WorldWideScience

Sample records for ifip 20th world

  1. Happy 20th Birthday, World Wide Web!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 13 March CERN celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. Check out the video interview with Web creator Tim Berners-Lee and find out more about the both the history and future of the Web. To celebrate CERN also launched a brand new website, CERNland, for kids.

  2. World population, world health and security: 20th century trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashford, A

    2008-03-01

    The connection between infectious disease control and national security is now firmly entrenched. This article takes a historical look at another security issue once prominent in debate on foreign policy and international relations, but now more or less absent: overpopulation. It explores the nature of the debate on population as a security question, and its complicated historical relation to the development of world health.

  3. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J.H.A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T.I.E.; Ward, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th

  4. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; Guillaume, J H A; de Moel, H; Eisner, S; Flörke, M; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Veldkamp, T I E; Ward, P J

    2016-12-09

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20 th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  5. Nuclear science in the 20th century. Its historical discoveries and impact on the world: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun; Xu Furong; Zheng Chunkai; Shen Wenqing

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear science has been in existence for more than one hundred years, and has affected the world in many important aspects. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the history of nuclear science, including major discoveries such as the discovery of radioactivity, the electron, proton and neutron. The structures of atoms and atomic nuclei are explained, with some historic experiments and theories. The immense impact of nuclear science on the natural sciences and the world is reviewed

  6. The Tangible Economic benefits of the 20th Session of the United Nations World Tourism Organisation General Assembly to Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopas Njerekai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a documentation of the tangible economic benefits that accrued to the town of Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, by co-hosting with Zambia, the 20th session of the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO General Assembly (GA in 2013. The paper intends to offset speculations, half-truths and exaggerations on the tangible economic benefits of the event to the town and to contribute significantly to the scanty existing literature on the impact of these events to developing countries. A single case study research design focusing on the town was adopted for this study. The study participants to the research included tourism and hospitality organizations, the Victoria Falls municipality authorities, service providers and Victoria Falls town residents. Researcher administered questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observation check lists were used to collect the data. In general, although the GA brought some significant transformative effects to the town of Victoria Falls in terms of employment creation, infrastructural development, revenue generation and the country's image, future host cities and countries to this event should mobilize adequate funds for the event, time it appropriately, ensure a fair spread of the benefits to various sectors and put up structures that do not turn into white elephants soon after the event.

  7. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  8. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

  9. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  10. Theorizing and Rethinking Linkages Between the Natural Environment and the Modern World-System: Deforestation in the Late 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Burns

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Building on prior work in world-system analysis and human ecology, we test a macro-level theory that social and demographic causes of deforestation will vary across zones of the modern world-system. Using multivariate regression analysis, we examine models of deforestation over the period 1990-2000. We test for main effects of world-system posmon, two different population variables (urbanization and proportion under working age, and economic development within zone, as well as for the contextual effects of these variables as they operate differently across world-system positions. Our findings indicate that generic models of deforestation need to be qualified, because the particular social factors most closely associated with deforestation tend to vary by position in the global hierarchy. Deforestation at the macro level is best explained by considering effects of socio-demographic processes contextually, in terms of world-system dynamics. We discuss the findings in a more general world-systems and behavioral ecological framework, and suggest the field will be well served with more precise theorizing and closer attention to scope conditions.

  11. Football in England of first half 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Dohnal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    (English) This disetation describes progress of football as a sport in the first half of the 20th century, including his position in society during both World Wars Keywords: football competition, number of fans and their culture, football in World Wars, women football, football clubs, organisation of football, football and the media

  12. Danish Capitalism in the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    marked by large-scale redistribution and a very active public sector. The purpose of this book project is to analyze development of Danish capitalism in the 20th century. The first of our hypothesis state that the phases of Danish capitalism and the general corporate strategies reflected each other...... how the corporate strategies shaped and was shaped by the changing nature of Danish capitalism. Such a work as this is important as it bears testimony to the changing nature of market institutions. A descriptive and analytic exercise such as proposed here have only to a limited extent been carried out...... in the Danish language, and never in a compiled, comprehensive, and connected work. The English language situation for understanding Danish capitalism is even more dire, which leads to increasing, and likely reinforcing, stereotypes and myths about “the fairytale country”....

  13. Planetary Missions of the 20th Century*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.; Huntress, W. T.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2002-09-01

    Among of the highlights of the 20th century were flights of spacecraft to other bodies of the Solar System. This paper describes briefly the missions attempted, their goals, and fate. Information is presented in five tables on the missions launched, their goals, mission designations, dates, discoveries when successful, and what happened if they failed. More detailed explanations are given in the accompanying text. It is shown how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation. Initially, only the USA and USSR sent missions to the Moon and planets. Europe and Japan joined later. The USSR carried out significant research in Solar System exploration until the end of the 1980s. The Russian Federation no longer supports robotic planetary exploration for economic reasons, and it remains to be seen whether the invaluable Russian experience in planetary space flight will be lost. Collaboration between Russian and other national space agencies may be a solution.

  14. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference, Thursday, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference October 23-26, 2017 | Waterford at Springfield | Springfield, VA NDIA.org/systemsengineering...Conference Program SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE 2 Welcome to the NDIA Systems Engineering Conference On behalf of the National Defense Industrial...Association’s Systems Engineering Division, I would like to extend a very warm welcome to the 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Yes, the 20th Annual

  15. 20th Anniversary Conference on World Bank Administrative Tribunal

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"Review of discretionary power by international administrative tribunals" by Michel Gentot, "Checks exerted by administrative tribunals over the discretionary powers of international organizations" by Nicolas Valticos, "Comments" by Ranjan (C.F.) Amerasinghe, "The review of managerial discretion by international administrative tribunals" by Francisco Orrego Vicuña, "Some practical issue arising in international administrative tribunals" by Nassib G. Ziadé, "Aspects of judicial review of administrative action in the WBAT with comparative remarks" by Spyridon Flogaitis, "The International Monetary Fund Administrative Tribunal : its first six years" by Celia Goldman

  16. The Gifts of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    This article describes critical events that have shaped gifted education, including: intelligence testing, the concept of intelligence, the construct of creativity, greater understanding of brain functions, the work of John Dewey, Jerome Bruner, and Leta Hollingworth, school reform, world change, and the shift from identification to meeting…

  17. Enterprise Interoperability - Proceedings of the 5th International IFIP Working Conference on Enterprise Interoperability, IWEI 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Bosems, S.; Unknown, [Unknown

    IWEI is an International IFIP Working Conference covering all aspects of enterprise interoperability with the purpose of achieving flexible cross-organizational collaboration through integrated support at business and technical levels. It provides a forum for discussing ideas and results among both

  18. Adult Learning Development in Poland in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarska-Khomenko, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a retrospective analysis of adult learning development in Poland in the 20th century. Based on the study and analysis of historical and pedagogical literature, normative documents of the official bodies of Polish government, the periodical press of the 20th century, several stages of adult learning development, in the…

  19. Changes in the flora of the Netherlands in the 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, Wilhelmus Laurentius Martinus

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the flora of the Netherlands in the 20th century Throughout the world, biodiversity is under major threat from human activity. As the gravity of the situation unfolds, critical analysis shows that our knowledge and understanding of these developments is still very incomplete, both

  20. Social religious movement in java 19Th - 20Th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Trilaksana, A.; Kasdi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Religious social movements are very interesting to be studied because this phenomenon is affecting the urban and rural communities, among the rich and the poor people, the educated and the less educated. The purpose of this study was to analyze several religious social movements in Java in the 19Th - 20Th centuries. The methods used are historical methods that include: Source feeding (main source is reference), Source Critique (source test), Interpretation of fact (analyzing the fact), and Historiography (writing research results) in the form of Journal Articles. Religious Social Symbols arise as a result of a depressed society, oppressed by the political system, or poverty as a result of colonial exploitation. For indigenous and less religious societies social pressures breed social protest movements and social revolutions. Meanwhile, in the Javanese society that has social and religious characteristics make the nature of the movement multidimensional. The form of movement is a blend of social movements that lead in the form of protests and revolutions, on the other hand formed religious movements that are politer nature because it is related to the life of the world and the hereafter. In various religious social movements in Java include the Nativist movement, Millennial/millenarianism, Messianic, Nostalgic, sectarian, and Revivalist. The movement emerged as a social impact of the Dutch colonization in the form of Cultivation which gave birth to the suffering of the people in the economic and social fields.

  1. Swedish political attitudes towards Baltic independence in the short 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Kuldkepp, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the history of Swedish attitudes towards Baltic independence in the period in the so-called short 20th century (1914-1991), focusing primarily on the years when Baltic independence was gained (1918-1920) and regained (1989-1991). The former period was characterized by Swedish skepticism towards the ability of the Baltic states to retain their independence long-term, explainable by the Swedish political elites’ conviction that the weakening of Russia in the First World W...

  2. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World War,…

  3. Koeberg: SA's only 20th century nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the question of Koeberg being South Africa's only 20th century nuclear power station. According to Escom's chairman, Koeberg must be seen as a forerunner of a programme which will begin to mature in the next century. The cost of Koeberg is compared to the cost attached to a coal-fired power station

  4. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2c)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2c (20CRV2c)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the...

  5. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRV2)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the entire...

  6. 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This edited volume presents the proceedings of the 20th CIRP LCE Conference, which cover various areas in life cycle engineering such as life cycle design, end-of-life management, manufacturing processes, manufacturing systems, methods and tools for sustainability, social sustainability, supply chain management, remanufacturing, etc.

  7. Health Paradigm Shifts in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel DeAngulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of systems theory and the study of complexity to medicine and human health allows for a more comprehensive understanding and a more holistic view of what it means to be human. Such application overcomes the limitations of the traditional, fragmented understanding of phenomena and problems based on the mechanistic or Newtonian worldview. It recognizes that phenomena are interrelated, and that individual parts cannot be understood by only focusing on the analysis of their individual qualities. Rather, the individual parts can only be understood in relation to the whole and by being analyzed in the context of their interaction with the whole. The door is opened to previously unimagined models of thinking.In the 20th Century there have been shifts in the paradigms that have governed medicine and human health in the modern western world. There has been a shift from the focus on specific biological analysis and pathological diagnostics to complex human interactions with the environment and with sociopolitical and economic processes. There are complex models of systems in immunology, in neuroscience, and in genetics, as well as complex ways of understanding interactions as in epidemic modeling, in social media technologies, socioeconomic factors, and artificial intelligence.In this paper we describe three paradigms of the health-disease process that in some degree correspond to the historical development of modern medicine and healthcare over the previous century. The oldest paradigm focused on specific disease mechanisms and treatment. This gave way to paradigms that historically were broader and more inclusive, such as “international health”. The international health paradigm focused primarily on the control of epidemics across national borders and considered government as the only health actor. However, this perspective has come to be seen as excessively reductionist and excluded many critical components essential to a robust

  8. Nuclear tracks: A success story of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Starting with the observation of a few feeble trails of damage in a sheet of mica exposed to fission fragments some 40 years ago, the discipline based on their correct interpretation has emblazoned a resounding success story in the second half of the 20th century. The spectrum of information revealed by the technique extends from delineating the history of the cosmos over billions of years to observing exotic decays lasting from a minute to a fraction of a second. More, directly useful researches have included medical and biological uses as well as industrial applications. A topic of great current interest is the study of the environmental and health effects of the naturally occurring radon gas. These and other highlights of the track work over the past 40 odd years of the 20th century - with some tentative glimpses of things to come in the 21st - are presented and examined in this review paper

  9. The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand both continuities and changes in the reference to the Risorgimento in 20th century political discourse. The narrative proceeds by analyzing historical “snapshots,” from the Liberal period to post-Cold War Italy, that allows us to spell out what has changed...... and what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where...... the nexus between the Risorgimento past and the political present came to the fore with particular emphasis. In the contextual discussion of these memorization events, we discuss intellectual elaborations of Risorgimento memorization and indicate how such elaborations spread to wider layers of the populace...

  10. Proceedings of the 20th International Meshing Roundtable

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the articles presented at the 20th International Meshing Roundtable (IMR) organized, in part, by Sandia National Laboratories and was held in Paris, France on Oct 23-26, 2011. This is the first year the IMR was held outside the United States territory. Other sponsors of the 20th IMR are Systematic Paris Region Systems & ICT Cluster, AIAA, NAFEMS, CEA, and NSF. The Sandia National Laboratories started the first IMR in 1992, and the conference has been held annually since. Each year the IMR brings together researchers, developers, and application experts, from a variety of disciplines, to present and discuss ideas on mesh generation and related topics. The topics covered by the IMR have applications in numerical analysis, computational geometry, computer graphics, as well as other areas, and the presentations describe novel work ranging from theory to application.     .

  11. Musical instrument technology of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the technical development of musical instruments during the 20th century. Starting with early electronic instruments (such as the Theremin-1917) invented prior to the organization of ASA, the history includes the development of electronic organs, synthesizers, and computer music. This paper provides an introduction to the session, giving a framework for the papers which follow in the session.

  12. Mathematical and conceptual foundations of 20th-century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emch, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is primarily intended for Mathematicians, but it is also hoped that students in the physical sciences, will find here information not usually available in physics texts. The main aim of the book is to provide a unified mathematical account of the conceptual foundations of 20th-century Physics, in a form suitable for a one-year survey course in Mathematics or Mathematical Physics. Emphasis is laid on the interlocked historical development of mathematical and physical ideas. (Auth.)

  13. Spanish nurses' credentialing in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Conesa, J M; Cayuela Fuentes, P S; Beneit Montesinos, J V; González Jurado, M

    2012-06-01

    Nurses credentialing as healthcare professionals commenced in Western Europe and in the USA by the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, boosted by the protestant reform movement. In Spain, it started in 1915, during the kingdom of Alfonso XIII (1902-1931). This historical period was marked by great political instability and big flaws in the healthcare delivery system. To describe the regulatory pathway that gave rise to the nursing profession in Spain, through official credentialing and regulation during the first third of the 20th century. Documental, historical and regulatory documental research describing and analysing the national legislative sources used to regulate the professional development, as well as the education, training and competencies of the nursing practice in Spain, as compared with the developments in the European and American context. Professional development of the nursing profession in Western Europe and in the USA is consolidated during the 20th century as resulting in educational and training enhancement and the establishment of national and international professional bodies. In Spain, the regulatory and legal recognition of the nursing profession come into being in 1915 in response to a request from a female religious congregation. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Early 20th century conceptualization of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2017-12-01

    This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. 20th International Workshop on Hermitian Symmetric Spaces and Submanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnita, Yoshihiro; Zhou, Jiazu; Kim, Byung; Lee, Hyunjin

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 20th International Workshop on Hermitian Symmetric Spaces and Submanifolds, which was held at the Kyungpook National University from June 21 to 25, 2016. The Workshop was supported by the Research Institute of Real and Complex Manifolds (RIRCM) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF). The Organizing Committee invited 30 active geometers of differential geometry and related fields from all around the globe to discuss new developments for research in the area. These proceedings provide a detailed overview of recent topics in the field of real and complex submanifolds.

  16. Mathematical and conceptual foundations of 20th-century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emch, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    This volume presents a unified mathematical account of the conceptual foundations of 20th-century Physics. Part 1 provides a survey of classical physics divided in separate chapters on mechanics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism. This study provides opportunities to place in perspective the successive advents of calculus, of probability and statistics, of differential and sympletic geometry, and of classical functional analysis. Relativity is presented in part 2 of this book and quantum theory in part 3. The motivation provided by physical problems in the development of mathematical disciplines such as, for instance, pseudo-Riemannian geometries, Hilbert spaces and operator algebras, are emphasized. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; schemes

  17. Immigration and crime in early 20th century America

    OpenAIRE

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    Research on crime in the late 20th century has consistently shown that immigrants have lower rates of involvement in criminal activity than natives. We find that a century ago immigrants may have been slightly more likely than natives to be involved in crime. In 1904 prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19 when the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely t...

  18. The 20th anniversary of SN1987A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, A [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: atsuto.suzuki@kek.jp

    2008-07-15

    Observation of a neutrino burst from the supernova, SN1987A opened a new window of observational astronomy by neutrinos. And the history showed that the SN1987A neutrino burst observation was the vanguard of successive discoveries of neutrino properties by Super-Kamiokande, SNO, K2K, KamLAND and so on. On the occasion of the SN1987A 20th anniversary, the backstage story up to the discovery of the SN1987A neutrino bursts is summarized, tracing the Kamiokande log-note and including the IMB, LSD and Baksan data.

  19. Premature Infant Care in the Early 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Stephanie; Hehman, Michelle C

    The complex early history of infant incubators provides insight into challenges faced by medical professionals as they promoted care for premature infants in the early 20th century. Despite their absence from the narrative to date, nurses played vital roles in the development of neonatal care. Working in many different settings, from incubator-baby shows to the first hospital unit designed specifically for premature infants, nurses administered quality care and promoted advanced treatment for these newborns. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The 20th Hadron Collider Physics Symposium in Evian

    CERN Multimedia

    Ludwik Dobrzynski and Emmanuel Tsesmelis

    The 20th Hadron Collider Physics Symposium took place in Evian from 16 to 20 November 2009. The Hadron Collider Physics Symposium series has been a major forum for presentations of physics at the Tevatron over the past two decades. The merger of the former Topical Conference on Hadron Collider Physics with the LHC Symposium in 2005 brought together the Tevatron and LHC communities in a single forum. The 20th Hadron Collider Physics Symposium took place in Evian, on the shores of Lake Geneva, from 16-20 November 2009, some 17 years after the historic ECFA-CERN Evian meeting in March 1992 when Expressions of Interest for LHC detectors were presented for the first time. The 2009 event was organized jointly by CERN and the French high-energy physics community (CNRS-IN2P3 and CEA-IRFU). More than 170 people registered for this symposium. This year’s symposium was held at an important time for both the Tevatron and the LHC. It stimulated the completion of analyses for a significant Tevatron data sam...

  1. How the law is perceived in the 20 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Chovancová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay the author reflects connection between iusnaturalism and positivism. Dominant discussion is understanding law and morality which represents neverending story. The article analyzes positive law in  20th century represented by H.L. A Hart and natural law development by L.L. Fuller and R. Alexy. Twentieth century can be called a period during which natural law has been shifted towards more positivism within the natural law. Jural positivism can be understood as a doctrine based on the Bentham´s utilitarism which didn´t accept other normative systems to be involved into concept of law. Prominent representatives of this theory have completely excluded moral content of the legal standards and they consider these to be irrelevant for the validity of the law. According to them evaluating standards through moral criteria is not appropriate because this brings chaos into the jural thinking. Methodology: This essay using from methodology methods of comparation, especially positive law represented by H.L.A. Hart and natural law represented by LL.Fuller, R. Alexy in the20th century and also analyzing connection between law and morality.

  2. 20th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yiming; Došlý, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications cover the areas of difference equations, discrete dynamical systems, fractal geometry, difference equations and biomedical models, and discrete models in the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering. The conference was held at the Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Hubei, China), under the auspices of the International Society of Difference Equations (ISDE) in July 2014. Its purpose was to bring together renowned researchers working actively in the respective fields, to discuss the latest developments, and to promote international cooperation on the theory and applications of difference equations. This book will appeal to researchers and scientists working in the fields of difference equations, discrete dynamical systems and their applications.

  3. Marriage in the 20th century: A feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampage, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    A defining feature of the 20th century in Western civilization was a profound change in the roles women play in both private and public life. The field of couple therapy was influenced by that change and, to a limited extent, participated in it. I will argue that the field has avoided fully embracing the principles of feminism that generated the social changes in gender and marital roles, settling instead for a more token acknowledgment that gender means something, without wanting to specify what that something is. In responding to the other articles in this issue, I make the case that the connection between gender and power in marriage needs to be more fully integrated, in the theory, research, and treatment of couples.

  4. The expression of emotions in 20th century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, Alberto; Lampos, Vasileios; Garnett, Philip; Bentley, R Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We report here trends in the usage of "mood" words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more "emotional" than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

  5. 20th International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Beate; Meyer, Gereon

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the papers presented at the 20th anniversary edition of the AMAA conference held in Brussels, Belgium in 2016. The theme of the conference was "Smart Systems for the Automobile of the Future". The automobile is currently being reshaped at unprecedented pace. Automation and electrification are the two dominant megatrends which dramatically change the choice and design of components, systems, vehicular architectures and ultimately the way we use cars in the coming decades. Novel E/E architectures, vehicular connectivity and cloud services will be key to extending the perception and decision-making horizons of automated vehicles, to enable cooperative functions and a seamless digital user experience. The AMAA's ongoing mission to detect novel trends in automotive ICT, electronics and smart systems and to discuss the technological implications is once again reflected in this volume. The book will be a valuable read for research experts and professionals in the automotive and smart systems indus...

  6. 20th Joint Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Patel, Nisarg; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It explores general trends in hardware and software development, and then focuses specifically on the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures. It also covers applications such as computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research and discusses innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations. The papers included were selected from the presentations given at the 20th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance at the HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany in December 2015, and the subsequent Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance at Tohoku University in February 2016.

  7. Reassessment of 20th century global mean sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Wöppelmann, Guy; Conrad, Clinton P.; Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The rate at which global mean sea level (GMSL) rose during the 20th century is uncertain, with little consensus between various reconstructions that indicate rates of rise ranging from 1.3 to 2 mm⋅y−1. Here we present a 20th-century GMSL reconstruction computed using an area-weighting technique for averaging tide gauge records that both incorporates up-to-date observations of vertical land motion (VLM) and corrections for local geoid changes resulting from ice melting and terrestrial freshwater storage and allows for the identification of possible differences compared with earlier attempts. Our reconstructed GMSL trend of 1.1 ± 0.3 mm⋅y−1 (1σ) before 1990 falls below previous estimates, whereas our estimate of 3.1 ± 1.4 mm⋅y−1 from 1993 to 2012 is consistent with independent estimates from satellite altimetry, leading to overall acceleration larger than previously suggested. This feature is geographically dominated by the Indian Ocean–Southern Pacific region, marking a transition from lower-than-average rates before 1990 toward unprecedented high rates in recent decades. We demonstrate that VLM corrections, area weighting, and our use of a common reference datum for tide gauges may explain the lower rates compared with earlier GMSL estimates in approximately equal proportion. The trends and multidecadal variability of our GMSL curve also compare well to the sum of individual contributions obtained from historical outputs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. This, in turn, increases our confidence in process-based projections presented in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. PMID:28533403

  8. Global economic impacts of climate variability and change during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Francisco; Tol, Richard S J; Botzen, Wouter J W

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of the global economic impacts of observed climate change during the 20th century obtained by applying five impact functions of different integrated assessment models (IAMs) are separated into their main natural and anthropogenic components. The estimates of the costs that can be attributed to natural variability factors and to the anthropogenic intervention with the climate system in general tend to show that: 1) during the first half of the century, the amplitude of the impacts associated with natural variability is considerably larger than that produced by anthropogenic factors and the effects of natural variability fluctuated between being negative and positive. These non-monotonic impacts are mostly determined by the low-frequency variability and the persistence of the climate system; 2) IAMs do not agree on the sign (nor on the magnitude) of the impacts of anthropogenic forcing but indicate that they steadily grew over the first part of the century, rapidly accelerated since the mid 1970's, and decelerated during the first decade of the 21st century. This deceleration is accentuated by the existence of interaction effects between natural variability and natural and anthropogenic forcing. The economic impacts of anthropogenic forcing range in the tenths of percentage of the world GDP by the end of the 20th century; 3) the impacts of natural forcing are about one order of magnitude lower than those associated with anthropogenic forcing and are dominated by the solar forcing; 4) the interaction effects between natural and anthropogenic factors can importantly modulate how impacts actually occur, at least for moderate increases in external forcing. Human activities became dominant drivers of the estimated economic impacts at the end of the 20th century, producing larger impacts than those of low-frequency natural variability. Some of the uses and limitations of IAMs are discussed.

  9. The burgeoning presbyopic population: an emerging 20th century phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, J S

    1998-07-01

    Improved social welfare in the wake of the 'industrial revolution' set in train in mid-18th century Britain an escalation in population numbers which has been sustained through to the end of the 20th century--and is projected to continue into the 21st century. However, within the total population envelope the percentage-contribution of certain age groupings shows a striking pattern when viewed across nearly five centuries. For 350 years, up to the end of the 19th century, the over--40 year old section of the population comprised a steady 25% of the total population count of England (latterly England and Wales): over the same period the 60-plus section contributed nearly 10% of the total. Throughout the ten decades of the 20th century these proportions have both increased, such that with the arrival of the next millennium a two-fold increase in the percentage-contribution of both age groups will have occurred: nearly one-half (over 24 million) of the population of England and Wales will be aged over 40, or more than one-fifth (around 11 million) will be aged over 60 years. This 'ageing' of the general population will have economic and socio-medical implications both at home and abroad, since this is a demographic trend which is present/projected in all countries of the European Union (as presently constituted). The future practise of optometry will certainly be touched by these changes. Naturally a potential increase in demand for presbyopic refractive corrections from the growing volume of aged 40-plus individuals is possible. However of greater significance is the certain increase in age-related oculo-visual problems arising from within the growing aged 60-plus population. Greater acknowledgement and utilisation of the optometrist's skills, currently being reappraised through the profession's participation in 'collaborative care' schemes, may indicate the direction in which optometry should move in the early 21st century to remain a valuable--and valued

  10. 20th IAEA fusion energy conference 2004. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The 20th International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fusion Energy Conference (FEC) was held in Vilamoura, Portugal, from 1 to 6 November 2004. The Instituto Superior Tecnico through the Centro de Fusao Nuclear on behalf of the Portuguese Government and the Association EURATOM/IST hosted the conference. The IAEA wishes to express its gratitude to the host. More than 600 delegates representing 33 countries and three international organizations attended the Fusion Energy Conference 2004. The Programme Committee accepted a total of some 437 papers for presentation at the conference. The scientific experimental and theoretical papers have been grouped with respect to the following themes: Overview on magnetic and inertial fusion; Advanced Scenarios and Steady State; Edge Localized Modes; Fusion Technology; Transport Theory; Beta Limits; Hybrid Scenarios; H-mode and Transport; ITER; Alfven Modes and Wave Heating; Operational Limits and Momentum Transport; Energetic Particles and Stability; Neoclassical Tearing Modes; Transport and Turbulence; Inertial Fusion; Configuration Effects and Transport; and Plasma-wall Interaction. The conference adjourned with the announcement of the next IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, which will be held for the first time in the People's Republic of China, in the city of Chengdu, October 16-22, 2006

  11. Strategy in the 20th Century: Explanations from History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Silveira Conke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we argue that an historical perspective helps to understand some of the strategic choices made by organizations. More specifically, the purpose here is to describe the great influence of historical events (related to economy, politics, technological advancement etc. on the creation, acceptance, spreading and / or establishment of the strategic theories and tools developed since the beginning of the 20th century. Texts that usually discuss management and history outline only the Industrial Revolution or the transition from feudalism to capitalism, underestimating other historical forces that offer additional explanations to the evolution of strategic thinking. As a result of an extensive bibliographical research, we were able to identify four periods where the strategic theories developed reveal suitable responses to the challenges created by the environment: in the first one (1900-1938, strategy is concerned with organization and control of business activities, resembling the ideas developed by Scientific Administration; in the second period (1939-1964, strategic planning is formalized and the area is broadly recognized; the next decades (1965-1989 are characterized by competition and uncertainty, making strategy focus on problems emerged from the outside; finally, on the turn of the century (1990-2010, the unlimited information availability enhances the need for strategists’ conceptual and practical knowledge. Also, as a final contribution, we suggest two possible trends to the future of strategy.

  12. PHONOGRAPHIC INDUSTRY: SUMMIT AND DECLINE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valterlei Borges de Araújo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available By highlighting the Brazilian context as the analytical approach, this article gathers data on the impacts on music consumption brought by the development of the phonographic industry. Since the emergence of the phonograph in the late 19th century until the revolution brought by the digitization and sharing of files in the first decade of the 21st century, this research presents, chronologically, the main devices for sound reproduction or physical music supports that have appeared within this time period, thus creating a record of the technological evolution in the phonographic industry in the 20th century. It is a fact that many of the resources currently used were already available in the second half of the last century, however to a small extent and with a high cost of production. This article targets the present-day reconfiguration of the means of production and distribution of music, as well as its means of consumption and some of its effects on the industry, the artists and users.

  13. DIMMING OF THE MID-20TH CENTURY SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foukal, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Area changes of photospheric faculae associated with magnetic active regions are responsible for the bright contribution to variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). Yet, the 102-year white light (WL) facular record measured by the Royal Greenwich Observatory between 1874 and 1976 has been largely overlooked in past TSI reconstructions. We show that it may offer a better measure of the brightening than presently used chromospheric proxies or the sunspot number. These are, to varying degrees, based on magnetic structures that are dark at the photosphere even near the limb. The increased contribution of the dark component to these proxies at high activity leads to an overestimate of solar brightening around peaks of the large spot cycles 18 and 19. The WL facular areas measure only the bright contribution. Our reconstruction based on these facular areas indicates that TSI decreased by about 0.1% during these two cycles to a 20th century minimum, rather than brightening to some of the highest TSI levels in four centuries, as reported in previous reconstructions. This TSI decrease may have contributed more to climate cooling between the 1940s and 1960s than present modeling indicates. Our finding adds to previous evidence that such suppression of solar brightening by an increased area of dark flux tubes might explain why the Sun is anomalously quiet photometrically compared to other late-type stars. Our findings do not change the evidence against solar driving of climate warming since the 1970s

  14. The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes, D. W.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

  15. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  16. „One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bocancea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now. The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada. This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

  17. 20th International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Sheng; Luo, Jiaojiao; Wang, Wei; Mo, Zhibin; Shan, Liping

    2017-01-01

    These conference proceedings offer an outstanding resource for academics and professionals, sharing essential findings on the latest developments in real estate and construction management. The subject is “Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate” in the context of new-type urbanization. The Chinese Research Institute of Construction Management (CRIOCM), working in close collaboration with Zhejiang University, organized CRIOCM2015, the 20th International Symposium. Written by academics and professionals from all over the world, these proceedings discuss the latest achievements, research outputs and advances between frontier disciplines in the field of construction management and real estate. They cover a wide range of topics, including new-type urbanization, land development and land use, urban development and management, the real estate market and housing policies. The discussions will provide an important reference source on the implementation of new-type urbanization in China and abroad.

  18. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  19. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  20. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 1, Monday-Tuesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference October 23-26, 2017 | Waterford at Springfield | Springfield, VA NDIA.org/systemsengineering...Conference Program SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE 2 Welcome to the NDIA Systems Engineering Conference On behalf of the National Defense Industrial...Association’s Systems Engineering Division, I would like to extend a very warm welcome to the 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Yes, the 20th Annual

  1. A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total

  2. 20th ANNIVERSARY OF THE CHILDREN'S HEALTH AND EXERCISE CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF EXETER, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Sharp

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available 20th ANNIVERSARY OF THE CHILDREN'S HEALTH AND EXERCISE CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF EXETER, UK In recent years, partly because of the ever-younger exten-sion of high quality sport representation and partly, para-doxically, due to ever-increasing levels of obesity in the young, the discipline of paediatric physiology has moved from being an interesting curiosity to an extremely impor-tant area of practical knowledge. For example, children thermoregulate qualitatively and quantitatively differently from adults - before puberty their sweat rate per square metre of skin is less than half their adult level - and they may well have, proportionate to mass, 40% greater body surface area than an adult. On the musculo-skeletal side, they come late into 'kinetic-balance', into an appropriately economic mode of running or walking, so such effort is harder for them. In many other areas children, especially younger children, differ importantly from adults, and those involved in any aspects of their exercise, sport or medicine should be well aware of this. Hence the impor-tance of the discipline, and hence the reason for a very hearty celebration of the 20th anniversary of the Chil-dren's Health and Exercise Centre (CHERC, which, as is demonstrated here, has pioneered and expanded the entire discipline, as one of the world's leading paediatric labora-tories.To celebrate the 20th anniversary of the Children's Health and Exercise Centre (1987-2007 past and present mem-bers of the centre were invited to contribute a review article on paediatric exercise science. The collection of reviews, written by current and former PhD students, visiting research fellows and professors, visiting interns and current members of CHERC, discusses an array of topics, which have helped shaped the work of our centre. We would also like to take the opportunity to acknowl-edge all those associated with CHERC over the past 20 years, in particular the many children who have partici-pated in our

  3. Dirac in 20th century physics: a centenary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyuk, Valerii I; Sukhanov, Alexander D

    2003-01-01

    Current views on Dirac's creative heritage and on his role in the formation and development of quantum physics and in shaping the physical picture of the world are discussed. Dirac's fundamental ideas in later life (1948 - 1984) and their current development are given considerable attention. (from the history of physics)

  4. The white of the 20th century : an explorative survey into Dutch modern art collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, B.A.; van den Berg, K. J.; Gerretzen, J.; Dik, J.

    2018-01-01

    White pigments were abundantly used in 20th century paintings, and relate to several degradation risks such as titanium white mediated photocatalytic binder degradation or zinc soap formation. Knowledge about the white pigments that were used is essential for risk assessments of 20th century

  5. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  6. Development of Formal Agricultural Education in Canada (Based on the Analysis of Scientific Periodicals of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrylenko, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The article states that one of the world leaders in agricultural sector training is Canada, which has gained a great scientific and practical experience. The paper examines the role of periodicals of the 19th-early 20th centuries, preserved in the Canadian book funds for the establishment and development of formal agricultural education of this…

  7. The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Gamboa, Dionicia; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2013-08-30

    Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru.

  8. Collaborative networks in the internet of services: 13th IFIP WG 5.5 working conference on virtual enterprises, PRO-VE 2012, Bournemouth, UK, October 2012: proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Xu, L.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2012-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2012, held in Bournemouth, UK, in October 2012. The 61 revised papers presented were carefully selected from numerous submissions. They provide a comprehensive overview of

  9. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation : Joint Proceedings of Ongoing Research, PhD Papers, Posters and Workshops of IFIP EGOV and ePart 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, H.J.; Glassey, O; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Parycek, P; Tambouris, E; Wimmer, M.A.; Janowski, T; Sá Soares, D.

    2016-01-01

    CT, e-government and electronic participation have become increasingly important in the public sector and the social sphere in recent years.

    This book presents 53 of the papers accepted for the dual IFIP EGOV-ePart conference 2016, which took place in Guimarães, Portugal, in September 2016.

  10. Did we finally slay the evil dragon of cigarette smoking in the late 20th century?: unfortunately, the answer is no - the dragon is still alive and well in the 21st century and living in the third world. Shame on us!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Murphy, Joseph G; Dunn, William F

    2014-12-01

    If cigarettes were introduced as a new consumer product today, it is unlikely they would receive government regulatory approval. Cigarettes have proven biologic toxicities (carcinogenesis, atherogenesis, teratogenesis) and well-established causal links to human disease. Things were very different in 1913 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company introduced the first modern cigarette, the iconic Camel. By the early 1950s, definitive scientific reports linked cigarettes and human disease, but it was more than a half century later (2006) that cigarette manufacturers were found guilty by a federal court of deceptive product marketing regarding the health hazards of tobacco use. In the United States, cigarette smoking remains a major but slowly declining problem. But in developing countries, cigarette use is expanding tremendously. In global terms, the epidemic of smoking-caused disease is projected to increase rapidly in coming decades, not decline. Society may have begun to slowly win the smoking battle in the developed world, but we are resoundingly losing the global war on smoking. All is not lost! There is some good news! The 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported strongly by the American College of Chest Physicians, is the first global public health treaty of the new millennium. Many developed societies have begun planning to rid their countries of cigarettes in what is called the Endgame Strategy, and now is the time for the international medical community to help change tobacco policy to a worldwide endgame approach to rid all humanity of smoking-related diseases.

  11. Pedagogy in Slovenia at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vidmar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogy in Slovenia gradually won its recognition as an academic science, and therefore obtained improved possibilities for its conceptualization, when the university in Ljubljana was established in 1919. The time between the two world wars was marked with three principal pedagogical concepts: Herbartianism, geisteswissenschaftliche pedagogy, and reform pedagogy. The first of these to be theoretically conceptualized in Slovenia was the geisteswissenschaftliche, or cultural pedagogy. Ideas of reform pedagogy, especially its social-critical movement, interpreted, represented, and defended primarily left-oriented pedagogues and teachers, who were convinced that actual school reform would be possible only after (revolutionary changes of social conditions. In the first decades of the 20th century, numerous conflicts and disagreements occurred in the process of establishing individual pedagogical currents and orientations in Slovenia. The strongest and most productive polemics were held between geisteswissenschaftliche, or cultural pedagogy, and some currents, or just individual representatives, of reform pedagogy (e.g., theory vs. praxis, old vs. new school. Unfortunately, the postwar Marxist pedagogical concept was highly unfavorable to the prewar orientations and prevented their further development.

  12. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  13. The dynamic intensity of CO 2 emissions: empirical evidence for the 20 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO CARNEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The debate around the economic growth and environmental degradation is the hot topic among academics. However, up to a point, all of them embrace the uncontroversial view that tells us that anthropic factors have leverage on global climate. It happens that the so-called greenhouse effect is closely related to the accumulation of certain gases in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, whose original source comes from productive sectors. Thus, our purpose in this article is to estimate the rate of emission intensity - here we mean the ratio between CO2 emissions and GDP - which has increased since the early part of the 20th century. To support that idea, this study reports on data from 24 different countries. In terms of C02 emission, the results undoubtedly show that United Kingdom and the United States highlight a negative picture, particularly when both are compared to India. It should be noted the presence of structural changes, which coincide with three major historical events: the World War I (1914-1918, the Great Depression in the 1930s, and finally the Oil-price shocks in the 1970s. As the result of the analysis demonstrates, the amount of emission produced by developing countries is surprisingly low. That the technology reveals its relative merit for reducing the overall emission intensity is transparently obvious.

  14. Compositores Latino-Americanos and New Paradigms of the 20th Century Classical Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Monteiro da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the direction taken by some Latin American composers in light of the new tendencies aimed to challenge paradigms of traditional Western classical music during the 20th century. Latin American composers were influenced by these tendencies to a greater or lesser degree depending on the place and time they lived. They worked with different styles and techniques while attempting to maintain a dialogue with the production of other contemporary artists without losing their identity. Some of these practices are shown in this paper. The examples were taken from a set of 54 pieces for piano recorded by Beatriz Balzi, an Argentinian-Brazilian pianist, contained in her album entitled Compositores Latino-americanos [Latin American Composers]. Exemplifying 13 Latin American countries, this repertoire was analyzed by the authors in order to define the most common practices adopted and/or created by the composers chosen by Balzi. These practices were then catalogued into six topics and organized in chronological order of events and styles to which they relate. To describe the main tendencies mentioned in this paper the authors adopted Stefan Kostka's Materials and Techniques of Twentieth Century Music for his clear, objective writing. This work helped to contextualize Balzi's repertoire, comparing the Latin American compositional process to some of the most respected musicians of the Western world.

  15. 20th CISM-IFToMM Symposium on Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Glazunov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains papers that have been selected after review for oral presentation at ROMANSY 2014, the 20th CISM-IFToMM Symposium on Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators. These papers cover advances on several aspects of the wide field of Robotics as concerning Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators. ROMANSY 2014 is the twentieth event in a series that started in 1973 as one of the first conference activities in the world on Robotics. The first event was held at CISM (International Centre for Mechanical Science) in Udine, Italy on 5-8 September 1973. It was also the first topic conference of IFToMM (International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science) and it was directed not only to the IFToMM community. Proceedings volumes of ROMANSY have been always published to be available, also after the symposium, to a large public of scholars and designers with the aim to give an overview of new advances and trends in the theory, design, and practice of robots....

  16. Limited creativity: Women in the Serbian architecture from the early 20th century to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić-Lazar Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to point out the change in women's position in architecture in the period from the early 20th century to date through a prism of their architectural and professional achievements as a form of exercising their rights and achieving the equality with their male colleagues. The purpose of this paper is to also shed light on the reasons of tacit acceptance of the system of discriminatory character that allowed the women architects to be only the „anonymous associates“ (so that they could be able to deal with the job of architect, „assistants in the profession“ (urban planners or critics and publicists where they gained the most popularity and success or to become „female reformers“ particularly in the domain of legal reforms, planning and development, which they essentially became only after the Second World War when the modernisation and emancipation processes took place and when the Law on Invalidity of the Previous Discriminatory Regulations was passed by which the women acquired suffrage. The paper particularly addresses the status of women architects today who are, besides all professional temptations, also in a conflicting situation. They are a pillar of family and social life, on the one hand, while they are constantly facing the attempts to be pushed from the mainstream of professional life and the attempts to deny their importance, role and influence in society, on the other hand.

  17. Measles epidemics of variable lethality in the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis; Hu, Zheng; Waller, Michael; Lee, Seung-eun; Terfa, Daniel; Howard, Alan; van Heyningen, Elizabeth; Brundage, John F

    2014-02-15

    Until the mid-20th century, mortality rates were often very high during measles epidemics, particularly among previously isolated populations (e.g., islanders), refugees/internees who were forcibly crowded into camps, and military recruits. Searching for insights regarding measles mortality rates, we reviewed historical records of measles epidemics on the Polynesian island of Rotuma (in 1911), in Boer War concentration camps (in 1900-1902), and in US Army mobilization camps during the First World War (in 1917-1918). Records classified measles deaths by date and clinical causes; by demographic characteristics, family relationships (for Rotuma islanders and Boer camp internees), and prior residences; and by camp (for Boer internees and US Army recruits). During the Rotuman and Boer War epidemics, measles-related mortality rates were high (up to 40%); however, mortality rates differed more than 10-fold across camps/districts, even though conditions were similar. During measles epidemics, most deaths among camp internees/military recruits were due to secondary bacterial pneumonias; in contrast, most deaths among Rotuman islanders were due to gastrointestinal complications. The clinical expressions, courses, and outcomes of measles during first-contact epidemics differ from those during camp epidemics. The degree of isolation from respiratory pathogens other than measles may significantly determine measles-related mortality risk.

  18. The Machine as Art (in the 20th Century: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Bessette

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The machine, over the course of the 20th century, progressively integrated itself into all fields of human activity, including artistic creation; and indeed, with the first decades of that century having established a surprisingly vital and wide-ranging series of perspectives on the relationship between art and the machine, certain artists in the wake of the Second World War no longer felt compelled to treat the machine as a mere theme or source of inspiration: the machine itself becomes art—unless it is art which seeks to become mechanical? The artist mutates into “artist-engineer”; and this transition, resonating within a specific historical context, leads not only to a questioning of the nature of the work itself, but also to a broader questioning which places us within the realm of anthropology: what is this art telling us about the actual conditions of contemporary human society, and what is it telling us about the future to which we aspire? It is the goal of this special issue of Arts to stimulate an historically conscious, protean, and global (rethinking of the cultural relationship between man and machine; and to this end, we welcome contributions falling anywhere within the nearly infinite spectrum represented by the prismatic period during the middle of the last century in which the machine became a legitimate artistic medium.

  19. LBA Regional Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of "Global Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)" (2000a). This subset characterizes mean monthly surface climate...

  20. LBA Regional Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of "Global Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)" (2000a). This subset characterizes mean monthly surface climate over the...

  1. Prokofiev: Cantata for the 20th Anniversary of the October Revolution / David J. Fanning

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fanning, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev: Cantata for the 20th Anniversary of the October Revolution, Op. 74 a. The Tale of the Stone Flower - experts. Philharmonia Chorus and Orchestra / Neeme Järvi" Chandos ABTD 1597; CHAN9095 (75 minutes:DDD)

  2. Governmentality and the good offices of translation in 20th-century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governmentality and the good offices of translation in 20th-century South Africa. ... An account is also given of the modes of governmentality embodied by the South African Translators' Association. Southern ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Statement on the 20th anniversary of the Vienna International Centre, Vienna, 9 October 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his Statement on the 20th Anniversary of the Vienna International Centre, the Director General of the IAEA presented the work of the Agency and described how it contributes to two main objectives, namely human development and security

  4. Commercial Banks and Capital Regulation in the Early 20th Century US

    OpenAIRE

    Gou, Michael

    2017-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effect of capital requirements on commercial banks and the impact of commercial bank suspensions on the United States economy during the early 20th century. The first chapter examines the effect of capital requirements on bank stability. The early 20th century United States provides an opportunity to determine whether imposing capital requirements on commercial banks promotes banking stability in the long run. The structure of the national banking system fac...

  5. Environment, world-view and healing among the Zulu Christians (19th and 20th centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Alan C

    2013-01-01

    The basic question raised in this article is how Christians within the Zulu community seek relief from illnesses. Do they turn to plant (herbal) or animal remedies, or do they regard this as an imbalance in the mind of the person afflicted. This article touches on the sub-themes of the habitat of a Christian community, religion and food and also how to consider the place of animals and humans within a Christian community. There is in fact more said in the New Testament about evils spirits tha...

  6. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Construction of Canada’s Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. Its varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue into the 21st century. The first major research observatory built with public funding on the West Coast of North America, it was Canada’s first ‘big science’ project. DAO welcomed scientists from around the world to use its 1.8m telescope designed by John Stanley Plaskett working in close collaboration with the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, OH. Their original design was copied seven times around the globe, the last occasion being in the 1960s. From Day 1 the DAO welcomed the public for viewing and interaction with the small scientific staff whose early efforts would today be characterized as ‘Key Projects’. Those efforts included measuring the radial velocities of O and B stars that, interpreted through Oort’s ideas of differential rotation, determined the most reliable estimate of the size and mass of the Milky Way available until radio astronomical techniques emerged in the 1950s. The first organic molecule in interstellar space, CH, was discovered by a DAO astronomer. The first, very puzzling estimate of ~3K for the temperature of interstellar space was deduced from interstellar CN observations a year after interstellar CH and CN were discovered. DAO’s heritage of innovative instrumentation continues to the present day where expertise in optically efficient, mechanically stable spectrographs and adaptive optics are much in evidence at Mauna Kea’s CFHT, Gemini and Subaru observatories. In 2009 the DAO was designated a National Historic Site. This presentation will draw links between DAO, developments of Canadian astronomy and the emergence of Mauna Kea as an exceptional global astronomical reserve.

  7. Ethnic Migrations in Vojvodina in the Second Half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Raduški

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Population migrations are a significant social phenomen which undoubtedly left a mark on the last decade of the 20th century. Political changes in the 90’s made migrations even more relevant from a demographic, economic and legal aspect, taking into consideration not only their scope, but also the new specific forms of migration movements that arose (voluntary and forced migrations, ethnocentric migrations, refugees, displaced persons, etc. along with their reasons and consequences. The violent disintegration of Yugoslavia and the subsequent creation of new ethnonational states and bouts of ethnic cleansing had as a consequence enormous population movements, as well as the creation of considerable number of refugees gravitating towards their mother countries. The large refugee wave which took refuge in Vojvodina exceeds, by its number, even the large colonization of this province after World War II. Apart from refugees, internally displaced persons of non-Albanian nationality, who immigrated from Kosovo and Metohija due to political reasons, are found in Vojvodina. Placed together, all this represents a significant problem, especially given the grave economic situation which the country is experiencing. Ethnocentric migrations (both voluntary and forced were the driving force behind the change of the country’s ethnic structure in terms of creating more nationally homogeneous regions, not only with regard to the national structure of the refugee-population, but also taking into account the emigration of other nationalities as well (Hungarians and Croats who migrated to their mother countries for political and economic reasons. Bearing in mind that Vojvodina is a multiethnic and multiconfessional region, the question of minorities and interethnic relations are unquestionably of great significance for the stability and demographic development of this region.

