowered. Application of unlabeled SMM reduced the specific radioactivity of ethylene only slightly

  19. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential.

  20. Nanohybrid hydrogels of laponite: PVA-Alginate as a potential wound healing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golafshan, Nasim; Rezahasani, R; Tarkesh Esfahani, M; Kharaziha, M; Khorasani, S N

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel nanohybrid interpenetrating network hydrogel composed of laponite:polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate (LAP:PVA-Alginate) with adjustable mechanical, physical and biological properties for wound healing application. Results demonstrated that compared to PVA-Alginate, mechanical strength of LAP:PVA-Alginate significantly enhanced (upon 2 times). Moreover, incorporation of 2wt.% laponite reduced swelling ability (3 times) and degradation ratio (1.2 times) originating from effective enhancement of crosslinking density in the nanohybrid hydrogels. Furthermore, nanohybrid hydrogels revealed admirable biocompatibility against MG63 and fibroblast cells. Noticeably, MTT assay demonstrated that fibroblast proliferation significantly enhanced on 0.5wt.% LAP:PVA-alginate compared to PVA-alginate. Moreover, hemolysis and clotting tests indicated that the nanohybrid hydrogels promoted hemostasis which could be helpful in the wound dressing. Therefore, the synergistic effects of the nanohybrid hydrogels such as superior mechanical properties, adjustable degradation rate and admirable biocompatibility and hemolysis make them a desirable candidate for wound healing process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and environment of new electric automobile, `Ecovehicle`; Shingata denki jidosha eko vehicle kaihatsu to kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper introduces history of the development of an electric automobile, `Ecovehicle`. It is provided with a high overall energy efficiency compared with an engine vehicle. The Ecovihicle is 1.2m in width, 3.3m in length, 2 seating capacities and 910kg in overall weight with serially connected 56 batteries of each 4V, 40Ah and having the total weight of 269kg. Its travel distance per charging is 130km at a speed of 80 k.p.h. This vehicle is capable of running with an energy of approximately one third as much as that of a light car. In addition, the vehicle is provided with polycrystal solar batteries placed on 0.6m{sup 2} area on the roof and spoiler generating 60W maximum. Assuming the annual duration of sunshine is 1,800 hours, charging is possible for 63kWh annually. Assuming the charging efficiency is 83%, charging is possible about seven times, which is an equivalent of travelling about 1,000km annually. The characteristics for example are the employment of brushless DC motor, use of energy saving switching element IGBT in order to realize a low level of loss in the inverter, in-wheel motor system, and storage of storage batteries in a hollow aluminum frame installed under the floor. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. An Optimized IES Method and Its Inhibitory Effects and Mechanisms on Food Intake and Body Weight in Diet-Induced Obese Rats: IES for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinyue; Yin, Jieyun; Foreman, Robert; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to optimize stimulation parameters and durations for intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) and to explore the effects and mechanisms of chronic IES with optimized methodology in obesity rats. Sixteen diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were tested for food intake with four different sets of IES parameters each lasting 1 week. Then, another 12 DIO rats were used to test the effect of IES on food intake with different stimulation durations. Finally, 16 DIO rats were treated with IES or sham-IES for 4 weeks. Meal patterns, food intake, and body weight were observed. Mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were studied. (1) Acute IES with different parameters showed different inhibitory effects on food intake, and the most effective parameters were 0.6 s on, 0.9 s off, 80 Hz, 2 ms, and 4 mA with which 26.3% decrease in food intake was noted (p fasting and postprandial plasma levels of GLP-1 but not ghrelin. Twelve-hour daily IES using optimized stimulation parameters reduces food intake and body weight in DIO rats by altering gastrointestinal motility and GLP-1. The IES methodology derived in this study may have a therapeutic potential for obesity.

  3. Lead-free piezoelectrics based on potassium-sodium niobate with giant d(33).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binyu; Wu, Jiagang; Cheng, Xiaojing; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Xiangjian; Lou, Xiaojie

    2013-08-28

    High-performance lead-free piezoelectrics (d33 > 400 pC/N) based on 0.96(K0.5Na0.5)0.95Li0.05Nb1-xSbxO3-0.04BaZrO3 with the rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary have been designed and prepared. The R-T phase boundary lies the composition range of 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.07, and the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics with the compositions near the phase boundary are significantly enhanced. In addition, the ceramic with x = 0.07 has a giant d33 of ~425 pC/N, which is comparable to that (~416 pC/N) of textured KNN-based ceramics (Saito, Y.; Takao, H.; Tani, T.; Nonoyama, T.; Takatori, K.; Homma, T.; Nagaya, T.; Nakamura, M. Nature 2004, 432, 84). The underlying physical mechanisms for enhanced piezoelectric properties are addressed. We believe that the material system is the most promising lead-free piezoelectric candidates for the practical applications.

  4. EFFECT OF INFLIXIMAB ON DYNAMICS OF FUNCTIONAL CLASS AND RADIOLOGICAL SIGN OF BONE AND CARTILAGINOUS TISSUES ALTERATION OF JOINTS IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Alexeeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An objective of this trial was evaluation of effect of treatment with blocker of tumor necrosis factor infliximab on dynamics of functional class and radiological changes of bone and cartilaginous tissue of joints in children with different clinical types of juvenile arthritis (JA. Infliximab was used according to standard scheme on 0, 2, 6 and then every 8 week by intravenous infusion. Mean single dose of infliximab was 6,8 ± 2,3 mg/kg. All children were treated with immunosuppressive agents (ciclosporin in 6% of patients, methotrexate in 60%, ciclosporin combined with methotrexate — 20%, ciclosporin with leflunomide — 5%, leflunomide with methotreate — 4% combined with anti cytokine treatment. 7 children were treated with oral glucocorticoids in mean dose 0,37 mg/kg daily. disorders in joint function and structural changes of joints of different severity (radiological sign were discovered in all patients before starting of treatment with infliximab. Duration of observation was 6 week — 2 years. Authors made a conclusion that treatment with infliximab prevents progressing of bone and cartilaginous destruction in all types of AJ, not depending on intensity of its clinical activity. This medication provides for full functional recovery of joints and elimination of features of disablement in patients with good clinical activity.Key words: children, juvenile arthritis, infliximab, treatment.

  5. Purification and biochemical characterization of asclepain c I from the latex of Asclepias curassavica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggieri, Constanza; Arribére, M Cecilia; Trejo, Sebastián A; Canals, Francesc; Avilés, Francesc X; Priolo, Nora S

    2004-08-01

    In this work we report the isolation, purification and characterization of a new protease from latex of Asclepias curassavica L. Crude extract (CE) was obtained by gathering latex on 0.1 M citric-phosphate buffer with EDTA and cysteine with subsequent ultracentrifugation. Proteolytic assays were made on casein or azocasein as substrates. Caseinolytic activity was completely inhibited by E-64. Stability at different temperatures, optimum pH and ionic strength were evaluated by measuring the residual caseinolytic activity at different times after the incubation. CE showed the highest caseinolytic activity at pH 8.5 in the presence of 12 mM cysteine. CE was purified by cation exchange chromatography (FPLC). Two active fractions, homogeneous by SDS-PAGE, were isolated. The major purified protease (asclepain cI) showed a molecular mass of 23.2 kDa by mass spectrometry and a pI higher than 9.3. The N-terminal sequence showed a high similarity with those of other plant cysteine proteinases. When assayed on N-alpha-CBZ-aminoacid-p-nitrophenyl esters, the enzyme showed higher preference for the glutamine derivative. Determinations of kinetic parameter (km and Kcat) were performed with PFLNA.

  6. Effect of reinforcement on the cutting forces while machining metal matrix composites–An experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Shoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid metal matrix composites are of great interest for researchers in recent years, because of their attractive superior properties over traditional materials and single reinforced composites. The machinabilty of hybrid composites becomes vital for manufacturing industries. The need to study the influence of process parameters on the cutting forces in turning such hybrid composite under dry environment is essentially required. In the present study, the influence of machining parameters, e.g. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the cutting force components, namely feed force (Ff, cutting force (Fc, and radial force (Fd has been investigated. Investigations were performed on 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt% Silicon carbide (SiC and rice husk ash (RHA reinforced composite specimens. A comparison was made between the reinforced and unreinforced composites. The results proved that all the cutting force components decrease with the increase in the weight percentage of the reinforcement: this was probably due to the dislocation densities generated from the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix. Experimental evidence also showed that built-up edge (BUE is formed during machining of low percentage reinforced composites at high speed and high depth of cut. The formation of BUE was captured by SEM, therefore confirming the result. The decrease of cutting force components with lower cutting speed and higher feed and depth of cut was also highlighted. The related mechanisms are explained and presented.

  7. Micro-Raman and micro-photoluminescence study of bio-conjugated core–shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkovska, L., E-mail: bork@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of NASU, pr. Nauky 41, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Korsunska, N.; Stara, T.; Kolomys, O.; Strelchuk, V. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of NASU, pr. Nauky 41, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Rachkov, O. [The Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics of NASU, Zabolotnogo Str. 150, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kryvko, A. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional – ESIME, Av. IPN, Ed. Z4, U.P.A.L.M., 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    The micro-Raman and micro-photoluminescence spectra of non-conjugated and conjugated with antibody against S6K2 commercial CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were investigated under different excitation wavelengths and at different temperatures. In the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, the additional PL band shifted on 0.6–0.65 eV to higher energies from the CdSe/ZnS QD exciton PL band is revealed. The relative intensity of this band is found to be several times larger in bio-conjugated QDs, than in the non-conjugated ones. The characteristics of both PL bands (the PL intensity, spectral position and half-width of the PL band) vary similarly under continuous laser light irradiation, storage of the QD samples in the atmospheric ambience as well as during the temperature change. In the Raman spectra recorded under excitation resonant with the high-energy PL band, the additional Raman peaks at about 300 cm{sup −1} and 600 cm{sup −1}, which are close to the frequency of LO and 2LO phonons of bulk CdS, are found. It is proposed that alloyed QDs with chemical composition close to CdS are responsible for the additional high-energy PL band. The possible reasons for the formation of the alloyed QDs are discussed.

  8. Persistence and risk assessment of emamectin benzoate residues on okra fruits and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Chahil, G S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate, a synthetic derivative of abamectin, is found effective against fruit borer and jassid in okra crops. The present studies were carried out to study the dissipation pattern of emamectin benzoate on okra and to suggest a suitable waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following three applications of emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) at 68.1 and 136.2 g a.i. ha-1, the average initial deposits of emamectin benzoate were observed to be 0.22 and 0.42mg kg-1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg-1 after 5 days at both the dosages. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of emamectin benzoate at LOQ of 0.05 mg kg-1. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of emamectin benzoate is 0.0005 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, which means an adult of 55 kg weight can safely tolerate an intake of 27.50 microg emamectin benzoate. Assuming an average consumption of 80 g okra fruit and multiplying it by average and maximum residues observed on 0 day at recommended dosage, the intake of emamectin benzoate comes out to be about 20 Itg and these values are quite safe in comparison to its ADI. These studies, therefore, suggest that the use of emamectin benzoate at the minimum effective dosages do not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers if a waiting period of 1 day is observed.

  9. Kajian Bioekologi Pasteuria penetrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyadi Mulyadi

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available In bioecological studies of P. penetrans, six experiments were done i.e. study the nematode hosts of P. penetrans; the effect of temperature, soil moisture, spores storage length, soil chemicals (compound  fertilizer, carbofuran, and mancozeb and methods of application on the pathogenicity of P. penetrans. The research results are as follows:  (1 nematode hosts of P. penetrans are M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. graminicola; (2 temperature tested up to 100oC did not affect on the infectivity of P. penetrans; (3 the highest infectivity of P. penetrans was found on soil moisture 45% than on 0%-30%; (4 spores storage for one, two, and three year after effected the infectivity of P. penetrans; (5 treatment with carbofuran, mancozeb, and compound fertilizer did not affect on the infectivity of P. penetrans; and (6 the used of spores of P. penetrans in grounded tomato roots more effective than in soil and water suspension and more efficient than in soil. Key words; bioecology, P. penetrans

  10. Surface modeling and chemical solution deposition of SrO(SrTiO3)n Ruddlesden-Popper phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschornak, M.; Gemming, S.; Gutmann, E.; Weissbach, T.; Stoecker, H.; Leisegang, T.; Riedl, T.; Traenkner, M.; Gemming, T.; Meyer, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Strontium titanate (STO) is a preferred substrate material for functional oxide growth, whose surface properties can be adjusted through the presence of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases. Here, density functional theory (DFT) is used to model the (1 0 0) and (0 0 1) surfaces of SrO(SrTiO 3 ) n RP phases. Relaxed surface structures, electronic properties and stability relations have been determined. In contrast to pure STO, the near-surface SrO-OSr stacking fault can be employed to control surface roughness by adjusting SrO and TiO 2 surface rumpling, to stabilize SrO termination in an SrO-rich surrounding or to increase the band gap in the case of TiO 2 termination. RP thin films have been epitaxially grown on (0 0 1) STO substrates by chemical solution deposition. In agreement with DFT results, the fraction of particular RP phases n = 1-3 changes with varying heating rate and molar ratio Sr:Ti. This is discussed in terms of bulk formation energy.

  11. Statistical Analysis of Detailed 3-D CFD LES Simulations with Regard to CCV Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítek Oldřich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with statistical analysis of large amount of detailed 3-D CFD data in terms of cycle-to-cycle variations (CCVs. These data were obtained by means of LES calculations of many consecutive cycles. Due to non-linear nature of Navier-Stokes equation set, there is a relatively significant CCV. Hence, every cycle is slightly different – this leads to requirement to perform statistical analysis based on ensemble averaging procedure which enables better understanding of CCV in ICE including its quantification. The data obtained from the averaging procedure provides results on different space resolution levels. The procedure is applied locally, i.e., in every cell of the mesh. Hence there is detailed CCV information on local level – such information can be compared with RANS simulations. Next, volume/mass averaging provides information at specific locations – e.g., gap between electrodes of a spark plug. Finally, volume/mass averaging of the whole combustion chamber leads to global information which can be compared with experimental data or results of system simulation tools (which are based on 0-D/1-D approach.

  12. Identification, purification, and expression patterns of chitinase from psychrotolerant Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 and antifungal activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-Su; Seo, Dong-Jun; Jung, Woo-Jin

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a novel psychrotolerant chitinolytic bacterium Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 that displayed strong chitinolytic activity on 0.5% colloidal chitin was isolated from the soil of a decayed mushroom. Chitinase activity of PR-M6 at 25 °C (C25) after 6 days of incubation with colloidal chitin increased rapidly to a maximum level (31.3 U/mg proteins). Three chitinase isozymes (chiII, chiIII, and chiIV) from the crude enzyme at 25 °C (C25) incubation were expressed on SDS-PAGE gels at 25 °C. After purification by chitin-affinity chromatography, six chitinase isozymes (chiI, chiII, chiIII, chiIV, chiV, and chiVI) from C25-fractions were expressed on SDS-PAGE gels at 25 °C. Major bands of chitinase isozymes (chiI, chiII, and chiIII) from C4-fractions were strongly expressed on SDS-PAGE gels at 25 °C. Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 showed high inhibition rate of 60.9% and 57.5% against Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. These results indicated that psychrotolerant Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 could be applied widely as a microorganism agent for the biocontrol of agricultural phytopathogens at low temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dosimeters examinations in a system of radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polsky, O.; Zaytsev, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    The development of an atomic industry and atomic engineering was accompanied scientifically - are justified by conceptual approaches, directional on security of a radiation safety of the personnel and occupied items, where the serving staff lived. It has allowed receiving the enough complete information on radiation doses, comparative performances of illnesses and is brave origins of stochastic effects. Last years on the foreground began to go out problems of influence on the population of ionizing radiation natural, and also engineering changed hum noise. The probability of origin of negative consequences at origin concerning small doses, characteristic for the term, which has usually to the present time, of an exposure of the population of large industrial canters and cities, depends not only from individual, but also on collective doses considerable on number of groups of the people in view of duration of action of the radiation factor. The generalized material of long-term examinations on medial individual doses obtained by population from natural radionuclide, medical procedures in long-term dynamic is obtained. On the basis of long-term data the calculations of stochastic effects among the population of the Moscow region of Russia are given. These effects come from technological radiances of radiation, medical examinations and procedures, from radiation incidents and other radiances of an exposure of the population. It is shown, that nominal coefficient of probability of aggregate stochastic effect matters 5,9 unities on 0,01 inverse Sv that is compounded with literary data

  14. The kinetics of the β→α transformation in unalloyed plutonium after partial formation of the β phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.C.; Stacey, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics of the isothermal β→α transformation after complete and only partial formation of the β phase in unalloyed plutonium containing about 900 ppm of impurity are reported and compared with previously published and conventionally accepted β→α transformation kinetics after complete formation of the β phase in this material. In these experiments the heating was provided by constant temperature oil baths and the transformations were monitored by electrical resistance measurements on 0.63 mm diameter wire samples at temperatures ranging from -65 0 C to +75 0 C. After complete formation of the β phase in the plutonium used in these experiments the kinetics of the β→α transformation were in general agreement with previously published data, although the present transformations were slower than reported by previous workers. After only partial formation of the β phase the subsequent β→α transformations were found to be very fast and to be characterised by zero or very short incubation periods, rapid rates of transformation and a final equilibrium consisting of more than 90% β phase. (Auth.)

