The theme of IGARSS'99, ``Remote Sensing of the System Earth--A Challenge for the 21st Century,'' shows how earth observation based on satellite remote sensing can significantly contribute to the future study of the environment and the changes it is undergoing, whether from natural causes or human activities. The wide range of topics offers an interdisciplinary approach and suggests integrated techniques and theory in remote sensing are essential for modeling and understanding the environment. Topics covered include: new instrumentation and future systems; high resolution SAR/InSAR; earth system science educational initiative; data fusion; radar sensing of ice sheets; image processing techniques; clouds and ice particles; internal waves; natural hazards and disaster monitoring; advanced passive and active sensors and sensor calibration; radar assessment of rain, oil spills and natural slicks; data standards and distribution; and vegetation monitoring using BRDF approaches.
The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is a scientific conference dedicated to mathematical, algorithmic, and computational aspects of biological and biomedical imaging, across all scales of observation. It fosters knowledge transfer among different imaging communities and contributes to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging. ISBI is a joint initiative from the IEEE Signal Processing Society (SPS) and the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS). The 2018 meeting will include tutorials, and a scientific program composed of plenary talks, invited special sessions, challenges, as well as oral and poster presentations of peer-reviewed papers. High-quality papers are requested containing original contributions to the topics of interest including image formation and reconstruction, computational and statistical image processing and analysis, dynamic imaging, visualization, image quality assessment, and physical, biological, and statistical modeling. Accepted 4-page regular papers will be published in the symposium proceedings published by IEEE and included in IEEE Xplore. To encourage attendance by a broader audience of imaging scientists and offer additional presentation opportunities, ISBI 2018 will continue to have a second track featuring posters selected from 1-page abstract submissions without subsequent archival publication.
Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.
There is growing international consensus on addressing the challenges to cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. These challenges include: Creating common standards and protocols; Engaging the vast number of distributed data resources; Establishing practices for recognition of and respect for intellectual property; Developing simple data and resource discovery and access systems; Building mechanisms to encourage development of web service tools and workflows for data analysis; Brokering the diverse disciplinary service buses; Creating sustainable business models for maintenance and evolution of information resources; Integrating the data management life-cycle into the practice of science. Efforts around the world are converging towards de facto creation of an integrated global digital data network for the geosciences based on common standards and protocols for data discovery and access, and a shared vision of distributed, web-based, open source interoperable data access and integration. Commonalities include use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO specifications and standardized data interchange mechanisms. For multidisciplinarity, mediation, adaptation, and profiling services have been successfully introduced to leverage the geosciences standards which are commonly used by the different geoscience communities -introducing a brokering approach which extends the basic SOA archetype. Principal challenges are less technical than cultural, social, and organizational. Before we can make data interoperable, we must make people interoperable. These challenges are being met by increased coordination of development activities (technical, organizational, social) among leaders and practitioners in national and international efforts across the geosciences to foster commonalities across disparate networks. In doing so, we will 1) leverage and share resources, and developments, 2) facilitate and enhance emerging technical and structural advances, 3) promote
Atanassov, KT; Doukovska, L; Hadjiski, M; Jotsov, V; Kacprzyk, J; Kasabov, N; Sotirov, S; Szmidt, E; Zadrożny, S; Filev, D; Jabłkowski, J; Kacprzyk, J; Krawczak, M; Popchev, I; Rutkowski, L; Sgurev, V; Sotirova, E; Szynkarczyk, P
This two volume set of books constitutes the proceedings of the 2014 7th IEEE International Conference Intelligent Systems (IS), or IEEE IS’2014 for short, held on September 24‐26, 2014 in Warsaw, Poland. Moreover, it contains some selected papers from the collocated IWIFSGN'2014-Thirteenth International Workshop on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets.The conference was organized by the Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department IV of Engineering Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, and Industrial Institute of Automation and Measurements - PIAP.The papers included in the two proceedings volumes have been subject to a thorough review process by three highly qualified peer reviewers.Comments and suggestions from them have considerable helped improve the quality of the papers but also the division of the volumes into parts, and assignment of the papers to the best suited parts.
The 21st IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing will be held in Beijing, China, on September 18–21, 2011. The workshop series is the major annual technical event of the IEEE Signal Processing Society's Technical Committee on Machine Learning for Signal Processing...
Živčák, Jozef; Aspects of Computational Intelligence Theory and Applications
This volume covers the state-of-the art of the research and development in various aspects of computational intelligence and gives some perspective directions of development. Except the traditional engineering areas that contain theoretical knowledge, applications, designs and projects, the book includes the area of use of computational intelligence in biomedical engineering. „Aspects of Computational Intelligence: Theory and Applications” is a compilation of carefully selected extended papers written on the basis of original contributions presented at the 15th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems 2011, INES 2011 held at June 23.-26. 2011 in AquaCity Poprad, Slovakia.
Groat, C. G.
Concern about the decreasing number of students entering undergraduate geoscience programs has been chronic and, at times, acute over the past three decades. Despite dwindling populations of undergraduate majors, graduate programs have remained relatively robust, bolstered by international students. With Increasing competition for graduate students by universities in Europe, Japan, Australia, and some developing countries, and with procedural challenges faced by international students seeking entry into the United States and its universities, this supply source is threatened. For corporations operating on a global scale, the opportunity to employ students from and trained in the regions in which they operate is generally a plus. For U.S. universities that have traditionally supplied this workforce, the changing situation poses challenges, but also opportunities for creative international partnerships. Federal government science agencies face more challenges than opportunities in meeting workforce needs under both present and changing education conditions. Restrictions on hiring non-U.S. citizens into the permanent workforce have been a long-standing issue for federal agencies. Exceptions are granted only where they can document the absence of eligible U.S.-citizen candidates. The U.S. Geological Survey has been successful in doing this in its Mendenhall Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program, but there has been no solution to the broader limitation. Under current and forecast workforce recruitment conditions, creativity, such as that evidenced by the Mendenhall program,will be necessary if federal agencies are to draw from the increasingly international geoscience talent pool. With fewer U.S. citizens in U.S. geoscience graduate programs and a growing number of advanced-degreed scientists coming from universities outside the U.S., the need for changes in federal hiring policies is heightened. The near-term liklihood of this is low and combined with the decline in
This 360 page softbound publication includes the following major sections. An invitation to ICOPS'97, Catamaran Resort Hotel Floor Pinas, Officers of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, Conference Information...
Fucugauchi, J. U.
Geophysical research increasingly requires global multidisciplinary approaches and global integration. Global warming, increasing CO2 levels and increased needs of mineral and energy resources emphasize impact of human activities. The planetary view of our Earth as a deeply complex interconnected system also emphasizes the need of international scientific cooperation. International collaboration presents an immense potential and is urgently needed for further development of geosciences research and education. In analyzing international collaboration a relevant aspect is the role of scientific societies. Societies organize meetings, publish journals and books and promote cooperation through academic exchange activities and can further assist communities in developing countries providing and facilitating access to scientific literature, attendance to international meetings, short and long-term stays and student and young researcher mobility. Developing countries present additional challenges resulting from limited economic resources and social and political problems. Most countries urgently require improved educational and research programs. Needed are in-depth analyses of infrastructure and human resources and identification of major problems and needs. Questions may include what are the major limitations and needs in research and postgraduate education in developing countries? what and how should international collaboration do? and what are the roles of individuals, academic institutions, funding agencies, scientific societies? Here we attempt to examine some of these questions with reference to case examples and AGU role. We focus on current situation, size and characteristics of research community, education programs, facilities, economic support, and then move to perspectives for potential development in an international context.
Earth Science community in developing countries of South Asia is actively engaged in interdisciplinary investigations of the Earth and its envelopes through geological, geophysical and geochemical processes, for these processes are interconnected. Interdisciplinary interaction will continue to grow since problems pertaining to the solid earth, with its core-mantle-crust, and fluid envelops can be solved only with contributions from different Science disciplines. The expanding population and revolution in data handling-and-computing have now become a necessity to tackle the geoscientific problems with modern techniques and methodologies to meet these new challenges. As a future strategy, geo-data generation and handling need to be speedier and easier and hence demands a well- knit coordiantion and understanding amongst Governments, Industries and Academic organizations. Such coordination will prove valuable for better understanding of the Earth's processes, especially mitigating natural hazards with more accurate and speedy prdictions, besides sustaining Earth's resources. South Asian geoscience must, therefore, seek new directions by way of strategies, policies, and actions to move forward in this century. Environmental and resource problems affecting the world population have become international issues, since global environmental changes demand international cooperation and planning. The Earth is continually modified by the interplay of internal and external processes. Hence we need to apply modern geophysical techniques and interpret the results with the help of available geological, geochronological and gechemical informations It is through such integrated approach that we could greatly refine our understanding of the deep structure and evolution of the Indian shield. However, the inputs into multi-disciplinary studies necessary to know the crustal structure and tectonics in the adjoining regions (Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka etc.) still remain
These proceedings compile the papers presented at the international conference (1988) sponsored by IEEE Council on ''Robotics and Automation''. The subjects discussed were: automation and robots of nuclear power stations; algorithms of multiprocessors; parallel processing and computer architecture; and U.S. DOE research programs on nuclear power plants
Liu, Sifeng; Advances in Grey Systems Research
This book contains contributions by some of the leading researchers in the area of grey systems theory and applications. All the papers included in this volume are selected from the contributions physically presented at the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Grey Systems and Intelligent Services, November 11 – 12, 2009, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China. This event was jointly sponsored by IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society, Natural Science Foundation of China, and Grey Systems Society of China. Additionally, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics also invested heavily in this event with its direct and indirect financial and administrative supports.
The Internet and its myriad manifestations, including the World Wide Web, have amply demonstrated the compounding benefits of a global cyberinfrastructure and the power of networked communities as institutions and people exchange knowledge, ideas, and resources. The Unidata Program recognizes those benefits, and over the past several years it has developed a growing portfolio of international data distribution activities, conducted in close collaboration with academic, research and operational institutions on several continents, to advance earth system science education and research. The portfolio includes provision of data, tools, support and training as well as outreach activities that bring various stakeholders together to address important issues, all toward the goals of building a community with a shared vision. The overarching goals of Unidata's international data sharing activities include: • democratization of access-to and use-of data that describe the dynamic earth system by facilitating data access to a broad spectrum of observations and forecasts • building capacity and empowering geoscientists and educators worldwide by building encouraging local communities where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared • strengthening international science partnerships for exchanging knowledge and expertise • Supporting faculty and students at research and educational institutions in the use of Unidata systems building regional and global communities around specific geoscientific themes. In this presentation, I will present Unidata's ongoing data sharing activities in Latin America, Europe, Africa and Antarctica that are enabling linkages to existing and emergent e-infrastructures and operational networks, including recent advances to develop interoperable data systems, tools, and services that benefit the geosciences. Particular emphasis in the presentation will be made to describe the examples of the use of Unidata
Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa
This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.
This edited book presents scientific results of the 14th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2015) which was held on June 28 – July 1, 2015 in Las Vegas, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.
Seber, D.; Baru, C.
The Geosciences Network (GEON) project is a collaboration among multiple institutions to develop a cyberinfrastructure (CI) platform in support of integrative geoscience research activities. Taking advantage of the state-of-the-art information technology resources GEON researchers are building a cyberinfrastructure designed to enable data sharing, resource discovery, semantic data integration, high-end computations and 4D visualization in an easy-to-use web-based environment. The cyberinfrastructure in GEON is required to support an inherently distributed system, since the scientists, who are users as well as providers of resources, are themselves distributed. International collaborations are a natural extension of GEON; the geoscience research requires strong international collaborations. The goals of the i-GEON activities are to collaborate with international partners and jointly build a cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences to enable collaborative work environments. International partners can participate in GEON efforts, establish GEON nodes at their universities, institutes, or agencies and also contribute data and tools to the network. Via jointly run cyberinfrastructure workshops, the GEON team also introduces students, scientists, and research professionals to the concepts of IT-based geoscience research and education. Currently, joint activities are underway with the Chinese Academy of Sciences in China, the GEO Grid project at AIST in Japan, and the University of Hyderabad in India (where the activity is funded by the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum). Several other potential international partnerships are under consideration. iGEON is open to all international partners who are interested in working towards the goal of data sharing, managing and integration via IT-based platforms. Information about GEON and its international activities can be found at http:www.geongrid.org/
This edited book presents scientific results of the 12th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2013) which was held on June 16-20, 2013 in Toki Messe, Niigata, Japan. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them The conference organizers selected the best 20 papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference. The papers were chosen based on review scores submitted by members of the program committee, and underwent further rigorous rounds of review.
This edited book presents scientific results of the 13th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2014) which was held on June 4-6, 2014 in Taiyuan, China. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the best papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference. The papers were chosen based on review scores submitted by members of the program committee, and underwent further rigorous rounds of review. This publication captures 14 of the conference’s most promis...
This technical report will cover the participation in the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal based Surveillance in September 2007. The report will give a concise description of the most relevant topics presented at the conference, focusing on the work related to the HERMES...... project and human motion and action recognition. Our contribution to the conference will also be described....
Burt, Eric; Gill, Patrick
The 8 invited and 17 contributed papers in this special issue focus on the following topical areas covered at the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum, held in San Francisco, California: 1) Materials and Resonators; 2) Oscillators, Synthesizers, and Noise; 3) Microwave Frequency Standards; 4) Sensors and Transducers; 5) Timekeeping and Time and Frequency Transfer; and 6) Optical Frequency Standards.
Bye, B.; Fontaine, K. S.
Funding is an important element of national as well as international policy for Earth observations. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. The lack of dedicated funding to support specific S&T activities in support of GEOSS is one of the most important obstacles to engaging the S&T communities in its implementation. This problem can be addressed by establishing explicit linkages between research and development programmes funded by GEO Members and Participating Organizations and GEOSS. In appropriate funding programs, these links may take the form of requiring explanations of how projects to be funded will interface with GEOSS and ensuring that demonstrating significant relevance for GEOSS is viewed as an asset of these proposals, requiring registration of Earth observing systems developed in these projects, or stipulating that data and products must adhere to the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles. Examples of Earth observations include: - Measurements from ground-based, in situ monitors; - Observations from Earth satellites; - Products and predictive capabilities from Earth system models, often using the capabilities of high-performance computers; - Scientific knowledge about the Earth system; and, - Data visualization techniques. These examples of Earth observations activities requires different types of resources, R&D top-down, bottom-up funding and programs of various sizes. Where innovation and infrastructure are involved different kind of resources are better suited, for developing countries completely other sources of funding are applicable etc. The European Commission funded Egida project is coordinating the development of a funding mechanism based on current national and international funding instruments such as the European ERANet, the new Joint Programming Initiatives, ESFRI as well as other European and non-European instruments. A general introduction to various
Geoscience education and research in Developing countries should aim at achieving food, water and environmental security, and disaster preparedness, based on the synergetic application of earth (including atmospheric and oceanic realms), space and information sciences through economically-viable, ecologically- sustainable and people-participatory management of natural resources. The proposed strategy involves the integration of the following three principal elements: (i) What needs to be taught: Geoscience needs to be taught as earth system science incorporating geophysical, geochemical and geobiological approaches, with focus (say, 80 % of time) on surficial processes (e.g. dynamics of water, wind and waves, surface and groundwater, soil moisture, geomorphology, landuse, crops), and surficial materials (e.g. soils, water, industrial minerals, sediments, biota). Subjects such as the origin, structure and evolution of the earth, and deep-seated processes (e.g. dynamics of the crust-mantle interaction, plate tectonics) could be taught by way of background knowledge (say, 20 % of the time), (ii) How jobs are to be created: Jobs are to be created by merging geoscience knowledge with economic instruments (say, micro enterprises), and management structures at different levels (Policy level, Technology Transfer level and Implementation level), customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, and (iii) International cooperation: Web-based instruction (e.g. education portals, virtual laboratories) through South - South and North - South cooperation, customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, with the help of (say) UNDP, UNESCO, World Bank, etc.
Leahy, P. P.; Keane, C. M.
Maintaining an adequate global supply of qualified geoscientists is a major challenge facing the profession. With global population expected to exceed 9 billion by midcentury, the demand for geoscience expertise is expected to dramatically increase if we are to provide to society the resource base, environmental quality, and resiliency to natural hazards that is required to meet future global demands. The American Geoscience Institute (AGI) has for the past 50 years tracked the supply of geoscientists and their various areas of specialty for the US. However, this is only part of the necessary workforce analysis, the demand side must also be determined. For the past several years, AGI has worked to acquire estimates for workforce demand in the United States. The analysis suggests that by 2021 there will be between 145,000 to 202,000 unfilled jobs in the US. This demand can be partially filled with an increase in graduates (which is occurring at an insufficient pace in the US to meet full demand), increased migration of geoscientists internationally to the US (a challenge since demands are increasing globally), and more career placement of bachelor degree recipients. To understand the global workforce dynamic, it is critical that accurate estimates of global geoscience supply, demand and retirement be available. Although, AGI has focused on the US situation, it has developed international collaborations to acquire workforce data. Among the organizations that have contributed are UNESCO, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), the Young Earth-Scientists Network, and the Geological Society of Africa. Among the areas of international collaboration, the IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Workforce enables the IUGS to take a leadership role in raising the quality of understanding of workforce across the world. During the course of the taskforce's efforts, several key understandings have emerged. First, the general supply of geoscientists is quantifiable
Studies in Computational Intelligence : Volume 492
This edited book presents scientific results of the 14th ACIS/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2013), held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA on July 1-3, 2013. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 17 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.
This edited book presents scientific results of 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2014) held on June 30 – July 2, 2014 in Las Vegas Nevada, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 13 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.
This edited book presents scientific results of the 16th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2015) which was held on June 1 – 3, 2015 in Takamatsu, Japan. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.
This edited book presents scientific results of the 17th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2016) which was held on May 30 - June 1, 2016 in Shanghai, China. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.
Velasco, E. E.; Pangman, P.; Jacobs, R. L.
Developed nations face the immediate need to replace the current wave of retiring geoscientists at the same time developing nations need to build an infrastructure to train future geoscientists. But what does a successful geoscientist look like? Recruiters seem to favor candidates from respected universities that pair applied book knowledge with excellent communication skills and the ability to take a multidisciplinary approach to challenges. Students should be global thinking, business minded, and socially aware. The Society of Exploration Geophysicists as a successful global society addresses the needs of a growing diverse membership through an international approach. Student membership has doubled over the past five years to almost 10,000. The Society is building momentum through targeted, yet diverse programs. Students are eager to participate in the unique SEG/Chevron Student Leadership Symposium, SEG/ExxonMobil Student Education Program, Challenge Bowls, Student Expositions, Honorary Lecturer presentations and related events. These are transformative educational opportunities that provide the impetus for expanded and very effective international networking and transfer of knowledge. As SEG's students build on these relationships and newly acquired leadership skills, they affect the scope and breadth of SEG Student Chapter activities. There has been a resulting increase in multi-country field camps. The Geoscientists Without Borders° humanitarian program provides cross-cultural field opportunities that demonstrate how applied geoscience can make a difference in the global society, while providing students with valuable workforce skills that employers seek. These collaborative efforts are facilitated by social media and on-line communities that cause boundaries to dissolve and time zones to become irrelevant.
This 360 page softbound publication includes the following major sections, An invitation to ICOPS'97, Catamaran Resort Hotel Floor Pinas, Officers of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, Conference Information...
Ye, Zuo-Guang; Tan, Xiaoli; Bokov, Alexei A
The 20th IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (ISAF) was held on July 24-27, 2011, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, jointly with the International Symposium on Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Nanoscale Phenomena in Polar Materials (PFM). Over a period of four days, approximately 400 scientists, engineers, and students from around the world presented their work and discussed the latest developments in the field of ferroelectrics, related materials, and their applications. It is particularly encouraging to see that a large number of students (115) were attracted to the joint conference and presented high-quality research works. This trend is not only important to this conference series, but more importantly, it is vital to the future of the ferroelectrics field.
Kong, Xianwen; Dai, Jian; ReMAR 2015; Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots II
This book presents the most recent advances in the research and applications of reconfigurable mechanisms and robots. It collects 93 independently reviewed papers presented at the Third ASME/IFToMM International Conference on Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots (ReMAR 2015) held in Beijing, China, 20-22 July 2015. The conference papers are organized into seven parts to cover the reconfiguration theory, topology, kinematics and design of reconfigurable mechanisms including reconfigurable parallel mechanisms. The most recent results on reconfigurable robots are presented including their analysis, design, simulation and control. Bio-inspired mechanisms are also explored in the challenging fields of rehabilitation and minimally invasive surgery. This book further addresses deployable mechanisms and origami-inspired mechanisms and showcases a wide range of successful applications of reconfigurable mechanisms and robots. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots II should be of interest for researchers, eng...
Fortner, Rosanne W., Ed.; Mayer, Victor J., Ed.
Learning about the earth as a system was the focus of the 1997 International Conference on Geoscience Education. This proceedings contains details on the organization of the conference as well as five general sessions by various participants. The interactive poster sessions are organized according to three themes: (1) Earth Systems/Science…
Applied Computational Intelligence in Engineering and Information Technology Revised and Selected Papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011
Precup, Radu-Emil; Preitl, Stefan
This book highlights the potential of getting benefits from various applications of computational intelligence techniques. The present book is structured such that to include a set of selected and extended papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011, held in Timisoara, Romania, from 19 to 21 May 2011. After a serious paper review performed by the Technical Program Committee only 116 submissions were accepted, leading to a paper acceptance ratio of 65 %. A further refinement was made after the symposium, based also on the assessment of the presentation quality. Concluding, this book includes the extended and revised versions of the very best papers of SACI 2011 and few invited papers authored by prominent specialists. The readers will benefit from gaining knowledge of the computational intelligence and on what problems can be solved in several areas; they will learn what kind of approaches is advised to use in order to solve these problems. A...
van der Vink, G. E.; van der Vink, G. E.
A new generation of Geoscientists are abandoning the traditional pathways of oil exploration and academic research to pursue careers in public policy, international affairs, business, education and diplomacy. They are using their backgrounds in Geoscience to address challenging, multi-disciplinary problems of societal concern. To prepare for such careers, students are developing a broad understanding of science and a basic literacy in economics, international affairs, and policy-making.
Gill, Joel C.
Geologists have an important role to play in international development, improving disaster risk reduction and access to clean water, sanitation, infrastructure, and natural resources. That geologists can contribute to international development is well established. Less so, however, is an understanding of the 'soft' skills required to do this effectively. The fight against global poverty requires an integrated and interdisciplinary approach, demanding a host of skills other than technical geology. Factors such as cultural understanding, cross disciplinary communication, diplomacy, community mobilisation and participation are all aspects that, if lacking, may result in a project failing to have maximum impact. Whilst project success may be highly dependent on these skills and aspects of knowledge, opportunities to develop them throughout a geologist's education are not common. Through a discussion of two case studies (based on water and hazards work), this study seeks to demonstrate the value of an integrated approach and the skills that geologists should invest in at an early stage of their career. It proceeds to examine a range of practical ways by which geology students can develop these skills during and after their education. A number of these opportunities are currently being utilised by Geology for Global Development (GfGD), a not-for-profit organisation working in the UK to support young geoscientists to make a long-term and effective contribution to international development.
Lucio Rossi receives his prize from John Spargo, Chairman of the IEEE Council on Superconductivity (left), and Martin Nisenoff, Chairman of the Council on Superconductivity’s Awards Committee (right). (Photo: IEEE Council on Superconductivity)With the magnets installed in the tunnel and work on the interconnections almost completed, Lucio Rossi has reaped the rewards of fifteen years of work. And yet, when the physicist from Milan arrived to take charge of the group responsible for the superconducting magnets in 2001, success seemed far from assured. Endowed with surprising levels of energy, Lucio Rossi, together with his team, ensured that production of these highly complex magnets got underway. Today, that achievement earns them the recognition not only of CERN but also of the international superconducting community. It is for this achievement that Lucio Rossi was awarded the prize by the IEEE’s (Institute of Electrical an...
Bobrowsky, Peter; Brocx, Margaret; Di Capua, Giuseppe; Errami, Ezzoura; Greco, Roberto; Kieffer, Susan W.; Daji Limaye, Shrikant; Peppoloni, Silvia; Silva, Elizabeth; Tinti, Stefano; Wang, Meng
Geoethics consists of the research and reflection on those values upon which to base appropriate behaviours and practices regarding the Geosphere. Geoethics also deals with problems related to risk management and mitigation of geohazards. One of the most important goals of the Geoethics is to foster the proper and correct dissemination of results of scientific studies and other information on risks. Moreover, Geoethics aims to improve the relationships between the scientific community, mass media and public and aims to organize effective teaching tools to develop awareness, values and responsibility within the population. Geoethics should become part of the social knowledge and an essential point of reference for every action affecting land, water and atmosphere usage that is taken by stake-holders and decision-makers. Although Geoethics is a young discipline, it provides a forum for open discussion inside the Geosciences on the social and cultural role that Geoscientists can play in society. First, Geoethics represents an opportunity for Geoscientists to become more conscious of their responsibilities in conducting their activity, highlighting the ethical, cultural and economic repercussions that their behavioral choices may have on society. From this point of view Geoethics, at this stage of its development, is primarily an attitude of thinking: through consideration of geoethical questions, Geoscientists have the opportunity to ask questions about themselves, their skills, the quality of their work and the contribution they can provide to the healthy progress of humanity. The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.iapg.geoethics.org) is a new multidisciplinary, scientific platform for widening the debate on problems of Ethics applied to the Geosciences, through international cooperation and for encouraging the involvement of geoscientists on Geoethics themes. The IAPG was founded to increase the awareness inside the scientific
Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.
The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.
assurance that span safety, security and other aspects of dependability, such as ISO /IEC 15026, and safety standards such as AOP 52 and MIL-STD-882...needed/finished skill Human Resources Role-based/Right-fit Software Acquisition Management IEEE 12207 as baseline No requirements management No
code algorithms of Adler- Coopersmith -Hassner and Karabed-Marcus, which exploit techniques of symbolic dynamics to derive systematic code construction...pro- cedures for finite and infinite memory channels. (The paper of Adler- Coopersmith - Hassner received the 1985 Information Theory Group Paper Award...Research Center K69/802, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, CA 95120, USA. We continue here the work of Adler, Coopersmith , and Hassner (see IEEE-IT 29, 5-22
Memorias Conferencia Internacional IEEE Mexico 1971, Sobre Sistemas, Redes Y Computadoras. Volumen I and Volumen II. (Proceedings of International Conference of IEEE Concerning Systems, Networks, and Computers. Volume I and Volume II.
Concheiro, A. Alonso, Ed.; And Others
The following papers in English from this international conference may be of particular interest to those in the field of education. T. Nakahara, A. Tsukamota, and M. Matsumoto describe a computer-aided design technique for an economical urban cable television system. W. D. Wasson and R. K. Chitkara outline a recognition scheme based on analysis…
Mou, L.; Zhu, X.; Vakalopoulou, M.; Karantzalos, K.; Paragios, N.; Saux, Le B.; Moser, G.; Tuia, D.
In this paper, the scientific outcomes of the 2016 Data Fusion Contest organized by the Image Analysis and Data Fusion Technical Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society are discussed. The 2016 Contest was an open topic competition based on a multitemporal and multimodal dataset,
Introduction to the special issue on the joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics.
The joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics took place in Edinburgh from August 9-12, 2010. The conference was attended by 390 delegates from more than 40 different countries. There were 4 plenary speakers, 56 invited speakers, and a further 222 contributed oral presentations in 7 parallel session. In addition there were 215 poster presentations. Key topics addressed at the conference included piezoelectric materials, leadfree piezoelectrics, and multiferroics.
IEEE Council on Superconductivity
Lucio Rossi receives his prize from John Spargo, Chairman of the IEEE Council on Superconductivity (left), and Martin Nisenoff, Chairman of the Council on Superconductivity's Awards Committee (right).
Chen, Shuai; Maeda, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Yasutake
In the research of interactive music generation,we propose a music generation method, that the computer generates the music, under the recognition of human musicconductor's gestures. In this research, the generated music is tuned by the recognized gestures for the parameters of the networkof chaotic elements in realtime. To make outcomes more closer to music, a different method is proposed to make melody specifiable. Music theories are embedded in the algorithm, as a result, the generated mu...
From 2007, the CERN Library now offers readers online access to the complete IEEE Electronic Library (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). This new licence gives unlimited online access to all IEEE and IET (previously IEE) journals and proceedings as well as all current IEEE standards and selected archived ones. Some of the titles offer volumes back to 1913. This service currently represents more than 1,400,000 full-text articles! This leading engineering information resource replaces the previous service, a sub-product of the IEEE database called 'IEEE Enterprise', which offered online access to the complete collection of IEEE journals and proceedings, but with limited features. The service had become so popular that the CERN Working Group for Acquisitions recommended that the Library subscribe to the complete IEEE Electronic Library for 2007. Usage statistics for recent months showed there was a demand for the service from a large community of CERN users and we were aware that many users h...
Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Wang, H.; Fox, P. A.
There are numerous dark data hidden in geoscience literature. Efficient retrieval and reuse of those data will greatly benefit geoscience researches of nowadays. Among the works of data rescue, a topic of interest is illuminating the knowledge framework, i.e. entities and relationships, embedded in documents. Entity recognition and linking have received extensive attention in news and social media analysis, as well as in bioinformatics. In the domain of geoscience, however, such works are limited. We will present our work on how to use knowledge bases on the Web, such as ontologies and vocabularies, to facilitate entity recognition and linking in geoscience literature. The work deploys an un-supervised collective inference approach  to link entity mentions in unstructured texts to a knowledge base, which leverages the meaningful information and structures in ontologies and vocabularies for similarity computation and entity ranking. Our work is still in the initial stage towards the detection of knowledge frameworks in literature, and we have been collecting geoscience ontologies and vocabularies in order to build a comprehensive geoscience knowledge base . We hope the work will initiate new ideas and collaborations on dark data rescue, as well as on the synthesis of data and knowledge from geoscience literature. References: 1. Zheng, J., Howsmon, D., Zhang, B., Hahn, J., McGuinness, D.L., Hendler, J., and Ji, H. 2014. Entity linking for biomedical literature. In Proceedings of ACM 8th International Workshop on Data and Text Mining in Bioinformatics, Shanghai, China. 2. Ma, X. Zheng, J., 2015. Linking geoscience entity mentions to the Web of Data. ESIP 2015 Summer Meeting, Pacific Grove, CA.
Yokoya, Naoto; Ghamisi, Pedram; Xia, Junshi; Sukhanov, Sergey; Heremans, Roel; Tankoyeu, Ivan; Bechtel, Benjamin; Saux, Le Bertrand; Moser, Gabriele; Tuia, Devis
In this paper, we present the scientific outcomes of the 2017 Data Fusion Contest organized by the Image Analysis and Data Fusion Technical Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society. The 2017 Contest was aimed at addressing the problem of local climate zones classification based on
This report, which updates the previous working group publication issued in February 1982, contains independent sections: (A) Summary Outline of DOE Geoscience and Related Studies, and (B) Crosscut of DOE Geoscience and Geoscience Related Studies. The FY 1985 funding levels for geoscience and related activities in each of the 11 programs within DOE are presented. The 11 programs fall under six DOE organizations: Energy Research Conservation and Renewable Energy; Fossil Energy; Defense Programs; Environmental, Safety, and Health; and Civilian radioactive Waste. From time to time, there is particular need for special interprogrammatic coordination within certain topical areas. section B of the report is intended to fill this need for a topical categorization of the Department's geoscience and related activities. These topical areas in Solid Earth Geosciences, Atmospheric Geosciences, Ocean Geosciences, Space and Solar/Terrestrial Geosciences, and Hydrological Geosciences are presented in this report.
Johnson, Karl E.
Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…
This paper describes the preliminary steps towards the foundation and the early history of IRE Region 9 / IEEE Region 8. The information has been gathered mainly from the archives of the IEEE Benelux Section.
Altintas, Onur; Chen, Wai; Heijenk, Geert; Oh, Hyun Seo; Chung, Jong-Moon; Dressler, Falko; Kargl, Frank; Pau, Giovanni; Schoch, Elmar
On behalf of the Organizing Committee, we would like to welcome you to the fourth edition of the IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference in Seoul, Korea. IEEE VNC is a unique conference sponsored by both IEEE Communications Society and Intelligent Transportation Systems Society. It brings together
According to the current IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standards, IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks have the limitation that all STAs (Stations) are in the one-hop transmission range of each other. In this paper, to alleviate the limitation of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks we propose the efficient method for selecting the most appropriate pseudo AP (Access Point) from among the set of ad hoc STAs and extending the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks by the pseudo AP's relaying the internal traffic of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly extends the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks.
Hut, Rolf; Land-Zandstra, Anne M.; Smeets, Ionica; Stoof, Cathelijne R.
Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be
Lehnert, K.; Klump, J.
Internet of Things is a term that refers to "uniquely identifiable objects (things) and their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure" (Wikipedia). We here use the term to describe new and innovative ways to integrate physical samples in the Earth Sciences into the emerging digital infrastructures that are developed to support research and education in the Geosciences. Many Earth Science data are acquired on solid earth samples through observations and experiments conducted in the field or in the lab. The application and long-term utility of sample-based data for science is critically dependent on (a) the availability of information (metadata) about the samples such as geographical location where the sample was collected, time of sampling, sampling method, etc. (b) links between the different data types available for individual samples that are dispersed in the literature and in digital data repositories, and (c) access to the samples themselves. Neither of these requirements could be achieved in the past due to incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names, and the lack of a central catalog that allows researchers to find a sample's archiving location. New internet-based capabilities have been developed over the past few years for the registration and unique identification of samples that make it possible to overcome these problems. Services for the registration and unique identification of samples are provided by the System for Earth Sample Registration SESAR (www.geosamples.org). SESAR developed the International Geo Sample Number, or IGSN, as a unique identifier for samples and specimens collected from our natural environment. Since December 2011, the IGSN is governed by an international organization, the IGSN eV (www.igsn.org), which endorses and promotes an internationally unified approach for registration and discovery of physical specimens in the Geoscience community and is establishing a new modular and
Meere, Patrick; Hendrix, Marc; Strecker, Manfred; Berger, Andreas
The Department of Geology at University College Cork (UCC), Ireland, in conjunction with the Universities of Montana (UM) and Potsdam (UP) launched a new BSc in International Field Geosciences in Autumn 2008. In this program superb natural field geoscience laboratories available in Europe and the western United States are utilized as learning environments forming the basis for a ‘Joint' Bachelor of Science undergraduate degree. This programme focuses on the documentation, interpretation, and synthesis of critical geological issues in the field. It rests upon a backbone of existing modules that are the foundation of current geology programs at three partner institutions complemented by an emphasis on the development of field-based learning in an intercultural setting. The core curriculum is identical to that required for the existing BSc Geology at UCC except the third Year is spent abroad at UM while additional courses are taken at the UP at the start the fourth year. The mobility component of the programme is funded as part of a joint EU/US ATLANTIS project. The motivation for the new programme was primarily driven by the growing international demand for geoscientists with integrated field skills. Over the last two decades existing geoscience programmes in Europe and the US have tended to progressively reduce their field based learning components. One of the major reasons for this neglect is the increasing cost associated with physically transporting students into the field and maintaining a safe outdoor working environment. Heath and safety considerations in an increasingly litigious society have led to increasingly limited choices for suitable field areas in the last few decades. Lastly, recent technological advances such as GIS and various other forms of remote sensing have led to new ways of analyzing geospatial data that, while certainly useful, divert the attention of the Geoscience community away from collecting ‘ground truth' data and making direct
Employment in geology provides excellent preparation for writing mystery novels that teach geoscience. While doing pure research at the USGS under the mentorship of Edwin D. McKee, I learned that the rigors of the scientific method could be applied not only to scientific inquiry but to any search for what is true, including the art of storytelling (the oldest and still most potent form of communication), which in turn supports science. Geoscience constructs narratives of what has happened or what might happen; hence, to communicate my findings, I must present a story. Having developed my writing skills while preparing colleague-reviewed papers (which required that I learn to set my ego aside and survive brutal critiques), the many rounds of edits required to push a novel through a publishing house were a snap. My geoscience training for becoming a novelist continued through private industry, consultancy, and academia. Employment as a petroleum geologist added the pragmatism of bottom-line economics and working to deadlines to my skill set, and nothing could have prepared me for surviving publishers' rejections and mixed reviews better than having to pitch drilling projects to jaded oil patch managers, especially just before lunchtime, when I was all that stood between them and their first martinis of the day. Environmental consulting was an education in ignorant human tricks and the politics of resource consumption gone astray. When teaching at the college level and guest lecturing at primary and secondary schools, my students taught me that nothing was going to stick unless I related the story of geoscience to their lives. When choosing a story form for my novels, I found the mystery apropos because geoscientists are detectives. Like police detectives, we work with fragmentary and often hidden evidence using deductive logic, though our corpses tend to be much, much older or not dead yet. Throughout my career, I learned that negative stereotypes about scientists
Wechsler, Suzanne P.; Whitney, David J.; Ambos, Elizabeth L.; Rodrigue, Christine M.; Lee, Christopher T.; Behl, Richard J.; Larson, Daniel O.; Francis, Robert D.; Hold, Gregory
An innovative interdisciplinary project at California State University, Long Beach, was designed to increase the attractiveness of the geosciences (physical geography, geology, and archaeology) to underrepresented groups. The goal was to raise awareness of the geosciences by providing summer research opportunities for underrepresented high school…
Tarrant, Peter J.
This paper describes the implementation of a fiber optic inter-repeater link (FOIRL), used for connecting two remote copper segments of an IEEE 802.3 local area network. The rationale for the design, the signalling used and the collision detection mechanism is discussed. The evolution of the draft international standard for the FOIRL and the concurrence amongst various manufacturers is also presented. Finally some examples of typical applications, highlighting the ease of installation, are given.
Mogk, David; Bruckner, Monica; Kieffer, Susan; Geissman, John; Reidy, Michael; Taylor, Shaun; Vallero, Daniel
Training in geoethics is an important part of pre-professional development of geoscientists. Professional societies, governmental agencies, and employers of the geoscience workforce increasingly expect that students have had some training in ethics to guide their professional lives, and the public demands that scientists abide by the highest standards of ethical conduct. The nature of the geosciences exposes the profession to ethical issues that derive from our work in a complex, dynamic Earth system with an incomplete geologic record and a high degree of uncertainty and ambiguity in our findings. The geosciences also address topics such as geohazards and resource development that have ethical dimensions that impact on the health, security, public policies, and economic well-being of society. However, there is currently no formal course of study to integrate geoethics into the geoscience curriculum and few faculty have the requisite training to effectively teach about ethics in their classes, or even informally in mentoring their research students. To address this need, an NSF-funded workshop was convened to explore how ethics education can be incorporated into the geoscience curriculum. The workshop addressed topics such as where and how should geoethics be taught in a range of courses including introductory courses for non-majors, as embedded modules in existing geoscience courses, or as a dedicated course for majors on geoethics; what are the best pedagogic practices in teaching ethics, including lessons learned from cognate disciplines (philosophy, biology, engineering); what are the goals for teaching geoethics, and what assessments can be used to demonstrate mastery of ethical principles; what resources currently exist to support teaching geoethics, and what new resources are needed? The workshop also explored four distinct but related aspects of geoethics: 1) Geoethics and self: what are the internal attributes of a geoscientist that establish the ethical
Eriksson, S. C.; Ellins, K. K.
Several new avenues are in place for building and supporting a community of people interested in the art and geoscience connections. Although sessions advocating for art in teaching geoscience have been scattered through geoscience professional meetings for several decades, there is now a sustained presence of artists and geoscientists with their research and projects at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union. In 2011, 13 abstracts were submitted and, in 2013, 20 talks and posters were presented at the annual meeting. Participants have requested more ways to connect with each other as well as advocate for this movement of art and science to others. Several words can describe new initiatives to do this: Social, Collaborative, Connected, Informed, Networked, and Included. Social activities of informal dinners, lunches, and happy hour for interested people in the past year have provided opportunity for presenters at AGU to spend time getting to know one another. This has resulted in at least two new collaborative projects. The nascent Bella Roca and more established Geology in Art websites and their associated blogs at www.bellaroca.org and http://geologyinart.blogspot.com, respectively are dedicated to highlighting the work of artists inspired by the geosciences, connecting people and informing the community of exhibits and opportunities for collaboration. Bella Roca with its social media of Facebook (Bella Roca) and Twitter (@BellRocaGeo), is a direct outgrowth of the recent 2012 and 2013 AGU sessions and, hopefully, can be grown and sustained for this community. Articles in professional journals will also help inform the broader geoscience community of the benefit of engaging with artists and designers for both improved science knowledge and communication. Organizations such as Leonardo, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology, the Art Science Gallery in Austin, Texas also promote networking among artists and scientists with
Thaenchaikun , Chakadkit; Jakllari , Gentian; Paillassa , Béatrice
International audience; IEEE 802.3az, the recent standard for Energy Efficient Ethernet, is one of the main contributions of the ICT industry to the global quest for energy efficiency. Energy consumption reduction is accomplished by essentially replacing the continuous IDLE of legacy IEEE 802.3 cards with a Low Power Idle. While this is an important step in the right direction, studies have shown that the energy saving with IEEE 802.3az highly depends on the traffic load and stops for link ut...
On the initiative of its French and Swiss Sections, the IEEE has honoured CERN with an 'IEEE Milestone in the history of electricity and electronics' for the invention of the multi-wire proportional chamber in 1968. The IEEE established the Electrical Engineering Milestones programe in 1983 to honour significant achievements in the history of electrical and electronics engineering. To be designated, an achievement must be at least 25 years old, must have involved a unique solution to an engineering problem, and must have had at least regional impact. Currently there are more than 50 IEEE Milestones around the world. http://www.ieee.org/organizations/history_center/cern.html The installation and unveiling of this IEEE Milestone will provide the opportunity to emphasize the close relationship between science, technology, industry and well-being in society. A ceremony, organised with the support of a group of IEEE members working at CERN, will be held at the CERN Globe of Science and Inn...
Semken, S. C.; Reynolds, S. J.; Johnson, J.; Baker, D. R.; Luft, J.; Middleton, J.
Geoscience education research and professional development thrive in an authentically trans-disciplinary environment at Arizona State University (ASU), benefiting from a long history of mutual professional respect and collaboration among STEM disciplinary researchers and STEM education researchers--many of whom hold national and international stature. Earth science education majors (pre-service teachers), geoscience-education graduate students, and practicing STEM teachers richly benefit from this interaction, which includes team teaching of methods and research courses, joint mentoring of graduate students, and collaboration on professional development projects and externally funded research. The geologically, culturally, and historically rich Southwest offers a superb setting for studies of formal and informal teaching and learning, and ASU graduates the most STEM teachers of any university in the region. Research on geoscience teaching and learning at ASU is primarily conducted by three geoscience faculty in the School of Earth and Space Exploration and three science-education faculty in the Mary Lou Fulton Institute and Graduate School of Education. Additional collaborators are based in the College of Teacher Education and Leadership, other STEM schools and departments, and the Center for Research on Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology (CRESMET). Funding sources include NSF, NASA, US Dept Ed, Arizona Board of Regents, and corporations such as Resolution Copper. Current areas of active research at ASU include: Visualization in geoscience learning; Place attachment and sense of place in geoscience learning; Affective domain in geoscience learning; Culturally based differences in geoscience concepts; Use of annotated concept sketches in learning, teaching, and assessment; Student interactions with textbooks in introductory courses; Strategic recruitment and retention of secondary-school Earth science teachers; Research-based professional
At a ceremony at CERN, Mr W. Cleon Anderson, President of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formally a Milestone plaque in recognition of the invention of electronic particle detectors at CERN
Pugliese, R.; Prica, M.; Kourousias, G.; Del Linz, A.; Curri, A.