  8. Collective Memory and Collective Identity of Hlučín Region Inhabitants in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kubátová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hlučín Region is a small border area in the Moravia-Silesia Region. Its history is specific. Over 25 years in the 20th century, its border shifted three times and its inhabitants’ nationality also changed three times. The region was annexed by the German Reich in 1938 and its inhabitants gained the rights of citizens of the Reich, with the obligation to enlist in the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Germany. These historical turning points and their consequences after the Second World War are part of the cultural and communicative memory of most of the local people. The purpose of the article is to show the communicative memory of Hlučín Region inhabitants and the common knowledge of 20th century historical events to be one of the important integral parts of regional identity, which is a source of regional consciousness. Hlučín Region inhabitants identify themselves strongly with their region and society. This identification results from specific culture finding its expression in shared values, faith and traditions, and from the awareness of their own specificity. As a consequence of the predominant regional endogamy, this culture is handed down from one generation to another. Strong regional consciousness based on this identification, has a positive influence on the rich communal life and possibilities of stabilization and further development of the region.

  9. A multidisciplinary approach of the status of women in Europe in the 20th-21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was marked by the feminine revolution and the change of status of women throughout the world. The following article wishes to approach from a multidisciplinary perspective the contrasting differences of the woman’s condition in two different “worlds” (Occidental and the Balkans given the access of women towards education, social attitude and the afferent politics for women. These indexes influence the rate of participation of women in the working field, thus, they play a crucial role in the personal development of them. The comparative analysis of the specialized literature points out the main characteristics of women from France and Germany (as defining parts of the Occidental Europe and Turkey and Bosnia (representative countries for the Balkans and the Islamic part of the continent throughout the 20th and the 21st century. Although there is a common set of features, it is the differences that draw attention regarding the unequal participation of women in the social, economical and political life.

  10. MIKHAIL BAKUNIN AND HIS IDEAS IN THE GERMAN ANARCHISIC PRESS IN THE FIRST THIRD OF 20 TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Александровна Жукова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of research of the article is five German anarchistic newspapers and journals of the first third of 20 th century. The purpose of this article is to find out specifics of the perception of Mikhail Bakunin’s ideas among the part of German society. The analysis allowed determining general trends, stages of the German anarchistic press and showing the difference of views on Bakunin’s theory depending on period. The author of the article concludes that the interest in Russian anarchist study among German authors was stable during the first third of 20 th century. Before the First World War the name of Bakunin was used for propaganda of active revolutionary movement. After 1918 he was the main critic of centralism and Marxism. German authors appreciated positively theories of Bakunin and try to find in his works answers for contemporary problems; he was for them an ideal revolutionary, who was always ready for struggle, for leading the way and who can inspire the other people.

  11. The process of Danish nurses’ professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed......In this article, we address how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present 'nursing' to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discussion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published between...... and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought...

  12. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  13. Ministers on the Lecture Circuit: Education, Entertainment and Religion in Early 20th Century America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the early 20th century, some American ministers were eager participants in the Chautauqua and Lyceum lecture circuits that flourished across the Midwest and beyond. Ministers expressed their vocation in the public arena, and the Redpath Chautauqua collection shows how part of this public life was conducted. In their role as lecturers in multiple educational and civic venues, ministers functioned as experts on the Bible, as well as supporting American ideals that were loosely connected to Protestant Christianity. The essay explores how a substantial archival collection reveals a particular public role ministers played in a popular culture venue in early 20th century America.

  14. Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Sofia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationships between theatre and neuroscience around four trajectories: the physiology of action, the physiology of emotions, ethology, and studies on the spectator’s perception.

  15. Proceedings of V International Seminar and V National Workshop 'Use and development of products isotopic health industry'. 20th anniversary CENTIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    At the Salon Copa Room. Hotel Habana Riviera Took place the V International Seminar and V National Workshop 'Use and development of products isotopic health industry' for the 20th anniversary CENTIS. The event was organized by the Isotope Center. Some 200 domestic and foreign experts debated topics related to the development and production of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuba and the world, its therapeutic applications in certain tumors, and quality management systems in nuclear medicine. (author)

  16. Historical Roots of International Biomedical and Health Informatics: The Road to IFIP-TC4 and IMIA through Cybernetic Medicine and the Elsinore Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, C A

    2017-08-01

    Background: It is 50 years since the International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP) Societies approved the formation of a new Technical Committee (TC) 4 on Medical Information Processing under the leadership of Professor Francois Grémy, which was the direct precursor of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). Objectives: The goals of this paper are to give a very brief overview of early international developments leading to informatics in medicine, with the origins of the applications of computers to medicine in the USA and Europe, and two meetings - of the International Society of Cybernetic Medicine, and the Elsinore Meetings on Hospital Information Systems-that took place in 1966. These set the stage for the formation of IFIP-TC4 the following year, with later sponsorship of the first MEDINFO in 1974, setting the path for the evolution to IMIA. Methods: This paper reviews and analyzes some of the earliest research and publications, together with two critical contrasting meetings in 1966 involving international activities in what evolved into biomedical and health informatics in terms of their probable influence on the formation of IFIP-TC4. Conclusion: The formation of IFIP-TC 4 in 1967 by Francois Grémy arose out of his concerns for merging, at an international level, the diverse strands from the more abstract work on cybernetic medicine and its basis in biophysical and neural modeling, with the more concrete and health-oriented medical information processing that was developing at the time for hospitals and clinical decision-making. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  17. 20th century climate warming and tree-limit rise in the southern Scandes of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullman, L

    2001-03-01

    Climate warming by ca. 0.8 degree C between the late-19th and late-20th century, although with some fluctuations, has forced multispecies elevational tree-limit advance by > 100 m for the principal tree species in the Swedish part of the Scandinavian mountain range. Predominantly, these processes imply growth in height of old-established individuals and less frequently upslope migration of new individuals. After a slight retardation during some cooler decades after 1940, a new active phase of tree-limit advance has occurred with a series of exceptionally mild winters and some warm summers during the 1990s. The magnitude of total 20th century tree-limit rise varies with topoclimate and is mainly confined to wind-sheltered and snow-rich segments of the landscape. Thickening of birch tree stands in the "advance belt" has profoundly altered the general character of the subalpine/low alpine landscape and provides a positive feedback loop for further progressive change and resilience to short-term cooling episodes. All upslope tree-limit shifts and associated landscape transformations during the 20th century have occurred without appreciable time lags, which constitutes knowledge fundamental to the generation of realistic models concerning vegetation responses to potential future warming. The new and elevated pine tree-limit may be the highest during the past 4000 14C years. Thus, it is tentatively inferred that the 20th century climate is unusually warm in a late-Holocene perspective.

  18. Educational Foundations Best Writings (20th Century): Biblio-Historical Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    This paper lists and discusses, in historical progression, books and other writings that are considered to cover the major developments of education in the United States in the 20th century. The paper is intended to help professional educators to know better the great ideas, themes, and books that laid the foundations of education in the United…

  19. Propaganda Art from the 20th to the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, J.H.

    2018-01-01

    This study by artist Jonas Staal explores the development of propaganda art from the 20th to the 21st century. Staal defines propaganda as the performance of power by means of the equation propaganda = power + performance. Through his work as a propaganda researcher and practice as a

  20. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  1. Serbian schools and teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an invisible minority became a visible one. In the second half of the 20th century there is primarily a teaching of Serbian language as a foreign language. During this period, Serbian was accepted primarily by Greeks at courses and private classes. At the beginning of the nineties in the 20th century because of the war in the territory of Yugoslavia, a large number of refugees went to Greece. Teaching of Serbian as a native language was organized only ten years later (at the beginning of 21st century. In some places, the schools are located in consular sections and have the assistance of the country of origin (Thessalonica, Katerini while in Hani (Crete immigrants organized them-selves without the assistance from the country of origin. By studying Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language, this work considers relation towards language as a symbol of ethnic identity - at the individual level, at the level of receiving country and at the level of country of origin.

  2. Storm Surge Reconstruction and Return Water Level Estimation in Southeast Asia for the 20th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cid, Alba; Wahl, Thomas; Chambers, Don P.; Muis, Sanne

    2018-01-01

    We present a methodology to reconstruct the daily maximum storm surge levels, obtained from tide gauges, based on the surrounding atmospheric conditions from an atmospheric reanalysis (20th Century Reanalysis-20CR). Tide gauge records in Southeast Asia are relatively short, so this area is often

  3. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John; Elliman, Robert; Mccallum, Jeffrey; Ionescu, Mihail; Markwitz, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The papers in this issue of NIMB were presented at the 20th international conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM) held at Te Papa Museum, Wellington, New Zealand from October 30th until November 4th, 2016. This conference continued the proud legacy of New Zealand-born Lord Rutherford and his pioneering research in ion beam physics.

  4. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  5. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (20th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 11-14, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    This volume comprises the papers presented at the 1998 conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council. This PTC'98 gathering focused on "Coping with Convergence." These 20th anniversary conference proceedings present at least one contribution on 59 countries and territories. The 120 papers in this volume are arranged…

  6. The economic impact of climate change in the 20th and 21st centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2013-01-01

    The national version of FUND3. 6 is used to backcast the impacts of climate change to the 20th century and extrapolate to the 21st century. Carbon dioxide fertilization of crops and reduced energy demand for heating are the main positive impacts. Climate change had a negative effect on water

  7. From Card Catalogues to WebPACs: Celebrating Cataloguing in the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael

    This paper provides an overview of cataloging in the 20th century. Highlights include: (1) issues in 1901, including the emerging cooperative cataloging system and the work of Charles Ammi Cutter; (2) the 1908 code, i.e., "Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries," published in British and American editions; (3) the Vatican rules, a code…

  8. Global economic impacts of climate variability and change during the 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrada, Francisco; Tol, Richard S.J.; Botzen, Wouter J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of the global economic impacts of observed climate change during the 20th century obtained by applying five impact functions of different integrated assessment models (IAMs) are separated into their main natural and anthropogenic components. The estimates of the costs that can be

  9. THE DISCOUNT RATE POLICY IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pociovalisteanu Diana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, economists have generally acknowledged the importance of the central bank discount rate as the reference interest rate in a country: by increasing the interest rate during economic booms that forego the busts, the Central Bank

  10. The Devolution of 20th Century Presidential Campaign Rhetoric: A Call for "Rhetorical Service."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Robert L.

    Over the course of the 20th century, American Presidential campaign rhetoric has undergone various metamorphoses. Most of these changes can be traced to developments in technology and media. Furthermore, many of these changes have had the unfortunate effect of undermining a rational choice of the electorate, and thus threaten our democracy. Like…

  11. From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations from the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Mindy J.

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was like before these technologies existed. In the project described here, students take a firsthand…

  12. The reception of the models of the New School in the Spanish manualistic of the early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín ESCOLANO BENITO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines certain aspects related to the reception of the patterns of the New Education in the Spanish textbooks of the first third of the 20th century. This appropiation of the renewing pedagogical models by writers of didac- tic texts is also related to the processes of school modernisation during the period in Spanish and supose a mode of metamorphosis undergone by the principles of the renewed education on being transferred to the world of the prevailing educational practice. This influence consisted of the changes which affected the classical textbooks and in the appearance of new types of manuals which correspond to specific models and give rise to new textual forms.

  13. PLOT REELED INTO AN EKPHRASIS IN BELLES LETTRES OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasil’evna Astaschenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plots reeled into the ekphrasis have always existed. In belles lettres of the beginning of the 20th century, the fight between the pagan and the Christian manifests in the opposition of scenic space and it creates a powerful «magnetic» field. This is a special type of mythologism in which the Christian imagery is on the positive side of the binary opposition with its respective system of ethical coordinates. In «polytheistic systems, the presentations of evil is static as of the essential and eternal beginning of the world», but in the orthodox Christianity, the devil is a ghost, lure, disembodied temptation and «with every day it approaches nonexistence» (from the «Moralia» of the 6th century by Gregory the Great. However, Gregory the Great also notes that the power of Satan is from God as all other powers, he just distorted his power with his God-given free will. Even at the level of worldly wisdom aphorisms there is a conventional belief that our shortcomings are the continuation of our merits, and therefore it is necessary to adhere to the golden mean. Accroding to A. Gracheva in the book «Dialogues of Janus: Belles lettres and classics in the Russian literature of the early twentieth century», at the beginning of the 19th century, the mythologism of the spontaneous and not experimental type (often encyclopaedic and «algebraic» like in the works of Joyce and Bely, is especially pronounced in the works of writers, who are close to mass literature with their democracy or «boudoir» and especially in the works of female writers. This is due both to existing archetypes of the collective unconscious (some of which are even atavistic and «migratory plots» which are characteristic of both folklore and popular culture. Despite the compelling erotic subject matter, belles lettres is not always frivolous and, on the contrary, it is edifying and full of moral questions, which are sometimes rhetorical: «What is a sin and what does the

  14. Proceedings of the 20th ASPA Congress, Bologna, June 11-13, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest Editors: A. Piva, P. Bosi, A. Bonaldo, F. Sirri, A. Badiani, G. Biagi, R. Davoli, G. Martelli, A. Meluzzi, P. Trevisi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 20th Congress of the Animal Science and Production Association (ASPA, is held in the prestigious home of the oldest university of the world: Bologna. The anniversary also celebrates the 40th year of the founding of the Society and is an occasion to remember the past and plan for the future of Animal Sciences in Italy. In this Congress, 137 oral presentations and 155 posters are presented, for a total of 292 scientific contributions. The Congress sessions with their relative number of papers are listed as follows: Animal breeding and genetics 109, Nutrition and feeding 45, Dairy production 42, Animal welfare, health and behaviour 39, Meat quality 35, Poultry and rabbit production 11 and Aquaculture 11. I would like to point out that 3 main lectures will be presented in the Animal breeding and genetics, Nutrition and feeding and Animal welfare, health and behaviour sessions, respectively. I would thank, first of all, Prof. Vincenzo Russo, Honorary President of the Congress and Emeritus of ASPA, for the contribution of the University of Bologna in organizing this event. I would also thank all the members of the Scientific Committee, Prof. Andrea Piva (Chairperson, Prof. Anna Badiani, Prof. Giacomo Biagi, Dr. Alessio Bonaldo, Prof. Paolo Bosi, Prof. Roberta Davoli, Prof. Luca Fontanesi, Prof. Giovanna Martelli, Prof. Adele Meluzzi, Dr. Attilio Mordenti, Prof. Luca Sardi, Dr. Federico Sirri, Dr. Paolo Trevisi, and of the Organizing Committee, Prof. Claudio Cavani (Chairperson, Prof. Stefania Dall’Olio, Prof. Andrea Formigoni, Prof. Pier Giorgio Monetti, Prof. Leonardo Nanni Costa, Dr. Massimiliano Petracci, Prof. Giuliano Zaghini, Dr. Paolo Zambonelli. A special thanks to the secretary of the Congress, MV Congressi. Indeed, I would like to congratulate and thank all those who have organized the meeting and have collaborated in reviewing the summaries for what they have done for ASPA and the Italian Animal Science. A special thanks to Prof

  15. Observed 20th Century Desert Dust Variability: Impact on Climate and Biogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Kloster, Silvia [Cornell University; Engelstaedter, S. [Cornell University; Moore, Jefferson Keith [University of California, Irvine; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Harvard University; McConnell, J. R. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV; Albani, S. [Cornell University; Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Bhattacharya, A. [Harvard University; Curran, M. A. J. [Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre; Flanner, Mark G. [University of Michigan; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Lawrence, David M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mayewski, P. A. [University of Maine; Neff, Jason [University of Colorado, Boulder; Rothenberg, D. [Cornell University; Thomas, E. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Zender, Charlie S. [University of California, Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be -0.14 {+-} 0.11 W/m{sup 2} (1990-1999 vs. 1905-1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980-1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955-1964 time periods (-0.57 {+-} 0.46 W/m{sup 2}), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding

  16. Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mahowald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be −0.14 ± 0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980–1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955–1964 time periods (−0.57 ± 0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and

  17. Optical Character Recognition Applied to Romanian Printed Texts of the 18th–20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Cojocaru

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Optical Character Recognition (OCR of historical texts of the 18th–20th century in the Romanian language using the Cyrillic script. We differ three epochs (approximately, the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, with different usage of the Cyrillic alphabet in Romanian and, correspondingly, different approach to OCR. We developed historical alphabets and sets of glyphs recognition templates specific for each epoch. The dictionaries in proper alphabets and orthographies were also created. In addition, virtual keyboards, fonts, transliteration utilities, etc. were developed. The resulting technology and toolset permit successful recognition of historical Romanian texts in the Cyrillic script. After transliteration to the modern Latin script we obtain no-barrier access to historical documents.

  18. Land motion due to 20th century mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the contribution from ice sheets and glaciers to past sea level change is of great value for understanding sea level projections into the 21st century. However, quantifying and understanding past changes are equally important, in particular understanding the impact in the near-field where the signal is highest. We assess the impact of 20th century mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet on land motion using results from Kjeldsen et al, 2015. These results suggest that the ice sheet on average lost a minimum of 75 Gt/yr, but also show that the mass balance was highly spatial- and temporal variable, and moreover that on a centennial time scale changes were driven by a decreasing surface mass balance. Based on preliminary results we discuss land motion during the 20th century due to mass balance changes and the driving components surface mass balance and ice dynamics.

  19. Lunar and Planetary Robotic Exploration Missions in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Moroz, V. I.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2003-07-01

    The prospect of traveling to the planets was science fiction at the beginning of the 20th Century and science fact at its end. The space age was born of the Cold War in the 1950s and throughout most of the remainder of the century it provided not just an adventure in the exploration of space but a suspenseful drama as the US and USSR competed to be first and best. It is a tale of patience to overcome obstacles, courage to try the previously impossible and persistence to overcome failure, a tale of both fantastic accomplishment and debilitating loss. We briefly describe the history of robotic lunar and planetary exploration in the 20th Century, the missions attempted, their goals and their fate. We describe how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation.

  20. The Idea of Modernity in Italian Literature at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Golubtsova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes various concepts of modernity in Italian literature at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Modernity is considered a key category of the literary process of the period: different views of modernity reveal philosophical, historical, and aesthetic ideas of the major authors and literary currents. The term modernity in its relation to Italy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries may be understood in two different ways: as a specific time period after the unification of Italy and as an aesthetic ideal, both reachable and unreachable. Modernity as a historical period is inseparable from the sense of disappointment and awareness of Italian backwardness and provincialism. The Scapigliati manifest their socio-critical position as a Romantic conflict between individual and society, Verism represents the same idea as a tragic clash of traditional peasant world and modernity that is destroying it. Luigi Pirandello belongs to the same socio-critical tradition. The sense of weariness and decadence is one of the aspects of modern worldview: Gabriele D’Annunzio expresses it in the form of decadent aestheticism; the Crepusculars reject modernity and replace it with the idea of everyday life; Luigi Pirandello puts a special emphasis on the state of perplexity and confusion experienced by a modern man. From the aesthetic point of view, modernity in Italy begins as a struggle against Romanticism; however, here we encounter the controversial nature of the concept again. Giosue Carducci and the Scapigliati reject Italian Romanticism but turn to European Romanticism trying to overcome Italian cultural backwardness. A Verist writer Luigi Capuana elaborates a positivist ideal of modern literature and yet abandons it later. D’Annunzio sees the ideal of modern art in restoring cultural continuity. Futurists, on the contrary, understand modernity as breaking with tradition. Thus, all aesthetic interpretations of modernity in Italy focus

  1. Event displays from Beam 2 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  2. Event displays from Beam Halo in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  3. Event displays from Beam 01 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    atlas collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded on, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detector

  4. Missionary Activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in Chukotka (17th - early 20th cc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurganova Inna Igorevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider the missionary activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Chukotka Peninsula in the context of civilizational component integration into the Russian imperial areas in the 17th - early 20th centuries, including a brief historiography of the problem, the history of the construction of churches and chapels, the creation of the Orthodox mission, its structure and the territorial boundaries of the missionary activities. The author defines milestones for the Christianization of the Chukchi, introduces into science unpublished archival sources, assesses the activities of missionaries, determines the outcome of the spread of Orthodoxy in the beginning of the 20th century. It has been established that the state and church authorities, taking into consideration the difficulties of serving on the outskirts of the empire, developed a system of privileges and rewards for missionaries: increased salaries, payments ration and others, but missionary (marching service was difficult and dangerous. It is noted that despite the actual transfer of the Chukotka mission Aleutian diocese (headed by future Russian Patriarch Tikhon (Belavin in the beginning of the 20th century, statements of mission and purpose of the missionaries remained the prerogative of the Yakutian bishops. The study found that the spread of Orthodoxy in the Chukotka region in the 17th – early 20th centuries did not become a significant factor in the imperial policy on including the peninsula in the Russian state, which is associated with objective (harsh climate, a nomadic way of life of the population, lack of railways and subjective (long armed resistance, the small number of missionaries and the lack of material software, the lack of permanent control reasons. In order to achieve significant results Chukotka needed constant (regular missionary work, requiring both tangible investments (travel missionaries, food, labor, interpreters, creating living conditions for missionaries

  5. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutov, Valentin P; Schechter, A N

    2010-01-01

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  6. [The 20th century legal framework regarding risk at work and occupational health in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Soler, Juan M; Luna-García, Jairo E; Correa-Moreno, Yerson A; Campos, Adriana C

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the 20th century Colombian legal framework from the point of view of labor law, social security and public health for identifying concepts regarding occupational health and professional risk and trying to establish convergence and differences between such foci and whether they fulfilled a complementary view. This work involved documentary research by means of thematic categorical analysis of the laws and statutes promulgated in 20th century Colombia, considering the main element or entity which should have regulated that related to professional risk or occupational health. The development of the 20th century Colombian legal framework regarding health at work was periodized, revealing the predominance of a view of social law focused on protecting dependent workers' work-related risks, as part of a tendency extending to the Colombian Sistema General de Riesgos Laborales. The proposed stages used for organizing the legal framework concerning social security regarding professional risk and occupational health facilitated some important elements being recognized concerning the social, legal and institutional context from which workers' health laws emerged. Tension was noted concerning statutes orientated towards redress and compensation regarding accidents at work and legislation emphasizing prevention.

  7. Observation-Driven Estimation of the Spatial Variability of 20th Century Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, B. D.; Burgos, A.; Thompson, P. R.; Landerer, F. W.; Piecuch, C. G.; Adhikari, S.; Caron, L.; Reager, J. T.; Ivins, E. R.

    2018-03-01

    Over the past two decades, sea level measurements made by satellites have given clear indications of both global and regional sea level rise. Numerous studies have sought to leverage the modern satellite record and available historic sea level data provided by tide gauges to estimate past sea level rise, leading to several estimates for the 20th century trend in global mean sea level in the range between 1 and 2 mm/yr. On regional scales, few attempts have been made to estimate trends over the same time period. This is due largely to the inhomogeneity and quality of the tide gauge network through the 20th century, which render commonly used reconstruction techniques inadequate. Here, a new approach is adopted, integrating data from a select set of tide gauges with prior estimates of spatial structure based on historical sea level forcing information from the major contributing processes over the past century. The resulting map of 20th century regional sea level rise is optimized to agree with the tide gauge-measured trends, and provides an indication of the likely contributions of different sources to regional patterns. Of equal importance, this study demonstrates the sensitivities of this regional trend map to current knowledge and uncertainty of the contributing processes.

  8. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutov, Valentin P [Institute for Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schechter, A N [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2010-07-08

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  9. Multidecadal changes in the Etesians-Indian Summer Monsoon teleconnection along the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Delgado, F. de Paula; Vega, Inmaculada; Gallego, David; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Ribera, Pedro; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    In this work we made use of historical winds record taken aboard ships to reconstruct a series of the prevalent summer northerly winds (Etesian winds) over the Eastern Mediterranean for the entire 20th century. Previous studies have shown a significant link between the frequency and strength of these winds and the strength of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM), but this relationship had only been studied in detail for the second half of the 20th century due to the absence of long and continous series of observed wind in the Eastern Mediterranean for previous periods. In this work, a new climatic index, the so-called " Etesian Wind Index " (EWI), is defined as the percentage of days with prevalent northerly wind (wind blowing from 305° to 35°) in a fixed region [20E-30E, 32N-37N]. By using historical wind observations, we have been able to compute this index for the summer (JJAS) since 1880 and analyze the long term variability of the Etesians, as well as to research into its relation with the ISM at an unprecedent temporal coverage. A running coverage analysis revealed a strong and significant positive correlation between the EWI and the strength of the ISM for the period 1960-1980, more markedly in July and August. This result is in accordance with other recent studies. However, we have found that the correalation fades out in the first half of the 20th century (1900-1950) and in the period 1980-2012, even showing significant negative values around the subperiod 1920-1950. Similar indices to the EWI were computed using two different 20th century reanalysis datasets (ERA20C and 20CR-V2C). Despite the fact that both indices show some discrepancies with the EWI before 1950, the correlation analysis with the ISM revealed similar results, pointing out a strong loss of the EWI-ISM correlation in the first half of the 20th century and from 1980 onwards, as well as a marked positive correlated period between 1960 and 1980, specially in August. In this study, we show that

  10. Responses of Multi-Aged Music Students to Mid-20th-Century Art Music: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation replicates previous research into K-12 students' responses to mid-20th-century art music. The study extends that research to include undergraduates and graduates as well as an additional group of graduate students who had taken a 20th-century music class. Children's responses showed remarkable consistency and indicated that…

  11. Stephen S. Wise and the Urban Frontier: American Jewish Life in New York and the Pacific Northwest at the Dawn of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Raider

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The case of Stephen S. Wise provides a lens through which to examine American Jewry’s transformation at the dawn of the 20th century. Not only were New York City and Portland, Oregon – places Wise called home – two geographic poles of America’s urban frontier, they also highlight a spectrum of possibilities available to the New World’s fledgling Jewish community. Viewed in tandem, they illustrate American society’s raw, open, and pliable terrain as it emerged from a rural pre-industrial past. Moreover, by placing Wise in the context of the metropolitan growth that reshaped the Atlantic and Pacific frontiers in the late 19th century, we gain a better understanding of the relationship between the country’s dynamic environmental conditions and the phenomenon of Jewish immigrant absorption, acculturation, and Americanization.In withdrawing to the wilderness, Wise exposed himself to new possibilities for thinking about the place of Jews in American society and the future of American Judaism. He also honed the role of which he was to become a superlative exemplar – a 20th-century American rabbi at home in the worlds of religion and politics. Furthermore, his synthesis of liberal Judaism, American pluralism, Zionism, and Progressive-era notions of social justice anticipated the rise of a new American Jewish sensibility that would become normative in the 20th century.

  12. Coupled model simulations of climate changes in the 20th century and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhi, Hai; Wang, Bin; Wan, Hui; Li, Chao; Liu, Hailong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Weipeng; Zhou, Tianjun

    2008-07-01

    Several scenario experiments of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4) are performed by version g1.0 of a Flexible coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model (FGOALS) developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS), including the “Climate of the 20th century experiment”, “CO2 1% increase per year to doubling experiment” and two separate IPCC greenhouse gases emission scenarios A1B and B1 experiments. To distinguish between the different impacts of natural variations and human activities on the climate change, three-member ensemble runs are performed for each scenario experiment. The coupled model simulations show: (1) from 1900 to 2000, the global mean temperature increases about 0.5°C and the major increase occurs during the later half of the 20th century, which is in consistent with the observations that highlights the coupled model’s ability to reproduce the climate changes since the industrial revolution; (2) the global mean surface air temperature increases about 1.6°C in the CO2 doubling experiment and 1.5°C and 2.4°C in the A1B and B1 scenarios, respectively. The global warming is indicated by not only the changes of the surface temperature and precipitation but also the temperature increase in the deep ocean. The thermal expansion of the sea water would induce the rise of the global mean sea level. Both the control run and the 20th century climate change run are carried out again with version g1.1 of FGOALS, in which the cold biases in the high latitudes were removed. They are then compared with those from version g1.0 of FGOALS in order to distinguish the effect of the model biases on the simulation of global warming.

  13. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is

  14. 20th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ICTAM2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Aref

    2000-08-27

    The 20th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ICTAM2000, was held in Chicago, IL, from August 27 - September 2, 2000. It was 32 years since the last of these congresses had been held in USA. A record number of researchers in the mechanical engineering sciences attended and presented their work. The Congress provided an opportunity for the US mechanics community to act as international hosts. Several universities, professional societies, private foundations and individuals, and Federal agencies provided financial support for the Congress.

  15. 20th and 21st Joint Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Qi, Jiaxing; Roller, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It covers trends in hardware and software development in general, and the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures specifically. The application contributions cover computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research. Innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations are also discussed. All papers were chosen from presentations given at the 20th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance in December 2014 at the HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany, and the subsequent Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance at Tohoku University in February 2015.  .

  16. Paleoimaging of a modern mummy from Lithuania (circa 19th–20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Piombino-Mascali

    Full Text Available An anthropogenic human mummy curated in the Museum of the History of Medicine, Vilnius University, was recently examined by means of computed tomography. Although the mummy lacked data regarding its specific context and historical information on its identity and chronology, the investigation focused on the embalming method adopted to preserve it. Some pathological alterations were also recorded. This research appears to suggest that this body was prepared for educational and/or scientific purposes rather than funerary purposes. Hence, the case could be categorized as a “medical mummy” prepared between the mid-19th and the mid-20th centuries. Keywords: Mummy, Embalming, Education, Anatomy, Radiology

  17. Advances in stability theory at the end of the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Martynyuk, AA

    2003-01-01

    This volume presents surveys and research papers on various aspects of modern stability theory, including discussions on modern applications of the theory, all contributed by experts in the field. The volume consists of four sections that explore the following directions in the development of stability theory: progress in stability theory by first approximation; contemporary developments in Lyapunov''s idea of the direct method; the stability of solutions to periodic differential systems; and selected applications. Advances in Stability Theory at the End of the 20th Century will interest postgraduates and researchers in engineering fields as well as those in mathematics.

  18. Proceedings of the 20th meeting of the working group on fracture mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains 41 contributions presented at the 20th meeting of the working group on fracture mechanisms. The contributions dealt with the following topics: 1.) mechanical and test fundamentals of crack initiating corrosion processes; 2.) crack formation in water and seawater; 3.) crack formation in the process industry; 4.) hydrogen-induced crack formation; 5.) stress and crack corrosion of rustproof cast alloys; 6.) corrosion-induced crack formation at high temperatures; 7.) experimental and numerical studies on fracture behaviour. 30 contributions were separately integrated in the data base 'ENERGY'. (MM) [de

  19. The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnsson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    with the Danish airborne EMISAR radar system. Polarimetric and interferometric SAR data reveal the margins of the present ice caps as well as a series of terminal moraines in the fore field. These moraines date back to the maximum Neoglacial extent at the end of the 19th century and the outermost allow...... of the surges in W-Vatnajokull in the 20th century are observed in the SAR data including the most recent surges in the 1990s. Interestingly no push moraines were observed in front of the surge advance, but the moraines appear when the glaciers start retreating. We estimate that the collective decrease...

  20. The face and life of Lisbon movie theaters in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Ferraz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the book Os cinemas de Lisboa: um fenômeno do século XX [Movie theaters in Lisbon: a 20th century phenomenon], Margarida Acciaiuoli makes a discuss about the relationship between collective equipment of cinema leisure and urban settings of the Portuguese capital, signaling as the exhibition was engendered in the processes of production of social space and sociabilities of the city, over the past century. Our review highlights the issues raised by the author, about the history of cinema-building as a symbol of modern time.  

  1. The 20th anniversary of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle - a personal recollection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W. . Author

    2008-01-01

    The history of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle is described by an experimentalist who has been collaborating with few-body theoreticians in trying to unravel the physics of this long-standing phenomenon. Although surprising effects have been discovered along the way, the puzzle is still unexplained. Hopefully, some of the long-range three-nucleon force terms predicted by chiral effective field theory in N 3 LO will eventually solve the puzzle. Presented at the 20th Few-Body Conference, Pisa, Italy, 10-14 September 2007. (author)

  2. [German-Japanese scientific exchange in urology in the early 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, T; Umehara, H; Moll, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the importance of the German language and German culture and institutional development of urology in Japan in the early 20th century, starting from the development of the medical school for Japanese in Germany and their function in the process of modernization of the Meiji period (1868-1912). Examples of bi-directional German-Japanese relations in medicine, which also included an integrated knowledge transfer, are shown. The study is based mainly on Japanese and German sources about Japanese physicians in Germany as well as contemporary publications in German and international medical journals. Methodologically, the article combines quantitative analysis with individual biographical aspects.

  3. Banknote Typography with a Particular Reference to Croatia through the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilko Žiljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the research of transformation of formatting information on banknotes during the 20th century, which is the period of some of the greatest graphical innovations after Gutenberg’s invention of movable type printing. Computer graphics had taken over in the field of typography in the exact moment of hand engraving’s highest level of art in the creation of the font cut. About forty years ago, the era of etching used in copper etching and steel engraving in hand - made drawings had begun, along with the use of phototypesetting as the representative of digital technology. Quality of the written lines has introduced microtypography as a special method of rasterization in the background of banknotes. In Croatia, the above mentioned modifications are present through the works of our typographers, even though the multiplication of banknotes was done in foreign printing houses that had appropriately protected printing technology. The paper contributes to the scientific analysis of the technical aspect of banknote making on Croatia’s soil during the course of the 20th century, and this, with the methods of analysis and synthesis incorporated, gives a clear picture and transparency into the method of banknote making, both from a technological and development cycle - making aspect. Given the fact that not only the Croatian banknotes are examined, analysis contributes to comparative procedures of local scopes in the field of technological manufacture of other banknotes that belong to the same time period.

  4. CHANGING PARADIGMS IN SPACE THEORIES: Recapturing 20th Century Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Kaçmaz Erk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of space entered architectural history as late as 1893. Studies in art opened up the discussion, and it has been studied in various ways in architecture ever since. This article aims to instigate an additional reading to architectural history, one that is not supported by “isms” but based on space theories in the 20th century. Objectives of the article are to bring the concept of space and its changing paradigms to the attention of architectural researchers, to introduce a conceptual framework to classify and clarify theories of space, and to enrich the discussions on the 20th century architecture through theories that are beyond styles. The introduction of space in architecture will revolve around subject-object relationships, three-dimensionality and senses. Modern space will be discussed through concepts such as empathy, perception, abstraction, and geometry. A scientific approach will follow to study the concept of place through environment, event, behavior, and design methods. Finally, the reearch will look at contemporary approaches related to digitally  supported space via concepts like reality-virtuality, mediated experience, and relationship with machines.

  5. Politics and naturalism in the 20th century psychology of Alfred Binet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-11-01

    Alfred Binet is internationally recognized as the "father" of the first intelligence test as well as the most faithful French representative of laboratory experimentalism. A historical analysis of his work is therefore necessary to get to a thorough comprehension of 20th century psychology. The present article, starting from Binet's intellectual path and from the suggestions of the previous historical literature, aims at providing fresh insights into Binet's work by trying to capture the intersections between Binet, his naturalistic culture and the political context in which he worked in the early 20th century, when he actively tried to apply experimental psychology to the pedagogical area. In fact, it is possible to underline, with reference to those years, an evident turn towards applications in Binet's psychological production. The article reconstructs the political and institutional background of Binet's research and shows how the naturalism and experimentalism he promoted were complementary to the solidarist conceptions that were particularly prevalent among those who supported his work during the Third Republic.

  6. Early 20th century untrained nursing staff in the Rockhampton district: a necessary evil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2005-08-01

    This paper explores the role of untrained nursing staff within the nursing services of the Rockhampton region, Queensland, Australia, throughout the early 20th century. It details who these nurses were, where they worked and how their work was affected by factors such as legislation and social changes. Despite the increasing prevalence of trained nurses from the late 19th century, nurses who had never undergone any formal training continued to gain work in hospitals, institutions and their local communities. This paper is an historical analysis of a wide range of primary source material relating to untrained nursing staff. The primary source material used related specifically to a limited geographical region in Australia. Untrained nursing staff primarily worked as private duty nurses at the beginning of the 20th century. However, as the century progressed, their opportunities to work as untrained nursing staff tended towards institutions dealing with the chronically ill and the aged. As a result of this transition, their profile altered from that of a married/widowed woman living at home with dependents to one who could live on-site at the institution with no dependents. Furthermore, the level of autonomy of the untrained nurse decreased dramatically throughout this period from being relatively independent to being under the control of a trained nurse within the institution. Consideration of the historical evolution of untrained nursing staff challenges some of the assumptions made about this category of nurse, assumptions that can affect current relationships between professional nurses and others who undertake nursing work.

  7. A multidisciplinary study of significant migrations on the territory of Vojvodina in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeljac Željko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrations of population in a particular area and/or at a particular time represent the phenomenon of global proportions. As such, they require multidisciplinary approach to research. The most common questions posed by the individual, but also multidisciplinary scientific disciplines are: Who is moving? Where are they going? Why do they go? What are the natural and economic conditions of migrations? Why do migrations occur and how they maintain over time? Multidisciplinary research of migrations is very important for a more complete understanding of this process, primarily from the physical, historical, economic, ethnographic, anthropological, legal, politicological, sociological, etc. The aim of the paper is to highlight the importance of multidisciplinary research through the representation of some major migrations in Vojvodina in the 20th century. As a subject of research the following has been singled out: colonization (immigration of population from 1919 to 1930, 1945-1948 (there are some similarities among them (population decline, new social and political conditions and legal regulation, difficulties to get used to new ways of life, mixing folklore and customs with the local population. The paper includes the emigration of the German population from Vojvodina, 1944-1950, as part of one of the largest (e migrations in Europe in the 20th century. This migration, seen from legal, economic, historical and political aspects has consequences today, during the approach of Serbia to the European Union. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007 i br. III47027

  8. Hekla Volcano, Iceland, in the 20th Century: Lava Volumes, Production Rates, and Effusion Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, G. B. M.; Belart, J. M. C.; Magnússon, E.; Vilmundardóttir, O. K.; Kizel, F.; Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Benediktsson, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Lava flow thicknesses, volumes, and effusion rates provide essential information for understanding the behavior of eruptions and their associated deformation signals. Preeruption and posteruption elevation models were generated from historical stereo photographs to produce the lava flow thickness maps for the last five eruptions at Hekla volcano, Iceland. These results provide precise estimation of lava bulk volumes: V1947-1948 = 0.742 ± 0.138 km3, V1970 = 0.205 ± 0.012 km3, V1980-1981 = 0.169 ± 0.016 km3, V1991 = 0.241 ± 0.019 km3, and V2000 = 0.095 ± 0.005 km3 and reveal variable production rate through the 20th century. These new volumes improve the linear correlation between erupted volume and coeruption tilt change, indicating that tilt may be used to determine eruption volume. During eruptions the active vents migrate 325-480 m downhill, suggesting rough excess pressures of 8-12 MPa and that the gradient of this excess pressure increases from 0.4 to 11 Pa s-1 during the 20th century. We suggest that this is related to increased resistance along the eruptive conduit.

  9. Life expectancy of the 20th century Venda: a compilation of skeletal and cemetery data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Abbé, E N; Steyn, M; Loots, M

    2008-01-01

    Little information is available on the 20th century mortality rates of rural black South African groups, such as the Venda. The purpose of this study was to apply abridged life tables in order to estimate life expectancy from both skeletal remains and death registry information of modern South African communities. Comparisons were also made with prehistoric and contemporary groups as a means to better evaluate life expectancy for this time period. The sample consisted of 160 skeletons of known Venda origin and burial registry information for 1364 black South Africans from the Rebecca Street and Mamelodi Cemeteries in Pretoria, South Africa. Standard anthropological techniques were applied to determine sex and estimate age from the skeletal remains. The stationary and non-stationary life table models were used to analyse the data. A high rate of child mortality, low juvenile and adult mortality with a steady increase in mortality after the age of 30 years was observed for both the Venda and the cemetery samples. Throughout the 20th century, life expectancy was shown to increase for black South Africans. However, due to the widespread HIV infection/AIDS of the 21st century, infant and young adult mortality rates continue to rise at such a speed that the decline in mortality seen for South Africans in the last 50 years will most likely to be lost in the next decade due to this disease.

  10. Canada's Fraser River Basin transitioning from a nival to a hybrid system in the late 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. H.; Gao, H.; Shi, X.; Dery, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Fraser River Basin (FRB) is the largest river draining to the Pacific Ocean in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and it provides the world's most abundant salmon populations. With recent climate change, the shifting hydrologic regime of the FRB is evaluated using hydrological modeling results over the period 1949 to 2006. To quantify the contribution of snowmelt to runoff generation, the ratio RSR, defined as the division of the sum of the snowmelt across the watershed by the integrated runoff over the water year, is employed. Modeled results for RSR at Hope, BC — the furthest downstream hydrometric station of the FRB — show a significant decrease (from 0.80 to 0.65) in the latter part of the 20th century. RSR is found to be mainly suppressed by a decrease of the snowmelt across the FRB with a decline with 107 mm by 26 % along the simulation period. There is also a prominent shift in the timing of streamflow, with the spring freshet at Hope, BC advancing 30 days followed by reduced summer flows for over two months. The timing of the peak spring freshet becomes even earlier when moving upstream of the FRB owing to short periods of time after melting from the snow source to the rivers.

  11. Changes in the social class gradient of cirrhosis mortality in England and Wales across the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Iain K; Precious, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nature of the social class gradient of cirrhosis mortality in England and Wales across the 20th century. Data on male cirrhosis mortality by social class were obtained from the Registrar General's Decennial Supplements for the years 1921-1991. Data for 1941 were not collected because of the second World War. In 1921, cirrhosis mortality was substantially higher among the professional and managerial classes (I and II) than among the other social classes (III-V). This marked social class difference persisted until 1961 when the differences between the social classes were inconsistent. By 1991, the gradient had reversed and the lower social classes (IV and V) had the higher mortality. The excess mortality was greatest for social class V. The change in the mortality gradient is stark: in 1921social classes I and II had a cirrhosis mortality at least twice that of social classes IV and V, but by 1991 this ratio had reversed. The reversal in the social class gradient of cirrhosis mortality indicates a major change in risk factor distribution across social classes. Differential changes in alcohol consumption are a possible explanation for this change, although the 1991 social class gradient in cirrhosis is inconsistent with alcohol consumption data from national surveys. Further research is required to clarify the explanation for the observed gradient, so that appropriate preventive measures can be put into place.

  12. The scars of time: the disappearance of peptic ulcer-related pyloric stenosis through the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R; Royston, C; Bardhan, K D

    2014-01-01

    The changing pattern of haemorrhage and perforation from peptic ulcer disease is well documented but little is known about pyloric stenosis, the third complication of the disease. We reviewed records relating to definitive operations (with intent to cure) for peptic ulcer disease carried out in York, UK from 1929-1997. We categorised the patients as pyloric stenosis and no pyloric stenosis based on findings at operation and examined the change in total number of cases with pyloric stenosis and proportion of cases with pyloric stenosis, by year of operation and by decade of birth. To place our results in perspective, we reviewed world literature to examine rates of pyloric stenosis as a percentage of operative cases reported in other case series in the 20th century. 4178 patients were included in the analysis; 3697 without pyloric stenosis and 481 with pyloric stenosis (11.5%). Analysis by birth cohort showed that the proportion found to have pyloric stenosis at surgery fell from 17% in the first cohort (birth 1880-89) to only 2.9% in the last cohort (birth 1950-59; pulcer cases showing pyloric stenosis at operation. The reduction in pyloric stenosis over the last several decades is disproportionately greater than the change seen in peptic ulcer disease requiring surgery. Our findings suggest that this reduction in pyloric stenosis is largely the result of the changing natural history of the disease rather than due to the introduction of acid-suppressing medication.

  13. Carbon profile of the managed forest sector in Canada in the 20th century: sink or source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxin; Colombo, Stephen J; Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Heath, Linda S

    2014-08-19

    Canada contains 10% of global forests and has been one of the world's largest harvested wood products (HWP) producers. Therefore, Canada's managed forest sector, the managed forest area and HWP, has the potential to significantly increase or reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases. Using the most comprehensive carbon balance analysis to date, this study shows Canada's managed forest area and resulting HWP were a sink of 7510 and 849 teragrams carbon (TgC), respectively, in the period 1901-2010, exceeding Canada's fossil fuel-based emissions over this period (7333 TgC). If Canadian HWP were not produced and used for residential construction, and instead more energy intensive materials were used, there would have been an additional 790 TgC fossil fuel-based emissions. Because the forest carbon increases in the 20th century were mainly due to younger growing forests that resulted from disturbances in the 19th century, and future increases in forest carbon stocks appear uncertain, in coming decades most of the mitigation contribution from Canadian forests will likely accrue from wood substitution that reduces fossil fuel-based emissions and stores carbon, so long as those forests are managed sustainably.

  14. Extreme precipitation in the Polish Carpathians in the 20th century in the context of last 500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Extreme weather phenomena together with their exceptional course and intensity have always been dangerous for people. In the historical documents such phenomena were marked as basic disasters. First notes about weather phenomena were made in Polish lands in the 10th century. Most information concerns floods caused by intensive rains. Using the data base created within the Millennium project, extreme precipitation cases exceeding 100 mm were analysed. In each case, the intensive precipitation was followed by a summer flood in the Polish Carpathians in the Upper Vistula River basin. Data from the period of instrumental measurements in the 20th century were studied in detail by the analysis of the frequency of occurrence and the spatial and temporal distribution. The results were referred to last 500 years. The information obtained gives approximate image of extreme precipitation in the historical times in Polish lands. All available multi-proxy data were used. Newspapers' notes concerning described phenomena from 1848-1850 published in Kraków were used to complete and verify the quality of data from the early instrumental period and also to complete the data from the period of the Second World War.

  15. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  16. Coral Records of 20th Century Central Tropical Pacific SST and Salinity: Signatures of Natural and Anthropogenic Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhati, I. S.; Cobb, K.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate forecasts of regional climate changes in many regions of the world largely depend on quantifying anthropogenic trends in tropical Pacific climate against its rich background of interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. However, the strong natural climate variability combined with limited instrumental climate datasets have obscured potential anthropogenic climate signals in the region. Here, we present coral-based sea-surface temperature (SST) and salinity proxy records over the 20th century (1898-1998) from the central tropical Pacific - a region sensitive to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) whose variability strongly impacts the global climate. The SST and salinity proxy records are reconstructed via coral Sr/Ca and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (δ18Osw), respectively. On interannual (2-7yr) timescales, the SST proxy record tracks both eastern- and central-Pacific flavors of ENSO variability (R=0.65 and R=0.67, respectively). Interannual-scale salinity variability in our coral record highlights profound differences in precipitation and ocean advections during the two flavors of ENSO. On decadal (8yr-lowpassed) timescales, the central tropical Pacific SST and salinity proxy records are controlled by different sets of dynamics linked to the leading climate modes of North Pacific climate variability. Decadal-scale central tropical Pacific SST is highly correlated to the recently discovered North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO; R=-0.85), reflecting strong dynamical links between the central Pacific warming mode and extratropical decadal climate variability. Whereas decadal-scale salinity variations in the central tropical Pacific are significantly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO; R=0.54), providing a better understanding on low-frequency salinity variability in the region. Having characterized natural climate variability in this region, the coral record shows a +0.5°C warming trend throughout the last century

  17. WILLIAM GURNEE SINNIGEN - 20TH CENTURY CLASSICIST AND ROMAN HISTORIAN: BIOGRAPHY & BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gray Marsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available William Gurnee Sinnigen was a Classicist and Roman historian, active in the mid-to-late 20th century. Trained at the University of Michigan by noted Roman administrative historian Arthur E. R. Boak, Sinnigen continued his mentor’s work in administrative history, producing several articles on different aspects of Roman and Byzantine administrative topics.  Sinnigen was also responsible for the revision and update of Boak’s acclaimed textbook on Roman history, as well as Charles Alexander Robinson’s textbook on Ancient history.  This article will provide a brief biography of Professor Sinnigen, along with a bibliography of his published works and reviews by other scholars of his work.