  15. The usefulness of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugala, A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of dynamic MR in evaluation of breast cancer and to compare it with conventional mammography and US. The findings in 103 women were analyzed. MR examinations were performed on 0.5 Tesla system, using a dynamic sequence. All images were digitally subtracted. Histologic findings were correlated with preoperative mammographic, US and MR results.The combination of dynamic MR examination with mammography and sonography had the highest sensitivity: 87 from 90 focuses of cancer were correctly diagnosed. Malignant lesions in the standard method were found in 66 cases. Contrast enhanced MR imaging was superior to mammography and US when cancer was located close to the chest wall. Mammography and US were less accurate in identifying multifocal and multicentric cancer, when additional lesions were less then 2 cm. MR results proved to be the most accurate for the tumor size assessment. The combined method can be recommended where the highest possible sensitivity is desired. For correct diagnosis the digital subtraction technique of dynamic study is essential. MR imaging can facilitate the decision on the therapeutic approach in women with breast cancer, especially, when breast conserving therapy is considered. (author)

  16. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  17. High-resolution measurement of the 16O(γ,pn) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, L.

    1996-10-01

    The 16 O(γ,pn) reaction has been measured with a resolution high enough to resolve individual low-lying states in the residual 14 N nucleus. Partial cross-sections, available to the acceptance of the detector system, have been extracted for the individual states, and compared to a recent calculation based on absorption on one-pion exchange currents and the Δ resonance current. The experiment was performed at the Maxlab accelerator laboratory in Lund, Sweden, using tagged photons at an energy of 67 - 76 MeV. The proton detector angular range was 60 - 100 deg and the corresponding for the neutron detector 81 - 103 deg. A missing energy resolution of 1.5 MeV was obtained. The relative population of the states in the residual 14 N nucleus indicates that the reaction takes place predominantly on proton-neutron pairs coupled to (J π ,T) = (1 + ,0). The cross-section for absorption on (0 + ,1) pairs is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the relative population of the states indicates that both L=0 and L=2 pairs participate in the reaction. 45 refs

  18. High Diversity of Myocyanophage in Various Aquatic Environments Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing of Major Capsid Protein Gene With a New Set of Primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Myocyanophages, a group of viruses infecting cyanobacteria, are abundant and play important roles in elemental cycling. Here we investigated the particle-associated viral communities retained on 0.2 μm filters and in sediment samples (representing ancient cyanophage communities from four ocean and three lake locations, using high-throughput sequencing and a newly designed primer pair targeting a gene fragment (∼145-bp in length encoding the cyanophage gp23 major capsid protein (MCP. Diverse viral communities were detected in all samples. The fragments of 142-, 145-, and 148-bp in length were most abundant in the amplicons, and most sequences (>92% belonged to cyanophages. Additionally, different sequencing depths resulted in different diversity estimates of the viral community. Operational taxonomic units obtained from deep sequencing of the MCP gene covered the majority of those obtained from shallow sequencing, suggesting that deep sequencing exhibited a more complete picture of cyanophage community than shallow sequencing. Our results also revealed a wide geographic distribution of marine myocyanophages, i.e., higher dissimilarities of the myocyanophage communities corresponded with the larger distances between the sampling sites. Collectively, this study suggests that the newly designed primer pair can be effectively used to study the community and diversity of myocyanophage from different environments, and the high-throughput sequencing represents a good method to understand viral diversity.

  19. D walls and junctions in supersymmetric gluodynamics in the large N limit suggest the existence of heavy hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Shifman, Mikhail

    2000-01-01

    A number of arguments exists that the ''minimal'' Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld (BPS) wall width in large-N supersymmetric gluodynamics vanishes as 1/N. There is a certain tension between this assertion and the fact that the mesons coupled to λλ have masses O(N 0 ). To reconcile these facts we argue that there should exist additional solitonlike states with masses scaling as N. The BPS walls must be ''made'' predominantly of these heavy states which are coupled to λλ stronger than the conventional mesons. The tension of the BPS wall junction scales as N 2 , which serves as an additional argument in favor of the 1/N scaling of the wall width. The heavy states can be thought of as solitons of the corresponding closed string theory. They are related to certain fivebranes in the M-theory construction. We study the issue of the wall width in toy models which capture some features of supersymmetric gluodynamics. We speculate that the special hadrons with mass scaling as N should also exist in the large-N limit of nonsupersymmetric gluodynamics. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  20. EXor OUTBURSTS FROM DISK AMPLIFICATION OF STELLAR MAGNETIC CYCLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, Philip J., E-mail: pja@jilau1.colorado.edu [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    EXor outbursts—moderate-amplitude disk accretion events observed in Class I and Class II protostellar sources—have timescales and amplitudes that are consistent with the viscous accumulation and release of gas in the inner disk near the dead zone boundary. We suggest that outbursts are indirectly triggered by stellar dynamo cycles, via poloidal magnetic flux that diffuses radially outward through the disk. Interior to the dead zone the strength of the net field modulates the efficiency of angular momentum transport by the magnetorotational instability. In the dead zone changes in the polarity of the net field may lead to stronger outbursts because of the dominant role of the Hall effect in this region of the disk. At the level of simple estimates we show that changes to kG-strength stellar fields could stimulate disk outbursts on 0.1 au scales, though this optimistic conclusion depends upon the uncertain efficiency of net flux transport through the inner disk. The model predicts a close association between observational tracers of stellar magnetic activity and EXor events.

  1. The determination of the chemical composition profile of the GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures designed for quantum cascade lasers by means of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaca, Jaroslaw; Wojcik, Marek; Bugajski, Maciej; Kosiel, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition profile of the GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade structures grown on (0 0 1) GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy is studied by a synchrotron radiation high-resolution X-ray diffraction. The analysis is carried out for the whole structure as well for its parts. In order to determine some structural parameters, such as: the thickness and chemical composition of each layer making up the investigated structure, the profile of the interface between succeeding layers, and the preservation of the structure periodicity, the experimental X-ray diffraction profiles are compared with simulated ones calculated by means of Darwin dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction. It is shown that this method gives correct chemical composition profiles and allows for the evaluation of the deviations from the designed values of the structural parameters in most investigated cases. Limits of the method are discussed, especially by the determination of the chemical composition profile for thin heterostructures, such as those making active or injector regions.

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of water soluble carbon for a cropped field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, H.J.; Rolston, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The water soluble carbon from soil extracts was taken from a two-hundred point grid established on a 1.2 ha field. The sampling was in the fall after the harvest of a sorghum crop. The concentrations ranged from 23.8 ppm to 274.2 ppm. Over 90 per cent of the concentrations were grouped around the mean of 40.3 ppm. The higher values caused the distribution to be greatly skewed such that neither normal nor log normal distributions characterized the data very well. The moisture content from the same samples followed normal distribution. Changes in the mean, the variance and the distribution of water soluble carbon were followed on 0.4 ha of the 1.2 ha in a grid of sixty points during a crop of wheat and a subsequent crop of sorghum. The mean increased in the spring, decreased in the summer and increased again in the fall. The spring and summer concentrations are well characterized by log normal distributions. The spatial dependence of water soluble carbon was examined on a fifty-five point transect across the field spaced every 1.37 m. The variogram indicated little or no dependence at this spacing. (author)

  3. Micro-syntheses for the use of carbon 13 or carbon 14. Micro-preparations of methyl alcohol, methyl iodide, and sodium acetate labeled in the methyl group; Microsyntheses pour l'emploi de carbone 13 ou de carbone 14. Micropreparations d'alcool methylique, d'iodure de methyle et d'acetate de sodium marque sur le groupement methyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baret, C; Pichat, L

    1951-11-01

    Apparatus and technique are described in detail for (1) reduction of CO{sub 2} to CH{sub 3}OH with LiAlH{sub 4}, (2) conversion of the methanol to CH{sub 3}I by HI, (3) formation of the Mg Grignard reagent, and (4) addition of inactive CO{sub 2} to form CH{sub 3}COOH. All these operations have been carried out on 0.005 moles. Methyl-labeled Na acetate has been prepared in 67% yield based on the Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3} used as starting material. (author) [French] Description detaillee d'une technique deja connue pour la reduction du gaz carbonique en alcool methylique par LiAlH{sub 4}. Conversion du methanol en iodure de methyle. Ce dernier transforme en reactif de Grigard, et carbonate, fournit de l'acide acetique. Toutes ces operations on ete effectuees sur 5 x 10{sup -3} moles. La methode a ete appliquee a la synthese d'acetate de sodium marque par le groupement methyle par {sup 14}C avec un rendement global de 67% base sur le carbonate de baryum radioactif mis en oeuvre. (auteurs)

  4. Status of LUMINEU program to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo with cryogenic ZnMoO{sub 4} scintillating bolometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danevich, F. A., E-mail: danevich@kinr.kiev.ua; Boiko, R. S.; Chernyak, D. M.; Kobychev, V. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Bergé, L.; Chapellier, M.; Drillien, A.-A.; Dumoulin, L.; Humbert, V.; Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Olivieri, E.; Plantevin, O.; Tenconi, M. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Coron, N.; Redon, T.; Torres, L. [IAS, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Devoyon, L.; Koskas, F. [CEA, Centre d’Etudes Saclay, Orphée, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2015-10-28

    The LUMTNEU program aims at performing a pilot experiment on 0ν2β decay of {sup 100}Mo using radiopure ZnMoO{sub 4} crystals enriched in {sup 100}Mo operated as cryogenic scintillating bolometers. Large volume ZnMoO{sub 4} crystal scintillators (∼ 0.3 kg) were developed and tested showing high performance in terms of radiopurity, energy resolution and α/β particle discrimination capability. Zinc molybdate crystal scintillators enriched in {sup 100}Mo were grown for the first time by the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique with a high crystal yield and an acceptable level of enriched molybdenum irrecoverable losses. A background level of ∼ 0.5 counts/(yr keV ton) in the region of interest can be reached in a large detector array thanks to the excellent detectors radiopurity and particle discrimination capability, suppression of randomly coinciding events by pulse-shape analysis, and anticoincidence cut. These results pave the way to future sensitive searches based on the LUMTNEU technology, capable of approachingand exploring the inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass pattern.

  5. Computational Fatigue Life Analysis of Carbon Fiber Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Shrimukhi G.; Chandrashekara, C. V., Dr.

    2018-02-01

    In the present scenario, many traditional materials are being replaced by composite materials for its light weight and high strength properties. Industries like automotive industry, aerospace industry etc., are some of the examples which uses composite materials for most of its components. Replacing of components which are subjected to static load or impact load are less challenging compared to components which are subjected to dynamic loading. Replacing the components made up of composite materials demands many stages of parametric study. One such parametric study is the fatigue analysis of composite material. This paper focuses on the fatigue life analysis of the composite material by using computational techniques. A composite plate is considered for the study which has a hole at the center. The analysis is carried on (0°/90°/90°/90°/90°)s laminate sequence and (45°/-45°)2s laminate sequence by using a computer script. The life cycles for both the lay-up sequence are compared with each other. It is observed that, for the same material and geometry of the component, cross ply laminates show better fatigue life than that of angled ply laminates.

  6. Scalar product and event plane methods for measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Burka, Klaudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles in heavy-ion collisions are sensitive to the detailed properties of the quark-gluon plasma, in particular its dependence on initial conditions, transport coefficients and time evolution. The presented measurements are based on 0.49 $n\\mathrm{b}^{-1}$ Pb+Pb data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2015 with center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The elliptic flow and higher-order Fourier coefficients ($v_{2} - v_{7}$) are presented in a wide range of transverse momenta ($p_{\\mathrm{T}} <$ 60 GeV), pseudorapidity ($|\\eta|$ < 2.5) and 0-80% collision centrality. The collected minimum-bias sample is enhanced by triggers for ”ultra-central” collisions, providing an opportunity to perform precise measurements of flow harmonics in the fluctuation-dominated regime. The magnitude of azimuthal anisotropy is estimated by measuring the angular correlations of produced particles using both the scalar product and event plane methods....

  7. High-resolution measurement of the {sup 16}O({gamma},pn) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, L.

    1996-10-01

    The {sup 16}O({gamma},pn) reaction has been measured with a resolution high enough to resolve individual low-lying states in the residual {sup 14}N nucleus. Partial cross-sections, available to the acceptance of the detector system, have been extracted for the individual states, and compared to a recent calculation based on absorption on one-pion exchange currents and the {Delta} resonance current. The experiment was performed at the Maxlab accelerator laboratory in Lund, Sweden, using tagged photons at an energy of 67 - 76 MeV. The proton detector angular range was 60 - 100 deg and the corresponding for the neutron detector 81 - 103 deg. A missing energy resolution of 1.5 MeV was obtained. The relative population of the states in the residual {sup 14}N nucleus indicates that the reaction takes place predominantly on proton-neutron pairs coupled to (J{sup {pi}},T) = (1{sup +},0). The cross-section for absorption on (0{sup +},1) pairs is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the relative population of the states indicates that both L=0 and L=2 pairs participate in the reaction. 45 refs.

  8. Men with pelvic pain: perceived helpfulness of medical and self-management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Judith A; Ciol, Marcia A; Von Korff, Michael; Liu, Yung-Wen; Berger, Richard

    2006-01-01

    To assess the frequency of use of different treatments and pain management strategies and their perceived helpfulness in male patients with pelvic pain. Approximately 1 month after a health maintenance organization visit for pelvic pain, 286 men (mean age 46.7 years) completed telephone interviews about their symptoms and treatments and pain management strategies used in the past year. Participants rated the helpfulness of each treatment and strategy used on 0 to 10 scales. Even though men with identified bacterial etiology were excluded from the study, antibiotic medication was the most commonly reported treatment (67% of patients) and rated as the second most helpful treatment [mean (SD)=6.3 (3.6)]. Opiates were rated as the most helpful treatment on average [mean (SD)=7.9 (2.1)], but were used by only 12% of patients. Substantial minorities of patients reported several behaviors as helpful, including urinating (reported as helpful by 26%), taking warm baths (23%), and drinking water (23%), although patterns of effects differed for men with versus without urinary symptoms. Activities most commonly reported as worsening symptoms were sitting (42%), walking/jogging (27%), and sexual activity (25%). Patients with male pelvic pain syndrome are commonly prescribed antibiotics, which they perceive as moderately helpful, despite the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy. Clinicians may find it useful to support patient use of safe, inexpensive, self-management approaches, especially warm baths, increased water intake, and avoidance of prolonged sitting.