). In this paper i) we define the need for integration of instrumentation in the Grid, ii) we introduce the solution of the Instrument Element, iii) we demonstrate a suitable end-user web portal for accessing Grid resources, iv) we describe from the Grid-technological point of view the process of the integration to the Grid of two advanced environmental monitoring devices. References  M. Surridge, S. Taylor, D. De Roure, and E. Zaluska, "Experiences with GRIA—Industrial Applications on a Web Services Grid," e-Science and Grid Computing, First International Conference on e-Science and Grid Computing, 2005, pp. 98-105.  A. Chervenak, I. Foster, C. Kesselman, C. Salisbury, and S. Tuecke, "The data grid: Towards an architecture for the distributed management and analysis of large scientific datasets," Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 23, 2000, pp. 187-200.  B. Allcock, J. Bester, J. Bresnahan, A.L. Chervenak, I. Foster, C. Kesselman, S. Meder, V. Nefedova, D. Quesnel, and S. Tuecke, "Data management and transfer in high-performance computational grid environments," Parallel Computing, vol. 28, 2002, pp. 749-771.  E. Frizziero, M. Gulmini, F. Lelli, G. Maron, A. Oh, S. Orlando, A. Petrucci, S. Squizzato, and S. Traldi, "Instrument Element: A New Grid component that Enables the Control of Remote Instrumentation," Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGRID'06)-Volume 00, IEEE Computer Society Washington, DC, USA, 2006.  R. Ranon, L. De Marco, A. Senerchia, S. Gabrielli, L. Chittaro, R. Pugliese, L. Del Cano, F. Asnicar, and M. Prica, "A Web-based Tool for Collaborative Access to Scientific Instruments in Cyberinfrastructures." 1 The DORII project is supported by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. RI-213110. URL: http://www.dorii.eu 2 Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale. URL: http://www.ogs.trieste.it
Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data
more active part of the international geoscience information community. The programme for the GIRAF 2009 workshop was designed to explore each of these aspects to improve the way geoscience information contributes to improve the health and prosperity of the people in Africa. The Programme The aim of the week wasto better understand the reality of the status of geoscience information management, delivery, and systems from the perspective of the practitioners across Africa. To do that, in addition to VIP welcome speeches and presentations from across the continent, the programme included two sets of breakout sessions allowing more detailed discussion of specific issues, and each day, a novel "Question of the day", where individual feedback was sought on three pointed questions. These exercises ensured that everyone was able to contribute their views and experiences. The conclusion - a 15 point GIRAF 2009 Strategy and Agreement The results were intense discussion of the issues which the participants felt were key to developing and improving the way geoscience information could be managed and delivered in Africa. The very tangible outcome of a hardworking but fruitful week was the unanimous endorsement of a series of fifteen practical recommendations - the GIRAF Strategy and Agreement. Our week together provided new and valuable experience and new contacts, networks and friendships and most importantly the base for a sustainable initiative to improve the way geoscience information will be managed and delivered in Africa. We now look forward and are working on to taking those important recommendations forward.
Accessible Geoscience is a developing field of pedagogic research aimed at widening participation in Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) subjects. These subjects are often less commonly associated with disabilities, ethnic minorities, low income socio-economic groups and females. While advancements and improvements have been made in the inclusivity of these subject areas in recent years, access and participation of disabled students remains low. While universities are legally obligated to provide reasonable adjustments to ensure accessibility, the assumed incompatibility of GEES subjects and disability often deters students from applying to study these courses at a university level. Instead of making reasonable adjustments if and when they are needed, universities should be aiming to develop teaching materials, spaces and opportunities which are accessible to all, which in turn will allow all groups to participate in the GEES subjects. With this in mind, the Swansea Geography Department wish to enhance the accessibility of our undergraduate degree by developing digital field work opportunities. In the first instance, we intend to digitise three afternoon excursions which are run as part of a 1st year undergraduate module. Each of the field trips will be digitized into English- and Welsh-medium formats. In addition, each field trip will be digitized into British Sign Language (BSL) to allow for accessibility for D/deaf and hard of hearing students. Subtitles will also be made available in each version. While the main focus of this work is to provide accessible fieldwork opportunities for students with disabilities, this work also has additional benefits. Students within the Geography Department will be able to revisit the field trips, to revise and complete associated coursework. The use of digitized field work should not replace opportunities for real field work, but its use by the full cohort of students will begin to "normalize" accessible field
Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.
The Nobel prize winner Georges Charpak and W. Cleon Anderson, IEEE President, unveil the Milestone bronze plaques. At a ceremony on 26 September at the Globe of Science and Innovation, Mr W. Cleon Anderson, President of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formally dedicated Milestone plaques recognising the invention of electronic particle detectors at CERN. The plaque were unveiled by Mr Anderson and Georges Charpak, the Nobel-prize winning inventor of wire chamber technology at CERN in 1968. The IEEE is the world's largest professional association dedicated to the advancement of technology with 365,000 individual members in over 150 countries. Established in 1983, there are currently over 60 Milestones around the world. They honour momentous achievements in the history of electrical and electronics engineering, such as the landing of the first transatlantic cable, code breaking at Bletchley Park during World War II, and the development of the Japanese Bullet train, the Tokaido Shin...
IEEE P1596, the scalable coherent interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960--1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics
Mahender, K.; Yogita, K.; Kunte, P.D.
The educational institutions around the world have realised the possibility of using GIS in geosciences teaching along with in many other subjects. GIS is been used in a large number of geoscience applications viz. mapping, mineral and petroleum...
Simarski, Lynn Teo
Do women geoscientists face worse obstacles because of their gender than women in other sciences? A recent survey by the Committee on Professionals in Science and Technology showed that women with geoscience bachelor's degrees start off at only 68% of their male colleagues' salaries, much lower than women in biology (92%), engineering (102%), chemistry (103%), and physics (111%).Women still lag behind men in geoscience degrees as well. In 1990, women received about one-third of geoscience bachelor's degrees, one-quarter of masters, and about one-fifth of Ph.D.'s, reports the American Geological Institute. In the sciences overall, women received about half of bachelor's degrees, 42% of masters, and about a third of Ph.D.'s in 1989, according to the National Research Council.
Solanas, Agusti; Martinez-Balleste, Antoni; Computational Intelligence for Privacy and Security
The book is a collection of invited papers on Computational Intelligence for Privacy and Security. The majority of the chapters are extended versions of works presented at the special session on Computational Intelligence for Privacy and Security of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN-2010) held July 2010 in Barcelona, Spain. The book is devoted to Computational Intelligence for Privacy and Security. It provides an overview of the most recent advances on the Computational Intelligence techniques being developed for Privacy and Security. The book will be of interest to researchers in industry and academics and to post-graduate students interested in the latest advances and developments in the field of Computational Intelligence for Privacy and Security.
IEEE Std 627 ''Design Qualification of Safety Systems Equipment Used in Nuclear Power Generating Stations'' was issued to more generically establish qualification requirements in the form of a high level umbrella document. Efforts on this standard began in late 1975 at the request of the IEEE Nuclear Standards Management Board. In 1977 a joint ASME/IEEE agreement established responsibility for qualification and quality assurance standards preparation. ASME accepted responsibility for Quality Assurance and IEEE for qualification. In accordance with that agreement, IEEE completed the generic qualification standard in 1980. This document provided high level approaches, criteria, guidance, and principles for qualification of both electrical and mechanical equipment that at that time appeared in no other industry standard. IEEE Std 627-1980 was later reaffirmed in 1996. In 1986, ASME's Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards directed its Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment (QME) to develop a standard for qualifying mechanical equipment. This task was completed in several parts during the time frame from 1992 to 1994. Partly in response to this activity, IEEE Std 627 was withdrawn in 2002. Later although withdrawn, it was found that IEEE Std 627 was continuing to be used and referenced by many entities both in the US and other countries including in ASME's QME-1-2002 ''Qualification of Active Mechanical Equipment Used in Nuclear Power Plants'', US NRC's NUREG-0800 Standard Review Plan Section 3.11, at least one reactor vendor's Design Certification Document (DCD), several international licensing documents, and elsewhere. As a result, in 2007, the IEEE Standards Board authorized Working Group 2.10 of Subcommittee 2 (Qualification) of the Power and Energy Society's Nuclear Power Engineering Committee to resurrect and update IEEE Std 627-1980 (Reaff 1996). The result was the culmination IEEE Std 627 in 2010. This paper will report on the eight improvements made
Gonzales, L. M.; Keane, C. M.; Martinez, C. M.
Increased demands for resources and environmental activities, relative declines in college students entering technical fields, and expectations of growth commensurate with society as a whole challenge the competitiveness of the U.S. geoscience workforce. Because of prior business cycles, more than 50% of the workforce needed in natural resource industries in 10 years is currently not in the workforce. This issue is even more acute in government at all levels and in academic institutions. Here, we present a snapshot of the current status of the geoscience profession that spans geoscientists in training to geoscience professionals in government, industry, and academia to understand the disparity between the supply of and demand for geoscientists. Since 1996, only 1% of high school SAT test takers plan to major in geosciences at college. Although the total number of geoscience degrees granted at community colleges have increased by 9% since 1996 , the number of geoscience undergraduate degrees has decreased by 7%. The number of geoscience master's and doctoral degrees have increased 4% and 14% respectively in the same time period. However, by 2005, 68 geoscience departments were consolidated or closed in U.S. universities. Students who graduate with geoscience degrees command competitive salaries. Recent bachelors geoscience graduates earned an average salary of 31,366, whereas recent master's recipients earned an average of 81,300. New geosciences doctorates commanded an average salary of 72,600. Also, fFederal funding for geoscience research has increase steadily from 485 million in 1970 to $3.5 billion in 2005. Economic indicators suggest continued growth in geoscience commodity output and in market capitalization of geoscience industries. Additionally, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 19% increase in the number of geoscience jobs from 2006 to 2016. Despite the increased demand for geoscientists and increase in federal funding of geoscience research
Our IEEE transactions on power electronics has had some very positive progress these past years under the leadership of Dr. Daan van Wyk. Papers have been processed efficiently both in review time and publication time. This success has spread throughout the whole power electronics community which...
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The IEEE 802.11a standards. Provides higher data rate and system capacities and uses OFDM in Physical Layer to mitigate the multi path effects;. Supports multiple 20Mhz channel. Each channel being an OFDM Modulated;; 52 Carriers. 48 data carrier; 4 Carry pilot ...
International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society
Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.
In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.
Duliu, Octavian G.
Computer Axial Tomography (CAT) is one of the most adequate non-invasive techniques for the investigation of the internal structure of a large category of objects. Initially designed for medical investigations, this technique, based on the attenuation of X- or gamma-ray (and in some cases neutrons), generates digital images which map the numerical values of the linear attenuation coefficient of a section or of the entire volume of the investigated sample. Shortly after its application in medicine, CAT has been successfully used in archaeology, life sciences, and geosciences as well as for the industrial materials non-destructive testing. Depending on the energy of the utilized radiation as well as on the effective atomic number of the sample, CAT can provide with a spatial resolution of 0.01 - 0.5 mm, quantitative as well as qualitative information concerning local density, porosity or chemical composition of the sample. At present two types of axial Computer Tomographs (CT) are in use. One category, consisting of medical as well as industrial CT is equipped with X-ray tubes while the other uses isotopic gamma-ray sources. CT provided with intense X-ray sources (equivalent to 12-15 kCi or 450-550 TBq) has the advantage of an extremely short running time (a few seconds and even less) but presents some disadvantages known as beam hardening and absorption edge effects. These effects, intrinsically related to the polychromatic nature of the X-rays generated by classical tubes, need special mathematical or physical corrections. A polychromatic X-ray beam can be made almost monochromatic by means of crystal diffraction or by using adequate multicomponent filters, but these devices are costly and considerably diminish the output of X-ray generators. In the case of CT of the second type, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by radioisotopic sources, such as 169 Yb (50.4 keV), 241 Am (59 keV), 192 Ir (310.5 and 469.1 keV ) or 137 Cs (662.7 keV), are used in combination with
1st Lunar International Laboratory (LIL) Symposium Research in Geosciences and Astronomy : Organized by the International Academy of Astronautics at the XVIth International Astronautical Congress Athens, 16 September, 1965 and Dedicated to the Twentieth Anniversary of UNESCO
The Lunar International Laboratory (LIL) project of the International Academy of Astronautics was begun upon the proposal of the editor at the First Special Meeting of the Academy at Stockholm on 16 August 1960. The late THEODORE VON KARMAN, first President of the Academy, appointed the following members of the LIL Committee: Prof. N. BoNEFF (Bulgaria), Prof. M. FLoRKIN (Belgium), Mr. A. G. HALEY (U. S. A. ), Prof. Sir BERNARD LovELL (U. K. ) (Vice Chairman), Prof. L. MALAVARD (France), Dr. F. J. MALINA (U. S. A. ) (Chairman), Prof. H. 0BERTH (German Federal Republic), Dr. W. H. PicKERING (U. S. A. ), Prof. E. SANGER (German Federal Republic), Prof. L. I. SEDOV (U. S. S. R. ), Prof. L. SPITZER, JR. (U. S. A. ), Dr. H. STRUGHOLD (U. S. A. ), Prof. H. C. UREY (U. S. A. ) and himself. Since 1960 the following additional members were appointed to the Committee: Mr. A. C. CLARKE (U. K. ), Prof. A. DoLLFUS (France), Prof. Z. KoPAL (U. K. ), Dr. S. F. SINGER (U. S. A. ), Prof. N. M. SISSAKIAN (U. S. S. R. ) and Pr...
Rassam, G N
This thesaurus is presented in six languages, English, French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish, and sponsored by the International Council for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) and the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). There is a main list of approximately 5000 key terms together with indexes and translations which include a specific linguistic index and a field index in which key terms have been classified by field.
The Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) supports long-range, basic research in those areas of the geosciences which are relevant to the nation's energy needs. The objective of the Geoscience program is to develop a quantitative and predictive understanding of geological, geophysical and geochemical structures and processes in the solid earth and in solar-terrestrial relationships. This understanding is to assure an effective knowledge base for energy resource recognition, evaluation and utilization in an environmentally acceptable manner. The work is carried out primarily in DOE laboratories and in universities, although some is conducted by other federal agencies and by the National Academy of Sciences. Principal areas of interest include: Geology, Geophysics, and Earth Dynamics; Geochemistry; Energy Resource Recognition, Evaluation and Utilization; Hydrologic and Marine Sciences; and Solar-Terrestrial/Atmospheric Interactions
Camerlenghi, Angelo; Cacho, Isabel; Calvo, Eva; Demol, Ben; Sureda, Catalina; Artigas, Carme; Vilaplana, Miquel; Porbellini, Danilo; Rubio, Eduard
CATAGIFT is the acronym of the project supported by the Catalan Government (trough the AGAUR agency) to support the activities of the EGU Committee on Education in Catalonia. The objective of this project is two-fold: 1) To establish a coordinated action to support the participation of three Catalan science teachers of primary and secondary schools in the GIFT Symposium, held each year during the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (EGU). 2) To produce a video documentary each year on hot topics in geosciences. The documentary is produced in Catalan, Spanish and English and is distributed to the Catalan science teachers attending the annual meeting organized by the Institute of Education Sciences and the Faculty of Geology of the University together with the CosmoCaixa Museum of Barcelona, to the international teachers attending the EGU GIFT Workshop, and to other schools in the Spanish territory. In the present-day context of science dissemination through documentaries and television programs there is a dominance of products of high technical quality and very high costs sold and broadcasted world wide. The wide spread of such products tends to standardize scientific information, not only in its content, but also in the format used for communicating science to the general public. In the field of geosciences in particular, there is a scarcity of products that combine high scientific quality and accessible costs to illustrate aspects of the natural life of our planet Earth through the results of the work of individual researchers and / or research groups. The scientific documentaries produced by CATAGIFT pursue the objective to support primary and secondary school teachers to critically interpret scientific information coming from the different media (television, newspapers, magazines, audiovisual products), in a way that they can transmit to their students. CataGIFT has created a series of documentaries called MARENOSTRUM TERRANOSTRA designed and
Full Text Available On behalf of the Editorial Board and the editorial management staff of MDPI, it is my great pleasure to introduce this new journal Geosciences. Geosciences is an international, peer-reviewed open access journal, which publishes original papers, rapid communications, technical notes and review articles, and discussions about all interdisciplinary aspects of the earth and planetary sciences. Geosciences may also include papers presented at scientific conferences (proceedings or articles on a well defined topic assembled by individual editors or organizations/institutions (special publications.
De Santis, A.; Baker, R.; Klug, B.; Vanicek, P.; D'El-Rey Silva, L. J. H.; Foyo, A.; Ercanoglu, M.; Dordevic, D.
This book contains the proceedings of the 1st WSEAS International Conference on Environmental and Geological Science and Engineering (EG'08) which was held in Malta, September 11-13, 2008. This conference aims to disseminate the latest research and applications in Renewable Energy, Mineral Resources, Natural Hazards and Risks, Environmental Impact Assessment, Urban and Regional Planning Issues, Remote Sensing and GIS, and other relevant topics and applications. The friendliness and o...
This paper discusses the evolution of a classical hardware QA program (as currently embodied in DOE/ALO Manual Chapter 08XA; NRC 10CFR Part 50, Appendix B; and other similar documents) into the present geoscience quality assurance programs that address eventual NRC licensing, if required. In the context of this paper, QA will be restricted to the tasks associated with nuclear repositories, i.e. site identification, selection, characterization, verification, and utilization
Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.
Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.
The State of Veracruz is located in the central part of the Gulf of Mexico. It has enormous natural, economic and cultural wealth, is the third most populous state in Mexico, with nearly 33 % of the nation's water resources. It has an enormous quantity of natural resources, including oil, and is strategically located in Mexico. On one hand, mountains to the east are a natural border on the other lies the Gulf of Mexico. Between these two barriers are located tropical forests, mountain forests, jungles, wetlands, reefs, etc., and the land is one of the richest in biodiversity within the Americas. Veracruz, because of its geographical characteristics, presents an opportunity for research and collaboration in the geosciences. The region has experienced frequent episodes of torrential rainfalls, which have caused floods resulting in large amounts of property damage to agriculture, housing, infrastructure and, in extreme situations, loss of human life. In 2004 Veracruz University initiated a bachelor degree in Geography, which will prepare professionals to use their knowledge of geosciences to understand and promote integrated assessment of the prevailing problems in the State. Along with the geography program, the Earth Science Center offers other research programs in seismology, vulcanology, climatology, sustainable development and global change. Because of these characteristics, Veracruz is an optimal environment for active research in the geosciences, as well as for sharing the results of this research with educators, students, and all learners. We look forward to facilitating these efforts in the coming years.
Boland, M. A.
"The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all
Schiffries, C. M.
Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni  developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks . Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines.  Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623.  Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6.  Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.
Morris, A. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Bartel, B. A.
Facilities are uniquely positioned to both serve a broad, national audience and provide unique workforce experience to students and recent graduates. Intentional efforts dedicated to broadening participation in the future geoscience workforce at the NSF GAGE (Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope) Facility operated by UNAVCO, are designed to meet the needs of the next generation of students and professionals. As a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences, UNAVCO is well-situated to both prepare students for geoscience technical careers and advanced research positions. Since 1998, UNAVCO has offered over 165 student assistant or intern positions including engineering, data services, education and outreach, and business support. UNAVCO offers three formal programs: the UNAVCO Student Internship Program (USIP), Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), and the Geo-Launchpad (GLP) internship program. Interns range from community college students up through graduate students and recent Masters graduates. USIP interns gain real-world work experience in a professional setting, collaborate with teams toward a common mission, and contribute their knowledge, skills, and abilities to the UNAVCO community. RESESS interns conduct authentic research with a scientist in the Front Range area as well as participate in a structured professional development series. GLP students are in their first 2 years of higher education and work alongside UNAVCO technical staff gaining valuable work experience and insight into the logistics of supporting scientific research. UNAVCO's efforts in preparing the next generation of scientists largely focuses on increasing diversity in the geosciences, whether continuing academic studies or moving into the workforce. To date, well over half of our interns and student assistants come from backgrounds historically underrepresented in the geosciences. Over 80% of former interns
Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Norouzi, H.; Vladutescu, D. V.; Yuen-Lau, L.
The Summit on the Future of Geoscience Undergraduate Education has recently identified key professional skills, competencies, and conceptual understanding necessary in the development of undergraduate geoscience students (American Geosciences Institute, 2015). Through a comprehensive study involving a diverse range of the geoscience academic and employer community, the following professional scientist skills were rated highly important: 1) critical thinking/problem solving skills; 2) effective communication; 3) ability to access and integrate information; 4) strong quantitative skills; and 5) ability to work in interdisciplinary/cross cultural teams. Based on the findings of the study above, the New York City College of Technology (City Tech) has created a one-year intensive training program that focusses on the development of technical and non-technical geoscience skills for non-geoscience, non-traditional STEM students. Although City Tech does not offer geoscience degrees, the primary goal of the program is to create an unconventional pathway for under-represented minority STEM students to enter, participate, and compete in the geoscience workforce. The selected cohort of STEM students engage in year-round activities that include a geoscience course, enrichment training workshops, networking sessions, leadership development, research experiences, and summer internships at federal, local, and private geoscience facilities. These carefully designed programmatic elements provide both the geoscience knowledge and the non-technical professional skills that are essential for the geoscience workforce. Moreover, by executing this alternate, robust geoscience workforce model that attracts and prepares underrepresented minorities for geoscience careers, this unique pathway opens another corridor that helps to ameliorate the dire plight of the geoscience workforce shortage. This project is supported by NSF IUSE GEOPATH Grant # 1540721.
This meeting covered the following topics: space plasmas; non-equilibrium plasma processing; computer simulation of vacuum power tubes; vacuum microelectronics; microwave systems; basic phenomena in partially ionized gases -- gaseous electronics, electrical discharges; ball lightning/spherical plasma configuration; plasma diagnostics; plasmas for lighting; dense plasma focus; intense ion and electron beams; plasma, ion, and electron sources; flat panel displays; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; thermal plasma processing; computational plasma physics; magnetic confinement fusion; microwave-plasma interactions; space plasma engineering; EM and ETH launchers; fast wave devices; intense beam microwaves; slow wave devices; space plasma measurements; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasma -- waves, instabilities, plasma theory, etc; plasma closing switches; fast opening switches; and laser-produced plasma. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this conference
The Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research (DBER) supports long-range, basic geosciences research in those areas of the life sciences which are relevant to current or planned ERDA programs. A central objective of the DBER geosciences program is to understand the mechanisms by which radionuclides and non-nuclear pollutants move through and interact with ecological systems including the air, land, inland waters, and oceans. Principal areas of interest include, in the field of atmospheric sciences: studies of the troposphere, particle formation, particulate matter, behavior of aerosols and gases, atmospheric transport and diffusion of fossil fuel pollutants, radionuclides, radionuclide global distribution patterns, nuclear emergency response systems, precipitation scavenging and dry deposition, regional relationships between pollutant sources and ambient atmospheric concentrations; and oceanographic studies of radioactivity that may be directly added to the environment from waste disposal activities and reactor operations or indirectly from nuclear explosions and transportation, the source term characterization, transport, fate, and effects of these pollutants in the marine environment; and studies of thermal effects on biological systems, mixing and circulation of water, distribution of radionuclides in ocean waters and sediments, and geochronology.A summary outline of the research programs is presented
Rodrigue, Christine M.; Wechsler, Suzanne P.; Whitney, David J.; Ambos, Elizabeth L.; Ramirez-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Behl, Richard; Francis, Robert D.; Larson, Daniel O.; Hazen, Crisanne
This paper describes an interdisciplinary project at California State University (Long Beach) designed to increase the attractiveness of the geosciences to underrepresented groups. The project is called the Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Project (GDEP). It is a 3-year program which began in the fall of 2001 with funding from the National Science…
Zalles, D.; Quellmalz, E.; Gobert, J.
This session will describe a new NSF-funded project in Geoscience education, Inquiring with Geoscience Data Sets. The goals of the project are to (1) Study the impacts on student learning of Web-based supplementary curriculum modules that engage secondary-level students in inquiry projects addressing important geoscience problems using an Earth System Science approach. Students will use technologies to access real data sets in the geosciences and to interpret, analyze, and communicate findings based on the data sets. The standards addressed will include geoscience concepts, inquiry abilities in NSES and Benchmarks for Science Literacy, data literacy, NCTM standards, and 21st-century skills and technology proficiencies (NETTS/ISTE). (2) Develop design principles, specification templates, and prototype exemplars for technology-based performance assessments that provide evidence of students' geoscientific knowledge and inquiry skills (including data literacy skills) and students' ability to access, use, analyze, and interpret technology-based geoscience data sets. (3) Develop scenarios based on the specification templates that describe curriculum modules and performance assessments that could be developed for other Earth Science standards and curriculum programs. Also to be described in the session are the project's efforts to differentiate among the dimensions of data literacy and scientific inquiry that are relevant for the geoscience discplines, and how recognition and awareness of the differences can be effectively channelled for the betterment of geoscience education.
The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences which are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering and Geosciences, part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Office of Energy Research, supports the Geosciences Research Program. The participants in this program include Department of Energy laboratories, industry, universities, and other governmental agencies. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, briefly describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, solar physics, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource modeling and analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's long-range technological needs.
Tejero-Calado, Juan; Lopez-Casado, Carmen; Bernal-Martin, Antonio; Lopez-Gomez, Miguel; Romero-Romero, Marco; Quesada, Guillermo; Lorca, Julio; Rivas, Ramon
New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. This kind of devices favours at-home hospitalization, reducing the affluence to sanitary assistance centers to make routine controls. This fact causes a really favourable social impact, especially for elder people, rural-zone inhabitant, chronic patients and handicapped people. Furthermore, it offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the sanitary cost. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (screen, PDA, PC...) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size multi-channel electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the TCP/IP Hospital network.
Sundermann, C.; Cruse, A. M.; AssociationWomen Geoscientists
The Association for Women Geoscientists (AWG) was founded in 1977. AWG is an international organization, with ten chapters, devoted to enhancing the quality and level of participation of women in geosciences, and introducing women and girls to geoscience careers. Our diverse interests and expertise cover the entire spectrum of geoscience disciplines and career paths, providing unexcelled networking and mentoring opportunities to develop leadership skills. Our membership is brought together by a common love of earth, atmospheric and ocean sciences, and the desire to ensure rewarding opportunities for women in the geosciences. AWG offers a variety of scholarships, including the Chrysalis scholarship for women who are returning to school after a life-changing interruption, and the Sands and Takken awards for students to make presentations at professional meetings. AWG promotes professional development through workshops, an online bi-monthly newsletter, more timely e-mailed newsletters, field trips, and opportunities to serve in an established professional organization. AWG recognizes the work of outstanding women geoscientists and of outstanding men supporters of women in the geosciences. The AWG Foundation funds ten scholarships, a Distinguished Lecture Program, the Geologist-in-the-Parks program, Science Fair awards, and numerous Girl Scout programs. Each year, AWG sends a contingent to Congressional Visits Day, to help educate lawmakers about the unique challenges that women scientists face in the geoscience workforce.
Mariethoz, Gregoire; Pebesma, Edzer
Computational issues are becoming increasingly critical for virtually all fields of geoscience. This includes the development of improved algorithms and models, strategies for implementing high-performance computing, or the management and visualization of the large datasets provided by an ever-growing number of environmental sensors. Such issues are central to scientific fields as diverse as geological modeling, Earth observation, geophysics or climatology, to name just a few. Related computational advances, across a range of geoscience disciplines, are the core focus of Computers & Geosciences, which is thus a truly multidisciplinary journal.
These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the Fifteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP’2005), held in Mystic, Connecticut, USA, September 28-30, 2005. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP) organized...... by the NNSP Technical Committee of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. The name of the Technical Committee, hence of the Workshop, was changed to Machine Learning for Signal Processing in September 2003 to better reflect the areas represented by the Technical Committee. The conference is organized...... by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee with sponsorship of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. Following the practice started two years ago, the bound volume of the proceedings is going to be published by IEEE following the Workshop, and we are pleased to offer to conference attendees...
Harrison, M.; Komac, M.; Duffy, T.; Robida, F.; Allison, M. L.
OneGeology (1G) is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSOs) around the globe that dates back to 2007. Since then, OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using GeoSciML- an international interoperability standard for the exchange of geological data. Increased use of this new standard allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet among organisations. One of the goals of OneGeology is an exchange of know-how with the developing world, shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making it more transparent, its operation more sustainable and its membership more open where in addition to GSOs, other types of organisations that create and use geoscience data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative is focused on increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource about the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative geoscience information will help to mitigate natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale with the aim of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professionals and general public- to be part of the solution. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscience data and the OneGeology Portal (portal.onegeology.org) is the place to find them.
Masood, Syed Haani
In this paper we compare the packet error rate (PER) and maximum throughput of IEEE 802.11n and IEEE 802.11g under interference from IEEE 802.15.4 by using MATLAB to simulate the IEEE PHY for 802.11n and 802.11g networks.
Gonzales, L. M.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.
Community colleges served over 7.5 million students in 2009, and have a more diverse student population than four-year institutions. In 2008, 58% of community college students were women and 33% of students were underrepresented minorities. Community colleges provide a large diverse pool of untapped talent for the geosciences and for all science and engineering disciplines. The most recent data from NSF's 2006 NSCRG database indicate that within the physical sciences, 43% of Bachelor's, 31% of Master's and 28% of Doctoral recipients had attended community college. Until recently, fine-grained datasets for examining the prevalence of community college education in geoscience students' academic pathways has not been available. Additionally, there has been limited information regarding the availability of geoscience programs and courses at community colleges. In 2011, the American Geological Institute (AGI) expanded its Directory of Geoscience Departments (DGD) to cover 434 community colleges that offer either geoscience programs and/or geoscience curriculum, and launched the first pilot of a standardized National Geoscience Exit Survey. The survey collects information not only about students' pathways in the university system and future academic and career plans, but also about community college attendance including geoscience course enrollments and Associate's degrees. The National Geoscience Exit Survey will be available to all U.S. geoscience programs at two- and four-year colleges and universities by the end of the 2011-2012 academic year, and will also establish a longitudinal survey effort to track students through their careers. Whereas the updated DGD now provides wider coverage of geoscience faculty members and programs at community colleges, the Exit Survey provides a rich dataset for mapping the flow of students from community colleges to university geoscience programs. We will discuss the availability of geoscience courses and programs at community
Yuan, Wei; Wang, Xiangyu; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.
IEEE 802.15.4 was developed to meet the needs for low-rate wireless communication. However, due to its low power, IEEE 802.15.4 is potentially vulnerable to interference by other wireless technologies having much higher power and working in the same industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band
The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences that are germane to the DOE`s many missions. The Geosciences Research Program is supported by the Office of Energy Research. The participants in this program include DOE laboratories, academic institutions, and other governmental agencies. These activities are formalized by a contract or grant between the DOE and the organization performing the work, providing funds for salaries, equipment, research materials, and overhead. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions, and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar-atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas.
The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound underlay of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the earth, atmospheric, and solar/terrestrial sciences that relate to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering, Mathematical and Geosciences, which is a part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and comes under the Director of Energy Research, supports under its Geosciences program major Department of Energy laboratories, industry, universities and other governmental agencies. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the overall scope of the individual programs and details of the research performed during 1979-1980. The Geoscience program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology and natural resource analysis, including the various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related to the Department's technological needs, either directly or indirectly.
Shin, Soo Young; Woo, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Jong Wook; Park, Hong Seong; Kwon, Wook Hyun
In this paper, a coexistence mechanism between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11b, Active Channel Reservation for cOexiStence (ACROS), is proposed. The key idea underlining ACROS is to reserve the channel for IEEE 802.15.4 transmission, where IEEE 802.11 transmissions are forbidden. The request-to-send (RTS)/clear-to send (CTS) mechanism within IEEE 802.11 is used to reserve a channel. The proposed ACROS mechanism is implemented into a PC based prototype. The embedded version of ACROS is also developed to mitigate the timing drift problem in the PC-based ACROS. The efficiency of ACROS is shown using the throughput and packet error rate achieved in actual experiments.
The IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism - promoting professional skills professionalism in the teaching, research and application of geoscience for the protection and education of the public
Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel
A new IUGS Task Group entitled the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism was formed in 2012 and launched at a symposium at the 341GC in Brisbane on strengthening communication between fundamental and applied geosciences and between geoscientists and public. The Task Group aims to ensure that the international geoscience community is engaged in a transformation of its profession so as to embed the need for a professional skills base alongside technical and scientific skills and expertise, within a sound ethical framework in all arenas of geoscience practice. This needs to be established during training and education and reinforced as CPD throughout a career in geoscience as part of ensuring public safety and effective communication of geoscience concepts to the public. The specific objective of the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism that is relevant to this poster session is: • To facilitate a more 'joined up' geoscience community fostering better appreciation by academics and teachers of the professional skills that geoscientists need in the workplace, and facilitate better communication between academic and applied communities leading to more effective application of research findings and technology to applied practitioners and development of research programmes that truly address urgent issues. Other Task Group objectives are: • To provide a specific international forum for discussion of matters of common concern and interest among geoscientists and geoscientific organizations involved in professional affairs, at the local, national and international level; • To act as a resource to IUGS on professional affairs in the geosciences as they may influence and impact "Earth Science for the Global Community" in general - both now and in the future; • To offer and provide leadership and knowledge transfer services to countries and geoscientist communities around the world seeking to introduce systems of professional governance and self
Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.
The American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Geoscience Workforce Program collects and analyzes data pertaining to the changes in the supply, demand, and training of the geoscience workforce. These data cover the areas of change in the education of future geoscientists from K-12 through graduate school, the transition of geoscience graduates into early-career geoscientists, the dynamics of the current geoscience workforce, and the future predictions of the changes in the availability of geoscience jobs. The Workforce Program also considers economic changes in the United States and globally that can affect the supply and demand of the geoscience workforce. In order to have an informed discussion defining the modern geoscience community, it is essential to understand the current dynamics within the geoscience community and workforce. This presentation will provide a data-driven outlook of the current status of the geosciences in the workforce and within higher education using data collected by AGI, federal agencies and other stakeholder organizations. The data presented will highlight the various industries, including those industries with non-traditional geoscience jobs, the skills development of geoscience majors, and the application of these skills within the various industries in the workforce. This quantitative overview lays the foundation for further discussions related to tracking and understanding the current geoscience community in the United States, as well as establishes a baseline for global geoscience workforce comparisons in the future.
Hut, Rolf; Land-Zandstra, Anne M.; Smeets, Ionica; Stoof, Cathelijne R.
Geoscience communication is becoming increasingly important as climate change increases the occurrence of natural hazards around the world. Few geoscientists are trained in effective science communication, and awareness of the formal science communication literature is also low. This can be challenging when interacting with journalists on a powerful medium like TV. To provide geoscience communicators with background knowledge on effective science communication on television, we reviewed relevant theory in the context of geosciences and discuss six major themes: scientist motivation, target audience, narratives and storytelling, jargon and information transfer, relationship between scientists and journalists, and stereotypes of scientists on TV. We illustrate each theme with a case study of geosciences on TV and discuss relevant science communication literature. We then highlight how this literature applies to the geosciences and identify knowledge gaps related to science communication in the geosciences. As TV offers a unique opportunity to reach many viewers, we hope this review can not only positively contribute to effective geoscience communication but also to the wider geoscience debate in society.
Houlton, H.; Keane, C.
The demand and employment opportunities for geoscientists in the United States are projected to increase 23% from 2008 to 2018 (Gonzales, 2011). Despite this trend, there is a disconnect between undergraduate geoscience students and their desire to pursue geoscience careers. A theoretical framework was developed to understand the reasons why students decide to major in the geosciences and map those decisions to their career aspirations (Houlton, 2010). A modified critical incident study was conducted to develop the pathway model from 17, one-hour long semi-structured interviews of undergraduate geoscience majors from two Midwest Research Institutions (Houlton, 2010). Geoscience Academic Provenance maps geoscience students' initial interests, entry points into the major, critical incidents and future career goals as a pathway, which elucidates the relationships between each of these components. Analyses identified three geoscience student population groups that followed distinct pathways: Natives, Immigrants and Refugees. A follow up study was conducted in 2011 to ascertain whether these students continued on their predicted pathways, and if not, reasons for attrition. Geoscientists can use this framework as a guide to inform future recruitment and retention initiatives and target these geoscience population groups for specific employment sectors.
The manuscripts in these proceedings represent current understanding of geologic issues associated with the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is in St. Charles County, Missouri. The proceedings are the record of the information presented during the WSSRAP Geosciences Workshop conducted on February 21, 1991. The objective of the workshop and proceedings is to provide the public and scientific community with technical information that will facilitate a common understanding of the geology of the Weldon Spring site, of the studies that have been and will be conducted, and of the issues associated with current and planned activities at the site. This coverage of geologic topics is part of the US Department of Energy overall program to keep the public fully informed of the status of the project and to address public concerns as we clean up the site and work toward the eventual release of the property for use by this and future generations. Papers in these proceedings detail the geology and hydrology of the site. The mission of the WSSRAP derives from the US Department of Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The WSSRAP will eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment and make surplus real property available for other uses to the extent possible. This will be accomplished by conducting remedial actions which will place the quarry, the raffinate pits, the chemical plant, and the vicinity properties in a radiologically and chemically safe condition. The individual papers have been catalogued separately.
Some of the sessions covered by this conference are: Basic Processes in Fully and Partially Ionized Plasmas; Slow Wave Devices; Laser-Produced Plasma; Non-Equilibrium Plasma Processing; Space Plasmas and Partially Ionized Gases; Microwave Plasmas; Inertial Confinement Fusion; Plasma Diagnostics; Computational Plasma Physics; Microwave Systems; Laser Produced Plasmas and Dense Plasma Focus; Intense Electron and Ion Beams; Fast Wave Devices; Spherical Configurations and Ball Lightning; Thermal Plasma Chemistry and Processing and Environmental Issues in Plasma Science; Plasma, Ion, and Electron Sources; Fast Wave Devices and Intense Beams; Fast Z-pinches and X-ray Lasers; Plasma Opening Switches; Plasma for Lighting; Intense Beams; Vacuum Microwaves; Magnetic Fusion Energy; and Plasma Thrusters and Arcs. Separate abstracts were prepared for some of the papers in this volume
The theory and applications of intelligent systems is today an important field of research. This book is an up-to-date collection of seventeen chapters, written by recognized experts in the field. In an introductory mathematical foundations part an overview of generalizations of the integral inequalities for nonadditive integrals and a construction of the General Prioritized Fuzzy Satisfaction Problem is given. Then different aspects of robotics are presented, such as the differences between human beings and robots, the motion of bipedal humanoid robots, and an evaluation of different autonomous quadrotor flight controllers. Also Fuzzy Systems are presented by a model of basic planar imprecise geometric objects allowing various applications in image analysis , GIS, and robotics, as well as a type-2 fuzzy logic in a software library for developing perceptual computers, and a two--degree--of--freedom speed control solutions for a brushless Direct Current motor. The book also presents recen...
Nenonen, K.; Nurmi, P.A. (eds.)
Our knowledge of Finnish geology and natural resources has considerably increased during the last few decades. Geological Survey of Finland - GTK has mapped the bedrock and Quaternary deposits, as well as mineral resources in great detail using modern geological, geochemical and geophysical techniques, so that Finland today has one of the best geological databases in the world. We have recently compiled countrywide datasets of seamless bedrock information at the scale of 1:200,000, and completed low-altitude airborne geophysical (200 m line spacing and 40 m terrain clearance), regional geochemical (80 000 samples), and reflection seismic surveys at the crustal scale and at high resolution on the main orepotential formations. Isotopic age determinations have been performed at GTK since the 1960s, and we now have accurate ages for about thousand samples, which is a key to studying the complex evolution of the Finnish Precambrian. GTK currently plays a vital role in providing geological expertise to the government, the business sector and the wider community. Specific responsibilities include the promotion and implementation of sustainable approaches to the supply and management of minerals, energy and construction materials, and to ensure environmental compliance through monitoring, assessment and remediation programmes. GTK also contributes to a wide range of international geoscience, mapping, mineral resources and environmental monitoring projects, and is active in developing multidisciplinary research programmes with universities, government agencies and stakeholders across related sectors. This 125th Anniversary Publication aims at elucidating, through a number of short articles, the current focus of research and development at GTK. In reaching the milestone of 125 years, we can state that our anniversary slogan, 'forever young', is justified by the vitality and increasing societal impact of the organization and our research focusing on sustainable
Nenonen, K.; Nurmi, P A [eds.
Our knowledge of Finnish geology and natural resources has considerably increased during the last few decades. Geological Survey of Finland - GTK has mapped the bedrock and Quaternary deposits, as well as mineral resources in great detail using modern geological, geochemical and geophysical techniques, so that Finland today has one of the best geological databases in the world. We have recently compiled countrywide datasets of seamless bedrock information at the scale of 1:200,000, and completed low-altitude airborne geophysical (200 m line spacing and 40 m terrain clearance), regional geochemical (80 000 samples), and reflection seismic surveys at the crustal scale and at high resolution on the main orepotential formations. Isotopic age determinations have been performed at GTK since the 1960s, and we now have accurate ages for about thousand samples, which is a key to studying the complex evolution of the Finnish Precambrian. GTK currently plays a vital role in providing geological expertise to the government, the business sector and the wider community. Specific responsibilities include the promotion and implementation of sustainable approaches to the supply and management of minerals, energy and construction materials, and to ensure environmental compliance through monitoring, assessment and remediation programmes. GTK also contributes to a wide range of international geoscience, mapping, mineral resources and environmental monitoring projects, and is active in developing multidisciplinary research programmes with universities, government agencies and stakeholders across related sectors. This 125th Anniversary Publication aims at elucidating, through a number of short articles, the current focus of research and development at GTK. In reaching the milestone of 125 years, we can state that our anniversary slogan, 'forever young', is justified by the vitality and increasing societal impact of the organization and our research focusing on sustainable development of
Bowers, T. S.; Flewelling, S. A.
Current and future drivers of hiring in the geosciences include climate, environment, energy, georisk and litigation areas. Although climate is closely linked to the atmospheric sciences, hiring needs in the geosciences exist as well, in understanding potential impacts of climate change on coastal erosion and water resources. Where and how to consider carbon sequestration as a climate mitigation policy will also require geosciences expertise. The environmental sciences have long been a source of geosciences hiring, and have ongoing needs in the areas of investigation of contamination, and in fluid and chemical transport. The recent expansion of the energy sector in the U.S. is providing opportunities for the geosciences in oil and gas production, hydraulic fracturing, and in geothermal development. In georisk, expertise in earthquake and volcanic hazard prediction are increasingly important, particularly in population centers. Induced seismicity is a relatively new area of georisk that will also require geosciences skills. The skills needed in the future geosciences workforce are increasingly interdisciplinary, and include those that are both observational and quantitative. Field observations and their interpretation must be focused forward as well as backwards and include the ability to recognize change as it occurs. Areas of demand for quantitative skills include hydrological, geophysical, and geochemical modeling, math and statistics, with specialties such as rock mechanics becoming an increasingly important area. Characteristics that students should have to become successful employees in these sectors include strong communication skills, both oral and written, the ability to know when to stop "studying" and identify next steps, and the ability to turn research areas into solutions to problems.
Kortz, K. M.; Cardace, D.; Savage, B.; Rieger, D.
Although internships have been shown to retain geoscience students, little research has been done on what components of research or field experiences during an internship impact students' decisions to major in the geosciences. We created and led a short, two-week field-based internship for 5 introductory-level students to conduct research and create a poster to present their results. In addition to the two professors leading the internship and the 5 interns, there were 2 masters students and 1 community college student who were returning to the field area to collect data for their own projects. These students also helped to guide and mentor the interns. The interns were diverse in many aspects: 3 were female, 2 were non-white, 3 were community college students (1 4YC student was a transfer), 2 were first-generation college students, and their ages ranged from 18 to 33. Based on our evaluation, we found that the research experience increased students' self-efficacy in the geosciences through various means, increased their connection with mentors and other individuals who could serve as resources, gave them a sense of belonging to the geoscience culture, increased their knowledge of geoscience career paths and expectations, helped them make connections with Earth, and maintained their interest. These factors have been described in the literature as leading to retention, and we propose that field-based internships are successful for recruitment or retention in the geosciences because they influence so many of these affective and cognitive components at once. In particular, the social aspect of internships plays a fundamental role in their success because many of these factors require close and sustained interactions with other people. An implication of this research is that these affective components, including social ones, should be explicitly considered in the design and implementation of internships to best serve as a recruitment and retention strategy.
Wijk, van J.J.; North, S.; Shen, H.-W.