  18. Interpreting mathematics in physics: Charting the applications of SU(2) in 20th century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Ronald; Joshi, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    The role mathematics plays within physics has been of sustained interest for physicists as well as for philosophers and historians of science. We explore this topic by tracing the role the mathematical structure associated with SU(2) has played in three key episodes in 20th century physics - intrinsic spin, isospin, and gauge theory and electroweak unification. We also briefly consider its role in loop quantum gravity. Each episode has led to profound and new physical notions of a space other than the traditional ones of space and spacetime, and each has had associated with it a complex and in places, contested history. The episodes also reveal ways mathematical structures provide resources for new physical theorizing and we propose our study as a contribution to a need Roger Penrose has identified to develop a 'profoundly sensitive aesthetic' sense for locating physically relevant mathematics

  19. RTG's for space exploration at the end of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimielewski, A.

    1989-01-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) are the only type of energy conversion devices that are available for spacecraft designed for environments where sunlight is weak. The two upcoming missions Galileo and Ulysses will both use General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG's. Two other missions that are planned for mid nineties and will carry RTG's on board are: Comet Rendezvous Astroid Flyby (CRAF) and Cassini. Another mission that might become a program start in the last decade of the 20th century is Solarprobe. Solarprobe is most likely to use Modular RTG's. Several other missions that are in different planning stages are in need of RTG's to meet their power requirements: Mars Rover Sample Return, planetary penetrators, microspacecraft and Mars Egg. The paper briefly describes all of these missions stressing their RTG requirements

  20. Trousseau: economic and design aspects from the second half of 20th century in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laktim, M. C.; Giacomin, A. M.; Silva-Santos, M. C.; Santos, H. N.; Borelli, C.; Baruque-Ramos, J.

    2017-10-01

    The trousseau is notorious since antiquity and has been influenced by a series of modifications, reflected in the type of fabric, confection, design, fashion and market share. This study aimed to present economic and design aspects of the bedding, table and bath linen sector (also known as bed, bath and beyond) occurred from the second half of the 20th century to recently in Brazil. A bibliographic research was carried out from the scientific literature and magazines of the area, notably the “Revista Vogue Casa Brasil” (“Vogue House Brazil Magazine”). It is concluded that the classic patterns predominate: white color and cotton in bed, table and bath products, being embroidery the most outstanding style ornament. The maintenance of these standards by the Brazilian manufacturers is interesting to maintain sales in the domestic market, but a limitation for export products destined to publics with different values and aesthetic tastes and with greater supply of items with variety of surface designs.

  1. Interpreting mathematics in physics: Charting the applications of SU(2) in 20th century physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ronald [Department of Philosophy, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States)], E-mail: ronald.anderson@bc.edu; Joshi, G.C. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: joshi@physics.unimelb.edu.au

    2008-04-15

    The role mathematics plays within physics has been of sustained interest for physicists as well as for philosophers and historians of science. We explore this topic by tracing the role the mathematical structure associated with SU(2) has played in three key episodes in 20th century physics - intrinsic spin, isospin, and gauge theory and electroweak unification. We also briefly consider its role in loop quantum gravity. Each episode has led to profound and new physical notions of a space other than the traditional ones of space and spacetime, and each has had associated with it a complex and in places, contested history. The episodes also reveal ways mathematical structures provide resources for new physical theorizing and we propose our study as a contribution to a need Roger Penrose has identified to develop a 'profoundly sensitive aesthetic' sense for locating physically relevant mathematics.

  2. Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Krek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

  3. Historiography of mathematics in the 19th and 20th centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Martina; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the historiography of mathematics as it was practiced during the 19th and 20th centuries by paying special attention to the cultural contexts in which the history of mathematics was written. In the 19th century, the history of mathematics was recorded by a diverse range of people trained in various fields and driven by different motivations and aims. These backgrounds often shaped not only their writing on the history of mathematics, but, in some instances, were also influential in their subsequent reception. During the period from roughly 1880-1940, mathematics modernized in important ways, with regard to its content, its conditions for cultivation, and its identity; and the writing of the history of mathematics played into the last part in particular. Parallel to the modernization of mathematics, the history of mathematics gradually evolved into a field of research with its own journals, societies and academic positions. Reflecting both a new professional identity and changes in its prim...

  4. The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, S. K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social History; Laakkonen, S. J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Policy

    2004-07-01

    In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution studies in Helsinki was broad, involving the use of physical, chemical, hygienic and biological methods. Since 1904, municipal laboratories have overseen and conducted most physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of pollution of urban watercourses, and they have done regular annual sampling since 1947. In the 1920s and 1930s, the municipal laboratories cooperated with the University of Helsinki and, secondarily, with the Helsinki University of Technology in order to develop the skills and manpower that were required in order to conduct pollution studies. Statutory monitoring was initiated in the mid-1960s, and it continues today. (orig.)

  5. On the unstable ENSO-Western North Pacific Monsoon relation during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Martín, Inmaculada; Gallego Puyol, David; Ribera Rodriguez, Pedro; Gómez Delgado, Francisco de Paula; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The concept of the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon (WNPSM) appeared for the first time in 1987. Unlike the Indian Summer Monsoon and the East Asian summer monsoon, the WNPSM is an oceanic monsoon driven essentially by the meridional gradient of sea surface temperature. Its circulation is characterized by a northwest-southeast oriented monsoon trough with intense precipitation and low-level southwesterlies and upper-tropospheric easterlies in the region [100°-130° E, 5°-15°N]. Although this monsoon is mainly oceanic, it modulates the precipitation of densely populated areas such as the Philippines. To date, the WNPSM has been quantified by the so-called Western North Pacific Monsoon Index (WNPMI), an index based on wind anomalies over large domains of the Western Pacific. The requirement of continuous observed wind over remote oceanic areas to compute the WNPMI has limited its availability to the 1949-2014 period. In this work we have extended the index by almost 100 years by using historical observations of wind direction taken aboard ships. Our Western North Pacific Directional Index (WNPDI), is defined as the sum of the persistence of the low-level westerly winds in [5°-15°N, 100°-130°E] and easterly winds in [20°-30°N, 110°-140°E]. The new WNPDI index is highly correlated to the existent WNPMI for the concurrent period (1948-2014). (r=+0.88, p<0.01), indicating that the new approach based in the use of wind direction alone (a variable that can be considered instrumental even before the 20th Century), captures most of the monsoonal signal. Previous studies found that, during the second part of the 20th Century the WNPSM exhibited two basic characteristics: first a large interannual variability and second, a significant relation between the WNPSM and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in a way in which a strong (weak) WNPSM tends to occur during the El Niño (La Niña) developing year or/and La Niña (El Niño) decaying year. The analysis of

  6. Atom pictures. Iconography of the atom in science and public of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, Jochen; Bigg, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The 20th century can be described as century of the atom. From the development of molecular models until nanotechnology, from Becquerel's discovery of the radioactivity until the reactor accident in Chernobyl was and remains the atom subject of the research as well as of the discussion in culture and politics. Thereby the concept and the imagination of the ''atom'' have been subjected to manifold changes, which were essentially generated by pictures. The volume summarizes famous as well as less famous pictures from laboratories, exhibitions, publications, and films. It gives both a contribution to the history of science and culture and a summarizing of different disciplinary approaches to the circulation of pictures between science and public

  7. Melancholia before the 20th century: Fear and Sorrow or Partial Insanity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo eTelles-Correia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of Psychopathology, several meanings have been assigned to the term melancholia. The main ones were related to affective (fear and sadness and thought disorders (a type of mental disorder characterised mainly by the presence of abnormal believes. At the time of Hippocrates melancholia was regarded mainly in its affective component. Since that time, and until the 18th century, authors and opinions have been divided, with both aspects (affective and thought disorders, being valued. Finally, in the 18th-19th centuries, with Pinel at its peak, melancholia becomes exclusively a synonym of thought disorders (abnormal believes: delusions/overvalued ideas.At the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, the affective component returns as the main aspect characterising melancholia.

  8. Cohort fertility and educational expansion in the Czech Republic during the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystof Zeman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the 20th century the Czech Republic went through profound changes in female employment, gender roles, population and family policies, and public childcare. The educational structure of the female population changed tremendously. At the same time, completed cohort fertility fluctuated between 1.8 and 2.2 children per woman. Objective: This article analyses the changes in the level of completed cohort fertility by education, during educational expansion in the Czech population under the economic, cultural, and institutional background of the state socialist regime, and after its breakdown. Methods: The changes in the level of completed cohort fertility by education are analysed by means of decomposition, complemented by the analysis of parity composition. Results: During the 20th century, education-specific completed cohort fertility increased, rather than declined. Fertility levels converged upwards, contributing to high uniformity within educational categories. The overall changes in fertility levels were driven by changes in the educational structure. These trends resulted in the dominance of the two-child family, while large families were disappearing and childlessness dropped to the biological minimum. Conclusions: An egalitarian economic system with traditional family-friendly policies, in combination with a family-unfriendly labour market, developed into a male breadwinner model of low gender equity. Future family policies should focus on the reconciliation of work and family. Contribution: The study contributes to the discussion on links between education and fertility, adding a new picture to the mosaic of country-level analyses. The Czech Republic is an example of a country with high educational homogeneity of fertility behaviour where the education-specific levels of fertility converged upwards.

  9. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a century average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  10. [Demographic and epidemiologic changes in Colombia during the 20th century: facts and explanations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2005-12-01

    Research, education, organization and administration activities in health need an updated panoramic view of demographic and epidemiologic changes and tendencies. To describe the main changes in demography and epidemiology during the 20th century in Colombia and to comment on the causative models used by some authors. A descriptive and longitudinal study. Second hand information from various sources was used. The final section of the review includes a discussion on the interpretation of data given by the original authors. In 1905-2005, population increased from 4,737,588 inhabitants to 48,864,013. The age distribution of the population showed dramatic changes: the true pyramid, as seen in 1951, changed into a distorted figure (no apparent differences between 0 and 14 years of age). Both children and youngsters lost representation on age structure, while adult and older individuals gain representation. During 1905-1938, the birth rate was 43% and by the end of 2005 it will be 22%. Mortality dropped a 75%, falling from 23% in 1905-1912 to 6% in 1885-1993, but it rose a 33% after 1993, and will reach 8.3% in 2010. In 1938, the urban population was 31% and in 2002, 72%. Mortality discriminated by cause changed in a significant manner during the second half of the 20th century. Infectious-parasitic and perinatal diseases, the main cause of death by the end of the 1960-1969 decade, lost importance on behalf of degenerative diseases, accidents and homicides which are now the most frequent. Conclusions. Our present population density is relatively low. The demographic change has been profound but the velocity has been more important. The aging of population has serious implications for the country. These notable modifications in Colombian families raise challenges in all social fields. The demographic and epidemiological changes (structure and level of morbimortality) require a serious analysis, and easy explanations do not have to be accepted without repairs.

  11. Outsets for studying interrelations between heritage institutions in the 20th century: initial theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjica Faletar Tanacković

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage institutions, archives, libraries and museums, which share the common goal of safeguarding and enabling wide accessibility to and use of cultural heritage, have developed in different but not diametrically opposing directions. Many scientists and practitioners from archival science, librarianship, museology and the wider area of information science have therefore studied, over many years, fundamental principles and characteristics of their activity and similarities and differences between these institutions and professions with the ultimate aim of discovering and describing potential models and guidelines for their coordinated action. First papers on this topic in the 20th century appeared in 1930s. Authors of these papers were most often librarians and archivists whose writing was initiated by their immediate working and professional environment. Based on the analysis and overview of accessible literature this paper presents and comments the thoughts of the author who was writing on this subject for over five decades, from 1930s to 1980s. These authors came, in most cases, from the United States of America and they dealt with similarities and differences between archives and libraries. Museum professionals joined this discussion only in 1960s by introducing specific characteristics and aspects of museums and museum work. In order to contribute to the understanding of interrelationships and evident convergence of these three cultural heritage institutions, which resulted in their mutual respect and in some cases with practical and active collaboration in particular in the modern networked society, the authors will try to present the development of theoretical and methodological thought on this phenomenon. The paper will provide a critical review of the most important authors who wrote on this topic from the first works that appeared through the last decade of the 20th century.

  12. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a century average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since ~ 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  13. Tuning the climate sensitivity of a global model to match 20th Century warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, T.; Roeckner, E.

    2015-12-01

    A climate models ability to reproduce observed historical warming is sometimes viewed as a measure of quality. Yet, for practical reasons historical warming cannot be considered a purely empirical result of the modelling efforts because the desired result is known in advance and so is a potential target of tuning. Here we explain how the latest edition of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.2) atmospheric model (ECHAM6.3) had its climate sensitivity systematically tuned to about 3 K; the MPI model to be used during CMIP6. This was deliberately done in order to improve the match to observed 20th Century warming over the previous model generation (MPI-ESM, ECHAM6.1) which warmed too much and had a sensitivity of 3.5 K. In the process we identified several controls on model cloud feedback that confirm recently proposed hypotheses concerning trade-wind cumulus and high-latitude mixed-phase clouds. We then evaluate the model fidelity with centennial global warming and discuss the relative importance of climate sensitivity, forcing and ocean heat uptake efficiency in determining the response as well as possible systematic biases. The activity of targeting historical warming during model development is polarizing the modeling community with 35 percent of modelers stating that 20th Century warming was rated very important to decisive, whereas 30 percent would not consider it at all. Likewise, opinions diverge as to which measures are legitimate means for improving the model match to observed warming. These results are from a survey conducted in conjunction with the first WCRP Workshop on Model Tuning in fall 2014 answered by 23 modelers. We argue that tuning or constructing models to match observed warming to some extent is practically unavoidable, and as such, in many cases might as well be done explicitly. For modeling groups that have the capability to tune both their aerosol forcing and climate sensitivity there is now a unique

  14. Introduction to Music and Art in Albania during the 20-th Century

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    Ana Kaçinari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Albanian music, which dates back to the Albanian Independence, is characterized by two main aspects: supporting of patriotic, illuminist and democratic ideas and a model in most classical or romantic music as well as being linked to folk music. The history of last year’s is followed with the oppression and dream to come close to the European Culture. During this relatively long period (almost half century, the first musical compositions were created in Albania. Initially there were some pre - professional attempts to create genuine musical compositions which had a significant role in some aspects. First, these compositions leaded to the creation of the first musical genres of the Albanian music. Second, different vocal and orchestral ensembles started to include in their repertoires operas of Albanian authors and in the case of vocal operas, even with Albanian language texts. Third, the level of musical compositions was updated, from folk music towards a level that would improve decade after decade. From the ranking of piano operas of the Albanian music that I did and showed at the end of this work, it is noticed that the first operas of our piano music sprung during the first years of 20th century. Those years were filled with endeavours and struggles for national identity, for the protection of borders from excessive greed of our neighbours or superpowers interests and also years of the first attempts to follow the steps of developed countries’ cultures that surround us. So it was the time of efforts for cultivation of people and step by step creation of our cultural identity. Referring to this, the Albanian writer, aesthete, translator and teacher Ernest Koliqi wrote: “It is an axiomatic affirmation that small nations that would not know how to organise their culture, fatally would dissolve under huge political and social exacerbations emerging today. We are moving toward formation of a politically united Europe and through sufferings

  15. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic

  16. ­Assessing the causes of 20th century wetting in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D. A.; Williams, P.; Seager, R.; Fiore, A. M.; Cook, B.; Mankin, J. S.; Singh, D.; Smerdon, J. E.; Rao, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    During the 20th century, a large area of the eastern United States (US) experienced increases in precipitation and reduced warming, with seasonal cooling of daytime temperatures. These trends are in stark contrast with observed drying and warming globally, particularly with those in the western US. While the reduced temperature trends, termed the eastern US `warming hole,' are well documented and have been linked to reduced insolation from aerosols, evaporative cooling from increased precipitation, and natural climate variability, there is little research evaluating the timing, spatial extent, and physical origins of the historical eastern US precipitation trends. Here we investigate: (1) hydroclimate trends and variability across the continental US for 1895-2016 for all seasons, (2) mechanistic links between wetting and cooling trends in the Southeast US, and (3) dynamical links between wetting trends and large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. Our analyses of hydroclimatic trends indicate strong positive trends in fall precipitation in the Southeast and Northeast US, and positive trends in summer precipitation in the Northeast and Midwest US. The Southeast and Midwest wetting trends are coincident with negative trends in mean daily maximum temperatures (TMax), whereas the Northeast US wetting coincides with warming. Cross-wavelet analysis indicates low-frequency anti-phasing between summer precipitation and TMax, particularly in the Southeast US, but there is little coherence in the fall-season relationship. These results support a positive link between precipitation and evaporative cooling, as this mechanism is expected to be most focused in the boreal summer season. To investigate the shift to wetter conditions in the eastern US, we evaluate moisture transport across multiple reanalysis products, surface observations, and CMIP5 model runs. We find a step-shift toward enhanced southerly flow from the Gulf of Mexico into the Southeast and Midwest US that

  17. RUSSIAN PERIODICALS AT THE TURN OF THE 19TH -20TH CENTURIESON RUSSIAN MIGRANTS’ SOCIOCULTURAL ADAPTATION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р А Арсланов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Russian historiography, the views of the publicists of the early 20th century of the Russian colonists’ life in Central Asia aren’t duly highlighted. The novelty and aim of the research consist in revealing the general and particular in the Russian periodicals’ percep-tion of the colonization of Turkestan, in determining their ideological bent. The authors have discovered that all the reviewed periodicals were adherents of Central Asia colonization. They supported the imperial policy of the government with minor reserva-tions. Most publicists noted that the settling of colonists depended on the actions of the central government, which insuffi ciently took into account the local conditions. However, publicists differed in the choice of the main direction and in the assessments of the value of colonists’ adaptation activity; they proposed various ways of developing the intercultural dialogue.The authors come to the conclusions that liberal periodicals paid special attention to the economic activities of Russian immigrants, assessing the degree of their adaptation by the level of well-being achieved. The Narodnik periodicals considered migrants as a part of the peasant world of Russia. They were concerned, above all, about the colonists’ commu-nity, which they considered an effective means of adaptation, preserving the culture and moral qualities of the Russians. Probably, they considered it a pledge of building fair relations with the local population. Conservative and offi cial publicists viewed Russian immigrants primarily as support of the Russian government in Central Asia. That is why they paid special attention to the preservation of assimilation qualities of the Russians, the loss of which could become, in their view, an obstacle to the strengthening of the empire positions in the region.

  18. Quantifying the quiet epidemic: Diagnosing dementia in late 20th-century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan

    2014-12-01

    During the late 20 th century numerical rating scales became central to the diagnosis of dementia and helped transform attitudes about its causes and prevalence. Concentrating largely on the development and use of the Blessed Dementia Scale, I argue that rating scales served professional ends during the 1960s and 1970s. They helped old age psychiatrists establish jurisdiction over conditions such as dementia and present their field as a vital component of the welfare state, where they argued that 'reliable modes of diagnosis' were vital to the allocation of resources. I show how these arguments appealed to politicians, funding bodies and patient groups, who agreed that dementia was a distinct disease and claimed research on its causes and prevention should be designated 'top priority'. But I also show that worries about the replacement of clinical acumen with technical and depersonalized methods, which could conceivably be applied by anyone, led psychiatrists to stress that rating scales had their limits and could be used only by trained experts.

  19. Introduction: contexts and concepts of adaptability and plasticity in 20th-century plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Marci; Peirson, B R Erick

    2015-04-01

    Nowhere is the problem of understanding the complex linkages between organisms and their environments more apparent than in the science of plants. Today, efforts by scientists to predict and manage the biological consequences of shifting global and regional climates depend on understanding how organisms respond morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally to changes in their environments. Investigating organismal "adaptability" (or "plasticity") is rarely straightforward, prompting controversy and discourse among and between ecologists and agricultural scientists. Concepts like agro-climatic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and genotype-environment interaction (GxE) are key to those debates, and their complex histories have imbued them with assumptions and meanings that are consequential but often opaque. This special section explores the diverse ways in which organismal adaptability has been conceptualized and investigated in the second half of the 20th century, and the multifarious political, economic, environmental, and intellectual contexts in which those conceptions have emerged and evolved. The papers in this section bring together perspectives from the histories of agriculture, population ecology, evolutionary theory, and plant physiology, cutting across Asian, North American, and British contexts. As a whole, this section highlights not only the diversity of meanings of "adaptability" and "plasticity," but also the complex linkages between those meanings, the scientific practices and technologies in which they are embedded, and the ends toward which those practices and technologies are employed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Summary, the 20th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    For advancement of radioisotope in vitro tests such as radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay, the Subcommittee for Radioisotope in vitro Test in Medical and Pharmaceutical Committee of Japan Radioisotope Association has conducted the yearly quality control survey for the test facilities in Japan since 1978. This is the summary of the 20th survey in 1998 where non-radioisotope tests like enzyme-immunoassay were involved as well. The survey was done for 143 facilities: 20 national and public university hospitals, 18 private university hospitals, 8 national hospitals, 13 public hospitals, 21 private hospitals, 41 hygienic laboratories and 22 manufacturers of reagents. Facilities examined intra- and between day-reproducibility, freeze-thaw effect and time change of the measured values on the same samples. Assays were for: growth hormone (h), somatomedin C, follicle stimulating h, luteinizing h, prolactin, thyroid stimulating h, triiodothyronines, thyroxines, thyroxine binding protein, calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagons, gastrin, testosterones, estradiol, progesterone, gonadotropin, 17{alpha}-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandorosterone sulfate, renin, IgE, digoxin, {alpha}-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, CA (125, 19-9 and 15-3), prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, {beta}2-microglobulin, ferritin, and neuron specific enolase. There was no great difference between this and last survey results although tendency of improvement was recognized. There were problems to be solved from the standpoint of clinical practice. (K.H.)

  1. Rise and fall of hypofractionation in clinical radiotherapy in the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friberg, S.; Ruden, B. I.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review of the use of hypofractionated radiotherapy during the last two centuries. We define hypofractionation as any treatment where the individual fraction exceeds 2.0 Gray (Gy). The number of fractions is disregarded. The struggle of the early radiotherapists, the slow acceptance of fractionation, and the battle between the German and the French schools are reviewed. The early mathematical formulae of biological effects radiation are described and commented on. The paramount contribution in radiotherapy by British scientists gave rise to a new science: radiobiology. This branch had now matured into an exact discipline, separate from, and yet utterly depending on, its 100 years old sibling: Diagnostic Radiology. The come-back and fall of hypofractionation during two centuries is described, and set in relation to the treatment philosophy of the corresponding period. Injuries are described, and the long latency period for late reactions pointed out. Some of the legal aspects of the injuries are discussed. The come-back of hypofractionation - twice declared dead and buried the 20 th century - in the late 1990's is explained. The brilliant incorporation variability (α andβ) into mathematical exactness (the LQ-formula) has had, and will have a profound impact on clinical radiotherapy. (author)

  2. [Alessandro Laurinsich, the key player in the progress of paediatrics in the 20(th) century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, I; Farnetani, F

    2007-02-01

    Alessandro Laurinsich was one of the greatest Italian paediatricians of the 20(th) century. He was born in Monfalcone (it was the province of Trieste, but now it belongs to Gorizia) on 29(th) May 1899. After having completed secondary school in Trieste, he obtained a medical degree with honours in 1922 at the University of Naples and entered the paediatric clinic run by Rocco Jemma. Laurinsich was in charge of teaching at the clinic of infectious diseases from 1937 to 1940. During this period he focused on the study of tuberculosis in children, the first applications of pnemoencephalography in Italy, but also studied different malignant tumors of the kidney, neurological and psychological disorders in children, as well as educational problems. In 1940 he had a teaching post in the peadiatric clinic at the University of Siena and remained until 1945 when he moved to Parma. He worked with illegitimate children as well as evacuees. During the 1945-46 academic year, Alessandro Laurinsich was called to direct the paediatric clinic of Parma University where he created a series of paediatric centres and took many initiatives in the area. In 1961 he was offered the paediatric teaching post at the University of Milan, but inexplicably refused it. He was Dean of the faculty of Medicine from 1956 to 1968. He passed away on 2(nd) February 1969 in Parma.

  3. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

  4. Bottom lines: the influence of government funding on 20th century district nursing practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the impact of past government policy and legislation on the practice of district nursing in Australia. Nurses have historically been politically passive and have not engaged in the political processes of policy development. However, legislation can have profound impacts on the daily work of nurses as demonstrated in this paper. Historical analysis. The archival records of six district nursing services in Australia were analysed within the political, social and economic context of the 20th century, with particular focus on the 1950s and 1970s. Two pieces of Federal legislation passed in 1956 and 1973, respectively, had critical effects on the work of district nurses. Both resulted in significant expansion of district nursing in Australia; neither was formulated with input from district nursing services. However, together these acts shifted district nursing from being a voluntary, charity based activity to one that was greatly controlled by government. Greater government funding allowed district nursing to expand beyond the capacity possible when funding was locally based, but with government funding came other restrictions related to accountability processes and expectations regarding services provided, and these had profound effects on nursing practice, including excess workloads to the point of unsafe practice. Nurses need to engage with the political processes associated with government policy formulation and implementation if they are to avoid placing themselves and their clients in vulnerable situations as a result of government decisions.

  5. Randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis of the 20th century climate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Seitola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a new algorithm called randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis (RMSSA, which is a generalisation of the traditional multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA into problems of arbitrarily large dimension. RMSSA consists of (1 a dimension reduction of the original data via random projections, (2 the standard MSSA step and (3 a recovery of the MSSA eigenmodes from the reduced space back to the original space. The RMSSA algorithm is presented in detail and additionally we show how to integrate it with a significance test based on a red noise null-hypothesis by Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, RMSSA is applied to decompose the 20th century global monthly mean near-surface temperature variability into its low-frequency components. The decomposition of a reanalysis data set and two climate model simulations reveals, for instance, that the 2–6 yr variability centred in the Pacific Ocean is captured by all the data sets with some differences in statistical significance and spatial patterns.

  6. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  7. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Faye

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/ reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

  8. High-resolution record of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition in Rhode Island over the past approximately 180 years was constructed using a sediment core from the anoxic Pettaquamscutt River basin. The record showed significantly more structure than has hitherto been reported and revealed four distinct maxima in PAH flux. The characteristic increase in PAH flux at the turn of the 20th century was captured in detail, leading to an initial maximum prior to the Great Depression. The overall peak in PAH flux in the 1950s was followed by a maximum that immediately preceded the 1973 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo. During the most recent portion of the record, an abrupt increase in PAH flux between 1996 and 1999 has been found to follow a period of near constant fluxes. Because source-diagnostic ratios indicate that petrogenic inputs are minor throughout the record, these trends are interpreted in terms of past variations in the magnitude and type of combustion processes. For the most recent PAH maximum, energy consumption data suggest that diesel fuel combustion, and hence traffic of heavier vehicles, is the most probable cause for the increase in PAH flux. Systematic variations in the relative abundance of individual PAHs in conjunction with the above changes in flux are interpreted in relation to the evolution of combustion processes. Coronene, retene, and perylene are notable exceptions, exhibiting unique down-core profiles.

  9. Barter Trade in North Western Siberia in the Late of 19th - Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Tsys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of barter trade in the North Western Siberia by the local peoples who used different fishing and hunting products such as fish and animal fur by way of cash equivalent up to the end of 19th century. Particularly, squirrel fur was a most popular hunting product used as money equivalent in trade in the 19th century. The author notes that due to the spread of the Russian population and development of railways in the second half of the 19th century the situation gradually changed. As a result, by the beginning of the 20th century natural barter was completely replaced by monetized trade with the use of bills and coins. The article describes a system of notes used by the local indigenous population to record the sums of money in trade, such as solar signs (hundreds, squares (tens, x-shaped crosses (units, vertical lines (hundredth parts of the main value. The article also indicates that during the Civil War and the transition to the NEP (New Economic Policy an abrupt rise in prices for fishing products occurred, with the following revival of barter, when squirrel fur and fish regained their roles as cost units and universal money equivalents.

  10. Parenthood characteristics in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, relevant for reproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of insufficient childbearing is a demographic and social problem of contemporary society. In order to resolve the determination of low fertility in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, empirical research of the effects of reproductive behavior had been intensified. The purpose of this paper is to point out to the characteristics of parenthood relevant for bringing the decision on giving birth to children on the basis of this empirical material. A comparative approach, based on illuminating the compatibility of practice and models of responsible parenthood, enables the recognition of limiting factors of childbearing not only of those who are already parents but of young people who still do not have this experience. The complexity and responsibility of the parent role are stressed as part of the experience as well as the basic characteristic of the parenthood model. An adequate and efficient rehabilitation of the role of parenthood, as a necessity of the pro-natal policy must take into consideration the gender asymmetry of parenthood into consideration as well.

  11. Figurative Potential of Russian Hydronymes in the Poetry of 19th – 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azaliya R. Gizatullina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the peculiarities of Dnieper, Don, Volga and Neva hydronyms use as aesthetically significant elements of an artistic text. The urgency of the work is that the development of language and speech aesthetics issues are among the promising trends of linguistic studies. However, the aesthetic resources of most onomastic units, including toponyms, are still poorly studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze the figurative possibilities of these hydronyms, functioning in the poetic works of Russian authors. The following methods were used as the main ones in the work: modeling, distributive, semantic-stylistic and quantitative analysis. The material for the study was represented by the poetic works of the 19-20th centuries, extracted from the "National Corpus of the Russian Language". The novelty of the work was made up of selected figurative paradigms, in which the considered hydronyms are used as the subject of comparison. During the performed study five most voluminous figurative paradigms were revealed, in which the position of the right member is replaced by lexical units related to the concepts of "being", "water", "substance", "tissue" and "terrestrial space". The criteria of intentional rapprochement of hydronyms with other subject lexemes were determined in order to develop the imagery of a poetic text. The findings can be used to study the onomastic space of Russian language, as well as for the further development of artistic speech theory.

  12. Numerical Simulation of the Water Cycle Change Over the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2003-01-01

    We have used numerical models to test the impact of the change in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the global circulation, particularly focusing on the hydrologic cycle, namely the global cycling of water and continental recycling of water. We have run four numerical simulations using mean annual SST from the early part of the 20th century (1900-1920) and the later part (1980-2000). In addition, we vary the CO2 concentrations for these periods as well. The duration of the simulations is 15 years, and the spatial resolution is 2 degrees. We use passive tracers to study the geographical sources of water. Surface evaporation from predetermined continental and oceanic regions provides the source of water for each passive tracer. In this way, we compute the percent of precipitation of each region over the globe. This can also be used to estimate precipitation recycling. In addition, we are using the passive tracers to independently compute the global cycling of water (compared to the traditional, Q/P calculation).

  13. Historical documents on epilepsy: From antiquity through the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteliadis, Christos P; Vassilyadi, Photios; Fehlert, Julia; Hagel, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Historical documents dating back almost 4500years have alluded to the condition of epilepsy, describing signs and symptoms that are well-known today. Epilepsy was thought to be a mystical disorder by almost all Ancient cultures, including the Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Indians, Iranians and Chinese. Hippocrates was the first to de-mystify the condition of epilepsy, providing a more scientific approach to the condition. As the signs and symptoms of epilepsy occurred without an obvious cause, the idea stood that it was a mystical phenomenon of divine punishment. This portrayal persisted through the early centuries of the common era, including the Middle Ages. It was not until the 16th and 17th century that Paracelsus, le Pois and Sylvius started to investigate internal causes for epilepsy. By the beginning of the 18th century, the general opinion on epilepsy was that it was an idiopathic disease residing in the brain and other inner organs. This resulted in Tissot writing the first modern book on epilepsy. Research continued in the 19th century with Jackson describing different types of seizures and many researchers showing interest in electroencephalography (EEG). The 20th century saw more detailed research being done on epilepsy and EEG, in addition to the establishment of many epilepsy-associated medical societies. The goal of this historical documentation is to provide an overview of the most important milestones in the history of epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Coralline algal barium as indicator for 20th century northwestern North Atlantic surface ocean freshwater variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzinger, S; Halfar, J; Zack, T; Mecking, J V; Kunz, B E; Jacob, D E; Adey, W H

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades climate and freshwater dynamics in the northwestern North Atlantic have undergone major changes. Large-scale freshening episodes, related to polar freshwater pulses, have had a strong influence on ocean variability in this climatically important region. However, little is known about variability before 1950, mainly due to the lack of long-term high-resolution marine proxy archives. Here we present the first multidecadal-length records of annually resolved Ba/Ca variations from Northwest Atlantic coralline algae. We observe positive relationships between algal Ba/Ca ratios from two Newfoundland sites and salinity observations back to 1950. Both records capture episodical multi-year freshening events during the 20th century. Variability in algal Ba/Ca is sensitive to freshwater-induced changes in upper ocean stratification, which affect the transport of cold, Ba-enriched deep waters onto the shelf (highly stratified equals less Ba/Ca). Algal Ba/Ca ratios therefore may serve as a new resource for reconstructing past surface ocean freshwater changes.

  15. Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet and Icelandic Glaciers in the 20th Century Using Geodetic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    by bedrock geometry. It is revealed that dynamic ice loss recently seen in the southeast and northwest GrIS also occurred in the northwest between 1985 and 1993, highlighting the difficulty of capturing these events in mass balance models. Extending the record back to the LIA, the results show...... that for the past 110 years, the surface mass balance has been decreasing, while the dynamic term has been constant. The spatial pattern of thinning in the 20th century is identical to that of current change, suggesting this pattern will continue in the near future. The mass change of the GrIS in 20th century...

  16. MOSCOW PRINTERS-FOREIGNERS IN THE LAST THIRD OF THE 19TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г В Аксенова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of foreigners in the publishing business of Moscow in the last third of the 19th - early 20th century on the example of Moscow printers E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson, whose ancestors came to Russia from Austria and Germany. The historio-graphical review showed that the history of Moscow publishing houses and foreign printers who arrived in Russia remains beyond the scope of the current scientifi c interest. There are analyzed the stages of the development of the publishing business, it features, printing fi ndings, the specifi cs of the book market.E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson are the brightest fi gures in Russia in the fi eld of publishing. Starting from scratch, they were able to create unique typography, in which it was possible to produce multicolour hard products, phototype table, to improve engraving, chromolithography and colour photozincography. To perform these works, they attracted specialists who were able to develop and implement new ways of printing. E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson collaborated with the best artists of Russia helping to implement the ideas of publishing quality printed products that contributed to the aesthetic education of readers. The article reveals the importance of the activities of the two publishers of German origin E.-C. A. Lissner and A. Levenson in the development of the Russian culture (literature and art and the popularization of scientifi c knowledge. They laid new principles of publishing and printing of illustrations, created a new trend in book production. Their activities contributed to the opening of new names in literature and art, promotion of Russian printing technology and book production to both domestic and foreign markets, development of book art and improve-ment of printing.

  17. Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century

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    Antonio Viñao, España.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a imagem e idéias de e sobre Rousseau transmitidas na Espanha ao magistério primário durante o século 20, através dos manuais de História da Educação e outras fontes similares. Após analisar as fontes utilizadas e seus destinatários, se expõe a imagem e a idéia de Rousseau como pai da pedagogia moderna, predominante nos escritos pedagógicos da época para, em seguida, e a modo de contraste, examinar o lugar e o tratamento dado à Rousseau nos mencionados manuais. Esse exame se divide em duas épocas: a anterior à guerra civil e a posterior, com o fim de mostrar o predomínio, sobre tudo durante o franquismo, de uma visão católica, conservadora, moralizante e crítica do genebriano. Palavras-chave: Rousseau, manuais escolares, educação primária, formação do magistério primário, Espanha (século 20.   Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century Abstract This article deals with Rousseau’s images and ideas present in the school books of History of Education, and other similar sources, used in the training of primary school teachers in Spain during the 20th century. After analyzing the sources used and their addresses, the predominance of Rousseau’s ideas and image as the father of modern pedagogy in the pedagogical literature of this period is explained. Immediately after, by way of contrast, Rousseau’s place and the way of considering him in the above mentioned school books are examined. The above analysis is divided into two periods, before and after the civil war, in order to show the predominance of the catholic-conservative moralizing and critical approach, particularly during francoism. Key-words: Rousseau, school books, primary education, teacher’s training, Spain (20th century.   La recepción de Rousseau en la formación inicial del magisterio primario (España, siglo 20 Resumen Este artículo versa sobre la imagen e ideas de y sobre Rousseau

  18. 20th International Symposium on Shiftwork and Working Time: Biological Mechanisms, Recovery, and Risk Management in the 24-h Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kecklund, L.G.; Milia, L. Di; Axelsson, J.; Lowden, A.; Äkerstedt, T.

    2012-01-01

    This dedicated issue of Chronobiology International is devoted to the selected proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Shift Work and Working Time held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28 June to 1 July 2011. It constitutes the fifth such issue of the journal since 2004 dedicated to the selected

  19. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them.

  20. A very British affair six Britons and the development of time series analysis during the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, T

    2012-01-01

    This book develops the major themes of time series analysis from its formal beginnings in the early part of the 20th century to the present day through the research of six distinguished British statisticians, all of whose work is characterised by the British traits of pragmatism and the desire to solve practical problems of importance.

  1. The Opinions of Music Education Students about 20th and 21st Centuries Classical Music: Uludag University Exemplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Ajda Senol

    2016-01-01

    The debates of music historians, composers, and performers on difficulties in understanding the 20th and 21st Centuries international classical music and the reasons have been ongoing for years. The opinions of music education students on this matter and their interests in music of these periods are a matter of curiosity. With this research,…

  2. The Elementary School Library Collection: A Guide to Books and Other Media, Phases 1-2-3. 20th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Linda L., Ed.; And Others

    This collection development aid lists more than 10,000 titles of children's materials available in a variety of formats (in addition to print materials, the guide also includes sound recordings, video cassettes, microcomputer software programs, CD-ROM products, and videodiscs). This 20th anniversary edition contains several special features,…

  3. Frontiers in neurodegeneration--new insights and prospects--20th HUPO BPP Workshop: 15 September 2013, Yokohama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrötter, Andreas; El Magraoui, Fouzi; Gröttrup, Bernd; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E; Park, Young Mok; Grinberg, Lea T

    2014-06-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 20th workshop in Yokohama, Japan, September 15, 2013. The focus of the autumn workshop was on new insights and prospects of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century…

  5. Forms and subannual variability of nitrogen and phosphorus loading to global river networks over the 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Mogollón, José M.; Beusen, Arthur H.W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a major role in the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic systems. N and P transfer to surface freshwaters has amplified during the 20th century, which has led to widespread eutrophication problems. The contribution of different sources, natural and

  6. Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Banić-Grubišić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book by Radmila Radić. Narodna verovanja, religija i spiritizam u srpskom društvu 19. i u prvoj polovini 20. veka. [Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century]. 2009. Beograd: Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije, pp. 295

  7. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  8. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-08-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. Rumours about the Po Valley earthquakes of 20th and 29th May 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Longa, Federica; Crescimbene, Massimo; Camassi, Romano; Nostro, Concetta

    2013-04-01

    The history of rumours is as old as human history. Even in remote antiquity, rumours, gossip and hoax were always in circulation - in good or bad faith - to influence human affairs. Today with the development of mass media, rise of the internet and social networks, rumours are ubiquitous. The earthquakes, because of their characteristics of strong emotional impact and unpredictability, are among the natural events that more cause the birth and the spread of rumours. For this reason earthquakes that occurred in the Po valley the 20th and 29th May 2012 generated and still continue to generate a wide variety of rumours regarding issues related to the earthquake, its effects, the possible causes, future predictions. For this reason, as occurred during the L'Aquila earthquake sequence in 2009, following the events of May 2012 in Emilia Romagna was created a complex initiative training and information that at various stages between May and September 2012, involved population, partly present in the camp, and then the school staff of the municipalities affected by the earthquake. This experience has been organized and managed by the Department of Civil Protection (DPC), the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), the Emilia Romagna region in collaboration with the Network of University Laboratories for Earthquake Engineering (RELUIS), the Health Service Emilia Romagna Regional and voluntary organizations of civil protection in the area. Within this initiative, in the period June-September 2012 were collected and catalogued over 240 rumours. In this work rumours of the Po Valley are studied in their specific characteristics and strategies and methods to fight them are also discussed. This work of collection and discussion of the rumours was particularly important to promote good communication strategies and to fight the spreading of the rumours. Only in this way it was possible to create a full intervention able to supporting both the local institutions and

  10. Constraining 20th Century Pacific Trade-Wind Variability Using Coral Mn/Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayani, H. R.; Thompson, D. M.; Carilli, J.; Ireland, T. J.; Cobb, K. M.; Atwood, A. R.; Grothe, P. R.; Miller, S. J.; Hitt, N. T.; O'Connor, G.

    2017-12-01

    Global mean surface temperatures during the 20th century are characterized by multidecadal periods of either accelerated or reduced rates of warming that cannot be explained by external forcings alone. Both observations and modeling studies suggest that the reduced rate of global surface warming during the early-2000s can be largely explained by decadal climate variability in the tropical Pacific, specifically changes in trade-wind strength [e.g. Meehl et al., 2016]. However, the relationship between Pacific trade-wind strength and global surface warming is poorly constrained due to the lack of instrumental wind observations prior to the 1970s. Surface corals are now routinely used to generate records of past sea-surface temperature (SST) change, and have dramatically improved our understanding of oceanic variability in the tropical Pacific. Yet, there are few direct measurements of the atmospheric response to this SST variability. Skeletal Mn/Ca ratios in corals from Tarawa Atoll (1.3˚N, 173˚E) have been shown to track El Niño-related westerly wind events on interannual timescales [Shen et al., 1992], and the strength of Pacific trade winds on decadal timescales [Thompson et al., 2015]. Here, we investigate the utility of this novel wind proxy at Kiritimati Atoll (Christmas Island; 2˚N, 157.5˚W), a site that is hydrographically similar to Tarawa. We use a series of seawater samples collected across the 2015/16 El Niño to characterize and quantify the relationship between westerly wind events and seawater Mn variability around Kiritimati. Anchored by this modern-day calibration, we present a new reconstruction of westerly winds across the late-20thcentury from Kiritimati Atoll. We also assess the reproducibility of coral Mn/Ca across cores collected at varying distances from the lagoon, which represents the primary source of seawater Mn to the reef at our site. Lastly, we discuss the strengths and limitations of this novel proxy, as well as the potential for

  11. Wars, Redistribution and Civilian Federal Expenditures in the US over the 20th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2005-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence on two, major war-related, regularities of U.S. fiscal policy. First, while during and around World War I there is a positive correlation between defense spending and civil non-defense spending, this correlation becomes negative during World War II. This may be

  12. Careers of men and women in the 19th and 20th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313807922

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the process of status attainment during the careers of men and women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the influence of modernization processes on that process of status attainment. During the decades following World War II, the Western world saw an increasing

  13. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, John C. H. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehner, Michael F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical

  14. [Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century,

  15. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  16. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ershova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological

  17. Geochemical response of a closed-lake basin to 20th century recurring droughts/wet intervals in the subtropical Pampean Plains of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ARIZTEGUI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Laguna Mar Chiquita is a highly variable closed saline lake located in the Pampean Plains of central Argentina. Presently is the largest saline lake in South America (∼ 6,000 km2 and also one of the largest in the world. During the 20th century the hydrological balance of the region was characterized by contrasting scenarios. Well-defined wet or dry climatic phases had ruled the lake level fluctuations and the rivers discharge, mainly controlling the geochemical composition of sediments. Sediments accumulated during positive hydrological balances (i.e., high lake level are mainly composed of allogenic mineral due to higher riverine inputs into the lake. This fluvial-dominated lake phases are recorded as sediments enriched in Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, Fe2O3 and TiO2 and in trace elements such as Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Hf, Ta, Th as well as rare earth elements (REE. Sediments accumulated during dry phases (i.e., low lake levels and high salinity are evaporite mineral-rich with elevated concentrations of CaO, MnO, MgO, and P2O5. High contents of As and U are probably due to a co-precitation during high evaporative phases. The calibration of the sediment chemical composition of Laguna Mar Chiquita to well-defined water-level fluctuations of the 20th century shows that elemental geochemistry can be a useful proxy to study former lake-water fluctuations. It may further provide a comparative model to evaluate past environmental conditions in other saline lacustrine basins.

  18. Haunting the Metropole: Return Effects, Screen Memories, and Figures of Exile in 20th Century Filipino American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pangilinan, Mark Phillip Acutina

    2014-01-01

    In the works of Jessica Hagedorn, R. Zamora Linmark, and Joi Barrios, Martial Law under the Marcos Regime (1965 - 1986) is as much a recurring trope that works to maintain the mythos of American exceptionalism and discrete national border as it is a material period of Philippine history. In the novels and poetry of these authors, I map the interlocking processes by which late 20th century Filipino American literary objects alternately corroborate and challenge broadly conceived notions of Ame...

  19. The image of the butcher (13th-20th): In search of respectability between corporate pride and blood concealment.

    OpenAIRE

    Leteux , Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In most images that represent butchers in France since the Middle Ages, the animal’s blood and death are often eclipsed or softened, except for the realistic photographs of slaughterhouses in the 20th century. The will to conceal blood shows the butchers’ will to build an honourable image of themselves. This quest for respectability is obvious if you look at the ceremony clothes worn by butchers during civil and religious celebrations. In the 19th century, as the trade...

  20. [Recent fauna of ground-nesting birds in Transvolga steppes and its dynamics in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, M L

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the structure of the ground-nesting bird fauna in Transvolga steppes has changed during the 20th century. The complex of lark species characteristic of true and dry steppe has disappeared because of climate change and impact of economic activity (the establishment of windbreak and roadside forest strips), which has provided for a sharp increase in the abundance of corvid birds.

  1. Differential resilience of Amazonian otters along the Rio Negro in the aftermath of the 20th century international fur trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Natalia C; Antunes, André P; Barnett, Adrian A; Macedo, Valêncio W; Shepard, Glenn H

    2018-01-01

    Commercial hunting for the international trade in animal hides in the 20th century decimated many populations of aquatic wildlife in Amazonia. However, impacts varied significantly between different species and regions, depending upon hunting intensity, accessibility of habitat, and the inherent resilience of various species and their habitats. We investigated the differential responses of two Amazonian Mustelid species, the neotropical otter and giant otter, to commercial hunting pressure along the upper Rio Negro in Brazil, and examined historical factors that influenced spatial and temporal variation in commercial exploitation. We analyzed previously unanalyzed data from historical records of hide shipments to track changes in hide sales and prices for the two species in the late 20th century. We also gathered oral histories from older Baniwa people who had witnessed or participated in commercial otter hunting. These complimentary data sources reveal how intrinsic biological and social characteristics of the two otter species interacted with market forces and regional history. Whereas giant otter populations were driven to local or regional extinction during the late 20th century by commercial hunting, neotropical otters persisted. In recent decades, giant otter populations have returned to some parts of the upper Rio Negro, a development which local people welcome as part of a generalized recovery of the ecosystems in their territory as a result of the banning of animal pelt exports and indigenous land demarcation. This paper expands the scope of the field historical ecology and reflects on the role of local knowledge in biodiversity conservation.

  2. Pedagogy in Slovenia at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Tadej Vidmar

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogy in Slovenia gradually won its recognition as an academic science, and therefore obtained improved possibilities for its conceptualization, when the university in Ljubljana was established in 1919. The time between the two world wars was marked with three principal pedagogical concepts: Herbartianism, geisteswissenschaftliche pedagogy, and reform pedagogy. The first of these to be theoretically conceptualized i...

  3. Development of wind power plants in the end of 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levterov, B.

    2003-01-01

    I brief review of the use of wind energy worldwide and in Bulgaria is made. Data for operating wind power plants in the world (45 countries are considered) and their electricity production are presented. The situation in Bulgaria in the field of wind energy is also described

  4. A review of 20th century literature related to sport law | Singh | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growing interaction between sport and the law has created a need for a greater understanding of how the law relates to the world of sport and physical recreation. This is a highly dynamic and rapidly expanding area of scientific inquiry. In this review article an attempt is made at reviewing the local literature related to the ...