  9. Control of the graphene growth rate on capped SiC surface under strong Si confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelebi, C.; Yanık, C.; Demirkol, A.G.; Kaya, İsmet İ.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graphene is grown on capped SiC surface with well defined cavity size. ► Graphene growth rate linearly increases with the cavity height. ► Graphene uniformity is reduced with thickness. - Abstract: The effect of the degree of Si confinement on the thickness and morphology of UHV grown epitaxial graphene on (0 0 0 −1) SiC is investigated by using atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Prior to the graphene growth process, the C-face surface of a SiC substrate is capped by another SiC comprising three cavities on its Si-rich surface with depths varying from 0.5 to 2 microns. The Si atoms, thermally decomposed from the sample surface during high temperature annealing of the SiC cap /SiC sample stack, are separately trapped inside these individual cavities at the sample/cap interface. Our analyses show that the growth rate linearly increases with the cavity height. It was also found that stronger Si confinement yields more uniform graphene layers.

  10. Impact of azadirachtin, an insecticidal allelochemical from neem on soil microflora, enzyme and respiratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Murali; Gupta, Alka; Arunachalam, V; Magu, S P

    2007-11-01

    The effect of 10% azadirachtin granules (alcoholic extract of neem seed kernel mixed with China clay) was studied on the population of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, Azotobacter and nitrifying bacteria; soil dehydrogenase, phosphatase and respiratory activities on 0, 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days after application in sandy loam soil collected from the fields. It was observed that baring the Azotobacter sp., azadirachtin at all the doses exerted a suppressive effect on the rest of the microbial communities and enzyme activities in the initial 15 day period. The population of bacteria, actinomycetes besides phosphatase and respiratory activities recovered after 60th day and subsequently increased significantly. The fungi and nitrifiers were most sensitive groups as their numbers were reduced significantly throughout the studies. The two times and five times recommended dose of azadirachtin had very high biocidal effects on the soil microorganisms and its activities. However, analysis of the data by the Shannon Weaver index showed that azadirachtin reduces both the form and functional microbial diversity at all doses.

  11. The Relationship between Religious Commitment, Religious Involvement and Empathy with Aggression Among High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farhanfar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been done to determine the effect of religious commitment and religious involvement with aggression and as a mediator variable empathy was considered. This is a descriptive - correlational study and the population was all high school students of Isfahan. The sample consisted of 321 high school students that were selected by cluster random multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected using Aggression Questionnaire (Rhine, 2006, Worthington Religious Commitment (2003, Hill and Hood Religious Involvement (1999, David Empathy (1983 and Demographic ascertained Questionnaire. For Statistical Analysis, Correlation Pierson, regression analysis and structural equation method was applied. Achieved results showed that the direct effect of religious commitment on the empathy of 0/07 and the direct effect of religious involvement on empathy: /025, (P≥0/0/1, while the indirect effect of religious commitment on -/0 0231 aggression and indirect effects of religious devotion is an aggression- 54/21 representing the inverse relationship between commitment an inverse relationship between religious commitment and religious involvement by the aggression and Results of structural equation modeling show that the model has appropriate fitting based on fitting indicators (P≥0/0/1. Although, the effect of religious commitment on empathy was not confirmed.

  12. Exact solutions of linear reaction-diffusion processes on a uniformly growing domain: criteria for successful colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Simpson

    Full Text Available Many processes during embryonic development involve transport and reaction of molecules, or transport and proliferation of cells, within growing tissues. Mathematical models of such processes usually take the form of a reaction-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE on a growing domain. Previous analyses of such models have mainly involved solving the PDEs numerically. Here, we present a framework for calculating the exact solution of a linear reaction-diffusion PDE on a growing domain. We derive an exact solution for a general class of one-dimensional linear reaction-diffusion process on 0

  13. Enhanced flux-pinning in fluorine-free MOD YBCO films by chemical doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.T.; Pu, M.H.; Yang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2010-11-01

    YBCO films without and with dilute cobalt and zinc doping were prepared on (0 0 l) LaAlO{sub 3} substrate by non-fluorine metal organic deposition method. Effects of dilute cobalt and zinc doping on biaxial texture, microstructure and flux-pinning properties of YBCO films were investigated. The surface density and smoothness of the doped YBCO films have been distinctly improved compared with that of the pure film. Dilute cobalt- and zinc-doped YBCO films exhibit significantly enhanced J{sub c} values in the magnetic field. The best result is achieved in the cobalt-doped YBCO film. At 77 K, J{sub c} values of cobalt-doped film are 1.7 and 5.4 times higher than that of pure film in 0.5 T and 1.5 T, respectively. These results strongly suggest that dilute cobalt and zinc doping is a promising way to increase the current carrying capability of YBCO films.

  14. Electrochemical and structural characterization of carbon-supported Pt-Pd bimetallic electrocatalysts prepared by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Masato; Beard, Kevin D.; Ma Shuguo; Blom, Douglas A.; St-Pierre, Jean; Van Zee, John W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Monnier, John R., E-mail: monnier@cec.sc.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Electrochemical and structural characteristics of various Pt-Pd/C bimetallic catalysts prepared by electroless deposition (ED) methods have been investigated. Structural analysis was conducted by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Monometallic Pt or Pd particles were not detected by EDS, indicating the ED methodology formed only bimetallic particles. The size of the Pt-Pd bimetallic particles was smaller than those of a commercially available Pt/C catalyst. The morphology of the Pt on Pd/C catalysts was identified and corresponded to Pd particles partially encapsulated by Pt. The electrochemical characteristics of the lowest Pd loading catalyst (7.0% Pt on 0.5% Pd/C) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been investigated by the rotating ring disk electrode technique. The electrochemical activity was equal or lower than the commercially available Pt/C catalyst; however, the amount of hydrogen peroxide observed at the ring was reduced by the Pd, suggesting that such a catalyst has the potential to decrease ionomer degradation in applications. The Pt on Pd/C catalysts also show a higher tolerance to ripening induced by potential cycling. Therefore, catalyst suitability cannot be judged solely by its initial performance; information related to specific degradation mechanisms is also needed for a more complete assessment.

  15. Runoff of the herbicides triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium from oil palm plantation soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, M A; Ismail, B S; Khairiatul-Mardiana, J

    2017-10-11

    This study focused on the residue detection of the herbicides triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium in the runoff losses from the Tasik Chini oil palm plantation area and the Tasik Chini Lake under natural rainfall conditions in the Malaysian tropical environment. Triclopyr and glufosinate ammonium are post-emergence herbicides. Both herbicides were foliar-sprayed on 0.5 ha of oil palm plantation plots, which were individualized by an uneven slope of 10-15%. Samples were collected at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 days after treatment. The concentrations of both herbicides quickly diminished from those in the analyzed sample by the time of collection. The highest residue levels found in the field surface leachate were 0.031 (single dosage, triclopyr), 0.041 (single dosage, glufosinate ammonium), 0.017 (double dosage, triclopyr), and 0.037 μg/kg (double dosage, glufosinate ammonium). The chromatographic peaks were observed at "0" day treatment (2 h after herbicide application). From the applied active ingredients, the triclopyr and glufosinate losses were 0.025 and 0.055%, respectively. The experimental results showed that both herbicides are less potent than other herbicides in polluting water systems because of their short persistence and strong adsorption onto soil clay particles.

  16. Molecular study on the carAB operon reveals that carB gene is required for swimming and biofilm formation in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Tao; Rou, Wei; Song, Xue; Guo, Jing; Fan, Xiaojing; Kamau, Gicharu Gibson; Zou, Huasong

    2015-10-23

    The carA and carB genes code the small and large subunits of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (CPS) that responsible for arginine and pyrimidine production. The purpose of this work was to study the gene organization and expression pattern of carAB operon, and the biological functions of carA and carB genes in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. RT-PCR method was employed to identify the full length of carAB operon transcript in X. citri subsp. citri. The promoter of carAB operon was predicted and analyzed its activity by fusing a GUS reporter gene. The swimming motility was tested on 0.25% agar NY plates with 1% glucose. Biofilm was measured by cell adhesion to polyvinyl chloride 96-well plate. The results indicated that carAB operon was composed of five gene members carA-orf-carB-greA-rpfE. A single promoter was predicted from the nucleotide sequence upstream of carAB operon, and its sensitivity to glutamic acid, uracil and arginine was confirmed by fusing a GUS reporter gene. Deletion mutagenesis of carB gene resulted in reduced abilities in swimming on soft solid media and in forming biofilm on polystyrene microtiter plates. From these results, we concluded that carAB operon was involved in multiple biological processes in X. citri subsp. citri.

  17. Spin freezing in the re-entrant spin glass FeNiMn close to the frustration limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, Catherine [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienickerstr. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Klenke, Jens [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienickerstr. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Hesse, Juergen [Institut fuer Metallphysik und Nukleare Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Wagner, Volker [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: volker.wagner@ptb.de

    2007-07-15

    In the invar alloy (Fe{sub 0.65}Ni{sub 0.35}){sub 1-} {sub x} Mn {sub x} we measured the magnetic form factor s(Q) and the intermediate scattering function s(Q,t) for a sample close to the critical Mn concentration (x {sub c}=0.139), at which the sample turns to a re-entrant spin glass phase. The aim was to check whether the magnetic behaviour would approach the Q-independent relaxation behaviour of a classical spin glass when x=x {sub c}. The experiment showed a quite similar spin freezing as for a more ferromagnetic sample with x=0.113. The intermediate scattering function and the form factor were determined by paramagnetic NSE. The normalized scattering function S(Q,t)=s(Q,t)/s(Q)=exp[(-{gamma}t) {sup n}] was fitted by stretched exponential decay. As a function of temperature T<200 K the inverse time constant {gamma} showed the change of more than four orders of magnitude from frozen spin glass (T=60 K to T=100 K), where the ferromagnetic phase occurred. In general, the inverse time constant is higher than in the more ferromagnetic sample as the frustration of the spins became larger. In the ferromagnetic phase S(Q,t) depended on 0.3

  18. Self-similarity and growth in Birkhoff sums for the golden rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knill, Oliver; Tangerman, Folkert

    2011-01-01

    We study Birkhoff sums at the golden mean rotation number α= (√5-1)/2 with continued fraction p n /q n . The summation of such quantities with logarithmic singularity is motivated by critical KAM phenomena (Knill and Lesieutre 2010 Complex Anal. Operator Theory 10.1007/s11785-010-0064-7) and because g+ i g-tilde = 2 log(1-e 2πix ) shows that g is the harmonic conjugate to the piecewise linear case g-tilde (x) = 2π(x-[x])-π studied by Hecke. We relate the boundedness of log averaged Birkhoff sums S k /log(k) and the convergence of S q n (α) with the existence of an experimentally established limit function f(x) = lim n→∞ S [xq n ] (p n+1 /q n+1 )-S [xq n ] (p n /q n ) on [0, 1] which satisfies a functional equation f(α) + α 2 f = β with a monotone function β. The limit lim n→∞ S qn (α) can be expressed in terms of f

  19. Gas sensing properties of graphene–WO3 composites prepared by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Xiangfeng; Hu, Tao; Gao, Feng; Dong, Yongping; Sun, Wenqi; Bai, Linshan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The amount of graphene had an effect on the morphology of graphene–WO 3 composites. • The optimum temperature of 0.1 wt% graphene–WO 3 sensor to acetaldehyde was 100 °C. • 0.1 wt% graphene–WO 3 sensor exhibited good selectivity to acetaldehyde at 100 °C. - Abstract: Graphene–WO 3 composites mixed with different amounts of graphene (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 3 wt%) were prepared by hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 24 h. The as-prepared graphite oxide, graphene and graphene–WO 3 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the amount of graphene in the composites on the gas-sensing responses and the gas-sensing selectivity of the materials was investigated. The experimental results revealed that the sensor based on 0.1 wt% graphene–WO 3 composite exhibited high response and good selectivity to acetaldehyde vapor at 100 °C, the optimum operating temperature of this sensor to 1000 ppm acetaldehyde vapor decreased from 180 °C to 100 °C comparing with that of pure WO 3 . The response time and the recovery time for 100 ppm acetaldehyde vapor were 250 s and 225 s, respectively

  20. The interior transmission spectrum in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickmann, Kyle S

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks conditions on acoustic profiles c(x) and b(x) which imply the existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues. The existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues has important implications in the question of unique recovery of the acoustic profile for inverse acoustic scattering theory using the linear sampling method and for the inverse source problem in thermoacoustic tomography. We examine the interior transmission spectrum relative to two acoustic profiles on the unit interval. This research includes the case when the difference of the two acoustic profiles changes sign and is, to the author's knowledge, the only work to date on the interior transmission spectrum allowing this behavior. It is shown that for a large class of acoustic profiles the transmission spectrum is asymptotically sparse. The spectrum exhibits three distinct types of behavior dependent on the relation of the two acoustic profiles. Numerical examples of each type of behavior are given which show how the transmission eigenvalues are distributed depending on the relation between c(x) and b(x). Our method of study is to reduce the interior transmission problem on [0, 1] to a problem of finding roots of a determinant of fundamental solutions to a Sturm–Liouville problem. The asymptotic expansion of solutions of the Sturm–Liouville problem then allows us to analyze properties of the transmission spectrum for large values of the wavenumber. (paper)

  1. Fetal development and renal function in adult rats prenatally subjected to sodium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Henriqueta D; Cabral, Edjair V; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D O

    2009-10-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate two factors that affect fetal development--placental oxidative stress (Ox) and plasma volume (PV)--in dams with sodium overload and (2) to correlate possible alterations in these factors with subsequent modifications in the renal function of adult offspring. Wistar dams were maintained on 0.17 M NaCl instead of water from 20 days before mating until either the twentieth pregnancy day/parturition or weaning. Colorimetric methods were used to measure Ox in maternal and offspring tissues, PV, 24-h urinary protein (U(Prot24 h)) and serum triacylglycerols (TG) and cholesterol (Chol). Renal hemodynamics was evaluated in the offspring at 90 days of age using a blood pressure transducer, a flow probe and inulin clearance to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), respectively. The number of nephrons (NN) was counted in kidney suspensions. Dams showed unchanged PV, placental Ox and fetal weight but increased U(Prot24 h) (150%, P sodium-overloaded pups showed increased U(Prot24 h) (45%, P sodium-overloaded rats showed increased U(Prot24 h) (27%, P sodium-overloaded group. We conclude that salt overload from the prenatal stage until weaning leads to alterations in lipid metabolism and in the renal function of the pups, which are additional to those alterations seen in rats only overloaded prenatally.

  2. The coarsening process of Ge precipitates in an Al-4 wt.% Ge alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaf, G.H

    2004-05-01

    In this paper the results of a quantitative transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the precipitation process of Ge in an Al-4 wt.% Ge alloy are described. Two crystallographic orientation relationships between the irregular germanium precipitate and aluminum matrix were found to be [1 0 0]{sub Ge} || [1 1 0]{sub Al} and [1 1 4]{sub Ge} || [1 0 0]{sub Al}. The irregular germanium precipitates formed on [0 0 1]{sub Al} habit planes. The origin of the irregular shape is due to the existence of a highly anisotropic interfacial energy as well as in an isotropic growth rate along <1 1 0>{sub A1} directions. Particles sizes were determined for variety of isothermal ageing times at 348, 423 and 523 K. The coarsening of the different morphologies of Ge precipitates was found to obey Ostwald ripening kinetics. The TEM results showed that the coarsening of irregular particles was due to the interfacial coalescence between these particles. Nine different morphologies have been distinguished in the form of (i) irregular particles, (ii) spheres, (iii) hexagonal plates, (iv) rods, (v) triangular plates, (vi) laths, (vii) small tetrahedra, (viii) rectangular plates, and (ix) Lamellae shape.

  3. IMPULSE Highlights for recent experiments at the Advanced Photon Source (2/9-2/18 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-18

    This report is a presentation, with slides noting, Over 40 experiments were completed during this run using X-ray imaging on the IMPULSE system at Sector 32 IDB; Summary of new experiments: Idealized sphere compaction – Capture progression of dynamic densification through an idealized system on 0.500 mm borosilicate glass spheres (Slide 1); Detonator and EBW Imaging Experiments on IMPULSE – First time HE was intentionally detonated at APS (Slide 2); Spall and high strain rate crack nucleation/propagation in PMMA – PCI data is providing new and unique insights for model validation (Slide 3); Fiber composite for armor applications was studied under ballistic impact of Dyneema (Collaboration with Army Research Laboratory) (Slide 4). Summary of on-going experiments; Crack propagation in vitreous carbon – observed crack motion and caustic; Jet formation experiments on large grain cerium to examine phase dependent strength; Ballistic impact of Comp-B and TNT to examine thermo-mechanical response in-situ with various penetrator geometries to vary shear concentration. Other efforts: IMPULSE system moved and installed in Sector 35 (DCS). This includes the 4-frame X-ray detection system, 4- channel PDV, and other gun diagnostics; New remotely operated mobile IMPULSE structure in fabrication – to be delivered to APS in April; 4 Mini-VISAR Systems and 4-channel PDV installed in DCS instrumentation room with all associated diagnostics.