This article looks briefly at four articles based on papers from the 2010 IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium. These articles, which strongly focus on visual design and applications, cover a range of applications in scientific visualization, information visualization, and graph visualization,
This standard provides direction for establishing type tests which may be used in qualifying Class 1E electric cables, field splices, and other connections for service in nuclear power generating stations. General guidelines for qualifications are given in IEEE Std 323-1974, Standard for Qualifying Class IE Electric Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. Categories of cables covered are those used for power control and instrumentation services. Though intended primarily to pertain to cable for field installation, this guide may also be used for the qualification of internal wiring of manufactured devices. This guide does not cover cables for service within the reactor vessel
Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.
Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical
The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering and Geosciences, part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Office of Energy Research, supports the Geosciences Research Program. The participants in this program include Department of Energy laboratories, academic institutions, and other governmental agencies. These activities are formalized by a contract or grant between the Department of Energy and the organization performing the work, providing funds for salaries, equipment, research materials, and overhead. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions and their subdivisions including Earth dynamics, properties of Earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's long-range technological needs.
The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences which are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The Division of Engineering and Geosciences, part of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Office of Energy Research supports the Geosciences Research Program. The participants in this program include Department of Energy laboratories, academic institutions, and other governmental agencies. Theses activities are formalized by a contract or grant between the Department of Energy and the organization performing the work, providing funds for salaries, equipment, research materials, and overhead. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, solar physics, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource modeling and analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's long-range technological needs. 2 tabs.
Keane, Christopher; Martinez, Cynthia; Gonzales, Leila
Collaborative and social technologies have been increasingly used to facilitate distributed data collection and observation in science. However, "Web 2.0" and basic social media are seeing limited coordinated use in building student and early-career geoscientists knowledge and understanding of the profession and career for which they have undertaken. The current generation of geology students and early career professionals are used to ready access to myriad of information and interaction opportunities, but they remain largely unaware about the geoscience profession, what the full scope of their opportunities are, and how to reach across institutional and subdisciplinary boundaries to build their own professional network. The American Geological Institute Workforce Program has tracked and supported the human resources of the geosciences since 1952. With the looming retirement of Baby Boomers, increasing demand for quality geoscientists, and a continued modest supply of students entering the geosciences, AGI is working to strengthen the human resource pipeline in the geosciences globally. One aspect of this effort is the GeoConnection Network, which is an integrated set of social networking, media sharing and communication Web 2.0 applications designed to engage students in thinking about careers in the geosciences and enabling them to build their own personal professional network. Developed by the American Geological Institute (AGI), GeoConnection links practicing and prospective geoscientists in an informal setting to share information about the geoscience profession, including student and career opportunities, current events, and future trends in the geosciences. The network includes a Facebook fan page, YouTube Channel, Twitter account and GeoSpectrum blog, with the goal of helping science organizations and departments recruit future talent to the geoscience workforce. On the social-networking platform, Facebook, the GeoConnection page is a forum for students and
Keane, C. M.; Gonzales, L. M.
The International Union of Geological Sciences, with endorsement by UNESCO, has established a taskforce on global geosciences workforce and has tasked the American Geological Institute to take a lead. Springing from a session on global geosciences at the IGC33 in Oslo, Norway, the taskforce is to address three issues on a global scale: define the geosciences, determine the producers and consumers of geoscientists, and frame the understandings to propose pathways towards improved global capacity building in the geosciences. With the combination of rapid retirements in the developed world, and rapid economic expansion and impact of resource and hazard issues in the developing world, the next 25 years will be a dynamic time for the geosciences. However, to date there has been little more than a cursory sense of who and what the geosciences are globally and whether we will be able to address the varied needs and issues in the developed and the developing worlds. Based on prior IUGS estimates, about 50% of all working geoscientists reside in the Unites States, and the US was also producing about 50% of all new geosciences graduate degrees globally. Work from the first year of the taskforce has elucidated the immense complexity of the issue of defining the geosciences, as it bring is enormous cultural and political frameworks, but also shed light on the status of the geosciences in each country. Likewise, this leads to issues of who is actually producing and consuming geoscience talent, and whether countries are meeting domestic demand, and if not, is external talent available to import. Many US-based assumptions about the role of various countries in the geosciences’ global community of people, namely China and India, appear to have been misplaced. In addition, the migration of geoscientists between countries raised enormous questions about what is nationality and if there is an ideal ‘global geoscientist.’ But more than anything, the taskforce is revealing clear
Mišić, Jelena; (Sherman) Shen, Xuemin
We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients. PMID:19107184
Misić, Jelena; Sherman Shen, Xuemin
We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients.
Full Text Available Wireless network uses transmission media based on radio waves. This type of networks is mainly useddue to its efficiency and mobility in data exchanging. This paper reports the modeling and simulation of wirelessnetworks based on Cisco Aironet 1130ag access point devices with IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11g standards. Themodeling and simulation are performed using network simulator version 2 (NS-2 that is installed on operationsystem Linux Ubuntu v.10.10. The NS-2 is commonly used and works well in numerous types of network simulation. From simulation, we obtain quality of service parameters by employing several simulation scenarios in terms ofnumber of nodes, distances, and packet data sizes. It can be concluded from simulation results that the IEEE 802.11gnetworks transfer data with better quality than those of IEEE 802.11a networks. Furthermore, the IEEE 802.11gnetworks provide a higher throughput, with smaller amount of delay and packet loss percentage compared to thoseof IEEE 802.11a networks.
Remote sensing science for the Nineties; Proceedings of IGARSS '90 - 10th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, University of Maryland, College Park, May 20-24, 1990. Vols. 1, 2, & 3
Various papers on remote sensing (RS) for the nineties are presented. The general topics addressed include: subsurface methods, radar scattering, oceanography, microwave models, atmospheric correction, passive microwave systems, RS in tropical forests, moderate resolution land analysis, SAR geometry and SNR improvement, image analysis, inversion and signal processing for geoscience, surface scattering, rain measurements, sensor calibration, wind measurements, terrestrial ecology, agriculture, geometric registration, subsurface sediment geology, radar modulation mechanisms, radar ocean scattering, SAR calibration, airborne radar systems, water vapor retrieval, forest ecosystem dynamics, land analysis, multisensor data fusion. Also considered are: geologic RS, RS sensor optical measurements, RS of snow, temperature retrieval, vegetation structure, global change, artificial intelligence, SAR processing techniques, geologic RS field experiment, stochastic modeling, topography and Digital Elevation model, SAR ocean waves, spaceborne lidar and optical, sea ice field measurements, millimeter waves, advanced spectroscopy, spatial analysis and data compression, SAR polarimetry techniques. Also discussed are: plant canopy modeling, optical RS techniques, optical and IR oceanography, soil moisture, sea ice back scattering, lightning cloud measurements, spatial textural analysis, SAR systems and techniques, active microwave sensing, lidar and optical, radar scatterometry, RS of estuaries, vegetation modeling, RS systems, EOS/SAR Alaska, applications for developing countries, SAR speckle and texture.
Pan, Y.; Yu, L.; Zhu, F.; Rilee, M. L.; Kuo, K. S.; Jiang, H.; Yu, H.
Geoscience data obtained from diverse sources have been routinely leveraged by scientists to study various phenomena. The principal data sources include observations and model simulation outputs. These data are characterized by spatiotemporal heterogeneity originated from different instrument design specifications and/or computational model requirements used in data generation processes. Such inherent heterogeneity poses several challenges in exploring and analyzing geoscience data. First, scientists often wish to identify features or patterns co-located among multiple data sources to derive and validate certain hypotheses. Heterogeneous data make it a tedious task to search such features in dissimilar datasets. Second, features of geoscience data are typically multivariate. It is challenging to tackle the high dimensionality of geoscience data and explore the relations among multiple variables in a scalable fashion. Third, there is a lack of transparency in traditional automated approaches, such as feature detection or clustering, in that scientists cannot intuitively interact with their analysis processes and interpret results. To address these issues, we present a new scalable approach that can assist scientists in analyzing voluminous and diverse geoscience data. We expose a high-level query interface that allows users to easily express their customized queries to search features of interest across multiple heterogeneous datasets. For identified features, we develop a visualization interface that enables interactive exploration and analytics in a linked-view manner. Specific visualization techniques such as scatter plots to parallel coordinates are employed in each view to allow users to explore various aspects of features. Different views are linked and refreshed according to user interactions in any individual view. In such a manner, a user can interactively and iteratively gain understanding into the data through a variety of visual analytics operations. We
Aber, Susan Ward
was a lack of time and funding for converting photographic prints and slides to digital images. Findings have implications for academic librarians to provide more visual media or assistance with organizing and formatting existing outdated media formats and to create collaborative collection development through repackaging personal collections of geoscience participants to enhance teaching. Implications for library school educators include providing curriculum on information needs and behaviors from a user's perspective, subject specialty librarianship, and internal collaborative collection development to complement external collection development.
Cartwright, T. J.; Hogsett, M.; Ensign, T. I.; Hemler, D.
Capturing the interest of our students is imperative to expand the conduit of future Earth scientists in the United States. According to the Rising Above the Gathering Storm report (2005), we must increase America's talent pool by improving K-12 mathematics and science education. Geoscience education is uniquely suited to accomplish this goal, as we have become acutely aware of our sensitivity to the destructive forces of nature. The educational community must take advantage of this heightened awareness to educate our students and ensure the next generation rebuilds the scientific and technological base on which our society rests. In response to these concerns, the National Science Foundation advocates initiatives in Geoscience Education such as IDGE (Integrated Design for Geoscience Education), which is an inquiry-based geoscience program for Upward Bound (UB) students at Marshall University in Huntington, West Virginia. The UB program targets low-income under-represented students for a summer academic-enrichment program. IDGE builds on the mission of UB by encouraging underprivileged students to investigate science and scientific careers. During the two year project, high school students participated in an Environmental Inquiry course utilizing GLOBE program materials and on-line learning modules developed by geoscience specialists in land cover, soils, hydrology, phenology, and meteorology. Students continued to an advanced course which required IDGE students to collaborate with GLOBE students from Costa Rica. The culmination of this project was an educational expedition in Costa Rica to complete ecological field studies, providing first-hand knowledge of the international responsibility we have as scientists and citizens of our planet. IDGE was designed to continuously serve educators and students. By coordinating initiatives with GLOBE headquarters and the GLOBE country community, IDGE's efforts have yielded multiple ways in which to optimize positive
Barron, E. J.
Geoscience problems and disciplines are inherently global, and today's opportunities for students to join the workforce also increasingly involve every country and every place on the planet. We have reached the point where the need to create global educational experiences and to make global connections are more important than ever. First, there is enormous benefit to all students if they can contribute within the context of an increasingly globalized world. Second, our primary objective as educators is to build human capacity. The reach and impact of any university is severely limited if our efforts to build this capacity is limited to students within our own classroom. The Alliances that have the potential to transform Geoscience education then have two pathways. The first is to internationalize the curriculum and to provide international educational and research opportunities. This includes: (1) establishing formal undergraduate exchange opportunities specially for the Geosciences, (2) providing opportunities within our course frameworks to enable students to gain international competences, (3) promoting international field experiences and research projects, (4) developing collaborative educational projects with international partners, and (5) creating institutional structures that are charged with promoting, proposing, reviewing, monitoring and assessing international opportunities. The second is to recognize that developing strong educational programs across the world will have a greater impact on education and research, and hence the global workforce, then for select countries to educate small populations of international students. The Alliance for Earth Science, Engineering and Development in Africa (AESEDA), created at Penn State in 2003, is establishing the partnerships with universities in Africa and with HCBUs within the U.S. that both internationalize the education of Penn State students and enable capacity building within the participating universities
The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geoscience Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either directly or indirectly to the Department of Energy's technological needs.
The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of earth, atmospheric, and solar-terrestrial sciences that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The summaries describe the scope of the individual programs and detail the research performed during 1980 to 1981. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including the various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas
The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of earth, atmospheric, and solar-terrestrial sciences that are germane to the Department of Energy's many missions. The summaries describe the scope of the individual programs and detail the research performed during 1980 to 1981. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including the various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas.
This revision of IEEE Std 101-1972 describes statistical analyses for data from thermally accelerated aging tests. It explains the basis and use of statistical calculations for an engineer or scientist. Accelerated test procedures usually call for a number of specimens to be aged at each of several temperatures appreciably above normal operating temperatures. High temperatures are chosen to produce specimen failures (according to specified failure criteria) in typically one week to one year. The test objective is to determine the dependence of median life on temperature from the data, and to estimate, by extrapolation, the median life to be expected at service temperature. This guide presents methods for analyzing such data and for comparing test data on different materials
In the last few years the IEEE 802.3 committee has developed fiber optics inter-repeater link standard called FOIRL. This standard defines the "Fiber Optics Media Access Unit" (FOMAU) which is used to connect two IEEE 802.3 repeaters that are up to 1Km apart. The IEEE 802.3 lOBaseF task force is currently standardizing a full F/O system in two directions: passive and active. The active approach is a compromise between the FOIRL (Asynchronous) approach and the Synchronous approach. As a result of this activity the IEEE 802.3 standard will define three different F/O interfaces and several devices that will not inter-operate. Such a standard will lower the credibility among the IEEE 802.3 user community, as customers will be confused amidst the many chapters and devices with no clear choice. This paper describes a method that can reduce the number of standards to two (passive and active), while proposing a solution for all the requirements of 802.3 F/O LAN. (The question of passive vs active approach will be discussed in this paper).
Richardson, R. M.; Eyles, C.; Ormand, C. J.
One characteristic of strong geoscience departments is that they recruit and retain quality students. In a survey to over 900 geoscience departments in the US and Canada several years ago nearly 90% of respondents indicated that recruiting and retaining students was important. Two years ago we offered a pre-GSA workshop on recruiting and retaining students that attracted over 30 participants from over 20 different institutions, from liberal arts colleges to state universities to research intensive universities. Since then we have sought additional feedback from a presentation to the AGU Heads & Chairs at a Fall AGU meeting, and most recently from a workshop on strengthening geoscience programs in June 2009. In all of these settings, a number of themes and concrete strategies have emerged. Key themes included strategies internal to the department/institution; strategies that reach beyond the department/institution; determining how scalable/transferable strategies that work in one setting are to your own setting; identifying measures of success; and developing or improving on an existing action plan specific to your departmental/institutional setting. The full results of all of these efforts to distill best practices in recruiting students will be shared at the Fall AGU meeting, but some of the best practices for strategies local to the department/institution include: 1) focusing on introductory classes (having the faculty who are most successful in that setting teach them, having one faculty member make a common presentation to all classes about what one can do with a geoscience major, offering topical seminars, etc.); 2) informing students of career opportunities (inviting alumni back to talk to students, using AGI resources, etc.,); 3) creating common space for students to work, study, and be a community; 4) inviting all students earning an ‘A’ (or ‘B’) in introductory classes to a departmental event just for them; and 5) creating a field trip for incoming
A review of the status, progress, and future direction of lunar research is presented in this report from the lunar geoscience working group of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Information is synthesized and presented in four major sections. These include: (1) an introduction (stating the reasons for lunar study and identifying…
The summaries in this document describe the scope of the individual programs and detail the research performed during 1984-1985. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology, and natural resource analysis, including their various subdivisions and interdisciplinary areas.
Growing Community Roots for the Geosciences in Miami, Florida, A Program Aimed at High School and Middle School Students to Increase Awareness of Career and Educational Opportunities in the Geosciences
Whitman, D.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Gebelein, J.; Draper, G.; Rego, R.
Growing Community Roots for the Geosciences is a 2-year pilot recruitment project run by the Department of Earth and Environment at Florida International University (FIU) and funded by the NSF OEDG (Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences) program. FIU, the State University of Florida in Miami is a federally recognized Minority Serving Institution with over 70% of the undergraduate population coming from groups underrepresented in the geoscience workforce. The goal of this project is to inform students enrolled in the local middle and high schools to career opportunities in the geosciences and to promote pathways for underrepresented groups to university geoscience degree programs. The first year's program included a 1-week workshop for middle school teachers and a 2-week summer camp aimed at high school students in the public school system. The teacher workshop was attended by 20 teachers who taught comprehensive and physical science in grades 6-8. It included lectures on geoscience careers, fundamental concepts of solid earth and atmospheric science, hands on exercises with earth materials, fossils and microscopy, interpretation of landform with Google Earth imagery, and a field trip to a local working limestone quarry. On the first day of the workshop, participants were surveyed on their general educational background in science and their familiarity and comfort with teaching basic geoscience concepts. On the final day, the teachers participated in a group discussion where we discussed how to make geoscience topics and careers more visible in the school curriculum. The 2-week summer camp was attended by 21 students entering grades 9-12. The program included hands on exercises on geoscience and GIS concepts, field trips to local barrier islands, the Everglades, a limestone quarry and a waste to energy facility, and tours of the NOAA National Hurricane Center and the FIU SEM lab. Participants were surveyed on their general educational background
Sthapit, Pranesh; Pyun, Jae-Young
The throughput of IEEE 802.11 standard is significantly bounded by the associated Medium Access Control (MAC) overhead. Because of the overhead, an upper limit exists for throughput, which is bounded, including situations where data rates are extremely high. Therefore, an overhead reduction is necessary to achieve higher throughput. The IEEE 802.11e amendment introduced the block ACK mechanism, to reduce the number of control messages in MAC. Although the block ACK scheme greatly reduces overhead, further improvements are possible. In this letter, we propose an implicit block ACK method that further reduces the overhead associated with IEEE 802.11e’s block ACK scheme. The mathematical analysis results are presented for both the original protocol and the proposed scheme. A performance improvement of greater than 10% was achieved with the proposed implementation.
Dougherty, E.M. Jr.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) working group 7.4 of the Human Factors and Control Facilities Subcommittee of the Nuclear Power Engineering Committee (NPEC) has released its fifth draft of a Guide for General Principles of Human Action Reliability Analysis for Nuclear Power Generating Stations, for approval of NPEC. A guide is the least mandating in the IEEE hierarchy of standards. The purpose is to enhance the performance of an human reliability analysis (HRA) as a part of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), to assure reproducible results, and to standardize documentation. The guide does not recommend or even discuss specific techniques, which are too rapidly evolving today. Considerable maturation in the analysis of human reliability in a PRA context has taken place in recent years. The IEEE guide on this subject is an initial step toward bringing HRA out of the research and development arena into the toolbox of standard engineering practices
Sloan, V.; Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R.
Individual undergraduate internship programs, however effective, are not sufficient to address the lack of diversity in the geoscience workforce. Rather than competing with each other for a small pool of students from historically under-represented groups, REU and internship programs might share recruiting efforts and application processes. For example, in 2011, the RESESS program at UNAVCO and the SOARS program at UCAR shared recruiting websites and advertising. This contributed to a substantial increase in the number of applicants to the RESESS program, the majority of which were from historically under-represented groups. RESESS and SOARS shared qualified applications with other REU/internship programs and helped several additional minority students secure summer internships. RESESS and SOARS also leveraged their geographic proximity to pool resources for community building activities, a two-day science field trip, a weekly writing workshop, and our final poster session. This provided our interns with an expanded network of peers and gave our staff opportunities to work together on planning. Recently we have reached out to include other programs and agencies in activities for our interns, such as mentoring high-school students, leading outreach to elementary school students, and exposing our interns to geoscience careers options and graduate schools. Informal feedback from students suggests that they value these interactions and appreciate learning with interns from partner programs. Through this work, we are building a network of program managers who support one another professionally and share effective strategies. We would like to expand that network, and future plans include a workshop with university partners and an expanded list of REU programs to explore further collaborations.
Rafael Ballabriga Suñe is the recipient of the 2006 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (NPSS)'s Student Paper Award. Ballabriga's winning paper reported on a prototype chip, which belongs to a new generation of single photon counting hybrid pixel detector readout chips - Medipix3. The award was presented by the deputy programme chair Vince Cianciolo (left) at the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium held in San Diego on 29 October to 4 November.
This standard specifies the procedures to be used in the seismic testing of relays used in power system facilities. The standard is concerned with the determination of the seismic fragility level of relays and also gives recommendations for proof testing. The purpose of this standard is to establish procedures for determining the seismic capabilities of protective and auxiliary relays. These procedures employ what has been called fragility testing in IEEE Std 344-1987. To define the conditions for fragility testing of relays, parameters in three separate areas must be specified. In general, they are (1) the electrical settings and inputs to the relay, and other information to define its conditions during the test; (2) the change in state, deviation in operating characteristics or tolerances, or other change of performance of the relay that constitutes failure; (3) the seismic vibration environment to be imposed during the test. Since it is not possible to define the conditions for every conceivable application for all relays, those parameters, which in practice encompass the majority of applications, have been specified in this standard. When the application of the relay is other than as specified under any of (1), (2), and (3), or if it is not practical to apply existing results of fragility tests to that new application, then proof testing must be performed for that new case
This standard specifies the procedures to be used in the seismic testing of relays used in power system facilities. The standard is concerned with the determination of the seismic fragility level of relays and also gives recommendations for proof testing. The purpose of this standard is to establish procedures for determining the seismic capabilities of protective and auxiliary relays. These procedures employ what has been called fragility testing in ANSI/IEEE Std 344-1975, Recommended Practices for Seismic Qualification of Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. In order to define the conditions for fragility testing of relays, parameters in three separate areas must be specified. In general they are: (1) the electrical settings and inputs to the relay, and other information to define its conditions during the test; (2) the change in state, deviation in operating characteristics or tolerances, or other change of performance of the relay which constitutes failure; (3) the seismic vibration environment to be imposed during the test. Since it is not possible to define the conditions for every conceivable application for all relays, those parameters, which in practice encompass the majority of applications, have been specified in this standard. When the application of the relay is other than as specified under any of (1), (2), and (3), or if it is not practical to apply existing results of fragility tests to that new case
Many, if not most, college students taking an introductory geoscience course purchase, borrow, download, or rent one of several commercial textbooks currently available. Art used in such books has evolved significantly over the past three decades. Concepts once conveyed only by black-and-white line drawings, drawn by hand in ink, have gradually been replaced by full-color images produced digitally. Multiple high-end graphics programs, when used in combination, can yield images with super-realistic textures and palettes so that, in effect, anything that a book author wants to be drawn can be drawn. Because of the time and skill level involved in producing the art, the process commonly involves professional artists. In order to produce high-quality geoscience art that can help students (who are, by definition, non-experts) understand concepts, develop geoscience intuition, and hone their spatial-visualization skills, an author must address two problems. First, design a figure which can convey complex concepts through visual elements that resonate with students. Second, communicate the concepts to a professional artist who does not necessarily have personal expertise in geoscience, so that the figure rendered is both technically correct and visually engaging. The ultimate goal of geoscience art in textbooks is to produce an image that avoids unnecessary complexity that could distract from the art's theme, includes sufficient realism for a non-expert to relate the image to the real world, provides a personal context in which to interpret the figure, and has a layout that conveys relationships among multiple components of the art so that the art tells a coherent story. To accomplish this goal, a chain of choices--about perspective, sizes, colors, texture, labeling, captioning, line widths, and fonts--must be made in collaboration between the author and artist. In the new world of computer-aided learning, figures must also be able to work both on the computer screen and
I am entering the fourth year as the Editor in Chief of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. A position like this becomes more and more important for the technical field as publishing in a peer-reviewed highly ranked journal has influence on the industrial and academic career. It is a way...
Contacts Researchers News & Events Event Calendar Annual Program Review Research Seminars Press Room Event Archives ARC Researchers at the IEEE 2015 Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (October 19-22 Ballroom B P-SS4-2 Comparison of SOFC and PEM Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Management Strategies for Mobile
Malone, Edward A.
This article examines the historical professional project that created the Institute of Radio Engineers' Professional Group on Engineering Writing an Speech (IRE PGEWS)--now called the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Professional Communication Society (IEEE PCS)--and recounts the group's early history in detail. It also traces…
Altintas, O.; Chen, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Dressler, F.; Ekici, E.; Kargl, Frank; Shigeno, H.; Dietzel, Stefan
Foreword For the first time in its history, IEEE VNC has included this year’s demonstrations in its program. Demonstrations play an important role to expose the research community to practical aspects of research and to foster cross-fertilization among researchers both in academia and in industry.
Home; public; Volumes; reso; 021; 01; 0011-0030.Data Representation amp Computer Arithmetic6 IEEE Standard Double Precision FormatIn.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News.
The Geosciences Research Program is directed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Research (OER) through its Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES). Activities in the Geosciences Research Program are directed toward the long-term fundamental knowledge of the processes that transport, modify, concentrate, and emplace (1) the energy and mineral resources of the earth and (2) the energy byproducts of man. The Program is divided into five broad categories: Geophysics and earth dynamics; Geochemistry; Energy resource recognition, evaluation, and utilization; Hydrogeology and exogeochemistry; and Solar-terrestrial interactions. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs in these main areas and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas.
Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer
One hundred years ago Georg Popp became the first scientist to present in court a case where the geological makeup of soils was used to secure a criminal conviction. Subsequently there have been significant advances in the theory and practice of forensic geoscience: many of them subsequent to the seminal publication of "Forensic Geology" by Murray and Tedrow [Murray, R., Tedrow, J.C.F. 1975 (republished 1986). Forensic Geology: Earth Sciences and Criminal Investigation. Rutgers University Press, New York, 240 pp.]. Our review places historical development in the modern context of how the allied disciplines of geology (mineralogy, sedimentology, microscopy), geophysics, soil science, microbiology, anthropology and geomorphology have been used as tool to aid forensic (domestic, serious, terrorist and international) crime investigations. The latter half of this paper uses the concept of scales of investigation, from large-scale landforms through to microscopic particles as a method of categorising the large number of geoscience applications to criminal investigation. Forensic geoscience has traditionally used established non-forensic techniques: 100 years after Popp's seminal work, research into forensic geoscience is beginning to lead, as opposed to follow other scientific disciplines.
Ramamurthy, M. K.
Increasingly, the conduct of science requires close international collaborations to share data, information, knowledge, expertise, and other resources. This is particularly true in the geosciences where the highly connected nature of the Earth system and the need to understand global environmental processes have heightened the importance of scientific partnerships. As geoscience studies become a team effort involving networked scientists and data providers, it is crucial that there is open and reliable access to earth system data of all types, software, tools, models, and other assets. That environment demands close attention to security-related matters, including the creation of trustworthy cyberinfrastructure to facilitate the efficient use of available resources and support the conduct of science. Unidata and EarthCube, both of which are NSF-funded and community-driven programs, recognize the importance of collaborations and the value of networked communities. Unidata, a cornerstone cyberinfrastructure facility for the geosciences, includes users in nearly 180 countries. The EarthCube initiative is aimed at transforming the conduct of geosciences research by creating a well-connected and facile environment for sharing data and in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner and to accelerate our ability to understand and predict the Earth system. We will present the Unidata and EarthCube community perspectives on the approaches to balancing an environment that promotes open and collaborative eScience with the needs for security and communication, including what works, what is needed, the challenges, and opportunities to advance science.
The Young Earth Scientists (YES) Network is an international association for early-career geoscientists under the age of 35 years that was formed as a result of the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE) in 2007. YES Network aims to establish an interdisciplinary global network of early-career geoscientists to solve societal issues/challenges using geosciences, promote scientific research and interdisciplinary networking, and support professional development of early-career geoscientists. The Network has several National Chapters including one in Namibia. YES Network Namibia (YNN) was formed in 2009, at the closing ceremony of IYPE in Portugal and YNN was consolidated in 2013 with the current set-up. YNN supports the activities and goals of the main YES Network at national level providing a platform for young Namibian scientists with a passion to network, information on geoscience opportunities and promoting earth sciences. Currently most of the members are geoscientists from the Geological Survey of Namibia (GSN) and University of Namibia. In 2015, YNN plans to carry out two workshops on career guidance, establish a mentorship program involving alumni and experienced industry experts, and increase involvement in outreach activities, mainly targeting high school pupils. Network members will participate in a range of educational activities such as school career and science fairs communicating geoscience to the general public, learners and students. The community outreach programmes are carried out to increase awareness of the role geosciences play in society. In addition, YNN will continue to promote interactive collaboration between the University of Namibia, Geological Survey of Namibia (GSN) and Geological Society of Namibia. Despite the numerous potential opportunities YNN offers young scientists in Namibia and its presence on all major social media platforms, the Network faces several challenges. One notable challenge the Network faces is indifference among
Mayernik, M. S.; Schuster, D.; Hou, C. Y.
The open availability and wide accessibility of digital data sets is becoming the norm for geoscience research. The National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted a data management planning requirement in 2011, and many scientific publishers, including the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society, have recently implemented data archiving and citation policies. Many disciplinary data facilities exist around the community to provide a high level of technical support and expertise for archiving data of particular kinds, or for particular projects. However, a significant number of geoscience research projects do not have the same level of data facility support due to a combination of several factors, including the research project's size, funding limitations, or topic scope that does not have a clear facility match. These projects typically manage data on an ad hoc basis without limited long-term management and preservation procedures. The NSF is supporting a workshop to be held in Summer of 2018 to develop requirements and expectations for a Geoscience Digital Data Resource and Repository Service (GeoDaRRS). The vision for the prospective GeoDaRRS is to complement existing NSF-funded data facilities by providing: 1) data management planning support resources for the general community, and 2) repository services for researchers who have data that do not fit in any existing repository. Functionally, the GeoDaRRS would support NSF-funded researchers in meeting data archiving requirements set by the NSF and publishers for geosciences, thereby ensuring the availability of digital data for use and reuse in scientific research going forward. This presentation will engage the AGU community in discussion about the needs for a new digital data repository service, specifically to inform the forthcoming GeoDaRRS workshop.
Fleming, J. R.
The geosciences have a long, distinguished, and very useful history Today's science is tomorrow's history of science. If we don't study the past, then every decision we face will seem unprecedented. If we don't study the history of science and apply its lessons, then I don't think we can say we really understand science. Actual research results and ongoing programs will be highlighted, with a focus on public understanding and support for atmospheric science and global change.
Johnson, Zackary I.; Johnston, David W.
Observation, formation of explanatory hypotheses, and testing of ideas together form the basic pillars of much science. Consequently, science education has often focused on the presentation of facts and theories to teach concepts. To a great degree, libraries and universities have been the historical repositories of scientific information, often restricting access to a small segment of society and severely limiting broad-scale geoscience education.
The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound underlay of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the earth, atmospheric, and solar/terrestrial sciences which relate to DOE's many missions. This research may be conducted in the major DOE laboratories, industry, universities and other government agencies. Such support provides for payment of salaries, purchase of equipment and other materials, an allowance for overhead costs, and is formalized by a contract between the Department and the organization performing the work. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the work performed during 1977, include the scope of the work to be performed in 1978 and provide information regarding some of the research planned for 1979. The Division of Engineering, Mathematics, and Geosciences, which is a part of the Office of Energy Research, supports, under its Geoscience Program, research in geology, petrology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, solar-terrestrial relationships, aeronomy, seismology and natural resource analysis, including the various subdivisions and interdisciplinary relationships, as well as their relationship to the Department's technological needs
Sevre, E.; Lee, S.
Many people, students and professors alike, shy away from learning to program because it is often believed to be something scary or unattainable. However, integration of programming into geoscience education can be a valuable tool for increasing the accessibility of content for all who are interested. It is my goal to dispel these myths and convince people that: 1) Students with disabilities can use programming to increase their role in the classroom, 2) Everyone can learn to write programs to simplify daily tasks, 3) With a deep understanding of the task, anyone can write a program to do a complex task, 4) Technology can be combined with programming to create an inclusive environment for all students of geoscience, and 5) More advanced knowledge of programming and technology can lead geoscientists to create software to serve as assistive technology in the classroom. It is my goal to share my experiences using technology to enhance the classroom experience as a way of addressing the aforementioned issues. Through my experience, I have found that programming skills can be included and learned by all to enhance the content of courses without detracting from curriculum. I hope that, through this knowledge, geoscience courses can become more accessible for people with disabilities by including programming and technology to the benefit of all involved.
The Geosciences Research Program is directed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Research (OER) through its Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES). Activities in the Geosciences Research Program are directed toward building the long-term fundamental knowledge base necessary to provide for energy technologies of the future. Future energy technologies and their individual roles in satisfying the nations energy needs cannot be easily predicted. It is clear, however, that these future energy technologies will involve consumption of energy and mineral resources and generation of technological wastes. The earth is a source for energy and mineral resources and is also the host for wastes generated by technological enterprise. Viable energy technologies for the future must contribute to a national energy enterprise that is efficient, economical, and environmentally sound. The Geosciences Research Program emphasizes research leading to fundamental knowledge of the processes that transport, modify, concentrate, and emplace (1) the energy and mineral resources of the earth and (2) the energy by-products of man.
Savina, M. E.
Carleton College is a small (current enrollment ~1950), four-year, residential liberal arts college that has graduated more than 900 geology majors since the inception of the geology department inception in 1933. Since 1974, an average of more than 20 geology students have graduated each year. The department curriculum aims to educate at least six overlapping groups of students, who, however, may not place themselves into one of these groups until well after graduating. These groups include students in non- science majors who take geology for breadth or because of interest; science majors; geology majors who end up in other professions; and geology majors who pursue careers related to geology, most of whom ultimately earn a higher, professional degree. Goals for these groups of students differ and the department focuses its curriculum on developing skills and providing student experiences that will serve all groups well. The department has a strong focus on field geology and communication skills, solving complex problems in many project-based courses (culminating in a senior independent project for each student), and much group work. These characteristics correlate well with Carleton institutional goals. The senior independent projects (all reported in written, visual and oral forms) form the basis for outcomes assessment. We also regularly survey alumni who are in graduate programs of all kinds (not just geoscience), asking them about how well their undergraduate education has prepared them. Finally, the staff meet at least annually to discuss the curriculum, its goals, values, skills and content, and do a formal self-study with external and internal reviewers at least once a decade. The success of Carleton geology alumni in government, research, industry, education, consulting and other professions is the ultimate assessment tool.
Iverson, E. A.; Steer, D. N.; Manduca, C. A.
InTeGrate is a community effort aimed at improving geoscience literacy and building a workforce that can use geoscience to solve societal issues. As part of this work we have developed a geoscience literacy assessment instrument to measure students' higher order thinking. This assessment is an important part of the development of curricula designed to increase geoscience literacy for all undergraduate students. To this end, we developed the Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) as one of the tools to quantify the effectiveness of these materials on students' understandings of geoscience literacy. The InTeGrate project is a 5-year, NSF-funded STEP Center grant in its first year of funding. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The GLE instrument addresses content and concepts in the Earth, Climate, and Ocean Science literacy documents. The testing schema is organized into three levels of increasing complexity. Level 1 questions are single answer, understanding- or application-level multiple choice questions. For example, selecting which type of energy transfer is most responsible for the movement of tectonic plates. They are designed such that most introductory level students should be able to correctly answer after taking an introductory geoscience course. Level 2 questions are more advanced multiple answer/matching questions, at the understanding- through analysis-level. Students might be asked to determine the types of earth-atmosphere interactions that could result in changes to global temperatures in the event of a major volcanic eruption. Because the answers are more complicated, some introductory students and most advanced students should be able to respond correctly. Level 3 questions are analyzing- to evaluating-level short essays, such as describe the ways in which the atmosphere sustains life on Earth. These questions are designed such that introductory students could probably formulate a rudimentary response
Kim, J. S.; Jung, S. C.; Kim, T. R.
IEEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment has been updated to 2003 edition since the issue of IEEE Std 323-1971, 1974, 1983. NRC approved the IEEE Std 323-1974 as Qualification standard of Class 1E Equipment in domestic nuclear power plant. IEEE Std 323-2003 was issued in September of 2003 and utility is waiting the approval of NRC. IEEE Std 323-2003 suggest a new qualification technique which adopts the condition monitoring. Performance of two transient during DBA test is no longer recommended in IEEE Std 323-2003. IEEE323 Std 2003 included a chapter of ''extension of Qualified life'' to make available the life extension of components during plant life extension. For the efficient control of preserving EQ in domestic nuclear power plant, IEEE323 Std 2003 is strongly recommended
Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M.
Global economic development demands that the United States remain competitive in the STEM fields, and developing a forward-looking and well-trained geoscience workforce is imperative. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the geosciences will experience a growth of 19% by 2016. Fifty percent of the current geoscience workforce is within 10-15 years of retirement, and as a result, the U.S. is facing a gap between the supply of prepared geoscientists and the demand for well-trained labor. Barring aggressive intervention, the imbalance in the geoscience workforce will continue to grow, leaving the increased demand unmet. UNAVCO, Inc. is well situated to prepare undergraduate students for placement in geoscience technical positions and advanced graduate study. UNAVCO is a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences and in addition UNAVCO manages the NSF Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) facility. The GAGE facility supports many facets of geoscience research including instrumentation and infrastructure, data analysis, cyberinfrastructure, and broader impacts. UNAVCO supports the Research Experiences in the Solid Earth Sciences for Students (RESESS), an NSF-funded multiyear geoscience research internship, community support, and professional development program. The primary goal of the RESESS program is to increase the number of historically underrepresented students entering graduate school in the geosciences. RESESS has met with high success in the first 9 years of the program, as more than 75% of RESESS alumni are currently in Master's and PhD programs across the U.S. Building upon the successes of RESESS, UNAVCO is launching a comprehensive workforce development program that will network underrepresented groups in the geosciences to research and opportunities throughout the geosciences. This presentation will focus on the successes of the RESESS program and plans to expand on this success with broader
existing platforms for display and control These integrations are vital for capturing workflows in RIs and connect key stakeholders (scientists, publishers, librarians). They are demonstrated using developments by the DFG-funded project Opening Reproducible Research (http://o2r.info). Semi-automatic creation of ERCs based on research workflows is a core goal of the project. References  Tony Hey, Stewart Tansley, Kristin Tolle (eds), 2009. The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery. Microsoft Research.  P. Martin et al., Open Information Linking for Environmental Research Infrastructures, 2015 IEEE 11th International Conference on e-Science, Munich, 2015, pp. 513-520. doi: 10.1109/eScience.2015.66  Y. Chen et al., Analysis of Common Requirements for Environmental Science Research Infrastructures, The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2013, Taipei, 2013, http://pos.sissa.it/archive/conferences/179/032/ISGC  Opening Reproducible Research, Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 18, EGU2016-7396, 2016, http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2016/EGU2016-7396.pdf
Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Norouzi, H.; Vladutescu, D. V.; Yuen-Lau, L.
Igniting interest and creativity in students for the geosciences oftentimes require innovation, bold `outside-the-box' thinking, and perseverance, particularly for minority students for whom the preparation for the discipline and its lucrative pathways to the geoscience workforce are regrettably unfamiliar and woefully inadequate. The enrollment, retention, participation, and graduation rates of minority students in STEM generally and in the geosciences particularly remain dismally low. However, a coupled, strategic geoscience model initiative at the New York City College of Technology (City Tech) of the City University of New York has been making steady in-roads of progress, and it offers practical solutions to improve minority student engagement in the geosciences. Aided by funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), two geoscience-centric programs were created from NSF REU and NSF IUSE grants, and these programs have been successfully implemented and administered at City Tech. This presentation shares the hybrid geoscience research initiatives, the multi-tiered mentoring structures, the transformative geoscience workforce preparation, and a plethora of other vital bastions of support that made the overall program successful. Minority undergraduate scholars of the program have either moved on to graduate school, to the geoscience workforce, or they persist with greater levels of success in their STEM disciplines.
On September 15th of 1993 the IEEE standards board approved IEEE Std. 7-4.3.2-1993, IEEE Standard for Digital Computers in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Generating Stations. This paper is an introduction to Annex D of this document which concerns the commercial grade dedication of existing computers or new non-1E computers
Laj, C. E.
As a research scientist I have always been interested in sharing whatever I knew with the general public and with teachers, who have the responsibility of forming young people, our ambassadors to the future. The turning point in my educational activities was in 2002, when the European Geosciences Union (EGU) welcomed my proposition to develop a Committee on Education. One of the committee's main activities is the organisation of GIFT (Geosciences Information for Teachers) workshops, held annually during the EGU General Assembly. Typically, these workshops bring together about 80 teachers from 20-25 different countries around a general theme that changes every year. Teachers are offered a mixture of keynote presentations by renowned scientists, and participate to classroom hands-on activities led by high-class educators. They also participate to a poster session, open to every participant to the GA, in which they can show to everyone the activities they have developed in their classroom. Therefore, EGU GIFT workshops spread first-hand scientific information to science teachers, and also offer teachers an exceptional way to networking with fellow teachers worldwide. Speakers are chosen from the academic world, national geosciences organisations such as BGS (UK), BRGM (France), INGV (Italy), the European Space Agency (ESA), CEA (France), from private companies (Total), or from International Organizations for policy makers such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), and IPCC. Since 2010, EGU GIFT workshops have been organized beyond Europe, in connection with EGU Alexander von Humboldt Conferences and other major International Conferences, or in collaboration with local or international organisations. A `Teachers at Sea' program has also been developed for teachers to be able to take part in an Oceanographic cruise. Also, in collaboration with the media manager of EGU the Committee has participated in "Planet Press", a program of geoscience press releases for
This document describes the methods and requirements for qualifying switchgear assemblies for indoor areas outside of the containment in nuclear power generating stations. These assemblies include (1) metal-enclosed low-voltage power circuit breaker switchgear assemblies, as defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.20.1-1987, (2) metal-clad switchgear assemblies, as defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.20.2-1987, (3) metal-enclosed bus, as defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.23-1987, and (4) metal-enclosed interrupter switchgear assemblies, as defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.20.3-1987. The purpose of this document is to provide amplification of the general requirements of ANSI/IEEE Std 323-1983 as they apply to the specific features of Class 1E switchgear assemblies. Where differences exist between this document and ANSI/IEEE Std 323-1983, this document takes precedence insofar as switchgear assemblies are concerned
Knowledge evolves in geoscience, and the evolution is reflected in datasets. In a context with distributed data sources, the evolution of knowledge may cause considerable challenges to data management and re-use. For example, a short news published in 2009 (Mascarelli, 2009) revealed the geoscience community's concern that the International Commission on Stratigraphy's change to the definition of Quaternary may bring heavy reworking of geologic maps. Now we are in the era of the World Wide Web, and geoscience knowledge is increasingly modeled and encoded in the form of ontologies and vocabularies by using semantic technologies. Accordingly, knowledge evolution leads to a consequence called ontology dynamics. Flouris et al. (2008) summarized 10 topics of general ontology changes/dynamics such as: ontology mapping, morphism, evolution, debugging and versioning, etc. Ontology dynamics makes impacts at several stages of a data life cycle and causes challenges, such as: the request for reworking of the extant data in a data center, semantic mismatch among data sources, differentiated understanding of a same piece of dataset between data providers and data users, as well as error propagation in cross-discipline data discovery and re-use (Ma et al., 2014). This presentation will analyze the best practices in the geoscience community so far and summarize a few recommendations to reduce the negative impacts of ontology dynamics in a data life cycle, including: communities of practice and collaboration on ontology and vocabulary building, link data records to standardized terms, and methods for (semi-)automatic reworking of datasets using semantic technologies. References: Flouris, G., Manakanatas, D., Kondylakis, H., Plexousakis, D., Antoniou, G., 2008. Ontology change: classification and survey. The Knowledge Engineering Review 23 (2), 117-152. Ma, X., Fox, P., Rozell, E., West, P., Zednik, S., 2014. Ontology dynamics in a data life cycle: Challenges and recommendations
Keane, C. M.; Milling, M. E.
The geosciences in the United States has experienced a number of major booms and busts, but today has become, as a discipline, less dependent on the immediate fortunes of the natural resources industries. However, the actual employment distribution has not changed substantially in the last fifteen years, with the petroleum industry remaining by and far the single largest employer of geoscientists in the United States, and even more as a level of contributing to GNP. However, most of the geoscience professional ranks in industry were filled prior to and during the last major boom which ended in 1986. Most of this workforce is now heading into retirement and though total geoscience workforce demand is not likely to grow; substantial employment opportunities do and will exist as these individuals retire. However, this picture is more complicated than in the past. Most industries, both the traditional geoscience employers, such as petroleum, mining, and environment, and non-traditional, such as telecommunications, are increasingly global in their operations and perspectives. This increasing globalization means that US graduates now compete not only against graduates from other schools in the US, but throughout the world. When coupled with preferences for not hiring people in as expatriates for overseas assignment, US graduates face an increasingly competitive, but rewarding job market. The proverbial leveling of the playing field is also seen in the rapid rise in international membership of traditionally American professional and scientific societies. This internationalization is hardly discouraged within the culture of science, and is one that US students will need to embrace to compete effectively in the future for employment in the geosciences. One major change that will be necessitated is the adjustment of parts of academia to the new realities of preparing students for future employment within the discipline. Currently most US geoscience graduate programs are
Freeman, R.; Bathon, J.; Fryar, A. E.; Lyon, E.; McGlue, M. M.