  5. THE NATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE ROMANIAN POPULATION AT THE 20TH OF OCTOBER 2011 CENSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. P. POP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The National Structure of the Romanian Population at the 20th of October 2011 Census. This is the third study regarding the national structure of the population of Romania. The first two approached the 1992 and 2002 censuses and were published in Studia UBB, Geographia, 2 (1991 and the Romanian Review of Political Geography (20042. On the census day, Romania had 20,121,641 inhabitants, of which 83.45% (16,792,868 are Romanians, while the other 16.55% belong to: Hungarians 6.10% (1,227,623 inhabitants, Gypsies 3.09% (621,573 people, other 18 national minorities (Ukrainians, Germans, Turks, Russian-Lipovans, Tartars, Serbs, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Greek, Italians, Jews, Czechs, Poles, Chinese, Armenians, Csangos, Macedonians and the category “other national groups” have together only 1.21% (242,767 inhabitants. There is also a category of people for which the information was ”unavailable”, totaling 6.15% (1,236,810 people of the Romanian population (fig. 1. As requested to assess the essential issues of such a subject, one needs to analyze the distribution of the national minorities across Romania, at the level of the counties and the eight geographical-historical provinces of Romania: Transylvania, Moldavia, Dobrudja, Muntenia, Oltenia, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş. Generally, regarding the presence of the Romanian population, one notices the following situation at the level of the counties: in 18 counties of the total of 41 in Romania, the weight of the Romanian population is over 90%, including all the eight Moldavian counties (Bacău, Botoşani, Galaţi, Iaşi, Neamţ, Suceava, Vaslui, Vrancea, six out of the ten counties of Muntenia (Argeş, Brăila, Buzău, Dâmboviţa, Prahova, Teleorman and four out of five counties of Oltenia (Dolj, Gorj, Olt, Vâlcea. The highest weight of Romanians is recorded in the counties of Gorj (94.17% and Botoşani (94.08%. A weight between 80 and 90% was recorded in five out of the ten counties of

  6. Enforced linguistic conversion: translation of the Macedonian toponyms in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katica Kulavkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enforced linguistic conversion: translation of the Macedonian toponyms in the 20th century The article deals with the issue of forced conversion of Macedonian toponyms, considered as a form of linguistic and cultural dislocation or luxation (the Latin luxatio originating from luxus – dislocated. The toponyms are not just eminently linguistic but also a part of civilization’s memory of nations and of humankind, and that is why they are protected by international regulations. The act of translating toponyms from one language to another, within the frames of culturally and ethnically marked space, is undeniable violence against the cultural heritage. A change of a toponym, its forced translation into another language is, according to these legal acts, a crime against culture. For a toponym is a true reflection of historical facts and historical memories. Toponyms can be transcribed onto a different alphabet, letter‑by‑letter (transliteration, but should not be translated, especially not on the territory which is their civilization’s cradle, where they are practiced and inherited. Violent conversion of toponyms is an introduction to conversion of historical narratives and modern ethno‑cultural identities. History shows that there are violent forms of linguistic, cultural, religious and ethnic dislocations. The example of radical dislocation of Macedonian toponyms is probably one of the few in modern history. It has been taking place over an almost entire century – from the 1920s to the 21st century’s first decade. Macedonian toponyms, for centuries present on the territory of ethnic Macedonia (for which there is indisputable evidence, are being dislocated from their original linguistic/cultural context within several national entities: the Greek, Albanian and – paradoxically – Macedonian states. Such violent translation of toponyms is not devoid of geopolitical consequences. The conversions of Macedonian toponyms are just a step

  7. Women's Position in Lithuanian Labour Market in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija Jureniene

    2008-09-01

    los compromisos familiares.The paper draws attention to women's position in the changing labour market of the 1920s-1930s and after the reestablishment of independence in 1990 in the Republic of Lithuania. The author carries out a historical analysis of the impact of the laws issued at that period to solve the issue of unemployment and explores their implications to women's position in the labour market. Among the most significant laws dealing with rising unemployment in Lithuania at the beginning of the 20th century was the one demanding from an employer to dismiss an employee whose spouse had a job. Since the society of that time was predominantly patriarchal, married women were the first to be dismissed. The law raised a stormy reaction from women who sought support from international organizations such as the Federation of International Diplomaed Women and the Union of the Nations. However, the issue was not solved till 1940 and burst out after the reestablishment of the state in 1990 and persisted till 1998 when the law of Equal Opportunities was issued.

  8. Theological Responses to the Challenges of European Utopian Tradition: Some Teological Programmes of the First Half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailov Petr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Author supposes that the major social-politic events in European history of the fi rst half of the 20th century have as their root an eschatological utopian tradition that subdues the fact of world Redemption to progressive logic of history. The circle of theologians from Dominican and Jesuit’s Orders associated with Saulchoir (Tournai, Belgium and Fourvière (Lyon, France has proposed some theological responses for such kind of opposition to the Christian testimony in the world. They have evident correlation with each other in their general principals and common convictions in the inner structure of theology (cf. M. Blondel and M.-D. Chenu. The theological system has an experience of faith and obedience to the Church as its root, historical research (cf. «théologie de ressourcement», «positive théologie» or historical theology as its foundation. Two great representatives of Catholic theology — Yves Congar and Henri de Lubac — followed that direction in their scientific works. Congar succeeded in his project of theology of unity that had to resolve two great schisms: 1 between faith and life, 2 between the Church and the world. He developed his ideas in two vectors of ecclesiology: historical ecclesiology (nature and theology of the Church and practical ecclesiology (position of the Church in dialogue with the other confessions and external world. Henri de Lubac saw the beginning of the crisis of the world Christianity in the actual condition of contemporary theology as a result of inner opposition between reason and faith. His activity was directed at its overcoming. He edifies the structure of theology from the phenomenon of faith understood as a supernatural gift of God. Further lines were identified as a unity in social, historical and transcendent dimensions.

  9. “The Concert of Europe” In 20th Century British and American Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Romanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a critical analysis of the interpretations of the Concert of Europe by British and American historians of the XXth century. The interest in the study of this phenomenon is rooted in its relation to the problems of the maintenance of international order and stability. It is not only academic, being partly determined by the fact that throughout the XX century first Britain and then the USA was at the top of the world hierarchy, and accordingly played a leading role in the construction and maintenance of the European order. Current international environment, the experience of the two World Wars of the XXth century determined the angle from which the phenomenon of the Concert of Europe was studied. Whereas in the second half of the 1910s - early 1920s historians pointed to the deficiencies of the international system of the preceding century (and in particular, the institution of the Concert of Europe, the students of the Vienna system working after the Second World War regarded the period of 1815-1914 as relatively stable, compared to the short interwar interlude. The Concert of Europe was named as one of the factors contributing to stability and peace. Certain logic can be discerned in the development of the historiography of the problem, which to some degree reflected the evolution of ideas about international relations management. At the same time, the differences in the interpretations of the Concert of Europe derive from the fact that this very concept in the XIXth century was not fixed and static. Great Powers' readiness to cooperation did not mean that there were no conflicts of interests. They struggled for leadership within the Concert and sought to impart to it their own interpretation.

  10. The voice of the Martians Hungarian scientists who shaped the 20th century in the West

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, George

    2001-01-01

    Budapest, in the period of the two decades around World War I, proved to be an exceptionally fertile breeding ground for scientific talent. It is left for historians of science to discover and explain the conditions that catalyzed the emergence of so many brilliant individuals" - Stanislav Ulam has written, himself a member of the Manhattan Project to make the atomic bomb. Fritz Houtermans, who first recognized the nuclear origin of stellar power, has offered an "explanation": "The galaxy of scientific minds, that worked on the liberation of nuclear power, were really visitors from Mars. They found it difficult to speak English without an alien accent, which would give them away, and therefore they chose to pretend to be Hungarian, whose inability to speak any language but Hungarian without a foreign accent is well known. It would be hard to check the above statement, because Hungary is so far away" In the 1990s the world commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of the first man-made nuclear chain reaction in Ch...

  11. The 20th annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: building a generation of robotists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Kosinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 20 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  12. A new daily observational record from Grytviken, South Georgia: exploring 20th century extremes in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Z.; Turney, C. S.; Allan, R.; Colwell, S.; Kelly, G.; Lister, D.; Jones, P. D.; Beswick, M.; Alexander, L. V.; Lippmann, T.; Herold, N.; Jones, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Although recent work has highlighted a host of significant late 20th century environmental changes across the mid to high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, the sparse nature of observational records limits our ability to place these changes in the context of long-term (multi-decadal and centennial) variability. As a result, investigating the impact of anthropogenic forcing on climate modes of variability and ecosystems is particularly challenging. Sub-Antarctic islands are particularly important in this regard, straddling major ocean and atmospheric boundaries and offering the potential to develop highly resolved records of change. In 1905, a whaling and meteorological station was established at Grytviken on Sub-Antarctic South Georgia in the South Atlantic (54°S) providing near-continuous observations through to present day. Although South Georgia lies in a strategic location for understanding Southern Ocean atmosphere-ocean dynamics, only a monthly resolved dataset has until now been available. Here we report a near continuous daily observational record from Grytviken for temperature and precipitation, which we compare to different datasets (including Twentieth Century Reanalysis; 20CR version 2c). A warming trend over the 20th century is observed in mean daily temperature at Grytviken with an average rate of temperature rise of 0.14°C per decade over the period 1907-2016 (p<0.0001). We find a significant trend towards increasingly warmer daytime extremes commencing from the mid-20th century accompanied by warmer night-time temperatures. Analysis of these data, and reanalysis products, suggest a realignment of synoptic conditions across the mid to high-latitudes, with a link between increasing temperature trends and atmospheric circulation dominated by stronger westerly airflow, resulting in significant foehn-related warming.

  13. Population Matters Policy Brief: Preparing foran Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  14. Population Matters Policy Brief. Preparing for an Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  15. Two hegemonies – two technological regimes : American and Norwegian whaling in the 19th and 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Basberg, Bjørn L.

    2006-01-01

    The 19th century whaling industry was dominated by the United States while the 20th century industry had its origins in Norway and was dominated for years by that nation. The focus of the paper, is to explore the relationship between the two so-called hegemonic whaling nations. Specifically, we are looking for encounters between the two industries that in one way or another may explain why the Norwegians did not enter into traditional pelagic whaling in the mid 19th century, an...

  16. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For t....... Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females....

  17. Confessional Ethical Base of Muslim Entrepreneurship in Russian Empire in Late 19th - Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гадиля Гизатуллаевна Корноухова

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the confessional and ethical base of the Muslim entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The author analyzes the differentiation of the value-institutional system of the broad public on the one hand, and that of entrepreneurs - on the other hand. Whereas the former adhered to the national and ethical values of the traditional culture, the latter - to religious and moral values based on Islam and developed by the Russian Empire reformers of that period.

  18. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  19. Highlights from the British Society for Heart Failure 20th Annual Autumn Meeting: three decades of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Alexandra AI

    2018-05-16

    The 20th Annual Autumn Meeting of the British Society for Heart Failure took place on the 23-24 November 2017 at the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, London, UK. Over 800 delegates were in attendance: a multidisciplinary league of professionals who treat patients with heart failure, including specialist nurses, trainees, cardiologists, geriatricians, pharmacists and general practitioners. The theme of the conference was 'three decades of heart failure' and celebrated the success of modern heart failure management. This report highlights the 'three decades' session, the clinical trials update, and the main discussion points from heart failure question time.

  20. Emancipation, Women and the State: A Competing Agenda in the 20th Century Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Husna Azhari

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural contradictions of being Muslim and members of a nation-state for women in modern-day Muslim nation-states created after the Second World War have never been fully resolved. The problem is even more compounded for Malaysia, which started life as a collection of sultanates, graduating to a multi-racial nation-state. In the beginning, Malay women saw emancipation as involvement in party politics. But much of the development envisaged for women was hampered by illiteracy. Since 1970, with the new found petro-ringgit, however, the situation changed. Women attained emancipation in mobility, political and economic spheres. Yet, an appropriate space for motherhood and wifehood has not been carved out in the industrial state.

  1. Historiographic irredentism: the Trentino case between 19th and 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Varanini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Like everywhere in Europe, also in the Trentino region (which was part of the Habsburg Empire the historical research made important progresses between 1880 and World War I, especially thanks to the publication of a large number of magazines. An important contribution came from German and Tyrolean historians, especially from the point of view of archival and diplomatistic materials, while the researches of the scholars from the Trentino region and from Italy were, on the whole, of a lower quality, marked as they were by provincialism and a certain weakness in method, and for the fact that they were sometimes, though not exclusively, conditioned by the irredentist and nationalist attitudes of some intellectuals. These positions prevailed immediately after the end of the war, although the critical method acquired in the previous decades remained a shared heritage.

  2. Mexico and the constitution of the cultural patrimony policy in museums throughout the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Rogério Olivato Pozzer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical, political and social role that the public policies of cultural heritage played in museums occupied in Mexico during the XX century, especially since the ‘Mexican Revolution’ of 1910, involved diverse social sectors in the creation of museological collections and also of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (Inah and the National Institute of Fine Arts (Inba, that, in turn were responsible for the extension of the concept of cultural heritage, which implied the insertion of cultural practices and communities that were excluded from the ‘official’ patrimony. These processes have transformed Mexican cultural policy into a new paradigm for Latin American countries and have inserted Mexico and its museums into one of the world's top tourist destinations.

  3. Social norms for population displacements caused by large dams France, 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Faure

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With the passage of time and insights from a number of historical studies it is now possible to take a look back at the way rural populations in France were displaced for the construction of large dams during and after the Second World War. Today, international standards relating to the social implications of dam development projects are imposed on dam builders by both governments and financing institutions. However, in the absence of these international social standards, how did population displacements take place in the past? This paper provides a retrospective look in the light of the current "protection policies" developed by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Retrospective case studies are based on research conducted in the Alps by Virginie Bodon on Tignes and Serre-Ponçon for her doctoral thesis in history (1999 and on the book by D. Varaschin on Tignes. The author uses her own studies on the impact of the large dams of the Upper Dordogne, based on research conducted in departmental and municipal archives and on interviews with those who witnessed the implementation of displacement policies and with their children (1998-2005. The author draws on her experience as an anthropologist for the World Bank to analyse the ways in which these displacements were actually carried out. The forced displacements, euphemistically referred to as "involuntary resettlement" in discourses on development, took on increasing notoriety with the international energy crisis. The dams gave rise to an international debate on their social and environmental impacts, a debate continued by the World Commission on Dams. Today, when financing has again become available for the construction of new dams throughout the world, it seems opportune to provide some insights into the social implications of large dam development projects based on the experience of France, a country that has been, in many respects, one of the most innovative in the implementation of

  4. Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    How did the education of surgical pathology, and pathology in general, differ at Mount Sinai? Passing the examination of the American Board of Pathology was never the focus of the department. Learning criteria or quoting references was de-emphasized, but mastery of macroscopic pathology was required, supported in both word and action by two brilliant surgical pathologists, Otani and Kaneko, and by two extraordinary medical pathologists, Klemperer and Popper. Meticulous microscopy emphasized pattern rather than reliance on lists of discrete features. Otani developed a regular "problem case" meeting for a community of pathologists, made up of alumni and other interested pathologists, as well as active department members. These monthly sessions provided the highest level of "continuing medical education." Otani and Kaneko unequivocally believed in learning from cases, and Mount Sinai residents were fortunate both in the one-to-one teaching and in the wealth of material, in all systems, that came to surgical pathology. Outstanding pathologists who came from Mount Sinai settled throughout the country and provided the highest level of diagnoses, but, with the exception of Bernard Wagner, Emanuel Rubin, Fiorenzo Paronetto, Richard Horowitz, Michael Gerber, Marc Rosenblum, Bruce Wenig, Jaishree Jagirdar, Swan Thung, Cesar Moran, Hideko Kamino, Philip LeBoit, Alberto Marchevsky, and others, there were relatively few academic leaders. Otani and Kaneko did not have national reputations. Klemperer, although world renowned, was relatively unassuming, and his disciples numbered almost as many nonpathologists as pathologists. Popper did establish a major center for liver pathology, with students coming from around the world, but did not particularly promote general surgical pathology. Can the Mount Sinai approach still be applied? The decline in the numbers of autopsies performed, the demands for rapid turnaround time, the de-emphasis of gross pathology as newer technologies (eg

  5. Ammunition production in the USSR in 20-30 years of 20th century and efficiency of the Red Army in the eve and during of the Great Patriotic War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Николаевич Балыш

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of Ammunition Industry in connection with action variation at the first part of 20th century is analyzed in the present paper. It is studied how the New Economic Policy (NEP influenced onto the development of ammunition industry and respective branches of heavy industry. For the first time several manufacturing peculiarities of ammunition main elements (by example of ammunition bodies in the eve of the Great Patriotic War are analyzed on the base of archival documents and the role of these peculiarities in fighting efficiency of the Soviet forces during the Second World War is studied.

  6. Design practices of the second half of the 20th century: Novi Sad cultural poster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mušić Miroslav A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades poster has imposed itself as a significant means of communicating messages, views and thoughts on current social and cultural life issues of the environment it originates in. It has tried to confirm by its rhetoric the engaged content in its own logical interrelation of the media: character/speech-sign-thought/message, placing emphasis on its genre feature: cultural poster. As the issue here is the means of development of ideas, critical thinking and social consciousness, in other words, the mediation of cultural values, I will try to shed some light on the phenomenon of cultural poster and to pinpoint its position among contemporary theoretical practices, as well as to point the ranges of design which have been created at the intersection of its artistic orientation and new commercial reality. One of the interesting and worthy prac­tices, Novi Sad Cultural Poster, originated in the sixties and reached its stellar status in the seventies and eighties, and in the past few decades its long tradition has yielded new names and exemplary works of world class. Novi Sad Cultural Poster can be viewed as a stylistically unique practice regardless of the diversity of artistic and design prin­ciples of its practitioners, their age or ways of thinking. Despite the attempts of some designers and professional circles, it still lacks appropriate methodological research and evaluation.

  7. Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

  8. Response of the everglades ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Willard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The ridge and slough landscape of the Florida Everglades consists of a mosaic of linear sawgrass ridges separated by deeper-water sloughs with tree islands interspersed throughout the landscape. We used pollen assemblages from transects of sediment cores spanning sawgrass ridges, sloughs, and ridge-slough transition zones to determine the timing of ridge and slough formation and to evaluate the response of components of the ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management. These pollen data indicate that sawgrass ridges and sloughs have been vegetationally distinct from one another since initiation of the Everglades wetland in mid-Holocene time. Although the position and community composition of sloughs have remained relatively stable throughout their history, modern sawgrass ridges formed on sites that originally were occupied by marshes. Ridge formation and maturation were initiated during intervals of drier climate (the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age) when the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone shifted southward. During these drier intervals, marsh taxa were more common in sloughs, but they quickly receded when precipitation increased. Comparison with regional climate records suggests that slough vegetation is strongly influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation variability, even under 20th-century water management practices. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-01-01

    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor.

  10. On the stationarity of annual flood peaks in the continental United States during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, Gabriele; Serinaldi, Francesco; Smith, James A.; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2009-08-01

    Annual peak discharge records from 50 stations in the continental United States with at least 100 years of record are used to investigate stationarity of flood peaks during the 20th century. We examine temporal trends in flood peaks and abrupt changes in the mean and/or variance of flood peak distributions. Change point analysis for detecting abrupt changes in flood distributions is performed using the nonparametric Pettitt test. Two nonparametric (Mann-Kendall and Spearman) tests and one parametric (Pearson) test are used to detect the presence of temporal trends. Generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) are also used to parametrically model the annual peak data, exploiting their flexibility to account for abrupt changes and temporal trends in the parameters of the distribution functions. Additionally, the presence of long-term persistence is investigated through estimation of the Hurst exponent, and an alternative interpretation of the results in terms of long-term persistence is provided. Many of the drainage basins represented in this study have been affected by regulation through systems of reservoirs, and all of the drainage basins have experienced significant land use changes during the 20th century. Despite the profound changes that have occurred to drainage basins throughout the continental United States and the recognition that elements of the hydrologic cycle are being altered by human-induced climate change, it is easier to proclaim the demise of stationarity of flood peaks than to prove it through analyses of annual flood peak data.

  11. City planning in Yugoslavia in the 20th century: The case study of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić-Brković Milica V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term planning in Yugoslavia is usually associated with early 1930s and with issuing of the Building Code in 1931, which represented the first official document legally regulating planning and construction of cities and towns. The term planning in its nowadays meaning has first appeared only after the Second World War. In 1949 the Act on General Urban Plan (GUP was issued and according to many authors that was a crucial point that marked the very beginning of the long term planning in Yugoslavia. Since then its development has been characterized by numerous changes resulting from the political, economic and social modifications and tendencies, as well as influences from other environments and disciplines. Finally, in the mid-1960s a paradigm of GUP was established, which despite several modifications regarding some methodological and procedural questions, has remained unchanged up to our day. The General Urban Planning in Yugoslavia has developed in a paradigm manner, in Kuhn’s sense of meaning. In this paper this fifty year process has been explored and discussed. Kuhn’s views and theory on the structure of scientific revolution have provided the conceptual background for it, and helped in guiding analysis of the phenomena as well as in explaining certain phases or particular facets within each of them. The General Urban Planning has undergone the whole process of a paradigm change but with a specific pace of progress, with some of the phases being very long and others being exceedingly short. In this paper this process has been reviewed and development of the GUP model presented and discussed. To illustrate the point the case study of the city of Belgrade has been drawn.

  12. Risk communication and the transformations in the meta narrative of the nuclear field in the 20th and 21st centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Tariana B.

    2015-01-01

    The meta narrative of the nuclear field was influenced in the beginning by the perspectives of economic prosperity and the possibility of diversifying to alternative sources of power. However, it has been transformed throughout the 20 th and the early 21 st centuries by the collective memory and micro narratives of the nuclear bombs during the II World War and the nuclear or radiologic incidents of Three Mile Island, in 1979, Chernobyl, 1986, Goiania, 1987, and Fukushima, 2011. The most recent occurrence made countries like France and Germany, which depend a great deal on nuclear power supply, to suspend their nuclear programs, although having to retake them afterwards due to the impossibility of getting new sources of energy in a short period of time. All that attracted negative attention to the field and severely impacted the perception of risk by the society. This paper observes the future of the meta narrative in such area will be based in the influence of other national and supranational risk communication narratives around security, pollution, environment and economy. The discussion is based on theories by researchers such as Andreas Huyssen, Carlo Ginzburg, Lorenzo Negri, Maurice Halbwachs, Max Weber, Pedro Fernando Bendassolli, Peter Sandman, Roland Barthes, Ulrick Beck and Walter Benjamin. (author)

  13. Proceedings of the 20th particles and nuclei international conference PANIC2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Sander, Christian (eds.)

    2015-03-15

    different fields. The program was prepared in consultation with the international advisory committee (IAC). In the plenary sessions, 26 presentations of invited lectures and results from large experimental collaborations were given, while in the parallel sessions, a total of 220 talks were presented. The programme was completed by 28 posters, for which a poster contest was held. The three winning posters received a price and were presented in a dedicated plenary session. DESY is one of the worlds leading accelerator centres. DESY researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY and elsewhere to explore the microcosm in all its variety: high-energy particle collisions are used in elementary particle and astroparticle physics to investigate from the properties and interactions of elementary particles, and the brilliant light of state-of-the-art synchrotron sources and laser facilities is employed to study e.g.the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials or biomolecular processes that are essential to life. DESY scientists are involved in many international projects such as the LHC (experiments ATLAS and CMS), SuperKEKB (experiment Belle II), CTA and IceCube. DESY is also a central player in the preparatory work towards the next large-scale facility of particle physics, an e+e linear collider. The particle physics and detector development group of Hamburg University studies the constituents of matter and their fundamental interactions using particle collisions at highest energies. The group is involved in detector construction, operation and data analysis of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the LHC. Research is done in several important aspects of particle physics using CMS data, from the study of the properties and production mechanisms of the top quark, the heaviest particle known today, to the search for new even heavier particles predicted by physics theories describing phenomena beyond the standard model of particle physics, such as supersymmetry.

  14. Proceedings of the 20th particles and nuclei international conference PANIC2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Sander, Christian

    2015-03-01

    different fields. The program was prepared in consultation with the international advisory committee (IAC). In the plenary sessions, 26 presentations of invited lectures and results from large experimental collaborations were given, while in the parallel sessions, a total of 220 talks were presented. The programme was completed by 28 posters, for which a poster contest was held. The three winning posters received a price and were presented in a dedicated plenary session. DESY is one of the worlds leading accelerator centres. DESY researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY and elsewhere to explore the microcosm in all its variety: high-energy particle collisions are used in elementary particle and astroparticle physics to investigate from the properties and interactions of elementary particles, and the brilliant light of state-of-the-art synchrotron sources and laser facilities is employed to study e.g.the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials or biomolecular processes that are essential to life. DESY scientists are involved in many international projects such as the LHC (experiments ATLAS and CMS), SuperKEKB (experiment Belle II), CTA and IceCube. DESY is also a central player in the preparatory work towards the next large-scale facility of particle physics, an e+e linear collider. The particle physics and detector development group of Hamburg University studies the constituents of matter and their fundamental interactions using particle collisions at highest energies. The group is involved in detector construction, operation and data analysis of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the LHC. Research is done in several important aspects of particle physics using CMS data, from the study of the properties and production mechanisms of the top quark, the heaviest particle known today, to the search for new even heavier particles predicted by physics theories describing phenomena beyond the standard model of particle physics, such as supersymmetry.

  15. Using atmospheric CO2 data to assess a simplified carbon-climate simulation for the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Rachel M.; Kowalczyk, Eva A.; Wangs, Ying-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The CSIRO biosphere model has been coupled to an atmosphere model and a simulation has been performed for the 20th century. Both biosphere and atmosphere are forced with global CO 2 concentration and the atmosphere is also forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures. The simulation follows the C4MIP Phase 1 protocol. We assess the model simulation using atmospheric CO 2 data. Mauna Loa growth rate is well simulated from 1980 but overestimated before that time. The interannual variations in growth rate are reasonably reproduced. Seasonal cycles are underestimated in northern mid-latitudes and are out of phase in the southern hemisphere. The north-south gradient of annual mean CO 2 is substantially overestimated due to a northern hemisphere net biosphere source and a southern tropical sink. Diurnal cycles at three northern hemisphere locations are larger than observed in many months, most likely due to larger respiration than observed

  16. The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20(th) Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermalin, Albert I; Lowry, Deborah S

    2012-08-01

    The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908-1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20(th) century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument.

  17. The Investigation in Terms of Design Component of Ottoman Women Entari in 19th Century and Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study various entaries belonging to the 19th century and early 20th century in terms of design elements and principles. As result of the studies, it was seen that the X silhouette, the straight line type, vertical line direction, velvet, and silky textures, purple color tones in the base, and golden yellow in the embroidery were mostly used. Symmetric balance and symmetric decoration are observed most and it was determined that there were no principle of motion in entari in general, the point of emphasis was in the embroidery, there was no contrast in line and color elements and all design details were in compliance with each other. This study is deemed significant in terms of attracting attention to and introduction of historical clothing important in protecting cultural heritage, and for exhibiting the refined superior aesthetics of period Ottoman Turks.

  18. ["Podmoskovie"--health resort institution of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation celebrates the 20th anniversary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar', I V; Minaev, D Iu; Nasretdinov, I N; Petukhov, A E

    2014-12-01

    The article is dedicated to the 20th anniversary of the Federal government health resort institution of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation (FGI "Health resort "Podmoskovie" of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation). In this health resort were developed treatment programs for patients with abnormalities of the cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive systems; methods of ultrasonic, laser and magnetic therapy, atmospheric hypoxic, herbal medicine, speleotherapy are employed. Widely used natural healing factors of Ruza district of the Moscow region such as climate therapy, treatment with mineral water group of X type of Smolensk from own wells and balneo-mudtherapy. Over the past 20 years 70 000 patients received an appropriate treatment in this health resort.

  19. The role of atmospheric nuclear explosions on the stagnation of global warming in the mid 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshiaki

    2011-04-01

    This study suggests that the cause of the stagnation in global warming in the mid 20th century was the atmospheric nuclear explosions detonated between 1945 and 1980. The estimated GST drop due to fine dust from the actual atmospheric nuclear explosions based on the published simulation results by other researchers (a single column model and Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model) has served to explain the stagnation in global warming. Atmospheric nuclear explosions can be regarded as full-scale in situ tests for nuclear winter. The non-negligible amount of GST drop from the actual atmospheric explosions suggests that nuclear winter is not just a theory but has actually occurred, albeit on a small scale. The accuracy of the simulations of GST by IPCC would also be improved significantly by introducing the influence of fine dust from the actual atmospheric nuclear explosions into their climate models; thus, global warming behavior could be more accurately predicted.

  20. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B.A.; Johnson, W. Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  1. The laser microprobe dating drives K-Ar geochronology into a new milestone at the end of 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Zhiguo; Gao Yongjun

    2001-01-01

    K-Ar age dating method is facing a serious challenge to its application due to that both Ar loss and Ar excess are widespread found even though it has been undergoing 50 years. In the latest few years of the 20th century, studies on K-Ar geochronology have been pushing on a new step as a sign of method perfected and precision enhanced. High precision and high resolution 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating, can use in both micro-area and a single grain, extends dating limit into the historical realm. Applied range of K-Ar geochronology is getting bigger and bigger due to fine analytical techniques while solved geological problems are getting wider and wider

  2. Tree ring evidence of a 20th century precipitation surge in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R.

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first attempt to develop an annual (August-July) precipitation series back to AD 1330 using a tree ring data network of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don) from the Lahaul-Spiti region in the western Himalaya, India. The rainfall reconstruction reveals high magnitude multidecadal droughts during the 14th and 15th centuries and thenceforth a gradual increase in precipitation. Increasingly wet conditions during the 20th century are consistent with other long-term precipitation reconstructions from high Asia and reflect a large-scale intensification of the hydrological cycle, coincident with what is anticipated due to global warming. Significant relationships between reconstructed precipitation and precipitation records from central southwest Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, ENSO (NINO4-SST) variability and summer monsoon rainfall over central northeast India underscore the utility of our data in synoptic climatology.

  3. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-09-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946-1975; 1976-2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  4. Proceedings of the 20th International CODATA Conference Scientific Data and Knowledge within the Information Society CODATA 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Smith Rumble

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The 20th International CODATA Conference marked the 40th Anniversary of CODATA, and the breadth of the presentations truly reflects how far the importance of scientific and technical (S&T data has come in that time. CODATA, as the major international organization devoted to S&T data, provides a mechanism for advancing all aspects of data work, including their collection, management, analysis, display, dissemination, and use by sharing across disciplines and across geographic boundaries. Equally important, CODATA addresses economic, political, social, and business issues, including intellectual property rights, the pervasiveness of the internet, the digital divide, national, regional and international data policies, and the impact modern connectivity has on science and society.

  5. Summary report of the 20th IAEA fusion energy conference (November 1-6, 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-01

    Fusion Energy Conference has been held aiming to report and exchange the information concerning the nuclear fusion research every two years since 1961 by IAEA. The conference has authorities most in the field of the fusion research. The 20th Fusion Energy Conference was held at Vilamoura in Portugal on November 1st through 6th in 2004, and 700 researchers or more participated in the conference from 35 countries. This report is a summary of the conference that the JAERI researchers who participated in this conference (35 persons in total) have seen presentations of each contributed papers at the conference room and have understood from each point of view. The contents of this report are very comprehensible, because those are written from the viewpoint of each researchers of JAERI. The purpose of this report is to provide the information which is useful for many researchers to understand the latest study results over a wide field of fusion research. (author)

  6. Economic Development of Sarepta District of the Tsaritsyn County at the Turn of the 19th-20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parfenov Aleksandr E.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the process of the industrial development of Sarepta district (now the southern part of Volgograd at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. By the end of the 19th century the Sarepta district comprised 17 production entities. The majority of them were small workshops that manufactured various household goods and had from 5 to 10 workers. Besides, Sarepta had a larger industrial enterprise – the Mustard Factory of the Glitsch – which was known throughout Russia for the high quality of its produce. Agriculture played a minor role in Sarepta district. The population of Sarepta district amounted to about 1800 people in 1894. It comprised landowners, small industrialists, and their hired workers. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a rapid industrial development of the area. The first stage of the process was the building of the Tsaritsyn- Tikhoretskaya railway line. It connected the Kuban wheat-growing region with central areas of Russia. A 13-kilometres long section of the railway line passed through Sarepta district. Near Sarepta a station, a locomotive depot, and repair workshops were built in 1895-98. In 1901 the railway line and station were supplemented with a large cargo port on the Volga near Sarepta. The creation of the large transport hub sharply raised the economic significance of Sarepta district. Social and demographic characteristics of the area also changed dramatically. Due to the inflow of workers to the station and port, the district population nearly doubled and the ratio of proletariat raised sharply.

  7. 20th-Century Climate Change over Africa: Seasonal Variation in Hydroclimate Trends and Sahara Desert Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Thomas, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    Twentieth-century trends in seasonal temperature and precipitation over the African continent are analyzed from observational data sets and historical climate simulations. Given the agricultural economy of the continent, a seasonal perspective is adopted as it is more pertinent than an annual-average one which can mask off-setting but agriculturally-sensitive seasonal hydroclimate variations. Examination of linear trends in seasonal surface air temperature (SAT) shows that heat stress has increased in several regions, including Sudan and Northern Africa where largest SAT trends occur in the warm season. Broadly speaking, the northern continent has warmed more than the southern one in all seasons. Precipitation trends are varied but notable declining trends are found in the countries along the Gulf of Guinea, especially in the source region of Niger river in West Africa, and in the Congo river basin. Rainfall over the African Great Lakes - one of the largest freshwater repositories - has however increased. We show that the Sahara Desert has expanded significantly over the 20th century - by 12-20% depending on the season. The desert expanded southward in summer, reflecting retreat of the northern edge of the Sahel rainfall belt; and to the north in winter, indicating potential impact of the widening of the Tropics. Specific mechanisms driving the expansion in each season are investigated. Finally, this observational analysis is used to evaluate the state-of-the-art climate models from a comparison of the 20th-century hydroclimate trends with those manifest in historical climate simulations. The evaluation shows that modeling regional hydroclimate change over the Africa continent remains challenging.

  8. Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opuni Marjorie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of λ against the null that λ = 0 (logarithmic model and against the null that λ = 1 (linear model. We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. Results Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. Conclusion The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log

  9. Two historians in front of the economic crisis of 2007-2008: Hobsbawm and Judt between Marxism and the legacies of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Marco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How did intellectuals react to the economic crisis of 2007-2008 and its long-term backlash? What did they learn from the main twentieth-century political and social experiences, in order to make a new sense of the traditional cultures of the Left? In order to answer these crucial issues, this proposal will analyze the paths of the well-known historians E. Hobsbawm and T. Judt and their apparently similar, but actually different reactions to the crisis. First, I will focus on their respective books: How to Change the World (2011 and Ill Fares the Land (2010. On the one hand, Hobsbawm’s critical approach to the post-1991 world, shaped by his lifelong fidelity to Marxism and his persistent sympathy for the Russian Revolution, was connected to his catastrophic vision of the end of the both conflicting and collaborative dynamics between capitalism and socialism. On the other hand, Judt’s re-thinking of the social-democratic tradition, compelled by the global transformations of the social question, was inspired by his connections with the East Central European dissidents’ anti-totalitarian liberalism and by his critical approach to the engagement of the French intellectuals. Second, I will investigate their different interpretations of the „Golden Age“ of post-1945 Europe (with special regard to the long-term impact of the crisis of 1929 and to the influence of Soviet communism and of the causes of its crisis. Third, I will show how, in spite of their common reference to Marx, late Hobsbawm’s and Judt’s historical visions - respectively combined with determinism and moralism - provide opposite ways of coping with the legacies of the 20th century and of criticizing the language of neoliberal economy within the Left.

  10. Forms and subannual variability of nitrogen and phosphorus loading to global river networks over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Mogollón, José M.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a major role in the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic systems. N and P transfer to surface freshwaters has amplified during the 20th century, which has led to widespread eutrophication problems. The contribution of different sources, natural and anthropogenic, to total N and P loading to river networks has recently been estimated yearly using the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment - Global Nutrient Model (IMAGE-GNM). However, eutrophic events generally result from a combination of physicochemical conditions governed by hydrological dynamics and the availability of specific nutrient forms that vary at subyearly timescales. In the present study, we define for each simulated nutrient source: i) its speciation, and ii) its subannual temporal pattern. Thereby, we simulate the monthly loads of different N (ammonium, nitrate + nitrite, and organic N) and P forms (dissolved and particulate inorganic P, and organic P) to global river networks over the whole 20th century at a half-degree spatial resolution. Results indicate that, together with an increase in the delivery of all nutrient forms to global rivers, the proportion of inorganic forms in total N and P inputs has risen from 30 to 43% and from 56 to 65%, respectively. The high loads originating from fertilized agricultural lands and the increasing proportion of sewage inputs have led to a greater proportion of DIN forms (ammonium and nitrate), that are usually more bioavailable. Soil loss from agricultural lands, which delivers large amounts of particle-bound inorganic P to surface freshwaters, has become the dominant P source, which is likely to lead to an increased accumulation of legacy P in slow flowing areas (e.g., lakes and reservoirs). While the TN:TP ratio of the loads has remained quite stable, the DIN:DIP molar ratio, which is likely to affect algal development the most, has increased from 18 to 27 globally. Human activities have also affected the

  11. Old Believers in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century and under People’s Republic of Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita P. Tatarinseva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the specifics of culture and everyday life of the Old Believers’ (staroobryadtsy community in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century, as well as under the People’s Republic of Tuva (1921-1944. Our study was based on research in the general history and culture of Old Belief in Russian and Siberia, as well as on the documents from the research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies.   Old Believers who settled in Tuva (Uryankhaisky Krai in late 19th – early 20th century accounted for about a third of all Russian settlers. For the first two decades, their situation in the region was relatively favorable. For them, Tuva was a faraway region that suited well their isolationist lifestyle. It was the Promised Land, the Belovodye which ‘Antichrist’s henchmen’ (Russian government officials could not reach. In the natural abundance of Tuva they saw a country where every hard-working Christian could become master of his own household. Although settling in the new land with its often adverse conditions for farming could prove difficult, Old Believers managed to adapt to the new climate and build good relations with the local powers which rarely intervened into their lives. Alongside with farming and cattle breeding, Old Believers were involved in hunting, fishing, crafts and trade. Their situation, however, worsened when the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT in the 1930s accelerated the Socialist reforms and implemented an anti-religious policy. Those Old Believers who refused to change their lifestyle due to religious considerations (i.e., evaded military conscription, etc., as well as clergy and monks, were given prison sentences that they had to serve outside Tuva. Old Believers protested against censuses, introduction of mandatory passports, universal education (at schools where atheism was an official policy, etc. Many families tried to find ’salvation’ by fleeing deep

  12. Isotope Reanalysis for 20th century: Reproduction of isotopic time series in corals, tree-rings, and tropical ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, K.

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, an isotope-incorporated GCM simulation for AD1871 to AD2008 nudged toward the so-called "20th Century Reanalysis (20CR)" atmospheric fields is conducted. Beforehand the long-term integration, a method to downscale ensemble mean fields is proposed, since 20CR is a product of 56-member ensemble Kalman filtering data assimilation. The method applies a correction to one of the ensemble members in such a way that the seasonal mean is equal to that of the ensemble mean, and then the corrected member is inputted into the isotope-incorporated GCM (i.e., IsoGSM) with the global spectral nudging technique. Use of the method clearly improves the skill than the cases of using only a single member and of using the ensemble means; the skill becomes equivalent to when 3-6 members are directly used. By comparing with GNIP precipitation isotope database, it is confirmed that the 20C Isotope Reanalysis's performance for latter half of the 20th century is just comparable to the other latest studies. For more comparisons for older periods, proxy records including corals, tree-rings, and tropical ice cores are used. First for corals: the 20C Isotope Reanalysis successfully reproduced the δ18O in surface sea water recorded in the corals at many sites covering large parts of global tropical oceans. The comparison suggests that coral records represent past hydrologic balance information where interannual variability in precipitation is large. Secondly for tree-rings: δ18O of cellulose extracted from the annual rings of the long-lived Bristlecone Pine from White Mountain in Southern California is well reproduced by 20C Isotope Reanalysis. Similar good performance is obtained for Cambodia, too. However, the mechanisms driving the isotopic variations are different over California and Cambodia; for California, Hadley cell's expansion and consequent meridional shift of the submerging dry zone and changes in water vapor source is the dominant control, but in Cambodia

  13. Kharlamova, N. F. Climate Changes over the 20th and 21st Centuries in the Upper Basin of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers (Altai Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovna, K. N., II

    2015-12-01

    The Russian climate is more sensitive to global warming than the climate in many other parts of the world. According to the Second Climate Change National Assessment, since the mid-1970s, the average temperature has been rising with rate of 0.43 ° C / 10 years, which is more than two times higher than the rate of global warming. In the Altai region, the rate of temperature change is higher than the average for Russia with an annual surface air temperature increase equal to 1.8°C the 20th century. The maximum value of this increase the past 50 years (1963-2013) was found in the intermountain basins of Altai (+ 2.6°C) mainly due to the winter and spring warming with changes in the summer season being considerably smaller. This warming is accompanied with negative tendencies in annual precipitation over the entire Altai Krai. The mountain ranges of Altai are called the "water tower" of Northern Eurasia. The northward flow of numerous rivers streaming down from these ranges in the Basin of the Ob and the Irtysh Rivers is formed by melting of Altai glaciers and snowfields. Since the middle of the 19th century the largest glaciers in the Altai have retreated by 1.5-2 km and the thickness of their tails decreased by 50-70 m. The reduction of mountain glaciers poses a threat of depletion of water flow to major agricultural regions downstream affecting human activity and even the drinking water availability. Permafrost in the Altai Mountains is actively degraded (thawing), which represents a danger for infrastructure (first of all for roads and pipelines) and increases risk of catastrophic events (landslides, mudflows). Continued warming could contribute to a significant reduction of water resources, biodiversity and other negative processes in the region.The reported study was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Baseline Research (project No. 15-45-04450).

  14. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  15. Heinz Werner: His Life, Ideas, and Contributions to Developmental Psychology in the First Half of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The author provides an overview of Heinz Werner's life and contributions to the field of developmental psychology during the first half of the 20th century. She focuses on his early work in Vienna and Munich as well as his tenure at the Psychological Institute in Hamburg, up through the time when he became a named Professor in Psychology at Clark University. Recognized as one of the founders of developmental psychology, Heinz Werner worked in the areas of perceptual development, comparative psychology, and symbol formation. Versatile in rigorous experimental methodologies, and in observational and phenomenological methodologies, Werner's approach to development stood in contrast to other approaches of development, both past and current. For Werner, development was a heuristic, a way of looking at processes in a variety of domains, including ontogeny, phylogeny, microgenesis, biology, developmental psychopathology, neuropsychology, and comparative psychology. Werner viewed development as proceeding from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchical integration, but he also stressed that individuals can function at different developmental levels under different times and conditions. Werner's holistic, organismic, comparative, and contextual approach to development transcended interdisciplinary boundaries, allowing him to study the interrelatedness between thought, language, feeling, perception, and culture.

  16. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Valitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the educational activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in Western Siberia from the late 19th to the mid-20th century. The analysis of archival material reflects the foundation, development and evolution of parish schools in Western Siberia; the activity of the eparchy inspectors and parish school boards being outlined. The main emphasis is on the Tomsk eparchy – the regional leader in successful primary school development in Western Siberia. For many Russian citizens then, the parish schools were the only available educational institutions. In Western Siberia, the ascetic enlightening activity of the clergymen had a great impact on raising the literacy level; the process being complicated by the vast territories, remoteness of the settlements, and lack of local schools. The research demonstrates the parallel evolution of the parish and civil education, however, the former one was always ahead in many aspects. The competition between the two systems stimulated new effective educational methods and teacher training processes, and contributed a lot to the Russian primary education development. The paper might be of interest to the experts in education and church history, and local historians

  17. Slovenian facsimile in the19th and in the first half of the 20th century:pre-modern facsimile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Glavan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Printers on Slovenian territory did not attempt to print facsimiles until the beginning of the 20th century and neither did they publish anything relevant in this expert field. The development of Slovenian facsimile nevertheless started (outside Slovenia almost a whole century earlier. Its course is outlined against European parallels, providing achievements in the pre-modern era (18129-1959. The analysis focuses on earlier Slovenian facsimiles which have not been well known or had been especially scientifically unexplored. A surprisingly high expert level, both in terms of technology and editing, is revealed by our first facsimiles of the 19th century which were mostly initiated by Jernej Kopitar. In this period medieval materials give way to modern ones (Prešeren’s Poezije, which prevail afterwards. According to the fundamental criteria, upon which the definition of a modern facsimile is based, 12 units have been identified as facsimiles, 4 of them recognised as complete facsimiles meeting all the required criteria of that period.

  18. The world’s road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges. PMID:27934888

  19. B. F. Skinner and technology's nation: Technocracy, social engineering, and the good life in 20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Psychologist B. F. Skinner developed and promoted a technology of behavior as the basis for widespread social reform over much of his career. In 1948, he published his behaviorally engineered vision of the good life in his utopian novel Walden Two (Skinner, 1948). Skinner's efforts were part of a much larger social engineering tradition that received one of its fullest expressions in the Technocracy Movement of the 1930s. Fifteen years before Skinner's Walden Two , at the height of the Technocracy Movement's public visibility in the United States, technocrat Harold Loeb (1933/1996) published his utopia, Life in a Technocracy: What It Might Be Like . In this article, I place the socially engineered visions of the good life promoted by the Technocracy Movement and by Skinner on an intellectual and ideological continuum to amplify and explore American attitudes toward psychology, technology, and social engineering during the middle decades of the 20th century. I argue that responses to both reveal the possibilities and limits of the social engineering enterprise, and suggest that historians of technology might consider how the history of psychology and other psy-disciplines can deepen conceptualizations of the relationships among the psychological, the social, and the technological in this period. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Greenland's 20th Century retreat illuminated - great spatial variability with strong connections to subglacial topography and fjord bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Boeckel, M. V.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Fenty, I. G.; Khan, S. A.; Mouginot, J.; Morlighem, M.; Rignot, E. J.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Kjaer, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Mass loss acceleration from the Greenland Ice Sheet is a dominant contributor in recent global sea-level rise, and has been for several decades. While ice sheet wide mass loss has recently been documented from the end of the Little Ice Age (c. 1900 CE) to the 1980s, the detailed changes during this period remain poorly known. In this study, we map glacier margins of Greenland's 310 largest outlet glaciers in order to get the full picture of the 20th Century mass loss. We take advantage of the rich history of aerial photography over Greenland and combine photos from archives in Denmark, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States. We supplement the historical aerial photographs with declassified US spy satellite imagery and recent satellite imagery to document glacial retreat and advance on a decadal scale. With recent advances in bathymetry mapping and subglacial topography mapping, we are able to show that spatial differences in retreat throughout the last 100 years are largely controlled by the underlying topography. Our study further highlights hotspots of past rapid mass loss in Greenland, and discusses implications for periods of regional stability and advance.

  1. Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wisser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations. The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. The sensitivity of the results to variations in input data was tested by using three global gridded datasets of precipitation.

    Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction of reservoirs has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans annually, however, are governed primarily by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing a minor role. Globally, we do not find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century.

    The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes such as ability to decompose organic matter or the cycling of nutrients in the river system.

  2. Geopolitical perspectives in Spain: from the Iberismo of the 19th century to the Hispanoamericanismo of the 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodríguez-Esteban

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes which took place in the balance of power in Europe in the last thirty years of the 19th century, together with the process of colonial expansion and partition, led Spanish geographers to see the need to combine the territorial projects and interests of Spain and Portugal with the aim of defending what remained of their colonial empires, coveted by English-speaking countries. This gave new life to a school of thought known as "Iberismo", which now extended to include France in the formula of a "triple alliance of the South" based on the common interests of Latin countries. The failure of both attempts at rapprochement gave rise to these ideas being transferred, by the beginning of the 20th century, to the Spanish-speaking countries of America. Iberismo was to become "Hispano-Americanismo", and the defence of strategic and material interests was to begin with a reaffirmation of the moral and spiritual qualities of peoples sharing common roots and a common language. Ideas and arguments along these lines were then developed on both sides of the Atlantic, crossing boundaries into other spheres of intellectual activity.

  3. On the mechanisms of late 20th century sea-surface temperature trends over the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Kamenkovich, Igor; Hogg, Andrew M.; Peters, John M.