  4. Effects of canarium fruit (Canarium odontophyllum oil as a dietary lipid source for juvenile mahseer (Tor tambroides performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Bami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Canarium is among the riverine fruits that are commonly found in the natural diet of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides. The fruit contains a high percentage of lipids. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of canarium crude oil on the growth performance, body composition and fatty acid profile of juvenile T. tambroides. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein diets containing varying canarium oil levels (0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5% were prepared. Crude palm oil (CPO was used as the control. The juveniles (2.08 ± 0.10 g were given the test diets for 12 weeks in triplicate groups. Diets containing canarium oil were found to be less accepted by the fish which led to a significantly lower (P  0.05 on survival and lean portion of juvenile T. tambroides. The fish fed canarium oil-free diet also had better tissue fatty acid profile (especially n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as better protein, lipid and energy retention than those fed diets including canarium oil. From the results, canarium oil extracted from the whole fruit was not recommended as a dietary lipid source for T. tambroides. Moreover, juveniles fed on 0% canarium oil (5% CPO utilized dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA more efficiently for their energy requirement than fish given canarium oil.

  5. Growth of Pseudomonas sp. TX1 on a wide range of octylphenol polyethoxylate concentrations and the formation of dicarboxylated metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Wen; Guo, Gia-Luen; Hsieh, Hsiao-Cheng; Huang, Shir-Ly

    2010-04-01

    Pseudomonas sp. TX1, is able to use octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEO(n), or Triton X-100; average n = 9.5) as a sole carbon source. It can grow on 0.05-20% of OPEO(n) with a specific growth rate of 0.34-0.44 h(-1). High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of OPEO(n) degraded metabolites revealed that strain TX1 was able to shorten the ethoxylate chain and produce octylphenol (OP). Furthermore, formation of the short carboxylate metabolites, such as carboxyoctylphenol polyethoxylates (COPEO(n), n = 2, 3) and carboxyoctylphenol polyethoxycarboxylates (COPEC(n), n = 2, 3) began at the log stage, while octylphenol polyethoxycarboxylates (OPEC(n), n = 1-3) was formed at the stationary phase. All the short-ethoxylated metabolites, OPEO(n), OPEC(n), COPEO(n), and COPEC(n), accumulated when the cells were in the stationary phase. This study is the first to demonstrate the formation of COPEO(n) and COPEC(n) from OPEO(n) by an aerobic bacterium. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A G-band terahertz monolithic integrated amplifier in 0.5-μm InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ou-Peng; Zhang Yong; Xu Rui-Min; Cheng Wei; Wang Yuan; Niu Bing; Lu Hai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Design and characterization of a G-band (140–220 GHz) terahertz monolithic integrated circuit (TMIC) amplifier in eight-stage common-emitter topology are performed based on the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT). An inverted microstrip line is implemented to avoid a parasitic mode between the ground plane and the InP substrate. The on-wafer measurement results show that peak gains are 20 dB at 140 GHz and more than 15-dB gain at 140–190 GHz respectively. The saturation output powers are −2.688 dBm at 210 GHz and −2.88 dBm at 220 GHz, respectively. It is the first report on an amplifier operating at the G-band based on 0.5-μm InP DHBT technology. Compared with the hybrid integrated circuit of vacuum electronic devices, the monolithic integrated circuit has the advantage of reliability and consistency. This TMIC demonstrates the feasibility of the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP DHBT amplifier in G-band frequencies applications. (paper)

  7. Characterization of Nb$_{3}$Sn Rutherford cables for the LHC 11-T Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Wuis, A J; Ballarino, A; Oberli, L; Ten Kate, H H J

    2013-01-01

    The so-called CERN-LHC DS upgrade relies on the use of 11 T dipole magnets. For these magnets 40 strands Nb$_{3}$Sn type Rutherford cables based on 0.7 mm wires are being developed. Recently four samples of the cables were characterized in the CERN FRESCA cable test station. The critical current and the premature quench current due to magneto-thermal instability were measured at 1.9 K and 4.3 K in a background magnetic field between 0 and 9.6 T (the peak magnetic field on the conductor, including the self-field of the cable, ranges from ~ 2 T to ~ 12 T). Two cable samples were based on Powder-In-Tube (PIT) wire and two on Restacked-Rod-Process (RRP) wire. The PIT samples were identical and without a core in the cable while one of the RRP samples features a 25 μm thick stainless steel core. All cables samples tested have a width and a thickness of about 14.7 mm and 1.25 mm, respectively. Cables and sample holders were manufactured at CERN. In this paper we report and discuss the cable test results and compare...

  8. Evaluation of the MMCLIFE 3.0 code in predicting crack growth in titanium aluminide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, D.; Larsen, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Crack growth and fatigue life predictions made with the MMCLIFE 3.0 code are compared to test data for unidirectional, continuously reinforced SCS-6/Ti-14Al-21Nb (wt pct) composite laminates. The MMCLIFE 3.0 analysis package is a design tool capable of predicting strength and fatigue performance in metal matrix composite (MMC) laminates. The code uses a combination of micromechanic lamina and macromechanic laminate analyses to predict stresses and uses linear elastic fracture mechanics to predict crack growth. The crack growth analysis includes a fiber bridging model to predict the growth of matrix flaws in 0 degree laminates and is capable of predicting the effects of interfacial shear stress and thermal residual stresses. The code has also been modified to include edge-notch flaws in addition to center-notch flaws. The model was correlated with constant amplitude, isothermal data from crack growth tests conducted on 0- and 90 degree SCS-6/Ti-14-21 laminates. Spectrum fatigue tests were conducted, which included dwell times and frequency effects. Strengths and areas for improvement for the analysis are discussed

  9. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Patriati, Arum [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia giri@batan.go.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  10. Cryptanalysis and improvement of quantum broadcast communication and authentication protocol with a quantum one-time pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhi-Hao; Chen Han-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The security of quantum broadcast communication (QBC) and authentication protocol based on Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state and quantum one-time pad is analyzed. It is shown that there are some security issues in this protocol. Firstly, an external eavesdropper can take the intercept–measure–resend attack strategy to eavesdrop on 0.369 bit of every bit of the identity string of each receiver without being detected. Meanwhile, 0.524 bit of every bit of the secret message can be eavesdropped on without being detected. Secondly, an inner receiver can take the intercept–measure–resend attack strategy to eavesdrop on half of the identity string of the other’s definitely without being checked. In addition, an alternative attack called the CNOT-operation attack is discussed. As for the multi-party QBC protocol, the attack efficiency increases with the increase of the number of users. Finally, the QBC protocol is improved to a secure one. (paper)

  11. Eubiotic effect of a dietary acidifier (potassium diformate) on the health status of cultured Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Elala, Nermeen M.; Ragaa, Naela M.

    2014-01-01

    In connection with the global demand for safe human food and the production of environmentally friendly aquaculture products, acidifiers are natural organic acids and salts that have received considerable attention as animal-feed additives. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of potassium diformate (KDF) on the growth performance and immunity of cultured Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus). Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric rations containing graded levels of KDF, including 0% (control basal diet), 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, were fed separately to four equal fish groups (30 fish/group with an initial body weight of 53.49 ± 6.15 g) for sixty days. At the end of the experimental period, the fish groups fed on 0.2% and 0.3% KDF exhibited significant improvements in their feed intake, live weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, with concomitant improvement of their apparent protein digestibility (p fish groups fed on KDF and challenged orally with Aeromonas hydrophila was lower than that of the control group. The resistance against diseases increased with dietary KDF in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that the use of acidifiers can be an efficient tool to achieve sustainable, economical and safe fish production. PMID:26199753

  12. On-line/on-site analysis of heavy metals in water and soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deshuo; Zhao, Nanjing; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mingjun; Fang, Li; Gu, Yanhong; Jia, Yao; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    The enrichment method of heavy metal in water with graphite and aluminum electrode was studied, and combined with plasma restraint device for improving the sensitivity of detection and reducing the limit of detection (LOD) of elements. For aluminum electrode enrichment, the LODs of Cd, Pb and Ni can be as low as several ppb. For graphite enrichment, the measurement time can be less than 3 min. The results showed that the graphite enrichment and aluminum electrode enrichment method can effectively improve the LIBS detection ability. The graphite enrichment method combined with plasma spatial confinement is more suitable for on-line monitoring of industrial waste water, the aluminum electrode enrichment method can be used for trace heavy metal detection in water. A LIBS method and device for soil heavy metals analysis was also developed, and a mobile LIBS system was tested in outfield. The measurement results deduced from LIBS and ICP-MS had a good consistency. The results provided an important application support for rapid and on-site monitoring of heavy metals in soil. (Left: the mobile LIBS system for analysis of heavy metals in soils. Top right: the spatial confinement device. Bottom right: automatic graphite enrichment device for on0line analysis of heavy metals in water).

  13. MOVPE growth and characterization of heteroepitaxial germanium on silicon using iBuGe as precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attolini, G. [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze, 37 A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Ponraj, J.S. [University of Information Science and Technology, St Paul the Apostle, Ohrid 6000 (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Frigeri, C.; Buffagni, E.; Ferrari, C. [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze, 37 A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Musayeva, N.; Jabbarov, R. [Research and Development Center for Hi-Technologies, MCIT, Inshaatchilar ave., 2, AZ1073, Baku (Azerbaijan); Institute of Physics, ANAS, H. Javid ave., 33, AZ1143, Baku (Azerbaijan); Bosi, M., E-mail: bosi@imem.cnr.it [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze, 37 A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Germanium layer were deposited on silicon substrates. • A novel metal organic precursor (isobutyl germane) was used. • MOVPE growth process was optimized. • Layers were characterized by TEM, XRD; SEM and AFM. - Abstract: Being an attractive and demanding candidate in the field of energy conversion, germanium has attained widespread applications. The present work is aimed at the study of metal organic vapour phase epitaxy of germanium thin films on (0 0 1) silicon at different growth temperatures using isobutyl germane as a precursor. The epilayers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in order to understand the structural and morphological properties. The films were found to be epitaxially grown and single crystalline with slight misorientation (below 0.1 degrees). The interface between the film and substrate was analyzed in depth and different temperature dependent growth behaviours were evidenced. The major relevant lattice imperfections observed were attributed to planar defects and threading dislocations.

  14. Enhancement of cordyceps polysaccharide production via biosynthetic pathway analysis in Hirsutella sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Baker, Peter James; Yi, Ming; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Teng, Yi; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The addition of various sulfates for enhanced cordyceps polysaccharide (CP) production in submerged cultivation of H. sinensis was investigated, and manganese sulfate was found the most effective. 2mM of manganese sulfate on 0day (d) was investigated as the optimal adding condition, and the CP production reached optimum with 5.33%, increasing by 93.3% compared with the control. Furthermore, the consumption of three main precursors of CP was studied over cultivation under two conditions. Intracellular mannose content decreased by 43.1% throughout 6days cultivation, which corresponded to CP accumulation rate sharply increased from 0 d to 6 d, and mannose was considered as the most preferred precursor for generating CP. Subsequently, mannose biosynthetic pathway was constructed and verified for the first time in H. sinensis, which constituted the important part of CP biosynthesis, and transcriptional levels of the biosynthetic genes were studied. Transcriptional level of gene cpsA was significantly up-regulated 5.35-fold and it was a key gene involved both in mannose and CP biosynthesis. This study demonstrated that manganese sulfate addition is an efficient and simple way to improve CP production. Transcriptional analysis based on biosynthetic pathway was helpful to find key genes and better understand CP biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of advanced piezoelectric materials in the wide temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burianova, L.; Kopal, A.; Nosek, J

    2003-05-25

    We report about methods and results of our measurements of piezoelectric, dielectric and elastic properties of piezoelectric materials like crystals, ceramics, composites, polymers and thin layer composites. Among the methods, used in our laboratories are: the resonance method working in the temperature range 208-358 K, hydrostatic methods, both static and dynamic in the range 273-333 K, laser interferometric methods, using single and double-beam interferometer, working at room temperature, single and double-beam micro-interferometers, working inside of optical cryostat in the range 150-330 K, and pulse echo method for measurements of elastic coefficients, using ultrasonic set, working at room temperature. In our earlier papers we reported about some of our results of piezoelectric measurements of PZT ceramics using resonance method and laser interferometric method. The results of both methods were in good agreement. Now, the measurements are realized on 0-3 ceramic-polymer composites and thin layer composites. It is well known, that both intrinsic (material) and extrinsic (domain structure) contributions to properties of ferroelectric samples have characteristic, sometimes rather strong, temperature dependence. Therefore, any extension of temperature range of the above mentioned methods is welcomed.

  16. Simulation and fabrication of 0-3 composite PZT films for ultrahigh frequency (100-300 MHz) ultrasonic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Fei, Chunlong; Chen, Zeyu; Chen, Ruimin; Yu, Ping; Chen, Zhongping; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents simulation, fabrication, and characterization of single-element ultrahigh frequency (100-300-MHz) needle ultrasonic transducers based on 0-3 composite Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films prepared by using composite ceramic sol-gel film and sol-infiltration technique. The center frequency of the developed transducer at 300-MHz was the highest frequency of PbTiO3 ceramic-based ultrasonic transducers ever reported. Furthermore, a brief description of the composite model was followed by the development of a new expression for predicting the longitudinal velocity, the clamped dielectric constant, and the complex electromechanical coupling coefficient kt of these films, which is very important in ultrasonic transducer design. Moreover, these parameters are difficult to obtain by measuring the frequency dependence of impedance and phase angle because of the weak signal of the previous 0-3 composite films transducer (>100 MHz). The modeling results show that the Cubes model with a geometric factor n = 0.05 fits well with the measured data. This model will be helpful for developing the 0-3 composite systems for ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer design.

  17. Induksi 2-methoxyethanol pada masa prenatal sebagai penyebab kelainan otak pada mencit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Darmanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 2-Methoxyethanol (2-ME and glycol esters are widely used as a solvents in the industry and plasticizers, and have becomes ubiquitous environmental pollutants. This study were designed to evaluate the malformation of brain development as an impact of 2-ME. Four groups of pregnant mice were injected to 2-ME dose 10 mmol/kg body weight at 7, 13, 15, and 17 days gestation respectively. Control group were injected with sterile water. At 18 days of gestation samples in groups 7 and 13 days gestation were sacrificed. Brain were remove and weight, morfologically and histologically were examined. Samples were divided into five groups, i.e. control group, 7th, 13rd, 15th and 17th days of gestation groups. Samples in 7th and 15th days of gestation groups killed in 18th days of gestation to observed fetal brain defect and decreased of fetal brain weight but some samples to allow delivery of fetuses. Furthermore, the fetuses killed on 0, 5, 10, and 20 days after birth, to take their brain. The result of these study showed that there are decreasing total weight of fetal brains and there are cerebral malformation as impact of 2-ME exposure

  18. Isotope dilution measurement of copper absorption and excretion in rats fed different carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Bowman, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using 67 Cu was developed to measure true absorption (A) and endogenous excretion (EE) of Cu in rats. Specific activity (SA) of injected 67 Cu was least variable in 7 tissues on days 6-8 after injection. SA of feces compared to tissues was used to calculate EE and A. This method was used to study Cu metabolism in rats fed 5 ppm or 0.4 ppm Cu and diets containing fructose (FR), glucose (GL), sucrose (SU), or cornstarch (CS). In rats fed 5 ppm Cu, the A, EE, and balance (B) were greatest for CS animals. There were no differences in A, B, or EE between FR and SU rats (p > .05). Rats fed GL had B and A lower than other groups (p .05). Liver Cu did not differ among groups fed 0.4 ppm Cu. Kidney Cu was higher ( p .05) compared to rats fed GL and 5 ppm Cu. EE was significantly lower in all groups on 0.4 ppm Cu than 5 ppm Cu. EE was 1 μg Cu/d on the 0.4 ppm Cu diet

  19. Morphological identification of Candida species on glucose agar, rice extract agar and corn meal agar with and without Tween-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, K R; Solanki, A; Prakash, P

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study for the identification of 32 known strains of Candida species on the basis of morphology on glucose agar, rice extract agar and corn meal agar with and without Tween 80 revealed that when Tween 80 is incorporated in the media identification is possible for 96.8% of the species within 48 hours on rice extract agar and for 96.8% of the species within 48 hours on rice extract agar and for 90.6% of the species on glucose agar. The germ tubes and chlamydospores were also produced more on rice extract agar than on 0.1% glucose agar. Rice extract agar with Tween 80 can be used as single medium for morphologic identification of Candida species. The inoculated medium is first incubated at 37 degrees C for 3 hours and examined for germ tube formation and then incubated at 25 degrees C for 24 to 72 hours and examined for appearance of chlamydospores and mycelial morphology.