As national awareness of the importance of STEM education has grown, so too has the number of high schools that specifically emphasize STEM education. Students at these schools outperform their peers and these institutions send students into the college STEM pipeline at twice the rate of the average high school or more. Another trend in secondary education is the "early college high school" (ECHS) model, which encourages students to prepare for and attend college while in high school. These high schools, particularly ECHS's that focus on STEM, represent a natural pool for recruitment into the geosciences, yet most efforts at linking high school STEM education to future careers focus on health sciences or engineering. Through the NSF GEOPATHS-IMPACT program, the University of Kentucky (UK) Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the STEAM Academy, a STEM-focused ECHS located in Lexington, KY, have partnered to expose students to geoscience content. This public ECHS admits students using a lottery system to ensure that the demographics of the high school match those of the surrounding community. The perennial problem for recruiting students into geosciences is the lack of awareness of it as a potential career, due to lack of exposure to the subject in high school. Although the STEAM Academy does not offer an explicitly-named geoscience course, students begin their first semester in 9th grade Integrated Science. This course aligns to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which include a variety of geoscience content. We are working with the teachers to build a project-based learning curriculum to include explicit mention and awareness of careers in geosciences. The second phase of our project involves taking advantage of the school's existing internship program, in which students develop professional skills and career awareness by spending either one day/week or one hour/day off campus. We hosted our second round of interns this year. Eventually we
Patten, K.; Allison, M. L.
The National Science Foundation's (NSF) EarthCube initiative is a community-driven approach to building cyberinfrastructure for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information to better address today's grand-challenge science questions. The EarthCube Test Enterprise Governance project is a two-year effort seeking to engage diverse geo- and cyber-science communities in applying a responsive approach to the development of a governing system for EarthCube. During Year 1, an Assembly of seven stakeholder groups representing the broad EarthCube community developed a draft Governance Framework. Finalized at the June 2014 EarthCube All Hands Meeting, this framework will be tested during the demonstration phase in Year 2, beginning October 2014. A brief overview of the framework: Community-elected members of the EarthCube Leadership Council will be responsible for managing strategic direction and identifying the scope of EarthCube. Three Standing Committees will also be established to oversee the development of technology and architecture, to coordinate among new and existing data facilities, and to represent the academic geosciences community in driving development of EarthCube cyberinfrastructure. An Engagement Team and a Liaison Team will support communication and partnerships with internal and external stakeholders, and a central Office will serve a logistical support function to the governance as a whole. Finally, ad hoc Working Groups and Special Interest Groups will take on other issues related to EarthCube's goals. The Year 2 demonstration phase will test the effectiveness of the proposed framework and allow for elements to be changed to better meet community needs. It will begin by populating committees and teams, and finalizing leadership and decision-making processes to move forward on community-selected priorities including identifying science drivers, coordinating emerging technical elements, and coming to convergence on system architecture. A
These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the sixteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP'2006), held in Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland, September 6-8, 2006. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP......). The name of the Technical Committee, hence of the Workshop, was changed to Machine Learning for Signal Processing in September 2003 to better reflect the areas represented by the Technical Committee. The conference is organized by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee...... the same standard as the printed version and facilitates the reading and searching of the papers. The field of machine learning has matured considerably in both methodology and real-world application domains and has become particularly important for solution of problems in signal processing. As reflected...
Rafael Ballabriga Suñe (right) receives the Student Paper Award. Rafael Ballabriga Suñe is the recipient of the 2006 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (NPSS)'s Student Paper Award. Ballabriga's winning paper reported on a prototype chip, which belongs to a new generation of single photon counting hybrid pixel detector readout chips - Medipix3. The NPSS established this award in 2005 to encourage outstanding student contributions and greater student participation as principle or sole authors of papers. The prizes were presented at the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium held in San Diego on 29 October to 4 November. The prototype chip was designed by Ballabriga based on ideas generated within the CERN Medipix team - part of the PH Microelectronics group. It could be used in various fields in the future, including medical imaging, neutron imaging, electron microscopy, radiation monitoring and other applications in high-energy physics. The novel aspe...
Sarmiento, Oscar P.; Guerrero, Fabio G.; Rey Argote, David
This article presents a tutorial/discussion of three commonly-used IEEE 802.11 wireless network security standards: WEP, WPA and WPA2. A detailed analysis of the RC4 algorithm supporting WEP is presented, including its vulnerabilities. The WPA and WPA2 encryption protocols’ most relevant aspects and technical characteristics are reviewed for a comparative analysis of the three standards in terms of the security they provide. Special attention has been paid to WEP encryption by using an educat...
Congress Centre of “Instituto Superior Técnico”, Lisboa, Portugal, 24-28 May, 2010 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION OPEN Abstract Submission Deadline: March 1st, 2010 Dear Sir/Madam, We are pleased to announce that abstract submission for the 17th IEEE NPSS Real Time Conference is now open on our web site. The deadline for submitting an abstract is 1st March 2010. Full conference details General Chairman
Kim, Jong Seog; Jeong, Sun Chul; Park, Kyung Heum; Jang, Kyung Nam
Needs for harmonization of international equipment qualification(EQ) standards have been raised several years due to purchasing problem of nuclear equipment supplied from abroad country. To meet the regulatory requirement of domestic nuclear power plant, manufacturers have to qualify their equipment in accordance with each standard such as IEEE, IEC and RCC-E. Double qualification increase the equipment cost, which result in high construction cost. Even the unification of each standard have been discussed several years, we have got the long way to go yet. Comparison and harmonization of each international standard will give help to purchase the equipment qualified by not endorsed standard. Environmental qualification, seismic qualification and EMI/EMC qualification are major targets for harmonization. Since concern about cable qualification of 60 years life has been raised recently, harmonization of cable qualification standard also needs to be discussed. KEPRI launched a project for harmonization of EQ relative standards such as IEEE, IEC and RCC-E. A study for harmonization of IEEE323 and IEC60780 is known in progress by IEEE committee. In this paper, harmonization of international standards for cable qualification will be discussed. IEEE383 standard is qualification standard for electric cable broadly used in Asian pacific area while IEC60505 is mostly used in European area. Since these two standards have different requirements for environmental qualification of cable, problem can be happened in the plant site when they purchase cable qualified by not endorsed standard. IEEE383-2003 and IEC60505-2004 is the latest version of each standard. Comparison results and recommendations for harmonization of these two standards are introduced herein
Since 2009, an informal group, comprising four former board members of the International Year of Planet Earth, has been promoting the concept of a so-called Global Geoscientific Initiative. The GGI should: i.Be inclusive, involve a geoscience community, which is broad both in terms of discipline and nationality, and involve the social sciences; ii.Have a clear socio-economic context and global societal relevance; iii.Focus on a globally significant science theme and preferably involve global processes; iv.Attract the support of geoscientific communities, funding agencies, governments and other institutions in many countries, under the umbrella of UNESCO, ICSU and its geoscientific unions. A series of five town hall meetings have been held at which usually three invited, well-respected figures from the geoscientific community gave presentations. Those presentations were followed by discussion about the importance or otherwise of particular areas of science, and the need to engage better with legislators, policy makers, the media and the lay public. No one challenged the desirability of a large-scale programme that would attract researchers from many geoscientific disciplines and potentially involve the geo-unions. The discussions can be summarised under three broad themes: i.Mineral and hydrocarbon resources and their waste products; ii.Living with natural hazards; iii.Strategic Earth science in Africa through the Africa Alive corridors. During the course of development of the GGI, ICSU has issued a number of papers, most recently a strategic plan, covering the period 2012-2017, working parties have been undertaking foresight analysis and there have also been discussions concerning regional environmental change: human action and adaptation with the question "what does it take to meet the Belmont challenge?". The Belmont Forum brings together a number of funding agencies and could provide the resource to enable some initiative to go forward. More recently a programme
Jennifer M. Wenner
Full Text Available We present the case for introductory geoscience courses as model venues for increasing the quantitative literacy (QL of large numbers of the college-educated population. The geosciences provide meaningful context for a number of fundamental mathematical concepts that are revisited several times in a single course. Using some best practices from the mathematics education community surrounding problem solving, calculus reform, pre-college mathematics and five geoscience/math workshops, geoscience and mathematics faculty have identified five pedagogical ideas to increase the QL of the students who populate introductory geoscience courses. These five ideas include techniques such as: place mathematical concepts in context, use multiple representations, use technology appropriately, work in groups, and do multiple-day, in-depth problems that place quantitative skills in multiple contexts. We discuss the pedagogical underpinnings of these five ideas and illustrate some ways that the geosciences represent ideal places to use these techniques. However, the inclusion of QL in introductory courses is often met with resistance at all levels. Faculty who wish to include quantitative content must use creative means to break down barriers of public perception of geoscience as qualitative, administrative worry that enrollments will drop and faculty resistance to change. Novel ways to infuse QL into geoscience classrooms include use of web-based resources, shadow courses, setting clear expectations, and promoting quantitative geoscience to the general public. In order to help faculty increase the QL of geoscience students, a community-built faculty-centered web resource (Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences houses multiple examples that implement the five best practices of QL throughout the geoscience curriculum. We direct faculty to three portions of the web resource: Teaching Quantitative Literacy, QL activities, and the 2006 workshop website
The Georgia Intern-Fellowships for Teachers (GIFT) is a collaborative effort designed to enhance mathematics and science experiences of Georgia teachers and their students through summer research internships for teachers. By offering business, industry, public science institute and research summer fellowships to teachers, GIFT provides educators with first-hand exposure to the skills and knowledge necessary for the preparation of our future workforce. Since 1991, GIFT has placed middle and high school mathematics, science and technology teachers in over 1000 positions throughout the state. In these fellowships, teachers are involved in cutting edge scientific and engineering research, data analysis, curriculum development and real-world inquiry and problem solving, and create Action Plans to assist them in translating the experience into changed classroom practice. Since 2004, an increasing number of high school students have worked with their teachers in research laboratories. The GIFT program places an average of 75 teachers per summer into internship positions. In the summer of 2005, 83 teachers worked in corporate and research environments throughout the state of Georgia and six of these positions involved authentic research in geoscience related departments at the Georgia Institute of Technology, including aerospace engineering and the earth and atmospheric sciences laboratories. This presentation will review the history and the structure of the program including the support system for teachers and mentors as well as the emphasis on inquiry based learning strategies. The focus of the presentation will be a comparison of two placement models of the teachers placed in geoscience research laboratories: middle school earth science teachers placed in a 6 week research experience and high school teachers placed in 7 week internships with teams of 3 high school students. The presentation will include interviews with faculty to determine the value of these experiences
Komac, Marko; Lee, Kathryn; Robida, Francois
OneGeology is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) around the globe that dates back to Brighton, UK in 2007. Since then OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using a new international standard - a geological exchange language known as 'GeoSciML'. Increased use of this new language allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet with other organisations. One of very important goals of OneGeology was a transfer of valuable know-how to the developing world, hence shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making its structure more official, its operability more flexible and its membership more open where in addition to GSO also to other type of organisations that manage geoscientific data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative will hence be focused into increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource on the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative information on hazards and minerals will help to prevent natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale. With this new stage also renewed OneGeology objectives were defined and these are 1) to be the provider of geoscience data globally, 2) to ensure exchange of know-how and skills so all can participate, and 3) to use the global profile of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professional and general public. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscientific data and OneGeology Portal (portal.onegeology.org) is the place to find them.
Schwank, Jim; Brown, Dennis; Girard, Sylvain; Gouker, Pascale; Gerardin, Simone; Quinn, Heather; Barnaby, Hugh
The December 2012 special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science contains selected papers from the 49th annual IEEE International Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference (NSREC) held July 16-20, 2012, in Miami, Florida USA. 95 papers presented at the 2012 NSREC were submitted for consideration for this year’s special issue. Those papers that appear in this special issue were able to successfully complete the review process before the deadline for the December issue. A few additional papers may appear in subsequent issues of the TRANSACTIONS. This publication is the premier archival journal for research on space and nuclear radiation effects in materials, devices, circuits, and systems. This distinction is the direct result of the conscientious efforts of both the authors, who present and document their work, and the reviewers, who selflessly volunteer their time and talent to help review the manuscripts. Each paper in this journal has been reviewed by experts selected by the editors for their expertise and knowledge of the particular subject areas. The peer review process for a typical technical journal generally takes six months to one year to complete. To publish this special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (in December), the review process, from initial submission to final form, must be completed in about 10 weeks. Because of the short schedule, both the authors and reviewers are required to respond very quickly. The reviewers listed on the following pages contributed vitally to this quick-turn review process.We would like to express our sincere appreciation to each of them for accepting this difficult, but critical role in the process. To provide consistent reviews of papers throughout the year, the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science relies on a year-round editorial board that manages reviews for submissions throughout the year to the TRANSACTIONS in the area of radiation effects. The review process is managed by a Senior
Ireton, F. W.; McManus, D. A.
In many colleges and universities students who have declared a major in one of the geosciences are often ineligible to take the education courses necessary for state certification. In order to enroll in education courses to meet the state's Department of Education course requirements for a teaching credential, these students must drop their geoscience major and declare an education major. Students in education programs in these universities may be limited in the science classes they take as part of their degree requirements. These students face the same problem as students who have declared a science major in that course work is not open to them. As a result, universities too often produce science majors with a weak pedagogy background or education majors with a weak Earth and space sciences background. The American Geophysical Union (AGU) formed a collaboration of four universities with strong, yet separate science and education departments, to provide the venue for a one week NSF sponsored retreat to allow the communication necessary for solutions to these problems to be worked out by faculty members. Each university was represented by a geoscience department faculty member, an education department faculty member, and a K-12 master teacher selected by the two faculty members. This retreat was followed by a second retreat that focused on community colleges in the Southwest United States. Change is never easy and Linkages has shown that success for a project of this nature requires the dedication of not only the faculty involved in the project, but colleagues in their respective schools as well as the administration when departmental cultural obstacles must be overcome. This paper will discuss some of the preliminary work accomplished by the schools involved in the project.
Berthelote, A. R.
American Indian tribes and tribal confederations exert sovereignty over about 20% of all the freshwater resources in the United States. Yet only about 30 Native American (NA) students receive bachelor's degrees in the geosciences each year, and few of those degrees are in the field of hydrology. To help increase the ranks of NA geoscientists,TIGER builds upon the momentum of Salish Kootenai College's newly accredited Hydrology Degree Program. It allows for the development and implementation of the first Bachelor's degree in geosciences (hydrology) at a Tribal College and University (TCU). TIGER integrates a solid educational research-based framework for retention and educational preparation of underrepresented minorities with culturally relevant curriculum and socio-cultural supports, offering a new model for STEM education of NA students. Innovative hydrology curriculum is both academically rigorous and culturally relevant with concurrent theoretical, conceptual, and applied coursework in chemical, biological, physical and managerial aspects of water resources. Educational outcomes for the program include a unique combination of competencies based on industry recognized standards (e.g., National Institute of Hydrologists), input from an experienced External Advisory Board (EAB), and competencies required for geoscientists working in critical NA watersheds, which include unique competencies, such as American Indian Water Law and sovereignty issues. TIGER represents a unique opportunity to capitalize on the investments the geoscience community has already made into broadening the participation of underrepresented minorities and developing a diverse workforce, by allowing SKC to develop a sustainable and exportable program capable of significantly increasing (by 25 to 75%) the National rate of Native American geoscience graduates.
IEEE Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, Proceedings (MS), 2012
The Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T) is the premier international peer-reviewed conference, sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) Computer Society, which addresses all major areas related to software engineering education, training, and professionalism. This year, as…
Fox, S.; Manduca, C. A.; Iverson, E. A.
Over the last decade SERC at Carleton College has developed a collaborative platform for geoscience education that has served dozens of projects, thousands of community authors and millions of visitors. The platform combines a custom technical infrastructure: the SERC Content Management system (CMS), and a set of strategies for building web-resources that can be disseminated through a project site, reused by other projects (with attribution) or accessed via an integrated geoscience education resource drawing from all projects using the platform. The core tools of the CMS support geoscience education projects in building project-specific websites. Each project uses the CMS to engage their specific community in collecting, authoring and disseminating the materials of interest to them. At the same time the use of a shared central infrastructure allows cross-fertilization among these project websites. Projects are encouraged to use common templates and common controlled vocabularies for organizing and displaying their resources. This standardization is then leveraged through cross-project search indexing which allow projects to easily incorporate materials from other projects within their own collection in ways that are relevant and automated. A number of tools are also in place to help visitors move among project websites based on their personal interests. Related links help visitors discover content related topically to their current location that is in a 'separate' project. A 'best bets' feature in search helps guide visitors to pages that are good starting places to explore resources on a given topic across the entire range of hosted projects. In many cases these are 'site guide' pages created specifically to promote a cross-project view of the available resources. In addition to supporting the cross-project exploration of specific themes the CMS also allows visitors to view the combined suite of resources authored by any particular community member. Automatically
Stein, J. S.
Agent-based modeling techniques have successfully been applied to systems in which complex behaviors or outcomes arise from varied interactions between individuals in the system. Each individual interacts with its environment, as well as with other individuals, by following a set of relatively simple rules. Traditionally this "bottom-up" modeling approach has been applied to problems in the fields of economics and sociology, but more recently has been introduced to various disciplines in the geosciences. This technique can help explain the origin of complex processes from a relatively simple set of rules, incorporate large and detailed datasets when they exist, and simulate the effects of extreme events on system-wide behavior. Some of the challenges associated with this modeling method include: significant computational requirements in order to keep track of thousands to millions of agents, methods and strategies of model validation are lacking, as is a formal methodology for evaluating model uncertainty. Challenges specific to the geosciences, include how to define agents that control water, contaminant fluxes, climate forcing and other physical processes and how to link these "geo-agents" into larger agent-based simulations that include social systems such as demographics economics and regulations. Effective management of limited natural resources (such as water, hydrocarbons, or land) requires an understanding of what factors influence the demand for these resources on a regional and temporal scale. Agent-based models can be used to simulate this demand across a variety of sectors under a range of conditions and determine effective and robust management policies and monitoring strategies. The recent focus on the role of biological processes in the geosciences is another example of an area that could benefit from agent-based applications. A typical approach to modeling the effect of biological processes in geologic media has been to represent these processes in
The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions, and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either direct or indirect to the Department of Energy`s long-range technological needs.
Marteau, J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (UMR CNRS-IN2P3 5822), Universite Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Gibert, D.; Lesparre, N. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (UMR CNRS 7154), Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Nicollin, F. [Geosciences Rennes (CNRS UMR 6118), Universite Rennes 1, Bat. 15 Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Noli, P. [Universita degli studi di Napoli Federico II and INFN sez. Napoli (Italy); Giacoppo, F. [Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, SidlerStrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)
Imaging the inner part of large geological targets is an important issue in geosciences with various applications. Different approaches already exist (e.g. gravimetry, electrical tomography) that give access to a wide range of information but with identified limitations or drawbacks (e.g. intrinsic ambiguity of the inverse problem, time consuming deployment of sensors over large distances). Here we present an alternative and complementary tomography method based on the measurement of the cosmic muons flux attenuation through the geological structures. We detail the basics of this muon tomography with a special emphasis on the photo-active detectors.
Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Graff, T. G.; Zeigler, R.
After being selected to the astronaut office, crewmembers go through an initial two year training flow, astronaut candidacy, where they learn the basic skills necessary for spaceflight. While the bulk of astronaut candidate training currently centers on the multiple subjects required for ISS operations (EVA skills, Russian language, ISS systems, etc.), training also includes geoscience training designed to train crewmembers in Earth observations, teach astronauts about other planetary systems, and provide field training designed to investigate field operations and boost team skills. This training goes back to Apollo training and has evolved to support ISS operations and future exploration missions.
Zalles, D. R.
The Online Evaluation Resource Library (OERL) is a Web-based set of resources for improving the evaluation of projects funded by the Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). OERL provides prospective project developers and evaluators with material that they can use to design, conduct, document, and review evaluations. OERL helps evaluators tackle the challenges of seeing if a project is meeting its implementation and outcome-related goals. Within OERL is a collection of exemplary plans, instruments, and reports from evaluations of EHR-funded projects in the geosciences and in other areas of science and mathematics. In addition, OERL contains criteria about good evaluation practices, professional development modules about evaluation design and questionnaire development, a dictionary of key evaluation terms, and links to evaluation standards. Scenarios illustrate how the resources can be used or adapted. Currently housed in OERL are 137 instruments, and full or excerpted versions of 38 plans and 60 reports. 143 science and math projects have contributed to the collection so far. OERL's search tool permits the launching of precise searches based on key attributes of resources such as their subject area and the name of the sponsoring university or research institute. OERL's goals are to 1) meet the needs for continuous professional development of evaluators and principal investigators, 2) complement traditional vehicles of learning about evaluation, 3) utilize the affordances of current technologies (e.g., Web-based digital libraries, relational databases, and electronic performance support systems) for improving evaluation practice, 4) provide anytime/anyplace access to update-able resources that support evaluators' needs, and 5) provide a forum by which professionals can interact on evaluation issues and practices. Geoscientists can search the collection of resources from geoscience education projects that have
Schwank, Jim; Buchner, Steve; Marshall, Paul; Duzellier, Sophie; Brown, Dennis; Poivey, Christian; Pease, Ron
The December 2008 special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science contains selected papers from the 45th annual IEEE International Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference (NSREC) held in Tucson, Arizona, July 14 - 18, 2008. Over 115 papers presented at the 2008 NSREC were submitted for consideration for this year's special issue. Those papers that appear in this special issue were able to successfully complete the review process before the deadline for the December issue. A few additional papers may appear in subsequent issues of the TRANSACTIONS. This publication is the premier archival journal for research on space and nuclear radiation effects in materials, devices, circuits, and systems. This distinction is the direct result of the conscientious efforts of both the authors, who present and document their work, and the reviewers, who selflessly volunteer their time and talent to help review the manuscripts. Each paper in this journal has been reviewed by experts selected by the editors for their expertise and knowledge of the particular subject areas.
Garcia, S. J.; Houser, C.
Summer research experiences are an increasingly popular means to increase awareness of and develop interest in the Geosciences and other STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) programs. Here we describe and report the preliminary results of a new one-week program at Texas A&M University to introduce first generation, women, and underrepresented high school students to opportunities and careers in the Geosciences. Short-term indicators in the form of pre- and post-program surveys of participants and their parents suggest that there is an increase in participant understanding of geosciences and interest in pursuing a degree in the geosciences. At the start of the program, the participants and their parents had relatively limited knowledge of the geosciences and very few had a friend or acquaintance employed in the geosciences. Post-survey results suggest that the students had an improved and nuanced understanding of the geosciences and the career opportunities within the field. A survey of the parents several months after the program had ended suggests that the participants had effectively communicated their newfound understanding and that the parents now recognized the geosciences as a potentially rewarding career. With the support of their parents 42% of the participants are planning to pursue an undergraduate degree in the geosciences compared to 62% of participants who were planning to pursue a geosciences degree before the program. It is concluded that future offerings of this and similar programs should also engage the parents to ensure that the geosciences are recognized as a potential academic and career path.
Waldron, John W. F.; Locock, Andrew J.; Pujadas-Botey, Anna
Many geoscience educators have noted the difficulty that students experience in transferring their classroom knowledge to the field environment. The Geoscience Garden, on the University of Alberta North Campus, provides a simulated field environment in which Earth Science students can develop field observation skills, interpret features of Earth's…
Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kastens, K. A.
DBER combines knowledge of teaching and learning with deep knowledge of discipline-specific science content. It describes the discipline-specific difficulties learners face and the specialized intellectual and instructional resources that can facilitate student understanding (NRC, 2011). In the geosciences, content knowledge derives from all the "spheres, the complex interactions of components of the Earth system, applications of first principles from allied sciences, an understanding of "deep time", and approaches that emphasize the interpretive and historical nature of geoscience. Insights gained from the theory and practice of the cognitive and learning sciences that demonstrate how people learn, as well as research on learning from other STEM disciplines, have helped inform the development of geoscience curricular initiatives. The Earth Science Curriculum Project (1963) was strongly influenced by Piaget and emphasized hands-on, experiential learning. Recognizing that education research was thriving in related STEM disciplines a NSF report (NSF 97-171) recommended "... that GEO and EHR both support research in geoscience education, helping geoscientists to work with colleagues in fields such as educational and cognitive psychology, in order to facilitate development of a new generation of geoscience educators." An NSF sponsored workshop, Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences (2002) brought together geoscience educators and cognitive scientists to explore areas of mutual interest, and identified a research agenda that included study of spatial learning, temporal learning, learning about complex systems, use of visualizations in geoscience learning, characterization of expert learning, and learning environments. Subsequent events have focused on building new communities of scholars, such as the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development workshops, extensive collections of online resources, and networks of scholars that have addressed teaching
Holmes, R. M.
Like other realms of the geosciences, the scientists who comprise the Arctic research community tends to be white and male. For example, a survey of grants awarded over a 5-year period beginning in 2010 by NSF's Arctic System Science and Arctic Natural Sciences programs showed that over 90% of PIs were white whereas African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans together accounted for only about 1% of PIs. Over 70% of the PIs were male. I will suggest that involving diverse upper-level undergraduate students in authentic field research experiences may be one of the shortest and surest routes to diversifying the Arctic research community, and by extension, the geoscientific research community overall. Upper-level undergraduate students are still open to multiple possibilities, but an immersive field research experience often helps solidify graduate school and career trajectories. Though an all-of-the-above strategy is needed, focusing on engaging a diverse cohort of upper-level undergraduate students may provide one of the most efficient means of diversifying the geosciences over the coming years and decades.
Dahlgren, R. P.; Clark, M. A.; Comstock, R. J.; Fladeland, M.; Gascot, H., III; Haig, T. H.; Lam, S. J.; Mazhari, A. A.; Palomares, R. R.; Pinsker, E. A.; Prathipati, R. T.; Sagaga, J.; Thurling, J. S.; Travers, S. V.
Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have become accepted tools for geoscience, ecology, agriculture, disaster response, land management, and industry. A variety of consumer UAS options exist as science and engineering payload platforms, but their incompatibilities with one another contribute to high operational costs compared with those of piloted aircraft. This research explores the concept of modular UAS, demonstrating airframes that can be reconfigured in the field for experimental optimization, to enable multi-mission support, facilitate rapid repair, or respond to changing field conditions. Modular UAS is revolutionary in allowing aircraft to be optimized around the payload, reversing the conventional wisdom of designing the payload to accommodate an unmodifiable aircraft. UAS that are reconfigurable like Legos™ are ideal for airborne science service providers, system integrators, instrument designers and end users to fulfill a wide range of geoscience experiments. Modular UAS facilitate the adoption of open-source software and rapid prototyping technology where design reuse is important in the context of a highly regulated industry like aerospace. The industry is now at a stage where consolidation, acquisition, and attrition will reduce the number of small manufacturers, with a reduction of innovation and motivation to reduce costs. Modularity leads to interface specifications, which can evolve into de facto or formal standards which contain minimum (but sufficient) details such that multiple vendors can then design to those standards and demonstrate interoperability. At that stage, vendor coopetition leads to robust interface standards, interoperability standards and multi-source agreements which in turn drive costs down significantly.
Witherspoon, P.A.; Apps, J.A.
The geoscience program relating to geothermal energy consists of four projects. In the project on reservoir dynamics, sophisticated codes have been written to simulate the dynamics of heat flow in geothermal reservoir systems. These codes have also been applied to the investigations of natural aquifers as a storage system for thermal energy. In the second project, core samples are studied to determine the high temperature and high pressure behavior of aquifers in the presence of saturating fluids. The third project covers the systematic evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of electrolytes in order to interpret the behavior of geothermal fluids. The fourth project involves hydrothermal solubility measurements of various minerals to elucidate the chemistry and mass transfer in geothermal systems. The second major program includes four projects which involve precise measurements and analysis of physical and chemical properties of geologic materials. These include measurements of the thermodynamic properties (viscosity, density and heat capacity) of silicate materials to help understand magma genesis and evolution, high-precision neutron activation analysis of rare and trace elements in magmatic materials, and the precise measurement of seismic wave velocities near geological faults, in order to determine the buildup of stress in the earth's crust. Third, the development program in fundamental geosciences includes six innovative projects. These projects include research in the in situ leaching of uranium ore, properties of magmas, removal of pyrite from coal, properties of soils and soft rocks, stress flow behavior of fractured rock systems, and high-precision mass spectrometry.
David J. Lary
Full Text Available Learning incorporates a broad range of complex procedures. Machine learning (ML is a subdivision of artificial intelligence based on the biological learning process. The ML approach deals with the design of algorithms to learn from machine readable data. ML covers main domains such as data mining, difficult-to-program applications, and software applications. It is a collection of a variety of algorithms (e.g. neural networks, support vector machines, self-organizing map, decision trees, random forests, case-based reasoning, genetic programming, etc. that can provide multivariate, nonlinear, nonparametric regression or classification. The modeling capabilities of the ML-based methods have resulted in their extensive applications in science and engineering. Herein, the role of ML as an effective approach for solving problems in geosciences and remote sensing will be highlighted. The unique features of some of the ML techniques will be outlined with a specific attention to genetic programming paradigm. Furthermore, nonparametric regression and classification illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of ML for tackling the geosciences and remote sensing problems.
Chen, M.; Hansen, C.; North, C.; Pang, A.; Wijk, van J.J.
These are the proceedings of the IEEE Visualization Conference 2007 (Vis 2007) and the IEEE Information Visualization Conference 2007 (InfoVis 2007) held during October 28 to November 1, 2007 in Sacramento, California. The power of using computing technology to create useful, effective imagery for
As an emerging short-range wireless technology, IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are increasingly used in the fields of home control, industrial control, consumer electronics, energy management, building automation, telecom services, personal healthcare, etc. IEEE
Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Beane, R. J.; Doser, D. I.; Ebanks, S. C.; Hodder, J.; McDaris, J. R.; Ormand, C. J.
Efforts to broaden participation in the geosciences require that faculty implement inclusive practices in their teaching and their departments. Two national projects are building the capacity for faculty and departments to implement inclusive practices. The NAGT/InTeGrate Traveling Workshops Program (TWP) and the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) project each prepares a cadre of geoscience educators to lead workshops that provide opportunities for faculty and departments across the country to enhance their abilities to implement inclusive teaching practices and develop inclusive environments with the goal of increasing diversity in the geosciences. Both projects prepare faculty to design and lead interactive workshops that build on the research base, emphasize practical applications and strategies, enable participants to share their knowledge and experience, and include time for reflection and action planning. The curriculum common to both projects includes a framework of support for the whole student, supporting all students, data on diversity in the geosciences, and evidence-based strategies for inclusive teaching and developing inclusive environments that faculty and departments can implement. Other workshop topics include classroom strategies for engaging all students, addressing implicit bias and stereotype threat, and attracting diverse students to departments or programs and helping them thrive. Online resources for each project provide support beyond the workshops. The TWP brings together educators from different institutional types and experiences to develop materials and design a workshop offered to departments and organizations nationwide that request the workshop; the workshop leaders then customize the workshop for that audience. In SAGE 2YC, a team of leaders used relevant literature to develop workshop materials intended for re-use, and designed a workshop session for SAGE 2YC Faculty Change Agents, who
People are very complex and difficult to categorize. For instance, in the Geosciences community I am representing both minorities and majorities. When being in minority, I am both Underrepresented and Overrepresented by the composition of this community vs the global population, and also at EGU I am both under- and over-represented vs the total geoscience community. At present, I am underrepresented being a Woman in Geosciences but earlier in my carrier, I was also underrepresented being a Young Leader - so I will focus my presentation on both gender and age, as it is difficult for me to separate these two barriers from various sorts of exclusions I experienced. Underrepresentation is bad for several reasons, for instance (i) We might miss talents if equality of opportunities are not given in geosciences; (ii) Teams work less efficient than if they are composed by different characters, competences and skills; (iii) We are less prepared for new circumstances in this rapidly changing and unstable world; (iv) We degrade in communication skills and perception, if we don't understand similarities and differences. I will discuss some representative differences that may lead to unequal opportunities in geosciences. However, we need to be careful when searching for representation as it involves attribution of characteristics, which may lead to stigmatization and oversimplify the complexity of personality. Differences between individuals in a population are still much larger than between the averages of the populations. In my presentation I will give examples from my personal experience of barriers during 25 years in geosciences and the strategies I have used to overcome them. I will also give examples of successful methods that I have used in my 17 years of leadership when building efficient teams, to make them benefit from differences between individuals. I am currently leading a group of 26 scientists with origin from 13 countries world-wide. Finally, I will give some
The IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus project has been influenced by and has influenced FASTBUS and several other contemporary bus designs. This paper summarizes the current status of that project, which is directed toward the needs of modern 32-bit microprocessor systems with multiple processors. Some of the technology developed for P896 will be important for future non-ECL implementations of FASTBUS and other buses. In particular, new bus drivers and receivers should greatly improve the performance and reliability of backplane buses and cable buses. The current status of the P896 serial bus is also summarized
Data are the lifeblood of the geosciences. Rapid advances in computing, communications, and observational technologies - along with concomitant advances in high-resolution modeling, ensemble and coupled-systems predictions of the Earth system - are revolutionizing nearly every aspect of our field. The result is a dramatic proliferation of data from diverse sources; data that are consumed by an evolving and ever-broadening community of users and that are becoming the principal engine for driving scientific advances. Data-enabled research has emerged as a Fourth Paradigm of science, alongside experiments, theoretical studies, and computer simulations Unidata is a data facility, sponsored by the NSF, and our mission is to provide the data services, tools, and cyberinfrastructure leadership that advance Earth system science, enhance educational opportunities, and broaden participation in the geosciences. For more nearly thirty years, Unidata has worked in concert with the atmospheric science education and research community to develop and provide innovative data systems, tools, techniques, and resources to support data-enabled science to understand the Earth system. In doing so, Unidata has maintained a close, synergistic relationship with the universities, engaging them in collaborative efforts to exploit data and technologies, and removing roadblocks to data discovery, access, analysis, and effective use. As a community-governed program, Unidata depends on guidance and feedback from educators, researchers, and students in the atmospheric and related sciences. The Unidata Program helps researchers and educators acquire and use earth-related data. Most of the data are provided in "real time" or "near-real time" - that is, the data are sent to participants almost as soon as the observations are made. Unidata also develops, maintains, and supports a variety of software packages. Most of these packages are developed at the Unidata Program Center (UPC), while a few others
This book addresses the multiple technical aspects of the distribution of synchronization in new generation telecommunication networks, focusing in particular on synchronous Ethernet and IEEE1588 technologies. Many packet network engineers struggle with understanding the challenges that precise synchronization distribution can impose on networks. The usual “why”, “when” and particularly “how” can cause problems for many engineers. In parallel to this, some other markets have identical synchronization requirements, but with their own design requirements, generating further questions. This book attempts to respond to the different questions by providing background technical information. Invaluable information on state of-the-art packet network synchronization and timing architectures is provided, as well as an unbiased view on the synchronization technologies that have been internationally standardized over recent years, with the aim of providing the average reader (who is not skilled in the art) wi...
Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno
GeoMod is a biennial conference to review and discuss latest developments in analogue and numerical modelling of lithospheric and mantle deformation. GeoMod2014 took place at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, Germany. Its focus was on rheology and deformation at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales: from earthquakes to long-term deformation, from micro-structures to orogens and subduction systems. It also addressed volcanotectonics and the interaction between tectonics and surface processes (Elger et al., 2014). The conference was followed by a 2-day short course on "Constitutive Laws: from Observation to Implementation in Models" and a 1-day hands-on tutorial on the ASPECT numerical modelling software.
Barbosa, S. M.; Donner, R. V.; Steinitz, G.
During the last decades, the radioactive noble gas radon has found a variety of geoscientific applications, ranging from its utilization as a potential earthquake precursor and proxy of tectonic stress over its specific role in volcanic environments to a wide range of applications as a tracer in marine and hydrological settings. This topical issue summarizes the current state of research as exemplified by some original research articles covering the aforementioned as well as other closely related aspects and points to some important future directions of radon application in geosciences. This editorial provides a more detailed overview of the contents of this volume, a brief summary of the rationale underlying the diverse applications, and outlines some important perspectives.
Judge, Shelley; Pollock, Meagen; Wiles, Greg; Wilson, Mark
There is little argument about the merits of undergraduate research, but it can seem like a complex, resource-intensive endeavor [e.g., Laursen et al., 2010; Lopatto, 2009; Hunter et al., 2006]. Although mentored undergraduate research can be challenging, the authors of this feature have found that research programs are strengthened when students and faculty collaborate to build new knowledge. Faculty members in the geology department at The College of Wooster have conducted mentored undergraduate research with their students for more than 60 years and have developed a highly effective program that enhances the teaching, scholarship, and research of our faculty and provides life-changing experiences for our students. Other colleges and universities have also implemented successful mentored undergraduate research programs in the geosciences. For instance, the 18 Keck Geology Consortium schools (http://keckgeology.org/), Princeton University, and other institutions have been recognized for their senior capstone experiences by U.S. News & World Report.
The basic principles, requirements, and methods for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for both harsh and mild environment applications in nuclear power generating stations are described. In addition to defining specific qualification requirements for Class 1E motor control centers and their components in accordance with the more general qualification requirements of IEEE Std 323-1983, this standard is intended to provide guidance in establishing a qualification program for demonstrating the adequacy of Class 1E motor control centers in nuclear power generating station applications
La Femina, P. C.; Klippel, A.; Zhao, J.; Walgruen, J. O.; Stubbs, C.; Jackson, K. L.; Wetzel, R.
High-quality geodetic data and data products, including GPS-GNSS, InSAR, LiDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM) are opening the doors to visualizing, quantifying, and modeling geologic, tectonic, geomorphic, and geodynamic processes. The integration of these data sets with other geophysical, geochemical and geologic data is providing opportunities for the development of immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) field trips in the geosciences. iVR fieldtrips increase accessibility in the geosciences, by providing experiences that allow for: 1) exploration of field locations that might not be tenable for introductory or majors courses; 2) accessibility to outcrops for students with physical disabilities; and 3) the development of online geosciences courses. We have developed a workflow for producing iVR fieldtrips and tools to make quantitative observations (e.g., distance, area, and volume) within the iVR environment. We use a combination of terrestrial LiDAR and SfM data, 360° photos and videos, and other geophysical, geochemical and geologic data to develop realistic experiences for students to be exposed to the geosciences from sedimentary geology to physical volcanology. We present two of our iVR field trips: 1) Inside the Volcano: Exploring monogenetic volcanism at Thrihnukagigar Iceland; and 2) Changes in Depositional Environment in a Sedimentary Sequence: The Reedsville and Bald Eagle Formations, Pennsylvania. The Thrihnukagigar experience provides the opportunity to investigate monogenetic volcanism through the exploration of the upper 125 m of a fissure-cinder cone eruptive system. Students start at the plate boundary scale, then zoom into a single volcano where they can view the 3D geometry from either terrestrial LiDAR or SfM point clouds, view geochemical data and petrologic thins sections of rock samples, and a presentation of data collection and analysis, results and interpretation. Our sedimentary geology experience is based on a field lab from our
Bennett, R. A.; Lamb, D. A.
International capstone field courses offer geoscience-students opportunities to reflect upon their knowledge, develop intercultural competence, appreciate diversity, and recognize themselves as geoscientists on a global scale. Such experiences are often described as pivotal to a geoscientist's education, a right of passage. However, field-based experiences present insurmountable barriers to many students, undermining the goal of inclusive excellence. Nevertheless, there remains a widespread belief that successful geoscientists are those able to traverse inaccessible terrain. One path forward from this apparent dilemma is emerging as we take steps to address a parallel challenge: as we move into the 21st century the geoscience workforce will require an ever increasing range of skills, including analysis, modeling, communication, and computational proficiency. Computer programing, laboratory experimentation, numerical simulation, etc, are inherently more accessible than fieldwork, yet equally valuable. Students interested in pursuing such avenues may be better served by capstone experiences that align more closely with their career goals. Moreover, many of the desirable learning outcomes attributed to field-based education are not unique to immersion in remote inaccessible locations. Affective and cognitive gains may also result from social bonding through extended time with peers and mentors, creative synthesis of knowledge, project-based learning, and intercultural experience. Developing an inclusive course for the geoscience curriculum requires considering all learners, including different genders, ages, physical abilities, familial dynamics, and a multitude of other attributes. The Accessible Earth Study Abroad Program endeavors to provide geoscience students an inclusive capstone experience focusing on modern geophysical observation systems (satellite based observations and permanent networks of ground-based instruments), computational thinking and methods of
This document describes qualification methods for Class 1E lead storage batteries and racks to be used in nuclear power generating stations outside of primary containment. Qualification required in ANSI/IEEE Std 279-1979 and IEEE Std 308-1978, can be demonstrated by using the procedures provided in this Standard in accordance with IEEE Std 323-1974. Battery sizing, maintenance, capacity testing, installation, charging equipment and consideration of other types batteries are beyond the scope of this Standard
IEEE Std 323-1974, Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations, was developed to provide guidance for demonstrating and documenting the adequacy of electrical equipment used in all Class 1E and interface systems. This standard, IEEE Std 535-1979, was developed to provide specific methods and type test procedures for lead storage batteries in reference to IEEE Std 323-1974
Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Dunbar, R. W.; Beane, R. J.; Bruckner, M.; Bralower, T. J.; Feiss, P. G.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wiese, K.
Geoscience faculty, departments, and programs play an important role in preparing future geoscience professionals. One challenge is supporting the diversity of student goals for future employment and the needs of a wide range of potential employers. Students in geoscience degree programs pursue careers in traditional geoscience industries; in geoscience education and research (including K-12 teaching); and opportunities at the intersection of geoscience and other fields (e.g., policy, law, business). The Building Strong Geoscience Departments project has documented a range of approaches that departments use to support the development of geoscience majors as professionals (serc.carleton.edu/departments). On the Cutting Edge, a professional development program, supports graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing an academic career through workshops, webinars, and online resources (serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep). Geoscience departments work at the intersection of student interests and employer needs. Commonly cited program goals that align with employer needs include mastery of geoscience content; field experience; skill in problem solving, quantitative reasoning, communication, and collaboration; and the ability to learn independently and take a project from start to finish. Departments and faculty can address workforce issues by 1) implementing of degree programs that develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students need, while recognizing that students have a diversity of career goals; 2) introducing career options to majors and potential majors and encouraging exploration of options; 3) advising students on how to prepare for specific career paths; 4) helping students develop into professionals, and 5) supporting students in the job search. It is valuable to build connections with geoscience employers, work with alumni and foster connections between students and alumni with similar career interests, collaborate with
Ferrini, Vicki; Carbotte, Suzanne; Ryan, William; Chan, Samantha
Increased availability of geoscience data resources has resulted in new opportunities for developing visualization and analysis tools that not only promote data integration and synthesis, but also facilitate quantitative cross-disciplinary access to data. Interdisciplinary investigations, in particular, frequently require visualizations and quantitative access to specialized data resources across disciplines, which has historically required specialist knowledge of data formats and software tools. GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org) is a free online data visualization and analysis tool that provides direct quantitative access to a wide variety of geoscience data for a broad international interdisciplinary user community. While GeoMapApp provides access to online data resources, it can also be packaged to work offline through the deployment of a small portable hard drive. This mode of operation can be particularly useful during field programs to provide functionality and direct access to data when a network connection is not possible. Hundreds of data sets from a variety of repositories are directly accessible in GeoMapApp, without the need for the user to understand the specifics of file formats or data reduction procedures. Available data include global and regional gridded data, images, as well as tabular and vector datasets. In addition to basic visualization and data discovery functionality, users are provided with simple tools for creating customized maps and visualizations and to quantitatively interrogate data. Specialized data portals with advanced functionality are also provided for power users to further analyze data resources and access underlying component datasets. Users may import and analyze their own geospatial datasets by loading local versions of geospatial data and can access content made available through Web Feature Services (WFS) and Web Map Services (WMS). Once data are loaded in GeoMapApp, a variety options are provided to export data and/or 2D/3D
The seventeenth of a series of workshops sponsored by the IEEE Signal Processing Society and organized by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee (MLSP-TC). The field of machine learning has matured considerably in both methodology and real-world application domains and has...... become particularly important for solution of problems in signal processing. As reflected in this collection, machine learning for signal processing combines many ideas from adaptive signal/image processing, learning theory and models, and statistics in order to solve complex real-world signal processing......, and two papers from the winners of the Data Analysis Competition. The program included papers in the following areas: genomic signal processing, pattern recognition and classification, image and video processing, blind signal processing, models, learning algorithms, and applications of machine learning...