    2011-11-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), with its associated three-dimensional circulation, plays an important role in global climate. This study concentrates on surface signatures of recent climate change in the ACC region and on mechanisms that control this change. Examination of climate model simulations shows that they match the observed late 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) trends averaged over this region quite well, despite underestimating the observed surface-wind increases. Such wind increases, however, are expected to lead to significant cooling of the region, contradicting the observed SST trends. Motivated by recent theories of the ACC response to variable wind and radiative forcing, the authors used two idealized models to assess contributions of various dynamical processes to the SST evolution in the region. In particular, a high-resolution channel model of the ACC responds to increasing winds by net surface ACC warming due to enhanced mesoscale turbulence and associated heat transports in the mixed layer. These fluxes, modeled, in a highly idealized fashion, via increased lateral surface mixing in a coarse-resolution hybrid climate model, substantially offset zonally non-uniform surface cooling due to air-sea flux and Ekman-transport anomalies. These results suggest that the combination of these opposing effects must be accounted for when estimating climate response to any external forcing in the ACC region.

  4. Yakutia and International Scientific Cooperation on Arctic Studies. The End of 20th – Beginning of 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleymanov Aleksandr Albertovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of participation of Yakutia in the international scientific cooperation in the Arctic during the last decade of the 20th and the first years of the 21st century. The author describes the history of realization of the international initiatives for studying social and cultural transformations and challenges of life of Arctic Indigenous Peoples, studying natural phenomena and processes, as well as environmental protection in the Yakutia’s Arctic and their main results on the basis of a set of archival documents, English- and Frenchlanguage materials. The author called the most important factors that determine the extent of joint research of Russian scientists and their foreign colleagues, identified the key participants (scientists from Great Britain, Germany, Canada, Russia, Finland, France and Japan, forms (collection of field data, its processing and laboratory analysis; provision of academic institutions of Yakutia, their research base, provision of special equipment for foreign partners; coordination of research and the exchange of the data obtained; organization of conferences and workshops; organization of protected areas; publication of research results, and mechanisms (organization of special structures to intensify and coordinate research; association of research through a unified methodology; elaboration of international programs and projects, taking into account the potential of the involved parties – financing, tools and staff of international scientific cooperation development.

  5. Predicting U.S. food demand in the 20th century: a new look at system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Mukund; Cellier, Francois E.; LaFrance, Jeffrey T.

    1998-08-01

    The paper describes a new methodology for predicting the behavior of macroeconomic variables. The approach is based on System Dynamics and Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning. A four- layer pseudo-hierarchical model is proposed. The bottom layer makes predications about population dynamics, age distributions among the populace, as well as demographics. The second layer makes predications about the general state of the economy, including such variables as inflation and unemployment. The third layer makes predictions about the demand for certain goods or services, such as milk products, used cars, mobile telephones, or internet services. The fourth and top layer makes predictions about the supply of such goods and services, both in terms of their prices. Each layer can be influenced by control variables the values of which are only determined at higher levels. In this sense, the model is not strictly hierarchical. For example, the demand for goods at level three depends on the prices of these goods, which are only determined at level four. Yet, the prices are themselves influenced by the expected demand. The methodology is exemplified by means of a macroeconomic model that makes predictions about US food demand during the 20th century.

  6. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-02-25

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20(th) century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920-1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers.

  7. Let the dead teach the living: the rise of body bequeathal in 20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garment, Ann; Lederer, Susan; Rogers, Naomi; Boult, Lisa

    2007-10-01

    America's medical schools have long used human cadavers to teach anatomy, but acquiring adequate numbers of bodies for dissection has always been a challenge. Physicians and medical students of the 18th and 19th centuries often resorted to robbing graves, and this history has been extensively examined. Less studied, however, is the history of body acquisition in the 20th century, and this article evaluates the factors that coalesced to transition American society from body theft to body donation. First, it describes the legislation that released the unclaimed bodies of those dying in public institutions to medical schools for dissection, thereby effectively ending grave robbery. Then it discusses midcentury journalistic exposés of excesses in the funeral industry-works that were instrumental in bringing alternatives, including the previously unpopular option of body donation, to public consciousness. Finally, it examines the rise of body transplantation, the Uniform Anatomical Gifts Act of 1968, and the subsequent state of willed-body programs at the turn of the 21st century. Body-donation programs have gradually stabilized since and currently provide most of the bodies used for dissection in American medical schools. Relying as they do on public trust, however, these programs remain potentially precarious and threatened by public scandals. Whether American medical schools will receive enough bodies to properly educate students in the future remains to be seen.

  8. Scientists and scientific associations in Catalonia (Spain in the early 20th century: manuscript vs. published research in earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Batlló

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available


    Culture in Catalonia and, specifically, science had an important rebirth in the second half of the 19th century. But, due to the lack of State support, development of earth physical sciences in Catalonia at the beginning of the 20th century was almost a private enterprise. This situation caused dispersion of the efforts that, in any case, were extensive. The study of the evolution of earth sciences and the recovery and study of the accumulated data in such circumstances requires relying heavily on manuscript information. The present study deals with the problems and possibilities of this situation, shows some study cases and extracts some conclusions of general interest from them.


  9. Evolution of the decrease in mineral exergy throughout the 20th century. The case of copper in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Alicia; Valero, Antonio; Arauzo, Inmaculada

    2008-01-01

    A mineral deposit is a natural resource whose exergy can be calculated from a defined reference environment (RE). This RE can be compared to a thermodynamically dead planet, where all materials have reacted, dispersed and mixed. Like any substance, a mine is characterized by its quantity, chemical composition and concentration (ore grade). The mine's exergy measures the minimum (reversible) energy to extract and concentrate the materials from the RE to the conditions in the mine. And the mine's exergy replacement cost accounts for the actual exergy required to accomplish this, with available technologies. The exergy assessment of the natural resource wealth of the Earth defined from a RE is named as exergoecology. The aim of this paper is to prove the usefulness of these two indicators for assessing the degradation of mineral deposits over history. As an example, the exergy decrease of US copper mines due to copper extraction throughout the 20th century has been determined. The results indicate that the exergy decrease was 65.4 Mtoe, while the exergy replacement cost 889.9 Mtoe. During the past century, the US extracted the equivalent of 2.5 and 1.2 times of its current national exergy reserves and base reserve of copper, respectively

  10. Senj’s steam-shipping and socioeconomic circumstances at the turn of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Šimunić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the paper examine the historical and geographical aspects of the emergence, development and decline of Senj’s steam-shipping as the crucial element of the overall social and economic progress of Senj at the turn of the 20th century. At the beginning of the 19th century, owing to the special city autonomy and the modern road connections, the Port of Senj was one of the most important maritime trading centres of the Croatian Littoral and the entire Adriatic in general, and its residents were important participants in social, economic and political turmoil of that time. Steam-shipping development has surely provided the residents of Senj a good market position in the times of demanding economic circumstances. The work also analyses important causes of weakening of Senj's economy, which during the period of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia isolated the city from the dominant maritime and economic processes, thus heavily influencing the city's socioeconomic situation.

  11. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  12. The Making and Development of Economic Forms of the Industry of Turkestan Krai in the late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Tulebaev Turganzhan; Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2015-01-01

    The period of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries is characterized for many post-socialist countries by profound social/economic transformations. They are going through a tough transition from the implementation of market reform to the formation of a market economy oriented towards innovation development. The historical past of these countries attests that, in a sense, they have already been going through a similar process – back in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. The history of th...

  13. Center or periphery? The system of public administration in Tuva in the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Салимаа Сергеевна Ховалыг

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with formation and development of the government power system and the management in Tuva in the 19-20th centuries. The state apparatus, the hierarchy of ranks and degrees of distinction of the state posts of Tuva are examined. The creation problems of the organization of the power of Russia in the region are analyzed in this article. In connection with it, in the beginning of the 20th century Tuva was accepted as a protectorate of Russia.

  14. Impacts of the EA and SCA patterns on the 20th century NAO-winter precipitation relationship in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Bru, Laia; McDermott, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Much of the 20th century multi-decadal variability in the NAO-winter precipitation relationship over the N. Atlantic / European sector can be ascribed to the combined effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and either the East Atlantic pattern (EA) or the Scandinavian pattern (SCA). The NAO, EA and SCA indices employed here are defined as the three leading vectors of the cross-correlation matrix calculated from monthly sea-level pressure anomalies for 138 complete winters from the 20CRv2 dataset (Compo et al., 2011). Winter precipitation data over Europe for the entire 20th century is derived from the high resolution CRU-TS3.1 climate dataset (Mitchell and Jones, 2005). Here we document for the first time, that different NAO/EA and NAO/SCA combinations systematically influence winter precipitation conditions in Europe as a consequence of NAO dipole migrations. We find that the zero-correlated line of the NAO-winter precipitation relationship migrates southwards when the EA is in the opposite phase to the NAO. This can be related to a south-westwards migration of the NAO dipole under these conditions, as shown by teleconnectivity maps. Similarly, a clockwise movement of the NAO-winter climate correlated areas occurs when the phase of the SCA is opposite to that of the NAO, reflecting a clockwise movement of the NAO dipole under these conditions. An important implication of these migrations is that they influence the spatial and temporal stationarity of climate-NAO relationships. As a result, the link between winter precipitation patterns and the NAO is not straightforward in some regions such as the southern UK, Ireland and France. For instance, much of the inter-annual variability in the N-S winter precipitation gradient in the UK, originally attributed to inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of the NAO, reflects the migration of the NAO dipole, linked to linear combinations of the NAO and the EA. Our results indicate that when the N-S winter

  15. The visual difficulties of selected artists and limitations of ophthalmological care during the 19th and early 20th centuries (an AOS thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, James G

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist's ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist's ability to depict fine details. Ophthalmological

  16. Stevens’ forgotten crossroads: The divergent measurement traditions in the physical and psychological sciences from the mid-20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A McGrane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The late 19th and early 20th Centuries saw the consolidation in physics of the three main traditions that predominate in discussions of measurement theory. These are: (i the systematic tradition pioneered by Maxwell; (ii the representational tradition pioneered by Campbell; and (iii the operational tradition pioneered by Bridgman (1927. These divergent approaches created uncertainty about the nature of measurement in the physical sciences and provided Stevens (1946 with an opportunity and rationale to, in effect, reinvent the definition of scientific measurement. Stevens appropriated the representational and operational traditions as the sole basis for his definition of measurement, excluding any place for the systematic approach. In committing to Stevens’ path, the psychological sciences were blinded to the advances made in metrology, the establishment of the International System (SI and the standard units contained within this system. These advances were only possible due to the deep conceptual and instrumental connections between the system of physical units and the body of physical theory and laws developed over the preceding centuries. It is argued that if the psychological sciences are to ever achieve equivalent methodological advances, they must bridge this ‘metrological gap’ created by Stevens’ measurement crossroads and understand the ways in which the systematic approach advanced measurement. This means that psychological measurement needs to be de-abstracted, rid of operational rules for numerical assignment and set upon a foundation of quantitative theory, definition and law. In the absence of such theoretical foundations, claims of measurement in the psychological sciences remain a methodological chimera.

  17. Long-term changes in nitrate conditions over the 20th century in two Midwestern Corn Belt streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie J.; Stets, Edward G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term changes in nitrate concentration and flux between the middle of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century were estimated for the Des Moines River and the Middle Illinois River, two Midwestern Corn Belt streams, using a novel weighted regression approach that is able to detect subtle changes in solute transport behavior over time. The results show that the largest changes in flow-normalized concentration and flux occurred between 1960 and 1980 in both streams, with smaller or negligible changes between 1980 and 2004. Contrasting patterns were observed between (1) nitrate export linked to non-point sources, explicitly runoff of synthetic fertilizer or other surface sources and (2) nitrate export presumably associated with point sources such as urban wastewater or confined livestock feeding facilities, with each of these modes of transport important under different domains of streamflow. Surface runoff was estimated to be consistently most important under high-flow conditions during the spring in both rivers. Nitrate export may also have been considerable in the Des Moines River even under some conditions during the winter when flows are generally lower, suggesting the influence of point sources during this time. Similar results were shown for the Middle Illinois River, which is subject to significant influence of wastewater from the Chicago area, where elevated nitrate concentrations were associated with at the lowest flows during the winter and fall. By modeling concentration directly, this study highlights the complex relationship between concentration and streamflow that has evolved in these two basins over the last 50 years. This approach provides insights about changing conditions that only become observable when stationarity in the relationship between concentration and streamflow is not assumed.

  18. North Atlantic 20th century multidecadal variability in coupled climate models: sea surface temperature and ocean overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Medhaug

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Output from a total of 24 state-of-the-art Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models is analyzed. The models were integrated with observed forcing for the period 1850–2000 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. All models show enhanced variability at multi-decadal time scales in the North Atlantic sector similar to the observations, but with a large intermodel spread in amplitudes and frequencies for both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC. The models, in general, are able to reproduce the observed geographical patterns of warm and cold episodes, but not the phasing such as the early warming (1930s–1950s and the following colder period (1960s–1980s. This indicates that the observed 20th century extreme in temperatures are due to primarily a fortuitous phasing of intrinsic climate variability and not dominated by external forcing. Most models show a realistic structure in the overturning circulation, where more than half of the available models have a mean overturning transport within the observed estimated range of 13–24 Sverdrup. Associated with a stronger than normal AMOC, the surface temperature is increased and the sea ice extent slightly reduced in the North Atlantic. Individual models show potential for decadal prediction based on the relationship between the AMO and AMOC, but the models strongly disagree both in phasing and strength of the covariability. This makes it difficult to identify common mechanisms and to assess the applicability for predictions.

  19. Changes in the Order of Family Life Events in 20th-Century Europe: A Cross-Regional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Burgin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the evolution of the sequencing of family life events in Europe during the second half of the 20th century using individual data from the European Social Survey and from the Generation and Gender Program. Considering the four events ‘leaving the parental home‘, ‘first cohabiting union‘, ‘first marriage‘, and ‘first parenthood‘, we hypothesize a transition from a traditional standard event order characterized by a high degree of synchronization between the first three events towards a new standard whose features are a high degree of de-synchronization between first cohabitation and first marriage and a reversal of the traditional order between first marriage and first parenthood. We also hypothesize cross-regional differences in the timing and in the shape of the transition from one standard to another. Applying specifically developed tools to visualize and analyze event sequences, we show important regional variation in the evolution of the sequencing of family life events. Hardly any change can be observed in Southern Europe, where the sequencing behavior of family events has remained highly standardized and rooted in the traditional standard. In Eastern Europe where family event sequences have become less standardized and where a particular sequence characterized by the reversal of the traditional order between leaving home and family formation has been observed, the hypothesized transition is still in its very beginning. In Western Europe the transition is clearly on its way, but no re-standardization towards a new standard can be observed as for now. As expected, the transition is most advanced in Northern Europe, where evidence for a certain re-standardization process in the sequencing of family life events has been found.

  20. Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengel, M.T.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Schubert, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

  1. Coral-based history of lead and lead isotopes of the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Mi; Boyle, Edward A.; Suci Nurhati, Intan; Pfeiffer, Miriam; Meltzner, Aron J.; Suwargadi, Bambang

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic lead (Pb) from industrial activities has greatly altered the distribution of Pb in the present-day oceans, but no continuous temporal Pb evolution record is available for the Indian Ocean despite rapidly emerging industries around the region. Here, we present the coral-inferred annual history of Pb concentration and isotope ratios in the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century (1945-2010). We analyzed Pb in corals from the Chagos Archipelago, western Sumatra and Strait of Singapore - which represent the central Indian Ocean via nearshore sites. Overall, coral Pb/Ca increased in the mid-1970s at all the sites. However, coral Pb isotope ratios evolve distinctively at each site, suggesting Pb contamination arises from different sources in each case. The major source of Pb in the Chagos coral appears to be India's Pb emission from leaded gasoline combustion and coal burning, whereas Pb in western Sumatra seems to be largely affected by Indonesia's gasoline Pb emission with additional Pb inputs from other sources. Pb in the Strait of Singapore has complex sources and its isotopic composition does not reflect Pb from leaded gasoline combustion. Higher 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios found at this site may reflect the contribution of Pb from coals and ores from southern China, Indonesia, and Australia, and local Pb sources in the Strait of Singapore. It is also possible that the Pb isotope ratios of Singapore seawater were elevated through isotope exchange with natural fluvial particles considering its delta setting.

  2. Early 20th-century research at the interfaces of genetics, development, and evolution: reflections on progress and dead ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Ute

    2011-09-01

    Three early 20th-century attempts at unifying separate areas of biology, in particular development, genetics, physiology, and evolution, are compared in regard to their success and fruitfulness for further research: Jacques Loeb's reductionist project of unifying approaches by physico-chemical explanations; Richard Goldschmidt's anti-reductionist attempts to unify by integration; and Sewall Wright's combination of reductionist research and vision of hierarchical genetic systems. Loeb's program, demanding that all aspects of biology, including evolution, be studied by the methods of the experimental sciences, proved highly successful and indispensible for higher level investigations, even though evolutionary change and properties of biological systems up to now cannot be fully explained on the molecular level alone. Goldschmidt has been appraised as pioneer of physiological and developmental genetics and of a new evolutionary synthesis which transcended neo-Darwinism. However, this study concludes that his anti-reductionist attempts to integrate genetics, development and evolution have to be regarded as failures or dead ends. His grand speculations were based on the one hand on concepts and experimental systems that were too vague in order to stimulate further research, and on the other on experiments which in their core parts turned out not to be reproducible. In contrast, Sewall Wright, apart from being one of the architects of the neo-Darwinian synthesis of the 1930s, opened up new paths of testable quantitative developmental genetic investigations. He placed his research within a framework of logical reasoning, which resulted in the farsighted speculation that examinations of biological systems should be related to the regulation of hierarchical genetic subsystems, possibly providing a mechanism for development and evolution. I argue that his suggestion of basing the study of systems on clearly defined properties of the components has proved superior to

  3. Lack of cool, not warm, extremes distinguishes late 20th Century climate in 979-year Tasmanian summer temperature reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K. J.; Cook, E. R.; Evans, R.; Francey, R.; Buckley, B. M.; Palmer, J. G.; Peterson, M. J.; Baker, P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Very few annually resolved millennial-length temperature reconstructions exist for the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present four 979-year reconstructions for southeastern Australia for the austral summer months of December-February. Two of the reconstructions are based on the Australian Water Availability Project dataset and two on the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature dataset. For each climate data set, one reconstruction is based solely on Lagarostrobos franklinii (restricted reconstructions) while the other is based on multiple Tasmanian conifer species (unrestricted reconstructions). Each reconstruction calibrates ~50-60% of the variance in the temperature datasets depending on the number of tree-ring records available for the reconstruction. We found little difference in the temporal variability of the reconstructions, although extremes are amplified in the restricted reconstructions relative to the unrestricted reconstructions. The reconstructions highlight the occurrence of numerous individual years, especially in the 15th-17th Centuries, for which temperatures were comparable with those of the late 20th Century. The 1950-1999 period, however, stands out as the warmest 50-year period on average for the past 979 years, with a sustained shift away from relatively low mean temperatures, the length of which is unique in the 979-year record. The reconstructions are strongly and positively related to temperatures across the southeast of the Australian continent, negatively related to temperatures in the north and northeast of the continent, and uncorrelated with temperatures in the west. The lack of a strong relationship with temperatures across the continent highlights the necessity of a sub-regional focus for Australasian temperature reconstructions.

  4. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA:Historical perspectives of lactation biology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, R J; Bauman, D E

    2017-12-01

    The latter half of the 20th century and the early portion of the 21st century will be recognized as the "Golden Age" of lactation biology. This period corresponded with the rise of systemic, metabolomic, molecular, and genomic biology. It includes the discovery of the structure of DNA and ends with the sequencing of the complete genomes of humans and all major domestic animal species including the dairy cow. This included the ability to identify polymorphisms in the nucleic acid sequence, which can be tied to specific differences in cellular, tissue, and animal performance. Before this period, classical work using endocrine ablation and replacement studies identified the mammary gland as an endocrine-dependent organ. In the early 1960s, the development of RIA and radioreceptor assays permitted the study of the relationship between endocrine patterns and mammary function. The ability to measure nucleic acid content of tissues opened the door to study of the factors regulating mammary growth. The development of high-speed centrifugation in the 1960s allowed separation of specific cell organelles and their membranes. The development of transmission and scanning electron microscopy permitted the study of the relationship between structure and function in the mammary secretory cell. The availability of radiolabeled metabolites provided the opportunity to investigate the metabolic pathways and their regulation. The development of concepts regarding the coordination of metabolism to support lactation integrated our understanding of nutrient partitioning and homeostasis. The ability to produce recombinant molecules and organisms permitted enhancement of lactation in farm animal species and the production of milk containing proteins of value to human medicine. These discoveries and others contributed to vastly increased dairy farm productivity in the United States and worldwide. This review will include the discussion of the centers of excellence and scientists who labored

  5. Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.; Phillips, M.; Wuhrer, R.; Thomas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present

  6. Changes in Vascular Plant Biodiversity in the Netherlands in the 20th Century Explained by their Climatic and other Environmental Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Van der Meijden, R.; Udo de Haes, H.A. [Nationaal Herbarium Nederland/Leiden University Branch, P.O. Box 9514, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Van ' t Zelfde, M. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    In the Netherlands nation-wide databases are available with about 10 million records of occurrences of vascular plant species in the 20th century on a scale of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. These data were analysed with a view to identifying relationships between changes in botanical biodiversity and climatic and other environmental factors. Prior to analysis the data were corrected for several major forms of survey bias. The records were broken down into three periods: 1902-1949, 1975-1984 and 1985-1999. Using multiple regression analysis, differences between successive periods were related to plant functional characteristics as explanatory variables. Between the periods 1902-1949 and 1975-1984 there were small but significant increases in the presence of both thermophilic ('warm') and psychrophilic ('cold') species. However, in the final decades of the 20th century there was a marked increase in thermophilic species only, coinciding with the marked increase in ambient temperature observed during this period, evidence at least of a rapid response of Dutch flora to climate change. Urbanisation was also examined as an alternative explanation for the increase in thermophilic plant species and was found to explain only 50% of the increased presence of such species in the final decades of the 20th century. Besides temperature-related effects, the most important change during the 20th century was a strong decline in oligotrophic and a marked increase in eutrophic plant species.

  7. Role Model Effects of Female STEM Teachers and Doctors on Early 20th Century University Enrollment in California. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleemer, Zach

    2016-01-01

    What was the role of imperfect local information in the growth, gender gap, and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) major selection of early 20th century American universities? In order to examine pre-1950 American higher education, this study constructs four rich panel datasets covering most students, high school teachers, and…

  8. Selected Areas in Cryptography - SAC 2013 : 20th International Conference, Burnaby BC, Canada, August 14-16, 2013 : Revised Selected Papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Lauter, K.; Lisonek, P.

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Selected Areas in Cryptography, SAC 2013, held in Burnaby, Canada, in August 2013. The 26 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 98 submissions. They are organized in topical sections

  9. Multiwavelength Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Response to the 20th March 2015 Partial Solar Eclipse in Rome Tor Vergata: Preliminary Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberti Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports some preliminary analyses of multichannel lidar measurements taken in Rome Tor Vergata (Italy during the 20th March 2015 partial solar eclipse. The objective is assessing the capability of the instrument to document the effect of the eclipse in the lower troposphere, with a particular emphasis on the information content at relatively small temporal and spatial scales.

  10. National Gender Policy in Public Education in the Russian Empire in the Latter Half of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullova, Razilia Rauilovna; Maslova, Inga Vladimirovna; Krapotkina, Irina Evgenevna; Kaviev, Airat Farkhatovich; Nasyrova, Liliya Gabdelvalievna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the national gender policy in public education in the Russian Empire in the latter half of the 19th-early 20th centuries. In the course of work the authors have used special historical research methods enabling to hammer out the facts and to approach historical sources from a critical standpoint. The comparative method…

  11. Multiwavelength Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Response to the 20th March 2015 Partial Solar Eclipse in Rome Tor Vergata: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Gian Luigi; Dionisi, Davide; Federico, Stefano; Congeduti, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study reports some preliminary analyses of multichannel lidar measurements taken in Rome Tor Vergata (Italy) during the 20th March 2015 partial solar eclipse. The objective is assessing the capability of the instrument to document the effect of the eclipse in the lower troposphere, with a particular emphasis on the information content at relatively small temporal and spatial scales.

  12. Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. II. From the Collapse of Independent State of Croatia on May 8th, 1945 to the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancik, H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of Croatian chemistry from the end of the Second World War to the establishment of the Republic of Croatia is outlined. Briefly discussed is the founding and development of the Chemistry Department of the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, and the Rugjer Bošković Institute. Also presented is the postwar structure and organization of the chemical-technological study at the Technical Faculty and later at the Faculty of Technology. The chemical lectures and research in chemistry at the Faculty of Nutrition and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Facultyof Agronomy and Faculty of Forestry are reviewed. This article follows logically our first article in this series entitled Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. I. From the Turn of the Century to May 8,th 1945 (Kem. Ind. 56 (2007 403–416.

  13. TEACHERS' GUIDES. WORLD HISTORY FOR THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED. ADVANCED PLACEMENT EUROPEAN HISTORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AUGSPURGER, EVERETT F.; AND OTHERS

    PREPARED BY TEACHERS AND SUPERVISORS WORKING WITH A 2-YEAR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT, THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS GUIDES FOR A WORLD HISTORY COURSE (PREHISTORY TO EARLY 20TH CENTURY) FOR THE GIFTED AND AN ADVANCED PLACEMENT COURSE IN EUROPEAN HISTORY (ANCIENT CIVILIZATION TO EARLY 20TH CENTURY). STUDENTS ARE EXPECTED TO STUDY HISTORICAL ISSUES AND DEVELOP…

  14. Agricultural advertising in periodicals of the late 19th - early 20th centuries from the collection of NMHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Serjant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the stage of development, advertising as a historical phenomenon was expanding its sphere of influence penetrating more and more in various spheres of human activity. Agriculture, which is an important branch of the national economy closely related to the trade, always needs advertising. The absence of serfdom and the agrarian reforms have contributed to the integration of Bessarabian agriculture into the system of market relations. Local farmers needed promotion and marketing of agricultural products. For this they applied to various means of advertising. Agricultural advertisings can be found in the pages of the Bessarabian press from the late 19th - early 20th centuries. Most often, they were printed in publications of agricultural profile. An example is the magazine "Bessarabskoe sel'skoe khozyaistvo" ("Bessarabian Agriculture", the publication of Agronomic Section of the Bessarabian Naturalists' Society and the Chişinău Department of the Imperial Russian Society for Horticulture. The magazine was published from 1908 to 1917. In the collection of MNHM there are 28 issues of this magazine (in all there were 240 issues. The years of publication: 1909, 1910, 1912 and 1916. They are the main source of research on the topic. The aim of this work is to determine the themes of agricultural advertisements and their contribution to the im- provement of agricultural management in Tsarist Bessarabia. All issues of the journal had the ads section. Regular customers of the journal were both local and foreign manufac- turers. Among the local: Fruit an Grape Nurseries "EKO" (Soroca; Bucovăţ Fruit and Grape Nurseries; Baron A. Stuart's Fruit Nursery (Chişinău; Cocorozeni Agricultural School; E.P. Melega-Kuzminskaia's estate of Temeleuţi and F.F. Köppen's estate of Voinovo-Ikel; Horticulture, Viticulture and Winemaking Bureau and Storage of Agricultural Machinery of N.G. Kavsan (Chişinău, etc. The ads offered planting material tested

  15. The Cooperation of Turkey and Azerbaijan in Military Sphere at the Turn of 20th-21st Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parubochaya Elena Fedorovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an urgent problem dealing with the cooperation of the Turkish Republic and Azerbaijan Republic in the military sphere at the end of 20th – the beginning of 21st century. For Azerbaijan’ s leaders Turkey has always been a special partner. This statement has an explanation. Ankara was the first state, which recognized the independence of Azerbaijan Republic. Moreover, Turkish government made great efforts to strengthen new state in different spheres. Military ties were one of the most important for both sides. The cooperation between two states in the military sphere can be subdivided into several periods. The article gives the detailed analysis of normative documents concluded by the Republics’ governments. The first period of military contacts (1990s was the time of Turkish educational support. Ankara provided training assistance to the military forces of Azerbaijan. Military staff was restrained by Turkish instructors. Special uniform, armament and other equipment to make transformation was given to Baku by Turkish partners. Step by step, Azerbaijan’ s military sphere was moving to Western standards. The year 1999 has become an important period for the military relations of Ankara and Baku. Since this year the military cooperation has extended and intensified, it is possible to name it as a new period of states’ military collaboration. Turkish government gave financial aid to Ministry of Defense of Republic of Azerbaijan, provided the material and technical support to Baku for improving long-term military cooperation. In 2010 the Turkey-Azerbaijan Strategic Partnership Agreement was signed. It should be noticed that Baku refused to sign the agreement of Azerbaijan’s participation in Collective security treaty organization, leaving the block of CSTO states headed by the Russian Federation. It’s possible to say about the strengthening of the Baku-Ankara alliance. This action may lead to complication of Baku

  16. Evaluating model simulations of 20th century sea-level rise. Part 1: global mean sea-level change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; Meyssignac, B.; Agosta, C.; Champollion, N.; Church, J.A.; Fettweis, X.; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; Marzeion, B.; Melet, A.; Palmer, M.D.; Richter, K.; Roberts, C.D.; Spada, G.

    2017-01-01

    Sea level change is one of the major consequences of climate change and is projected to affect coastal communities around the world. Here, global mean sea level (GMSL) change estimated by 12 climate models from phase 5 of the World Climate Research Programme’s Climate Model Intercomparison Project

  17. Integration through Land Improvment – Internal Colonization in Switzerland During the First Part of the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Internal colonization in Switzerland is often seen in connection with the battle for cultivation in the Second World War, but the history of internal colonization in Switzerland is more complex. The food crisis in the First World War formed the horizon of experience for various actors from industry, consumer protection, the urban population and agriculture to start considering practical strategies for managing agricultural production. In this way, traditional spaces, such as rural and urban a...

  18. Visible signs of illness from the 14th to the 20th century: systematic review of portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Als, C; Stüssi, Y; Boschung, U; Tröhler, U; Wäber, J H

    2002-01-01

    way in which people were reproduced. People depicted are possibly not representative of the general Bernese population as they constituted a socioeconomically advantaged group. What is already know on this topicReviews of individual portraits from the past have found clinical signs of illness that have led to discussions of underlying diseasesGoitre probably affected in excess of 80% of the population of the canton of Berne up to the beginning of the 20th centuryWhat this study addsIn a large series of portraits from the Bernese region, goitre and other diseases are under-representedFindings of age dependent overweight (a survival advantage in times of potential famine) were probably more realisticLikely explanations for this include idealisation depending on sex and age, artistic skills, fashion, and sociocultural significance of illnessA decline in depicted signs of illness from the 19th century may indicate progress of preventive medicine and hygiene PMID:12493682

  19. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  20. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  1. EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2011-03-01

    This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It is important to note that this is not a conference 'proceedings'. Following the initial selection process by the International Scientific Committee, all papers were submitted to the journal by the authors and have been fully peer reviewed to the standard required for publication in Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST). The papers are based on presentations given at the conference but are intended to be specialized technical papers covering all or part of the topic presented by the author during the meeting. The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of the European Physical Society focusing on collisional and radiative aspects of atomic and molecular physics in partially ionized gases as well as on plasma-surface interaction. The conference focuses on low-temperature plasma sciences in general and includes the following topics: Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function Physical basis of plasma chemistry Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) Plasma diagnostics Plasma and discharges theory and simulation Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas Low-pressure plasma sources High-pressure plasma sources Plasmas and gas flows Laser-produced plasmas During ESCAMPIG XX special sessions were dedicated to workshops on: Atomic and molecular collision data for plasma modeling, organized by Professors Z Lj Petrovic and N Mason Plasmas in medicine, organized by Dr N Puac and Professor G Fridman. The conference topics were represented in the

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

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    Lisa Baillargeon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

  3. ON ETREPRENUERSHIP AT MAIN CLAY PITS AND BRICKYARDS OF CENTRAL CROATIA AT THE END OF 19TH AND BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURIES

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    Berislav šebečić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In central Croatia at the beginning of 20th century, clay pits were mostly managed by individual entrepreneurs, and less by joint stock companies and municipal or district local authorities. Majority of clay pit met the local and regional requirements i.e. demands, and quality products were exported. Exploitation of brickwork clay was carried out from open pits, while potter's, stove-maker's and porcelain clays were exploited from mining shafts and tunnels. From the clay raw material, annual production of minor brickyards amounted to 200-300,000 bricks, and that of major ones was 1-2,000,000 pieces of bricks or roofing-tiles. The number of workers in brickyards and cement works was growing in the first decade of 20th century, while that of potter's and stove-maker's crafts was decreasing. Pottery became a secondary trade in the majority of Croatian and Slavonian counties (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Murman Coast of the Barents Sea at the Second Half of the 19th and the Begining 20th Century. Russian or European Colonization?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel V. Fedorov

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to analysing the historical background of the process of colonization Murman coast of the Barents Sea at the second half of the 19th and the begining 20th century. It consider two different interpretations of the history of colonization. One of them is the process of checking the Murman coast as a result of Russia imposed Western European initiatives. Another interpretation associates colonization with traditional process of the Russian presence on Murman.

  5. Hospital admissions for peptic ulcer and indigestion in London and New York in the 19th and early 20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J H; Sonnenberg, A

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of peptic ulcer increased rapidly in all Western countries from the 19th to the 20th century, attributed to a possible epidemic of Helicobacter pylori, a new pathogenic strain, or a change in host susceptibility. The early trends in hospital admissions for peptic ulcer and dyspepsia in London and New York during the 19th century are reviewed to test these hypotheses. PMID:11889081

  6. Environmental Conflicts in Mining, Quarrying and Metallurgical Industries in the Iberian Peninsula (19th and 20th Century): Pollution and Popular Protest

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Paulo Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS IN MINING, QUARRYING, AND METALLURGICAL INDUSTRIES IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA (19TH AND 20TH CENTURY): POLLUTION AND PUBLIC PROTEST. Paulo E. Guimarães, NICPRI / University of Évora (Portugal) J. D. Pérez Cebada, Universidad of Huelva (Spain) Comparative and transnational analyses of social conflicts, related to the environmental changes produced by modern and contemporary mining industries, have been a topic of growing academic interest for the last two decad...

  7. Historical outline of the cancer in the speech of the Doctors of the atlantic coast. The first half of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra-Merlano Rita; Tuñón-Pitalúa Martha; Simancas-Mendoza Estela

    2012-01-01

    The present article is result of an historical investigation of descriptive character whichfundamental aim is to show, since the review of the medical scientific publications at theend of the 20th century and the first half of the 20thcentury, the presence of the canceras a welfare and academic subject matter in the Facultad de Medicina of the Universidadde Cartagena in Colombia. Moreover, to identify to the teachers who contributed in thediffusion of the knowledge in those subject matters an...

  8. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure t...

  9. The long-term determinants of marital fertility in the developed world (19th and 20th centuries: The role of welfare policies

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    Jesús Sánchez-Barricarte

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographic transition theory was shattered dramatically as a result of the research carried out in the course of the Princeton European Fertility Project. There is still no consensus among demographers as to the causes underlying the fertility transition. Objective: We set out to test the explanatory capacity of certain variables which have traditionally been used to interpret the historical decline in fertility (mortality, level of education, economic development, urbanization as well as the role played by the rise of the welfare state. Methods: We collected information on different kinds of socioeconomic variables in 25 developed countries over a very long period of time. We carried out panel cointegrating regressions and country panel fixed and time effects generalized least squares. Results: We show that the decline in mortality, the increase in educational level, and economic factors all played a leading role in the historical decline in fertility. We found that the present welfare system places a remarkable burden on those who decide to have a family. Conclusions: A new kind of public social transfer model needs to be designed which will minimize the damaging consequences that our current welfare states have had with regard to fertility. Contribution: 1 The emphasis on the causal impact of the emergence and maturation of the social welfare system using Lindert's data on social transfers since the late 19th century to 1990. 2 The enormous amount of historical data compiled, as documented in the Appendix. 3 The modern panel cointegration techniques used to analyze the long- and short-term impacts of the different determinants of fertility.

  10. Rockefeller and the internationalization of mathematics between the two world wars document and studies for the social history of mathematics in the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Siegmund-Schultze, Reinhard

    2001-01-01

    Philanthropies funded by the Rockefeller family have been prominent in the social history of the twentieth century for their involvement in medicine and applied science. This book provides the first detailed study of their relatively brief but nonetheless influential foray into the field of mathematics. The careers of a generation of pathbreakers in modern mathematics, such as S.Banach, B.L.van der Waerden and André Weil, were decisively affected by their becoming fellows of the Rockefeller-funded International Education Board in the 1920s. To help promote cooperation between physics and mathematics Rockefeller funds supported the erection of the new Mathematical Institute in Göttingen between 1926 and 1929, while the rise of probability and mathematical statistics owes much to the creation of the Institut Henri Poincaré in Paris by American philanthropy at about the same time. This account draws upon the documented evaluation processes behind these personal and institutional involvements of philanthropies...

  11. How Gender Shaped Science and Education: A History of Nutritional Sciences in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Rima D.

    2010-01-01

    Many societies view the world as composed of two distinct and complementary spheres: the female (domestic) sphere and the male (public) sphere. Because science was part of the male sphere, women were inhibited from pursuing a career in scientific research. However, the more limited female sphere often found within university departments of home…

  12. Does the Early Adopter of Drugs Exist? A Population Based Study of General Practitioners’ Prescribing of New Drugs.20 th International Conference on Pharmacoepiemiology and Risk Management. Bordeaux, France. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2004;13:Sl 1:158

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdahl, Torben; Andersen, Morten; Søndergaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    20 th International Conference on Pharmacoepiemiology and Risk Management. Bordeaux, France. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2004;13:Sl 1:158......20 th International Conference on Pharmacoepiemiology and Risk Management. Bordeaux, France. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2004;13:Sl 1:158...

  13. The Migration of African Americans to the Canadian Football League during the mid-20th Century: An Escape from Discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Longley; Todd Crosset; Steve Jefferson

    2007-01-01

    The institutional racial discrimination that existed in American professional team sports prior to World War II resulted in African American players effectively being barred from playing in the major professional leagues. Although the NFL color barrier did officially fall in 1946, to be quickly followed by the fall of the MLB color barrier one year later when Jackie Robinson made his debut for the Brooklyn Dodgers, these events were just the beginning of the struggles for African American ath...

  14. The Formation of the Indian Entrepreneurial Community in Japan in the End of 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Firsova Varvara Sergeevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on Western, Japanese and field-work materials of the author who describes the main stages of formation of the Indian entrepreneurial diaspora in Japan in the period from the late 19th century until the beginning of the World War II. Indian entrepreneurs, being the representatives of trade and usury communities, Sindhis and Parsis in particular, started to arrive here in 1870s under British protection. Their main occupation was the export of Japanese textile which was the main export item of Japan in the mentioned period. Indians maintained the export of the textile goods, silk and cotton, in different countries all over the world through their strong entrepreneurial networks. The majority of Indian firms in Japan were Sindhis firms, and Sindhis network was especially prominent. Indian firms especially prospered in 1920-1930s, when their share of Japanese textile export constituted about 70 %. Thanks to strong ethnic loyalties, Indians in Japan could not only prosper but also successfully adapt to closed Japanese society. The article considers the pattern of settlement of Indians in Japan, and emphasizes two stages of Indian community formation in the pre-War period. The first one lasted from 1870s till 1923 year, when the community was formed basically in Yokohama. And the second stage after Great Kanto Earthquake lasted from 1923 till 1939, when it was constituted mainly in Kobe, which in present days remains the centre of Indian entrepreneurial community in Japan.

  15. The Ukrainian community of Western Siberia: specific features of formation and development in the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century

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    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian crisis in the European part of the Russian Empire in the middle of the 20th century seriously impeded agricultural progress. Agrarian overpopulation and peasants deprived of land in the course of the peasant reform of 1861 further aggravated the negative situation in the governorates of Central Russia, Belarus, and left-bank Ukraine. These factors provided fertile soil for migratory sentiments among peasants. It was resettlement in vacant lands in the Asiatic Russia and North Caucasus, which allowed most of them to preserve their homesteads. In the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century, Ukrainian peasants were actively engaged in the migration movement which was supported by the state. One of the main placement areas became Western Siberia where a large Ukrainian peasant community was formed. The history of research on the Ukrainian community in Western Siberia is fragmentary, as many aspects remain unstudied. Hence, the article focuses on the following questions: causes of the Ukrainian migration to the border lands of the Russian Empire; stages in the migration; main areas where Ukrainians resided in Siberia; population dynamics of the Ukrainian community; adaptation patterns specific for Ukrainian migrants in their new places of residence; their role in the economic life of Siberia in the early 20th century. This article utilizes primary data from the All-Russian Agricultural and Land Census of 1917, which have been introduced for scientific use for the first time. As the methodological basis, the study draws on the system approach combining regional, neo-imperial and comparative principles.

  16. Students Life in the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in the First Years of Its Existence (Late 19th — Early 20th Ct.

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    O. S. Bilyavska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the various pages of the life of students of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in the first years of its existence — educational, scientific, casual and students participated in the revolutionary-democratic movement of Kyiv late 19th—early 20th centuries. Study of student life Kyiv Polytechnic Institute late 19th and early 20th centuries is a separate page in the history of this institution. In conditions of autocracy, strict control of the Government, of the Ministry of Finance, which was subject to institute systematic interference in its activities of the Kyiv authorities and police, students themselves organized and find different ways to influence the improvement of educational and methodical process, improve their daily lives. Analysis of historical sources provides an answer to the causes of the growth of public and revolutionary activity of a large number of students of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute that time. General political crisis of the Russian Empire, autocratic way, national and social oppression, lack of political rights and freedoms have caused strong protests from students. One of the main requirements of students was the recognition of the autonomy of higher education institutions, police interference in their activities. Unfair considered sexual, national and class limit admission to the KPI. Object of study was chosen by the author as Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, its work in the late 19th and early 20th century, as the oldest and reputable higher engineering school at that time. Experience of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute is of great importance for the modern transformation of higher education in Ukraine.

  17. The key role of ozone depleting substances in weakening the Walker Circulation over the second half of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, K.; Polvani, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that the Walker Circulation will weaken in response to increasing greenhouse gases (GHG) by the end of the 21st century. But over the 20th century, the existence of a statistical significant weakening trends in the observations remains unclear. We here present new modelling evidence showing that Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) may have significantly contributed to the weakening of the Walker Circulation over the years 1955-2005. While the primary impact of increasing ODS has been the formation of the ozone hole, it is perhaps not as widely appreciated that ODS are also powerful greenhouse gases. Using an ensemble of integrations with the the Whole Atmosphere Chemistry Climate Model, we show that the surface warming caused by increasing ODS over the second half of the 20th century causes a statistically significant weakening of the Walker Circulation in the model. In fact, we find that the increase of the other well-mixed GHG alone leads to a strengthening, not a weakening of the Walker Circulation, over that period in our model. When ODS concentrations are held fixed at 1950's levels, the effect of the other GHG is not sufficient, and a warming delay in the eastern tropical Pacific SST leads to an increase in the east-west SST gradient which is accompanied by a strengthening of the Walker Circulation. But, when the forcing from ODS is added in, the additional radiative forcing causes the eastern Pacific to warm faster, and the trend in the Walker Circulation reverses sign and becomes negative over the second half of the 20th century.

  18. Potentially dangerous 24-hour rainfall in the Provadiyska vally system at the end of the 20th and early 21st Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladev, Dimitar

    2018-03-01

    Extreme rainfalls are of paramount importance for the formation of river springs and, consequently, the occurrence of spills and floods. The article presents the results of a case study of the potentially dangerous 24-hour eruptions in the Provadiyska valley system from the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. Particular attention is paid to the morphometric parameters and the configuration of the river-valley supply network of the Provadiyska river. On this basis, there are defined areas in which there are favorable conditions for forming high river waves.

  19. Mapping the refugee’s settlements in Thessaloniki during the first thirty years of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvaidis, P.

    2013-01-01

    During the Balkan wars and particularly after the national disaster of Asia Minor, Thessaloniki had to lodge many tenths of thousands of refugees. Then the town authorities created settlements for their hosting. These settlements were rapidly transformed to urban quarters of the town leading to an extension of the town to any direction, particularly to the NW and SE directions without any urban planning. These settlements and later on urban quarters were mapped in different Charts of the town during the 20th Century. The study of these maps is the subject of this paper.(in Greeks)

  20. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.

  1. [Eugenics and Discrimination in Colombia: the Role of Medicine and Psychiatry in Immigration Policy at the Beginning of the 20th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Jaime Carrizosa

    2014-03-01

    With the Theory of Evolution, eugenics had its beginnings during the last decades of the 19th century. Academics discussed the results obtained from their observations, and progressively had influence on the promulgation of laws and norms related to ethnic hygiene and improvement of race. Such principles were the fundamentals to order eugenic and discriminatory laws. Colombia was not outside that discussion and developed immigration laws congruent to that thinking during the first half of the 20th century. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Specifics of the implicit expression of the author’s gender identity in 19th and 20th century German-language female memories

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    Kessler L.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available this article covers the expression of implicit gender identity of the subject of speech activity in the 19th and 20th century women's memories. The study revealed that implicit gender aspects associated with linguistic ascertainment of gender stereotypes presented in female linguistic material form the lexico-semantic category of “Character”. Within this category, the lexico-semantic sub-categories “Emotionality”, “Fearfulness and diffidence” and “Dreaminess” play a significant role, representing the corresponding stereotypes.

  3. Applied geology in the research of Karol Bohdanowicz and his Polish graduates in Siberia at the turn of the 20th century (in Polish

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    Andrzej J. Wójcik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of applied geology (geology of deposits, engineering geology, hydrogeology at the turn of the 20th century in Siberia, was conducted by the graduates of the Institute of Mining led by Karol Bohdanowicz. The team included, among others, Stefan Czarnocki and Stanisław Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki. Their activity in Siberia became a proof that the so-called “Bohdanowicz’s school” existed and the results of their research have earned their place in the science and have become the basis for developing the mining of mineral resources.

  4. Conceptual resistance in the disciplines of the mind: the Leipzig-Buenos Aires connection at the beginning of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiana, Cecilia

    2005-11-01

    Personal correspondence written by Prof. Felix Krueger from Argentina in 1906-1907 to his teacher and mentor Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig is situated in the historical context of the theoretical debates taking place at the University of Buenos Aires at the beginning of the 20th century. A critical survey of the transatlantic migration of psychological theories and their reception in Argentina raises the broader issues of the nature of the cultural and social roots of local interpretations induced by the circulation of theories across national fields of scientific inquiry. It is argued that national intellectual fields and the historicity of their categories of interpretation mediate in the foreign trade of theories.

  5. Bad habits and bad genes: early 20th-century eugenic attempts to eliminate syphilis and associated "defects" from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip K

    2003-01-01

    American eugenists in the early 20th century distinguished "degenerates," including syphilitics, prostitutes, alcoholics and criminals, from the "normal" population by their particular bad habits. From eugenists' viewpoint, these bad habits were derived from bad character, a flaw that stemmed from an individual's bad genes. This essay explores how eugenists during this period characterized syphilitics and those with associated character "defects" in terms of heredity. Additionally, it examines the methods eugenists most frequently advocated to rectify these bad habits. These methods included marriage restriction, immigration control and reproductive sterilization. Overall, eugenists directed their efforts not so much at the "degenerate" as at his or her germ line.

  6. Russian Folk Culture in the 20 th Century: Oral Evidence of the Villagers (On the Materials of Folklore Expeditions

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    Ekaterina A. Dorokhova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Folk culture is capable of developing certain adaptation mechanisms that help it promptly react to the changing conditions of natural, socio-political, and economic environment. This is evidenced by the stories of the villagers recorded during folklore expeditions to different regions of Russia. The article highlights changes that took place in the traditional Russian culture under the influence of collectivization in the 1920s–1930s, the collapse of kolkhozes in the 1990s, the development of the rural club amateur performances in the Soviet time, the events of the World War II, modern military conflicts, and Chernobyl ecological catastrophe. The authors come to conclusion that representatives of traditional culture flexibly adapt to their new living conditions, while extreme conditions such as wars and ecological catastrophes often contribute to the actualization of folk culture and enable the return of its certain aspects to living practice.