  20. Phacoemulsification combined with a new ab interno gel stent to treat open-angle glaucoma: Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Arsham; Lenzhofer, Markus; Hohensinn, Melchior; Reitsamer, Herbert; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2015-09-01

    To study the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of implanting a new gelatin stent at the time of cataract surgery in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Multicenter university and private-practice settings. Nonrandomized prospective clinical trial. The implantation of 2 models of a gelatin stent (Xen140 and Xen63) was performed at the time of cataract surgery without mitomycin-C. Complete success was defined as a postoperative IOP of less than 18 mm Hg and more than a 20% reduction in IOP at 12 months without glaucoma medication. Failure was defined as loss of light perception vision or worse, a need for additional glaucoma surgery, or less than a 20% reduction in the IOP from baseline. The study included 37 eyes of 37 patients. The mean preoperative IOP was 22.4 mm Hg ± 4.2 (SD) on 2.5 ± 1.4 medication classes. Twelve months postoperatively, the mean IOP was reduced to 15.4 ± 3.0 mm Hg on 0.9 ± 1.0 medication classes (P Ahmed is a paid consultant to Aquesys, Inc. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes of Radial Diffusivity and Fractional Anisotopy in the Optic Nerve and Optic Radiation of Glaucoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Engelhorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study was to evaluate with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI changes of radial diffusivity (RD and fractional anisotropy (FA in the optic nerve (ON and optic radiation (OR in glaucoma and to determine whether changes in RD and FA correlate with disease severity. Therefore, glaucoma patients and controls were examined using 3T. Regions of interest were positioned on RD and FA maps, and mean values were calculated for ON and OR and correlated with optic nerve atrophy and reduced spatial-temporal contrast sensitivity (STCS of the retina. We found, that RD in glaucoma patients was significantly higher in the ON (0.74 ± 0.21 versus 0.58 ± 0.17⋅10−3 mm2 s−1; P0.77. In conclusion, DTI at 3 Tesla allows robust RD and FA measurements in the ON and OR. Hereby, the extent of RD increase and FA decrease in glaucoma correlate with established ophthalmological examinations.

  2. Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection as an Adjuvant in the Treatment of Neovascular Glaucoma Accompanied by Vitreous Hemorrhage after Diabetic Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab injection as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG accompanied by postvitrectomy diabetic vitreous hemorrhage (PDVH. Methods. Eighteen NVG patients (18 eyes accompanied by PDVH were enrolled in this prospective, monocenter, 12-month, interventional case series. The consecutive 18 patients with an IOP ≥ 25 mmHg despite being treated with the maximum medical therapy were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Vitreous surgery or/with Ahmed valve implantation were indicated if no clinical improvement in vitreous haemorrhage and uncontrolled IOP was shown. Results. Ten patients got clear vitreous and controlled IOP only with 2.7±1.8 injections of ranibizumab without additional surgery. Vitrectomy or/with Ahmed valve implantation was administered in the other 8 eyes due to uncontrolled VH and IOP. At follow-up month 12, all the 18 eyes gained clear vitreous. At month 12 BCVA improved significantly compared to baseline. The baseline and follow-up at month 12 IOP/medication usage were 36.7±8.1 mmHg on 3.4±0.7 medications and 16.2±4.9 mmHg on 0.67±0.77 medications, respectively. Conclusions. The findings suggest that intravitreal ranibizumab injection as adjuvant therapy for treatment of NVG accompanied by PDVH may be safe and potentially effective. This clinical trial is registered with NCT02647515.

  3. Final report on the EFP program DK-SOFC 1993-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagger, C; Knudsen, P; Mogensen, M

    1997-09-01

    A 1/2 kW stack was developed, built and tested for 2000 h at 1000 deg. C. The maximum power of 507 W corresponded to a power density of 0.2 W/cm{sup 2} and an area specific internal resistance (ASR) of 1 {Omega}cm{sup 2}. The stack was composed of substacks, the best of which had an ASR of 0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2}. The stack development included cheap fabrication processes for cells with an ASR on 0.3 {Omega}cm{sup 2}. Manufacturing processes have been transferred to the industrial company HTAS. The parallel long-term developments included optimization of the LSM-YSZ cathode in the range 900-1000 deg. C, the best cathodes having a polarization resistance of 0.03 {Omega}cm{sup 2}. CeO{sub 2} based materials have been investigated for direct conversion of methane and also as a possible alternative to the classic Ni-YSZ anode. Well adhering anodes with an ASR of 0.25 {Omega}cm{sup 2} have been tested in wet hydrogen at 1000 deg. C. Cr-Fe-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys have been examined as possible alternatives to the ceramic LaCrO{sub 3} based interconnect materials, but the oxidation rate at 1000 deg. C proved to be too high. (au)

  4. Piezoresistance of Silicon and Strained Si0.9Ge0.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Hansen, Ole; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    2005-01-01

    We present experimentally obtained results of the piezoresistive effect in p-type silicon and strained Si0.9Ge0.1. Today, strained Si1-xGex is used for high speed electronic devices. This paper investigates if this area of use can be expanded to also cover piezoresistive micro electro mechanical...... systems (MEMS) devices. The measurements are performed on microfabricated test chips where resistors are defined in layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (0 0 1) silicon substrates. A uniaxial stress along the [1 1 0] direction is applied to the chip, with the use of a four point bending fixture....... The investigation covers materials with doping levels of N-A = 10(18) cm(-3) and NA = 1019 cm(-3), respectively. The results show that the pi(66) piezoresistive coefficient in strained Si0.9Ge0.1 is approximately 30% larger than the comparable pi(44) piezoresistive coefficient in silicon at a doping level of N...

  5. Chemical Properties and Characteristics of Cow Milk Yogurt with Different Additional Fruit and Storage Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Dian Wulansari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to evaluate the composition (total solids, water content, fat and protein, qualitative properties (color, aroma, and texture and quantitative properties (free fatty acid and lactic acid of cow milk yogurt with different fruits addition and storage time. Experimental method applied Completely Randomized Design with five treatments namely control, dragon fruit, mango, apple and banana (20% v/v, each with 5 replicates. Qualitative characteristic assessment was conducted on 0, 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. Result showed that fruit addition significantly affected the composition and characteristics, while storage time significantly affected quantitative characteristics of yogurt. Apple and banana increased 13% total solids of plain yogurt, while the highest fat content (4,516% was observed in control yogurt which had the lowest protein content (2,564. The highest free fatty acid  was in control yogurt ripen for 15 days (22,885% while the lowest free fatty acid was in mango yogurt ripen for 10 days (13,915%. Fruit addition in yogurt ripen for 15 days at 5C resulted in a safe consumed product.

  6. Influence training process program for coach physiological quality of players 10–12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Lebedev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of sport shows with proper evidence-based construction training process, not all young athletes can achieve high-level sports technics that puts them at further sporting destiny. Purpose: identify the dynamics of psychophysiologic рreparations young players aged 10–12 years. Material & Methods: analysis and synthesis of the literature; pedagogical testing laboratory method; methods of mathematical statistics. Results: significant difference in evaluating the capacity for predicting the situation in the field: between 10 and 11 years – on 0.16 points (t=3,57; p<0,001 and between 11 and 12 at 0.27 points (t=2,99; p<0,05. In 11-year-old young players improved 0.79 points relative to 10-year (t=2,30; p<0,05, and 12 years 1.09 points respectively to 11 years (t=4,12; p<0,001. Retrieved changes in terms Tapping test from 10 to 12 years (t=3,15; p<0.01, due to a higher physical activity (both in terms of employment and volume load. Conclusions: with age, physiological indicators improved significantly.

  7. A RECENT ACCRETION BURST IN THE LOW-MASS PROTOSTAR IRAS 15398-3359: ALMA IMAGING OF ITS RELATED CHEMISTRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jørgensen, Jes K.; Brinch, Christian; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A.; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Harsono, Daniel; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Persson, Magnus V.

    2013-01-01

    Low-mass protostars have been suggested to show highly variable accretion rates throughout their evolution. Such changes in accretion, and related heating of their ambient envelopes, may trigger significant chemical variations on different spatial scales and from source-to-source. We present images of emission from C 17 O, H 13 CO + , CH 3 OH, C 34 S and C 2 H toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359 on 0.''5 (75 AU diameter) scales with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 340 GHz. The resolved images show that the emission from H 13 CO + is only present in a ring-like structure with a radius of about 1-1.''5 (150-200 AU) whereas the CO and other high dipole moment molecules are centrally condensed toward the location of the central protostar. We propose that HCO + is destroyed by water vapor present on small scales. The origin of this water vapor is likely an accretion burst during the last 100-1000 yr increasing the luminosity of IRAS 15398-3359 by a factor of 100 above its current luminosity. Such a burst in luminosity can also explain the centrally condensed CH 3 OH and extended warm carbon-chain chemistry observed in this source and furthermore be reflected in the relative faintness of its compact continuum emission compared to other protostars

  8. Effects of Junk Foods on Brain Neurotransmitters (Dopamine and Serotonin) and some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elmonem, H.A.; Ali, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, α 2 - and β 1 -globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T 4 ) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T 4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T 4 , dopamine, GSH, CAT, α 1 and α 2 -globulins in both sexes; serotonin and β 1 -globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organs

  9. Emissions from mesoscale in-situ oil (diesel) fires: the Mobile 1994 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Ackerman, F.; Lambert, P.; Zhendi, W.; Nelson, R.; Goldthorp, M.; Wang, D.; Steenkammer, A.; Turpin, R.; Campagna, P.; Graham, L.; Hiltabrand, R.

    1996-01-01

    The various aspects of in-situ burning of diesel oil were studied in a series of three mesoscale burns. The burn was conducted in a 15 X 15 m steel pan with an outer berm filled with salt water pumped from Mobile Bay. The diesel fuel which was released and floated on 0.6 metre of water, was ignited and left to burn for about 25 minutes, after-which the water under the burns was analyzed. Four downwind ground stations were set up to conduct extensive sampling and monitoring of the smoke plumes in order to determine their emissions. Particulate samples from the air were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); these were found to be lower in the soot than in the starting oil. Particulates in the air were found to be greater than recommended exposure levels only up to 100 metres downwind at ground level. The study showed that diesel burns produced about 4 times more particulate matter than a similar-sized crude oil burn. The particulate matter was distributed exponentially downwind from the fire. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using multiple gas chromatographic techniques. The results of 148 substance analyses were presented. 6 refs., 32 tabs., 12 figs

  10. Efek Toksin T-2 terhadap Perkembangan Embrio Praimplantasi dan Fetus Mencit Swiss Webster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS HARYONO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a toxic and teratogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium tricintum which may contaminate cereal, seed, and food. The aim of this research is to find out the effects of T-2 Toxin on preimplantion embryos and fetuses of Swiss Webster mice. Pregnant female of Swiss Webster mice on 0 or 2 day of gestation was injected intraperitoneally with T-2 toxin at doses 0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg body weight (bw and the dam was observed at 3.5 and 18 days of gestation. At 0 day of gestation, embryos were arrested at one to eight cell and uncompacted morulae stages (P < 0.01 compared to control, in both 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg bw doses. The cell numbers of late blastocyst at all treated groups were decreased significantly compared to control. At 2 day of gestation, most of embryos were arrested on compacted morulae stage at dose 0.10 mg/kg bw (P < 0.01, the late blastocyst and its cell number were dose-dependently decreased. The live fetuses decreased significantly at all dose of T-2 toxin. No external malformation occurred in the fetuses. Results showed that T-2 toxin given at preimplantation stages inhibited development of preimplantation embryos as indicated by decreased number of live fetuses. Therefore, it was grouped as embryotoxic agent but those dosages did not cause malformation of the external appearance of Swiss Webster mice fetuses.

  11. Spectral analysis of epicardial 60-lead electrograms in dogs with 4-week-old myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Y; Ikeda, K; Komatsu, T; Yamaki, M; Kubota, I

    2001-01-01

    There were few studies on the spectral analysis of multiple-lead epicardial electrograms in chronic myocardial infarction. Spectral analysis of multi-lead epicardial electrograms was performed in 6 sham-operated dogs (N group) and 8 dogs with 4-week-old myocardial infarction (MI group). Four weeks after the ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery, fast Fourier transform was performed on 60-lead epicardial electrograms, and then inverse transform was performed on 5 frequency ranges from 0 to 250 Hz. From the QRS onset to QRS offset, the time integration of unsigned value of reconstructed waveform was calculated and displayed as AQRS maps. On 0-25 Hz AQRS map, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. In the frequency ranges of 25-250 Hz, MI group had significantly smaller AQRS values than N group solely in the infarct zone. It was shown that high frequency potentials (25-250 Hz) within QRS complex were reduced in the infarct zone.

  12. VOLUME INCREMENT OF Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. MEZ ON A MIXED RAIN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique da Silva Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it is studied the growth of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez species through a sampler compounded by eleven dominant trees selected from a rainforest in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul. The mathematical model which better represents the growth trend in percentage volume was described as iv%=(b0+b1.ln d2, fitting individually per tree, being possible to describe the variations of slope (b1 and intercept (b0 coefficients between trees with the relation height – diameter (h/d, diameter increment measured on the last 5 cm on bore increment (id5 sampled on diameter breast height (d, exposition (EXPOS, corrected Basal Area Large (BALcor and crown length exposed to sunlight (Lc, considering the following expressions: b1= 0,41739 + 4,16179.id5 - 6,29332.h/d + 0,37823.EXPOS - 0,11519Ir + 5,80419.BALcor – 0,06858.Lc, with determination coefficient equal to 0,9979 and standard error in percentage of the mean of –1,73%, and b0= 2,62466 –13,37024.id5 + 22,08329.h/d – 1,33161.EXPOS + 0,34689.Ir –23,88899.BALcor + 0,25692.L, with determination coefficient fitting on 0,9907 and standard error in percentage of the mean of 2,71%.

  13. Monoscopic versus stereoscopic photography in screening for clinically significant macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J; Agarwal, Anita; Merin, Lawrence M; Chomsky, Amy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether monoscopic photography could serve as an accurate tool when used to screen for clinically significant macular edema. In a masked randomized fashion, two readers evaluated monoscopic and stereoscopic retinal photographs of 100 eyes. The photographs were evaluated first individually for probable clinically significant macular edema based on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria and then as stereoscopic pairs. Graders were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity individually and in combination. Individually, reader one had a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.77, and reader two had a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.94. In combination, the readers had a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.86. They correlated on 0.76 of the stereoscopic readings and 0.92 of the monoscopic readings. These results indicate that the use of monoscopic retinal photography may be an accurate screening tool for clinically significant macular edema.