Blaabjerg, Frede; Lehman, Brad
should increase the impact factor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS (TPEL). In 2007, TPEL published 2600 pages, and it has gradually been increased to 4000 pages in 2011, 5000 pages in 2012, and 5500 pages are projected for 2013. We have decided to publish 12 printed issues so every month...... a new issue will be printed. A graph is provided showing the number of regular papers received in the past years as well as the number of published pages in the TPEL. Finally they note that in 2008, TPEL obtained a record high value for the impact factor (as shown in a figure) but in 2009 it was reduced...... the papers to be read over a longer time span; 2) Web of Science (ISI Thomsen Reuter) began to register new power electronics conferences in their database, and citations from conferences counts and contributes to a higher impact factor....
Full Text Available The modern digitized world has led to the emergence of a new paradigm on global information networks and infrastructures known as Cyberspace and the studies of Cybernetics, which bring seamless integration of physical, social and mental spaces. Cyberspace is becoming an integral part of our daily life from learning and entertainment to business and cultural activities. As expected, this whole concept of Cybernetics brings new challenges that need to be tackled. The 2017 IEEE Cyber Science and Technology Congress (CyberSciTech 2017 provided a forum for researchers to report their research findings and exchange ideas. The congress took place in Orlando, Florida, USA during 6–10 November 2017. Not counting poster papers, the congress accepted over fifty papers that are divided into nine sessions. In this report, we provide an overview of the research contributions of the papers in CyberSciTech 2017.
Moein, A; Pouladian, M
New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. It offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the costs. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (PDA, PC . . . ) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. This article discusses the WIH (Ward-In-Hand) structure and the software required for its implementation before an operational example is presented with its results. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11 with high speed and more accuracy, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the Wi-Fi hospital networks.
Oscar P. Sarmiento
Full Text Available This article presents a tutorial/discussion of three commonly-used IEEE 802.11 wireless network security standards: WEP, WPA and WPA2. A detailed analysis of the RC4 algorithm supporting WEP is presented, including its vulnera-bilities. The WPA and WPA2 encryption protocols’ most relevant aspects and technical characteristics are reviewed for a comparative analysis of the three standards in terms of the security they provide. Special attention has been paid to WEP encryption by using an educational simulation tool written in C++ Builder for facilitating the unders-tanding of this protocol at academic level. Two practical cases of wireless security configurations using Cisco net-working equipment are also presented: configuring and enabling WPA-Personal and WPA2-Personal (these being security options used by TKIP and AES, respectively.
This document describes qualification methods for Class 1E lead storage batteries and racks to be used in nuclear power generating stations outside of primary containment. Qualification required in ANSI/IEEE Std 279-1971 and IEE Std 308-1978, can be demonstrated by using the procedures provided in this standard in accordance with IEEE Std 323-1974. Battery sizing, maintenance, capacity testing, installation, charging equipment and consideration of other type batteries are beyond the scope of this standard
This document describes qualification methods for Class 1E lead storage batteries and racks to be used in nuclear power generating stations outside of primary containment. Qualification required in ANSI/IEEE Std 308-1980 can be demonstrated by using the procedures provided in this standard in accordance with ANSI/IEEE Std 323-1983. Battery sizing, maintenance, capacity testing, installation, charging equipment, and consideration of other type batteries are beyond the scope of this standard
Methods for qualifying static battery chargers and inverters for Class 1E installations in a mild environment outside containment in nuclear power generating stations are described. The qualification methods set forth employ a combination of type testing and analysis, the latter including a justification of methods, theories, and assumptions used. These procedures meet the requirements of IEEE Std 323-1983, IEEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations
Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.
Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways in our natural sacred homelands and environments. Tribal cultures are the expression of deep understandings of geosciences shared through oral histories, language and ceremonies. Today, Native people as all people are living in a definite time of change. The developing awareness of "change" brings forth an immense opportunity to expand and elevate Native geosciences knowledge, specifically in the areas of earth, wind, fire and water. At the center of "change" is the need to balance the needs of the people with the needs of the environment. Native tradition and our inherent understanding of what is "sacred above is sacred below" is the foundation for an emerging multi-faceted approach to increasing the representation of Natives in geosciences. The approach is also a pathway to assist in Tribal language revitalization, connection of oral histories and ceremonies as well as building an intergenerational teaching/learning community. Humboldt State University, Sinte Gleska University and South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in partnership with Northern California (Hoopa, Yurok, & Karuk) and Great Plains (Lakota) Tribes have nurtured Native geosciences learning communities connected to Tribal Sacred Sites and natural resources. These sites include the Black Hills (Mato Paha, Mato Tiplia, Hinhan Kaga Paha, Mako Sica etc.), Klamath River (Ishkêesh), and Hoopa Valley (Natinixwe). Native geosciences learning is centered on the themes of earth, wind, fire and water and Native application of remote sensing technologies. Tribal Elders and Native geoscientists work collaboratively providing Native families in-field experiential intergenerational learning opportunities which invite participants to immerse themselves spiritually, intellectually, physically and emotionally in the experiences. Through this immersion and experience Native students and families strengthen the circle of our future Tribal
Manduca, C. A.; Orr, C. H.; Kastens, K.
As our society becomes more aware of the realities of the resource and environmental challenges that face us, we have the opportunity to educate more broadly about the role of geoscience in addressing these challenges. The InTeGrate STEP Center is using three strategies to bring learning about the Earth to a wider population of undergraduate students: 1) infusing geoscience into disciplinary courses throughout the curriculum; 2) creating interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary courses with a strong geoscience component that draw a wide audience; and 3) embedding more opportunities to learn about the methods of geoscience and their application to societal challenges in courses for future teachers. InTeGrate is also bringing more emphasis on geoscience in service to societal challenges to geoscience students in introductory geoscience courses and courses for geoscience majors. Teaching science in a societal context is known to make science concepts more accessible for many learners, while learning to use geoscience to solve real world, interdisciplinary problems better prepares students for the 21stcentury workforce and for the decisions they will make as individuals and citizens. InTeGrate has developed materials and models that demonstrate a wide variety of strategies for increasing opportunities to learn about the Earth in a societal context that are freely available on the project website (http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate) and that form the foundation of ongoing professional development opportunities nationwide. The strategies employed by InTeGrate reflect a systems approach to educational transformation, the importance of networks and communities in supporting change, and the need for resources designed for adaptability and use. The project is demonstrating how geoscience can play a larger role in higher education addressing topics of wide interest including 1) preparing a competitive workforce by increasing the STEM skills of students regardless of their major
Wysession, M. E.; Lindstrom, A.
An analysis of the portrayal of science, including the geosciences, in the New York Times shows that geoscience topics dominate front-page science coverage, appearing significantly more often than articles concerning biology, chemistry, or physics. This is significant because the geosciences are sometimes portrayed (in most high schools, for example) as being of less significance or importance than the other sciences, yet their portrayal in what is arguably the leading U.S. newspaper shows just the opposite - that the geosciences are the most relevant and newsworthy of the sciences. We analyzed NY Times front pages and Tuesday "Science Times" sections for 2012 - 2015, and looked at many parameters including science discipline, the kind of article (research, policy, human-interest, etc.), correlations to the "big ideas" of the Next Generation Science Standards, and for the geosciences, a break-down of sub-disciplines. For the front pages, we looked at both full articles and call-outs to articles on later pages. For front-page full articles, geoscience-related articles were more frequent (almost 60%) than biology, chemistry, and physics combined. Including call-outs to later articles, the geosciences still made the most front-page appearances (almost 40%), and this included the fact that 1/3 of front-page science articles were medicine-related, which accounted for nearly all of the biology and chemistry articles. Interestingly, what the NY Times perceived as "science" differed significantly: 60% of all Tuesday "Science Times" articles were medicine-related, and even removing these, biology (40%) edged the geosciences (35%) as the most frequent Science Times articles. Of the front-page geoscience articles, the topics were dominated each year by natural hazards, natural resources, and human impacts, with the percentage of human-impact-related articles almost doubling over the 4 years. The most significant 4-year trend was in the attention paid to climate change. For
Russell, R. M.; Johnson, R.; Gardiner, L.; Lagrave, M.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.; Foster, S. Q.
The Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu) Earth and space science educational program and web site has an extensive international presence. The web site reaches a vast user audience, having served more than 124 million page views across approximately 14 million user sessions in the past year. About 44% of these user sessions originated from domains outside of the United States. The site, which contains roughly 7,000 pages originally offered in English, is being translated into Spanish. This effort, begun in 2003, is now approximately 80% complete. Availability in a second major language has dramatically increased use of the site both in the U.S.A. and abroad; about 29% (4.1 million) of the annual user sessions visit Spanish-language portions of the site. In September 2005 we began distributing a monthly electronic newsletter for teachers that highlights features on the web site as well as other geoscience programs and events of relevance to educators. We currently have more than 4,400 subscribers, 33.6% of whom are outside of the United States. We are actively seeking news and information about other programs of relevance to this audience to distribute via our newsletter. We have also begun to solicit information (tips, anecdotes, lesson plans, etc.) from geoscience teachers around the world to share via this newsletter. Finally, Windows to the Universe participated in the Education and Outreach efforts of the MILAGRO scientific field campaign in Mexico in March of 2006. MILAGRO was a collaborative, multi-agency, international campaign to conduct a coordinated study of the extent and effects of pollutants emitted by a "mega-city" (in this case Mexico City) in order to understand the impacts of vast urban environments on global climate modeling. We enlisted several scientists involved with MILAGRO to write "Postcards from the Field" about their ongoing research during the project; these electronic "postcards" were distributed, in English and Spanish, via
Goga, Nicolae; Costache, Stefania; Moldoveanu, Florica
This article presents the formal work done for the ISO/IEEE P11073-20601 Draft Standard for Health informatics - Personal health device communication - Application profile Optimized exchange protocol. ISO/IEEE 11073 family defines standards for device communication between agents (e.g. blood
Thompson, Geoffrey O.
Several different methods of implementing a fiber optic version of IEEE 802.3 10BASE LANs have been proposed as a candidate for standardization by IEEE. There have been extensive discussions as to the relative merits and features of the several systems. This paper will discuss the merits of each for this particular application on a comparative basis.
Home; public; Volumes; reso; 021; 01; 0011-0030.How to make an abstract in IEEE Format for AvishkarMulticultural Night in IEEE R10 Student Congress 2009Performances.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook ...
Home; public; Volumes; reso; 021; 01; 0011-0030.What is IEEE 754 StandardHow to convert real number in binary format using IEEE 754 StandardAn.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News.
Conducting research in a responsible manner in compliance with codes of research integrity is essential. The geosciences, as with all other areas of research endeavour, has its fair share of misconduct cases and causes celebres. As research becomes more global, more collaborative and more cross-disciplinary, the need for all concerned to work to the same high standards becomes imperative. Modern technology makes it far easier to 'cut and paste', to use Photoshop to manipulate imagery to falsify results at the same time as making research easier and more meaningful. So we need to promote the highest standards of research integrity and the responsible conduct of research. While ultimately, responsibility for misconduct rests with the individual, institutions and the academic research system have to take steps to alleviate the pressure on researchers and promote good practice through training programmes and mentoring. The role of the World Conferences on Research Integrity in promoting the importance of research integrity and statements about good practice will be presented and the need for training and mentoring programmes will be discussed
Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Nativi, Stefano; Duerr, Ruth; Pearlman, Jay
BCube is addressing the need for effective and efficient multi-disciplinary collaboration and interoperability through the advancement of brokering technologies. As a prototype "building block" for NSF's EarthCube cyberinfrastructure initiative, BCube is demonstrating how a broker can serve as an intermediary between information systems that implement well-defined interfaces, thereby providing a bridge between communities that employ different specifications. Building on the GEOSS Discover and Access Broker (DAB), BCube will develop new modules and services including: • Expanded semantic brokering capabilities • Business Model support for work flows • Automated metadata generation • Automated linking to services discovered via web crawling • Credential passing for seamless access to data • Ranking of search results from brokered catalogs Because facilitating cross-discipline research involves cultural and well as technical challenges, BCube is also addressing the sociological and educational components of infrastructure development. We are working, initially, with four geoscience disciplines: hydrology, oceans, polar and weather, with an emphasis on connecting existing domain infrastructure elements to facilitate cross-domain communications.
Dolenc, M. R.; Hull, L. C.; Mizell, S. A.; Russell, B. F.; Skiba, P. A.; Strawn, J. A.; Tullis, J. A.; Garber, R.
The Raft River Geothermal Site has been evaluated over the past eight years by the United States Geological Survey and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory as a moderate-temperature geothermal resource. The geoscience data gathered in the drilling and testing of seven geothermal wells suggest that the Raft River thermal reservoir is: (1) produced from fractures found at the contact metamorphic zone apparently the base of detached normal faulting from the Bridge and Horse Well Fault zones of the Jim Sage Mountains; (2) anisotropic, with the major axis of hydraulic conductivity coincident to the Bridge Fault Zone; (3) hydraulically connected to the shallow thermal fluid of the Crook and BLM wells based upon both geochemistry and pressure response; (4) controlled by a mixture of diluted meteoric water recharging from the northwest and a saline sodium chloride water entering from the southwest. Although the hydrogeologic environment of the Raft River geothermal area is very complex and unique, it is typical of many Basin and Range systems.
Study of the history of various sciences is rather heterogeneous. Some disciplines, such as medicine, mathematics, and astronomy, have numerous noteworthy compendia and even specialized journals where papers on the history of these sciences can be published.The situation in geophysics, meteorology, and other subdivisions of the geosciences is far less favorable. This neglect is an outcome of a dogma of autonomy that is essentially oriented toward progress in understanding, without much reference to historical developments. But even the geoscientists cannot ignore that the phenomenon ‘science’ must be viewed in the context of sociological processes. In the initial stages, sociologists and some philosophers, in the context of the general theory of perception, began research into the development of scientific thought, but the geoscientists and other natural scientists contributed very little. It has since become clear that research on these topics requires historical assessment and more insight. The development of the ‘science of science’ is directed toward understanding and explanation of the complex human involvement in science, not only in the sense of theorizing about the scientific processes but also in sociological, political, and historical context [Kuhn, 1973; Burrichter, 1979; Sandkühler and Plath, 1979.
Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.; Harrild, M.; Kienenberger, D.; Salganek, M.
In today's prevalence of social media and networking, video products are becoming increasingly more useful to communicate research quickly and effectively to a diverse audience, including outreach activities as well as within the research community and to funding agencies. Due to the observational nature of geoscience, researchers often take photos and video footage to document fieldwork or to record laboratory experiments. Here we present how researchers can become more effective storytellers by collaborating with filmmakers to produce short documentary films of their research. We will focus on the use of traditional high-definition (HD) camcorders and HD DSLR cameras to record the scientific story while our research topic focuses on the use of remote sensing techniques, specifically thermal infrared imaging that is often used to analyze time varying natural processes such as volcanic hazards. By capturing the story in the thermal infrared wavelength range, in addition to traditional red-green-blue (RGB) color space, the audience is able to experience the world differently. We will develop a short film specifically designed using thermal infrared cameras that illustrates how visual storytellers can use these new tools to capture unique and important aspects of their research, convey their passion for earth systems science, as well as engage and captive the viewer.
This standard describes the basic requirements for qualifying Class 1E equipment with interfaces that are to be used in nuclear power generating stations. The requirements presented include the principles, procedures, and methods of qualification. These qualification requirements, when met, will confirm the adequacy of the equipment design under normal, abnormal, design basis event, post design basis event, and in-service test conditions for the performance of safety function(s). The purpose of this standard is to identify requirements for the qualification of Class 1E equipment, including those interfaces whose failure could adversely affect the performance of Class 1E equipment and systems. The methods described shall be used for qualifying equipment, extending qualification, and updating qualification if the equipment is modified. Other issued IEEE standards which present qualification methods for specific equipment or components, or both, and those that deal with parts of the qualification program, may be used to supplement this standard, as applicable
This standard describes the basic principles, requirements, and methods for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for outside containment applications in nuclear power generating stations. Qualification of motor control centers located inside containment in a nuclear power generating station is beyond the scope of this standard. The purpose of this standard is (1) to define specific qualification requirements for Class 1E motor control centers in accordance with the more general qualification requirements of IEEE Std 323-1974, IEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations; (2) to provide guidance in establishing a qualification program for demonstrating the design adequacy of Class 1E motor control centers in nuclear power generating station applications
Kim, Tae Ok; Kim, Kyung Jae; Choi, Bong Dae
We analyze the MAC performance of the IEEE 802.11 DCF and 802.11e EDCA in non-saturation condition where device does not have packets to transmit sometimes. We assume that a flow is not generated while the previous flow is in service and the number of packets in a flow is geometrically distributed. In this paper, we take into account the feature of non-saturation condition in standards: possibility of transmission performed without preceding backoff procedure for the first packet arriving at the idle station. Our approach is to model a stochastic behavior of one station as a discrete time Markov chain. We obtain four performance measures: normalized channel throughput, average packet HoL (head of line) delay, expected time to complete transmission of a flow and packet loss probability. Our results can be used for admission control to find the optimal number of stations with some constraints on these measures.
Dejan Milan Tepšić
Full Text Available Security of wireless computer networks was initially secured with the WEP security protocol, which relies on the RC4 encryption algorithm and the CRC algorithm to check the integrity. The basic problems of the WEP are a short initialization vector, unsafe data integrity checking, using a common key, the lack of mechanisms for management and exchange of keys, the lack of protection from the endless insertion of the same package into the network, the lack of authentication of access points and the like. The consequences of these failures are easy attacks against the WEP network, namely their complete insecurity. Therefore, the work began on the IEEE 802.11i protocol, which should radically improve the security of wireless networks. Since the development of a protocol lasted, the WPA standard was released to offset the security gap caused by the WEP. The WPA also relies on RC4 and CRC algorithms, but brings temporary keys and the MIC algorithm for data integrity. The 802.1X authentication was introduced and common keys are no longer needed, since it is possible to use an authentication server. The length of the initialization vector was increased and the vector is obtained based on the packet serial number, in order to prevent the insertion of the same packet into the network. The weakness of the WPA security mechanism is the use of a common key. WPA2 (802.11i later appeared. Unlike the WPA mechanism that worked on old devices with the replacement of software, WPA2 requires new network devices that can perform AES encryption. AES replaces the RC4 algorithm and delivers much greater security. Data integrity is protected by encryption. Despite progress, there are still weaknesses in wireless networks. Attacks for denial of service are possible as well as spoofing package headers attacks. For now, it is not advisable to use wireless networks in environments where unreliability and unavailability are not tolerated. Introduction In the entire history of
Wysession, M. E.
This is a critical time for the geoscience community. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have been released and are now being adopted by states (a dozen states and Washington, DC, at the time of writing this), with dramatic implications for national K-12 science education. Curriculum developers and textbook companies are working hard to construct educational materials that match the new standards, which emphasize a hands-on practice-based approach that focuses on working directly with primary data and other forms of evidence. While the set of 8 science and engineering practices of the NGSS lend themselves well to the observation-oriented approach of much of the geosciences, there is currently not a sufficient number of geoscience educational modules and activities geared toward the K-12 levels, and geoscience research organizations need to be mobilizing their education & outreach programs to meet this need. It is a rare opportunity that will not come again in this generation. There are other significant issues surrounding the implementation of the NGSS. The NGSS involves a year of Earth and space science at the high school level, but there does not exist a sufficient workforce is geoscience teachers to meet this need. The form and content of the geoscience standards are also very different from past standards, moving away from a memorization and categorization approach and toward a complex Earth Systems Science approach. Combined with the shift toward practice-based teaching, this means that significant professional development will therefore be required for the existing K-12 geoscience education workforce. How the NGSS are to be assessed is another significant question, with an NRC report providing some guidance but leaving many questions unanswered. There is also an uneasy relationship between the NGSS and the Common Core of math and English, and the recent push-back against the Common Core in many states may impact the implementation of the NGSS.
Montello, D. R.
It is widely recognized that the geosciences are very spatial disciplines. Their subject matter includes phenomena on, under, and above the Earth surface whose spatial properties are critical to understanding them. Important spatial properties of geoscience structures and processes include location (both absolute and relative), size, shape, and pattern; temporal changes in spatial properties are also of interest. Information visualizations that depict spatiality are thus critically important to teaching in the geosciences, at all levels from K-12 to Ph.D. work; verbal and mathematical descriptions are quite insufficient by themselves. Such visualizations range from traditional maps and diagrams to digital animations and virtual environments. These visualizations are typically rich and complex because they are attempts to communicate rich and complex realities. Thus, understanding geoscience visualizations accurately and efficiently involves complex spatial thinking. Over a century of psychometric and experimental research reveals some of the cognitive components of spatial thinking, and provides insight into differences among individuals and groups of people in their abilities to think spatially. Some research has specifically examined these issues within the context of geoscience education, and recent research is expanding these investigations into the realm of new digital visualizations that offer the hope of using visualizations to teach complex geoscience concepts with unprecedented effectiveness. In this talk, I will briefly highlight some of the spatial cognitive challenges to understanding geoscience visualizations, including the pervasive and profound individual and group differences in spatial abilities. I will also consider some visualization design issues that arise because of the cognitive and ability challenges. I illustrate some of these research issues with examples from research being conducted by my colleagues and me, research informed by
Lazar, K.; Moysey, S. M.
Outdoor-focused experiential learning opportunities are uncommon for students in large introductory geology courses, despite evidence that field experiences are a significant pathway for students to enter the geoscience pipeline. We address this deficiency by creating an extracurricular program for geology service courses that allows students to engage with classmates to foster a positive affective environment in which they are able to explore their geoscience interests, encouraged to visualize themselves as potential geoscientists, and emboldened to continue on a geoscience/geoscience-adjacent career path. Students in introductory-level geology courses were given pre- and post-semester surveys to assess the impact of these experiential learning experiences on student attitudes towards geoscience careers and willingness to pursue a major/minor in geology. Initial results indicate that high achieving students overall increase their interest in pursuing geology as a major regardless of their participation in extracurricular activities, while low achieving students only demonstrate increased interest in a geology major if they did not participate in extra credit activities. Conversely, high achieving, non-participant students showed no change in interest of pursuing a geology minor, while high achieving participants were much more likely to demonstrate interest in a minor at the end of the course. Similar to the trends of interest in a geology major, low achieving students only show increased interest in a minor if they were non-participants. These initial results indicate that these activities may be more effective in channeling students towards geology minors rather than majors, and could increase the number of students pursuing geoscience-related career paths. There also seem to be several competing factors at play affecting the different student populations, from an increased interest due to experience or a displeasure that geology is not simply `rocks for jocks
Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.
In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together
Padilla, E.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J. T.; Ricciardi, L.; Guzman, W. I.; Braxton, L.; Williamson, V.; Johnson, A.
According to 2014 findings of the National Research Council, geoscience and related industries indicate an anticipated 48,000 blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions to be filled by underrepresented minority (URM) workers in the next 15 years. An Information Handling Services (IHS) report prepared for the American Petroleum Institute forecasts even greater numbers estimating upward of 408,000 opportunities for URM workers related to growth in accelerated development of oil, gas and petroleum industries. However, many URM students lack the training in both the hard sciences and craft skills necessary to fill these positions. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program uses integrative and holistic strategies to better prepare URM students for entry into all levels of the geoscience workforce. Through a three-phase program of mentoring, community building, networking and professional development activities, MS PHD'S promotes collaboration, critical thinking, and soft skills development for participants. Program activities expose URM students to education, training and real-life geoscience workforce experiences while maintaining a continuity of supportive mentoring and training networks via an active virtual community. MS PHD'S participants report increased self-confidence and self-efficacy in pursuing geoscience workforce goals. To date, the program supports 223 participants of who 57, 21 and 16 have received Doctorate, Masters and Baccalaureate degrees respectively and are currently employed within the geoscience and related industries workforce. The remaining 129 participants are enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs throughout the U.S. Geographic representation of participants includes 35 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and two international postdoctoral appointments - one in Saudi Arabia and the other in France.
Carley, S.; Tuddenham, P.; Bishop, K. O.
In recent years several geoscience communities have been developing ocean, climate, atmosphere and earth science literacy frameworks as enhancements to the National Science Education Standards content standards. Like the older content standards these new geoscience literacy frameworks have focused on K-12 education although they are also intended for informal education and general public audiences. These geoscience literacy frameworks potentially provide a more integrated and less abstract approach to science literacy that may be more suitable for non-science major students that are not pursuing careers in science research or education. They provide a natural link to contemporary environmental issues - e.g., climate change, resource depletion, species and habitat loss, natural hazards, pollution, development of renewable energy, material recycling. The College of Exploration is an education research non-profit that has provided process and technical support for the development of most of these geoscience literacy frameworks. It has a unique perspective on their development. In the last ten years it has also gained considerable national and international expertise in facilitating web-based workshops that support in-depth conversations among educators and working scientists/researchers on important science topics. These workshops have been of enormous value to educators working in K-12, 4-year institutions and community colleges. How can these geoscience literacy frameworks promote more collaborative inquiry-based learning that enhances the appreciation of scientific thinking by non-majors? How can web- and mobile-based education technologies transform the undergraduate non-major survey course into a place where learners begin their passion for science literacy rather than end it? How do we assess science literacy in students and citizens?
Fermeli, Georgia; Steininger, Fritz; Dermitzakis, Michael; Meléndez, Guillermo; Page, Kevin
information about Earth at a national and international level. • Recognize their responsibilities concerning geodiversity and Earth resources as responsible, world citizens. • Understand planet Earth as a system • Appreciate geodiversity and geoheritage as a key topic within local sustainable development programs. • Know how to predict and mitigate the impacts of natural hazards and evaluate the most appropriate corrective measures. • Demonstrate an ability to apply geoscientific knowledge in the real world and take appropriate decisions. • Describe and explain basic geoscientific phenomena, data and procedures in familiar and unfamiliar contexts. Finally, GEOschools project has proposed a series of teaching modules trying to build effective and enjoyable learning thorough good, academic teaching practice. In this way students should be able to develop a unique set of skills, combining geological knowledge with practical skills. Bibliography: Calonge, A. (2011). Curriculum comparison research: GEOschools programme, 7p. Available from http://geoschools.geol.uoa.gr/pdfs/FinalRemarksCvComparison_EN.pdf . Accessed 10 January 2014. Fermeli G., Meléndez G., Koutsouveli An., Dermitzakis M., Calonge A., Steininger F., D'Arpa C., Di Patti C. (2013).Geosciences' teaching and students' interest in secondary schools - Preliminary results from an interest research in Greece, Spain and Italy.Geoheritage, 14p. Available from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12371-013-0094-4 . Accessed 10 January 2014.
Most public communication about geoscience is either performed as a derivative of a research program or as part of one-off funded outreach activities. Few efforts are structured to both educate the public about geoscience while also attempting to establish a sustainable funding model. EARTH Magazine, a non-profit publications produced by the American Geosciences Institute, is a monthly geoscience news and information magazine geared towards the public. Originally a profession-oriented publication, titled Geotimes, the publication shifted towards public engagement in the 1990s, completing that focus in 1998. Though part of a non-profit institute, EARTH is not a recipient of grants or contributions to offset its costs and thus must strive to "break even" to sustain its operations and further its mission. How "break even" is measured in a mission-based enterprise incorporates a number of factors, including financial, but also community impact and offsets to other investments. A number of strategies and their successes and failures, both editorially in its focus on audience in scope, tone, and design, and from an operational perspective in the rapidly changing world of magazines, will be outlined. EARTH is now focused on exploring alternative distribution channels, new business models, and disaggregation as means towards broader exposure of geoscience to the widest audience possible.
Gochis, E. E.; Gierke, J. S.
Understanding geoscience concepts and the interactions of Earth system processes in one's own community has the potential to foster sound decision making for environmental, economic and social wellbeing. School-age children are an appropriate target audience for improving Earth Science literacy and attitudes towards scientific practices. However, many teachers charged with geoscience instruction lack awareness of local geological significant examples or the pedagogical ability to integrate place-based examples into their classroom practice. This situation is further complicated because many teachers of Earth science lack a firm background in geoscience course work. Strategies for effective K-12 teacher professional development programs that promote Earth Science literacy by integrating inquiry-based investigations of local and regional geoheritage sites into standards based curriculum were developed and tested with teachers at a rural school on the Hannahville Indian Reservation located in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The workshops initiated long-term partnerships between classroom teachers and geoscience experts. We hypothesize that this model of professional development, where teachers of school-age children are prepared to teach local examples of earth system science, will lead to increased engagement in Earth Science content and increased awareness of local geoscience examples by K-12 students and the public.
Zalles, D. R.; Quellmalz, E.; Rosenquist, A.; Kreikemeier, P.
Under funding from the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and the Federal Government's Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment Program (GLOBE), SRI International has developed and piloted web-accessible performance assessments that measure K-12 students' abilities to use learning technologies to reason with scientific information and communicate evidence-based conclusions to scientific problems. This presentation will describe the assessments that pertain to geoscience at the middle school level. They are the GLOBE Assessments and EPA Phoenix, an instantiation of SRI's model of assessment design known as Integrative Performance Assessments in Technology (IPAT). All are publicly-available on the web. GLOBE engages students in scientific data collection and observation about the environment. SRI's classroom assessments for GLOBE provide sample student assessment tools and frameworks that allow teachers and students to assess how well students can use the data in scientific inquiry projects. Teachers can use classroom assessment tools on the site to develop integrated investigations for assessing GLOBE within their particular science curricula. Rubrics are provided for measuring students' GLOBE-related skills, and alignments are made to state, national, and international science standards. Sample investigations are provided about atmosphere, hydrology, landcover, soils, earth systems, and visualizations. The IPAT assessments present students with engaging problems rooted in science or social science content, plus sets of tasks and questions that require them to gather relevant information on the web, use reasoning strategies to analyze and interpret the information, use spreadsheets, word processors, and other productivity tools, and communicate evidence-based findings and recommendations. In the process of gathering information and drawing conclusions, students are assessed on how well they can operate
frameworks 4 CMMI-DEV IEEE / ISO / IEC 15288 / 12207 Quality Assurance ©2011 Walz IEEE Life Cycle Processes & Artifacts • Systems Life Cycle Processes...TAG to ISO TC 176 Quality Management • Quality: ASQ, work experience • Software: three books, consulting, work experience • Systems: Telecom & DoD...and IEEE 730 SQA need to align. The P730 IEEE standards working group has expanded the scope of the SQA process standard to align with IS 12207
Bollig, E. F.; Kadlec, B. J.; Erlebacher, G.; Yuen, D. A.; Palchuk, Y. M.
Datasets in the earth sciences continue growing in size due to higher experimental resolving power, and numerical simulations at higher resolutions. Over the last several years, an increasing number of scientists have turned to visualization to represent their vast datasets in a meaningful fashion. In most cases, datasets are downloaded and then visualized on a local workstation with 2D or 3D software packages. However, it becomes inconvenient to download datasets of several gigabytes unless network bandwidth is sufficiently high (10 Gbits/sec). We are investigating the use of Virtual Network Computing (VNC) to provide interactive three-dimensional visualization services to the user community. Specialized software [1,2] enables OpenGL-based visualization software to capitalize on the hardware capabilities of modern graphics cards and transfer session information to clients through the VNC protocol. The virtue of this software is that it does not require any changes to visualization software. Session information is displayed within java applets, enabling the use of a wide variety of clients, including hand-held devices. The VNC protocol makes collaboration and interaction between multiple users possible. We demonstrate the collaborative VNC system with the commercial 3D visualization system Amira (http://www.tgs.com) and the open source VTK (http://www.vtk.org) over a 100 Mbit network. We also present ongoing work for integrating VNC within the Naradabrokering Grid environment.  Stegmaier, S. and Magallon, M. and T. Ertl, "A Generic Solution for Hardware-Accelerated Remote Visualization," Joint Eurographics -- IEEE TCVG Symposium on Visualization, 2002.  VirtualGL--3D without boundaries http://virtualgl.sourceforge.net/installation.htm
Baños-Gonzalez, Victor; Afaqui, M Shahwaiz; Lopez-Aguilera, Elena; Garcia-Villegas, Eduard
Since the conception of the Internet of things (IoT), a large number of promising applications and technologies have been developed, which will change different aspects in our daily life. This paper explores the key characteristics of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11ah specification. This future IEEE 802.11 standard aims to amend the IEEE 802.11 legacy specification to support IoT requirements. We present a thorough evaluation of the foregoing amendment in comparison to the most notable IEEE 802.11 standards. In addition, we expose the capabilities of future IEEE 802.11ah in supporting different IoT applications. Also, we provide a brief overview of the technology contenders that are competing to cover the IoT communications framework. Numerical results are presented showing how the future IEEE 802.11ah specification offers the features required by IoT communications, thus putting forward IEEE 802.11ah as a technology to cater the needs of the Internet of Things paradigm.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IEEE 1680 Standard for the... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.223-16 IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.706(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE...
Joel R. Noche
Full Text Available An asynchronous floating-point arithmetic unit is designed and tested at the transistor level usingCadence software. It uses CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor and DCVS (differentialcascode voltage switch logic in a 0.35 µm process using a 3.3 V supply voltage, with dual-rail data andsingle-rail control signals using four-phase handshaking.Using 17,085 transistors, the unit handles single-precision (32-bit addition/subtraction, multiplication,division, and remainder using the IEEE 754-1985 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, withrounding and other operations to be handled by separate hardware or software. Division and remainderare done using a restoring subtractive algorithm; multiplication uses an additive algorithm. Exceptionsare noted by flags (and not trap handlers and the output is in single-precision.Previous work on asynchronous floating-point arithmetic units have mostly focused on single operationssuch as division. This is the first work to the authors' knowledge that can perform floating-point addition,multiplication, division, and remainder using a common datapath.
Pippin, J. E.; Matheney, M.; Kitsch, N.; Rosado, G.; Thompson, Z.; Pierce, S. A.
Point cloud processing provides a method of studying and modelling geologic features relevant to geoscience systems and processes. Here, software including Skanect, MeshLab, Blender, PDAL, and PCL are used in conjunction with 3D scanning hardware, including a Structure scanner and a Kinect camera, to create and analyze point cloud images of small scale topography, karst features, tunnels, and structures at high resolution. This project successfully scanned internal karst features ranging from small stalactites to large rooms, as well as an external waterfall feature. For comparison purposes, multiple scans of the same object were merged into single object files both automatically, using commercial software, and manually using open source libraries and code. Files with format .ply were manually converted into numeric data sets to be analyzed for similar regions between files in order to match them together. We can assume a numeric process would be more powerful and efficient than the manual method, however it could lack other useful features that GUI's may have. The digital models have applications in mining as efficient means of replacing topography functions such as measuring distances and areas. Additionally, it is possible to make simulation models such as drilling templates and calculations related to 3D spaces. Advantages of using methods described here for these procedures include the relatively quick time to obtain data and the easy transport of the equipment. With regard to openpit mining, obtaining 3D images of large surfaces and with precision would be a high value tool by georeferencing scan data to interactive maps. The digital 3D images obtained from scans may be saved as printable files to create physical 3D-printable models to create tangible objects based on scientific information, as well as digital "worlds" able to be navigated virtually. The data, models, and algorithms explored here can be used to convey complex scientific ideas to a range of
Matias, A.; Eriksson, S. C.
Students today are rarely satisfied with a one-size-fits-all educational experience. The rapid changing landscape of the web and other technologies are breaking down communicationand geographic barries. More students are increasingly turning to the web for quality education that fits into their lives. As a result, higher education institutions are expanding their offerings through online courses. Nonetheless, online learning brings challenges as well as a fresh opportunityfor exploring practices not present in traditional higher education programs, particularly in the sciences. We are in a unique position to empower students to make strategic academic and professional decisions in global terms. Online learning, supportedwith hands-on and minds-on activities, actively engages student with critical thinking skills and higher level learning. This presentation will showcase examples from a series of geoscience and environmental science courses currently offered fully online at SUNY Empire State College (ESC). Taking advantage of the proliferation of tools currently available for online learning management systems, we will explore how we approach course developent to create an interactive learning environment. Students learn through case studies, group projects and understanding real-world issues while learning concepts. Particular focus will be given to an international collaboration with the Tecnologico de Monterrey, Chihuahua Campus. This collaboration took place during the Spring of 2015 with students from the fully-online, lower-level Geology and the Environment course at ESC and the upper-level, face-to-face Mobile Programming course in Mexico. Ultimately, the goal of this presentation is to show faculty members and afministrators the pedagogical principles and approach used with the expectation that it could help support development of online learning opportunities at their institutions.
Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R.; Calhoun, A.
The mission of SOARS® is to broaden participation in the geosciences by increasing the number of Black or African-American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic or Latino, female, and first-generation college students who enroll and succeed in graduate school in the atmospheric and related sciences. This mission contributes to national goals of developing a diverse, internationally competitive, and globally engaged workforce of scientists and engineers. SOARS is a multiyear undergraduate-to-graduate bridge program that uses three strategies: a strong learning community, a multidimensional mentoring program, and experience in research. Our presentation will describe SOARS' strategies in more detail, with an eye toward how such strategies might be adapted for other programs. To do this, we will draw upon recent research that documents how these strategies can be successfully implemented, including: - A survey of over 124 higher-education based STEM programs - A workshop report from the American Chemical Society emphasizing cooperation between industry and academia - An independent ethnographic study of the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric and Related Science (SOARS®) program, administered by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) In the 11 years since SOARS' founding, 104 students have participated in the program. Of those participants, 16 are still enrolled as undergraduates, and 60 have gone on to purse graduate school in STEM. Overall, this represents a success rate 91%. Of the 35 SOARS participants who have entered the workforce, 26 are in STEM related disciplines. Four SOARS participants have already earned their PhD, and additional 17 are in PhD programs. Seventeen protégés have earned Master's and entered the workforce, and 17 more protégés are enrolled in Master's programs.
Perin, S.; Conner, L.; Oxtoby, L.
It has been well documented that female participation in the geoscience workforce is low. By contrast, the biology workforce has largely reached gender parity. These trends are rooted in patterns of interest among youth. Specifically, girls tend to like biology and value social and societal connections to science (Brotman & Moore 2008). Our NSF-funded project, "BRIGHT Girls," offers two-week summer academies to high school-aged girls, in which the connections between the geosciences and biology are made explicit. We are conducting qualitative research to trace the girls' identity work during this intervention. Using team-based video interaction analysis, we are finding that the fabric of the academy allows girls to "try on" new possible selves in science. Our results imply that real-world, interdisciplinary programs that include opportunities for agency and authentic science practice may be a fruitful approach for broadening participation in the geosciences.
Yoshida, D.; Saito, A.
We are developing a system to display geoscience data of various databases on virtual globe. This system is designed to be a showcase of databases. Users can browse various types of data of databases on this system. When they find data of interest, they can follow the network link to the WWW-based database and study it in detail. This system is served as a portal to geoscience databases. We call this system DAGIK (DAta-showcase system of Geoscience In Kml). It uses Google Earth as a browser. The reason to use Google Earth is that it has 1) four-dimensional data presentation capability, 2) scalability in time and space, 3) network capability. Virtual globe can show the data in intuitive way. It is a very powerful tool to show the characteristics of data for those who are not familiar with the data. DAGIK started in 2007 for geospace data, and was expanded to cover the geoscience in 2009. The sequence of usage of DAGIK is as follows: 1) user downloads the start up file, dagik.kml, from the DAGIK server (http://www-step.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dagik/) with a WWW browser, 2) it can be opened with Google Earth, 3) user select year, month and day, 4) for the selected date, the data list file will be downloaded from the DAGIK server, 5) user can select the data type from the data list, 6) and the KML/KMZ plot files will be downloaded from the DAGIK server or the other KML/KMZ server to display on Google Earth. There are several databases that provide their data plots in KML/KMZ format for DAGIK. DAGIK, a data-showcase system of geoscience, can bridge the gap between databases and novice users of the geoscience data.
Houlton, H. R.; Chen, J.; Brown, B.; Samuels, D.; Brinkworth, C.
The geosciences have to solve increasingly complex problems relating to earth and society, as resources become limited, natural hazards and changes in climate impact larger communities, and as people interacting with Earth become more interconnected. However, the profession has dismally low representation from geoscientists who are from diverse racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic backgrounds, as well as women in leadership roles. This underrepresentation also includes individuals whose gender identity/expression is non-binary or gender-conforming, or those who have physical, cognitive, or emotional disabilities. This lack of diversity ultimately impacts our profession's ability to produce our best science and work with the communities that we strive to protect and serve as stewards of the earth. As part of the NSF GOLD solicitation, we developed a project (Geoscience Diversity Experiential Simulations) to train 30 faculty and administrators to be "champions for diversity" and combat the hostile climates in geoscience departments. We hosted a 3-day workshop in November that used virtual simulations to give participants experience in building the skills to react to situations regarding bias, discrimination, microaggressions, or bullying often cited in geoscience culture. Participants interacted with avatars on screen, who responded to participants' actions and choices, given certain scenarios. The scenarios are framed within a geoscience perspective; we integrated qualitative interview data from informants who experienced inequitable judgement, bias, discrimination, or harassment during their geoscience careers. The simulations gave learners a safe environment to practice and build self-efficacy in how to professionally and productively engage peers in difficult conversations. In addition, we obtained pre-workshop survey data about participants' understanding regarding Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion practices, as well as observation data of participants' responses
Bookhagen, B.; Mair, A.; Schaller, G.; Koeberl, C.
To attract future geoscientists in the classroom and share the passion for science, successful geoscience education needs to combine modern educational tools with applied science. Previous outreach efforts suggest that classroom-geoscience teaching tremendously benefits from structured, prepared lesson plans in combination with hands-on material. Building on our past experience, we have developed a classroom-teaching kit that implements interdisciplinary exercises and modern geoscientific application to attract high-school students. This "Mobile Phone Teaching Kit" analyzes the components of mobile phones, emphasizing the mineral compositions and geologic background of raw materials. Also, as geoscience is not an obligatory classroom topic in Austria, and university training for upcoming science teachers barely covers geoscience, teacher training is necessary to enhance understanding of the interdisciplinary geosciences in the classroom. During the past year, we have held teacher workshops to help implementing the topic in the classroom, and to provide professional training for non-geoscientists and demonstrate proper usage of the teaching kit. The material kit is designed for classroom teaching and comes with a lesson plan that covers background knowledge and provides worksheets and can easily be adapted to school curricula. The project was funded by kulturkontakt Austria; expenses covered 540 material kits, and we reached out to approximately 90 schools throughout Austria and held a workshop in each of the nine federal states in Austria. Teachers received the training, a set of the material kit, and the lesson plan free of charge. Feedback from teachers was highly appreciative. The request for further material kits is high and we plan to expand the project. Ultimately, we hope to enlighten teachers and students for the highly interdisciplinary variety of geosciences and a link to everyday life.
The American Geological Institute (AGI) has completed Phase 2 of a project to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System (NGDRS). The project`s primary objectives are to preserve geoscience data in jeopardy of being destroyed and to make that data available to those who have a need to use it in future investigations. These data are available for donation to the public as a result of the downsizing that has occurred in the major petroleum and mining companies in the US for the past decade. In recent years, these companies have consolidated domestic operations, sold many of their domestic properties and relinquished many of their leases. The scientific data associated with those properties are no longer considered to be useful assets and are consequently in danger of being lost forever. The national repository project will make many of these data available to the geoscience community for the first time. Phase 2 encompasses the establishment of standards for indexing and cataloging of geoscience data and determination of the costs of transferring data from the private sector to public-sector data repositories. Pilot projects evaluated the feasibility of the project for transfer of different data types and creation of a Web-based metadata supercatalog and browser. Also as part of the project, a national directory of geoscience data repositories was compiled to assess what data are currently available in existing facilities. The next step, Phase 3, will focus on the initiation of transfer of geoscience data from the private sector to the public domain and development of the web-based Geotrek metadata supercatalog.
Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.
The 'Creating and Sustaining Diversity in the Geo-Sciences among Students and Teachers in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City' project was awarded to New York City College of Technology (City Tech) by the National Science Foundation to promote the geosciences for students in middle and high schools and for undergraduates, especially for those who are underrepresented minorities in STEM. For the undergraduate students at City Tech, this project: 1) created and introduced geoscience knowledge and opportunities to its diverse undergraduate student population where geoscience is not currently taught at City Tech; and 2) created geoscience articulation agreements. For the middle and high schools, this project: 1) provided inquiry-oriented geoscience experiences (pedagogical and research) for students; 2) provided standards-based professional development (pedagogical and research) in Earth Science for teachers; 3) developed teachers' inquiry-oriented instructional techniques through the GLOBE program; 4) increased teacher content knowledge and confidence in the geosciences; 5) engaged and intrigued students in the application of geoscience activities in a virtual environment; 6) provided students and teachers exposure in the geosciences through trip visitations and seminars; and 7) created community-based geoscience outreach activities. Results from this program have shown significant increases in the students (grades 6-16) understanding, participation, appreciation, and awareness of the geosciences. Geoscience modules have been created and new geosciences courses have been offered. Additionally, students and teachers were engaged in state-of-the-art geoscience research projects, and they were involved in many geoscience events and initiatives. In summary, the activities combined geoscience research experiences with a robust learning community that have produced holistic and engaging stimuli for the scientific and academic growth and development of grades 6
Fafoutis, Xenofon; Sørensen, Thomas; Madsen, Jan
The paper investigates the feasibility of using IEEE 802.11 in energy harvesting low-power sensing applications. The investigation is based on a prototype carbon dioxide sensor node that is powered by artificial indoors light. The wireless communication module of the sensor node is based on the RTX......4100 module. RTX4100 incorporates a wireless protocol that duty-cycles the radio while being compatible with IEEE 802.11 access points. The presented experiments demonstrate sustainable operation but indicate a trade-off between the benefits of using IEEE 802.11 in energy harvesting applications...
Arko, R. A.; Fishman, A. V.
Data interoperability in the marine geosciences has long been hampered by the heterogeneity of our data sets (i.e. the large number and variety of expeditions, platforms, instruments, data types, etc); the corresponding lack of metadata standardization; and a tendency to focus on graphical user interfaces (because geoscience data is highly visual in nature) rather than programmatic interfaces. The Marine Geoscience Data Management System (mgDMS; www.marine-geo.org) is an umbrella project based at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory that is building data repositories and services for the NSF-funded Ridge2000, MARGINS, and U.S. Antarctic Programs. mgDMS is partnered with several closely-related NSF projects including the Ocean Floor Petrology Database (PetDB), Marine Seismic Data Center (SDC), Sediment Geochemistry Database (SedDB), and others -- all of which include international collaborators and data sets -- and thus provides an excellent testbed to develop interoperability. Toward that end, we are implementing metadata standards and programmatic interfaces to facilitate the discovery and exchange of well-documented data sets. ISO 19115 (published in May 2003 and adopted by ANSI in December 2003) is emerging as an international standard for geoscience metadata, and has been adopted by national standards bodies and agencies in the U.S. (FGDC), E.U., Japan, and others. ISO 19115 defines a comprehensive set of elements for both "discovery" (search) and "markup" (use) metadata, and is easily extensible. We have developed a metadata profile for mgDMS which implements the mandatory elements of 19115, and extends it to accommodate the unique aspects of marine geoscience expedition-based data sets. We have implemented the profile as a lightweight REST-type Web service based on a W3C XML schema and associated XSL stylesheet. Closely related to the development of metadata standards is the development of controlled vocabularies to describe platforms, instruments, etc. The
Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Bertelsen, P.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl
Described are some applications of conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) in geosciences. It is shown how easily this technique can be applied in existing Mossbauer laboratories to investigate natural samples. Some examples demonstrate the kind of information CEMS can give on the weath......Described are some applications of conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) in geosciences. It is shown how easily this technique can be applied in existing Mossbauer laboratories to investigate natural samples. Some examples demonstrate the kind of information CEMS can give...
Sharma, V.; Singh, H.; Malhotra, J.
Medium access coordination function basically implements the distributed coordination function (DCF) which provides support to best effort services but limited to QoS services. Subsequently, a new standard, namely enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) is reported. The IEEE 802.11e (EDCA) defines MAC procedures to support QoS requirements which specifies distributed contention based access scheme to access the shared wireless media. This paper evaluates the performance of EDCA based IEEE 802.11 WLAN for various access categories (ACs) using OPNET™ Modeller 14.5. Further, the computed results are compared with DCF protocols in terms of QoS parameters. Furthermore, the simulative observation is reported at data rate of 54 Mbps using different physical layer protocols such as IEEE 802.11a/b/g to stumble on the best one to be implemented with EDCF to achieve improved QoS.
Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Hui-Cheng
In order to achieve the prioritized quality of service (QoS) guarantee, the IEEE 802.11e EDCAF (the enhanced distributed channel access function) provides the distinguished services by configuring the different QoS parameters to different access categories (ACs). An admission control scheme is needed to maximize the utilization of wireless channel. Most of papers study throughput improvement by solving the complicated multidimensional Markov-chain model. In this paper, we introduce a back-off model to study the transmission probability of the different arbitration interframe space number (AIFSN) and the minimum contention window size (CWmin). We propose an adaptive control scheme (ACS) to dynamically update AIFSN and CWmin based on the periodical monitoring of current channel status and QoS requirements to achieve the specific service differentiation at access points (AP). This paper provides an effective tuning mechanism for improving QoS in WLAN. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the basic EDCAF in terms of throughput and service differentiation especially at high collision rate.
Spinak, N. R.
For the past 5 years, the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) has been using the author's sewn models of microfossils to help learners understand the shapes and design of these tiny fossils. These tactile objects make the study of ancient underwater life more tangible. Multiple studies have shown that interactive models can help many learners understand science. The Montessori and Waldorf education programs are based in large part on earlier insights into meeting these needs. The act of drawing has been an essential part of medical education. The STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math) movement has advocated for STEM supporters to recognize the inseparability of science and art. This presentation describes how the author's knitted or sewn models of microfossils incorporate art and design into geoscience education. The geoscience research and art processes used in developing and creating these educational soft sculptures will be described. In multiple entry points to science study, specific reciprocal benefits to boundary crossing among the arts and sciences for those who have primary talents in a particular area of study will be discussed. Geoscience education can benefit from using art and craft items such as models. Many websites now offer soft sculptures for biology study such as organs and germs (e.g. (https://www.giantmicrobes.com/us/main/nasty-germs). The Wortheim project involving community and crochet is another approach (http://crochetcoralreef.org/). These tactile artifacts give learners an entry-level experience with biology. Three dimensional models are multisensory. The enlarged manipulative microfossil models invite learners to make comparisons and gain insights when microscopes are not available or appropriate for the audience. Adding the physical involvement of creating a microfossil yourself increases the multi-sensory experience even further. Learning craft skills extends the cross-cutting concepts of the NGSS to a mutual
Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Fox, S.; Ledley, T. S.; Macdonald, H.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.
Over the past 15 years, the geoscience education community has grown substantially and developed broad and deep capacity for collaboration and dissemination of ideas. While this community is best viewed as emergent from complex interactions among changing educational needs and opportunities, we highlight the role of several large projects in the development of a network within this community. In the 1990s, three NSF projects came together to build a robust web infrastructure to support the production and dissemination of on-line resources: On The Cutting Edge (OTCE), Earth Exploration Toolbook, and Starting Point: Teaching Introductory Geoscience. Along with the contemporaneous Digital Library for Earth System Education, these projects engaged geoscience educators nationwide in exploring professional development experiences that produced lasting on-line resources, collaborative authoring of resources, and models for web-based support for geoscience teaching. As a result, a culture developed in the 2000s in which geoscience educators anticipated that resources for geoscience teaching would be shared broadly and that collaborative authoring would be productive and engaging. By this time, a diverse set of examples demonstrated the power of the web infrastructure in supporting collaboration, dissemination and professional development . Building on this foundation, more recent work has expanded both the size of the network and the scope of its work. Many large research projects initiated collaborations to disseminate resources supporting educational use of their data. Research results from the rapidly expanding geoscience education research community were integrated into the Pedagogies in Action website and OTCE. Projects engaged faculty across the nation in large-scale data collection and educational research. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network and OTCE engaged community members in reviewing the expanding body of on-line resources. Building Strong
Avellis, Giovanna; Theodoridou, Magdalini
More and more women today are choosing to study science and undertake scientific careers. Likewise mobility during one's career is increasingly important as research tends to be undertaken via international collaboration, often within networks based on the researchers mobility, especially in geosciences. We have developed an ebook on Role Models for boosting mobility of women scientists to showcase the careers of women scientists who have undertaken mobility during their careers. It is hoped that their stories will provide young women who are just starting out in their science careers with inspirational role models, and that these stories give them realistic information about career opportunities: many of them are women scientists in geosciences. These are not famous scientists, but rather real examples of people who express all the passion of the world of science. It is hoped that reading about successful scientists who have achieved a healthy work-life balance while moving to new locations will be particularly helpful for those individuals considering mobility in their own career. The ebook is available to be used by programs that support the development of systematic approaches to increasing the representation and advancement of women in science, engineering and technology, since mobility plays a key role in these programs. The stories contained herein will be useful to mentoring or advising program focusing on career, networking opportunities, discussion and grants opportunities in conjunction with mobility. There is still a gap between female graduates and the pool of female job applicants - even though the proportion of female graduate students and postdocs in most scientific fields is higher today than it is ever been. Therefore we suggest that focus should be placed on examining the real challenges which women need to overcome, particularly when "mobility" comes into play. Role models who have overcome these challenges will continue to play an important
Jabłoński, G.; Makowski, D.; Mielczarek, A.; Orlikowski, M.; Perek, P.; Napieralski, A.; Makijarvi, P.; Simrock, S.
Distributed data acquisition and control systems in large-scale scientific experiments, like e.g. ITER, require time synchronization with nanosecond precision. A protocol commonly used for that purpose is the Precise Timing Protocol (PTP), also known as IEEE 1588 standard. It uses the standard Ethernet signalling and protocols and allows obtaining timing accuracy of the order of tens of nanoseconds. The MTCA.4 is gradually becoming the platform of choice for building such systems. Currently there is no commercially available implementation of the PTP receiver on that platform. In this paper, we present a module in the MTCA.4 form factor supporting this standard. The module may be used as a timing receiver providing reference clocks in an MTCA.4 chassis, generating a Pulse Per Second (PPS) signal and allowing generation of triggers and timestamping of events on 8 configurable backplane lines and two front panel connectors. The module is based on the Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA and thermally stabilized Voltage Controlled Oscillator controlled by the digital-to-analog converter. The board supports standalone operation, without the support from the host operating system, as the entire control algorithm is run on a Microblaze CPU implemented in the FPGA. The software support for the card includes the low-level API in the form of Linux driver, user-mode library, high-level API: ITER Nominal Device Support and EPICS IOC. The device has been tested in the ITER timing distribution network (TCN) with three cascaded PTP-enabled Hirschmann switches and a GPS reference clock source. An RMS synchronization accuracy, measured by direct comparison of the PPS signals, better than 20 ns has been obtained.
Tennina, Stefano; Daidone, Roberta; Alves, Mário; Jurčík, Petr; Severino, Ricardo; Tiloca, Marco; Hauer, Jan-Hinrich; Pereira, Nuno; Dini, Gianluca; Bouroche, Mélanie; Tovar, Eduardo
This book outlines the most important characteristics of IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee and how they can be used to engineer Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) systems and applications, with a particular focus on Quality-of-Service (QoS) aspects. It starts by providing a snapshot of the most relevant features of these two protocols, identifying some gaps in the standard specifications. Then it describes several state-of-the-art open-source implementations, models and tools that have been designed by the authors and have been widely used by the international community. The book also outlines the fundamental performance limits of IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee networks, based on well-sustained analytical, simulation and experimental models, including how to dimension such networks to optimize delay/energy trade-offs.
Otto, Mathias; Kuhn, Alexander; Engelke, Wito; Theisel, Holger
In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall
Kim, Jong Seog
IEEE323 standard has been widely used for the qualification of electric equipment in Asian pacific area while IEC6070 has been mostly used in European area. Since each plant use different standard for environmental qualification, manufacturer has to perform the qualification test twice in accordance with each standard. Problem also can be happened in the plant site when they are going to purchase equipment qualified by different qualification standard which are not used in his plant. The need of harmonization of each standard has been raised several years and it is known that some studies are in progress by IEEE committee. KEPRI has a plan of comparing EQ relative standards of IEEE, IEC and RCC in 2009. In this paper, brief comparing result between IEEE323 and IEC60780 and the proper harmonization method is introduced
The convenience of IEEE 8O2.11-based wireless access networks has led to widespread deployment in the consumer, industrial and military sectors However, this use is predicated on an implicit assumption of confidentiality...
Full Text Available We have found the errors in the throughput formulae presented in our paper "Connectivity-based reliable multicast MAC protocol for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs". We provide the corrected formulae and numerical results.
...) attacks targeting its management and media access protocols Computer simulation models have proven to be effective tools in the study of cause and effect in numerous fields This thesis involved the design and implementation of a IEEE 8O2.11-based simulation model using OMNeT++, to investigate the effects of different types of DoS attacks on a IEEE 8O2.11 network, and the effectiveness of corresponding countermeasures.
Homeland Security Affairs is the peer-reviewed online journal of the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS), providing a forum to propose and debate strategies, policies, and organizational arrangements to strengthen U.S. homeland security. The instructors, participants, alumni, and partners of CHDS represent the leading subject matter experts and practitioners in the field of homeland security. IEEE Supplement 2012. Supplement: IEEE 2011 Conference on Te...
Bhatia, Swapnil P.; Bartos, Radim
The proposed standard for the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Passive Optical Network includes a random delayed transmission scheme for registration of new nodes. Although the scheme performs well on low loads, our simulation demonstrates the degraded and undesirable performance of the scheme at higher loads. We propose a simple modification to the current scheme that increases its range of operation and is compatible with the IEEE draft standard. We demonstrate the improvement in performance gained without any significant increase in registration delay.
Roworth, D. A. A.; Howe, N.
The progress of the IEEE 802.3 standard for fibre optic LANs is indicated with reference to both mixed media networks and full fibre networks. For a fibre optic network the most suitable layout is a "snowflake" topology composed of multiport repeaters and active fibre hubs. A range of components is described which enables the realisation of such a topology in conformance with the IEEE 802.3 standard.
Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.
This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.
Kuo-Feng Huang; Shih-Jung Wu
Supporting Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for diverse multimedia services is the primary concern for IEEE802.16j networks. A scheduling scheme that satisfies the QoS requirements has become more important for wireless communications. We proposed an adaptive nontransparent-based distributed scheduling scheme (ANDS) for IEEE 802.16j networks. ANDS comprises three major components: Priority Assignment, Resource Allocation, Preserved Bandwidth Adjustment. Different service-type connections p...
The DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) is the basic MAC (Medium Access Control) protocol of IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs and compatible with various IEEE 802.11 PHY extensions. The performance of the DCF degrades exponentially as the number of nodes participating in the DCF transmission procedure increases. To deal with this problem, we propose a simple, however efficient modification of the DCF by which the performance of the DCF is greatly enhanced.
4.2.1 Wald–Wolfowitz Runs Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4.2.2 Wald–Wolfowitz Application to SXS System . . . . . . . . . . . . 42...Station SXS Signals eXploitation System USB Universal Serial Bus xiv Acronym Definition USRP Universal Software Radio Peripheral WLAN Wireless Local...Electronics Engineers (IEEE) defines standards applicable to the IEEE 802.11 protocol, however the standard does not reach the level of specificity to dictate
Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Santoro, Mattia; Nativi, Stefano
GI-suite is a brokering framework targeting interoperability of heterogeneous systems in the Geoscience domain. The framework is composed by different brokers each one focusing on a specific functionality: discovery, access and semantics (i.e. GI-cat, GI-axe, GI-sem). The brokering takes place between a set of heterogeneous publishing services and a set of heterogeneous consumer applications: the brokering target is represented by resources (e.g. coverages, features, or metadata information) required to seamlessly flow from the providers to the consumers. Different international and community standards are now supported by GI-suite, making possible the successful deployment of GI-suite in many international projects and initiatives (such as GEOSS, NSF BCube and several EU funded projects). As for the publisher side more than 40 standards and implementations are supported (e.g. Dublin Core, OAI-PMH, OGC W*S, Geonetwork, THREDDS Data Server, Hyrax Server, etc.). The support for each individual standard is provided by means of specific GI-suite components, called accessors. As for the consumer applications side more than 15 standards and implementations are supported (e.g. ESRI ArcGIS, Openlayers, OGC W*S, OAI-PMH clients, etc.). The support for each individual standard is provided by means of specific profiler components. The GI-suite can be used in different scenarios by different actors: - A data provider having a pre-existent data repository can deploy and configure GI-suite to broker it and making thus available its data resources through different protocols to many different users (e.g. for data discovery and/or data access) - A data consumer can use GI-suite to discover and/or access resources from a variety of publishing services that are already publishing data according to well-known standards. - A community can deploy and configure GI-suite to build a community (or project-specific) broker: GI-suite can broker a set of community related repositories and
Marshak, S.; Tomkin, J. H.
Efforts to develop free Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have exploded in the last year, and geoscience education is part of this boom. Developing and delivering a MOOC is a major undertaking, and the proliferation of MOOCs can potentially be disruptive to more traditional forms of education, so it's worth asking: What role can/should/will MOOCs play in future geoscience education? Our experience in developing and delivering two MOOCs--Introduction to Sustainability (the first geoscience-related MOOC ever delivered), and Planet Earth . . . and You--provide insight into the impact that a MOOC can have, and into approaches that can work to yield a pedagogically sound experience. Both of these courses cover content similar to that of lower-division college classes, but MOOCs have very different participants than do equivalent, for-credit (i.e., for-fee) university courses. Examination of statistics that characterize student performance, along with interpretations of exit surveys, indicate that MOOC participants are older, are more likely to be working, are not enrolled in a college, and have different educational backgrounds than do traditional students. Significantly, MOOC participants are international (more than100 different nationalities were represented in our MOOCs) and come from both western and non-western traditions. This situation not only leads to ESL challenges, but also enables cross-cultural discussions and global ("crowd sourcing") data collection, beyond what is possible in traditional classes. Peak participant performance is very high (better than the performance of students in campus courses), but drop-out rates are also very high (typically, less than 20% of participants complete all assignments). Active MOOC participants perform as well in online assessments as do either traditional on-campus or traditional (small class, for-credit) online students. MOOC development can improve on-campus instruction, partly through technology transfer and partly
Caudill, C. M.; Richard, S. M.; Musil, L.; Sonnenschein, A.; Good, J.
The U.S. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) provides free open access to millions of geoscience data records, publications, maps, and reports via distributed web services to propel geothermal research, development, and production. NGDS is built on the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework, which is a joint undertaking of the USGS and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG), and is compliant with international standards and protocols. NGDS currently serves geoscience information from 60+ data providers in all 50 states. Free and open source software is used in this federated system where data owners maintain control of their data. This interactive online system makes geoscience data easily discoverable, accessible, and interoperable at no cost to users. The dynamic project site http://geothermaldata.org serves as the information source and gateway to the system, allowing data and applications discovery and availability of the system's data feed. It also provides access to NGDS specifications and the free and open source code base (on GitHub), a map-centric and library style search interface, other software applications utilizing NGDS services, NGDS tutorials (via YouTube and USGIN site), and user-created tools and scripts. The user-friendly map-centric web-based application has been created to support finding, visualizing, mapping, and acquisition of data based on topic, location, time, provider, or key words. Geographic datasets visualized through the map interface also allow users to inspect the details of individual GIS data points (e.g. wells, geologic units, etc.). In addition, the interface provides the information necessary for users to access the GIS data from third party software applications such as GoogleEarth, UDig, and ArcGIS. A redistributable, free and open source software package called GINstack (USGIN software stack) was also created to give data providers a simple way to release data using
Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Skrimshire, Stefan
Although it is acknowledged that there has been an exponential growth in neocatastrophist geoscience inquiry, the extent, chronology and origin of this mode have not been precisely scrutinized. In this study, we use the bibliographic research tool Scopus to explore 'catastrophic' words replete in the earth and planetary science literature between 1950 and 2009, assessing when, where and why catastrophism has gained new currency amongst the geoscience community. First, we elucidate an exponential rise in neocatastrophist research from the 1980s onwards. We then argue that the neocatastrophist mode came to prominence in North America during the 1960s and 1970s before being more widely espoused in Europe, essentially after 1980. We compare these trends with the EM-DAT disaster database, a worldwide catalogue that compiles more than 11,000 natural disasters stretching back to 1900. The findings imply a clear link between anthropogenically forced global change and an increase in disaster research (r 2 = 0.73). Finally, we attempt to explain the rise of neocatastrophism by highlighting seven non-exhaustive factors: (1) the rise of applied geoscience; (2) inherited geological epistemology; (3) disciplinary interaction and the diffusion of ideas from the planetary to earth sciences; (4) the advent of radiometric dating techniques; (5) the communications revolution; (6) webometry and the quest for high-impact geoscience; and (7) popular cultural frameworks.
Wiggen, Jennifer; McDonnell, David
A series of short (5 to 7 minutes long) geoscience videos were created to support student learning in a flipped class setting for an introductory geology class at North Carolina State University. Videos were made using a stylus, tablet, microphone, and video editing software. Essentially, we narrate a slide, sketch a diagram, or explain a figure…
Wang, Chengbin; Ma, Xiaogang; Chen, Jianguo; Chen, Jingwen
Geoscience literature published online is an important part of open data, and brings both challenges and opportunities for data analysis. Compared with studies of numerical geoscience data, there are limited works on information extraction and knowledge discovery from textual geoscience data. This paper presents a workflow and a few empirical case studies for that topic, with a focus on documents written in Chinese. First, we set up a hybrid corpus combining the generic and geology terms from geology dictionaries to train Chinese word segmentation rules of the Conditional Random Fields model. Second, we used the word segmentation rules to parse documents into individual words, and removed the stop-words from the segmentation results to get a corpus constituted of content-words. Third, we used a statistical method to analyze the semantic links between content-words, and we selected the chord and bigram graphs to visualize the content-words and their links as nodes and edges in a knowledge graph, respectively. The resulting graph presents a clear overview of key information in an unstructured document. This study proves the usefulness of the designed workflow, and shows the potential of leveraging natural language processing and knowledge graph technologies for geoscience.
Young, De'Etra; Trimboli, Shannon; Toomey, Rick S.; Byl, Thomas D.
A workforce that draws from all segments of society and mirrors the ethnic, racial, and gender diversity of the United States population is important. The geosciences (geology, hydrology, geospatial sciences, environmental sciences) continue to lag far behind other science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines in recruiting and retaining minorities (Valsco and Valsco, 2010). A report published by the National Science Foundation in 2015, “Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering” states that from 2002 to 2012, less than 2% of the geoscience degrees were awarded to African-American students. Data also show that as of 2012, approximately 30% of African-American Ph.D. graduates obtained a bachelor’s degree from a Historic Black College or University (HBCU), indicating that HBCUs are a great source of diverse students for the geosciences. This paper reviews how an informal partnership between Tennessee State University (a HBCU), the U.S. Geological Survey, and Mammoth Cave National Park engaged students in scientific research and increased the number of students pursuing employment or graduate degrees in the geosciences.
This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…
Geocognition and geoscience education research have experienced a dramatic increase in research productivity and graduate student training in the past decade. At this writing, over twelve U.S. graduate programs dedicated to geocognition and geoscience education research exist within geoscience departments, with numerous other programs housed within education. International research programs are experiencing similar increases in these research domains. This insurgence of graduate training opportunities is due in large part to several factors, including: An increased awareness of the importance of Earth Systems Science to public understanding of science, particularly in light of global concern about climate change; new funding opportunities for science education, cognitive science, and geoscience education research; and, engagement of a significant part of the geosciences and education communities in writing new standards for Earth Systems literacy. Existing research programs blend geoscience content knowledge with research expertise in education, cognitive science, psychology, sociology and related disciplines. Research projects reflect the diversity of interests in geoscience teaching and learning, from investigations of pedagogical impact and professional development to studies of fundamental geocognitive processes.
Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.
Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset
Ormand, C. J.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Bralower, T. J.; Clemens-Knott, D.; Doser, D. I.; Feiss, P. G.; Rhodes, D. D.; Richardson, R. M.; Savina, M. E.
The Building Strong Geoscience Departments project focuses on helping geoscience departments adapt and prosper in a changing and challenging environment. From 2005-2009, the project offered workshop programs on topics such as student recruitment, program assessment, preparing students for the workforce, and strengthening geoscience programs. Participants shared their departments' challenges and successes. Building on best practices and most promising strategies from these workshops and on workshop leaders' experiences, from 2009-2011 the project ran a visiting workshop program, bringing workshops to 18 individual departments. Two major strengths of the visiting workshop format are that it engages the entire department in the program, fostering a sense of shared ownership and vision, and that it focuses on each department's unique situation. Departments applied to have a visiting workshop, and the process was highly competitive. Selected departments chose from a list of topics developed through the prior workshops: curriculum and program design, program elements beyond the curriculum, recruiting students, preparing students for the workforce, and program assessment. Two of our workshop leaders worked with each department to customize and deliver the 1-2 day programs on campus. Each workshop incorporated exercises to facilitate active departmental discussions, presentations incorporating concrete examples drawn from the leaders' experience and from the collective experiences of the geoscience community, and action planning to scaffold implementation. All workshops also incorporated information on building departmental consensus and assessing departmental efforts. The Building Strong Geoscience Departments website complements the workshops with extensive examples from the geoscience community. Of the 201 participants in the visiting workshop program, 140 completed an end of workshop evaluation survey with an overall satisfaction rating of 8.8 out of a possible 10
Manduca, C. A.; Hancock, G. S.
Modern geoscience is a highly quantitative science. In February, a small group of faculty and graduate students from across the country met to discuss the quantitative preparation of geoscience majors for graduate school. The group included ten faculty supervising graduate students in quantitative areas spanning the earth, atmosphere, and ocean sciences; five current graduate students in these areas; and five faculty teaching undergraduate students in the spectrum of institutions preparing students for graduate work. Discussion focused in four key ares: Are incoming graduate students adequately prepared for the quantitative aspects of graduate geoscience programs? What are the essential quantitative skills are that are required for success in graduate school? What are perceived as the important courses to prepare students for the quantitative aspects of graduate school? What programs/resources would be valuable in helping faculty/departments improve the quantitative preparation of students? The participants concluded that strengthening the quantitative preparation of undergraduate geoscience majors would increase their opportunities in graduate school. While specifics differed amongst disciplines, a special importance was placed on developing the ability to use quantitative skills to solve geoscience problems. This requires the ability to pose problems so they can be addressed quantitatively, understand the relationship between quantitative concepts and physical representations, visualize mathematics, test the reasonableness of quantitative results, creatively move forward from existing models/techniques/approaches, and move between quantitative and verbal descriptions. A list of important quantitative competencies desirable in incoming graduate students includes mechanical skills in basic mathematics, functions, multi-variate analysis, statistics and calculus, as well as skills in logical analysis and the ability to learn independently in quantitative ways
Prakash, A.; Ohler, J.; Cooper, C.; McDermott, M.; Heinrich, J.; Johnson, R.; Leeper, L.; Polk, N.; Wimer, T.
Attracting Minorities to Geosciences Through Involved Digital Story Telling (AMIDST) is a project funded by the Geoscience Directorate of the National Science Foundation through their program entitled Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in Geosciences. This project centers around the idea of integrating place-based geoscience education with culturally sensitive digital story telling, to engage and attract Alaska’s native and rural children from grades 3 through 5 to geosciences. In Spring 2008 we brought together a team 2 native elders, a group of scientists and technicians, an evaluator, 2 teachers and their 24 third grade students from Fairbanks (interior Alaska) to create computer-based digital stories around the geoscience themes of permafrost, and forest fires. These two to four minutes digital narratives consisted of a series of images accompanied by music and a voice-over narration by the children. In Fall 2008 we worked with a similar group from Nome (coastal town in western Alaska). The geoscience themes were climate change, and gold in Alaska. This time the students used the same kind of “green screen” editing so prevalent in science fiction movies. Students enacted and recorded their stories in front of a green screen and in post-production replaced the green background with photos, drawings and scientific illustrations related to their stories. Evaluation involved pre and post project tests for all participants, mid-term individual interviews and exit-interviews of selected participants. Project final assessment results from an independent education evaluator showed that both students and teachers improved their geo science content knowledge about permafrost, forest fires, gold mining, and sea ice changes. Teachers and students went through a very steep learning curve and gained experience and new understanding in digital storytelling in the context of geologic phenomena of local interest. Children took pride in being creators, directors and
Manduca, C.; Tewksbury, B.; Egger, A.; MacDonald, H.; Kirk, K.
Introductory undergraduate courses play a pivotal role in the geosciences. They serve as recruiting grounds for majors and future professionals, provide relevant experiences in geoscience for pre-service teachers, and offer opportunities to influence future policy makers, business people, professionals, and citizens. An introductory course is also typically the only course in geoscience that most of our students will ever take. Because the role of introductory courses is pivotal in geoscience education, a workshop on Teaching Introductory Courses in the 21st Century was held in July 2008 as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty development program. A website was also developed in conjunction with the workshop. One of the central themes of the workshop was the importance of considering the long-term impact a course should have on students. Ideally, courses can be designed with this impact in mind. Approaches include using the local geology to focus the course and illustrate concepts; designing a course for particular audience (such as Geology for Engineers); creating course features that help students understand and interpret geoscience in the news; and developing capstone projects to teach critical thinking and problem solving skills in a geologic context. Workshop participants also explored strategies for designing engaging activities including exploring with Google Earth, using real-world scenarios, connecting with popular media, or making use of campus features on local field trips. In addition, introductory courses can emphasize broad skills such as teaching the process of science, using quantitative reasoning and developing communication skills. Materials from the workshop as well as descriptions of more than 150 introductory courses and 350 introductory-level activities are available on the website: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/intro/index.html.
Adams, Amanda; Patino, Lina; Jones, Michael B.; Rom, Elizabeth
The geosciences continue to lag other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines in the engagement, recruitment and retention of traditionally underrepresented and underserved minorities, requiring more focused and strategic efforts to address this problem. Prior investments made by the National Science Foundation (NSF) related to broadening participation in STEM have identified many effective strategies and model programs for engaging, recruiting, and retaining underrepresented students in the geosciences. These investments also have documented clearly the importance of committed, knowledgeable, and persistent leadership for making local progress in broadening participation in STEM and the geosciences. Achieving diversity at larger and systemic scales requires a network of diversity "champions" who can catalyze widespread adoption of these evidence-based best practices and resources. Although many members of the geoscience community are committed to the ideals of broadening participation, the skills and competencies that empower people who wish to have an impact, and make them effective as leaders in that capacity for sustained periods of time, must be cultivated through professional development. The NSF GEO Opportunities for Leadership in Diversity (GOLD) program was implemented in 2016, as a funding opportunity utilizing the Ideas Lab mechanism. Ideas Labs are intensive workshops focused on finding innovative solutions to grand challenge problems. The ultimate aim of this Ideas Lab, organized by the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO), was to facilitate the design, pilot implementation, and evaluation of innovative professional development curricula that can unleash the potential of geoscientists with interests in broadening participation to become impactful leaders within the community. The expectation is that mixing geoscientists with experts in broadening participation research, behavioral change, social psychology, institutional
Wysession, M. E.; Colson, M.; Duschl, R. A.; Lopez, R. E.; Messina, P.; Speranza, P.
The new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which spell out a set of K-12 performance expectations for life science, physical science, and Earth and space science (ESS), pose a variety of opportunities and challenges for geoscience education. Among the changes recommended by the NGSS include establishing ESS on an equal footing with both life science and physical sciences, at the full K-12 level. This represents a departure from the traditional high school curriculum in most states. In addition, ESS is presented as a complex, integrated, interdisciplinary, quantitative Earth Systems-oriented set of sciences that includes complex and politically controversial topics such as climate change and human impacts. The geoscience communities will need to mobilize in order to assist and aid in the full implementation of ESS aspects of the NGSS in as many states as possible. In this context, the NGSS highlight Earth and space science to an unprecedented degree. If the NGSS are implemented in an optimal manner, a year of ESS will be taught in both middle and high school. In addition, because of the complexity and interconnectedness of the ESS content (with material such as climate change and human sustainability), it is recommended (Appendix K of the NGSS release) that much of it be taught following physics, chemistry, and biology. However, there are considerable challenges to a full adoption of the NGSS. A sufficient work force of high school geoscientists qualified in modern Earth Systems Science does not exist and will need to be trained. Many colleges do not credit high school geoscience as a lab science with respect to college admission. The NGSS demand curricular practices that include analyzing and interpreting real geoscience data, and these curricular modules do not yet exist. However, a concerted effort on the part of geoscience research and education organizations can help resolve these challenges.
Yu, H.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tang, Z.; Kuo, K. S.
Along with advanced computing and observation technologies, geoscience and its related fields have been generating a large amount of data at an unprecedented growth rate. Visualization becomes an increasingly attractive and feasible means for researchers to effectively and efficiently access and explore data to gain new understandings and discoveries. However, visualization has been challenging due to a lack of effective data models and visual representations to tackle the heterogeneity of geoscience data. We propose a new geoscience data visualization framework by leveraging the interface automata theory to automatically generate user interface (UI). Our study has the following three main contributions. First, geoscience data has its unique hierarchy data structure and complex formats, and therefore it is relatively easy for users to get lost or confused during their exploration of the data. By applying interface automata model to the UI design, users can be clearly guided to find the exact visualization and analysis that they want. In addition, from a development perspective, interface automaton is also easier to understand than conditional statements, which can simplify the development process. Second, it is common that geoscience data has discontinuity in its hierarchy structure. The application of interface automata can prevent users from suffering automation surprises, and enhance user experience. Third, for supporting a variety of different data visualization and analysis, our design with interface automata could also make applications become extendable in that a new visualization function or a new data group could be easily added to an existing application, which reduces the overhead of maintenance significantly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework using real-world applications.
Allison, M.; Gundersen, L. C.; Richard, S. M.; Dickinson, T. L.
A coalition of the state geological surveys (AASG), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and partners will receive NSF funding over 3 years under the INTEROP solicitation to start building the Geoscience Information Network (www.geoinformatics.info/gin) a distributed, interoperable data network. The GIN project will develop standardized services to link existing and in-progress components using a few standards and protocols, and work with data providers to implement these services. The key components of this network are 1) catalog system(s) for data discovery; 2) service definitions for interfaces for searching catalogs and accessing resources; 3) shared interchange formats to encode information for transmission (e.g. various XML markup languages); 4) data providers that publish information using standardized services defined by the network; and 5) client applications adapted to use information resources provided by the network. The GIN will integrate and use catalog resources that currently exist or are in development. We are working with the USGS National Geologic Map Database's existing map catalog, with the USGS National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program, which is developing a metadata catalog (National Digital Catalog) for geoscience information resource discovery, and with the GEON catalog. Existing interchange formats will be used, such as GeoSciML, ChemML, and Open Geospatial Consortium sensor, observation and measurement MLs. Client application development will be fostered by collaboration with industry and academic partners. The GIN project will focus on the remaining aspects of the system -- service definitions and assistance to data providers to implement the services and bring content online - and on system integration of the modules. Initial formal collaborators include the OneGeology-Europe consortium of 27 nations that is building a comparable network under the EU INSPIRE initiative, GEON, Earthchem, and GIS software company ESRI
In this introduction to the Special Issue on Gender and Geoethics in the Geosciences is a focus on the participation of women in traditionally male-dominated professions, with geography as an exemplary academic subject. The Special Issue stems from the Commission of Gender and Geoethics as part of the International Association of Geoethics, and endeavors to bring together efforts at various spatial scales that examine the position of women in science and engineering in particular, as conveyed in engineering geology, disaster management sciences, and climate change adaptation studies. It has been discovered, for instance, that men are more active and personally prepared at the community level (in Atlantic Canada coastal communities), and more action is still required in developing countries especially to promote gender equality and empower women. Studies contained in this Special Issue also reveal that tutoring and mentoring by other women can promote further involvement in non-traditional professions, such as professional engineering geology, where women are preferring more traditional (less applied) approaches that may circumscribe their ability to find suitable employment after graduation. Moreover, the hiring policy needs to change in many countries, such as Canada, where there are fewer women at entry-level and senior ranks within geography, especially in physical geography as the scientific part of the discipline. The exclusion of women in traditionally male-dominated spheres needs to be addressed and rectified for the ascent of women to occur in scientific geography and in other geosciences as well as science and engineering at large.
In this introduction to the Special Issue on Gender and Geoethics in the Geosciences is a focus on the participation of women in traditionally male-dominated professions, with geography as an exemplary academic subject. The Special Issue stems from the Commission of Gender and Geoethics as part of the International Association of Geoethics, and endeavors to bring together efforts at various spatial scales that examine the position of women in science and engineering in particular, as conveyed in engineering geology, disaster management sciences, and climate change adaptation studies. It has been discovered, for instance, that men are more active and personally prepared at the community level (in Atlantic Canada coastal communities), and more action is still required in developing countries especially to promote gender equality and empower women. Studies contained in this Special Issue also reveal that tutoring and mentoring by other women can promote further involvement in non-traditional professions, such as professional engineering geology, where women are preferring more traditional (less applied) approaches that may circumscribe their ability to find suitable employment after graduation. Moreover, the hiring policy needs to change in many countries, such as Canada, where there are fewer women at entry-level and senior ranks within geography, especially in physical geography as the scientific part of the discipline. The exclusion of women in traditionally male-dominated spheres needs to be addressed and rectified for the ascent of women to occur in scientific geography and in other geosciences as well as science and engineering at large. PMID:27043609
Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.
Lake Superior State University (LSSU) developed the GRANITE (Geological Reasoning And Natives Investigating The Earth) to engage high school students in the geosciences. The GRANITE program's target audience is Native American high school students and other populations underrepresented in the geosciences. Through the GRANITE program students undertake a variety of field and laboratory geosciences activities that culminates in a two week summer geoscience field experience during which they travel from Michigan to Wyoming. The sites students visit were selected because of their interesting and diverse geologic features and because in many cases they have special significance to Native American communities. Examples of the processes and localities studied by GRANITE students include igneous processes at Bear Butte, SD (Mato Paha) and Devil's Tower, WY (Mato Tipila); sedimentary processes in the Badlands, SD (Mako Sica) and Black Hills, SD (Paha Sapa); karst processes at Wind Cave, SD (Wasun Niye) and Vore Buffalo Jump; structural processes at Van Hise rock, WI and Dillon normal fault Badlands, SD; hydrologic and laucustrine processes along the Great Lakes and at the Fond du Lac Reservation, MN; fluvial processes along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; geologic resources at the Homestake Mine, SD and Champion Mine, MI; and metamorphic processes at Pipestone, MN and Baraboo, WI. Through the GRANITE experience students develop an understanding of how geoscience is an important part of their lives, their communities and the world around them. The GRANITE program also promotes each student's growth and confidence to attend college and stresses the importance of taking challenging math and science courses in high school. Geoscience career opportunities are discussed at specific geologic localities and through general discussions. GRANITE students learn geosciences concepts and their application to Native communities and society in general through activities and
Richard, S.; Allison, L.; Clark, R.; Coleman, C.; Chen, G.
The US Geoscience information network has developed metadata profiles for interoperable catalog services based on ISO19139 and the OGC CSW 2.0.2. Currently data services are being deployed for the US Dept. of Energy-funded National Geothermal Data System. These services utilize OGC Web Map Services, Web Feature Services, and THREDDS-served NetCDF for gridded datasets. Services and underlying datasets (along with a wide variety of other information and non information resources are registered in the catalog system. Metadata for registration is produced by various workflows, including harvest from OGC capabilities documents, Drupal-based web applications, transformation from tabular compilations. Catalog search is implemented using the ESRI Geoportal open-source server. We are pursuing various client applications to demonstrated discovery and utilization of the data services. Currently operational applications allow catalog search and data acquisition from map services in an ESRI ArcMap extension, a catalog browse and search application built on openlayers and Django. We are developing use cases and requirements for other applications to utilize geothermal data services for resource exploration and evaluation.
Clinton, Sandra; Adams, Amanda; Barnes, Rebecca; Bloodhart, Brittany; Bowker, Cheryl; Burt, Melissa; Godfrey, Elaine; Henderson, Heather; Hernandez, Paul; Pollack, Ilana; Sample McMeeking, Laura Beth; Sayers, Jennifer; Fischer, Emily
Women still remain underrepresented in many areas of the geosciences, and this underrepresentation often begins early in their university career. In 2015, an interdisciplinary team including expertise in the geosciences (multiple sub-disciplines), psychology, education and STEM persistence began a project focused on understanding whether mentoring can increase the interest, persistence, and achievement of undergraduate women in geoscience fields. The developed program (PROGRESS) focuses on mentoring undergraduate female students, starting in their 1st and 2nd year, from two geographically disparate areas of the United States: the Carolinas in the southeastern part of the United States and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in the western part of the United States. The two regions were chosen due to their different student demographics, as well as the differences in the number of working female geoscientists in the region. The mentoring program includes a weekend workshop, access to professional women across geoscience fields, and both in-person and virtual peer networks. Four cohorts of students were recruited and participated in our professional development workshops (88 participants in Fall 2015 and 94 participants in Fall 2016). Components of the workshops included perceptions of the geosciences, women in STEM misconceptions, identifying personal strengths, coping strategies, and skills on building their own personal network. The web-platform (http://geosciencewomen.org/), designed to enable peer-mentoring and provide resources, was launched in the fall of 2015 and is used by both cohorts in conjunction with social media platforms. We will present an overview of the major components of the program, discuss lessons learned during 2015 that were applied to 2016, and share preliminary analyses of surveys and interviews with study participants from the first two years of a five-year longitudinal study that follows PROGRESS participants and a control group.
Atchison, C.; Libarkin, J. C.
Individuals with disabilities are not entering pathways leading to the geoscience workforce; the reasons for which continue to elude access-focused geoscience educators. While research has focused on barriers individuals face entering into STEM disciplines, very little research has considered the role that practitioner perceptions play in limiting access and accommodation to scientific disciplines. The authors argue that changing the perceptions within the geoscience community is an important step to removing barriers to entry into the myriad fields that make up the geosciences. This paper reports on an investigation of the perceptions that geoscientist practitioners hold about opportunities for engagement in geoscience careers for people with disabilities. These perspectives were collected through three separate iterations of surveys at three professional geoscience meetings in the US and Australia between 2011 and 2012. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which individuals with specific types of disabilities would be able to perform various geoscientific tasks. The information obtained from these surveys provides an initial step in engaging the larger geoscience community in a necessary discussion of minimizing the barriers of access to include students and professionals with disabilities. The results imply that a majority of the geoscience community believes that accessible opportunities exist for inclusion regardless of disability. This and other findings suggest that people with disabilities are viewed as viable professionals once in the geosciences, but the pathways into the discipline are prohibitive. Perceptions of how individuals gain entry into the field are at odds with perceptions of accessibility. This presentation will discuss the common geoscientist perspectives of access and inclusion in the geoscience discipline and how these results might impact the future of the geoscience workforce pathway for individuals with disabilities.
Kress, V. C.; Ghiorso, M. S.