  7. Technology and Power Play in the International System: A Study of the 20th and 21st Centuries

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    Grace Yusuf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has led to a profound diffusion of technological innovations among State and Non-state actors. This has a resultant impact on the arrangement of the distribution of power in the International System. History captures continuous transition in the distribution of power between states in the International System; from a multi-polar system during the first and Second World War, to the bipolar system of the cold war and the uni-polar system that emerged in the aftermath of the cold war. The emergence of new actors in the international system and the change in technological nature and application is ushering in a new era of ‘Non-polarity’ in the International System. The aim of this paper is to consider the evolving dynamics of the distribution of power in the International System while considering the roles technology has to play. The paper relays the conceptualization of basic terms, and then applies the ‘Balance of Power theory’ as its theoretical thrust. Finally, it expands on the role of technology in the distribution of power in the International System and what it entails for the future.

  8. Social and Political Activization of the Don Nobility in the Early 20th Century and “Noble Liberalism”

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    Bratolyubova Mariya Viktorovna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarity of the social, economic and legal status of the Don nobility influenced its political alertness and the opposition character of activity. The liberal wing supported the creation of a new world outlook system which was expected to provide the basis for transforming the political system by means of gradual transition to people’s representatives or constitutional form of government. The liberal landowners insisted on the introduction of zemstvo (district council, the solution of the Cossack issue; they strived for liberalization of the military and bureaucratic control of the Cossack troops and demanded the withdrawal of civil government agencies from the competence of the Military department. The liberal nobility actively supported the change of conditions of service for the Cossacks and pressed for easier draft obligation and releasing the Cossack troops from police duties which clashed with the military dignity. The conservative type of liberalism prevailed within the noble class of the DHR that distanced itself from both the left and the right political forces. The liberalism of the Don nobles was also a reflection of social and cultural peculiarities of the Cossacks. The social basis of the Don liberalism differed from the common Russian analogs. As the Cossack class was rather numerous at the Don, and its representatives made up quite an important part of the regional liberal corporation, they influenced its tactics and the political programming considerably.

  9. Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower in 2014 and activity of comet 289P/Blanpain in the early 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasunori; Nakamura, Takuji; Uehara, Satoshi; Sagayama, Toru; Toda, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower were made in North Carolina, USA, with seven video cameras and two digital cameras over a period of about 5 hr between 22:30 UT on 2014 December 1 and 04:00 UT on December 2. Activity of the Phoenicids was confirmed during this period, including the predicted maximum around 00 h UT on December 2. The activity level was not high, considering that 29 Phoenicid meteors and 109 non-Phoenicid meteors were detected. A gentle peak in the activity was recognized between 01:00 UT and 03:00 UT on December 2. The compact radiant of the Phoenicids agreed well with what was predicted. A comparison of the observed and predicted peak times, radiant position, bright meteors' dominance, and radiants' spread revealed that the observed meteors originated from the dust trails formed by comet 289P/Blanpain at the perihelion passage in the early 20th century. This indicates that the parent body of the Phoenicids, comet 289P/Blanpain, was still active as a comet in the early 20th century and provided meteoroids, although its activity level was significantly weaker than that at the beginning of the 19th century.

  10. The Clinical Features of Paranoia in the 20th Century and Their Representation in Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-III Through DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2017-03-01

    This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors. Four textbook authors rejected the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia. A weak relationship was seen between the frequency with which the clinical features were reported and the likelihood of their inclusion in modern DSM manuals. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder shifted substantially from DSM-III to DSM-5. The modern operationalized criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder do not well reflect the symptoms and signs frequently reported by historical experts. In contrast to results of similar reviews for depression, schizophrenia and mania, the clinical construct of paranoia/delusional disorder has been somewhat unstable in Western Psychiatry since the turn of the 20th century as reflected in both textbooks and the DSM editions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Progress in China's climate change study in the 20th century%20世纪中国气候变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟盘茂; 巢清尘; 邹旭恺

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the 20th century climate change in China have revealed that under the background of global warming over the past century,climate in China has also experienced significant change with mean annual temperature increased by about 0.5 °C.More reliable results for the latter part of the 20th century indicate that the largest warming occurred in Northwest China,North China and Northeast China,and the warming in winter is most significant.Although no obvious increase or decrease trends were detected for mean precipitation over China in the past half century,regional differences are very distinct.In the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,precipitation increased,while that in the Yellow River Basin markedly decreased.Studies suggest that climate change in China seems to be related not only with the internal factors such as ENSO,PDO,and the others,but also with the anthropogenic effects such as greenhouse gas emissions,and land use.The future climate change studies in China seem to be important in narrowing understanding the nature of China's climate change and its main causes,since it is significant for projection and for impact assessment of climate change in the future.

  12. Bookseller’s Classification: Classification Examples and Criteria of Croatian Booksellers in Sales Catalogs and Book Lists from the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Topić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to conduct research on the topic of ways of bookstore (sales classification of Croatian bookstores from the beginning of the 20th century. By content analysis of the 17 sales lists/catalogs of books from Dubrovnik, Split, Zadar, Karlovac, Zagreb and Osijek, the classification structure has been reconstructed, and the criteria according to which the booksellers offerings have been classified in the early 20th century have been determined. Conducting of the analysis established the following criteria of the bookstore classification: topic/content, form/type of work, type of corpus, genre, language, purpose, publishing series, publisher, time of publication, (new edition, time of publication/purchase, customer's specific interests, number, letter and author. Order of enumeration within specific categories is mostly alphabetic, numeric or according to order of publication. Unlike the library classification and classification systems in general, the problematics of bookstore classification is not very present in the current existing sources. Research studies that focus on the history of bookselling, even if they reveal ways of classification of booksellers offers remain on a descriptive level without any deeper analysis of the criteria or possible reasons of such classification. Therefore, the contribution of the paper is a detailed analysis of a larger pattern of bookstore sales catalogs, and also an attempt of illuminating the criteria and reasons of creating a system of bookstore classification in the defined historical, spatial and time context.

  13. The Clinical Features of Paranoia in the 20th Century and Their Representation in Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-III Through DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors. Four textbook authors rejected the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia. A weak relationship was seen between the frequency with which the clinical features were reported and the likelihood of their inclusion in modern DSM manuals. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder shifted substantially from DSM-III to DSM-5. The modern operationalized criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder do not well reflect the symptoms and signs frequently reported by historical experts. In contrast to results of similar reviews for depression, schizophrenia and mania, the clinical construct of paranoia/delusional disorder has been somewhat unstable in Western Psychiatry since the turn of the 20th century as reflected in both textbooks and the DSM editions. PMID:28003468

  14. The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloteaux, Gerard.

    1977-01-01

    The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism [fr

  15. History of science and technology in the 20th century and super-technologies at present. 20 seiki no kagaku gijutsushi to genzai no (cho) gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futami, S. (Yasukawa Electric Mfg. Co. Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1992-10-05

    Technologies whose names are prefixed with super are discussed from a viewpoint of history of science and technology. A chronology for super-prefixed sciences and technologies in the 20th century is presented. Since Bohr's quantum theory and Einstein's fundamental formula for atomic energy: E = mc[sup 2] that rank as two heads of super-science, were published in the begining of the 20th century, their theories have been playing roles as a foundation of the development of science and technology in this century. Namely, on the basis of quantum theory, semi-conductors were invented and super-conduction has been developed. The Einstein's fundamental formula has led to atomic bombs and commercial power reactors. Development to super-technologies in various fields of sciences and technologies is explained. When a nation's history of science and technology is assumed as a process from mimicry to self-sustenance that is composed of the following four steps: (1) import of products, (2)initiation of production and transfer of technology, (3)transit to technological self-sustain, (4) establishment of creative technology. Japan is in a process between(3) and(4). Further, super-technologies under research and development for the present in Japan are enumerated. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Correia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years

  17. To what extent does climate explain variations in reported malaria cases in early 20th century Uganda?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian M. Tompkins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria case statistics were analysed for the period 1926 to 1960 to identify inter-annual variations in malaria cases for the Uganda Protectorate. The analysis shows the mid-to-late 1930s to be a period of increased reported cases. After World War II, malaria cases trend down to a relative minimum in the early 1950s, before increasing rapidly after 1953 to the end of the decade. Data for the Western Province confirm these national trends, which at the time were attributed to a wide range of causes, including land development and management schemes, population mobility, interventions and misdiagnosis. Climate was occasionally proposed as a contributor to enhanced case numbers, and unusual precipitation patterns were held responsible; temperature was rarely, if ever, considered. In this study, a dynamical malaria model was driven with available precipitation and temperature data from the period for five stations located across a range of environments in Uganda. In line with the historical data, the simulations produced relatively enhanced transmission in the 1930s, although there is considerable variability between locations. In all locations, malaria transmission was low in the late 1940s and early 1950s, steeply increasing after 1954. Results indicate that past climate variability explains some of the variations in numbers of reported malaria cases. The impact of multiannual variability in temperature, while only on the order of 0.5°C, was sufficient to drive some of the trends observed in the statistics and thus the role of climate was likely underestimated in the contemporary reports. As the elimination campaigns of the 1960s followed this partly climate-driven increase in malaria, this emphasises the need to account for climate when planning and evaluating intervention strategies.

  18. Mean relative sea level rise along the coasts of the China Seas from mid-20th to 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Han, Guoqi; Yang, Jingsong

    2018-01-01

    Mean relative sea level (MRSL) rise has caused more frequent flooding in many parts of the world. The MRSL rise varies substantially from place to place. Here we use tide-gauge data and satellite measurements to examine past MRSL trends for the coasts of the China Seas. We then combine climate model output and satellite observations to provide MRSL projections in the 21st century. The MRSL trend based on tide-gauge data shows substantial regional variations, from 1 to 5 mm/yr. The vertical land motion (VLM) based on altimetry and tide-gauge (ATG) data indicates large land subsidence at some tide-gauge locations, consistent with the Global Positioning Systems (GPS)-based VLM but different significantly from small uplift estimated by a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model, which suggests other important factors causing the VLM instead of the GIA process. When GPS- or ATG-based VLM estimates are used, the projected MRSL rise between 1986-2005 and 2081-2100 at tide-gauge sites varies from 60 to 130 cm under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Our projections are significantly larger than those of IPCC and other literature, as a result of accounting for the land subsidence derived from observations. Steric and dynamic ocean effects and land-ice melt effects are comparable (about 30 cm each) and do not vary much over the tide-gauge locations. The VLM effect varies from -10 to 60 cm. The projections between 1986-2005 and 2081-2100 under RCP4.5 show a similar spatial distribution to that under RCP8.5, with a smaller amount of rise by 18 cm on average for this region.

  19. 20th International Conference for Students and Young Scientists: Modern Techniques and Technologies (MTT'2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The active involvement of young researchers in scientific processes and the acquisition of scientific experience by gifted youth currently have a great value for the development of science. One of the research activities of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, aimed at the preparing and formation of the next generation of scientists, is the International Conference of Students and Young Scientists ''Modern Techniques and Technologies'', which was held in 2014 for the twentieth time. Great experience in the organization of scientific events has been acquired through years of carrying the conference. There are all the necessary resources for this: a team of organizers – employees of Tomsk Polytechnic University, premises provided with modern office equipment and equipment for demonstration, and leading scientists – professors of TPU, as well as the status of the university as a leading research university in Russia. This way the conference is able to attract world leading scientists for the collaboration. For the previous years the conference proved itself as a major scientific event at international level, which attracts more than 600 students and young scientists from Russia, CIS and other countries. The conference provides oral plenary and section reports. The conference is organized around lectures, where leading Russian and foreign scientists deliver plenary presentations to young audiences. An important indicator of this scientific event is the magnitude of the coverage of scientific fields: energy, heat and power, instrument making, engineering, systems and devices for medical purposes, electromechanics, material science, computer science and control in technical systems, nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, physical methods in science and technology, control and quality management, design and technology of artistic materials processing. The main issues considered by young researchers at the conference were related to the

  20. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius, Darius Staliūnas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius und Darius Staliūnas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  1. [Russland an der Ostsee - Russia on the Baltic. Imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) - Imperial Strategies of Power and Cultural Patterns od Perception (16th - 20th Centuries)] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Wien [etc.] : Böhlau, 2012

  2. Influence of high-latitude warming and land-use changes in the early 20th century northern Eurasian CO2 sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Peregon, Anna; Gani, Érico A.; Khudyaev, Sergey; Yue, Chao; Li, Wei; Gouveia, Célia M.; Ciais, Philippe

    2018-06-01

    While the global carbon budget (GCB) is relatively well constrained over the last decades of the 20th century [1], observations and reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 growth rate present large discrepancies during the earlier periods [2]. The large uncertainty in GCB has been attributed to the land biosphere, although it is not clear whether the gaps between observations and reconstructions are mainly because land-surface models (LSMs) underestimate inter-annual to decadal variability in natural ecosystems, or due to inaccuracies in land-use change reconstructions. As Eurasia encompasses about 15% of the terrestrial surface, 20% of the global soil organic carbon pool and constitutes a large CO2 sink, we evaluate the potential contribution of natural and human-driven processes to induce large anomalies in the biospheric CO2 fluxes in the early 20th century. We use an LSM specifically developed for high-latitudes, that correctly simulates Eurasian C-stocks and fluxes from observational records [3], in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the Eurasian sink to the strong high-latitude warming occurring between 1930 and 1950. We show that the LSM with improved high-latitude phenology, hydrology and soil processes, contrary to the group of LSMs in [2], is able to represent enhanced vegetation growth linked to boreal spring warming, consistent with tree-ring time-series [4]. By compiling a dataset of annual agricultural area in the Former Soviet Union that better reflects changes in cropland area linked with socio-economic fluctuations during the early 20th century, we show that land-abadonment during periods of crisis and war may result in reduced CO2 emissions from land-use change (44%–78% lower) detectable at decadal time-scales. Our study points to key processes that may need to be improved in LSMs and LUC datasets in order to better represent decadal variability in the land CO2 sink, and to better constrain the GCB during the pre-observational record.

  3. The Influence of Canadian Intellectuals’ Ideological Views on the Political Culture in Canada at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOV I.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political views of Canadian intellectuals which had influence on the formation of Canadian political culture at the turn of the 20th century. The author confirms that the Canadian intellectual thought was the main ideological factor in the conditions of the formation of Canadian statehood, undeveloped party and political system, the lack of deep traditions of the parliamentary system, insufficient political practice and the lack of distinct ideology of basic political parties in the process of forming the Canadian nation. On the basis of studied Canadian sources, the author makes conclusion that the most of Canadian intellectuals did not participate directly in the political process and they considered themselves its bystanders. Besides, the Canadian intellectuals promoted the British political culture of the Victorian epoch. Although all of them were familiar wih the British socialistic thought – Fabianism, they insisted that the social transformation in the Canadian society is possible only through the improvement of moral system, the education of lower social classes and the maintenance of elite monarch traditions. The American influence on Canadian political culture was peripheral at the beginning of the 20th century. The ideas of the Chicago Sociological School and the European continental thought were not used. The Victorian intellectuals understood their time as the social crisis and their political discussions were often devoted to the problems of imperialism, religion, education and feminism. They undoubtedly influenced the Canadian political elite in the matter of further development of the Canadian nation and state, but they expressed their own unique views on the contemporary society in academic press and in elite clubs discussions. They did not share the opinion of publicity about contemporary social processes, because their position was far from the direct party policy. Though some of them participated as

  4. THE A.P. CHEKHOV CHISHINAU RUSSIAN DRAMA THEATRE OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY THROUGH THE PRISM OF CRITICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AXIONOVA NADEJDA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the A. Р. Chekhov Chishinau Russian Drama Theatre during the 1980s-2000s of the 20th century is closely connected with the names of the following directors: I. Petrovski, M. Abramov, J. Ţiţinovski, N. Betsis, V. Apostol, M. Polea-kov, A. Barannikov, I. Shats, V. Madan, P. Vutcarau and A. Vasilake. In their work these directors based themselves on various theatre schools: the Stanislavsky experimental school, the Brecht psychological theatre etc. All these activities were relected by such theatre experts and critics as L. Shorina, N. and V. Rojcovskii, O. Garusova etc., and characterized by journalists in mass-media. This article reveals the importance of the A. Р. Chekhov Russian Drama Theatre in the public life of Moldova.

  5. French school of neurology in the 19 th and first half of the 20th century, and its influence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available French medicine was of the utmost importance for the birth of modern medicine and neurology in the 19 th century. Innovative approaches, such as examination at the bedside, the use of the stethoscope, techniques of auscultation, palpation, and close patient examination, besides emphasis on anatomical-clinical correlation and observation of the outcome of the disease, were put into practice. French medicine offered professional training and incentives for the beginnings of Brazilian neurology and psychiatry. Returning from France, many Brazilian physicians implemented what they had learned, mainly in Paris. The most important pupils of the French neurology schools in Brazil during the 19 th century and first half of the 20 th century include names like Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré, and Deolindo Couto, founders of the leading Brazilian neurological schools, directly influenced by Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski.

  6. In memory of Professor Leonor Michaelis in Nagoya: great contributions to biochemistry in Japan in the first half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, Toshiharu Toshi

    2013-09-02

    Leonor Michaelis spent the years of 1922-1926 as Professor of Biochemistry of the Aichi Medical College (now Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in Nagoya, Japan. Michaelis succeeded in gathering many bright young biochemists from all over Japan into his laboratory, and made tremendous contributions to the promotion of biochemistry in Japan. Michaelis was invited to many places in Japan to present lectures over those years. Kunio Yagi, who was Professor of Biochemistry at Nagoya University in the second half of the 20th century, succeeded in crystallizing the "Michaelis" enzyme-substrate complex. Historically, Michelis has had an enormous impact on biochemistry in Japan. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mobility and the Modern Intellectual: Translated Images from Early 20th-Century Literary Works in Spanish by Carmen Lyra and Luisa Luisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kanost

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay juxtaposes original translations of contrasting images from the novel En una silla de ruedas [In a Wheelchair] by Costa Rican writer Carmen Lyra and Poemas de la inmovilidad [Poems of Immobility] by Uruguayan writer Luisa Luisi to reveal how representations of intellectuals who are paralyzed might complicate discourses of the artist, social hygiene, and eugenics in early 20th-century Spanish America. Lyra portrays her protagonist's paralysis as a tragedy, but his disability is also the source of social mobility that allows the novel to depict marginalized members of Costa Rican society. Luisi contests modernista aesthetics of perfect forms, countering with a multifaceted exploration of inner space enabled by physical stillness. Through their depictions of hospitals, asylums, and sanitariums, both writers bear witness to bodies the modernizing project would prefer to hide, and imagine alternative forms of progress.

  8. Proceedings of the 24th Day of Scientific lectures and 20th Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.H; Carwell, H.V.

    1999-11-29

    The National Society of Black Physicists will hold its Twentieth annual meeting and its XXIIII Day of Scientific Lectures at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on March 27th - 30th, 1997. The meeting provides a major opportunity for African American physicists and students to present their current research and discuss issues germane to the constituency. It is therefore crucial to have the broadest cross-section of the membership at each meeting. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was chosen as the site of the 20th annual meeting because of its historical significance to Physics (being one of the first national laboratories in the United States) and the laboratories continuing support of the goals and objectives of the society.

  9. Possible role of the dimming/brightening in observed temperatures across Europe since the second half of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, E. J. M.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Wild, M.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The surface solar radiation (SSR) is the fundamental source of energy in the climate system, and consequently the source of life on our planet, due to its central role in the surface energy balance. Therefore, a significant impact on temperatures is expected due to the widespread dimming/brightening phenomenon observed since the second half of the 20th century (Wild, 2009). Previous studies pointed out the effects of SSR trends in temperatures series over Europe (Makowski et al., 2009; Philipona et al., 2009), although the lack of long-term SSR series limits these results. This work describes an updated sunshine duration (SS) dataset compiled by the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D) project based on around 300 daily time series over Europe covering the 1961-2010 period. The relationship between the SS and temperature series is analysed based on four temperature variables: maximum (TX), minimum (TN) and mean temperature (TG), as well as the diurnal temperature range (DTR). Regional and pan-European mean series of SS and temperatures are constructed. The analyses are performed on annual and seasonal scale, and focusing on the interannual and decadal agreement between the variables. The results show strong positive correlations on interannual scales between SS and temperatures over Europe, especially for the DTR and TX during the summer period and regions in Central Europe. Interestingly, the SS and temperatures series show a tendency towards higher correlations in the smoothed series, both for different regions and temperature variables. These results confirm the relationship between temperature and SS trends over Europe since the second half of the 20th century, which has been speculated to partially decrease (increase) temperatures during the dimming (brightening) period (Makowski et al., 2009; Wild, 2009). Further research is needed to confirm this cause-effect relationship currently found only using correlation analysis.

  10. Potential Predictability of the Sea-Surface Temperature Forced Equatorial East Africa Short Rains Interannual Variability in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaga, T. K.; Gizaw, G.; Kucharski, F.; Diro, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the predictability of the 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) forced East African short rains variability is analyzed using observational data and ensembles of long atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. To our knowledge, such an analysis for the whole 20th century using a series of AGCM ensemble simulations is carried out here for the first time. The physical mechanisms that govern the influence of SST on East African short rains in the model are also investigated. It is found that there is substantial skill in reproducing the East African short rains variability, given that the SSTs are known. Consistent with previous recent studies, it is found that the Indian Ocean and in particular the western pole of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) play a dominant role for the prediction skill, whereas SSTs outside the Indian Ocean play a minor role. The physical mechanism for the influence of the western Indian Ocean on East African rainfall in the model is consistent with previous findings and consists of a gill-type response to a warm (cold) anomaly that induces a westerly(easterly) low-level flow anomaly over equatorial Africa and leads to moisture flux convergence (divergence) over East Africa. On the other hand, a positive El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) anomaly leads to a spatially non-coherent reducing effect over parts of East Africa, but the relationship is not strong enough to provide any predictive skill in our model. The East African short rains prediction skill is also analyzed within a model-derived potential predictability framework and it is shown that the actual prediction skill is broadly consistent with the model potential prediction skill. Low-frequency variations of the prediction skill are mostly related to SSTs outside the Indian Ocean region and are likely due to an increased interference of ENSO with the Indian Ocean influence on East African short rains after the mid-1970s climate shift.

  11. How to sit on Two Sides of the Table? Swedish and Norwegian Unions’ Approaches to Representative Worker Participation during the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Sass

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To this day, participation rights in Sweden have been reserved for union members both on the company level and on the board level, while all employees in companies, which are covered by respective agreements and laws, have voting rights in Norway. The aim of this article is twofold: First of all, it traces this difference back in time, using historical evidence from relevant periods of the 20th century to illuminate how approaches of Swedish and Norwegian unions to representative worker participation evolved. Through the method of comparison, not only similarities and differences between the two countries but also continuities within the two union movements become apparent. It becomes clear that unions of both countries were worried about “double loyalties”, but participation was more closely and deliberately linked with membership in Sweden. This in turn points to the second aim of the article, namely to identify possible reasons for this particular difference. Why were Swedish unions apparently more worried about “free riders”? While a final explanation will not be attempted here, one possible explaining factor is that private capital concentration was higher in Sweden and that Swedish employer organizations were more powerful. Swedish unions thus might have used membership requirements with regard to participation to avoid internal splits and to protect their comparatively high unity and density. This might have helped them to confront their, in comparison with Norway, better organized adversaries. The main aim of the article, however, is the first one, namely to give a synthetical, comparative account of Swedish and Norwegian unions’ approaches to representative worker participation during the 20th century, with a main focus on voting rights.

  12. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  13. Multi-Scale Influences of Climate, Spatial Pattern, and Positive Feedback on 20th Century Tree Establishment at Upper Treeline in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    The influences of 20th century climate, spatial pattern of tree establishment, and positive feedback were assessed to gain a more holistic understanding of how broad scale abiotic and local scale biotic components interact to govern upper treeline ecotonal dynamics along a latitudinal gradient (ca. 35°N-45°N) in the Rocky Mountains. Study sites (n = 22) were in the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, Front Range, and Sangre de Cristo mountain ranges. Dendroecological techniques were used for a broad scale analysis of climate at treeline. Five-year age-structure classes were compared with identical five-year bins of 20th century climate data using Spearman’s rank correlation and regime shift analysis. Local scale biotic interactions capable of ameliorating broad scale climate inputs through positive feedback were examined by using Ripley’s K to determine the spatial patterns of tree establishment above timberline. Significant correlations (p Medicine Bow and Sangre de Cristo Mountains primarily contain clustered spatial patterns of trees above timberline, which indicates a strong reliance on the amelioration of abiotic conditions through positive feedback with nearby vegetation. Although clustered spatial patterns likely originate in response to harsh abiotic conditions such as drought or constant strong winds, the local scale biotic interactions within a clustered formation of trees appears to override the immediate influence of broad scale climate. This is evidenced both by a lack of significant correlations between tree establishment and climate in these mountain ranges, as well as the considerable lag times between initial climate regime shifts and corresponding shifts in tree age structure. Taken together, this research suggests that the influence of broad scale climate on upper treeline ecotonal dynamics is contingent on the local scale spatial patterns of tree establishment and related influences of positive feedback. These findings have global implications for our

  14. 20th International Seapower Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    marijuana , cocaine, and chemical precursors that are sent to africa and asia, among others; also, certainly, the illegal arms trade that flows... synthetic drugs or designer drugs. We know that phenylacetic acid and its derivatives are the main ones. Busan, Korea; Yokohama, Japan; Singapore

  15. [Asbestos at the time of the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, C; Bianchi, T

    2015-11-22

    Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy.

  16. Between modern and postmodern: problem of the «political identity» concept in the scientific discourse of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Uhryn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The sociopolitical and intellectual preconditions of the «political identity» concept’s categorical construction in the 20th century, as well as its historic and political origins have been defined in the article. It has been proved by the author that the «political identity» concept had replaced certain concepts, traditional for the Western classic philosophy discourse, such as «oneness», «selfness» and «self-awareness». Moreover, it was actualized by the cultural and sociopolitical context of late Modern and by the situation of transition from traditional society towards the post-traditional one, which was characterized by the increasing complexity of the social structure and expansion of political participation’s possibilities for citizens and groups. More relevant reflection of the social and communication dimensions of identity were provided, grounded by the psychoanalytical and sociological traditions of its interpretations and were further developed by the representatives of the symbolic interactionism and social constructivism. The conceptualization of the political identity began in the first half of the 20th century within the electoral studies, during which it was equated with party, ideological and class identification. Its broader interpretation was developed within the theories of modernization, transitology, new social movements, social and political systems, which emphasized the institutional and behavioral dimensions of political identity, as well as its integrative functions. It has been established in the study that the division into individual and collective (social identities facilitated the differentiation of the identity research in political and social sphere and its subject identification. As a result, the collective identities most fully integrated into the subject field of political science, as they were interpreted as a reflection of common expectations, goals being as a factor of collective action

  17. The Making and Development of Economic Forms of the Industry of Turkestan Krai in the late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Tulebaev Turganzhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The period of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries is characterized for many post-socialist countries by profound social/economic transformations. They are going through a tough transition from the implementation of market reform to the formation of a market economy oriented towards innovation development. The historical past of these countries attests that, in a sense, they have already been going through a similar process – back in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. The history of the industry of Turkestan Krai during that period is a vivid example of the process of the making and development of capitalist relations. This proves once again the relevance and timeliness of the study of the characteristics of the evolution of the region’s industry and determination of its prevalent forms. The author examines the initial forms of the region’s industry. Only the penetration of commodity production on the capitalist basis and the resettlement of peasants, the settling down of Kazakhs on the land, the development of old and emergence of new towns and villages, and the construction of railroads would lay the foundation for social division of labor. This spurred the development of old and emergence of new sectors in the industry of Turkestan Krai. During the period under examination, the prevalent form of industry was petty commodity capitalist production. But the transition from craft production and its workshop form to capitalist petty commodity production in Turkestan Krai was a long and not always straightforward process. The author investigates the issue of the making of the factory/plant form of industry. The emergence of particular factories and plants was a consequence of the wide development of Russian capitalism, a result of adopting Central Russia’s accumulated experience in the way of applying production techniques and technology in Turkestan Krai. Based on the author’s study of facts relating to industrial production in

  18. Russia’s Regional Governance at the Change of Epochs: Administrative Reform Drafts in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries

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    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.

  19. Evolution of high-rise construction in Leningrad - Saint Petersburg in the middle of the 20th - Early 21st centuries: projects and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaytens, Andrey; Rusanov, Gennadiy; Skryabin, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    One of the most important issues in national urban planning is arrangement of high-rise buildings in the largest cities of Russia. This issue becomes especially acute in such cities as Saint Petersburg, which has unique architectural and urban-planning heritage preserved to a great extent. In this regard, it seems important to trace the evolution of high-rise construction development and arrangement in Leningrad - Saint Petersburg in the middle of the 20th — early 21st centuries. The goal of the article is to consider high-rise construction development regarding both public and residential buildings in comparison of project ideas and results of their implementation in the 1940s-2000s. Prerequisites and issues of high-rise construction of that period are considered. Particular attention is paid to changes in the official urban-planning policy, regulatory framework and attitude of city authorities to high-rise construction. The study was carried out with the consideration of the following historic periods differing in their urban-planning policy: the late 1940s-1950s; 1960s; 1970-1980s; 1990s; 2000s-2010s. Economical prerequisites of high-rise construction and their influence on the modern urban-planning policy during the post-Soviet period are considered. In conclusion, an attempt is made to determine tendencies of high-rise construction development in Saint Petersburg.

  20. Fertility rates in Tešanj municipality (Bosnia and Herzegovina in the second half of the 20th and the beginning of 21st century

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    Kadušić Alma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 20th century, demographic changes of the Tešanj municipality developed in accordance with the complex socioeconomic circumstances in this area. In the period from 1953 to 1991 the population of Tešanj municipality increased by the average annual population growth rate of 1.5%. The biggest impact on demographic trends had the positive and relatively high rates of natural increase. The natural population change of Tešanj municipality in this period was the result of the effect of biological, socioeconomic, psychological and other factors. In this period fertility significantly influenced the rates of natural increase of municipal population. The gradual decline process of the fertility rates, which has started in the 1960s and still lasts, reflected on the natural population change and population growth rates of Tešanj population. Additional decrease of the fertility and birth rates, as well as moderate increase of mortality rate was observed. This occurred due to the decrease of the total population, as well as the adverse socioeconomic circumstances after 1995, which resulted in low natural growth rates.

  1. History of health in the Indian Ocean: care, prevention, teaching, and research from the 17(th) to the mid-20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2016-05-01

    In 1498, the Portuguese crossed the Cape of Good Hope. It was not until the period of 1633 and 1666, dates of the founding, respectively, of the Compagnie de l'Orient and the Compagnie des Indes orientales, that the way was definitively opened for trade between France and India. Because so many sailors developed scurvy after voyages that lasted 4 to 5 months, the French settled on Bourbon Island (Réunion) and Ile de France (Mauritius), to provide them with medical care. Created in 1689 by Louis XIV, the Navy Health Service was responsible for health in the colonies until it was replaced in 1890 by the Colonial Health Service. European medicine began its slow diffusion around the Indian Ocean in Pondicherry (India). The naval doctors reported their experiences in the Archives de médecine navale (1864-1889), and the colonial doctors afterwards in the Archives de médecine navale et coloniale (1890-1896). The health system in Madagascar developed strongly during 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, and the subsequent development of health care in the other Indian Ocean islands became closely linked to that of Madagascar. On Bourbon, the two navy hospitals in Saint-Paul and Saint-Denis treated only naval and military personnel. The colony had no hospital providing care for civilians and poor people until three civilian doctors opened a maison de santé (health house) in 1846.

  2. Quantitative assessment of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century

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    Panecki Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents an overview of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century in its quantitative aspect. 19 maps were analysed and a common conceptual model linked to the Database of Topographic Objects (DBTO10k was developed on the basis of catalogues of object types. Quantitative statistics were also prepared for the object types from maps before and after harmonization. Differences between their numbers within the same maps reflect the conceptual variety of said maps. The number of types of objects (before and after harmonization was then juxtaposed with selected thematic layers: water network, transport network, land cover, buildings, structures, and equipment, land use complexes, localities and other objects. Such factors as scales, publication dates and topographic services which created analysed maps were also taken into consideration. Additionally, the analysed maps demonstrate uneven levels of generalization. Inclusion of objects typical for large-scale cartography on topographic and general maps is one of the distinctive features.

  3. Investigating the March 28th 1875 and the September 20th 1920 earthquakes/tsunamis of the Southern Vanuatu arc, offshore Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioualalen, Mansour; Pelletier, Bernard; Solis Gordillo, Gabriela

    2017-07-01

    New Caledonia's Loyalty Islands are located in the southwest region of the Pacific ocean in the highly seismogenic southern Vanuatu subduction zone and therefore may be subject to devastating local tsunamis. Over the past 150 years, two large tsunamis were triggered by major earthquakes on March 28th 1875 and September 20th 1920. In this study, we use historical observations of these tsunamis (mostly in the form of testimonials), earthquake scenarios, and tsunami modeling to derive the magnitudes of these earthquakes, as well as tsunami runup and inundation maps. Assuming that these earthquakes were located on the interplate megathrust zone, the 1875 earthquake's magnitude was Mw8.1-8.2 and the 1920 event's magnitude was Mw7.5-7.8. The tsunami damage inflicted on the Lifou and Maré islands was approximately proportional to these magnitudes, with Maré being less impacted due to favorable wave directivity. Damage at Ouvéa island may have varied irregularly with the magnitude due to the effects of resonance. This study demonstrates that the quantitative characteristics of historical tsunamigenic earthquakes may be derived from qualitative estimates of tsunami runup.

  4. [Rural medical practice at the beginning of the 20th century. Martínez Saldise (1855-1937), honorary member of Paediatric Society of Madrid in 1927].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra Anta, Miguel Ángel; Flores Martín, Carlos; Ponte Hernando, Fernando Julio; Gil García, Andrés; Gómez López, Ana; Fernández Durán, Carla

    2016-01-01

    On the centenary of the foundation of the Paediatrics Society of Madrid, a tribute is presented to rural medical practice of that time, although there are few documents on the history of rural medicine. The main objective is to describe the context of the rural medical practice in the late 19th and beginning 20th century, while presenting a historical biographical review of Manuel Martínez Saldise, who was medical specialist from Cazalegas (Toledo). He was appointed an Honorary Member by the Paediatrics Society of Madrid in 1927. A search was carried out in repositories of digitized media, web portals of history of medicine, PubMed, IME files of local councils and medical colleges. The family archives were reviewed with the collaboration of his descendants. The hiring of rural doctors was carried out by the municipalities, and the salary largely depended on private practice as well as "retainers". Specialist physicians took part in epidemics, legal medicine, and in hygiene measures. They also had disputes with mayors, chiefs, with colleagues and with protectionism. A summary of the biography and occupational activity of Manuel Martínez Saldise is presented. Rural doctors were subjected to the society of their time, with the issues that arose, denouncing the shortcomings of the local administrations, dedicated efforts to their family and the most disadvantaged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Leptospira Immunoglobulin-Like Protein B Interacts with the 20th Exon of Human Tropoelastin Contributing to Leptospiral Adhesion to Human Lung Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Tseng, Andrew; He, Hongxuan; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Wang, Xuannian; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Leptospira immunoglobulin-like protein B (LigB), a surface adhesin, is capable of mediating the attachment of pathogenic leptospira to the host through interaction with various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Human tropoelastin (HTE), the building block of elastin, confers resilience and elasticity to lung, and other tissues. Previously identified Ig-like domains of LigB, including LigB4 and LigB12, bind to HTE, which is likely to promote Leptospira adhesion to lung tissue. However, the molecular mechanism that mediates the LigB-HTE interaction is unclear. In this study, the LigB-binding site on HTE was further pinpointed to a N-terminal region of the 20th exon of HTE (HTE20N). Alanine mutants of basic and aromatic residues on HTE20N significantly reduced binding to the LigB. Additionally, HTE-binding site was narrowed down to the first β-sheet of LigB12. On this binding surface, residues F1054, D1061, A1065, and D1066 were critical for the association with HTE. Most importantly, the recombinant HTE truncates could diminish the binding of LigB to human lung fibroblasts (WI-38) by 68%, and could block the association of LigA-expressing L. biflexa to lung cells by 61%. These findings should expand our understanding of leptospiral pathogenesis, particularly in pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis.

  6. FROM “PEASANT” TO “FARMER” IN GREEK MODERNITY: CONSTRUCTING FARMER IDENTITIES IN 19th - AND 20th - CENTURY GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOS KABERIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Constructing the farmer in the 19th -and-20th political discourses in Greece pertains to a passage from the peasant to the farmer/farm worker and farmer/patriot, on to the professional farmer; this passage ought to be studied in terms of a specific model which is characterized by small-size family farm units. The above model was mainly promoted by bourgeois forces which led the modernization process in Greek society, and it was the model which the rival socialist movements consented to after their defeat in the Civil War. In the postwar period the acceleration of agricultural development, particularly following the country’s integration in the European Community, imposed a certain consensus in seeking a unitary model of agriculture, whereby the dominant role was assigned to the small farmer-landowner-entrepreneur. At the dawn of the new century, the European agricultural policy reforms entail new vicissitudes for the small landowner, who is now finding him/herself seeking new roles in order to be integrated into a post-industrial developmental model for the countryside. He/she is constituted, once more, a subject of new ontological ventures, such as, for instance, the much-discussed symbolisms of the “warden of the countryside”, and “protector of the environment” and/or the “national cultural heritage”.

  7. AMERICAN MULTI-DWELLING ARCHITECTURE OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY AND FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

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    Srđan Nađ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, the evolution of American multiple-dwelling architecture was marked by the passage from the standard construction of single-family standalone homes and row houses to a new housing typology which corresponded to all of the new urban planning rules and requirements of the contemporary way of life in cities. New York was the first American city to face the problem of dense settlement in limited spaces. The »U, E, H« ground plan designs were developed and were most commonly used during the period when the Building Zone Resolution adopted in 1916 by New York City was in force. The Building Zone Resolution introduced another novelty into New York town planning, i.e. the setting back of exterior walls above a determined height. Consequently, this gave rise to buildings with stepped profiles and many more storeys. The solutions developed by the New York residential architecture were adopted by other cities and further developed in line with specific local influences. Chicago is the most interesting of these cities; between 1924 and 1929 several quality housing complexes were built there which strongly deviated from the then housing construction in New York by the consistent ground plan designs of structures and apartment designs.

  8. Music and Medicine: The Tragic Case of Gershwin's Brain Tumor and the Challenges of Neurosurgery in the First Half of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Although neurosurgery has gone through moments of great renewal in recent decades, at the beginning of the 20th century it was still dealing with the unfathomable mysteries of the nervous system and its disorders. Historical insight improves understanding of the great personalities of the past and allows us to look at the efforts of pioneering surgeons with greater awareness. The literature was reviewed using online databases, textbooks, and retrieved articles. An overview of the case of Gershwin's brain tumor and its surgical resection is presented. This article presents the tragic case of Gershwin's brain tumor. Through his story, it is possible to get an idea of the difficulties with which the great neuroscientists and surgeons of the past approached the human nervous system and its pathologic manifestations. The first part of this article deals with the evolution of Gershwin's disease over the years and the subsequent brain surgery. In the second part, general considerations on the most striking symptoms experienced by the composer are reported, as well as a description of the different hypotheses on the nature of Gershwin's tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The speech choir in central European theatres and literary-musical works in the first third of the 20th century

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    Meyer-Kalkus Reinhart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech choirs emerged as an offshoot of the choral gatherings of a wider youth musical and singing movement in the first half of the 20th century. The occasionally expressed opinion that choral speaking was cultivated primarily by the Hitler Youth and pressed into service on behalf of Nazi nationalist and racist propaganda is, historically, only partially accurate. The primary forces of choral speaking in Germany were, from 1919, the Social Democratic workers’ and cultural movement and the Catholic youth groups, in addition to elementary and secondary schools. The popularity of speech choirs around 1930 was also echoed in the music of the time. Compositions for musical speech choirs were produced by composers like Heinz Thiessen, Arnold Schönberg, Ernst Toch, Carl Orff, Vladimir Vogel, Luigi Nono, Helmut Lachenmann and Wolfgang Rihm. Moving forward from the Schönberg School, the post-1945 new music thereby opens up the spectrum of vocal expressions of sound beyond that of the singing voice. It does so not only for solo voices but for the choir as well.

  10. Sedimentary organic biomarkers suggest detrimental effects of PAHs on estuarine microbial biomass during the 20th century in San Francisco Bay, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminants are ubiquitous in urban aquatic ecosystems, and the ability of some microbial strains to degrade certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well established. However, detrimental effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on nondegrader microbial populations and photosynthetic organisms have not often been considered. In the current study, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers in the sediment record were used to assess historical impacts of petroleum contamination on microbial and/or algal biomass in South San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Profiles of saturated, branched, and monounsaturated fatty acids had similar concentrations and patterns downcore. Total PAHs in a sediment core were on average greater than 20× higher above ∼200 cm than below, which corresponds roughly to the year 1900. Isomer ratios were consistent with a predominant petroleum combustion source for PAHs. Several individual PAHs exceeded sediment quality screening values. Negative correlations between petroleum contaminants and microbial and algal biomarkers – along with high trans/cis ratios of unsaturated FA, and principle component analysis of the PAH and fatty acid records – suggest a negative impacts of petroleum contamination, appearing early in the 20th century, on microbial and/or algal ecology at the site.

  11. RUSSIAN LITERARY NEOTRADITIONALISM OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE CONTEXT OF PHILOSOPHICAL AND AESTHETIC-AXIOLOGICAL PROBLEM OF THE CREATIVE CONSCIOUSNESS

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    Oleg Nikolaevich Sklyarov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of the series of the research on the phenomenon of neotraditionalism in philosophical-aesthetic thought and artistic literature of the 20th century. The crisis phenomena in the creative consciousness of the post-traditionalist period, a kind of "response" to which became the new traditionalism, which was formed in the non-classical conditions and combining in itself the sensitivity to the most valuable discoveries of European modernism and the aspiration to eternal landmarks of classical culture.Cultural, historical, mental preconditions of the neotraditionalism and its key features are considered in the article. The author gives priority to the ontology, and also axiological and poetological aspects of neotraditional thinking. By virtue of the fact that it appears as a special vector of the creative research, and alternative to the divergent strategies of avant-gardism and reglamentaric intentions of the so-called "Socialist Realism" art. The subject of the research interest are the predominant traits of neotraditional mentality such as life acceptance, logocentric, responsibility, a tendency to seek modern forms of actualization of the eternal universals, and solidarity (convergence of the creative aspirations.

  12. Between Egyptian "national purity" and "local flexibility": prostitution in al-Mahalla al-Kubra in the first half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Hanan

    2011-01-01

    This article traces prostitution in al-Mahalla in the first half of the 20th century as a regulated urban practice until the trade was outlawed in Egypt in 1949. Studying prostitution during this period of exceptionally rapid growth and transformation not only provides a window on a particular type of illicit sexuality and public morality in a colonial context, it also gives us a hint as to gender relations and inter-communal relations on the invisible marginalized part of a provincial local community, and how it was socially transformed. I argue that the regulation of prostitution in Egypt in 1882 and 1905 created a sphere for a power contest between the colonial state and the local community, between nationalist discourse and the local way of life, and between public morality and private space. While nationalist discourse constructed one virtuous nation, the local community accepted the licensed prostitution quarter, and resisted secret prostitution. The people of the town actively and continually shifted boundaries on what was public and what was private, what was the state's responsibility and what was communal liability.

  13. Review: SERUYA, Teresa; D´HULST, Lieven; ASSIS ROSA, Alexandra; LIN MONIZ, Maria. Translation in Anthologies and Collections (19th and 20th Centuries. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2013.

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    Paulo Henrique Pappen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p351 Translation in Anthologies and Collections (19th and 20th Centuries, como outros livros que abordam a questão, é produto de um evento organizado em 2010. Ao todo, são 16 artigos no volume, agrupados em três tópicos: “Discursive practices and scholarly agency”; “National and international canonization processes”; e “Selection and censorship”, em uma obra inteiramente redigida em inglês (menos o texto do espanhol Sabio Pinilla e publicada pela John Benjamins, bom indicador do público ao qual se dirige. Uma operação acertada parece ser a que guia a escolha do título, que ao invés de tentar antecipar uma definição de “antologias traduzidas”, ou “antologias de literatura traduzida”, propõe o guarda-chuva mais abarcador da “tradução em antologias e coleções”. Ou seja, o interesse passa a ser localizar a mediação tradutiva nessas obras.

  14. Leptospira Immunoglobulin-Like Protein B Interacts with the 20th Exon of Human Tropoelastin Contributing to Leptospiral Adhesion to Human Lung Cells

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    Ching-Lin Hsieh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospira immunoglobulin-like protein B (LigB, a surface adhesin, is capable of mediating the attachment of pathogenic leptospira to the host through interaction with various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Human tropoelastin (HTE, the building block of elastin, confers resilience and elasticity to lung, and other tissues. Previously identified Ig-like domains of LigB, including LigB4 and LigB12, bind to HTE, which is likely to promote Leptospira adhesion to lung tissue. However, the molecular mechanism that mediates the LigB-HTE interaction is unclear. In this study, the LigB-binding site on HTE was further pinpointed to a N-terminal region of the 20th exon of HTE (HTE20N. Alanine mutants of basic and aromatic residues on HTE20N significantly reduced binding to the LigB. Additionally, HTE-binding site was narrowed down to the first β-sheet of LigB12. On this binding surface, residues F1054, D1061, A1065, and D1066 were critical for the association with HTE. Most importantly, the recombinant HTE truncates could diminish the binding of LigB to human lung fibroblasts (WI-38 by 68%, and could block the association of LigA-expressing L. biflexa to lung cells by 61%. These findings should expand our understanding of leptospiral pathogenesis, particularly in pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis.

  15. Lessons from the Central European History – Wars and Changes of Ethnic and National Relations in Central Europe during the 20th Century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 60 (2015), s. 91-106 ISSN 1586-4197 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : World War I * World War II * Central Europe * Czechoslovakia * National Relations Subject RIV: AB - History

  16. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  17. Russia and Mexico in the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century: on the Crimean War’s Influence on Russia-Mexico Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prerequisites and establishment of the first Russia-Mexico contacts, which took place after the Crimean War (1853-1856. It was revealed that Mexico’s interest in the collaboration with Russia began to reveal in a higher degree after the Crimean War. The factors, which had led to the diplomatic rapprochement of the two states, include the Mexico’s search for allies in the contradiction to increased aggression of European states and the USA in the Central American region, and the increase of Russian intellectuals’ emigration, resettlement of religious groups of the Old Russian sectarians to the region. At the turn of 19th – 20th centuries many Russian travelers and writers, such as S.D. Protopopov and K.D. Balmont, visited Mexico for the purpose of studying the culture of ancients Indians, who lived in Central America during many centuries before the Spanish colonization. Besides of the impressions on ancient Indian culture, these travelers described the life of ordinary Mexican people of that time. They mentioned their poverty and hopelessness in the years of Porfirio Dias’s dictatorship. Nevertheless, political and cultural contacts had begun to established in the late 19th century between the Russian Empire and Mexico, because after the Crimean War the Mexico’s interest to Russians increased. In addition, Russia tried to strengthen its position in Central American region. In total, these factors had led to the strengthening of political, social and cultural contacts between Russia and Mexico.