  14. Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) Analysis to Measure Trace Metals in Soil Along the East River in Queens, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Sajju; Conlan, Skye; Porat, Zachary; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Lab's 1.1 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator is used to determine the presence of heavy trace metals in Queens, NY between Astoria Park and 3.5 miles south to Gantry State Park. A PIXE analysis was performed on 0.5 g pelletized soil samples with a 2.2 MeV proton beam. The results show the presence of elements ranging from Ti to Pb with the concentration of Pb in Astoria Park (2200 +/-200 ppm) approximately ten times that of the Gantry State Park. We hypothesize that the high lead concentration at Astoria Park is due to the nearby Hell Gate Bridge, painted in 1916 with lead based paint, then sandblasted and repainted in the '90s. If the lead is from the repair of the bridge, then we should see the concentration decrease as we go further from the bridge. To test this, soil samples were collected and analyzed from seven different locations north and south of the bridge. The concentrations of lead decreased drastically within a 500 m radius and were approximately constant at greater distances. More soil samples need to be collected within the 500 m radius from bridge to identify the potential source of Pb. We will describe the experimental procedure, the PIXE analysis of soil samples, and present preliminary results on the distribution of heavy trace metals.

  15. Influence of hydrothermal processes on changes of volcanic rocks (data of physical modelling)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanina, V. V.; Bychkov, A. Y.

    2009-04-01

    alkaline solution amorphous silicon. The most appreciable changes of meanings parameters of properties are observed in velocity of longitudinal waves, which for basalts and hyaloclasites raise in both solutions at 300 °С, and at 450 °С, but in tuffs were lowered, as they has cracked, and majority even were disorganized, in a course of experiment; and meanings of a magnetic susceptibility, which for basalts and tuffs raises at influence of an alkaline solution and falls in acid. For obsidian the speed of passage of elastic waves after influence of an alkaline solution is reduced, that is connected to processing of a volcanic glass from a surface and education rind, which thickness for 15 day has 1-2 mm, and for 30 - 2-3 mm. Thus the greatest decrease of velocity of waves occurs on the party with (smallest at samples), where a layer of changes glass greatest concerning length of a sample. If for 30 day Vp decrease on the party a practically no, on c - 0,95 km/sec (18 %), and Vs accordingly 0,55 km/sec (18 %) and 1,25 km/sec (45 %). Changes of a magnetic susceptibility in obsidian to trace practically is not possible, as is primary only tenth shares *10-3 units SI and varies on similar sizes. For hyaloclasites it is difficult to speak about the unequivocal general tendencies because of features of their composition, structure and origin; at the given stage of study it is possible to note, what after a presence in a sour solution during 30 day at 300 С goes increase of speeds of passage of longitudinal waves on 0,35-0,50 km/sec (24-25 %), and the magnetic susceptibility does not change. After an alkaline solution at equality of other parameters - increase of velocity on 0,10-0,40 km/sec (6-22 %), and magnetic susceptibility on 0,3-0,4*10-3 ед. SI. In tuffs the velocity of longitudinal waves decrease (from 0,35 km/sec (14 days, initial solution with pH 4,4) up to 0,54-0,55 km/sec (in a solution with pH 1 or with pH 4,4 after 60 days)). The sizes small, but as initial in

  16. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of Cocos nucifera Linn. on streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Sagar; Mazumder, Upal K; Pramanik, Goutam; Gupta, Malaya; Kumar, R B Suresh; Bala, Asis; Islam, Aminul

    2011-12-08

    The plant Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae) is commonly known as coconut. Traditionally the juice of the young spadix when fresh is used in diarrhea and diabetes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of antidiabetic activity and effect on lipid profile as well as cardioprotective effect of hydro-methanol extract of Cocos nucifera (HECN) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After 72 h of STZ (50 mg/kg, b.w. i.p.) administration, animals showing plasma sugar level more than 250 mg/dl were considered as diabetic rat. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured on 0th (after 72 h of STZ), 5th, 10th, and 15th day. On the 15th day all the animals were sacrificed and the serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzyme status were measured. HECN treated animals showed a significant reduction in FBG level as compared with diabetic control group. Serum enzyme level (SGOT, SGPT, SALP), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme level such as CAT, GSH, SOD and cholesterol and triglycerides in the HECN treated groups were restored towards normal level as compared to diabetic control groups and the values were comparable with the standard groups (glibenclamide). Improvement in the FBG and the restoration of all other biomarker as well as enzymes indicates that HECN has very good antidiabetic activity with very low side effects and provides a scientific rationale for the use as an antidiabetic agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabrication of Fully Inkjet-Printed Vias and SIW Structures on Thick Polymer Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sangkil

    2016-02-11

    In this paper, a novel fully inkjet-printed via fabrication technology and various inkjet-printed substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) structures on thick polymer substrates are presented. The electrical properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) are thoroughly studied up to 8 GHz utilizing the T-resonator method, and inkjet-printable silver nanoparticle ink on PMMA is characterized. A long via fabrication process up to 1 mm utilizing inkjet-printing technology is demonstrated, and its characteristics are presented for the first time. The inkjet-printed vias on 0.8-mm-thick substrate have a resistance of ∼ 0.2~ Ω . An equivalent circuit model of the inkjet-printed stepped vias is also discussed. An inkjet-printed microstrip-to-SIW interconnect and an SIW cavity resonator utilizing the proposed inkjet-printed via fabrication process are also presented. The design of the components and the fabrication steps are discussed, and the measured performances over the microwave frequency range of the prototypes are presented.

  18. Manipulating mammalian cell morphologies using chemical-mechanical polished integrated circuit chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Hassan I.; Logan, Megan; Siow, Geoffrey C.; Phann, Darron L.; Rao, Zheng; Aucoin, Marc G.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2017-12-01

    Tungsten chemical-mechanical polished integrated circuits were used to study the alignment and immobilization of mammalian (Vero) cells. These devices consist of blanket silicon oxide thin films embedded with micro- and nano-meter scale tungsten metal line structures on the surface. The final surfaces are extremely flat and smooth across the entire substrate, with a roughness in the order of nanometers. Vero cells were deposited on the surface and allowed to adhere. Microscopy examinations revealed that cells have a strong preference to adhere to tungsten over silicon oxide surfaces with up to 99% of cells adhering to the tungsten portion of the surface. Cells self-aligned and elongated into long threads to maximize contact with isolated tungsten lines as thin as 180 nm. The orientation of the Vero cells showed sensitivity to the tungsten line geometric parameters, such as line width and spacing. Up to 93% of cells on 10 μm wide comb structures were aligned within ± 20° of the metal line axis. In contrast, only 22% of cells incubated on 0.18 μm comb patterned tungsten lines were oriented within the same angular interval. This phenomenon is explained using a simple model describing cellular geometry as a function of pattern width and spacing, which showed that cells will rearrange their morphology to maximize their contact to the embedded tungsten. Finally, it was discovered that the materials could be reused after cleaning the surfaces, while maintaining cell alignment capability.

  19. Distribution functions of probabilistic automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, F.

    2001-01-01

    Each probabilistic automaton M over an alphabet A defines a probability measure Prob sub(M) on the set of all finite and infinite words over A. We can identify a k letter alphabet A with the set {0, 1,..., k-1}, and, hence, we can consider every finite or infinite word w over A as a radix k expansion of a real number X(w) in the interval [0, 1]. This makes X(w) a random variable and the distribution function of M is defined as usual: F(x) := Prob sub(M) { w: X(w) automata in detail. Automata with continuous distribution functions are characterized. By a new, and much more easier method, it is shown that the distribution function F(x) is an analytic function if it is a polynomial. Finally, answering a question posed by D. Knuth and A. Yao, we show that a polynomial distribution function F(x) on [0, 1] can be generated by a prob abilistic automaton iff all the roots of F'(x) = 0 in this interval, if any, are rational numbers. For this, we define two dynamical systems on the set of polynomial distributions and study attracting fixed points of random composition of these two systems.

  20. Toxic effect of nonylphenol on the marine macroalgae Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): antioxidant system and antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Mingqin; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the toxic effect of nonylphenol (NP) on the antioxidant response and antitumor activity of Gracilaria lemaneiformis. An obvious oxidative damage was observed in this study. The thallus exposed to NP showed 1.2-2.0-fold increase in lipid peroxide and displayed a maximum level of 16.58 μmol g -1 Fw on 0.6 mg L -1 for 15-day exposure. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enhanced significantly by 1.1-3.2-fold and subsequently diminished at the high concentrations and prolonged exposure. The results of DNA damage in comet assay also supported that NP was obviously toxic on G. lemaneiformis with increasing the percentage of tail DNA in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the ethanol extract of G. lemaneiformis (EEGL) did exhibit antitumor potential against HepG-2 cells. While decreased in cell inhibition, ROS generation, apoptosis, and caspase-3 in HepG-2 cells treated with the EEGL were observed when G. lemaneiformis was exposed to NP for 15 days, and which were related to exposure concentration of NP. These suggested that NP has strongly toxic effect on the antitumor activity of G. lemaneiformis. The results revealed in this study imply that macroalgae can be useful biomarkers to evaluate marine pollutions.

  1. Exact solutions of linear reaction-diffusion processes on a uniformly growing domain: criteria for successful colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Many processes during embryonic development involve transport and reaction of molecules, or transport and proliferation of cells, within growing tissues. Mathematical models of such processes usually take the form of a reaction-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) on a growing domain. Previous analyses of such models have mainly involved solving the PDEs numerically. Here, we present a framework for calculating the exact solution of a linear reaction-diffusion PDE on a growing domain. We derive an exact solution for a general class of one-dimensional linear reaction-diffusion process on 0exact solutions with numerical approximations confirms the veracity of the method. Furthermore, our examples illustrate a delicate interplay between: (i) the rate at which the domain elongates, (ii) the diffusivity associated with the spreading density profile, (iii) the reaction rate, and (iv) the initial condition. Altering the balance between these four features leads to different outcomes in terms of whether an initial profile, located near x = 0, eventually overcomes the domain growth and colonizes the entire length of the domain by reaching the boundary where x = L(t).

  2. Periodontal CGRP contributes to orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hu; Liao, Lina; Gao, Meiya; Ma, Wenqiang; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2015-08-01

    Calcitonin-related gene peptide (CGRP) plays an important role in orofacial inflammatory pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether periodontal CGRP contributes to orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Closed coil springs were used to deliver forces. Rats were euthanized on 0d, 1d, 3d, 5d, 7d, and 14d following experimental tooth movement. Then, alveolar bones were obtained for immunostaining of periodontal tissues against CGRP. Two hours prior to euthanasia on each day, orofacial pain levels were assessed through rat grimace scale. CGRP and olcegepant (CGRP receptor antagonist) were injected into periodontal tissues to verify the roles of periodontal CGRP in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. Periodontal CGRP expression levels and orofacial pain levels were elevated on 1d, 3d, 5d, and 7d following experimental tooth movement. The two indices were significantly correlated with each other and fitted into a dose-response model. Periodontal administration of CGRP could elevate periodontal CGRP expressions and exacerbate orofacial pain. Moreover, olcegepant administration could decrease periodontal CGRP expressions and alleviate orofacial pain. Therefore, periodontal CGRP plays an important role in pain transmission and modulation following experimental tooth movement. We suggest that it may participate in a positive feedback aiming to amplify orofacial pain signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. THE 2012 RISE OF THE REMARKABLE TYPE IIn SN 2009ip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, José L.; Brimacombe, J.; Drake, A. J.; Howerton, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations by Mauerhan et al. have shown the unprecedented transition of the previously identified luminous blue variable (LBV) and supernova (SN) impostor SN 2009ip to a real Type IIn SN explosion. We present ∼100 optical R- and I-band photometric measurements of SN 2009ip obtained between UT 2012 September 23.6 and October 9.6, using 0.3-0.4 m aperture telescopes from the Coral Towers Observatory in Cairns, Australia. The light curves show well-defined phases, including very rapid brightening early on (0.5 mag in 6 hr observed during the night of September 24), a transition to a much slower rise between September 25 and September 28, and a plateau/peak around October 7. These changes are coincident with the reported spectroscopic changes that most likely mark the start of a strong interaction between the fast SN ejecta and a dense circumstellar medium formed during the LBV eruptions observed in recent years. In the 16-day observing period, SN 2009ip brightened by 3.7 mag from I = 17.4 mag on September 23.6 (M I ≅ –14.2) to I = 13.7 mag (M I ≅ –17.9) on October 9.6, radiating ∼3 × 10 49 erg in the optical wavelength range. As of 2012 October 9.6, SN 2009ip is more luminous than most Type IIP SN and comparable to other Type IIn SN.

  4. The application of transition metal ion chromatography to the determination of elemental and radiochemical species in PWR primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridle, D.A.; Brown, G.R.; Johnson, P.A.V.

    1992-01-01

    The accurate determination of both elemental and radiochemical transition metal corrosion products, particularly cobalt and nickel, in PWR coolants is necessary if the transport mechanisms and their role in the development of out-of-core radiation fields are to be fully understood. AEA Technology, Winfrith, has collaborated for several years with a number of PWR utilities in Europe, developing advanced sampling and analytical techniques for the determination of both soluble and insoluble corrosion products in primary coolant. The design and installation of continuously flowing isokinetic capillary modifications to the existing sampling systems has been shown to be an effective method of providing a low, but representative, sample flow from high pressure systems for on-line determination of corrosion product species. Transition metal ion chromatography coupled with gamma-spectrometry has been used to determine both insoluble and soluble elemental and radiochemical species in reactor coolant, with particular attention being given to the determination of soluble elemental cobalt at levels as low as 1 ng per kg. Soluble species were determined directly following their concentration from up to 1 litre of coolant. Insoluble species collected on 0.45 micron filter membranes, following filtration of up to 1500 litres of coolant, were solubilised by fusion with potassium hydrogen sulphate before the application of ion chromatography. In each case the eluant from the chromatographic column was collected and the radionuclides determined by gamma-spectrometry

  5. Alfvénic Dynamics and Fine Structuring of Discrete Auroral Arcs: Swarm and e-POP Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, D.; Mann, I. R.; Pakhotin, I.; Burchill, J. K.; Howarth, A. D.; Knudsen, D. J.; Wallis, D. D.; Yau, A. W.; Lysak, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    The electrodynamics associated with dual discrete arc aurora with anti-parallel flow along the arcs were observed nearly simultaneously by the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) and the Swarm A and C spacecraft. Auroral imaging from e-POP reveal 1-10 km structuring of the arcs, which move and evolve on second timescales and confound the traditional single-spacecraft field-aligned current algorithms. High-cadence magnetic data from e-POP shows 1-10 Hz, presumably Alfvénic perturbations co-incident with and at the same scale size as the observed dynamic auroral fine structures. High-cadence electric and magnetic field data from Swarm A reveals non-stationary electrodynamics involving reflected and interfering Alfvén waves and signatures of modulation consistent with trapping in the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR). Together, these observations suggest a role for Alfven waves, perhaps also the IAR, in discrete arc dynamics on 0.2 - 10s timescales and 1-10 km spatial scales.

  6. On the coexistence of copper-molybdenum bronzes: CuxMoO3 (0.2 yMoO3-z (0.1 2-O quasi-ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, T.E.; Skou, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Two copper-molybdenum bronzes: Cu y MoO 3-z (0.1 x MoO 3 (0.2 3 at 600 o C under argon in Pt crucibles. Powder XRD showed that the material with global composition '0.1Cu.MoO 3 ' comprises ∼Cu 0.15 MoO 3 and MoO 3 ; whilst '0.2Cu.MoO 3 ' comprises ∼Cu 0.15 MoO 3 and ∼Cu 0.23 MoO 3 . DTA performed on '0.2Cu.MoO 3 ' reveals a reversible solid state phase transition ∼520 o C under argon. Reacting equimolar amounts of Cu 2 O and MoO 2 at 600 o C in a Cu crucible under argon yields: Cu 6 Mo 5 O 18 , Cu and MoO 2 . A tentative subsolidus Cu-MoO 2 -O isothermal (∼25 o C) phase diagram under argon is drawn from these data. Oxidation states of Cu and Mo within this system are discussed.