The CTserver platform is an Internet-based computational resource that provides on-demand services in Computational Thermodynamics (CT) to a diverse geoscience user base. This NSF-supported resource can be accessed at ctserver.ofm-research.org. The CTserver infrastructure leverages a high-quality and rigorously tested software library of routines for computing equilibrium phase assemblages and for evaluating internally consistent thermodynamic properties of materials, e.g. mineral solid solutions and a variety of geological fluids, including magmas. Thermodynamic models are currently available for 167 phases. Recent additions include Duan, Møller and Weare's model for supercritical C-O-H-S, extended to include SO2 and S2 species, and an entirely new associated solution model for O-S-Fe-Ni sulfide liquids. This software library is accessed via the CORBA Internet protocol for client-server communication. CORBA provides a standardized, object-oriented, language and platform independent, fast, low-bandwidth interface to phase property modules running on the server cluster. Network transport, language translation and resource allocation are handled by the CORBA interface. Users access server functionality in two principal ways. Clients written as browser- based Java applets may be downloaded which provide specific functionality such as retrieval of thermodynamic properties of phases, computation of phase equilibria for systems of specified composition, or modeling the evolution of these systems along some particular reaction path. This level of user interaction requires minimal programming effort and is ideal for classroom use. A more universal and flexible mode of CTserver access involves making remote procedure calls from user programs directly to the server public interface. The CTserver infrastructure relieves the user of the burden of implementing and testing the often complex thermodynamic models of real liquids and solids. A pilot application of this distributed
Sztein, E.; Casadevall, T.
Science can provide advice to inform and support foreign policy objectives (science in diplomacy), diplomacy can facilitate international scientific cooperation (diplomacy for science), and scientific cooperation can improve international relations (science for diplomacy) (The Royal Society, 2010). Historically, science policy and science diplomacy have served to both build relationships with other countries, to raise the status of science across borders, and to produce concrete scientific/societal results. International scientific cooperation is necessary for the advancement of science in the U.S. and abroad, among other societal benefits. Among the wide spectrum of scientific challenges, natural hazards and global environmental change are of great international importance, not only for the development of the intellectual pursuit of science, but because of their very concrete effects on populations and natural systems. In general, science diplomacy policy is determined at the political level through bilateral and multilateral science and technology agreements and partnerships, while the practice of science diplomacy is usually in the hands of individual scientists. Among the U.S. government efforts are the Department of State's Science Envoy program (mostly active in Muslim-majority nations) and the United States Geological Survey-Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance's Volcano Disaster Assistance Program. Individual scientists and their institutions establish collaborations one-on-one, in small principal investigator or research group collaborations, in bilateral agreements between universities, or in activities organized under the auspices of larger programs, such as those of scientific unions or international organizations (National Research Council, 2012). Among many programs, the U.S. has strong participation in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and in Future Earth (a global environmental change initiative) and the Integrated Research on
Karsten, J. L.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Weiler, C. S.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created 60 years ago by the U.S. Congress "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…" NSF is the primary funding agency in the U.S. to support basic, frontier research across all fields in science, engineering, and education, except for medical sciences. With a FY 2011 budget request of more than $955 million, the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) is the principle source of federal funding for university-based fundamental research in the geosciences and preparation of the next generation of geoscientists. Since its inception, GEO has supported the education and training of a diverse and talented pool of future scientists, engineers, and technicians in the Earth, Ocean, Atmospheric and Geospatial Sciences sub-fields, through support of graduate research assistants, post-doctoral fellows, and undergraduate research experiences. In the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, GEO initiated several programs that expanded these investments to also support improvements in pre-college and undergraduate geoscience education through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., professional development support for K-12 teachers, development of innovative undergraduate curricula, and scientist-mentored research experiences for elementary and secondary students). In addition to GEO’s Geoscience Education (GeoEd), Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG), Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), and Geoscience Teacher Training (GEO-Teach) programs, GEO participates in a number of cross-Foundation programs, including the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT), Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (EESE), NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12), and Partnerships for International Research and Education
Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.
The American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Geoscience Workforce Program collects and analyzes data pertaining to the changes in the supply, demand, and training of the geoscience workforce. Much of these trends are displayed in detail in AGI's Status of the Geoscience Workforce reports. In May, AGI released the Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2014, which updates these trends since the 2011 edition of this report. These updates highlight areas of change in the education of future geoscientists from K-12 through graduate school, the transition of geoscience graduates into early-career geoscientists, the dynamics of the current geoscience workforce, and the future predictions of the changes in the availability of geoscience jobs. Some examples of these changes include the increase in the number of states that will allow a high school course of earth sciences as a credit for graduation and the increasing importance of two-year college students as a talent pool for the geosciences, with over 25% of geoscience bachelor's graduates attending a two-year college for at least a semester. The continued increase in field camp hinted that these programs are at or reaching capacity. The overall number of faculty and research staff at four-year institutions increased slightly, but the percentages of academics in tenure-track positions continued to slowly decrease since 2009. However, the percentage of female faculty rose in 2013 for all tenure-track positions. Major geoscience industries, such as petroleum and mining, have seen an influx of early-career geoscientists. Demographic trends in the various industries in the geoscience workforce forecasted a shortage of approximately 135,000 geoscientists in the next decade—a decrease from the previously predicted shortage of 150,000 geoscientists. These changes and other changes identified in the Status of the Geoscience Workforce will be addressed in this talk.
Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.
Rapisardi, Elena; Di Franco, Sabina; Giardino, Marco
environmental dynamics and their interaction with human activity (preparedness). We suspect, that in the Italian framework, this raises from a sort of original sin: a "resistance" to science, that, for people with little or poor scientific knowledge, swings between pseudoscientific simplifications (which, unfortunately, web is variously "dotted" [Quattrociocchi et al. 2014]) and, as the sociologist Franco Ferrarotti would say, pre-scientific traditions [Peppoloni, 2011]. The "logos" of geology and the geological "narrative" are of fundamental importance in the Anthropocene, allowing to shift the focus back on the human/environment interaction. Geologists are often ignored, as bearers of uncomfortable messages, especially in a country where there is no longer a National Geological Survey, but it is unquestionable the importance of Earth Sciences and the social role of the geologist (geoethics) for Disaster Resilience. This is the next challenge of Geosciences, and of the whole community of geoscientists. Develop a coordinated communication approach for geosciences as an ethical imperative, and also as a pre-requisite to risk and emergency communication: geologists and geology are the authoritative interpreters of natural processes and risk, holders of scientific knowledge that if explained and shared allow people and decision makers to better cope with risks, and to enable Disaster Resilience.
Barry, T.; Troost, K. G.
The Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists offers multiple resources to students and faculty about careers in the geosciences, such as description of what employers are looking for, career options, mentoring, and building your professional network. Our website provides easy access to these and other resources. Most of AEG's 3000 members found their first job through association with another AEG member and more than 75% of our membership is working in applied geoscience jobs. We know that employers are looking for the following qualities: passion for your career and the geosciences, an enthusiastic personality, flexibility, responsibility, ability to communicate well in oral and written modes, and the ability to work well in teams or independently. Employers want candidates with a strong well-rounded geoscience education and the following skills/experience: attendance at field camp, working knowledge of field methodologies, strong oral and written communication skills, basic to advanced computer skills, and the ability to conduct research. In addition, skill with GIS applications, computer modeling, and 40-hour OSHA training are desired. The most successful technique for finding a job is to have and use a network. Students can start building their network by attending regular AEG or other professional society monthly meetings, volunteering with the society, attending annual meetings, going on fieldtrips and participating in other events. Students should research what kind of job they want and build a list of potential preferred employers, then market themselves to people within those companies using networking opportunities. Word-of-mouth sharing of job openings is the most powerful tool for getting hired, and if students have name recognition established within their group of preferred employers, job interviews will occur at a faster rate than otherwise.
This report is a reprint of the Geosciences section of the LBL Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1978 (LBL-8648). It contains summary papers that describe fundamental studies addressing a variety of earth science problems of interest to the DOE. They have applications in such diverse areas as geothermal energy, oil recovery, in situ coal gasification, uranium resource evaluation and recovery, and earthquake prediction. Completed work has been reported or likely will be in the usual channels. (RWR)
H. C. Ho
Full Text Available Karst is a unique landform developed by soluble rock. It usually relates to the groundwater drainage system, and provides important water resources. Current researches indicate that karst is closely related to the Earth system and environmental protection, and it can also create potential natural hazards such as sinkhole flooding and land subsidence in urban area. Its relationship with hydrogeology has also been an important factor for studying water pollution and nutrient cycles in engineering geosciences and agricultural geology.
Keane, C. M.; Wilson, C. E.; Houlton, H. R.
One of the greatest challenges faced by students and new graduates is the advice that they must take charge of their own career planning. This is ironic as new graduates are least prepared to understand the full spectrum of options and the potential pathways to meeting their personal goals. We will examine the rationale, tools, and utility of an approach aimed at assisting individuals in career planning nicknamed a "tube map." In particular, this approach has been used in support of geoscientist recruitment and career planning in major European energy companies. By utilizing information on the occupational sequences of geoscience professionals within an organization or a community, a student or new hire can quickly understand the proven pathways towards their eventual career goals. The tube map visualizes the career pathways of individuals in the form of a subway map, with specific occupations represented as "stations" and pathway interconnections represented as "transfers." The major application of this approach in the energy sector was to demonstrate both the logical career pathways to either senior management or senior technical positions, as well as present the reality that time must be invested in "lower level" jobs, thereby nullifying a persistent overinflated sense of the speed of upward mobility. To this end, we have run a similar occupational analysis on several geoscience employers, including one with somewhat non-traditional geoscience positions and another that would be considered a very traditional employer. We will examine the similarities and differences between the resulting 'tube maps,' critique the tools used to create the maps, and assess the utility of the product in career development planning for geoscience students and new hires.
Petersen, Mareike; Glöckler, Falko; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Döring, Markus; Fichtmüller, David; Laphakorn, Lertsutham; Baltruschat, Brian; Hoffmann, Jana
Museums and their collections have specially customized databases in order to optimally gather and record their contents and associated metadata associated with their specimens. To share, exchange, and publish data, an appropriate data standard is essential. ABCD (Access to Biological Collection Data) is a standard for biological collection units, including living and preserved specimen, together with field observation data. Its extension, EFG (Extension for Geoscience), ena...
Lazar, K.; Moysey, S. M.
Capturing the attention of students and the public is a critical step for increasing societal interest and literacy in earth science issues. Virtual reality (VR) provides a means for geoscience engagement that is well suited to place-based learning through exciting and immersive experiences. One approach is to create fully-immersive virtual gaming environments where players interact with physical objects, such as rock samples and outcrops, to pursue geoscience learning goals. Developing an experience like this, however, can require substantial programming expertise and resources. At the other end of the development spectrum, it is possible for anyone to create immersive virtual experiences with 360-degree imagery, which can be made interactive using easy to use VR editing software to embed videos, audio, images, and other content within the 360-degree image. Accessible editing tools like these make the creation of VR experiences something that anyone can tackle. Using the VR editor ThingLink and imagery from Google Maps, for example, we were able to create an interactive tour of the Grand Canyon, complete with embedded assessments, in a matter of hours. The true power of such platforms, however, comes from the potential to engage students as content authors to create and share stories of place that explore geoscience issues from their personal perspective. For example, we have used combinations of 360-degree images with interactive mapping and web platforms to enable students with no programming experience to create complex web apps as highly engaging story telling platforms. We highlight here examples of how we have implemented such story telling approaches with students to assess learning in courses, to share geoscience research outcomes, and to communicate issues of societal importance.
Glaves, H.; Miller, S.; Schaap, D.
There is a large and ever increasing amount of marine geological and geophysical data available throughout Europe, the USA and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collecting it is very high and there is therefore a need to maximise the potential re-use of this data wherever possible. Facilitating this is becoming an increasingly important aspect of marine geosciences data management as the need for marine data increases at a time when the financial resources for data acquisition are being dramatically reduced. A significant barrier to the re-use of marine geoscience data is the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of marine geosciences data at a regional, national and international scale. This is also proving to be a barrier to the development of interoperability with other data types at a time when there is a need to develop a more holistic approach to marine research. These challenges are currently being addressed within Europe by a number of EU funded initiatives, the objectives of which are an improvement in the discovery and access to marine data. The Geo-Seas project is just one of these initiatives, the focus of which is the development of an e-infrastructure for the delivery of standardised marine geological and geophysical data across Europe. The project is developing this e-infrastructure by adopting and adapting the methodologies of the SeaDataNet project which currently provides an e-infrastructure for the management of oceanographic data. This re-use of the existing technologies has lead to the development a joint multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the delivery or both geoscientific and oceanographic data. In order to expand these initiatives further and bridge the gap between these European projects and those being undertaken by colleagues in both the US and elsewhere a number of
Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick
A large amount of both raw and interpreted marine geoscience data is held by an array of European organisations but its discovery and re-use can be very difficult. The data is stored in a variety of different formats and a range of different nomenclatures, scales and co-ordinate systems are used at the organisational, national and international level. This lack of standardisation hinders the user's ability to locate and access these datasets or to use them in an integrated way. The Geo-Seas project, an EU funded Framework 7 initiative, has addressed these barriers to the re-use of marine geological and geophysical data through the development of an on-line data discovery and access service (http://www.geo-seas.eu). It allows the end user to identify, evaluate and download a range of standardised marine geoscience data sets from 26 federated data centres across 17 European maritime countries. The dedicated portal, which currently provides access to more than 100,000 datasets, has been developed by adopting and adapting the existing technologies, standards and methodologies developed by the SeaDataNet project for the management and delivery of oceanographic data. Through the re-use of this pre-existing architecture including the associated common standards and vocabularies a joint infrastructure for both marine geoscientific and oceanographic data has been created which supports the development of multidisciplinary ocean science. The Geo-Seas project has also brought together and incorporated the metadata services developed by previous EU-funded projects such as EUSeaSed and SEISCAN. The formats of this legacy metadata have not only been used as the basis for developing the Geo-Seas metadatabase but it has also lead to these pre-existing metadata catalogues being upgraded to current international standards. The Geo-Seas initiative has lead to a major improvement in the availability of standardised marine geoscientific data throughout Europe allowing end users better
WANG, M.; Wang, J.
Recommender systems are effective tools helping Internet users overcome information overloading. The two most widely used recommendation algorithms are collaborating filtering (CF) and content-based filtering (CBF). A number of recommender systems based on those two algorithms were developed for multimedia, online sells, and other domains. Each of the two algorithms has its advantages and shortcomings. Hybrid approaches that combine these two algorithms are better choices in many cases. In geoscience data sharing domain, where the items (datasets) are more informative (in space and time) and domain-specific, no recommender system is specialized for data users. This paper reports a dynamic weighted hybrid recommendation algorithm that combines CF and CBF for geoscience data sharing portal. We first derive users' ratings on items with their historical visiting time by Jenks Natural Break. In the CBF part, we incorporate the space, time, and subject information of geoscience datasets to compute item similarity. Predicted ratings were computed with k-NN method separately using CBF and CF, and then combined with weights. With training dataset we attempted to find the best model describing ideal weights and users' co-rating numbers. A logarithmic function was confirmed to be the best model. The model was then used to tune the weights of CF and CBF on user-item basis with test dataset. Evaluation results show that the dynamic weighted approach outperforms either solo CF or CBF approach in terms of Precision and Recall.
This standard describes the basic principles, requirements, and methods for qualifying Class 1E protective relays and auxiliaries such as test and control switches, terminal blocks, and indicating lamps for applications in nuclear power generating stations. When properly employed it can be used to demonstrate the design adequacy of such equipment under normal, abnormal, design basis event and post design basis event conditions in accordance with ANSI/IEEE Std 323-1983. When protective relays and auxiliaries are located in areas not subject to harsh environments, environmental qualification is not required. Protective relays and auxiliaries located inside primary containment in a nuclear power generating station present special conditions beyond the scope of this document. The qualification procedure presented is generic in nature. Other methods may be used at the discretion of the qualifier, provided the basic precepts of ANSI/IEEE Std 32301983 are satisfied
This document describes the basic requirements for the qualification of Class I electric equipment. This is equipment which is essential to the safe shutdown and isolation of the reactor or whose failure or damage could result in significant release of radioactive material. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for demonstrating the qualifications of electrical equipment as required in the IEEE Std 279 -- Criteria for Nuclear Power Generating Station Protection Systems, and IEEE Std 308 -- Criteria for Class 1E Electric Systems for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. The qualification methods described may be used in conjunction with the Guides for qualifying specific types of equipment, (see Foreword), for updating qualification following modifications or for qualifying equipment for which no applicable Guide exists
Full Text Available IEEE 802.16 is a protocol for fixed broad band wire less access that is currently trying to add mobility among mobile users in the standard. However, mobility adds some technical barriers that should be solved first, this is the case of HO "handoff" (change of connection between two base stations "BS" by a mobile user. In this paper, the problem of HO in IEEE 802.16 is approached try ing to maintain the quality of service (QoS of mobile users. A mechanism for changing connection during HO is pre sented. A simulation model based on OPNET MODELER1 was developed to evaluate the performance of the proposed HO mechanism. Finally, this paper demonstrates that it is possible to implement a seam less HO mech a nism over IEEE 802.16 even for users with de manding applications such as voice over IP.
Pena, Ivonne; Martinez-Anido, Carlo Brancucci; Hodge, Bri-Mathias
This article describes a new publicly available version of the IEEE 118-bus test system, named NREL-118. The database is based on the transmission representation (buses and lines) of the IEEE 118-bus test system, with a reconfigured generation representation using three regions of the US Western Interconnection from the latest Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) 2024 Common Case . Time-synchronous hourly load, wind, and solar time series are provided for over one year (8784 hours). The public database presented and described in this manuscript will allow researchers to model a test power system using detailed transmission, generation, load, wind, and solar data. This database includes key additional features that add to the current IEEE 118-bus test model, such as: the inclusion of 10 generation technologies with different heat rate functions, minimum stable levels and ramping rates, GHG emissions rates, regulation and contingency reserves, and hourly time series data for one full year for load, wind and solar generation.
Full Text Available IEEE 802.11a is one of the latest standards to be released by the IEEE Project 802 for wireless LANs. It has specified an additional physical layer (PHY to support higher data rates, and is termed as the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM. In order to exploit its benefits, one of the medium access control (MAC protocols specified in the IEEE 802.11 specification is called distributed coordination function (DCF. DCF is a carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA scheme with slotted binary exponential backoff. The frames can be transmitted using the basic access scheme or the RTS/CTS scheme in DCF. It was demonstrated previously that the RTS/CTS mechanism works well in most scenarios for the previously specified PHYs. In this work, a simple simulator is developed to verify the scalability of the RTS/CTS mechanism over OFDM PHY, which supports much higher data rates.
Sreejithlal, A.; Ajith, Jose
IEEE 1451 standard defines a standard interface for connecting transducers to microprocessor based data acquisition systems, instrumentation systems, control and field networks. Smart transducer interface module (STIM) acts as a unit which provides signal conditioning, digitization and data packet generation functions to the transducers connected to it. This paper describes the implementation of a microcontroller based smart transducer interface module based on IEEE 1451.2 standard. The module, implemented using ADuc847 microcontroller has 2 transducer channels and is programmed using Embedded C language. The Sensor system consists of a Network Controlled Application Processor (NCAP) module which controls the Smart transducer interface module (STIM) over an IEEE1451.2-RS232 bus. The NCAP module is implemented as a software module in C# language. The hardware details, control principles involved and the software implementation for the STIM are described in detail.
IEEE P1596, the Scalable Coherent Interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960-1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics. 7 refs
Ma Mingchao; Chen Jianfeng; Shen Liren; Jiang Geyang
Background: Time synchronization is one of the core technology of realizing the real-time control of accelerator under the distributed control system architecture. The ordinary crystal frequency deviation of IEEE 1588 causes low synchronous accuracy, which doesn't meet the needs of high precision synchronization. Purpose: This paper proposes an algorithm to improve the synchronization precision caused by the crystal frequency deviation. Methods: According to the basic principle of IEEE 1588 time synchronization, a dynamic frequency compensation (DFC) algorithm module was designed and a test platform was built to verify the feasibility and practicability of the algorithm. The influence of the synchronous cycle and delay jitter of the switch on the synchronization accuracy were analyzed. Results: Experimental results showed the great precision improvement of synchronization after using DFC algorithm. Conclusion: Low synchronous accuracy caused by the crystal frequency deviation can be improved by using DFC algorithm implemented for precision time protocol (PTP) of IEEE 1588. (authors)
Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto
Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions.
Ullah, Sana; Chen, Min; Kwak, Kyung Sup
The IEEE 802.15.6 is a new communication standard on Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) that focuses on a variety of medical, Consumer Electronics (CE) and entertainment applications. In this paper, the throughput and delay performance of the IEEE 802.15.6 is presented. Numerical formulas are derived to determine the maximum throughput and minimum delay limits of the IEEE 802.15.6 for an ideal channel with no transmission errors. These limits are derived for different frequency bands and data rates. Our analysis is validated by extensive simulations using a custom C+ + simulator. Based on analytical and simulation results, useful conclusions are derived for network provisioning and packet size optimization for different applications.
Murray, D. P.; Veeger, A. I.; Grossman-Garber, D.
To a greater extent than most science programs, geology is underrepresented in K-12 curricula and the media. Thus potential majors have scant knowledge of academic requirements and career trajectories, and their idea of what geologists do--if they have one at all--is outdated. We have addressed these concerns by developing a dynamic, web-based academic roadmap for current and prospective students, their families, and others who are contemplating careers in the geosciences. The goals of this visually attractive "educational pathway" are to not only improve student recruitment and retention, but to empower student learning by creating better communication and advising tools that can render our undergraduate program transparent for learners and their families. Although we have developed academic roadmaps for four environmental and life science programs at the University of Rhode Island, we focus here on the roadmap for the geosciences, which illustrates educational pathways along the academic and early-career continuum for current and potential (i.e., high school) students who are considering the earth sciences. In essence, the Geosciences Academic Roadmap is a "one-stop'" portal to the discipline. It includes user- friendly information about our curriculum, outcomes (which at URI are tightly linked to performance in courses and the major), extracurricular activities (e.g., field camp, internships), careers, graduate programs, and training. In the presentation of this material extensive use is made of streaming video, interviews with students and earth scientists, and links to other relevant sites. Moreover, through the use of "Hot Topics", particular attention is made to insure that examples of geoscience activities are not only of relevance to today's students, but show geologists using the modern methods of the discipline in exciting ways. Although this is a "work-in-progress", evaluation of the sites, by high school through graduate students, has been strongly
Piispa, E. J.; Lerner, G. A.
Researchers have the responsibility to communicate their science to a broad audience: scientists, non-scientist, young and old. Effective ways of reaching these groups include using pathways that genuinely spark interest in the target audience. Communication techniques should evolve as the means of communication evolve. Here we talk about our experiences using short films to increase geoscience visibility and appreciation. At a time when brevity and quick engagement are vital to capturing people's attention, creating videos that fit popular formats is an effective way to draw and hold people's interest, and spreading these videos on popular sites is a good way to reach a non-academic audience. Creating videos that are fun, exciting, and catchy in order to initially increase awareness and interest is equally important as the educational content. The visual medium can also be powerful way to make complex scientific concepts seem less intimidating. We have experimented with this medium of geoscience communication by creating a number of short films that target a variety of audiences: short summaries of research topics, mock movie trailers, course advertisements, fieldwork highlight reels and geology lessons for elementary school children. Our two rules of thumb are to put the audience first and use style as a vital element. This allows for the creation of films that are more engaging and often less serious than standard informational (and longer-format) videos. Science does not need to be dry and dull - it can be humorous and entertaining while remaining highly accurate. Doing these short films has changed our own mindset as well - thinking about what to film while doing research helps keep the practical applications of our research in focus. We see a great deal of potential for collaboration between geoscientists and amateur or professional filmmakers creating hip and edgy videos that further raise awareness and interest. People like movies. We like movies. We like
Manduca, C. A.; MacDonald, R. H.; Merritts, D.; Savina, M.
Introductory courses are one of the most challenging teaching environments for geoscience faculty. Courses are often large, students have a wide variety of background and skills, and student motivation can include completing a geoscience major, preparing for a career as teacher, fulfilling a distribution requirement, and general interest. The Starting Point site (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/index.html) provides help for faculty teaching introductory courses by linking together examples of different teaching methods that have been used in entry-level courses with information about how to use the methods and relevant references from the geoscience and education literature. Examples span the content of geoscience courses including the atmosphere, biosphere, climate, Earth surface, energy/material cycles, human dimensions/resources, hydrosphere/cryosphere, ocean, solar system, solid earth and geologic time/earth history. Methods include interactive lecture (e.g think-pair-share, concepTests, and in-class activities and problems), investigative cases, peer review, role playing, Socratic questioning, games, and field labs. A special section of the site devoted to using an Earth System approach provides resources with content information about the various aspects of the Earth system linked to examples of teaching this content. Examples of courses incorporating Earth systems content, and strategies for designing an Earth system course are also included. A similar section on Teaching with an Earth History approach explores geologic history as a vehicle for teaching geoscience concepts and as a framework for course design. The Starting Point site has been authored and reviewed by faculty around the country. Evaluation indicates that faculty find the examples particularly helpful both for direct implementation in their classes and for sparking ideas. The help provided for using different teaching methods makes the examples particularly useful. Examples are chosen from
Bell, R. E.; Cane, M. A.; Kastens, K. A.; Miller, R. B.; Mutter, J. C.; Pfirman, S. L.
Women are now routinely chief scientists on major cruises, lead field parties to all continents, and have risen to leadership positions in professional organizations, academic departments and government agencies including major funding agencies. They teach at all levels, advise research students, make research discoveries and receive honors in recognition of their achievements. Despite these advances, women continue to be under-represented in the earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences. As of 1997 women received only 29% of the doctorates in the earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences and accounted for only 13% of employed Ph.D.s in these fields. Women's salaries also lag: the median annual salary for all Ph.D. geoscientists was \\60,000; for women the figure is \\47,000. Solving the problem of gender imbalance in the geosciences requires understanding of the particular obstacles women face in our field. The problem of under-representation of women requires that earth science departments, universities and research centers, funding agencies, and professional organizations like AGU take constructive action to recognize the root causes of the evident imbalance, and enact corrective policies. We have identified opportunities and challenges for each of these groups. A systematic study of the flux of women at Columbia University enabled a targeted strategy towards improving gender diversity based on the observed trends. The challenge for academic institutions is to document the flux of scientists and develop an appropriate strategy to balance the geoscience demographics. Based on the MIT study, an additional challenge faces universities and research centers. To enhance gender diversity these institutions need to develop transparency in promotion processes and open distribution of institutional resources. The challenge for granting agencies is to implement policies that ease the burden of extensive fieldwork on parents. Many fields of science require long work hours
Lehnert, Kerstin; Allison, Lee; Arctur, David; Klump, Jens; Lenhardt, Christopher
Many scientific domains, specifically in the geosciences, rely on physical samples as basic elements for study and experimentation. Samples are collected to analyze properties of natural materials and features that are key to our knowledge of Earth's dynamical systems and evolution, and to preserve a record of our environment over time. Huge volumes of samples have been acquired over decades or even centuries and stored in a large number and variety of institutions including museums, universities and colleges, state geological surveys, federal agencies, and industry. All of these collections represent highly valuable, often irreplaceable records of nature that need to be accessible so that they can be re-used in future research and for educational purposes. Many sample repositories are keen to use cyberinfrastructure capabilities to enhance access to their collections on the internet and to support and streamline collection management (accessioning of new samples, labeling, handling sample requests, etc.), but encounter substantial challenges and barriers to integrate digital sample management into their daily routine. They lack the resources (staff, funding) and infrastructure (hardware, software, IT support) to develop and operate web-enabled databases, to migrate analog sample records into digital data management systems, and to transfer paper- or spreadsheet-based workflows to electronic systems. Use of commercial software is often not an option as it incurs high costs for licenses, requires IT expertise for installation and maintenance, and often does not match the needs of the smaller repositories, being designed for large museums or different types of collections (art, archeological, biological). Geosamples.org is an alliance of sample repositories (academic, US federal and state surveys, industry) and data facilities that aims to develop a cyberinfrastructure that will dramatically advance access to physical samples for the research community, government
Full Text Available We present a novel model of IEEE 802.11 EDCA with support for analysing networks with misbehaving nodes. In particular, we consider backoff misbehaviour. Firstly, we verify the model by extensive simulation analysis and by comparing it to three other IEEE 802.11 models. The results show that our model behaves satisfactorily and outperforms other widely acknowledged models. Secondly, a comparison with simulation results in several scenarios with misbehaving nodes proves that our model performs correctly for these scenarios. The proposed model can, therefore, be considered as an original contribution to the area of EDCA models and backoff misbehaviour.
by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The proposed control protocol ensures that a given offline sporadic schedule can be adapted online in a timely manner such that the static periodic schedule has not been disturbed and the IEEE 802.15.4 standard compliance remains intact. The proposed protocol is simulated in OPNET. The simulation results are analyzed and presented in this paper to prove the correctness of the proposed protocol regarding the efficient real-time sporadic event delivery along with the periodic event propagation.
Nilesh B. Kalani
Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses about IEEE 802.11b simulation model implemented using LabVIEW software and its analyses for impact on bit error rate BER for different parameters as channel type channel number data transmission rate and packet size. Audio file is being transmitted processed and analyzed using the model for various parameters. This paper gives analysis of BER verses ESN0 for various parameter like data rate packet size and communication channel for the IEEE 802.11b simulation model generated using LabVIEW. It is proved that BER can be optimized by tweaking different parameters of wireless communication system.
V. Balaji; S. Anand; C.R. Hota; G. Raghurama
In this paper we present a Cooperative Spectrum Sensing (CSS) algorithm for Cognitive Radios (CR) based on IEEE 802.22Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) standard. The core objective is to improve cooperative sensing efficiency which specifies how fast a decision can be reached in each round of cooperation (iteration) to sense an appropriate number of channels/bands (i.e. 86 channels of 7MHz bandwidth as per IEEE 802.22) within a time constraint (channel sensing time). To meet this objectiv...
Sayef Azad Sakin; Md. Abdur Razzaque; Mohammad Mehedi Hassan; Atif Alamri; Nguyen H. Tran; Giancarlo Fortino
Ensuring self-coexistence among IEEE 802.22 networks is a challenging problem owing to opportunistic access of incumbent-free radio resources by users in co-located networks. In this study, we propose a fully-distributed non-cooperative approach to ensure self-coexistence in downlink channels of IEEE 802.22 networks. We formulate the self-coexistence problem as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem for maximizing the network data rate, which is an NP-hard one. This work explores a s...
Full Text Available The key contribution of this paper is the combined analytical analysis of both saturated and non-saturated throughput of IEEE 802.11e networks in the presence of hidden stations. This approach is an extension to earlier works by other authors which provided Markov chain analysis to the IEEE 802.11 family under various assumptions. Our approach also modifies earlier expressions for the probability that a station transmits a packet in a vulnerable period. The numerical results provide the impact of the access categories on the channel throughput. Various throughput results under different mechanisms are presented.
Arnold, Eve; Barnikel, Friedrich; Berenguer, Jean-Luc; Cifelli, Francesca; Funiciello, Francesca; King, Chris; Laj, Carlo; Macko, Stephen; Schwarz, Annegret; Smith, Phil; Summesberger, Herbert
GIFT workshops are a two-and-a-half-day teacher enhancement workshops organized by the EGU Committee on Education and held in conjunction with the EGU annual General Assembly in Vienna, and also elsewhere in the world usually associated with large geoscience conferences. The program of each workshop focuses on a different general theme each year. Past themes have included, for example, "The solar system and beyond", "Mineral Resources", "Our changing Planet", "Natural Hazards", "Water" and "Evolution and Biodiversity". These workshops combine scientific presentations on current research in the Earth and Space Sciences, given by prominent scientists, with hands-on, inquiry-based activities that can be used by the teachers in their classrooms to explain related scientific principles or topics. Participating teachers are also invited to present their own classroom activities to their colleagues, even when not directly related to the current program. The main objective of these workshops is to communicate first-hand scientific information to teachers in primary and secondary schools, significantly shortening the time between discovery and textbook. The GIFT workshop provides the teachers with materials that can be directly incorporated into their classroom, as well as those of their colleagues at home institutions. In addition, the full immersion of science teachers in a truly scientific context (EGU General Assemblies) and the direct contact with leading geoscientists stimulates curiosity towards research that the teachers can transmit to their pupils. In addition to their scientific content, the GIFT workshops are of high societal value. The value of bringing teachers from many nations together includes the potential for networking and collaborations, the sharing of experiences and an awareness of science education as it is presented in other countries. Since 2003, the EGU GIFT workshops have brought together more than 800 teachers from more than 25 nations. At all
Baltsen, Knud A.; Mandrup, Lars
EMC -gruppen er en del af TUR Netværket Elektronik og Informationstekno¬logi. EMC-gruppen har som formål at iværksætte et fagligt udviklingsarbejde inden for EMC-området med henblik på at styrke og forny undervisningen i EMC på de enkelte diplomingeniøruddan¬nelsesinstitutioner. Ud fra en erkende...
1 MHz on MFS structure exhibit a hysteresis indicating a ferroelectric feild effect memory behaviour. The shift of the flat band voltage is consistent...surface. This has the effect that the phonon wave vector becomes discrete and the lattice spectrum no longer includes vibrations with the wave vectors
This book presents the papers given at a conference on plasma science. Topics considered at the conference included inverse diode computations, collisional ion heating, gyrotron phase locking using a modulated electron beam, klystrons and lasertrons, radiation pressure on moving plasma, RF heating by cylindrical plasma waveguide modes, and deionization phase characteristics of hydrogen thyratron plasmas
This book contains papers presented at a symposium on microwaves. Topics covered include: Radiation from open waveguides and leaky wave phenomena; Frequency-dependent and frequency-independent nonlinear characteristics of a high-speed laser diode; and Integrated circuit discontinuities and radiation
These proceedings present the state-of-the-art in plasma science. Special sections include space plasmas, Tokamaks, fusion experiments (IGNITEX), and magnetrons. The special theme of the meeting was high-current accelerators and their applications
Callaghan, S.; Murphy, F.; Tedds, J.; Allan, R.
Identifiers for data are the bedrock on which data citation and publication rests. These, in their turn, are widely proposed as methods for encouraging researchers to share their datasets, and at the same time receive academic credit for their efforts in producing them. However, neither data citation nor publication can be properly achieved without a method of identifying clearly what is, and what isn't, part of the dataset. Once a dataset becomes part of the scientific record (either through formal data publication or through being cited) then issues such as dataset stability and permanence become vital to address. In the geosciences, several projects in the UK are concentrating on issues of dataset identification, citation and publication. The UK's Natural Environment Research Council's (NERC) Science Information Strategy data citation and publication project is addressing the issue of identifiers for data, stability, transparency, and credit for data producers through data citation. At a data publication level, 2012 has seen the launch of the new Wiley title Geoscience Data Journal and the PREPARDE (Peer Review for Publication & Accreditation of Research Data in the Earth sciences) project, both aiming to encourage data publication by addressing issues such as data paper submission workflows and the scientific peer-review of data. All of these initiatives work with a range of partners including academic institutions, learned societies, data centers and commercial publishers, both nationally and internationally, with a cross-project aim of developing the mechanisms so data can be identified, cited and published with confidence. This involves investigating barriers and drivers to data publishing and sharing, peer review, and re-use of geoscientific datasets, and specifically such topics as dataset requirements for citation, workflows for dataset ingestion into data centers and publishers, procedures and policies for editors, reviewers and authors of data
Zaslavsky, Ilya; Bermudez, Luis; Grethe, Jeffrey; Gupta, Amarnath; Hsu, Leslie; Lehnert, Kerstin; Malik, Tanu; Richard, Stephen; Valentine, David; Whitenack, Thomas
Organizing geoscience data resources to support cross-disciplinary data discovery, interpretation, analysis and integration is challenging because of different information models, semantic frameworks, metadata profiles, catalogs, and services used in different geoscience domains, not to mention different research paradigms and methodologies. The central goal of CINERGI, a new project supported by the US National Science Foundation through its EarthCube Building Blocks program, is to create a methodology and assemble a large inventory of high-quality information resources capable of supporting data discovery needs of researchers in a wide range of geoscience domains. The key characteristics of the inventory are: 1) collaboration with and integration of metadata resources from a number of large data facilities; 2) reliance on international metadata and catalog service standards; 3) assessment of resource "interoperability-readiness"; 4) ability to cross-link and navigate data resources, projects, models, researcher directories, publications, usage information, etc.; 5) efficient inclusion of "long-tail" data, which are not appearing in existing domain repositories; 6) data registration at feature level where appropriate, in addition to common dataset-level registration, and 7) integration with parallel EarthCube efforts, in particular focused on EarthCube governance, information brokering, service-oriented architecture design and management of semantic information. We discuss challenges associated with accomplishing CINERGI goals, including defining the inventory scope; managing different granularity levels of resource registration; interaction with search systems of domain repositories; explicating domain semantics; metadata brokering, harvesting and pruning; managing provenance of the harvested metadata; and cross-linking resources based on the linked open data (LOD) approaches. At the higher level of the inventory, we register domain-wide resources such as domain
C. Shankland; M.B. van der Zwaag
textabstractWe specify the tree identify protocol of the IEEE 1394 high performance serial multimedia bus at three different levels of detail using $mu$CRL. We use the cones and foci verification technique of Groote and Springintveld to show that the descriptions are equivalent under branching
Ji, J.; Liu, H.; Li, Q.
This paper presents an implementation of multi-rate SerDes transceiver for IEEE 1394b applications. Simple and effective pre-emphasis and equalizer circuits are used at transmitter and receiver, respectively. A phase interpolator based clock and data recovery circuit with optimized linearity is a...
Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11s working group has commenced activities, which would lead to the development of a standard for wireless mesh networks (WMNs). The draft of 802.11s introduces a new path selection metric called airtime link metric. However...
Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11s working group has commenced activities, which would lead to the development of a standard for wireless mesh networks (WMNs). The draft of 802.11s introduces a new path selection metric called airtime link metric. However...
Dobinson, Robert W; Haas, S; Martin, B; Le Vine, M J; Saka, F
The status of the IEEE 802.3 standard is reviewed and prospects for the future, including the new 10 Gigabit version of Ethernet, are discussed. The relevance of Ethernet for experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is considered, with emphasis on on-line applications and areas which are technically challenging. 8 Refs.
Dobinson, Robert W; Haas, S W; Martin, B; Le Vine, M J; Saka, F
The status of the IEEE 802.3 standard is reviewed and prospects for the future, including the new 10 Gigabit version of Ethernet, are discussed. The relevance of Ethernet for experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is considered, with emphasis on on-line applications and areas which are technically challenging.
Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is going to be a market-changing force for a variety of real-time applications such as e-healthcare, home automation, environmental monitoring, and industrial automation. Low power wireless communication protocols offering long lifetime and high reliability such as the IEEE 802.15.4 standard have been a key enabling technology for IoT deployments and are deployed for home automation recently. The issues of the IEEE 802.15.4 networks have moved from theory to real world deployments. The work presented herein intends to demonstrate the use of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard in recent IoT commercial products for smart home applications: the Smart Home Starter Kit. The contributions of the paper are twofold. First, the paper presents how the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is employed in Smart Home Starter Kit. In particular, network topology, network operations, and data transfer mode are investigated. Second, network performance metrics such as end-to-end (E2E delay and frame reception ratio (FRR are evaluated by experiments. In addition, the paper discusses several directions for future improvements of home automation commercial products.
Kanevskaia, Olia; Zingales, Nicolo
In 2015, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standardization Association made some controversial changes to its patent policy. The changes include a recommended method of calculation of FRAND royalty rates, and a request to members holding a standard essential patent (SEP)
Home; public; Volumes; reso; 021; 01; 0011-0030.IEEE 754: 64 Bit Double Precision FloatsThis.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 ...
Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos
In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results.
Wang, Hua; Dittmann, Lars
Future mobile communication systems such as IEEE 802.16 are expected to deliver a variety of multimedia services with diverse QoS requirements. To guarantee the QoS provision, appropriate scheduler architecture and scheduling algorithms have to be carefully designed. In this paper, we propose...
Rozas-Ramallal, Ismael; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; García-Naya, José Antonio
The capacity of vehicular networks to offer non-safety services, like infotainment applications or the exchange of multimedia information between vehicles, have attracted a great deal of attention to the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In particular, in this article we focus our attention on IEEE 802.11p which defines enhancements to IEEE 802.11 required to support ITS applications. We present an FPGA-based testbed developed to evaluate H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video transmission over vehicular networks. The testbed covers some of the most common situations in vehicle-to-vehicle and roadside-to-vehicle communications and it is highly flexible, allowing the performance evaluation of different vehicular standard configurations. We also show several experimental results to illustrate the quality obtained when H.264/AVC encoded video is transmitted over IEEE 802.11p networks. The quality is measured considering two important parameters: the percentage of recovered group of pictures and the frame quality. In order to improve performance, we propose to substitute the convolutional channel encoder used in IEEE 802.11p for a low-density parity-check code encoder. In addition, we suggest a simple strategy to decide the optimum number of iterations needed to decode each packet received.
Capacitor Discharges, Proc IEEE 113, p. able operation on Nova we are examing alter- 1549 (1966). nate switch gas (Ar:N 2 :SF 6 ) and electrode material...VOLTTA-KILOVOLTS PLATE VO LTAM --LOVLTS Figure 8. Constant Current Curve for the X2097U Figure 11. Constant Current Curve for the X2097V at 2000 Volt
van Eenennaam, Martijn; Hendriks, Luuk; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heijenk, Geert
The IEEE 802.11p MAC technology can be used to provide connectivity for real-time vehicle control known as Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. Due to the real-time nature of this system, it is paramount the delay of the received information is as small as possible. This paper researches the Oldest
Yasmin M. Amin
Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.4 standard has been established as the dominant enabling technology for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. With the proliferation of security-sensitive applications involving WSNs, WSN security has become a topic of great significance. In comparison with traditional wired and wireless networks, WSNs possess additional vulnerabilities which present opportunities for attackers to launch novel and more complicated attacks against such networks. For this reason, a thorough investigation of attacks against WSNs is required. This paper provides a single unified survey that dissects all IEEE 802.15.4 PHY and MAC layer attacks known to date. While the majority of existing references investigate the motive and behavior of each attack separately, this survey classifies the attacks according to clear metrics within the paper and addresses the interrelationships and differences between the attacks following their classification. The authors’ opinions and comments regarding the placement of the attacks within the defined classifications are also provided. A comparative analysis between the classified attacks is then performed with respect to a set of defined evaluation criteria. The first half of this paper addresses attacks on the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY layer, whereas the second half of the paper addresses IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer attacks.
van Bloem, J.W.H.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Kluwer, Taco; Slump, Cornelis H.
The number of wireless devices (smartphones, laptops, sensors) that use the 2.4 GHz ISM band is rapidly increasing. The most common communication system in this band is Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11b/g/n). For that reason coexistence between Wi-Fi and other systems becomes more and more important. In this
Zhai, Linbo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Gang
This letter presents a model with queueing theory to analyze the performance of non-saturated IEEE 802.11 DCF networks. We use the closed queueing network model and derive an approximate representation of throughput which can reveal the relationship between the throughput and the total offered load under finite traffic load conditions. The accuracy of the model is verified by extensive simulations.
Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11 protocol is emerging as a widely used standard and has become the most mature technology for wireless local area networks (WLANs. In this paper, we focus on the tuning of the IEEE 802.11 protocol parameters taking into consideration, in addition to throughput efficiency, performance metrics such as the average packet delay, the probability of a packet being discarded when it reaches the maximum retransmission limit, the average time to drop a packet, and the packet interarrival time. We present an analysis, which has been validated by simulation that is based on a Markov chain model commonly used in the literature. We further study the improvement on these performance metrics by employing suitable protocol parameters according to the specific communication needs of the IEEE 802.11 protocol for both basic access and RTS/CTS access schemes. We show that the use of a higher initial contention window size does not considerably degrade performance in small networks and performs significantly better in any other scenario. Moreover, we conclude that the combination of a lower maximum contention window size and a higher retry limit considerably improves performance. Results indicate that the appropriate adjustment of the protocol parameters enhances performance and improves the services that the IEEE 802.11 protocol provides to various communication applications.
Maksymiuk, L.; Siuzdak, J.
In this paper there are presented measurements concerning performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 signal distribution over multimode fiber based passive optical network. In the paper there are addressed three main sources of impairments: modal noise, frequency response fluctuation of the multimode fiber and non-linear distortion of the signal in the receiver.
Aust, Stefan; Venkatesha Prasad, R.; Niemegeers, Ignas G M M
Several service applications have been reported by many who proposed the use of wireless LANs (WLANs) over a wide variety of outdoor deployments. In particular, the upcoming IEEE 802.11ah WLAN protocol will enable a longer transmission range between WLAN access points (APs) and stations (STAs) up to
Full Text Available the beamswitching technique for switched parasitic array (SPA) and electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antennas in the drivers for IEEE802.11 WLAN devices. The modifications of the open source drivers (ath5k and ath9k) to enable real...