  18. Over the hills and further away from coast: global geospatial patterns of human and environment over the 20th-21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Salvucci, Gianluigi; Viviroli, Daniel; Ward, Philip J.; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    Proximity to the coast and elevation are important geographical considerations for human settlement. Little is known, however, about how spatial variation in these factors exactly relates to human settlements and activities, and how this has developed over time. Such knowledge is important for identifying vulnerable regions that are at risk from phenomena such as food shortages and water stress. Human activities are a key driving force in global change, and thus detailed information on population distribution is an important input to any research framework on global change. In this paper we assess the global geospatial patterns of the distribution of human population and related factors, with regard to the altitude above sea level and proximity to the coast. The investigated factors are physical conditions, urbanisation, agricultural practices, economy, and environmental stress. An important novel element in this study, is that we included the temporal evolution in various factors related to human settlements and agricultural practices over the 20th century, and used projections for some of these factors up to the year 2050. We found population pressure in the proximity of the coast to be somewhat greater than was found in other studies. Yet, the distribution of population, urbanisation and wealth are evolving to become more evenly spread across the globe than they were in the past. Therefore, the commonly believed tendency of accumulation of people and wealth along coasts is not supported by our results. At the same time, food production is becoming increasingly decoupled from the trends in population density. Croplands are spreading from highly populated coastal zones towards inland zones. Our results thus indicate that even though people and wealth continue to accumulate in proximity to the coast, population densities and economic productivity are becoming less diverse in relation to elevation and distance from the coast.

  19. Adventurers, Flaneurs, and Agitators: Travel Stories as Means for Marking and Transgressing Boundaries in 19th and Early 20th Century Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on border crossings in travel stories, which were published in hand-written newspapers in 19th- and early 20th-century Finland. These papers were a popular tradition in student organizations and popular movements. Border crossings appear in travel stories in three different representations. Firstly, border crossings are repeated motifs in travel stories, both as challenging events and as small gestures and encounters. Travel stories demarcate boundaries, but they also provide a means for transgressing them. Secondly, hand-written newspapers as a literary practice highlight borders between oral and written communication. They were produced as one single manuscript copy, and published by being read out aloud in social events. Thirdly, the authors of hand-written newspapers were placed on the border of different positions in society such as class, gender and age. My analysis is based on the methodological discussion of small stories and personal experience narratives; travel stories can be defined as "local event narratives". I have outlined four basic models for travel stories which emerge from hand-written newspapers: the great mission story, the grand tour story, the flaneur story and the retreat story. The analysis of travel stories is presented through four different case studies with a time range from the 1850s to the 1920s: these materials have been produced in two provincial student fraternities (osakunta, in the temperance society "Star" in Helsinki in the 1890s, and in the Social Democratic Youth Club in the small industrial town of Karkkila in the 1910s and the 1920s. Many parallel features can be observed in travel stories, even though the social background and ideology of the authors are quite different. Time and space are important aspects in travel stories, and they often demarcate boundaries of class and gender.

  20. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19th – early 20th

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    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  1. Multi-decadal modulations in the Aleutian-Icelandic Low seesaw and the axial symmetry of the Arctic Oscillation signature, as revealed in the 20th century reanalysis

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    Ning Shi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seesaw relationship in intensity between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic Lows (AIS is a manifestation of atmospheric teleconnection that bridges the interannual variability over the Pacific and Atlantic in particular winter months. Analysis of the 20th Century Reanalysis data reveals that the strength and timing of AIS have undergone multi-decadal modulations in conjunction with those in structure of the Arctic Oscillation (AO signature, extracted in the leading mode of interannual sea-level pressure (SLP variability over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, events of what may be called ‘pure AO’, in which SLP anomalies exhibit a high degree of axial symmetry in association with in-phase SLP variability between the midlatitude Atlantic and Pacific, tended to occur during multi-decadal periods in which the inter-basin teleconnection through AIS was active under the enhanced interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In contrast, the axial symmetry of the AO pattern was apparently reduced during a multi-decadal period in which the AIS teleconnection was inactive under the weakened interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In this period, the leading mode of interannual SLP variability represented a meridional seesaw between the Atlantic and Arctic, which resembles SLP anomaly pattern associated with the cold-ocean/warm-land (COWL temperature pattern. These multi-decadal modulations in interannual AIS signal and the axial symmetry of the interannual AO pattern occurred under multi-decadal changes in the background state that also represented the polarity changes of the COWL-like anomaly pattern.

  2. Construction and Operation of Railway Bridges and Ferries in the Lower Volga Streamflow (End of 19th – First Half of 20th Century

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    OPALEV M.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of operation of Russia’s first railway ferry and the process of bridge construction across the lower Volga streamflows at Ryazan-Ural (now Volga railway line in Saratov, Stalingrad (Volgograd and Astrakhan. River railway ferries “Saratovskaya pereprava” and “Saratovsky ledokol” were built in 1894 in England and water crafts “Vtoraya pereprava” (1909 and “Stalin” (1926 were floated out in Volga in Nizhny Novgorod, from the Sormov plant. As a rule, the organization of transportations by means of steam locomotives and waggons through Volga during the first half of the 20th century preceded the construction of capital metal railway bridges, such as Astrakhan (1909 and Saratov (1935, and also a combined railway-automobile bridge through the Volga (Stalingrad Hydro-Electric Power Station (1961. The article is devoted not only to the technical features of ferries, bridges, but their efficient use in peace time and war time. So, the carrying capacity of the Saratov railway ferry increased in more than three times from 1907 to 1916. The Ryazan-Ural railway ferries were actively used by new Bolshevist regime. After the railroad construction on the left bank of Volga in autumn and winter of 1941, railway ferries “Stalin” and “Saratovskaya pereprava” were used for the carriage of military trains and population evacuation from the western bank of Volga. The author describes one of the most heroic and tragic facts in the history of Stalingrad battle using the example of the special operation railway ferry flooding and its consequent reconstruction.

  3. A Tree-Ring Based Reconstruction (1725-present) of the Position of the Summer North Atlantic Jet Shows a 20th Century Northward Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouet, V.; Babst, F.

    2014-12-01

    The position and strength of the Northern Hemisphere polar jet are important modulators of mid-latitude weather extremes and the societal, ecosystem, and economic damage related to them. The position of the North Atlantic jet (NAJ) controls the location of the Atlantic storm track and anomalies in the NAJ position have been related to temperature and precipitation extremes over Europe. In summer, a southern NAJ regime can result in floods in the British Isles (BRIT) and increasing odds of heat waves in the northeastern Mediterranean (NEMED). Variability in the amplitude and speed of the Northern Hemisphere jet stream is hotly debated as a potential mechanism linking recent mid-latitude weather extremes to anthropogenic warming. However, the hypothesis of jet stream variability as a possible mechanism linking Arctic amplification to mid-latitude weather extremes is largely based on data sets with limited temporal extent that do not warrant robust results from a statistical significance perspective. Here, we combined two summer temperature-sensitive tree-ring records from BRIT and NEMED to reconstruct interannual variability in the latitudinal position of the summer NAJ back to 1725. The two well-replicated temperature proxies counter-correlate significantly over the full period and thus illustrate the temperature dipole generated by anomalous NAJ positions. Positive extremes in the NAJ reconstruction correspond to heatwaves recorded in the historical Central England temperature record and negative extremes correspond to reconstructed fire years in Greece. The reconstruction shows a northward shift in the latitudinal NAJ position since the 1930s that is most pronounced in the northern NAJ extremes, suggesting a more frequent occurrence of BRIT hot summers in the 20th century compared to previous centuries.

  4. Anthropometric geography applied to the analysis of socioeconomic disparities: cohort trends and spatial patterns of height and robustness in 20th-century Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Antonio D; Roman, Joan Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Anthropometrics have been widely used to study the influence of environmental factors on health and nutritional status. In contrast, anthropometric geography has not often been employed to approximate the dynamics of spatial disparities associated with socioeconomic and demographic changes. Spain exhibited intense disparity and change during the middle decades of the 20 th century, with the result that the life courses of the corresponding cohorts were associated with diverse environmental conditions. This was also true of the Spanish territories. This paper presents insights concerning the relationship between socioeconomic changes and living conditions by combining the analysis of cohort trends and the anthropometric cartography of height and physical build. This analysis is conducted for Spanish male cohorts born 1934-1973 that were recorded in the Spanish military statistics. This information is interpreted in light of region-level data on GDP and infant mortality. Our results show an anthropometric convergence across regions that, nevertheless, did not substantially modify the spatial patterns of robustness, featuring primarily robust northeastern regions and weak Central-Southern regions. These patterns persisted until the 1990s (cohorts born during the 1970s). For the most part, anthropometric disparities were associated with socioeconomic disparities, although the former lessened over time to a greater extent than the latter. Interestingly, the various anthropometric indicators utilized here do not point to the same conclusions. Some discrepancies between height and robustness patterns have been found that moderate the statements from the analysis of cohort height alone regarding the level and evolution of living conditions across Spanish regions.

  5. Amusement places in Chişinău. Cafe Man’kov (Late 19th century - the 30ies of 20th century

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    Ana Griţco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Collections of postcards are a chronicle in images that captivate us with variety of topics, the study of which can extract from the darkness of oblivion different scenes of everyday life in certain historical periods. In this sense, interesting is a postcard from the museum collection, which depicts Cafe Man'kov - a place where more than a century ago the Chişinău cream of society loved spending time. The history of this coffee house is associated with the name of A.I. Man'kov, a prosperous businessman of the second half of 19th - early 20th centuries. Initially, in the 1880s, it was located in the building of the Diocesan House (the Alexandrovskaia Street, where A. Man'kov rented premises, and since 1901 it has moved into the Schwartzman's House (the Pushkinskaia Street, a rented space as well. In 1905, the cafe was opened in a specially built building in Fountain Lane (between the Sinadinovskaia and Pushkinskaia Streets known as Cafe Man'kov, with an interesting architecture, "European" interior, and tastefully furnished terraces. Cafe Man'kov was one of the first buildings in Chişinău which was electrified (1907. It soon became a favorite place of leisure for Chişinău dwellers, where one could drink tea or coffee with Swiss chocolate, enjoy a delicious cake, as well as have lunch or dinner. The cafe existed until 1934, when A. Man'kov died at the age of 92 years. In Soviet times, the building was demolished, and now in its place there is the Press House (the area between the streets of Pushkin and Vlaicu Pârcălab.

  6. Surface and thickness variations of Brenva Glacier tongue (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) in the second half of the 20th century by historical maps and aerial photogrammetry comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Agata, C.; Zanutta, A.; Muzzu Martis, D.; Mancini, F.; Smiraglia, C.

    2003-04-01

    Aim of this contribution is the evaluation of volumetric and surface variations of Brenva Glacier (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) during the second half of the 20th century, by GIS-based processing of maps and aerial photogrammetry technique. Brenva Glacier is a typical debris covered glacier, located in a valley on the S-E side of the Mont Blanc. The glacier covers a surface of 7 kmq and shows a length of 7,6 km at maximum. The glacier snout reaches 1415 m a.s.l., which is the lowest glacier terminus of the Italian Alps. To evaluate glacier variations different historical maps were used: 1) The 1959 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, by EIRA (Ente Italiano Rilievi Aerofotogrammetrici, Firenze), from terrestrial photogrammetric survey, published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 19, 1971. 2) The 1971 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, from aerial photogrammetry (Alifoto, Torino) published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 20, 1972. 3) The 1988 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1983 aerial photogrammetric survey. 4) The 1999 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1991 aerial photogrammetry survey. For the same purpose the following aereal photographs were used: 1) The 1975 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. 2) The 1991 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. Aerial imageries have been acquired over a long period from 1975 to 1991. The black and white images were scanned at suitable resolution if compared with the imagery scale and several models, representing the glacier tongue area, oriented using the inner and outer orientation parameters delivered with the images, were produced. The digital photogrammetric system, after orientation and matching, produces

  7. [Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Hrsg. von Kartsen Br

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Mati, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). (Quellen und Studien zur Baltischen Geschichte, 22). Hrsg. von Kartsen Brüggemann und Bradley Woodworth. Böhlau Verlag. Wien u.a. 2012.

  8. Proceedings of the Combined 20th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency and 10th Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics (EXPRESS/SOS 2013, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 26, 2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgström, J.; Luttik, B.

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Combined 20th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency and the 10th Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics (EXPRESS/SOS 2013) which was held on 26th August, 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, as an affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2013, the

  9. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  10. Changes in mercury and cadmium concentrations and the feeding behaviour of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) near Somerset Island, Canada, during the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outridge, P.M.; Hobson, K.A.; Savelle, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) continues to be an important food species for Arctic communities, despite concerns about its high mercury (Hg) content. We investigated whether Hg and cadmium (Cd) concentrations had changed during the 20th century in beluga near Somerset Island in the central Canadian Arctic, using well-preserved teeth collected from historical sites (dating to the late 19th century and 1926-1947) and during subsistence hunts in the late 1990s. Mercury concentrations in both historical and modern teeth were correlated with animal age, but 1990s beluga exhibited a significantly more rapid accumulation with age than late 19th century animals, indicating that Hg concentrations or bioavailability in their food chain had increased during the last century. The geometric mean tooth Hg concentration in modern 30 year old animals was 7.7 times higher than in the late 19th century, which corresponds to threefold higher concentrations in muktuk and muscle. Teeth from 1926 to 1947 were similar in Hg content to the late 19th century, suggesting that the increase had occurred sometime after the 1940s. In contrast, tooth Cd was not correlated with animal age and decreased during the last 100 years, indicating that anthropogenic Cd was negligible in this population. Late 19th century beluga displayed a greater range of prey selection (tooth δ 15 N values: 15.6-20.5%o) than modern animals (δ 15 N: 17.2-21.1%o). To prevent this difference from confounding the temporal Hg comparison, the Hg-age relationships discussed above were based on historical animals, which overlapped isotopically with the modern group. Tooth δ 13 C also changed to isotopically more depleted values in modern animals, with the most likely explanation being a significant shift to more pelagic-based feeding. Industrial Hg pollution is a plausible explanation for the recent Hg increase. However, without further investigation of the relationship between the range exploitation of modern beluga and

  11. World Hunger: A Challenge to American Policy. Headline Series No. 252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linowitz, Sol M.

    This booklet examines one of the most tragic and dangerous paradoxes facing the nations of the world at the end of the 20th century: hunger amid plenty. Even though the world does not lack for food, the problem lies in the distribution and power of ownership. There are serious moral, economic and political reasons why the U.S. in particular should…

  12. A reversão do hiato de gênero na educação brasileira no século XX Reversal of the gender gap in Brazilian education in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaizô Iwakami Beltrão

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A redução do hiato de gênero e o maior acesso das mulheres à educação são objetivos explícitos da IV Conferência da Mulher (1995, do Fórum Mundial de Educação (2000 e da Cúpula do Milênio (2000. As conferências internacionais promovidas pela Organização das Nações Unidas recomendam ações para eliminar as discriminações contra o sexo feminino em todos os campos de atividade, especialmente na educação. O hiato de gênero e o déficit educacional das mulheres sempre fizeram parte da realidade brasileira. Contudo, as mulheres conseguiram eliminar e reverter esse hiato ao longo do século XX. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal analisar quando se deu a reversão do hiato de gênero na educação no Brasil. Para isso, apresentaremos as informações educacionais dos censos demográficos de 1960 a 2000, segundo níveis de escolaridade, desagregadas por sexo e por coortes de nascimento. Essa metodologia nos permitirá acompanhar a evolução do hiato de gênero das coortes nascidas após 1890 até o ano 1995.The reduction of the gender gap and the improvement in female access to education were explicit objectives of the IV Conference on Women (1995, of the World Education Forum (2000 and of the Millennium Summit (2000. All International Conferences promoted by the United Nations Organization (UN recommend actions to eradicate discrimination against women in all fields of activity, especially education. The gender gap and the education deficit among women have always been part of the Brazilian reality. However, women have been able to eliminate and reverse this gap throughout the 20th century. The main purpose of this article is to analyze when the reversion of the gender gap in Brazilian education occurred. In order to do so, we will present information obtained from demographic censuses from 1960 to 2000, based on schooling levels disaggregated by gender and birth cohorts. This methodology will allow us to track the

  13. Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberola, Armando; Barriendos, Mariano; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Balasch, Carles; Castelltort, Xavier; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources Armando Alberola, Barriendos, M., Gil-Guirado, S., Pérez Morales, A., Balasch, C., Castelltort, X., Mazón, J., Pino, D., Ruiz-Bellet, J.L., Tuset, J. Historical flood events in eastern spanish coast have been studied by different research groups and projects. Complexity of flood processes, involving atmospheric, surface and human factors, is not easily understandable when long time series are required. Present analysis from PREDIFLOOD Project Consortium defines a new step of flood event databases: Improved access to primary (documentary) and secondary (bibliographical) sources, data collection for all possible locations where floods are detected, and improved system of classification (Barriendos et al., 2014). A first analysis is applied to 8 selected flood series. Long chronologies from PREDIFLOOD Project for Catalonia region (Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Tortosa). In addition, to cover all sector of spanish mediterranean coast, we introduce Valencia city in Turia River basin. South Eastern sector is cover with Murcia and Caravaca cities, Segura River basin. Extension of area under study required contributions of research teams experienced in work of documentary primary sources (Alberola, 2006; Gil-Guirado, 2013). Flood frequency analysis for long scale periods show natural climatic oscillations into so-called Little Ice Age. There are general patterns, affecting most of basins, but also some local anomalies or singularities. To explain these differences and analogies it is not enough to use purely climatic factors. In this way, we analyze human factors that have been able to influence the variability of floods along last 6 centuries (demography, hydraulic infrastructures, urban development...). This approach improves strongly understanding of mechanisms producing

  14. Migration in the Swiss Alps and Swiss Jura from the Middle Ages to the mid-20th century: a brief review

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    Anne-Lise Head-König

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at retracing the important phases of migrations in the alpine regions and the Jura from the Middle Ages up to the middle of the 20th century. Migration has always functioned as a necessary complement to the resources of the inhabitants of the upland regions and it increases when the economic disparity with the lowlands becomes more marked. A striking characteristic of such migration is the great diversity that can be observed, since not only the destinations of the migrants varied from community to community, but also different forms of mobility coexisted within the same territory. Migration might be seasonal, pluriannual, lifelong or even definitive. It is also notable that the various types of migration can be observed to be part of a plurisecular tradition, apart from some significant exceptions, such as the emigration of the Walser, enforced migrations and the new types of migration as from the second half of the nineteenth century. The mobility of part of the population was also a consequence of modifications deriving from changes in the prevalent type of production (animal husbandry instead of the cultivation of cereals, as well as from demographic factors. In addition to these factors one can observe the role played by political institutions throughout the period under study: seigneurial power in the Middle Ages, the communal and cantonal instances until the second half of the nineteenth century, and afterwards the federal authorities.Cette contribution vise à montrer les grandes phases des mouvements migratoires du Moyen Age au milieu du XXe siècle dans les mondes alpin et jurassien suisses. La migration a toujours été une complémentarité nécessaire aux ressources de la montagne, et elle s'amplifie lorsque les disparités économiques avec le plat pays s'accroissent. Elle se caractérise par une forte diversité, puisque non seulement les destinations et les aires d'établissement des migrants peuvent varier

  15. BOOKSELLER AS A CULTURAL AGENT: BOOK TRADE IN ESTONIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantson, Signe

    2006-12-01

    . Altogether 263 bookshops were founded in the second half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century and 283 persons became bookshop owners (at least for some years. These figures allow to conclude that book trade was a popular sphere of activity. The most intensive was foundation of bookshops during 1898–1904. Legally it was not difficult to get a permission to open a bookshop but only few shops (31% operated more than ten years; most often was that small shops operated up to five years. Trading with books did not guarantee sufficient income and the bookshop owners were often engaged in other spheres, mainly in book production and publishing. Majority of the Estonian origin bookshop owners derived from the peasant families and made up the first generation in book trade business. The newcomers had not enough education nor experience in the field. The most important achievement can be seen in the fact that bookshops were opened in all over Estonia that guaranteed dissemination of Estonian language books to all stratums of the society.

  16. Od ne-hudby k hudbě. Hudební využití hluku ve 20. století // From non-music to music. Musical use of noise in the 20th century

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    Matěj Kratochvíl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The range of sounds available to musicians has grown considerably during the 20th century. The invention of sound recording has made it possible to document any sonic event and to use it in a musical way. This text summarizes the history of this development and tries to show how the use of nonmusical sounds can be explained as the next stage in the history of western classical and how we can compare it with so called emancipation of dissonance at the end of the 20th century. It also analyzes various esthetic trends concerning the use of non-musical sounds and the ways in which the broadening of sonic possibilities influenced our understanding of what music is and how it functions as a way of human communication.

  17. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  18. Polish families in the face of challenges and threats posed by the first half of the 20th century (in the light of „Szkoła” [Rodziny polskie wobec wyzwań i zagrożeń pierwszej połowy XX wieku (w świetle „Szkoły”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka WAŁĘGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For Polish people and Polish families the first half of the 20th century was a difficult time. It was the final period of the Partitions, with intensified repression, especially Russification and Germanization, the time of World War I, and twenty years of the rebuilding of Polish statehood which ended in another worldwide armed conflict in 1939. The dynamic political changes which led to the outbreak of WWI and WWII and to the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918 were accompanied by significant transformations of social structure and new tendencies in the development of culture and education. The change of women’s social position and their political and educational emancipation forced new models of family relations to appear, and a uniform school system reconstructed after 123 years of bondage, together with the introduction of compulsory school attendance and the development of forms of pre-schooling education were significant challenges for many parents and their children. During the entire period the Polish family played a very important part in educational ideologies binding in Polish lands at that time – national and state education. Because of that it was the subject of interest of many pedagogic magazines. The aim of the paper is to indicate the main areas of tasks given to Polish families in the first half of the 20th century in the light of one of the oldest Polish periodicals of this type – „Szkoła”. Apart from the topics brought up in the pages of this magazine in the second half of the 19th century such as the cooperation of home and school, some new problems appeared then, including: the duties of a family in the difficult war and post-war period, concern for child’s health at home, or the significance of parents’ shaping of characteristics propagated by the supporters of national education.

  19. Communication dated 29 June 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of Kazakhstan with regard to a press release to note a commemorative meeting of the 20th anniversary of shutting down of the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 29 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Kazakhstan, transmitting the text of a press release to note a commemorative meeting of the 20th anniversary of shutting down of the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site, which was held in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan on 18 June 2009. As requested in that communication, the abovementioned press release is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  20. The benefit of enterprise ontology in identifying business components

    OpenAIRE

    Albani, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    The benefit of enterprise ontology in identifying business components / A. Albani, J. Dietz. - In: Artificial intelligence in theory and practice : IFIP 19th World Computer Congress ; TC 12: IFIP AI 2006 Stream, August 21-24, 2006, Santiago, Chile / ed. by Max Bramer. - New York : Springer, 2006. - S. 1-12. - (IFIP ; 217)

  1. The dividing line between success and failure : a comparison of liberalism in the Netherlands and Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, Patrick; Voerman, Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Since the Second World War, liberalism has been much stronger in the Netherlands than in Germany. The present volume compares the development of liberalism in both countries - which took place under quite different conditions and without much mutual interaction - from the early beginnings in the

  2. SONGS ABOUT THE REALITY OF ‘GLOBALIZATION’ AS POLITICAL DISCOURSE: IRONY AND CRITIQUE OF ‘GLOBALIZATION’ AND THE CONCEPT OF ‘WORLD’ IN THE LYRICAL TRADITION OF THE ENGLISH WESTERN POPULAR MUSIC OF THE LATE 20TH AND EARLY 21ST CENTURIES / CÂNTECE DESPRE REALITATEA GLOBALIZĂRII CA DISCURS POLITIC: IRONIA, CRITICA GLOBALIZĂRII ŞI CONCEPTUL DE “LUME” ÎN TRADIŢIA MUZICII POPULARE DIN VESTUL ANGLIEI LA SFÂRŞITUL SECOLULUI XX ŞI ÎNCEPUTUL SECOLULUI XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fee-Alexandra Haase

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has developed into one of the most interdisciplinary topics in the fields of culture, politics, and economics since the late 20th century. This article is interested in its terminology and reflections in the arts in the case of the lyrics of contemporary U.S. American and British English popular music. Even though the term ‘globalization’ was coined in the late 20th century and is associated with the idea of a universal economic, social, and cultural process in the world, conceptual elements of ‘globalization’ can be found in human history before the term was coined. The arts conceptualized the ‘world’ as an idea long before the emergence of the concept of ‘globalization’. The elements of ‘globalization’ and its history of associated ideas are found ironized and critically revised in the contemporary arts. At this point, social and cultural criticism arises and describes the contrast between ethical values and reality. Even an individualized form of poetry like the lyric poems of 20th and 21st century U.S. American popular music reflects critically as a contribution to contemporary political discourse on the concept of ‘globalization’.

  3. Troubles with a Second Self: The Problem of Other Minds in 11th Century Indian and 20th Century Western Philosophy

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    Arindam CHAKRABARTI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Western analytic philosophy, the classic analogical argument explaining our knowledge of other minds has been rejected. But at least three alternative positive theories of our knowledge of the second person have been formulated: the theory-theory, the simulation theory and the theory of direct empathy. After sketching out the problems faced by these accounts of the ego’s access to the contents of the mind of a “second ego”, this paper tries to recreate one argument given by Abhinavagupta (Shaiva philosopher of recognition to the effect that even in another’s body, one must feel and recognize one’s own self, if one is able to address that embodied person as a “you”. The otherness of You does not take away from its subjectivity. In that sense, just as every second person to whom one could speak is, first, a person, she is also a first person. Even as I regret that I do not know exactly how some other person is feeling right now, I must have some general access to the subjective experience of that other person, for otherwise what is it that I feel so painfully ignorant about? My subjective world is mine only to the extent that I recognize its continuity with a sharable subjective world where other I-s can make a You out of me.

  4. Major 20th century changes of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) aerosol over Europe inferred from Alpine ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhermet, J.; Preunkert, S.; Voisin, D.; Baduel, C.; Legrand, M.

    2013-05-01

    Using a newly developed method dedicated to measurements of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) in atmospheric aerosol samples, the carbon mass quantification of HULISWS in an Alpine ice core is achieved for the first time. The method is based on the extraction of HULISWS with a weak anion-exchanger resin and the subsequent quantification of the extracted carbon fraction with a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. Measurements were performed along a Col du Dôme (4250 m above sea level, French Alps) ice core covering the 1920-2004 time period. The HULISWS concentrations exhibit a well-marked seasonal cycle with winter minima close to 7 ppbC and summer maxima ranging between 10 and 50 ppbC. Whereas the winter HULISWS concentrations remained unchanged over the twentieth century, the summer concentrations increased from 20 ppbC prior to the Second World War to 35 ppbC in the 1970-1990s. These different trends reflect the different types of HULISWS sources in winter and summer. HULISWS are mainly primarily emitted by domestic wood burning in winter and secondary in summer being produced from biogenic precursors. For unknown reason, the HULISWS signal is found to be unusual in ice samples corresponding to World War II.

  5. [Problems arising from the professionalization of nursing in the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century compared to the USA. A contribution to the current discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn

    2012-01-01

    The process of professionalization in Germany was hindered by several factors: the tradition of denominational nursing, the increasing segregation in the field of nursing, the resistance against nurses' professionalization, the late and sporadic institutionalization of nursing schools, and the classification of nursing as "ärztlicher Heilhilfsberuf". On the basis of these five influencing factors this paper will discuss the development in Germany in comparison to the USA at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The aim is to explain the differences in the process of professionalization in the German Reich and the USA which are rooted in that period.

  6. Analysis of land stability and land-use change processes in the 19–20th centuries: a case study in Gödöllő Hillside, Hungary

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    Demény Krisztina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript presents land-use change processes based on former military map analyses. Military maps were derived from the 1770s until the 1890s and later from the CORINE Land Cover map. I observed the transition direction of areal distribution of various land uses. Digitalized maps showed 19-20th century land-use conditions; besides them, we created a grouping system which is based on the intensity of land use. We distinguished six land-use types, ranking them according to the anthropogenic influence (1. built-up areas; 2. arable fields; 3. orchards and vineyards; 4. meadows and pastures; 5. forests; 6. wetlands.

  7. The World Science Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmino, J.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) New York City in the late 20th century rose to be a planetary capital for the sciences, not just astronomy. This growth was mainly in the academic sector but a parallel growth occurred in the public and home field. With the millennium crossing, scientists in New York agitated for a celebration of the City as a place for a thriving science culture. In 2008 they began World Science Festival. 2011 is the fourth running, on June 1-5, following the AAVSO/AAS meetings. World Science Festival was founded by Dr. Brian Greene, Columbia University, and is operated through the World Science Foundation. The Festival is "saturation science" all over Manhattan in a series of lectures, shows, exhibits, performances. It is staged in "science" venues like colleges and musea, but also in off-science spaces like theaters and galleries. It is a blend from hard science, with lectures like those by us astronomers, to science-themed works of art, dance, music. Events are fitted for the public, either for free or a modest fee. While almost all events are on Manhattan, effort has been made to geographically disperse them, even to the outer boroughs. The grand finale of World Science Festival is a street fair in Washington Square. Science centers in booths, tents, and pavilions highlight their work. In past years this fair drew 100,000 to 150,000 visitors. The entire Festival attracts about a quarter-million attendees. NYSkies is a proud participant at the Washington Square fair. It interprets the "Earth to the Universe" display, debuting during IYA-2009. Attendance at "Earth..." on just the day of the fair plausibly is half of all visitors in America. The presentation shows the scale and scope of World Science Festival, its relation to the City, and how our astronomers work with it.

  8. AHP 37: A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai

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    Bianca Horrleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the late nineteenth century, northwest China, Eastern Turkestan (modern Xinjiang, and eastern Tibet became increasingly attractive destinations for foreign travelers and explorers. There was a veritable 'run' on the region, which was deemed one of the last blank spots on world maps. In addition, northwest China, Tibet, and Eastern Turkestan received special attention because of competition between the British and Russian empires as part of what is known as the Great Game in Central Asia. This caused other European countries such as France, Belgium, and Germany to fear that they would miss out on new geographic and scientific discoveries. Apart from Geo-political, economic, and archaeological incentives, Tibetan Buddhism also attracted considerable interest, although mostly on a 'touristic', rather than an academic, level. ...

  9. A report from the 20th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (April 10-13, 2010 - Vienna, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasseda, X

    2010-07-01

    Effective antimicrobials currently in use in Europe and throughout the world are fast losing ground as many pathogens acquire resistance to newly introduced drugs. Multidrug and panresistance have now been identified in many pathogens, as iteratively discussed throughout this year's meeting of the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID). As extensively discussed in an oral session entitled Worldwide Dissemination of Resistances by 10 specialists from across Europe and the world, important drug resistances have now been identified in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and virtually all known pathogens (Roede, B.M. et al., Abst O127; Huenger, F. et al., Abst O395; Mera, R.M. et al., Abst O483). While many other issues were discussed, including the role of healthcare professionals and of hand hygiene in controlling the spread of infections (Derde, L. et al., Abst O464), microbial resistance was indeed the main topic of discussion in the many oral and poster presentations at the Austria Center in Vienna. The war against the superbugs has been declared and initiatives have been taken for tracking and destroying difficult to treat pathogens. Treatments of the diseases caused by these multidrug- and panresistant organisms continue, as manifested by new research and population surveys. However, with antimicrobial resistances as leitmotiv background music, other very recent scientific achievements and findings in diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases took center stage in Vienna, including important information on novel drugs for infectious diseases and the use and comparative effectiveness of extant drugs, as summarized in the following report.

  10. Studies on electronic properties of solids in Japan. Traces toward microscopic world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Takehiko

    2005-01-01

    Properties of solids are determined by the microscopic structure where quantum mechanics stands. Throughout the 20th century physicists have made progress in developing the methods to explore the microscopic world of materials. In the latter half of the 20th century, starting with catching-up modes, Japanese solid-state physicists have been at some leading edges in the last decade. Trace towards the frontiers are briefly reviewed placing emphasis upon the material development and the investigation, and ways to go are mentioned. (author)

  11. Socio-Political Motivation of Experiential Travel Education in the 18th, 19th and 20th Centuries: The Grand Tour, World's Fairs and Birthright Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porges, Edward

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate that travel as experiential education, though not always obvious, often has political or cultural intent or ramifications. Objectives such as promoting cosmopolitanism, nationalism and imperialism, and colonialism may then become obvious by examination of various experiential education travel programs,…

  12. L’introduction de la médecine moderne dans le monde arabe The introduction of modern medicine in the Arab world: between time of urgency and time of learning (19th-20th centuries

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    Sylvia Chiffoleau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’État, colonial ou autochtone, a joué un rôle majeur dans le processus d’occidentalisation du temps au XIXe siècle. Le champ de la santé permet de suivre le processus par lequel de nouveaux dispositifs (École de médecine, dispensaires, campagnes de vaccination et de lutte contre les épidémies introduisent non seulement un nouveau temps compté par l’horloge, la régularité des horaires de rendez-vous, mais aussi, de façon plus abstraite, l’idée de prévention et l’ébauche d’un souci de soi qui permet de se projeter dans l’avenir pour préserver sa santé.The State, whether colonial or native, has played a key role in the process of westernization of time in the 19th century. The field of health allows us to observe the process through which new institutions like schools of medicine, clinics, vaccination campaigns and campaigns against epidemics introduce a new counted time and the regularity of schedules for appointments. In a more abstract way, it introduces the idea of prevention and a first idea of self care that allows the individual to project himself into the future, in order to preserve his health.

  13. Violeta Parra: tensiones y transgresiones de una mujer popular de mediados del siglo XX Violeta Parra: Tensions and Transgressions in the Mid 20th Century of a Woman from the Popular World

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    Carla Pinochet Cobos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La obra artística de Violeta Parra presenta, en diversos niveles, una compleja problematización de los esquemas sociales de la primera mitad del siglo XX. Este trabajo busca examinar los modos en los que esta folclorista transita por los esquemas de género que recaían sobre los hombres y mujeres de la época, dando lugar a una mirada crítica e irreverente en la que la tradición cultural y la innovación confluyen, tanto en lo que respecta al contenido de sus textos como en el plano expresivo de su musicalidad.Violeta Parra's artistic work presents on different levels the complex problem of unraveling the social schemes of the first half of the twentieth century. This article examines the ways in which this "folclorista" moved through the gender schemes corresponding to men and women of that epoch. This movement opened a space for a both critical and irreverent view in which cultural tradition and innovation converge, both regarding the contents other texts as well as the expression of their musicality.

  14. Madonna: Feminist or Antifeminist? Domination of Sex in Her Music Videos and Live Performances From the 20th Century to the Present Day

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    Katarina Mitić

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After a nearly four-decade career, Madonna has not stopped with a modernist/postmodernist strategy of shock, which provides the reader or viewer the possibility of different interpretations of her art. While some art theorists condemn her as a ‘total antifeminist’, others praise Madonna’s work and point out her feminist side, through which she represents the ideal of a strong, independent and successful womanconfirming her own power and sexuality. Breaking conventional stereotypes through her videos and concert performances, the ‘Queen of Pop’ constantly demonstrates sexual dominance over both genders. In this paper, based on the contemporary research of Douglas Kellner and other theorists, I will analyze music videos and live performances from the 1990suntil the recent video for the song Bitch, I’m Madonna and consider why Madonna can be interpreted in two ways – as someone who ‘undermines her own feminism’ or as someone who is transparently presented as a feminist in the world of pop culture.

  15. The teaching of Latin in French secondary education. Social forms and legitimacies of an academic discipline between monopoly and decline (16th-20th

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    Serge Tomamichel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Up until the 1960s, before scientific courses attracted the best performing students, the Queen’s highway of secondary education was paved with Latin declensions. For centuries, from the very birth of «secondary» education until the disappearance of Latin in the sixth grade in 1968, Latin literature imposed its dominance. At the same time, however, it attracted criticism and opposition, the vast majority of students were facing great difficulties in the learning process, and Latin was the focal point for recurrent debate regarding the modernisation of education. Throughout this article, the «Latin question», subject of many controversies of the late 19th century, takes the form of the «Latin enigma» directed at History. This «enigma» is discussed from a perspective linking together the status of secondary education within general educational provision, its uses in society, the educational methods used and its function in the world of secondary education. The author particularly focuses on the constructed and ingrained forms and legitimacies characterizing the monopoly - until the 1860s – and then the hegemony of Latin literature not only on French literature but also on science, modern languages and more generally, on modern disciplines. Nevertheless, the teaching of the latter could have met the constantly renewed socio-political and economic requirements more appropriately.

  16. Influence of Czech textile-makers on development of textile industry in Serbia from the beginning to the second half of the 20th century

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    Menković Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this study is influence of Czech nationals, primarily as immigrants, with capital invested in production of textile and textile products or with expert knowledge and entrepreneurship ability contributing to certain special features of Yugoslav and Serbian textile industry during the period of its development between the two World Wars. In this period the first industrial businesses for ready-to-wear and knitwear clothes have appeared, due to availability of locally manufactured woven and knit fabric, mostly produced from imported thread material. Both their initial establishment and later development were crucially influenced by foreign investments and immigrant workforce, hand-in-hand with craft workshops and communal manufactures specializing in finishing the pre-made products and creating the recognizable brand products. In addition to the predominant foreign capital from Austria, primarily Vienna, the next most important share was that of capital from Czechia, only distantly followed by that from England and Italy, with a significant contribution by the Jewish community from several European countries. At the same time, most of the qualified workforce immigrated from Czechia, including both ethnic Germans and ethnic Czech.

  17. [The "Fight over the Protein Minimum". The conflict between scientific nutrition teaching and food reform in 19th and 20th century Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyll, U

    2007-12-01

    In 1877 the German physiologist and nutritionist Carl von Voit published diet parameters which included minimum intakes of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. As a minimum daily intake of protein Voit arrived at a figure of 118 g. This figure was questioned mainly by supporters of the so-called food reform, because the required protein intake would hardly be feasible without substantial meat consumption. To disprove this claim and to show that the vegetarian way of life was justified, reformers such as Mikkel Hindhede and Carl Röse conducted experiments demonstrating that the long-term adherence to diets with a daily protein intake of less than 30 g was possible without causing a negative protein balance. It was, however, only after the famines of the First World War that the concepts of the diet reformers met with greater interest. As they promised a better, from imports independent supply of food, the national socialist regime after 1933 made it the centre of a new food policy that aimed at autarky. Thus, the history of the "protein minimum" provides insights into effects and limits of nutrition research under the restrictions of economic requirements, moral considerations and prevailing traditions.

  18. From the small palace to the tenement: the use of hydraulic tiles in São Paulo city’s buildings in the turn from 19th to 20th century

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    Solange de Aragão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the use of hydraulic tiles (a type of flooring resulted from the mixture of Portland cement with sand, water, marble and granite, and that features colorful drawings of geometric or floral shapes in some constructions built in the city of São Paulo at the turn of the 20th century – more specifically during the last decades of the 19th century and during the first decades of the 20th. We aim to demonstrate here how this building material, which was at first used on the floor of the richest houses of São Paulo city (such as some of the ancient small palaces as symbol of status, would spread out little by little, being found in other types of buildings, like some old houses of working class people, and even in one of the poorest types of housing in the city – the tenement; we also associate the different degrees of complexity on tiles design to the income level of their original owners – the more complex the design, the higher the price of each piece and therefore the richer the building’s owner. Also noteworthy is how this handmade material is still valued by architects and other professionals today due to the richness of its drawings, its colors and the diversity of possibilities when making a composition with it.

  19. Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Hennoste

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is the literary discourse of Young Estonia; its relations with other important Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, and its relations with colonial cultural discourse. First, I give an overview of the basic positions of the Young Estonians’ literary discourse, the main shapers of which were Friedebert Tuglas, Gustav Suits, later on Johannes Semper as well. Next, I present the basic principles of three Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, which were also important to the Young Estonians: nationalist-naturalistic (close-to-life; socialist/ class-based, and 20th century modernist. The Young Estonians began as nationalists and/or socialists. During the formation of Young Estonia’s discourse at the end of the first and beginning of the second decade of the 20th century, 20th century modernism began, which the Young Estonians regarded first and foremost with irony. The Young Estonians’ literary discourse is a mixture of aestheticism, decadence, symbolism, romanticism, and classicism. The point of departure for the Young Estonian approach to literature was eurocentrism. They took a superior and negative view of existing Estonian literature, which they regarded as having fallen drastically behind Europe. Since it was unable to build on its own foundation, it had to borrow from Europe. The discourse’s understandings of cultural values – theory, reading, knowledge, ready-made culture, derive from the centrality of the dynamic of borrowing. New culture could be created freely, without the support of previous local tradition; it was to be an elite culture, while the writer remained an individualist. Literature was to follow the principle of art for art’s sake; aesthetics and the form of the work of art were basic criteria. The formal ideals of the work of art were classicist: unity, integrity (wholeness, harmony, order, logic, etc. Thirdly, I outline the

  20. The development’s phases of educational sciences as academic disciplin in Hungary in first half of the 20th century

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    András Németh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of historical anthologies and monographs have been published recently that give priority to the social approach in the history of science of the educational sciences – using Stichweh’s concept of discipline – as discipline formation and discipline development. The study to date indicates that four phases in the academic discipline development of the educational sciences in Hungary can be distinguished. In the first phase we find the institutional formation of pedagogy, as it was then understood, as a disciplinary field. This development proceeded most rapidly in the last third of the nineteenth century. It took on two overlapping forms, following the general institutionalization of teacher education. On the one hand, broad-based theory formation regarding educational practice took place, reaching its peak in Herbartianism. On the other hand, university courses were introduced and academic chairs created, often closely tied to philosophy, that were dedicated to pedagogy and represented the academic foundations of the discipline. The second phase, which is the focus of the present contribution continued into the twentieth century. In this period an educational movement arose that centered on the empirical paradigms of research in the social sciences. But the various lines of the movement (reform pedagogy, experimental pedagogy, child study did not always succeed at becoming established at the universities. The third phase is the phase of lasting institutionalization of the educational sciences, which in most places began already in the first half of the twentieth century. Here the German «Geisteswissenschaft» played a role. After the 2nd World War was Hungary included in the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union and began the fourth phase of development of the educational sciences in Hungary. Educational science was most highly affected among social sciences by the political power shifts oft the Stalinism.

  1. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  2. International Musicological Conference Young Musicology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century, Kabinet hudební historie Etnologického ústavu AV ČR, Praha 5.–8. září 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2017), s. 236-237 ISSN 0018-7003. [International Music ological Conference Young Music ology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century. Prague, 05.10.2016-08.10.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : 20th Century * Young Music ology * Conference Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy)

  3. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  4. EDITORIAL Smart materials, multifunctional composites, and morphing structures: selected papers from the 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST 2009) Smart materials, multifunctional composites, and morphing structures: selected papers from the 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2010-12-01

    The 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST) was held on 20-22 October 2009 in Hong Kong. This special section of Smart Materials and Structures is derived from the research papers presented at the conference. Of the 106 papers presented at the conference, 11 papers were reviewed and accepted for this special section, following the regular review procedures of the journal. This special section is focused on smart materials, multifunctional composites, and applications on morphing structures. Smart materials. Smart materials are the foundation of adaptive structures and intelligent systems. The development of new materials will lead to significant improvement in various applications. Three articles are focused on the fabrication of new materials and investigation of their behaviors: Barium strontium zirconate titanate ((Ba1-xSrx)(ZrxTi1-x)O3; BSZT, x = 0.25 and 0.75) ceramics with a highly crystalline structure were fabricated using the combustion technique. The microstructure of BSZT powders exhibited an almost-spherical morphology and had a porous agglomerated form. Polyaniline (PANI)/clay nanoparticles with unique core-shell structure were synthesized via Pickering emulsion polymerization. By dispersing PANI/clay nanoparticles in silicone oil, the ER fluid was made. Magnetic field effects were investigated on the deposition rate and surface morphology of chromium nitride coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering for superior hardness, excellent wear and oxidation resistance. The surface morphology of chromium nitride films was also examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Multifunctional composites. Composites are made from two or more constituent materials so they can combine the best properties of different materials. Five papers deal with fabrication, testing, and modeling of various multifunctional composites: A new active structural fiber (ASF) was fabricated by coating a single carbon fiber with a concentric

  5. A görög-albán kapcsolatok története a 20. században - Greek-Albanian Relations in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALOGH, Ádám

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Greek and the Albanian nations have been living close to each other approximately in the same territory for almost three thousand years. An ethnically mixed population had lived in the contact zone of the two nations (Epirus, or Chameria in Albanian without any territorial disputes. Neither religious, nor language differences caused any serious conflicts between the Greeks and the Albanians until the 19th century when nationalism changed the political situation completely. However, Pan-Slavism and the decline of the Ottoman Empire prompted the cooperation of the two nations which was based on the Pelasg ideology, namely the common origin of the Greeks and the Albanians. Epirus was divided as a consequence of the Balkan Wars, and from that point, the status of minorities has poisoned the relationship between Albania and Greece. The author of the present article gives an overview of the historical antecedents and discusses the Greek-Albanian relations in the 20th century.

  6. The symphonic music of the national schools in 20th century Europe in the repertoire of the Philharmonic of Cluj (1955-1989. Creative perspectives of C. Silvestri’s Chants Nostalgiques op. 27 no. 1

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    Simona Spiridon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on the national cultures of the early 20th century in several European countries, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Spain, Russia and Romania. Since my PhD thesis analyses the evolution of the Philharmonic “Transilvania”of Cluj between 1955-1989, there will be a thorough statistic of the concerts which were held during that period in which the orchestra performed musical pieces of the composers mentioned in this essay. For some concerts, there will also be stated the date when the concert took place, as well as the conductor who was invited to Cluj. There will also be an analysis of a piano work of the Romanian composer Constantin Silvestri (Chants Nostalgiques op. 27 no. 1 which I personally played a few years ago. The study will contain a musical bibliography, as well as several footnotes stating the documents found in the archives of the Philharmonic of Cluj.

  7. [Is there a German history of evidence-based medicine? Methodic standards of therapeutic research in the early 20th century and Paul Martini's "Methodology of therapeutic investigation" (1932)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, S; Roelcke, V; Raspe, H

    2005-07-29

    The article addresses the history of evidence-based medicine in Germany. Its aim was to reconstruct the standard of clinical-therapeutic investigation in Germany at the beginning of the 20 (th) century. By a historical investigation of five important German general medical journals for the time between 1918 and 1932 an overview of the situation of clinical investigation is given. 268 clinical trails are identified, and are analysed in view of their methodological design. Heterogeneous results are found: While few examples of sophisticated methodology exist, the design of the majority of the studies is poor. A response to the situation described can be seen in Paul Martini's book "Methodology of Therapeutic Investigation", first published in 1932. Paul Martini's biography, his criticism of the situation of clinical-therapeutic investigation of his time, the major points of his methodology and the reception of the book in Germany and abroad are described.

  8. American archivists on oral history – review of the subject of texts published in the second half of the 20th century in pages of „The American Archivist”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wiśniewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, the article consists of a detailed discussion on eighteen texts on oral history published in the second half of the 20th century in the leading American archival journal „The American Archivist”. The second part are conclusions concerning the presence of the subject of oral history in archival discourse in the United States in the latter half of the 20th century. In the analyzed texts a lot of space has been given to the character of oral history interviews as historical sources. Especially, the question of reliability of oral history has been raised, as well as ways of guaranteeing it (e.g. through a proper description. Moreover, in many cases these texts attempt to persuade their readers to use oral history in their research. Also, it may be noticed, that at some point the understanding of oral history as historical source changes – an audio or video recording of the interview becomes a source itself, and not notes made while carrying it out or its transcription. Also relations between oral history and traditional (paper records are an important issue in discussions of the American authors. The analysis of the articles also indicates that the authors were interested more in issues of the historical nature, than of the archival one. Those latter are mostly providing access to oral history materials. But also the question of the role of archives and archivists in recording oral history is touched. Discussion on the issue of storing oral history is not present at all.