  7. An experimental study on MRI signal intensity vs concentration of water-soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ghi Jai; Han, Chang Yul; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Han, Man Chung

    1991-01-01

    There has been only one report that water-soluble contrast media containing iodine and used in conventional X -ray radiography reduce T1-and T2-relaxation times. We evaluated the relationship between signal intensity (relative signal intensity to normal saline) and T2-relaxation time of MRI and the concentration of 3 water-soluble contrast media [meglumine ioxithalamate (Telebrix 30), iopromide (Ultravist 300), iotrolan (Isovist 300)] through the phantom study, using both 2.0T and 0.5T MR units. We found that the signal intensity increased significantly on the T1-weighted images as the concentration of contrast media increased. The degree of the increase was larger on 0.5T MR than on 2.0T MR. The signal intensity on proton density image showed no significant difference at various concentrations. However, there were significant decreases of both signal intensity on the T2-weighted images and T2-relaxation time as the concentration of contrast media increased, which was more prominent on 2.0T MR than 0.5T MR. Between the contrast media of the same concentration, there was no significant difference in signal intensity and T2-relaxation time

  8. Gross Mal distribution Identification and Effect of Inlet Distributor on the Phase Holdup in a Trickle Bed Reactor Using Gamma-Ray Densitometry (GRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fitri Abdul Rahman; Alexander, V.; Al-Dahhan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Local liquid and gas mal distribution and their holdups in a packed column are difficult to identify due to multiphase properties and other design factors. Good liquid and gas flow distribution important to determine to get high performance of Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR). Gross mal distribution indicates some faulty or bad flow distribution of liquid and gas. In this work, gross mal distribution of phases has been identified using Gamma Ray Densitometry (GRD) technique with three types of inlet distributors (single inlet towards the wall, single inlet at the center, and proper shower) by measuring line average diameter profile of phases (Liquid, Gas, and Solids) holdups. Gamma-ray densitometry is a non-invasive technique which can be implemented at the laboratory, pilot plant, and industrial scales reactors. Experiments were performed on 0.14 m diameter reactor made of Plexiglas filled with 0.003 m glass bead which acts as the solid. The superficial velocities for both gas and liquid were in the range 0.03 m/s to 0.27 m/s and 0.004 m/s to 0.014 m/s respectively. Proper shower distributor showed early liquid spreading than compared with other distributors. The effect of superficial gas velocity on liquid spread was seen to be non-significant, and liquid distribution is found to be almost uniform at the center region of the catalyst bed. (author)

  9. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cari; Mahfudli Fadli, U.; Bayu Prasada, A.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber, Cinnamomum, Curcuma, and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO2), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm2. Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm2. Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm2. Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm2. Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye.

  10. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cari; Fadli, U. Mahfudli; Prasada, A. Bayu; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber , Cinnamomum , Curcuma , and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO 2 ), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm 2 . Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm 2 . Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm 2 . Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm 2 . Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye. (paper)

  11. Order in nanometer thick intergranular films at Au-sapphire interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baram, Mor [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Garofalini, Stephen H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 (United States); Kaplan, Wayne D., E-mail: kaplan@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Au particles were equilibrated on (0 0 0 1) sapphire in the presence of anorthite. {yields} 1.2 nm thick equilibrium films (complexions) were formed at the Au-sapphire interfaces. {yields} Quantitative HRTEM was used to study the atomistic structure of the films. {yields} Structural order was observed in the 1.2 nm thick films adjacent to the sapphire crystal. {yields} This demonstrates that ordering is an intrinsic part of equilibrium intergranular films. - Abstract: In recent years extensive studies on interfaces have shown that {approx}1 nm thick intergranular films (IGF) exist at interfaces in different material systems, and that IGF can significantly affect the materials' properties. However, there is great deal of uncertainty whether such films are amorphous or partially ordered. In this study specimens were prepared from Au particles that were equilibrated on sapphire substrates in the presence of anorthite glass, leading to the formation of 1.2 nm thick IGF at the Au-sapphire interfaces. Site-specific cross-section samples were characterized using quantitative high resolution transmission electron microscopy to study the atomistic structure of the films. Order was observed in the 1.2 nm thick films adjacent to the sapphire crystal in the form of 'Ca cages', experimentally demonstrating that ordering is an intrinsic part of IGF, as predicted from molecular dynamics and diffuse interface theory.

  12. Thermoluminescence properties of undoped and nitrogen-doped CVD diamond exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza-Flores, M.; Gastelum, S.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Favalli, A.

    2008-01-01

    It is known that the thermoluminescence (TL) performance of CVD diamond depends on the impurity concentration and doping materials introduced during growing. We report on the TL properties of undoped and 750 ppm nitrogen-doped CVD diamond grown on (0 0 1) silicon substrate. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation from a Gammacell 200 Nordion irradiator in the 10-500 Gy dose range at 627 mGy/min dose rate. The nitrogen-doped CVD diamond sample exhibited a TL glow curve peaked around 537 K and a small shoulder about 411 K and a linear dose behavior in the 10-60 Gy dose range. In contrast, the undoped specimen showed a 591 K peaked TL glow curve and linear dose response for 10-100 Gy doses. However, both samples displayed a non-linear dose response for doses higher than 100 Gy. The doping effects seem to cause a higher TL efficiency, which may be attributed to the differences in the diamond bonding and amorphous carbon on the CVD samples as well as to the presence of nitrogen. In addition, the nitrogen content may produce some structural and morphological surface effects, which may account for the distinctive TL features and dose response of the diamond samples

  13. Self-ligating vs conventional twin brackets during en-masse space closure with sliding mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Peter G

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the rate of en-masse space closure with sliding mechanics between passive self-ligating SmartClip brackets (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and conventional twin brackets ligated with stainless steel ligatures. Nineteen patients including 20 arches participated in this prospective trial with 0.018-in slot brackets. All patients had first premolar extractions in at least 1 arch, with the second premolar and the first molar distal to the extraction site bonded with SmartClip brackets on 1 side and conventional twin brackets on the other. The sides were alternated with each consecutive patient. Space closure was achieved on 0.016 x 0.022-in stainless steel wires with nickel-titanium coil springs activated 6 to 9 mm. The patients were recalled every 5 weeks until 1 side had closed. The distances from the mesial aspect of the canine bracket to the distal aspect of the first molar bracket were recorded before and after space closure, and an average rate of space closure per month was calculated. Thirteen patients completed the trial (14 arches); the median rates of tooth movement for the SmartClip bracket side (1.1 mm per month) and the conventional twin bracket side (1.2 mm per month) were not significantly different (P = .86). There was no significant difference in the rate of en-masse space closure between passive SmartClip brackets and conventional twin brackets tied with stainless steel ligatures.

  14. A "typodont" study of rate of orthodontic space closure: self-ligating systems vs. conventional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, I; Butti, A C; Salvato, A; Biagi, R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of space closure of two bracket systems, self-ligating and conventional ones, considering two systems with the same design and prescription. The experimental model of this study aims to identify in general if one type of system is more suitable for planning the extractive therapy, without considering the clinical aspect necessary for an adequate orthodontic approach. A resin maxilla without the first premolars was used to test the self-ligating and conventional brackets system. Space closure was achieved on 0.016x0.022" in stainless steel wires with nickel-titanium coil springs 150 grams in strength and 10 mm in length. Two experiment settings have been prepared. The first setting was made bonding conventional bracket on the right side and self-ligating on the left; the last one was made bonding self-ligating bracket on the right side and conventional on the left. All measurements (runs) have been repeated seven times for both settings. During the closing phase of extraction spaces both systems are equable since there are no significant statistical differences (P=0.70). Our typodont model showed no significant difference in the efficiency of space closure between the self-ligating bracket and conventional bracket tied with stainless steel ligatures.

  15. Microvascular Anastomosis: Proposition of a Learning Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Pooneh; Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Benet, Arnau; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-04-14

    Learning to perform a microvascular anastomosis is one of the most difficult tasks in cerebrovascular surgery. Previous studies offer little regarding the optimal protocols to maximize learning efficiency. This failure stems mainly from lack of knowledge about the learning curve of this task. To delineate this learning curve and provide information about its various features including acquisition, improvement, consistency, stability, and recall. Five neurosurgeons with an average surgical experience history of 5 yr and without any experience in bypass surgery performed microscopic anastomosis on progressively smaller-caliber silastic tubes (Biomet, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida) during 24 consecutive sessions. After a 1-, 2-, and 8-wk retention interval, they performed recall test on 0.7-mm silastic tubes. The anastomoses were rated based on anastomosis patency and presence of any leaks. Improvement rate was faster during initial sessions compared to the final practice sessions. Performance decline was observed in the first session of working on a smaller-caliber tube. However, this rapidly improved during the following sessions of practice. Temporary plateaus were seen in certain segments of the curve. The retention interval between the acquisition and recall phase did not cause a regression to the prepractice performance level. Learning the fine motor task of microvascular anastomosis adapts to the basic rules of learning such as the "power law of practice." Our results also support the improvement of performance during consecutive sessions of practice. The objective evidence provided may help in developing optimized learning protocols for microvascular anastomosis.

  16. Regularity for 3D Navier-Stokes equations in terms of two components of the vorticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek Gala

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We establish regularity conditions for the 3D Navier-Stokes equation via two components of the vorticity vector. It is known that if a Leray-Hopf weak solution $u$ satisfies $$ ilde{omega}in L^{2/(2-r}(0,T;L^{3/r}(mathbb{R}^3quad hbox{with }0on $(0,T]$ (see [5]. We prove the regularity of Leray-Hopf weak solution $u$ under each of the following two (weaker conditions: $$displaylines{ ilde{omega}in L^{2/(2-r}(0,T;dot {mathcal{M}}_{2, 3/r}(mathbb{R}^3quad hbox{for }0

  17. Clinical evaluation of an ionic tooth brush on oral hygiene status, gingival status, and microbial parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognised that the presence of dental plaque leads to gingivitis and periodontal disease, as well as dental caries. Today tooth brushing is the most widely accepted method of removing plaque. Hence this present clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of an ionic toothbrush on oral hygiene status. For this study, 20 dental students in the age group of 18-20 years were included. All the subjects after undergoing dental prophylaxis were then provided with ionic toothbrushes, either active (equipped with lithium battery or inactive (without lithium battery. Plaque index and gingival bleeding index were examined at 7th, 14th, and 21st day. Microbial assessment was done for detection of colony forming units (CFU from the plaque samples which were collected on 0 day and 21st day, both before brushing and after brushing. Results shown a significant reduction in all the parameters and the reduction was more significant in active and inactive ionic toothbrush users. It was concluded that both active and inactive ionic toothbrushes reduced the plaque index and gingival bleeding index scores significantly and active ionic tooth brushes were more effective as compared to inactive ionic toothbrushes. There was no soft tissue trauma following the use of both type of toothbrushes, which showed that ionic toothbrushes were equally safe for regular long-term use.

  18. Prediction of total dose effects on sub-micron process metal oxide semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Hiroshi; Kato, Masataka.

    1991-01-01

    A method for correcting leakage currents is described to predict the radiation-induced threshold voltage shift of sub-micron MOSFETs. A practical model for predicting the leakage current generated by irradiation is also given on the basis of experimental results on 0.8-μm process MOSFETs. The constants in the threshold voltage shift model are determined from the 'true' I-V characteristic of the MOSFET, which is obtained by correction of leakage currents due to characteristic change of a parasitic transistor. In this way, the threshold voltage shift of the n-channel MOSFET irradiated at a low dose rate of 2 Gy(Si)/h was also calculated by using data from a high dose rate irradiation experiment (100 Gy(Si)/h, 5 h). The calculated result well represented the tendency of measured data on threshold voltage shift. The radiation-induced leakage current was considered to decay approximately in two exponential modes. The constants in this leakage current model were determined from the above high dose rate experiment. The response of leakage current predicted at a low dose rate of 2 Gy(Si)/h approximately agreed with that measured during and after irradiation. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the reinforcing and subjective effects of heroin in combination with dextromethorphan and quinidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Comer, Sandra D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies have suggested that the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist dextromethorphan may be useful in the treatment of opioid dependence. Design This double-blinded, placebo-controlled inpatient study evaluated the effects of 0, 30, and 60 mg of dextromethorphan and quinidine (DMQ) on the reinforcing and subjective effects of heroin in recently detoxified heroin abusers. Participants Nine heroin-dependent participants were admitted and then detoxified from heroin over the course of several days. Interventions Participants were subsequently stabilized on 0, 30, or 60 mg of DMQ. Each dose of DMQ was administered for two consecutive weeks, and the effects of heroin (0, 12.5, and 50 mg) were studied under each DMQ maintenance dose condition. DMQ and heroin dose were administered in random order both within and between participants. Results Planned comparisons revealed statistically significant increases in progressive ratio breakpoint values and positive subjective ratings as a function of heroin dose. There were no consistent changes in any of the responses as a function of DMQ maintenance dose, other than a modest reduction in craving. Conclusions In summary, results from this study suggest that maintenance on dextromethorphan in combination with quinidine has a limited role in the treatment of opioid dependence. PMID:22320027

  20. Determination of Two Sulfonylurea Herbicides Residues in Soil Environment Using HPLC and Phytotoxicity of These Herbicides by Lentil Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Alebrahim, Mohammad Taghi; Roushani, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    A HPLC-UV detection system was used for determination of sulfosulfuron and tribenuron methyl residues from soils. The soils were fortified with sulfosulfuron and tribenuron methyl at rates of 26 and 15 g a.i. ha -1 respectively and samples were taken randomly on 0 (2 h), 1, 2, 4, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90 and 120 days after treatment. The final extracts were prepared for analysis by HPLC. The results showed that degradation of both herbicides in the silty loam soil was faster than sandy loam soil. Half-life of sulfosulfuron was ranged from 5.37 to 10.82 days however this value for tribenuron methyl was ranged from 3.23 to 5.72 days on different soils. The residue of both herbicides at 120 days after application in wheat field had no toxicitic effect on lentil. It was concluded that HPLC analysis procedure was an appropriate method for determination of these herbicides from soils.

  1. Dobinski-type relations and the log-normal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, P; Penson, K A; Solomon, A I

    2003-01-01

    We consider sequences of generalized Bell numbers B(n), n = 1, 2, ..., which can be represented by Dobinski-type summation formulae, i.e. B(n) = 1/C Σ k =0 ∞ [P(k)] n /D(k), with P(k) a polynomial, D(k) a function of k and C = const. They include the standard Bell numbers (P(k) k, D(k) = k!, C = e), their generalizations B r,r (n), r = 2, 3, ..., appearing in the normal ordering of powers of boson monomials (P(k) (k+r)!/k!, D(k) = k!, C = e), variants of 'ordered' Bell numbers B o (p) (n) (P(k) = k, D(k) = (p+1/p) k , C = 1 + p, p = 1, 2 ...), etc. We demonstrate that for α, β, γ, t positive integers (α, t ≠ 0), [B(αn 2 + βn + γ)] t is the nth moment of a positive function on (0, ∞) which is a weighted infinite sum of log-normal distributions. (letter to the editor)

  2. METROLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF BOMB CALORIMETERS AT REAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Maksimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-usage measurement equipment for heat of combustion of organic fuels are bomb isoperibol calorimeters with a water thermostat. The stability of work of calorimeters at real conditions is important for maintenance of reliability of measurement results. The article purpose – the analysis of stability for parameters of calorimeters to environment changes. In this work influence room temperature (Тк and heat exchange conditions on metrological characteristics of two models of calorimeters is considered with different degree of thermal protection: V-08МА and BIC 100. For calorimeters V-08МА the increase in a effective heat capacity (W on 0,1 % by growth of Tк on everyone 5 °С is established. To use value W in all interval laboratory temperatures Tк = 14–28 °С it is necessary to correct W on 2,8 J/°C on everyone 1 °С changes of Tк. Updating W is required, if the correction exceeds error in determination W. For calorimeter BIC 100 it is not revealed dependences W from Tк. BIC 100 have constant-temperature cap, high stability a temperature in thermostat and stabilized heat exchange. It is established that an standard deviation of cooling constant for all calorimeters in direct proportional to standard deviation W. 

  3. An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Vacuum Environment on the Fatigue Life, Fatigue-Crack-Growth Behavior, and Fracture Toughness of 7075-T6 Aluminum Alloy. Ph.D. Thesis - North Carolina State Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    Axial load fatigue life, fatigue-crack propagation, and fracture toughness tests were conducted on 0.090-inch thick specimens made of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. The fatigue life and fatigue-crack propagation experiments were conducted at a stress ratio of 0.02. Maximum stresses ranged from 33 to 60 ksi in the fatigue life experiments, and from 10 to 40 ksi in the fatigue-crack propagation experiments, and fatigue life experiments were conducted at gas pressures of 760, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.00000005 torr. Fatigue-crack-growth and fracture toughness experiments were conducted at gas pressures of 760 and 5 x 10 to the minus 8th power torr. Residual stress measurements were made on selected fatigue life specimens to determine the effect of such stresses on fatigue life. Analysis of the results from the fatigue life experiments indicated that fatigue life progressively increased as the gas pressure decreased. Analysis of the results from the fatigue-crack-growth experiments indicates that at low values of stress-intensity range, the fatigue crack growth rates were approximately twice as high in air as in vacuum. Fracture toughness data showed there was essentially no difference in the fracture toughness of 7075-T6 in vacuum and in air.

  4. Integrating fluid dynamic and biologic effects on staphylococci bacteria biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Erica; Endres, Jennifer; Bayles, Kenneth; Wei, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are able to form biofilms and distinctive tower structures that facilitate their ability to tolerate treatment and to spread within the human body. The formation of towers, which break off, get carried downstream and serve to initiate biofilms in other parts of the body are of particular interest here. In previous work on biofilm growth and evolution in steady, laminar microchannel flows, it has been established that tower formation occurs around a very limited range of applied shear stresses centered on 0.6 dynes/cm2. Quantifying cell density characteristics as a function of time during biofilm formation reveals indicators of tower development hours before towers actually form and become visible. The next step in this research is to explore biological factors that might explain why this specific shear is so important. Additional studies with mutants, e.g. ica-A, that have been tied to tower formation have been conducted. The shear dependence of these mutants and their correlation to the behavior of wild type S. aureus is examined.

  5. Protective effect of oral administration of transgenic tobacco seeds against verocytotoxic Escherichia coli strain in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luciana; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Vagni, Simona; Sala, Vittorio; Reggi, Serena; Baldi, Antonella

    2014-03-01

    The use of transgenic plants as delivery system for antigenic proteins is attractive for its simplicity and increases likelihood for local immune response at sites of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of oral administration of tobacco seeds, expressing the FedA, the major protein of the F18 adhesive fimbriae, and B subunit of verocytotoxin, against verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) strain in piglets. Forty-three early weaned piglets, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups: 3 test groups and a control. Treatment groups orally received a bolus, with different dose of tobacco seeds on 0, 1, 2, 14 days post primary administration. After challenge, with 1*10(10) CFU of O138 Escherichia coli strain, piglets showed clinical scores significantly higher in the control group compared to orally immunized groups (P administration of recombinant tobacco seeds expressing antigenic proteins against VTEC strains can induce a protective effect against challenger strain in piglets.

  6. X-ray determination of strain in ion implanted GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadri, S.B.; Molnar, B.; Yousuf, M.; Carosella, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The out-of-plane c, and in-plane a, lattice parameters of wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) films, grown on the [0 0 0 1] basal plane of sapphire have been determined and the impact of ion implantation having dose between 5x10 13 and 5x10 15 cm -2 investigated. The thickness of the GaN layers was in the 1-3.5 μm range. The overall effect of the (0 0 0 1) GaN growth on (0 0 0 1) sapphire is biaxial compression in wurtzite α-GaN. Earlier X-ray studies have indicated that the films of GaN grow either purely in α-GaN phase or in α-GaN phase with a cubic β-GaN component. In contrast, our high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement revealed two isostructural polymorphs of α-GaN phases having different lattice parameters. Influence of ion implantation is to increase the values of lattice parameters a and c and could be rationalized in terms of an increase in the defects. At doses above 5x10 15 cm -2 , XRD analysis indicates the existence of an amorphous layer preventing the determination of a and c accurately

  7. THE ESTIMATION OF SOME CHANGES OF SOIL PHYSICAL STATE UNDER THE EFFECT OF LAND RECLAMATION TECHNOLOGIES, IN THE CONDITION OF SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE IN BAIA-MOLDOVA DEPPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pedo-climatic conditions of Suceava County that extends on a total surface of 855 300 ha, the balance of agricultural land affected by humidity excess with temporar or permanent character is differenciated from south to north and from east to west, between 30 % till 40%, which means almost 100 000 ha. On these soils with underground water or pluvial excess hydro ameliorative drainage systems have been installed, associated to a complex agroameliorative works. For long effect estimation of the underground drainage asociated with the agropedoameliorative works upon the some physical and hydrophysical characteristics, there were analyzed the soil and the environment conditions from Baia field. For this reason, we analyzed the agrophysical conditions for luvisol albic pseudogleic (SRCS-1980, respectively luvosol albic stagnic-glosic (SRTS-2003 albic luvosoil drained and cultivated, after a period of 28 years (1978-2006 use. The obtained data regarding to te water balance and the evolution of the major physical properties of soil, under the influence of drainage and amelioration works, put into evidence in the first stage (1978-1986 a general improvement of the aerohidrycal state and physical-chemical conditioning. In the next two experimental cycles of 10 years each, have been noticed a increased of compaction degree of soil drained and cultivated on 0-30 cm depth, from weak loose to moderately compaction depending on the remanence of the reclamation technologies.

  8. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor. Part 23 (Iceland-TRW INC Classified Location)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    01WNN~ NO W N N N N N N N N ’ 4(Y) 0 U 4c CV) U 001 0)-4 OW.4 WooC WPC4000 0 0 0 00 0 0 N tun 40 I -CY U7 -N 04 (01-Z t-000 04N N 00 00 0 000 C30i04a at...4ci4 - 4 4 bi- a O 10 0- 0 con WW W (A ( ZAW WW AW WWW( 00 4ON 40 00 a 0 0 03 aO co 00 40 ON 0l. 0 0C2 co- 0- CD a.m 0000N U m 0 0 0 co 400 00 I...04C "a SUN U4 40 4 w- 0o w m. 004 0 1 Z:4 aUN aOOwe "N OW 20WM 0 10: MA 0.. on 00 o V 0C U U4 m4 1-) 0 0 40 We 0. 0 01 10 tUN IPa 0. MO 4 0* m M 1

  9. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Isamu; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Soga, Mineki; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Ogawa, Masaru; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2016-03-30

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with enhanced near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE) without compromising the fill factor (FF) and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR) measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps) SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25-132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50-180 cm.

  10. Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Takai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD with enhanced near-infrared (NIR sensitivity has been developed, based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology, for use in future automotive light detection and ranging (LIDAR systems. The newly proposed SPAD operating in Geiger mode achieves a high NIR photon detection efficiency (PDE without compromising the fill factor (FF and a low breakdown voltage of approximately 20.5 V. These properties are obtained by employing two custom layers that are designed to provide a full-depletion layer with a high electric field profile. Experimental evaluation of the proposed SPAD reveals an FF of 33.1% and a PDE of 19.4% at 870 nm, which is the laser wavelength of our LIDAR system. The dark count rate (DCR measurements shows that DCR levels of the proposed SPAD have a small effect on the ranging performance, even if the worst DCR (12.7 kcps SPAD among the test samples is used. Furthermore, with an eye toward vehicle installations, the DCR is measured over a wide temperature range of 25–132 °C. The ranging experiment demonstrates that target distances are successfully measured in the distance range of 50–180 cm.

  11. Aqueous phase hydrogenation of phenol catalyzed by Pd and PdAg on ZrO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, Karen A.; Hori, Carla E.; Noronha, Fabio B.; Shi, Hui; Gutierrez, Oliver Y.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogenation of phenol in aqueous phase was studied over a series of ZrO2-supported Pd catalysts in order to explore the effects of particle size and of Ag addition on the activity of Pd. Kinetic assessments were performed in a batch reactor, on monometallic Pd/ZrO2 samples with different Pd loadings (0.5%, 1% and 2%), as well as on a 1% PdAg/ZrO2 sample. The turnover frequency (TOF) increases with the Pd particle size. The reaction orders in phenol and H2 indicate that the surface coverages by phenol, H2 and their derived intermediates are higher on 0.5% Pd/ZrO2 than on other samples. The activation energy was the lowest on the least active sample (0.5% Pd/ZrO2), while being identical on 1% and 2% Pd/ZrO2 catalysts. Thus, the significantly lower activity of the small Pd particles (1-2 nm on average) in 0.5%Pd/ZrO2 is explained by the unfavorable activation entropies for the strongly bound species. The presence of Ag increases considerably the TOF of the reaction by decreasing the Ea and increasing the coverages of phenol and H2.

  12. CT liver volumetry using three-dimensional image data in living donor liver transplantation: Effects of slice thickness on volume calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Epstein, Mark L.; Baron, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate a relationship between slice thickness and calculated volume on CT liver volumetry by comparing the results for images with various slice thicknesses including three-dimensional images. Twenty adult potential liver donors (12 men, 8 women; mean age, 39 years; range, 24–64) underwent CT with a 64-section multi-detector row CT scanner after intra-venous injection of contrast material. Four image sets with slice thicknesses of 0.625 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm were used. First, a program developed in our laboratory for automated liver extraction was applied to CT images, and the liver boundary was obtained automatically. Then, an abdominal radiologist reviewed all images on which automatically extracted boundaries were superimposed, and edited the boundary on each slice to enhance the accuracy. Liver volumes were determined by counting of the voxels within the liver boundary. Mean whole liver volumes estimated with CT were 1322.5 cm3 on 0.625-mm, 1313.3 cm3 on 2.5-mm, 1310.3 cm3 on 5-mm, and 1268.2 cm3 on 10-mm images. Volumes calculated for three-dimensional (0.625-mm-thick) images were significantly larger than those for thicker images (Pvolumetry. If not, three-dimensional images could be essential. PMID:21850689

  13. Radiochemical determination of methylmercury chloride Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Prasilova, J.

    1976-01-01

    The isotope exchange between methylmercury species and an excess of inorganic radiomercury in sulphuric acid medium has been used for the simple determination of methylmercury chloride down to 0.01 ppm. The determination is not influenced by the presence of a great excess of other metals, however, chlorides, bromides and iodides interfere in higher concentrations. It has been found that the isotope exchange between CH 3 HgCl and 203 HgCl 4 2- (or 203 HgCl 2 ) in 0.01-3M hydrochloric acid is extremely slow, for the bimolecular reaction the rate constant is lower than 10 -3 mol -1 s -1 at 25 deg C. The isotope exchange rate between methylmercury chloride and mercuric-nitrate 0n on 0.5M sulphuric acid is higher. The isotope exchange is a bimolecular reaction with a rate constant k=0.050+-0.004 mol -1 s -1 at 25 deg C. (T.I.)

  14. Effects of Cr methionine on glucose metabolism, plasma metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium in Mahabadi goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, A; Ganjkhanlou, M; Zali, A

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) on glucose metabolism, blood metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium (Cr) in Mahabadi goat kids. Thirty-two male kids (16.5 ± 2.8 kg BW, 4-5 months of age) were fed for 90 days in a completely randomized design with four treatments. Treatments were supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg Cr as Cr-Met/animal/daily. Blood samples were collected via heparin tubes from the jugular vein on 0, 21, 42, 63, and 90 days of experiment. On day 70, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was conducted. At the end of the feeding trial, the kids were slaughtered, and the liver, kidney, and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle samples were collected. Plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were decreased by Cr supplementation (P glucose concentrations at 30 and 60 min after glucose infusion were lower in the kids fed 1.5 mg Cr diet than the kids fed control diet (P glucose clearance rate (K) and lower glucose half-life (T½; P Glucose area under the response curve (AUC) from 0 to 180 min after glucose infusion was decreased linearly (P glucose utilization and lipid oxidation of meat in fattening kid.

  15. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  16. Attentional Bias for Uncertain Cues of Shock in Human Fear Conditioning: Evidence for Attentional Learning Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Koenig

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a human fear conditioning experiment in which three different color cues were followed by an aversive electric shock on 0, 50, and 100% of the trials, and thus induced low (L, partial (P, and high (H shock expectancy, respectively. The cues differed with respect to the strength of their shock association (L < P < H and the uncertainty of their prediction (L < P > H. During conditioning we measured pupil dilation and ocular fixations to index differences in the attentional processing of the cues. After conditioning, the shock-associated colors were introduced as irrelevant distracters during visual search for a shape target while shocks were no longer administered and we analyzed the cues’ potential to capture and hold overt attention automatically. Our findings suggest that fear conditioning creates an automatic attention bias for the conditioned cues that depends on their correlation with the aversive outcome. This bias was exclusively linked to the strength of the cues’ shock association for the early attentional processing of cues in the visual periphery, but additionally was influenced by the uncertainty of the shock prediction after participants fixated on the cues. These findings are in accord with attentional learning theories that formalize how associative learning shapes automatic attention.

  17. Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Foronda, Humberto M.

    2017-11-23

    In this work, reduced threading dislocation density AlN on (0 0 0 1) 6H-SiC was realized through the use of reduced temperature AlN interlayers in the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth. We explored the dependence of the interlayer growth temperature on the AlN crystal quality, defect density, and surface morphology. The crystal quality was characterized using omega rocking curve scans and the threading dislocation density was determined by plan view transmission electron microscopy. The growth resulted in a threading dislocation density of 7 × 108 cm−2 indicating a significant reduction in the defect density of AlN in comparison to direct growth of AlN on SiC (∼1010 cm−2). Atomic force microscopy images demonstrated a clear step-terrace morphology that is consistent with step flow growth at high temperature. Reducing the interlayer growth temperature increased the TD inclination and thus enhanced TD-TD interactions. The TDD was decreased via fusion and annihilation reactions.

  18. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations

  19. Annealing of radiation damage in 0.1- and 2-ohm-centimeter Silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.

    1979-01-01

    Isochronal and isothermal annealing studies were conducted on 0.1 and 2 ohm centimeter n(+)/p silicon cells after irradiation by 1 MeV electrons at fluences of 10 to the 14th power, 5 times 10 to the 14th power, and 10 to the 15th power per square centimeter. For the 0.1 ohm centimeter cells, reverse annealing was not observed in the isochronal data. However, reverse annealing was observed between approximately 200 and 325 C in the isochronal data of the 2 ohm centimeter cells. Isothermal annealing of 0.1 ohm centimeter cells at 500 C restored pre-irradiation maximum power P sub max within 20 minutes at fluence = 10 to the 14th power, in 180 minutes at fluence = 5 times 10 to the 14th power and to 92 percent of pre-irradiation P sub max in 180 minutes for fluence = 10 to the 15th power. Annealing at 450 C was found inadequate to restore 0.1 ohm centimeter cell performance within reasonable times for all fluence levels. By comparison, at 450 C, the P sub max of 2 ohm centimeter cells was restored within 45 minutes, for the two highest fluence levels, while for the lowest fluence, restoration was completed within 15 minutes. Spectral response data indicate that, for both resistivities, degradation occurs predominantly in the cells p-type base region.

  20. Photosynthesis and growth of young “Niágara Branca” vines (Vitis labrusca L. cultivated in soil with high levels of copper and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Daniel José

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic response and growth of young grape “Niagara Branca” vines grown in soil with high content of Cu and liming. The experiment was conducted in controlled environment with soil subjected to three levels of liming, with 0, 1.5 and 3.0 Mg ha−1 of lime. The effect of additional 50 mg kg−1 Cu in half of soil treatments was evaluated. The CO2 measurements, assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration were carried out in the tenth cultivation week using the IRGA equipment (Infrared Gaz Analyzer. Plant height, fresh weight and dry weight, concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids were measured. For most variables, the Cu had damaging effect on 0 and 1.5 Mg ha−1 liming treatments however, there was no significant damage in the 3.0 Mg ha−1 treatment. Rates of CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and transpiration were increased with the addition of 50 mg kg−1 Cu. Liming to raise the pH of the soil is an effective practice to reduce the effects of Cu toxicity in young “Niagara Branca” grape vines.