  9. Impact of the Little Ice Age cooling and 20th century climate change on peatland vegetation dynamics in central and northern Alberta using a multi-proxy approach and high-resolution peat chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Gabriel; van Bellen, Simon; Davies, Lauren; Froese, Duane; Garneau, Michelle; Mullan-Boudreau, Gillian; Zaccone, Claudio; Shotyk, William

    2018-04-01

    Northern boreal peatlands are major terrestrial sinks of organic carbon and these ecosystems, which are highly sensitive to human activities and climate change, act as sensitive archives of past environmental change at various timescales. This study aims at understanding how the climate changes of the last 1000 years have affected peatland vegetation dynamics in the boreal region of Alberta in western Canada. Peat cores were collected from five bogs in the Fort McMurray region (56-57° N), at the southern limit of sporadic permafrost, and two in central Alberta (53° N and 55° N) outside the present-day limit of permafrost peatlands. The past changes in vegetation communities were reconstructed using detailed plant macrofossil analyses combined with high-resolution peat chronologies (14C, atmospheric bomb-pulse 14C, 210Pb and cryptotephras). Peat humification proxies (C/N, H/C, bulk density) and records of pH and ash content were also used to improve the interpretation of climate-related vegetation changes. Our study shows important changes in peatland vegetation and physical and chemical peat properties during the Little Ice Age (LIA) cooling period mainly from around 1700 CE and the subsequent climate warming of the 20th century. In some bogs, the plant macrofossils have recorded periods of permafrost aggradation during the LIA with drier surface conditions, increased peat humification and high abundance of ericaceous shrubs and black spruce (Picea mariana). The subsequent permafrost thaw was characterized by a short-term shift towards wetter conditions (Sphagnum sect. Cuspidata) and a decline in Picea mariana. Finally, a shift to a dominance of Sphagnum sect. Acutifolia (mainly Sphagnum fuscum) occurred in all the bogs during the second half of the 20th century, indicating the establishment of dry ombrotrophic conditions under the recent warmer and drier climate conditions.

  10. In the Age of Changes: Rebellion, Insurrection and Revolution in the 17th – Early 20th Centuries in the Russian Province: All-Russian Conference to the 100th Anniversary of 1917 Revolutionary Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A. Lyapin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author points out the importance of studying social conflicts in the history of Russia. Over the past years, this problem has been in the core of scholars’ attention. The study of social conflicts and crisis periods allows revealing important features of development of the Russian state. In this regard, the conference “In the age of changes: rebellion, insurrection and revolution in the 17th – early 20th centuries in the Russian province” that took place on September 21–23, 2017 at the Elets State University named after I.A. Bunin was characterized by utmost relevance. The conference was held with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Department of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Administration of the Lipetsk Region. The scholars from 14 regions of Russia took part in the conference, more than half of them were represented by doctors of sciences. The reports of the conference participants aroused debates and focused on the social conflicts taking place in the Russian province in the 17th – first quarter of the 20th century. The reports were published in a special issue of the journal History: Facts and Symbols. The conference served as the discussion platform for major Russian scholars, and allowed to put forward new ideas, which together can be embodied in new events of this kind. The author considers several problematic reports and notes that the conference showed the importance of such events that determine and guide the development of rebellion studies in historical science.

  11. On the search for the world formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanolis, Stratis

    2006-01-01

    The desire of man to explore the origin of the world reaches back to the antique. His desire however to formulate a theory about this is relatively young. Serious attempts to reach this goal are connected with Einstein who began at the beginning of the 20th century to establish a unified theory and by this to trace the world formula. Einstein died however 1955 without reaching his goal. Since then several theories have been established which led to remarkable partial successes. The searched world formula however keeps waiting still as usual. The present book undertakes the attempt to show the ways, which many ingenious physicists hitherto have followed in order to reach this goal - a goal. which meanwhile seems to be obviously near because of the string theory

  12. 20th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This Colloquium is within the astrofundamental physics spirit of the Chalonge School, focalised on recent observational and theoretical progress in the CMB, dark matter, dark energy, the new WDM framework to galaxy formation, and the effective theory of the early universe inflation with predictive power in the context of the LambdaWDM Standard Model of the Universe. The Colloquium addresses as well the theory and experimental search for the WDM particle physics candidates (keV sterile neutrinos). Astrophysical constraints put the sterile neutrino mass m in the range 1< m <10 keV.

  13. Bible translations into Italian (20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Wróbel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing twentieth-century translations of the Bible into Italian we have to make a crucial distinction: there are different translations and different editions; the latter are more numerous, as the same translation may appear in different forms. For many of them it is difficult to determine to whom they are addressed: some of the features show a broad willingness to promote the content of the Bible, while others make them a tool only for a group of specialists. The article discusses the issue of the Bibles, which were printed in Italy in the twentieth century; there were 27. It deliberately does not include translations and elaborations less prevalent or partial studies for professionals. The information is presented in a tangible and transparent scheme, which facilitates their mutual compatibility. Each description contains the name or title of work, author’s name, place and date of publication, publisher’s name, names of translators, editors, source of translation, editing characteristics, and other observations.

  14. Albert Einstein and 20th century's physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.

    1979-01-01

    Albert Einstein's teaching and his three fundamental works are discussed dealing with the molecular theory of heat applied to the motion of suspended particles in liquids at rest, the photoelectric effect, and the theory of relativity. Albert Einstein's impact on contemporary physics is evaluated. (J.P.)

  15. TREF celebrates its 20th anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    The early years and RESCO In the nineteen sixties and seventies it was the practice to set up ad hoc working groups to study specific topics concerning the personnel, such as revisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, five-yearly salary reviews, pensions fund matters, the health insurance scheme, etc. Usually, these bodies were made up of Member State delegates, with representatives attending from the Management and observers from the Staff Association. The documents and the strategy were prepared in large internal working groups. A major exercise called the Review of Employment and Social Conditions (RESCO) took place in 1979. For RESCO a series of sub-groups examined particular topics and formal meetings took place in several Member States. There was a very considerable investment in time and money, but the results were comparatively minor. CEC, CCEC and TRACE Subsequently there has been a succession of three tripartite bodies set up by Council to study the question of employment conditions at CERN...

  16. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  17. Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2011-01-01

    The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

  18. 20th Particles and Nuclei International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, Christian

    2015-01-01

    PANIC 14 will consist of plenary talks and a number of parallel sessions. The scientific programme will address a broad range of topics at the interface between particle, nuclear and astrophysics. Special emphasis will be devoted to recent discoveries and results.

  19. Antimatter and 20th Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the history of antimatter from the concept first introduced in 1898 up to the present day and is intended to complement the article "Antihydrogen on Tap" on page 229 [of this issue of "Physics Education"]. It is hoped that it will provide enough historical background material along with interesting snippets of…

  20. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  1. Ageing populations and changing worlds of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Brian

    2014-08-01

    Population ageing has reshaped the notion of retirement. The changes carry important implications for aspirations to extend working life. Cultural expectations regarding work and retirement must adapt to the reality posed by longer lives. The modern world is characterised by perpetual - and sometime rapid - change. Transformation throughout the second half of the 20th century brought about substantial shifts in the health and longevity of people in societies across the world. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the impacts of population ageing have gathered greater awareness in public consciousness and within the policy arena. Notions of old age, retirement, and later life have been fundamentally transformed, presenting stark challenges alongside novel opportunities for individuals, communities, and governments. Many of the topics of interest with respect to ageing populations are themselves the result of shifts that were unforeseen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The World of WarsRisky systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have....... The "extreme 20th century" will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be more extreme and its temporal bindings easier to observe. The much celebrated revolutions in military affairs will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away. Kantian convergences may appear....

  3. Recent progress in carcinogenesis, progression and therapy of breast cancer: the 20th Hiroshima Cancer Seminar--the 4th Three Universities' Consortium International Symposium, October 2010: 31 October 2010, International Conference Center Hiroshima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Masakazu; Yasui, Wataru; Ito, Hisao; Tahara, Eiichi

    2011-07-01

    The 20th Hiroshima Cancer seminar focused upon breast cancer research and treatment particularly on the mechanism of tumorigenesis and drug resistance and development of novel therapeutics. Several molecules such as retinoblastoma and p16 were raised as key factors in tumorigenesis and invasiveness. Estrogen-related pathways seem to be closely involved in the process. For the tumor lacking hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor 2, some other mechanisms could be responsible. It seems that MicroRNA 22 directing some putative targets such as SIRT1, Sp1 and CDK6 plays a crucial role in breast tumor growth and metastasis. In addition, ribophorin and the associated molecules might be engaged in breast cancer stemness. Obviously, these molecules provide potential for therapeutic targets. It was also discussed about new drug development such as anti-human epidermal growth factor 2 therapy, anti-angiogenesis, pro-tumor aspects of anti-cancer therapy and application of circulating markers for monitoring, imaging and health-care system. Furthermore, we discussed risk factors, prevention and screening to reduce invasive cancers as well. Throughout the conference, panelists and attendee indicated the importance of translational research and biomarker exploration in order to realize efficient and individualized therapy for breast cancer.

  4. Sociolinguistic Aspects of the Ashkenazim Language Situation in the Russian Empire at the Turn of the 19th and in the Early 20th Centuries (On the Base of Sholom Aleichem's Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Boichuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the sociolinguistic situation of the Ashkenazi Jews in the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century. The research is based on the works of a leading Yiddish author and playwright - Sholom (Sholem Aleichem. His writings, besides their highest artistic value, have been found to be a relevant source of sociolinguistic information. A sociolinguistic analysis of the Ashkenazim language situation has been carried out. The main languages spoken by the Ashkenazim in the Pale of Settlement have been singled out. Their interrelation has been established. Each language played a special role in the life of the Ashkenazim at the period: Hebrew enjoyed high social prestige and alongside with Aramaic was mainly the language of religion. Yiddish was the vernacular of the Ashkenazim in the Pale of Settlement, and it had to struggle for achieving its status as a literary language. Russian, Ukrainian and Moldavian were mainly used for communication with the surrounding Gentiles. Polish remained as a fading vestige of former Polish presence in the area. German and French were the most common foreign languages.

  5. HSV-1/HSV-2 Infection-Related Cancers in Bantu Populations Driving HIV-1 Prevalence in Africa: Tracking the Origin of AIDS at the Onset of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goaster, Jacqueline; Bouree, Patrice; El Sissy, Franck N; Phuong Bui, Florence; Pokossy Epee, Johanna; Rollin, Paul; Tangy, Frédéric; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2016-01-01

    At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif., USA, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) known as AIDS disease. Yet since 1996, it is known that HIV-1 strains are not the only ones involved. In Sub-Saharan Africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and genital recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) appeared many times prior to infection by HIV-1. Data on these ancient medical observations regarding African cancer epidemics can today be referred to as the relationship between the unfortunate immune deficiency of herpes in Bantu populations and HIV-1 viral strains. For centuries, the Bantu populations dispersed in forests were living in close proximity to chimpanzees infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and were exposed to SIV contamination which became HIV-1 in human beings. Presently, these unexplained Bantu cancer epidemics can be linked to the viral partnership of HSV-1/HSV-2 to HIV-1 strains. The key issue is now to prevent HSV-1/HSV-2 diseases related to HIV-1. An anti-herpes treatment administered early during childhood to Bantu populations will offer a mean of preventing herpes diseases related to HIV-1 infection and hence avoid cancer epidemics.

  6. High-Altitude Aggressions and Physiological Degeneration? The Biography of “Climate” as an Object of Scientific Inquiry in Colombia During the 19th and the Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pohl-Valero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show the role played by experimental physiology in the way of understanding the effects of high-altitude climates on the functioning of the human body and the possibilities of progress of the Colombian nation throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Content: the transformation of the concept of climate as an object of scientific inquiry is explored over the studied period. This is done by analyzing investigations on respiratory capacity, nutrition and metabolism, blood chemistry and heart function in people of the eastern range of the Colombian Andes. Conclusions: beyond an institutional or disciplinary history of physiology, this article shows that some practices of experimental physiology played a role in the process of represent­ing the Colombian nation, territory, and population. The inhabitants of the Andean highlands were understood not only in terms of race and innate abilities, but also in terms of social classes and organic transformations. The idea that there was a supposed process of “physiological de­generation”, decreasing the efficiency of high-altitude workers, was tried to compensate through a “rational diet”.

  7. Giovanni Cingolani pittore e restauratore fra l'Italia, il Vaticano e l'Argentina tra Ottocento e Novecento / Giovanni Cingolani painter and restorer between Italy, Vatican and Argentina in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Coltrinari

    2015-02-01

    The life of Giovanni Cingolani (Montecassiano, 1859 – Santa Fe, 1932 takes place between Italy and Argentina at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Cingolani redeems his humble origins with a successful career as a painter and restorer in Rome between 1880 and 1908. Thanks to the relations with prelates and painters of Perugia, close to Pope Leo XIII, the artist fits himself in the papal circles, devoting himself to painting religious and to the portrait. Came into contact with Ludovico Seitz, director of the Vatican Museums, participates in the major restorations in the Borgia apartment, in the chapel Niccolina, in the Vatican Stanze and in the Sistine Chapel. In 1909 he emigrated to Santa Fe, where he worked as a church decorator and portrait painter, devoting himself intensely to teaching: thanks to unpublished documents, especially the correspondence between Cingolani, his daughter Leonilde and the director of the library of Macerata, Giovanni Spadoni, you can learn many details about his life and the Italian and Argentines artistic milieus he frequented. The paper wants to disclose this almost unknown artist, “migrant” between Italy and Argentina, highlighting his role of disseminator of European academic tradition in Latin America.

  8. Ostaci srednjevjekovne utvrde Kaštel (Fenarlik u kartografskim izvorima XIX i XX vijeka : The remains of the fortress Kaštel (Fenarlik in cartographic sources of the 19th and 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Topoljak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Utvrda Kaštel (Fenarlik, locirana između Novog Travnika i Bugojna, vjerovatno je podignuta u razdoblju srednjeg vijeka, a u kartografskim izvorima se prvi put javlja tek 1883. godine. Geodetski planovi i karte 19. i 20. vijeka vjerodostojno dokumentuju propadanje ostataka tog utvrđenja, isprva ga jasno prikazujući kao ruševinu, dok se naposljetku sačuvao samo toponim Kaštel. Ovim radom autori su pokušali identifikovati i objediniti sve relevantne kartografske izvore na kojima je predočen lokalitet Kaštela, uz analizu načina topografisanja ostataka srednjevjekovne utvrde. : The fortress Kaštel (Fenarlik, located between Novi Travnik and Bugojno, probably was built in the period of middle ages. Concerning cartographic sources, it first appeared in 1883. Geodetic plans and maps from the 19th and 20th century credibly documented deterioration of the fortress remains. At first, it clearly displayed a ruin, while ultimately toponym Kaštel was the only preserved. Authors of this paper tried to identify and consolidate all relevant cartographic sources that represent the place Kaštel, together with the analysis of topographing the medieval fortresses.

  9. HSV-1/HSV-2 Infection-Related Cancers in Bantu Populations Driving HIV-1 Prevalence in Africa: Tracking the Origin of AIDS at the Onset of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Le Goaster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif., USA, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 known as AIDS disease. Yet since 1996, it is known that HIV-1 strains are not the only ones involved. In Sub-Saharan Africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and genital recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 appeared many times prior to infection by HIV-1. Case Reports: Data on these ancient medical observations regarding African cancer epidemics can today be referred to as the relationship between the unfortunate immune deficiency of herpes in Bantu populations and HIV-1 viral strains. For centuries, the Bantu populations dispersed in forests were living in close proximity to chimpanzees infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV and were exposed to SIV contamination which became HIV-1 in human beings. Presently, these unexplained Bantu cancer epidemics can be linked to the viral partnership of HSV-1/HSV-2 to HIV-1 strains. Conclusion: The key issue is now to prevent HSV-1/HSV-2 diseases related to HIV-1. An anti-herpes treatment administered early during childhood to Bantu populations will offer a mean of preventing herpes diseases related to HIV-1 infection and hence avoid cancer epidemics.

  10. Contribution of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela to the development of the spanish scientific research in the first third of the 20th century (1900-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasa Arias, Beatriz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela was founded in 1857, but research activities did not start until the beginning of the 20th century. The new Spanish regulations promoting the experimentation at universities and the stages of professors and recently graduated students outside Spain contributed to generate a remarkable research group in a provincial university. The excessive university centralism at that time in Spain and the characteristics of the headquarters of the faculty —a 16th century Renaissance palace— hindered, in general, the research development. However, the scientific spirit of professors and students, and their work were imposed and they achieved an estimable status in pharmacy research in Galicia. The facilities were the staff's highest priority and it raised more than a protest. A remarkable investment in apparatuses and laboratory materials was carried out and researchers started to publish original research papers in local journals, such as the «Revista de farmacia», published by their own University. In the previous years to the Spanish Civil War (1936 the research status in drug development and the background of the staff and students were important, allowing them to join the military laboratory that Franco’s army created at the faculty of pharmacy. The research work continued in a small scale and was specially focused on the production of «copy drugs» copying European specific drugs which were scarce at that time. The first third of the 20th century was the germ of the great research prestige that the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela enjoys at present.

    La Facultad de Farmacia de Santiago de Compostela se fundó en 1857, pero no fue hasta comienzos del siglo XX cuando comenzó a desarrollar una labor de investigación en medicamentos. Las nuevas reglamentaciones que fomentaban la experimentación en los laboratorios universitarios y la formación de profesores y reci

  11. Ethnic Entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the Era of Economic Modernization in the Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th Century (as Illustrated in the Example of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the 19th century brought about the modernization reforms in the Russian political system, which accelerated the development of the country's capitalist economy. The abolition of segregationist regulations contributed to the development of bourgeois relations in industry and agriculture. The pace of economic modernization was faster in European Russia, while the country’s frontier regions in the Asiatic part of the Russian Empire seriously lagged behind the center. The role of agents for capitalist change in industry and agriculture was accepted by the members of non-Russian ethnic groups, such as Jews, Germans, Poles and others. They became new bourgeois who were former government officials who had required connections to establish factories, and traders, who accumulated significant capital. In the 2nd half of the 19th century, a major role was performed by individual entrepreneurship inside ethnic communities. Its scope comprised the sectors which generated no economic interest among Russians living in Siberia, and which required large capital investments (distilling, shipping companies. In the early 20th century the social composition of communities was blurry thanks to peasants who formed a key component in migratory flows to Siberia. This shifted emphasis to small and medium-sized enterprises in the agricultural sector. The purpose of the paper is to use specific examples to show how ethnic entrepreneurship depended on a community's social composition, and determine its place in the regional economy in the conditions of ongoing political modernization and initial steps to industrialization. The foundation for the study is built on the archival documents, statistical digests and current research. The work is based on comparativism.

  12. The role of church history and Byzantine studies in the history of historical sciences, religious and secular education in Ukraine in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Y. Medovkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical retrospective of formation of the non­religious phenomenon «new Christianity» in the conteThe article examines the impact of the educational and scientific activities of famous church historians on the expansion of knowledge in the history of church, development of historical studies, religious and secular education in Ukrainian territories in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The analysis of the biographies, activities and scientific papers of such well­known scientists as Aleksey Dmitriyevskiy, Ivan Sokolov, Kostiantyn Kharlampovych, Vasyl Bidnov and Oleksandr Lototskyi shows that the scholars made a great contribution to the expansion of historical knowledge in the history of church and Byzantine studies. They achieved it by finding and publishing new sources, studying new topics that had not been covered earlier, applying the historical comparative method and analysing the local history within the context of general history of humankind. Furthermore, just by reviewing the list of offices held by the above scholars, subjects they taught, and scientific journals where they worked as authors and editors and understanding what role they played in preserving church antiques during the period when objects of historical importance were expropriated and used for other purposes, you can appreciate not only their contribution to fostering a great number of well­educated broad­minded and scientifically oriented researchers and clergy members, but also the importance of the position they took on social issues. Because of the social principles they defended the scholars were often persecuted by the Bolsheviks, which caused their premature death or forced emigration.

  13. 20th May 2010 - Malaysian Minister for Science, Technology and Innovation H. F: B. H. Yusof signing the guest book with Coordinator for External Relations F. Pauss and CMS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck; visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department Head F. Bordry; throughout accompanied by CERN Advisers J. Ellis and E. Tsesmelis.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien brice

    2010-01-01

    20th May 2010 - Malaysian Minister for Science, Technology and Innovation H. F: B. H. Yusof signing the guest book with Coordinator for External Relations F. Pauss and CMS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck; visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department Head F. Bordry; throughout accompanied by CERN Advisers J. Ellis and E. Tsesmelis.

  14. Book Review: Russia-Germany. Milestones of the Joint History in the Collective Memory. 20th Century / ed. by H. Muller, A. O. Chubaryan ; by the Decision of the Joint Commission on Studying the Modern History of the Russian-German Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vashkau Nina Emilyevna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of a Russian-German textbook that describes the events of the 20th century. The book has been created by the Common Board for Research on the History of the Russian-German Relationships and can be used as learning material in schools and universities of both countries.

  15. NATIONAL IMAGE OF THE WORLD AS AN ETHNOPOETICAL CATEGORY IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheshunova S. V.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the usage of the term "national image of the world" in literary studies by analogy with the term "language picture of the world" used in linguistics, as well as specifies a range of components of national image of the world in Russian literature of the 19th—20th centuries. Examples from the novels "In the Forests" and "On the Hills" by Pavel Melnikov-Pechersky, the novel "Nanny from Moscow" by Ivan Shmelyov and especially the novel "The Red Wheel" by Alexander Solzhenitsyn are given to illustrate the key points of this article.

  16. The Charity Activities of the Russian Business Owners During the Late 19th and Early 20th Centurie%19世纪末20世纪初俄国企业主的慈善活动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海坤

    2015-01-01

    19世纪末20世纪初,以企业主阶层为代表的社会慈善活动,占据了俄国慈善事业的主导地位,俄国企业主在传统济贫、社会助养、教育、医疗、宗教等广泛的社会领域,进行了规模巨大、形式多样的慈善活动。其动机既有传统宗教伦理的道德导向因素,也有新兴资产阶级追求个人名誉、渴望社会认同和获取经济回报的现实利益诉求。企业主阶层的慈善活动一定程度上起到了调节社会再分配的作用,但不能从根本上调和尖锐的阶级矛盾、改变俄国社会普遍的反资本主义情结,其自身最终也随着俄国无产阶级革命的胜利而消亡。%Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the social charity activities mainly from business class occupied the dominance of philanthropy in Russia .Russian entrepreneurs carried out the huge and diverse forms of charity activities in a wide range of the society as traditional poor -support, social adoption, medical service, education, religion and so on.Their motivation included the ethics moral orientation factors of traditional religion , also emerging bourgeois’ pursuit of person-al reputation, social identity and the economic returns of realistic interests.To some extent Entrepreneurs charity activities played a role in regulating the social redistribution , but could not reconcile the sharp class warfare fundamentally , or change social universal anti –capitalism.And itself disappeared with the victory of the proletarian revolution in Russia finally .

  17. Comprehensive global amino acid sequence analysis of PB1F2 protein of influenza A H5N1 viruses and the influenza A virus subtypes responsible for the 20th-century pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Gunisha; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Chakrabarti, Alok K

    2013-07-01

    PB1F2 is the 11th protein of influenza A virus translated from +1 alternate reading frame of PB1 gene. Since the discovery, varying sizes and functions of the PB1F2 protein of influenza A viruses have been reported. Selection of PB1 gene segment in the pandemics, variable size and pleiotropic effect of PB1F2 intrigued us to analyze amino acid sequences of this protein in various influenza A viruses. Amino acid sequences for PB1F2 protein of influenza A H5N1, H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes were obtained from Influenza Research Database. Multiple sequence alignments of the PB1F2 protein sequences of the aforementioned subtypes were used to determine the size, variable and conserved domains and to perform mutational analysis. Analysis showed that 96·4% of the H5N1 influenza viruses harbored full-length PB1F2 protein. Except for the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, all the subtypes of the 20th-century pandemic influenza viruses contained full-length PB1F2 protein. Through the years, PB1F2 protein of the H1N1 and H3N2 viruses has undergone much variation. PB1F2 protein sequences of H5N1 viruses showed both human- and avian host-specific conserved domains. Global database of PB1F2 protein revealed that N66S mutation was present only in 3·8% of the H5N1 strains. We found a novel mutation, N84S in the PB1F2 protein of 9·35% of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 influenza viruses. Varying sizes and mutations of the PB1F2 protein in different influenza A virus subtypes with pandemic potential were obtained. There was genetic divergence of the protein in various hosts which highlighted the host-specific evolution of the virus. However, studies are required to correlate this sequence variability with the virulence and pathogenicity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  19. Command World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leah Y; Lange, Douglas S; Sebastyn, Jerome T; Roof, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... The Command World scenario was expressly designed as a crisis action planning exercise in order to replicate the communications, collaboration, and information requirements inherent in a military...

  20. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  1. Selected Abstracts of the 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP; Catania (Italy; March 22-24, 2018; Session “Perinatal infections”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP Catania (Italy • March 22nd-24th, 2018SIMP PRESIDENTIrene CetinCONGRESS PRESIDENTSNicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEMariarosaria Di Tommaso, Gianpaolo Donzelli, Luca Ramenghi----------Guest Editors: Irene Cetin, Nicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta ----------Session “Perinatal infections”ABS 1. ROLE OF ABNORMAL CTG FEATURES IN CLINICAL AND SUBCLINICAL CHORIO­AMNIONITIS • L. Galli, V. Whelehan, A. Archer, A. Dall’Asta, T. Frusca, E. ChandraharanABS 2. HISTOLOGICAL CHORIOAMNIONITIS AT TERM: WHAT CLINICAL VALUE? • A. Pintucci, S. Consonni, L.E. Gioia, P. Colombo, P. Di Lorenzo, I. Vaglio Tessitore, F. Moltrasio, G. Bovo, A. LocatelliABS 3. VALNOCTAMIDE RESCUES CYTO­MEGALO­VIRUS-INDUCED ABNORMAL BRAIN ON­TOGENY AND DEAFNESS • S. Ornaghi, J. Bai, W. Tan, J. Santos-Sacchi, D. Navaratnam, A.N. van den Pol, M.J. Paidas, P. VerganiABS 4. ZIKA TESTING IN PREGNANT AND PREG­NANCY PLANNING WOMEN • G. Liuzzi, C. Castilletti E. Nicastri, F. Vairo, A. Corpolongo E. Lalle, M. Iannetta, L. Bordi, L. Scorzolini, F. Carletti, S. Quartu, F. Colavita, M.R. Capobianchi, G. IppolitoABS 5. MEASLES IS AGAIN A PROBLEM • C.I. Palermo, C.M. Costanzo, R. Russo, M. Di Franco, G. ScaliaABS 6. OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH FETAL PARVOVIRUS B19 INFECTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS • D. Buca, F. Bascietto, M. Liberati, D. Murgano, A. Iacovelli, M.E. Flacco, L. Manzoli, A. Familiari, G. Scambia, F. D’AntonioABS 7. HIV INFECTION AMONG MIGRANT PEOPLE: A SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE • A. Giudicepietro, L. Sarno, G.M. Maruotti, L.L. Mazzarelli, M.C. De Angelis, A. Sirico, F. Zullo, P. Martinelli, M. SansoneABS 8. FETAL PARVOVIRUS B19 INFECTION • V. Giardini, S. Lazzarin, A. Martinelli, S. Cozzolino, M. Verderio, P. VerganiABS 9. MASTITIS AND BREAST ABSCESSES IN BREASTFEEDING: MILK CULTURE, ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT AND FOLLOW

  2. Población, actividad y paro en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en Extremadura / Population, activity and unemployment in the second half of the 20th century in Extremadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Hernández Carretero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XX se han producido las más profundas transformaciones de la historia regional, impulsadas tanto por factores exógenos como endógenos de toda índole. Se ha pasado de una economía agraria de subsistencia a una economía competitiva de los servicios y del conocimiento, lo que ha supuesto enormes excedentes de mano de obra agraria hasta el final de siglo. Excedentes que fueron engrosando la intensa sangría emigratoria de los sesenta y setenta, que arrastró al 40% de la población regional. Sin embargo, desde comienzos de los ochenta, la población ha tendido a estabilizarse. Pero la emigración ya había provocado un estrangulamiento irreparable en las edades activas y de procreación, un fuerte descenso de la natalidad acentuado por la caída de la fecundidad posteriormente y un profundo envejecimiento. Por otra parte, la retención de los efectivos jóvenes y adultos en sus lugares de origen, junto a otros factores, incrementaron el paro hasta niveles desconocidos, si bien es un fenómeno que se ha conseguido paliar en buena medida en los últimos años del siglo. El futuro se presenta incierto, pues aunque no existe ningún núcleo abandonado, el envejecimiento, la baja natalidad y el paro están hipotecando el desarrollo endógeno de los núcleos rurales de la región.Summary: Along the second half of the 20th century the deepest transformations of the regional history have been produced so much by factors exogenous as endogenous of every kind. It has passed of an agrarian economy of subsistence to a competitive economy of the services and of the knowledge, what has supposed enormous excesses of agrarian unemployment to the end of century. Surplus that enlarged the great volume of emigrant population of the sixties and seventy that supposed the 40% of the regional population. Nevertheless, from beginnings of the eighty, the population is being stabilized. But the emigration already had

  3. Superhabitable worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  4. Razvojni put modne ilustracije 20. i 21. veka – likovno predstavljanje mode (u slikarstvu, modnim tablama i modnim ilustracijama) / Development of Fashion Illustration during the 20th and 21st Century: Pictorial Representation of Fashion (in Painting, Fashion Plates and Fashion Illustrations)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanja Kosanić

    2013-01-01

    The theme of this study is pictorial representation of costume and fashion in painting, fashion plates and fashion illustrations. Fashion illustration of the 20th century, specific in terms of freedom of interpretation that is given to the artists when representing fashion trends, has kept those elements of painting that are almost lost in contemporary art movements (for instance figuration). Through several specific examples in art history I will try to demonstrate the artist’s approach to t...

  5. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  6. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  7. Ilukirjanduse tõlked 20. sajandi esimese poole Eesti ja Soome raamatutoodangus (1900–1940 / Translations of Belles-Lettres in the Book Production of Estonia and Finland during the First Half of the 20th Century (1900–1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aile Möldre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents statistical data on the publications of belles-lettres in Estonia in 1900–1940 – a period when the country developed into a modern European society and gained independence. The topic is treated in the context of book history, which uses publishing statistics to provide a broader context for individual case studies. The research on the quantity and share of translated literature in book production comes close to the statisticalsociological approach in translation history, characterised by Peeter Torop as one of the aspects of the study of translation culture. The statistical indicators have been elaborated on the basis of retrospective bibliographies and on the data, obtained from National Library of Estonia. The analysis includes the share of belles-lettres in book production, the balance of original works and translations, the changes in the quantity of translations during different decades and the share of source literatures. The Estonian statistics have been presented in comparison with corresponding data from Finland, which has been published in the collective monograph on Finnish translation history, issued in 2007. As the Finnish data is organized by decades, the same principle is used for statistics on Estonia. This approach corresponds generally to the political history of the two countries – both belonged to the Russian Empire during the first two decades of the 20th century and existed as independent states during the following two decades. Both nations had passed through the first stage in the development of literary culture, characterised by extensive publication of adaptations and free translations by the beginning of the century. Thus the share of original works started to increase and slightly exceeded the share  of  translations  in  E stonia  as  well  as  in  Finland.  The  selection  of  translated  works  in both countries was varied and their level was unstable. Despite the

  8. Nooreestlased arvustuses ja arvustajatena: lugejakontseptsioonist 20. sajandi alguse kriitikas. The Young Estonians as Critics and in the Eyes of Critics: On the Concept of the Reader in Early 20th Century Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marju Mikkel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the treatment of Estonian literature from the beginning of the 20th century has been influenced by the literary and cultural activities and programmatic articles of the Young Estonia movement. Current research on Young Estonia has addressed their more everyday realm of activity, which has heretofore received less attention: the Young Estonians as readers of the new works of their literary contemporaries and their practical criticism in reviews, particularly in daily newspapers. This article uses a receptionhistorical approach to analyze a large body of source material: the Young Estonians voluminous critical oeuvre in the period 1905–1915. The Young Estonians to be examined are all members of the core group of the movement: Gustav Suits, Bernhard Linde, Aino Kallas, Johannes Aavik, Villem Grünthal-Ridala, Jaan Oks, August Alle, and Johannes Semper. Within the larger framework of collective horizons of expectation, the focus of the study is the critics` concept of the reader. In addition, I will briefly discuss the dynamics of how such conceptions change. Research results indicate that in critical reviews from the time of Young Estonia, the topic of the reader was addressed from different standpoints depending on the addressee. Texts directed rhetorically toward a broad readership are characterized by the pursuit of objectivity and generalizations. When the concept of the reader is critic-centered, the text emphasizes subjective judgments, experience, and emotion. When focusing on the author and the text, the reviewer describes the influence on the reader, the cause of which is either the literary work directly or the author’s genius. In the case of polemic on the subject of reading, found mainly in responses written to reviews, the writer interprets another reader (or other readers` reading, opposing it to his or her own. When we follow the way the readers of Young Estonia and the Young Estonians themselves handle the

  9. Selected Abstracts of the 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP; Catania (Italy; March 22-24, 2018; Session “Perinatal Miscellanea”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP Catania (Italy • March 22nd-24th, 2018SIMP PRESIDENTIrene CetinCONGRESS PRESIDENTSNicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEMariarosaria Di Tommaso, Gianpaolo Donzelli, Luca Ramenghi----------Guest Editors: Irene Cetin, Nicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta ----------Session “Perinatal Miscellanea”ABS 1. RISK FACTORS FOR CEREBRAL INJURY OF SURVIVORS AFTER SPONTANEOUS SINGLE FETAL DEMISE IN MONOCHORIONIC TWINS • M. Pellegrino, A. Turri, G. Pavone, T. Izzo, M.M. Lanna, S. Faiola, M.A. RusticoABS 2. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF CORPUS CAL­LOSUM AGENESIS WITH ASSOCIATED INTER­HEMISPHERIC CYSTS: LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN 23 CHILDREN • S. Uccella, B. Berloco, D. Tortora, V. Capra, M. Ravegnani, D. Paladini, D. Pastorino, M.M. Mancardi, M. SeverinoABS 3. A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE FETAL AB­DOMINAL CIRCUMFERENCE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERGROWTH-21ST STANDARD VERSUS THE ITALIAN CUSTOMIZED FETAL GROWTH CHARTS IN DETECTING EARLY AND LATE ONSET SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE INFANTS IN A HIGH-RISK POPULATION • E. Brunelli, D. Di Martino, F. Fusè, E. Ferrazzi, A. FarinaABS 4. UMBILICAL AND MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY DOPPLER IN HYPERTENSIVE DISORDERS OF PREGNANCY: LOOKING BEYOND A NORMALLY GROWN FETUS • S. Salvi, S. Simeone, S. Moresi, E. Mastantuoni, S. Garofalo, F. Mecacci, S. De Carolis, A. Lanzone, S. FerrazzaniABS 5. THE IMPACT OF MATERNAL OBESITY ON PLACENTAL MODIFICATIONS AND INTRA­UTERINE FETAL DEATH • S. Fieni, A. Ferretti, M. Ambroggi, E.M. Silini, G. Pedrazzi, T. Ghi, T. FruscaABS 6. FOUR CASES OF NEONATAL LIMB ISCHEMIA WITH DIFFERENT ETIOLOGY • A. Turri, M. Pellegrino, G. Pavone, T. Izzo, S. Faiola, M.M. Lanna, M.A. Rustico, I. CetinABS 7. EFFECT OF POSITIVE URINE CULTURE AND VAGINAL SWAB ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGESTOGENS AS MAINTENANCE TO­COLYSIS: SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF THE PROTECT TRIAL • L. Pignatti, P. Vergani, M. Di

  10. Selected Abstracts of the 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP; Catania (Italy; March 22-24, 2018; Session “Prematurity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP Catania (Italy • March 22nd-24th, 2018SIMP PRESIDENTIrene CetinCONGRESS PRESIDENTSNicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEMariarosaria Di Tommaso, Gianpaolo Donzelli, Luca Ramenghi----------Guest Editors: Irene Cetin, Nicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta ----------Session “Prematurity”ABS 1. EARLY PAIN EXPERIENCES AND NEONATAL CEREBRAL CONNECTIVITY EVALUATED WITH rs-FMRI AT TERM CORRECTED AGE • D. Tortora, C. Di Biase, M. Severino, A. Parodi, M. Malova, G. Morana, A. Rossi, L.A. RamenghiABS 2. PLACENTAL HISTOLOGY FINDINGS AS POS­SIBLE RISK FACTORS FOR MRI-DETECTED BRAIN LESIONS IN VLBW INFANTS • A. Parodi, M. Re, L. De Angelis, D. Brignole, M.P. Brisigotti, M.G. Calevo, M. Malova, A. Sannia, M. Severino, G. Morana, D. Tortora, A. Rossi, E. Fulcheri, L.A. RamenghiABS 3. PATTERN OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUT­COME AT 2 YEARS OF CORRECTED AGE (CA IN ISOLATED LOW-GRADE INTRA­VENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGES VS LOW-GRADE CEREBELLAR HEMORRHAGES • A. Parodi, M. Malova, S. Uccella, L. Boeri, E. De Grandis, A. Sannia, M. Severino, G. Morana, D. Tortora, A. Rossi, E. Veneselli, L.A. RamenghiABS 4. TWIN PREGNANCY AND PRETERM BIRTH: FOCUS ON “AUTOPHAGY BIOMARKERS” AS REGULATORS OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE • G. Di Rienzo, S. Paccosi, A. Parenti, E. Magro-Malosso, G. Sisti, M. Di Tommaso, F. PetragliaABS 5. THE ROLE OF ELASTOGRAPHY IN PREDICTING PRETERM BIRTH • G. Nazzaro, E. Salzano, R. Iazzetta, M. Miranda, M. LocciABS 6. MRI-DIAGNOSED WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE BRAIN OF VLBW BABIES: RISK FACTOR ANALYSIS • A. Parodi, S. Raffa, V. Cardiello, M. Malova, A. Sannia, M. Severino, G. Morana, D. Tortora, M.G. Calevo, A. Rossi, L.A. RamenghiABS 7. MATERNAL AND FETAL OUTCOMES IN TWIN OOCYTE DONATION PREGNANCIES: EXPERIENCE OF A TERTIARY REFERRAL OBSTETRIC ITALIAN CENTER • F. Fuse’, A. Turri, L. Primerano, O. Fornaciari, E

  11. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world`s major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  12. Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. II. From the Collapse of Independent State of Croatia on May 8th, 1945 to the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Vancik, H.; Pausek-Bazdar, S.; Kastelan-Macan, M.; Trinajstic, N.

    2009-01-01

    The development of Croatian chemistry from the end of the Second World War to the establishment of the Republic of Croatia is outlined. Briefly discussed is the founding and development of the Chemistry Department of the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, and the Rugjer Bošković Institute. Also presented is the postwar structure and organization of the chemical-technological study at the Technical Faculty and later at the Faculty of Technology. The chemical lectures and research in ...

  13. History of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering: Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. II. From the Collapse of Independent State of Croatia on May 8th, 1945 to the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991.

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Kaštelan-Macan, Marija; Paušek-Baždar, Snježana; Vančik, Hrvoj

    2009-01-01

    The development of Croatian chemistry from the end of the Second World War to the establishment of the Republic of Croatia is outlined. Briefly discussed is the founding and development of the Chemistry Department of the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, and the Rugjer Bošković Institute. Also presented is the postwar structure and organization of the chemical- technological study at the Technical Faculty and later at the Faculty of Technology. The chemical lectures and research in...

  14. Selected Abstracts of the 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP; Catania (Italy; March 22-24, 2018; Session “New Frontiers in Perinatal Medicine”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP Catania (Italy • March 22nd-24th, 2018SIMP PRESIDENTIrene CetinCONGRESS PRESIDENTSNicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEMariarosaria Di Tommaso, Gianpaolo Donzelli, Luca Ramenghi----------Guest Editors: Irene Cetin, Nicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta ----------Session “New Frontiers in Perinatal Medicine”ABS 1. CLINICAL AND METABOLIC OUTCOMES IN PREG­NANT WOMEN AT RISK FOR GDM SUPPLEMENTED WITH MYO-INOSITOL. A SEC­ONDARY ANALYSIS FROM 3 RCTS • A. Santamaria, A. Alibrandi, A. di Benedetto, B. Pintaudi, F. Corrado, F. Facchinetti, R. d’AnnaABS 2. PRE AND POST-NATAL CEREBRAL HEMO­DYNAMICS: CORRELATION WITH BIRTH WEIGHT, BASE ACID BALANCE AND NEO­NATAL OUTCOME • D. Buca, F. D’Antonio, F. Fanfani, S. Gustapane, M. Leombroni, L. Di Tizio, A. Ricciardulli, M. LiberatiABS 3. ROLE OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN THE DE­VELOPMENT OF PREECLAMPSIA IN DIA­BETIC WOMEN • S. Ottanelli, C. Serena, S. Simeone, M.P. Rambaldi, F. MecacciABS 4. MATERNAL NUTRITION AND LIFESTYLE AS PREDICTORS OF PLACENTAL FUNCTION IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY • I. di Bartolo, F. Parisi, C. Melinte, I. CetinABS 5. ADHERENCE TO MEDITERRANEAN DIET, WEIGHT GAIN AND THICKNESS SKINFOLD IN NORMAL WEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN WITH OR WITHOUT GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS • A. Spadafranca, S. Digiacomo, A. Battezzati, S. Bertoli, I. Cetin, E. FerrazziABS 6. THE ROLE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF CONGENITAL VASCULAR ANOMALIES • T. Izzo, S. Faiola, M. Lanna, L. Spaccini, E. Cattaneo, V. Baraldini, A. Turri, M.A. RusticoABS 7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL AUTOMATED MEASURE OF THE FETAL THIGH IN HIGH-RISK PREG­NANCIES TO PREDICT FETAL WEIGHT • T. Izzo, E. Ferrazzi, A. Farina, S. Rigano, V. Signorelli, M. Elisabetta, F. Fusè, D. Di MartinoABS 8. IMPACT OF BLADDER FILLING ON UTERINE ARTERY BLOOD FLOW INDICES IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY

  15. Selected Abstracts of the 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP; Catania (Italy; March 22-24, 2018; Session “Perinatal medicine”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP Catania (Italy • March 22nd-24th, 2018SIMP PRESIDENTIrene CetinCONGRESS PRESIDENTSNicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEMariarosaria Di Tommaso, Gianpaolo Donzelli, Luca Ramenghi----------Guest Editors: Irene Cetin, Nicola Chianchiano, Angela Motta ----------Session “Perinatal medicine”ABS 1. INDUCTION OF LABOR IN CONSTITUTIONALLY SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE FETUSES AT TERM OF PREGNANCY: DOES GESTATIONAL AGE IMPACT DELIVERY OUTCOME? • R. Cuzzola, V. Seravalli, E. Magro-Malosso, G. Rovero, F. Perelli, M. Di Tommaso, F. PetragliaABS 2. PREDICTION OF PRETERM BIRTH IN ASYMPTOMATIC WOMEN WITH REDUCED CERVICAL LENGTH: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON MATERNAL INFLAMMATORY MARKERS • C. Linari, E. Magro-Malosso, S. Paccosi, A. Parenti, V. Seravalli, M. Di Tommaso, F. PetragliaABS 3. MULTIVARIABLE EVALUATION OF THE MATERNAL HEMODYNAMIC PROFILE IN HIGH-RISK PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED BY INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY • D. Di Martino, E. Ferrazzi, M. Garbin, F. Fusè, T. Izzo, J. Duvekot, A. FarinaABS 4. REGIONAL AUDIT SYSTEM IMPLEMENTA­TION FOR STILLBIRTH: A WAY TO BETTER UNDERSTAND AND TARGET THE PHENOMENON • G. Po’, F. Monari, F. Zanni, C. Lupi, F. Facchinetti1 for the Regional Audit System for Stillbirth GroupABS 5. FETAL GENDER PAIRING AND OBSTETRIC OUTCOME IN TWIN PREGNANCY: A 7-YEARS RETROSPECTIVE STUDY AT SINGLE CENTRE • S. Vannuccini, C. Linari, M. Aldinucci, M. Di Tommaso, F. PetragliaABS 6. INOSITOL STEREOISOMERS SUPPLEMENTA­TION AND INCIDENCE OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS IN WOMEN AT HIGH RISK OF THIS DISORDER • G. Pavone, B. Matarrelli, D. Buca, M. Leombroni, E. Vitacolonna, P.A. Mattei, C. CelentanoABS 7. CESAREAN SECTION: DELAYED CORD CLAMPING OR MILKING? • S. Consonni, I. Vaglio Tessitore, C. Conti, C. Plevani, F. Torcasio, A. Pintucci, F. Bonati, A. LocatelliABS 8. ARABIN

  16. World energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Three major concerns face mankind's future: the impending energy crisis as caused by the depletion of the world's fossil fuel reserves, world atmospheric pollution as caused by the burning of these fuels, and mankind's destruction if the vast energy contained in nuclear weapons stockpiles is released in a global conflict. This paper describes an ambitious, combined solution to these problems by the use of deep underground detonations of thermonuclear devices/bombs to provide a virtually pollution free, world energy source into the far distant future, while achieving a significant increase in mutual trust between the superpowers and all nations. The key is believed to be thermonuclear geothermal stimulation to produce the electrical power needed for a hydrogen economy

  17. MENTALITIES OF THE ROMANIANS BETWEEN THE TWO WORLD WARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. DOBRESCU

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mentality is defined as an assembly of manners of acting or thinking about someone or something. Related to the history of mentalities in the 19th century the core elements were the building of the nation and the constitutional law and only at the beginning of the 20th century the economic development and the relations between social classes. Mentalities change hard and slowly. Therefore, quick leaps (social, economic, political and cultural cannot be done within a population which is immersed in old mentalities. The traditional rural society is animated by religious dogmas and conceptions. Old mentalities of the population very often generate social unrest. In Romania between the two world wars these mentalities were the background of the future social changes imposed after the Soviet model and which continue to influence even today the development of the country. Enlightened minds of Romania concerned in the first decades of the 20th century about learning and evaluating the mentalities specific to our nation. Foreseeing the important and creative role of individuals for a nation on multiple levels, these free-thinking minds inferred the assembly of conscience and behaviour traits that build up the national characteristics of the Romanian nation. In a comparative regard of the studies quoted hereunder, that we might characterise as being of reference for characterising the mentalities of our nation in the period between the two World Wars of the 20th century, we may conclude that the Romanian nation pertains to the extended family of the European nations and world nations; demanding times endowed the Romanian nation and its representative with some negative behavioural traits, but which are not predominant; the Romanian’s nature is positive, constructive and creative. A logical conclusion imposes itself: despite the relatively low number of population, along centuries, the Romanian nation still holds a place of honour in the world gallery of

  18. World armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolle, H.

    1977-01-01

    Summary of consequences on: Armament expenditure of the world, arms trade, arms race and nuclear weapon arsenals, nuclear weapon proliferation, nuclear safety controls, nuclear carrier systems, international nuclear trade, nuclear weapon accidents, chemical wars, war law, ecological wars, armament limitations. (HP) [de

  19. Spinning worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, H.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1

  20. Un acercamiento didáctico a la primera mitad del s. XX a través de los cómics = A didactic approach to the first half of the 20th century through the comics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Becerra Romero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El cómic ha sido un recurso didáctico que, aunque conocido, se ha utilizado poco en el mundo de la enseñanza, sobre todo si tenemos en cuenta sus posibilidades. En el presente artículo nos hemos planteado un acercamiento a la Historia Contemporánea mundial pero centrada en el periodo que va, más o menos, entre 1900 y 1950. El debut del siglo XX trajo consigo numerosos acontecimientos de carácter bélico, aunque no exclusivamente, que fueron muy importantes y que marcaron la historia del mundo. Hemos propuesto una pequeña selección de cómics que pueden ayudar al alumnado a acercarse y comprender mejor estos acontecimientos.Comic has been a didactic resource that, though known, has hardly been used in the educational world, especially when we take into consideration its possibilities. In this article we have proposed an approach to global Contemporary History that is focused on the period roughly between 1900 and 1950. The beginning of the twentieth century brought numerous warlike events, but it should not be forgotten that other important events also marked the History of the world in that period. We have proposed a small selection of comics that can help students to approach and understand better these events.