Oberhänsli, Roland; Lambert, Ian
In a world with rapidly increasing population and technological development new space based remote sensing tools allowed for new discoveries and production of water, energy- and mineral-resources, including minerals, soils and construction materials. This has impact on politics, socio-economic development and thus calls for a strong involvement of geosciences because one of humanities biggest challenges will be, to rise living standards particularly in less developed countries. Any growth will lead to an increase of demand for natural resources. But especially for readily available mineral resources supply appears to be limited. Particularly demand for so called high-tech commodities - platinum group or rare earth elements - increased. This happened often faster than new discoveries were made. All this, while areas available for exploration decreased as the need for urban and agricultural use increased. Despite strong efforts in increasing efficiency of recycling, shortage in some commodities has to be expected. A major concern is that resources are not distributed evenly on our planet. Thus supplies depend on political stability, socio-economic standards and pricing. In the light of these statements IUGS is scoping a new initiative, Resourcing Future Generations (RFG), which is predicated on the fact that mining will continue to be an essential activity to meet the needs of future generations. RFG is aimed at identifying and addressing key challenges involved in securing natural resources to meet global needs post-2030. We consider that mineral resources should be the initial focus, but energy, soils, water resources and land use should also be covered. Addressing the multi-generational needs for mineral and other natural resources requires data, research and actions under four general themes: 1. Comprehensive evaluation and quantification of 21st century supply and demand. 2. Enhanced understanding of subsurface as it relates to mineral (energy and groundwater
Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.
The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) decided to create the National Geoscience Student Exit Survey in order to identify the initial pathways into the workforce for these graduating students, as well as assess their preparedness for entering the workforce upon graduation. The creation of this survey stemmed from a combination of experiences with the AGI/AGU Survey of Doctorates and discussions at the following Science Education Research Center (SERC) workshops: "Developing Pathways to Strong Programs for the Future", "Strengthening Your Geoscience Program", and "Assessing Geoscience Programs". These events identified distinct gaps in understanding the experiences and perspectives of geoscience students during one of their most profound professional transitions. Therefore, the idea for the survey arose as a way to evaluate how the discipline is preparing and educating students, as well as identifying the students' desired career paths. The discussions at the workshops solidified the need for this survey and created the initial framework for the first pilot of the survey. The purpose of this assessment tool is to evaluate student preparedness for entering the geosciences workforce; identify student decision points for entering geosciences fields and remaining in the geosciences workforce; identify geosciences fields that students pursue in undergraduate and graduate school; collect information on students' expected career trajectories and geosciences professions; identify geosciences career sectors that are hiring new graduates; collect information about salary projections; overall effectiveness of geosciences departments regionally and nationally; demonstrate the value of geosciences degrees to future students, the institutions, and employers; and establish a benchmark to perform longitudinal studies of geosciences graduates to understand their career pathways and impacts of their educational experiences on these decisions. AGI's Student Exit Survey went through
Jones, B.; Patino, L. C.
Preparation of the future professional geoscience workforce includes increasing numbers as well as providing adequate education, exposure and training for undergraduates once they enter geoscience pathways. It is important to consider potential career trajectories for geoscience students, as these inform the types of education and skill-learning required. Recent reports have highlighted that critical thinking and problem-solving skills, spatial and temporal abilities, strong quantitative skills, and the ability to work in teams are among the priorities for many geoscience work environments. The increasing focus of geoscience work on societal issues (e.g., climate change impacts) opens the door to engaging a diverse population of students. In light of this, one challenge is to find effective strategies for "opening the world of possibilities" in the geosciences for these students and supporting them at the critical junctures where they might choose an alternative pathway to geosciences or otherwise leave altogether. To address these and related matters, The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) has supported two rounds of the IUSE: GEOPATHS Program, to create and support innovative and inclusive projects to build the future geoscience workforce. This program is one component in NSF's Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE) initiative, which is a comprehensive, Foundation-wide effort to accelerate the quality and effectiveness of the education of undergraduates in all of the STEM fields. The two tracks of IUSE: GEOPATHS (EXTRA and IMPACT) seek to broaden and strengthen connections and activities that will engage and retain undergraduate students in geoscience education and career pathways, and help prepare them for a variety of careers. The long-term goal of this program is to dramatically increase the number and diversity of students earning undergraduate degrees or enrolling in graduate programs in geoscience fields, as well as
Full Text Available In this introduction to the Special Issue on Gender and Geoethics in the Geosciences is a focus on the participation of women in traditionally male-dominated professions, with geography as an exemplary academic subject. The Special Issue stems from the Commission of Gender and Geoethics as part of the International Association of Geoethics, and endeavors to bring together efforts at various spatial scales that examine the position of women in science and engineering in particular, as conveyed in engineering geology, disaster management sciences, and climate change adaptation studies. It has been discovered, for instance, that men are more active and personally prepared at the community level (in Atlantic Canada coastal communities, and more action is still required in developing countries especially to promote gender equality and empower women. Studies contained in this Special Issue also reveal that tutoring and mentoring by other women can promote further involvement in non-traditional professions, such as professional engineering geology, where women are preferring more traditional (less applied approaches that may circumscribe their ability to find suitable employment after graduation. Moreover, the hiring policy needs to change in many countries, such as Canada, where there are fewer women at entry-level and senior ranks within geography, especially in physical geography as the scientific part of the discipline. The exclusion of women in traditionally male-dominated spheres needs to be addressed and rectified for the ascent of women to occur in scientific geography and in other geosciences as well as science and engineering at large.
Bastrakova, I.; Car, N.
Geoscience Australia (GA) is recognised and respected as the National Repository and steward of multiple nationally significance data collections that provides geoscience information, services and capability to the Australian Government, industry and stakeholders. Internally, this brings a challenge of managing large volume (11 PB) of diverse and highly complex data distributed through a significant number of catalogues, applications, portals, virtual laboratories, and direct downloads from multiple locations. Externally, GA is facing constant changer in the Government regulations (e.g. open data and archival laws), growing stakeholder demands for high quality and near real-time delivery of data and products, and rapid technological advances enabling dynamic data access. Traditional approach to citing static data and products cannot satisfy increasing demands for the results from scientific workflows, or items within the workflows to be open, discoverable, thrusted and reproducible. Thus, citation of data, products, codes and applications through the implementation of provenance records is being implemented. This approach involves capturing the provenance of many GA processes according to a standardised data model and storing it, as well as metadata for the elements it references, in a searchable set of systems. This provides GA with ability to cite workflows unambiguously as well as each item within each workflow, including inputs and outputs and many other registered components. Dynamic objects can therefore be referenced flexibly in relation to their generation process - a dataset's metadata indicates where to obtain its provenance from - meaning the relevant facts of its dynamism need not be crammed into a single citation object with a single set of attributes. This allows for simple citations, similar to traditional static document citations such as references in journals, to be used for complex dynamic data and other objects such as software code.
Scott, O.; Jearld, A., Jr.; Liles, G.; Gutierrez, B.
In March 2009, the Woods Hole Diversity Initiative launched the Partnership Education Program (PEP), a multi-institutional effort to increase diversity in the student population (and ultimately the work force) in the Woods Hole science community. PEP, a summer research internship program, is open to students of all backgrounds but is designed especially to provide opportunities for URM in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). PEP is a 10-week program which provides intensive mentored research, a credit-bearing course and supplemental career and professional development activities. Students have opportunities to work in various research areas of geosciences. PEP is emerging as an effective and sustainable approach to bringing students into the STEM research community. PEP is carefully structured to provide critical support for students as they complete their undergraduate experience and prepare for geosciences careers and/or graduate school. The PEP experience is intended to provide students with an entry into the Woods Hole science community, one of the most vibrant marine and environmental research communities in the world. The program aims to provide a first-hand introduction to emerging issues and real-world training in the research skills that students need to advance in science, either as graduate students or bachelors-level working scientists. This is a long-recognized need and efforts are being made to ensure that the students begin to acquire skills and aptitudes that position them to take advantage of a wide range of opportunities. Of note is that the PEP is transitioning into a two year program where students are participating in a second year as a research intern or employee. Since 2013, at least four partner institutions have invited PEP alumni to participate in their respective programs as research assistants and/or full-time technicians.
Goodwin, C.; Mogk, D. W.
Learning in the field has traditionally been one of the fundamental components of the geoscience curriculum. Field experiences have been attributed to having positive impacts on cognitive, affective, metacognitive, mastery of skills and social components of learning geoscience. The development of geoscience thinking, and of geoscience expertise, encompasses a number of learned behaviors that contribute to the progress of Science and the development of scientists. By getting out into Nature, students necessarily engage active and experiential learning. The open, dynamic, heterogeneous and complex Earth system provides ample opportunities to learn by inquiry and discovery. Learning in this environment requires that students make informed decisions and to think critically about what is important to observe, and what should be excluded in the complex overload of information provided by Nature. Students must learn to employ the full range of cognitive skills that include observation, description, interpretation, analysis and synthesis that lead to “deep learning”. They must be able to integrate and rationalize observations of Nature with modern experimental, analytical, theoretical, and modeling approaches to studying the Earth system, and they must be able to iterate between what is known and what is yet to be discovered. Immersion in the field setting provides students with a sense of spatial and temporal scales of natural phenomena that can not be derived in other learning environments. The field setting provides strong sensory inputs that stimulate cognition and memories that will be available for future application. The field environment also stimulates strong affective responses related to motivation, curiosity, a sense of “ownership” of field projects, and inclusion in shared experiences that carry on throughout professional careers. The nature of field work also contains a strong metacognitive component, as students learn to be aware of what and how they
Buckley, Simon; Ringdal, Kari; Dolva, Benjamin; Naumann, Nicole; Kurz, Tobias
Three-dimensional and photorealistic acquisition of surface topography, using methods such as laser scanning and photogrammetry, has become widespread across the geosciences over the last decade. With recent innovations in photogrammetric processing software, robust and automated data capture hardware, and novel sensor platforms, including unmanned aerial vehicles, obtaining 3D representations of exposed topography has never been easier. In addition to 3D datasets, fusion of surface geometry with imaging sensors, such as multi/hyperspectral, thermal and ground-based InSAR, and geophysical methods, create novel and highly visual datasets that provide a fundamental spatial framework to address open geoscience research questions. Although data capture and processing routines are becoming well-established and widely reported in the scientific literature, challenges remain related to the analysis, co-visualisation and presentation of 3D photorealistic models, especially for new users (e.g. students and scientists new to geomatics methods). Interpretation and measurement is essential for quantitative analysis of 3D datasets, and qualitative methods are valuable for presentation purposes, for planning and in education. Motivated by this background, the current contribution presents LIME, a lightweight and high performance 3D software for interpreting and co-visualising 3D models and related image data in geoscience applications. The software focuses on novel data integration and visualisation of 3D topography with image sources such as hyperspectral imagery, logs and interpretation panels, geophysical datasets and georeferenced maps and images. High quality visual output can be generated for dissemination purposes, to aid researchers with communication of their research results. The background of the software is described and case studies from outcrop geology, in hyperspectral mineral mapping and geophysical-geospatial data integration are used to showcase the novel
Sturm, D.; Jones, T. S.
Studies of high achieving African-American and Hispanic students have shown the students do not go into STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) disciplines due to the poor teaching by some STEM teachers, lack of encouragement from teachers or parents and a self perception the students will not be successful. One underlying component to this problem is the issue of perception of the STEM disciplines by the general public. This study focuses on changing the often negative or neutral perception into one more positive and diverse. This study utilizes clear, and hopefully effective, media communication through the use of traditional marketing strategies to promote the geosciences and the geology program at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga to the general public in the Chattanooga metropolitan area. Average citizens are generally unaware of the various geoscience divisions and career opportunities available. Pioneer marketing, used in this study, introduces new ideas and concepts to the general public, but does not ask for direct action to be taken. The primary goal is to increase awareness of the geosciences. The use of printed and online media delivers the message to the public. In the media, personal interviews with geoscientists from all races and backgrounds were included to demonstrate diversity. An invitation was made to all high school students to participate in an associated after-school program. Elements developed for this program include: 1) clearly defining goals for the marketing effort; 2) delineating the target market by age, education, race and gender; 3) developing a story to tell in the marketing effort; and 4) producing products to achieve the marketing goals. For this effort, the product results included: an annual newspaper tabloid, an associated website and a departmental brochure. The marketing results show increased public awareness, increased awareness of the geology program within the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.
Within STEM fields, employers are reporting a widening gap in the workforce readiness of new graduates. As departments continue to be squeezed with new requirements, chasing the latest technologies and scientific developments and constrained budgets, formal undergraduate programs struggle to fully prepare students for the workforce. One major mechanisms to address gaps within formal education is in life-long learning. Most technical and professional fields have life-long learning requirements, but it is not common in the geosciences, as licensing requirements remain limited. By introducing the concept of career self-management and life-long learning into the formal education experience of students, we can build voluntary engagement and shift some of the preparation burden from existing degree programs. The Geoscience Online Learning Initiative (GOLI) seeks to extend professional life-long learning into the formal education realm. By utilizing proven, effective means to capture expert knowledge, the GOLI program constructs courses in the OpenEdX platform, where the content authors and society staff continuously refine the material into effective one- to two-hour long asynchronous modules. The topical focus of these courses are outside of the usual scope of the academic curriculum, but are aligned with applied technical or professional issues. These courses are provided as open education resources, but also qualify for CEUs as the ongoing professional microcredential in the profession. This way, interested faculty can utilize these resources as focused modules in their own course offerings or students can engage in the courses independently and upon passing the assessments and paying of a nominal fee, be awarded CEUs which count towards their professional qualifications. Establishing a continuum of learning over one's career is a critical cultural change needed for students to succeed and be resilient through the duration of a career. We will examine how this
Lopez, J.M.; Ruiz, M.; Borrego, J.; Arcas, G. de; Barrera, E.; Vega, J.
Event timing and synchronization are two key aspects to improve in the implementation of distributed data acquisition (dDAQ) systems such as the ones used in fusion experiments. It is also of great importance the integration of dDAQ in control and measurement networks. This paper analyzes the applicability of the IEEE1588 and EPICS standards to solve these problems, and presents a hardware module implementation based in both of them that allow adding these functionalities to any DAQ. The IEEE1588 standard facilitates the integration of event timing and synchronization mechanisms in distributed data acquisition systems based on IEEE 803.3 (Ethernet). An optimal implementation of such system requires the use of network interface devices which include specific hardware resources devoted to the IEE1588 functionalities. Unfortunately, this is not the approach followed in most of the large number of applications available nowadays. Therefore, most solutions are based in software and use standard hardware network interfaces. This paper presents the development of a hardware module (GI2E) with IEEE1588 capabilities which includes USB, RS232, RS485 and CAN interfaces. This permits to integrate any DAQ element that uses these interfaces in dDAQ systems in an efficient and simple way. The module has been developed with Motorola's Coldfire MCF5234 processor and National Semiconductors's PHY DP83640T, providing it with the possibility to implement the PTP protocol of IEEE1588 by hardware, and therefore increasing its performance over other implementations based in software. To facilitate the integration of the dDAQ system in control and measurement networks the module includes a basic Input/Output Controller (IOC) functionality of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) architecture. The paper discusses the implementation details of this module and presents its applications in advanced dDAQ applications in the fusion community.
Nunn, J. A.; Agnew, J.
NSF and the Shell Foundation sponsor a program called Louisiana Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education (LaURGE). Goals of LaURGE are: 1) Interweave geoscience education into the existing curriculum; 2) Provide teachers with lesson plans that promote interest in geoscience, critical thinking by students, and are consistent with current knowledge in geoscience; and 3) Provide teachers with supplies that make these lessons the highlights of the course. Biology workshops were held at LSU in Baton Rouge and Centenary College in Shreveport in July 2009. 25 teachers including 5 African-Americans attended the workshops. Teachers were from public and private schools in seven different parishes. Teacher experience ranged from 3 years to 40 years. Courses impacted are Biology, Honors Biology, AP Biology, and Environmental Science. The workshops began with a field trip to Mississippi to collect fossil shark teeth and create a virtual field trip. After the field trip, teachers do a series of activities on fossil shark teeth to illustrate evolution and introduce basic concepts such as geologic time, superposition, and faunal succession. Teachers were also given a $200 budget from which to select fossils for use in their classrooms. One of our exercises explores the evolution of the megatoothed shark lineage leading to Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predatory shark in history with teeth up to 17 cm long. Megatoothed shark teeth have an excellent fossil record and show continuous transitions in morphology from the Eocene to Pliocene. We take advantage of the curiosity of sharks shared by most people, and allow teachers to explore the variations among different shark teeth and to explain the causes of those variations. Objectives are to have teachers (and their students): 1) sort fossil shark teeth into biologically reasonable species; 2) form hypotheses about evolutionary relationships; and 3) describe and interpret evolutionary trends in the fossil Megatoothed
Holmes, M.; O'Connell, S.; Foos, A.
The Association for Women Geoscientists (AWG) has been working to increase the representation and advancement of women in geoscience careers since its founding in 1977. We promote the professional development of our members and encourage women to become geoscientists by gathering and providing data on the status of women in the field, providing publications to train women in professional skills, encouraging networking, publicizing mentoring opportunities, organizing and hosting workshops, funding programs to encourage women to enter the field of geosciences, and providing scholarships, particularly to non-traditional students. We promote women geoscientists' visibility through our Phillips Petroleum Speaker's List, by recognizing an Outstanding Educator at our annual breakfast at the Geological Society of America meetings, and by putting qualified women's names forward for awards given by other geo-societies. Our paper and electronic newsletters inform our members of job and funding opportunities. These newsletters provide the geoscience community with a means of reaching a large pool of women (nearly 1000 members). Our outreach is funded by the AWG Foundation and carried out by individual members and association chapters. We provide a variety of programs, from half-day "Fossil Safaris" to two-week field excursions such as the Lincoln Chapter/Homestead Girl Scouts Council Wider Opportunity, "Nebraska Rocks!!". Our programs emphasize the field experience as the most effective "hook" for young people. We have found that women continue to be under-represented in academia in the geosciences. Data from 1995 indicate we hold only 11 percent of academic positions and 9 percent of tenure-track positions, while our enrollment at the undergraduate level has risen from 25 to 34 percent over the last ten years. The proportion of women in Master's degree programs is nearly identical with our proportions in undergraduate programs, but falls off in doctoral programs. Between 1986
Flood, T. P.; Munk, L.; Anderson, S. W.
During the past decade, at least sixteen geoscience departments in the U.S. that offer a B.S. degree or higher have been eliminated or dispersed. During that same time, three new geoscience departments with degree-granting programs have been developed. Each program has unique student demographics, affiliation (i.e. public institution versus private liberal arts college), geoscience curricula and reasons for initiation. Some of the common themes for each program include; 1) strong devotion to providing field experiences, 2) commitment to student-faculty collaborative research, 3) maintaining traditional geology program elements in the core curriculum and 4) placing students into high quality graduate programs and geoscience careers. Although the metrics for each school vary, each program can claim success in the area of maintaining solid enrollments. This metric is critical because programs are successful only if they have enough students, either in the major and/or general education courses, to convince administrators that continued support of faculty, including space and funding is warranted. Some perspectives gained through the establishment of these new programs may also be applicable to established programs. The success and personality of a program can be greatly affected by the personality of a single faculty member. Therefore, it may not be in the best interest of a program to distribute programmatic work equally among all faculty. For example, critical responsibilities such as teaching core and introductory courses should be the responsibility of faculty who are fully committed to these pursuits. However, if these responsibilities reduce scholarly output, well-articulated arguments should be developed in order to promote program quality and sustainability rather than individual productivity. Field and undergraduate research experiences should be valued as much as high-quality classroom and laboratory instruction. To gain the support of the administration
This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)
Solheim, A.; Bjoerlykke, A.
The International Geological Congress (IGC) has been arranged every four years since 1878. During the previous Congress in Florence, Italy, 2004, the Nordic countries were awarded the organisation of the 33rd IGC, which will be held in Oslo, Norway, August 6-14, 2008. We expect between 6000 and 9000 participants to the Congress, which also includes workshops, short-courses, and business meetings, as well as more than 50 pre -and post Congress excursions. The Congress is organised under the umbrella of IUGS and the patronage of UNESCO. The Congress will run with 40 parallel sessions and cover the whole width of the geosciences. About 500 symposia will run in 40 parallel sessions. There will be a major poster session, as well as a large exhibition (Geoexpo 2008), in which industry and other organisations will be able to exhibit their products and services. A number of international affiliations have announced their interest in organising annual business meetings during the Congress. In addition, a number of workshops and short-courses will be arranged. More than 50 excursions are planned for the two weeks before the Congress and one week after. These run in all the Nordic Countries, as well as in NW Russia, Ukraine, Greenland, Svalbard, and the Faeroes Islands. These excursions will give the participants a first-hand insight into Nordic Geosciences, as well as the Nordic natural and cultural heritage. Two major international events are important for the Congress. The "International Polar Year" (IPY) and the United Nations' "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) are both running in the period 2007-2009. The Congress focuses on many of the main themes of IYPE, with major emphasis on "Geoscience and Society". Seven major themes will be treated in full-day plenary sessions of lectures given by invited lecturers. These plenary sessions will have a scientific part in the morning, a key-note lecture at lunch-time, and a societal part in the afternoon, followed by a
Ellins, Katherine K.; Olson, Hilary Clement
The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics and Huston-Tillotson University collaborated on a proof of concept project to offer a geoscience course to undergraduate students and preservice teachers in order to expand the scope of geoscience education within the local minority student and teacher population. Students were exposed to rigorous…
Gates, Alexander E.; Kalczynski, Michael J.
A hands-on game based upon principles of oil accumulation and drilling was highly effective at generating enthusiasm toward the geosciences in urban youth from underrepresented minority groups in Newark, NJ. Participating 9th-grade high school students showed little interest in the geosciences prior to participating in the oil game, even if they…
Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.; Tikoff, B.; Shipley, T. F.; Ormand, C. J.; Mcconnell, D. A.
Geoscience Education Research aims to improve geoscience teaching and learning by understanding clearly the characteristics of geoscience expertise, the path from novice to expert, and the educational practices that can speed students along this path. In addition to expertise in geoscience and education, this research requires an understanding of learning -the domain of cognitive scientists. Beginning in 2002, a series of workshops and events focused on bringing together geoscientists, education researchers, and cognitive scientists to facilitate productive geoscience education research collaborations. These activities produced reports, papers, books, websites and a blog developing a research agenda for geoscience education research at a variety of scales: articulating the nature of geoscience expertise, and the overall importance of observation and a systems approach; focusing attention on geologic time, spatial skills, field work, and complex systems; and identifying key research questions in areas where new technology is changing methods in geoscience research and education. Cognitive scientists and education researchers played critical roles in developing this agenda. Where geoscientists ask questions that spring from their rich understanding of the discipline, cognitive scientists and education researchers ask questions from their experience with teaching and learning in a wide variety of disciplines and settings. These interactions tend to crystallize the questions of highest importance in addressing challenges of geoscience learning and to identify productive targets for collaborative research. Further, they serve as effective mechanisms for bringing research techniques and results from other fields into geoscience education. Working productively at the intersection of these fields requires teams of cognitive scientists, geoscientists, and education reserachers who share enough knowledge of all three domains to have a common articulation of the research
McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Layou, K.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.
Two-year colleges play an important role in developing a competent and creative geoscience workforce, teaching science to pre-service K-12 teachers, producing earth-science literate citizens, and providing a foundation for broadening participation in the geosciences. The Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) project has developed web resources for geoscience faculty on the preparation and support of students in two-year colleges (2YCs). Online resources developed from two topical workshops and several national, regional, and local workshops around the country focus on two main categories: Career Preparation and Workforce Development, and Supporting Student Success in Geoscience at Two-year Colleges. The Career Preparation and Workforce Development resources were developed to help faculty make the case that careers in the geosciences provide a range of possibilities for students and to support preparation for the geoscience workforce and for transfer to four-year programs as geoscience majors. Many two-year college students are unaware of geoscience career opportunities and these materials help illuminate possible futures for them. Resources include an overview of what geoscientists do; profiles of possible careers along with the preparation necessary to qualify for them; geoscience employer perspectives about jobs and the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes they are looking for in their employees; employment trends in sectors of the economy that employ geoscience professionals; examples of geotechnician workforce programs (e.g. Advanced Technological Education Centers, environmental technology programs, marine technician programs); and career resources available from professional societies. The website also provides information to support student recruitment into the geosciences and facilitate student transfer to geoscience programs at four- year colleges and universities, including sections on advising support before
Blake, R.; Liou-Mark, J.
An acute STEM crisis exists nationally, and the problem is even more dire among the geosciences. Since about the middle of the last century, fewer undergraduate and graduate degrees have been granted in the geosciences than in any other STEM fields. To help in ameliorating this geoscience plight, particularly from among members of racial and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in STEM fields, the New York City College of Technology (City Tech) launched a vibrant geoscience program and convened a community of STEM students who are interested in learning about the geosciences. This program creates and introduces geoscience knowledge and opportunities to a diverse undergraduate student population that was never before exposed to geoscience courses at City Tech. This geoscience project is funded by the NSF OEDG program, and it brings awareness, knowledge, and geoscience opportunities to City Tech's students in a variety of ways. Firstly, two new geoscience courses have been created and introduced. One course is on Environmental Remote Sensing, and the other course is an Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters. The Remote Sensing course highlights the physical and mathematical principles underlying remote sensing techniques. It covers the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques, interferometric and lidar systems, and an introduction to image processing. Guest lecturers are invited to present their expertise on various geoscience topics. These sessions are open to all City Tech students, not just to those students who enroll in the course. The Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters course is expected to be offered in Spring 2013. This highly relevant, fundamental course will be open to all students, especially to non-science majors. The course focuses on natural disasters, the processes that control them, and their devastating impacts to human life and structures. Students will be introduced to the nature, causes, risks
Crompton, H.; De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.
Mobile devices are playing an increasing role in geoscience education. Affordances include instructor-student communication and class management in large classrooms, virtual and augmented reality applications, digital mapping, and crowd-sourcing. Mobile technologies have spawned the sub field of mobile learning or m-learning, which is defined as learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions. Geoscientists have traditionally engaged in non-digital mobile learning via fieldwork, but digital devices are greatly extending the possibilities, especially for non-traditional students. Smartphones and tablets are the most common devices but smart glasses such as Pivothead enable live streaming of a first-person view (see for example, https://youtu.be/gWrDaYP5w58). Virtual reality headsets such as Google Cardboard create an immersive virtual field experience and digital imagery such as GigaPan and Structure from Motion enables instructors and/or students to create virtual specimens and outcrops that are sharable across the globe. Whereas virtual reality (VR) replaces the real world with a virtual representation, augmented reality (AR) overlays digital data on the live scene visible to the user in real time. We have previously reported on our use of the AR application called FreshAiR for geoscientific "egg hunts." The popularity of Pokémon Go demonstrates the potential of AR for mobile learning in the geosciences.
Houlding, Simon W.
Extensible markup language (XML) is a recently introduced meta-language standard on the Web. It provides the rules for development of metadata (markup) standards for information transfer in specific fields. XML allows development of markup languages that describe what information is rather than how it should be presented. This allows computer applications to process the information in intelligent ways. In contrast hypertext markup language (HTML), which fuelled the initial growth of the Web, is a metadata standard concerned exclusively with presentation of information. Besides its potential for revolutionizing Web activities, XML provides an opportunity for development of meaningful data standards in specific application fields. The rapid endorsement of XML by science, industry and e-commerce has already spawned new metadata standards in such fields as mathematics, chemistry, astronomy, multi-media and Web micro-payments. Development of XML-based data standards in the geosciences would significantly reduce the effort currently wasted on manipulating and reformatting data between different computer platforms and applications and would ensure compatibility with the new generation of Web browsers. This paper explores the evolution, benefits and status of XML and related standards in the more general context of Web activities and uses this as a platform for discussion of its potential for development of data standards in the geosciences. Some of the advantages of XML are illustrated by a simple, browser-compatible demonstration of XML functionality applied to a borehole log dataset. The XML dataset and the associated stylesheet and schema declarations are available for FTP download.
The goal of the EarthCube OntoSoft project is to enable the creation of a germinal ecosystem for software stewardship in geosciences that will empower scientists to manage their software as valuable scientific assets in an open transparent mode that enables broader access to that software by other scientists, software professionals, students, and decision makers. Our work to date includes: 1) an ontology for describing scientific software metadata, 2) a scientific software repository that contains more than 600 entries that can be searched and compared across metadata fields, 3) an intelligent user interface that guides scientists to publish software. We have also developed a training program where scientists learn to describe and cite software in their papers in addition to data and provenance. This training program is part of a Geoscience Papers of the Future Initiative, where scientists learn as they are writing a journal paper that can be submitted to a Special Section of the AGU Earth and Space Science Journal.
Garijo, D.; Gil, Y.
The goal of the EarthCube OntoSoft project is to enable the creation of an ecosystem for software stewardship in geosciences that will empower scientists to manage their software as valuable scientific assets. By sharing software metadata in OntoSoft, scientists enable broader access to that software by other scientists, software professionals, students, and decision makers. Our work to date includes: 1) an ontology for describing scientific software metadata, 2) a distributed scientific software repository that contains more than 750 entries that can be searched and compared across metadata fields, 3) an intelligent user interface that guides scientists to publish software and allows them to crowdsource its corresponding metadata. We have also developed a training program where scientists learn to describe and cite software in their papers in addition to data and provenance, and we are using OntoSoft to show them the benefits of publishing their software metadata. This training program is part of a Geoscience Papers of the Future Initiative, where scientists are reflecting on their current practices, benefits and effort for sharing software and data. This journal paper can be submitted to a Special Section of the AGU Earth and Space Science Journal.
Hubenthal, M.; LaDue, N.; Taber, J.
The geoscience education community has made great strides in the study of teaching and learning at the undergraduate level, particularly with respect to solid earth geology. Nevertheless, the 2012 National Research Council report, Discipline-based Education Research: Understanding and Improving Learning in Undergraduate Science and Engineering suggests that the geosciences lag behind other science disciplines in the integration of education research within the discipline and the establishment of a broad research base. In January 2015, early career researchers from earth, atmospheric, ocean, and polar sciences and geoscience education research (GER) gathered for the ENGAGE workshop. The primary goal of ENGAGE was to broaden awareness of discipline-based research in the geosciences and catalyze relationships and understanding between these groups of scientists. An organizing committee of geoscientists and GERs designed a two-day workshop with a variety of activities to engage participants in the establishment of a shared understanding of education research and the development of project ideas through collaborative teams. Thirty-three participants were selected from over 100 applicants, based on disciplinary diversity and demonstrated interest in geoscience education research. Invited speakers and panelists also provided examples of successful cross-disciplinary collaborations. As a result of this workshop, participants indicated that they gained new perspectives on geoscience education and research, networked outside of their discipline, and are likely to increase their involvement in geoscience education research. In fact, 26 of 28 participants indicated they are now better prepared to enter into cross-disciplinary collaborations within the next year. The workshop evaluation revealed that the physical scientists particularly valued opportunities for informal networking and collaborative work developing geoscience education research projects. Meanwhile, GERs valued
Houlton, Heather R.
Pathways that lead students into the geosciences as a college major have not been fully explored in the current literature, despite the recent studies on the "geoscience pipeline model." Anecdotal evidence suggests low quality geoscience curriculum in K-12 education, lack of visibility of the discipline and lack of knowledge about geoscience careers contribute to low geoscience enrollments at universities. This study investigated the reasons why college students decided to major in the geosciences. Students' interests, experiences, motivations and desired future careers were examined to develop a pathway model. In addition, self-efficacy was used to inform pathway analyses, as it is an influential factor in academic major and career choice. These results and interpretations have strong implications for recruitment and retention in academia and industry. A semi-structured interview protocol was developed, which was informed by John Flanagan's critical incident theory. The responses to this interview were used to identify common experiences that diverse students shared for reasons they became geoscience majors. Researchers used self-efficacy theory by Alfred Bandura to assess students' pathways. Seventeen undergraduate geoscience majors from two U.S. Midwest research universities were sampled for cross-comparison and analysis. Qualitative analyses led to the development of six categorical steps for the geoscience pathway. The six pathway steps are: innate attributes/interest sources, pre-college critical incidents, college critical incidents, current/near future goals, expected career attributes and desired future careers. Although, how students traversed through each step was unique for individuals, similar patterns were identified between different populations in our participants: Natives, Immigrants and Refugees. In addition, critical incidents were found to act on behavior in two different ways: to support and confirm decision-making behavior (supportive critical
Keane, Christopher; Leahy, P. Patrick; Houlton, Heather; Wilson, Carolyn
As the geosciences has evolved over the last several decades, so too has undergraduate geoscience education, both from a standpoint of curriculum and educational experience. In the United States, we have been experiencing very strong growth in enrollments in geoscience, as well as employment demand for the last 7 years. That growth has been largely fueled by all aspects of the energy boom in the US, both from the energy production side and the environmental management side. Interestingly the portfolio of experiences and knowledge required are strongly congruent as evidenced from results of the American Geosciences Institute's National Geoscience Exit Survey. Likewise, the demand for new geoscientists in the US is outstripping even the nearly unprecedented growth in enrollments and degrees, which is calling into question the geosciences' inability to effectively reach into the largest growing segments of the U.S. College population - underrepresented minorities. We will also examine the results of the AGI Survey on Geoscience Online Learning and examine how the results of that survey are rectified with Peter Smith's "Middle Third" theory on "wasted talent" because of spatial, economic, and social dislocation. In particular, the geosciences are late to the online learning game in the United States and most faculty engaged in such activities are "lone wolves" in their department operating with little knowledge of the support structures that exist in such development. Yet the most cited barriers for faculty not engaging actively in online learning is the assertion that laboratory and field experiences will be lost and thus fight engaging in this medium. However, the survey shows that faculty are discovering novel approaches to address these issues, many of which have great application to enabling geoscience programs in the United States to meet the expanding demand for geoscience degrees.
Miller, G.; Schoof, J. T.; Therrell, M. D.
Even though climate change and an unhealthy environment have a disproportionate affect on persons of color, there is a poor record of diversity in geoscience-related fields where researchers are investigating ways to improve the quality of the environment and human health. This low percentage of representation in the geosciences is equally troubling at the university where we are beginning the third and final year of a project funded through the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG). The purpose of this project is to explore a novel approach to using the social sciences to help students, specifically underrepresented minorities, discover the geosciences' cultural relevance and consider a career in the earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences. To date, over 800 college freshmen have participated in a design study to evaluate the curriculum efficacy of a geoscience reader. Over half of these participants are students of color. The reader we designed allows students to analyze multiple, and sometimes conflicting, sources such as peer-reviewed journal articles, political cartoons, and newspaper articles. The topic for investigation in the reader is the 1995 Chicago Heat Wave, a tragic event that killed over 700 residents. Students use this reader in a core university course required for entering freshmen with low reading comprehension scores on standardized tests. To support students' comprehension, evaluation, and corroboration of these sources, we incorporated instructional supports aligned with the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), reciprocal teaching, historical reasoning, media literacy, and quantitative reasoning. Using a digital format allows students to access multiple versions of the sources they are analyzing and definitions of challenging vocabulary and scientific concepts. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from participating students and their instructors included focus
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The safety applications require timely and reliable transmissions, while the non-safety applications require efficient and high throughput. In the IEEE 1609.4 protocol, operating interval is divided into alternating Control Channel (CCH) interval and Service Channel (SCH) interval with an identical length. During the CCH interval, nodes transmit safety-related messages and control messages, and Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) mechanism is employed to allow four Access Categories (ACs) within a station with different priorities according to their criticality for the vehicle's safety. During the SCH interval, the non-safety massages are transmitted. An analytical model is proposed in this paper to evaluate performance, reliability and efficiency of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The proposed model improves the existing work by taking serval aspects and the character of multichannel switching into design consideration. Extensive performance evaluations based on analysis and simulation help to validate the accuracy of the proposed model and analyze the capabilities and limitations of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols, and enhancement suggestions are given.
This document describes the basic requirements of a type test program with the objective of verifying that a module used as Class 1E equipment in a nuclear power generating station meets or exceeds its design specifications. This document is limited to class 1E modules from and including the sensor through the logic circuitry of the final actuation devices. Except for those that are part of a module, switchgear, cables, connections, motors, valve actuators, station batteries, and penetrations are not included and are covered by other IEEE documents. The purpose of this document is to supplement the procedures and requirements given in IEEE Std 323-1974  for type testing Class 1E modules, thereby providing directions for establishment of a type test program which will obtain the required test data and yield the required documentation of test methods and results. This standard is structured to present to the user the principal performance characteristics and environmental parameters which must be considered in designing a type test program for any give Class 1E module. These modules range from tiny sensors to complete racks or cabinets full of equipment that may be located inside or outside containment. The Class 1E modules are required to perform their function before, during, or after, or all, any design basis event specified for the module. The vast variety of modules covered by this document precludes the listing here of specific requirements for each type test
Full Text Available The direct link communication between STAtions (STAs is one of the techniques to improve the MAC performance of IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. For the efficient direct link communication, in the literature, the simultaneous polling method was proposed to allow the multiple direct data communication to be performed simultaneously. However, the efficiency of the simultaneous polling method is affected by the interference condition. To alleviate the problem of the lower polling efficiency with the larger interference range, the hybrid polling method is proposed for the direct link communication between STAs in IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. By the proposed polling method, we can integrate the sequential and simultaneous polling methods properly according to the interference condition. Numerical examples are also presented to show the medium access control (MAC performance improvement by the proposed polling method.
In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall that impede the pump\\'s effectiveness. The winning entry split analysis of the pump into three parts based on the pump\\'s functional behavior. It then applied local and integration-based methods to communicate the unsteady flow behavior in different regions of the dataset. This research formed the basis for a comparison of common vortex extractors and more recent methods. In particular, integration-based methods (separation measures, accumulated scalar fields, particle path lines, and advection textures) are well suited to capture the complex time-dependent flow behavior. This video (http://youtu.be/ oD7QuabY0oU) shows simulations of unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump. © 2012 IEEE.
communication protocol should be energy efficient. The IEEE 802.15.4 is designed as a standard protocol for low power, low data rate, low complexity, and short range connections in WPANs. The standard supports allocating several numbers of collision-free guarantee time slots (GTSs within a superframe for some time-critical transmissions. Recently, COPE was proposed as a promising network coding architecture to essentially improve the throughput of wireless networks. In this paper, we exploit the network coding technique at coordinators to improve energy efficiency of the WPAN. Some related practical issues, such as GTS allocation and multicast, are also discussed in order to exploit the network coding opportunities efficiently. Since the coding opportunities are mostly exploited, our proposal achieves both higher energy efficiency and throughput performance than the original IEEE 802.15.4.
The data acquisition systems of the next generation High Energy Physics experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will rely on high-speed point-to-point links and switching networks for their higher level trigger and event building systems. This thesis provides a detailed evaluation of the DS-Link and switch technology, which is based on the IEEE 1355 standard for Heterogeneous Interconnect (HIC). The DS-Link is a bidirectional point-to-point serial interconnect, operating at speeds up to 200 MBaud. The objective of this thesis was to study the performance of the IEEE 1355 link and switch technology and to demonstrate that switching networks using this technology would scale to meet the requirements of the High Energy Physics applications
Diplomska naloga se osredotoča na problem varovanja brezžičnih omrežij, zasnovanih po standardu IEEE 802.11. Opisano je združenje IEEE in njihova specifikacija standardov z oznako 802, prav tako pa so opisani tudi standardi, protokoli in tehnike varovanja in zaščite omrežij, ki delujejo po tej specifikaciji. Predstavljeno je tudi trenutno stanje varnosti brezžičnih omrežij na področju mesta Ptuj, opisani in prikazani pa so tudi različni pristopi za zlorabo brezžičnih omrežij, skupaj s program...
Pop, Paul; Lander Raagaard, Michael; Craciunas, Silviu S.
to the optimization of distributed cyber-physical systems using real-time Ethernet for communication. Then, we formulate two novel optimization problems related to the scheduling and routing of TT and AVB traffic in TSN. Thus, we consider that we know the topology of the network as well as the set of TT and AVB flows......In this paper we are interested in safety-critical real-time applications implemented on distributed architectures supporting the Time-SensitiveNetworking (TSN) standard. The ongoing standardization of TSN is an IEEE effort to bring deterministic real-time capabilities into the IEEE 802.1 Ethernet...... standard supporting safety-critical systems and guaranteed Quality-of-Service. TSN will support Time-Triggered (TT) communication based on schedule tables, Audio-Video-Bridging (AVB) flows with bounded end-to-end latency as well as Best-Effort messages. We first present a survey of research related...
Full Text Available The improvement of transient stability of power system was one of the most challenging research areas in power engineer.The main aim of this paper was transient stability analysis and improvement of IEEE 9 bus system. These studies were computed using POWER WORLD SIMULATOR. The IEEE 9 bus system was modelled in power world simulator and load flow studies were performed to determine pre-fault conditions in the system using Newton-Raphson method. The transient stability analysis was carried out using Runga method during three-phase balanced fault. For the improvement transient stability, the general methods adopted were fast acting exciters, FACT devices and addition of parallel transmission line. These techniques play an important role in improving the transient stability, increasing transmission capacity and damping low frequency oscillations.
Kim, Wooshik; Lim, Suyoung; Ahn, Jinsoo; Nah, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyun
HL7 (Health Level 7) is a standard developed for exchanging incompatible healthcare information generated from programs or devices among heterogenous medical information systems. At present, HL7 is growing as a global standard. However, the HL7 standard does not support effective methods for treating data from various medical sensors, especially from mobile sensors. As ubiquitous systems are growing, HL7 must communicate with various medical transducers. In the area of sensor fields, IEEE 1451 is a group of standards for controlling transducers and for communicating data from/to various transducers. In this paper, we present the possibility of interoperability between the two standards, i.e., HL7 and IEEE 1451. After we present a method to integrate them and show the preliminary results of this approach.
Liao, Tianjun; Molina, Daniel; de Oca, Marco A Montes; Stützle, Thomas
The benchmark functions and some of the algorithms proposed for the special session on real parameter optimization of the 2005 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC'05) have played and still play an important role in the assessment of the state of the art in continuous optimization. In this article, we show that if bound constraints are not enforced for the final reported solutions, state-of-the-art algorithms produce infeasible best candidate solutions for the majority of functions of the IEEE CEC'05 benchmark function suite. This occurs even though the optima of the CEC'05 functions are within the specified bounds. This phenomenon has important implications on algorithm comparisons, and therefore on algorithm designs. This article's goal is to draw the attention of the community to the fact that some authors might have drawn wrong conclusions from experiments using the CEC'05 problems.
Hosticka, C.; Kingsbury, E.R.; Bruhin, A.C.
Wire and Cable manufacturers generally qualify products for class IE application by envelope type testing to user specifications and environmental conditions recommended by IEEE Standards 323-1974 and 383-1974. The General Electric Wire and Cable Business Department recently completed two such qualification programs. Cable constructions tested were 600V control cables and 600 V, 2kV, and 15kV power cables insulated with flame resistant mineral filled crosslinked polyethylene. The 15kV samples included taped field splices. In the second test program, the steam pressure-temperature profile included a simulated main steam line break. Test specimens were wrapped on grounded mandrels and were electrically loaded throughout the simulated LOCA tests. After completion of environmental testing, samples were subjected to the IEEE 383 simulated post-LOCA test. 6 refs
Hosticka, C.; Kingsbury, E.R.; Bruhin, A.C.
Wire and Cable manufacturers generally qualify products for class IE application by envelope type testing to user specifications and environmental conditions recommended by IEEE Standards 323-1974 and 383-1974. The General Electric Wire and Cable Business Department recently completed two such qualification programs. Cable constructions tested were 600V control cables and 600 V, 2KV, and 15KV power cables insulated with flame resistant mineral filled crosslinked polyethylene. The 15KV samples included taped field splices. In the second test program, the steam pressure-temperature profile included a simulated main steam line break. Test specimens were wrapped on grounded mandrels and were electrically loaded throughout the simulated LOCA tests. After completion of environmental testing, samples were subjected to the IEEE 383 simulated post-LOCA test. 6 refs
Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Pattanaik, Sudhir Ranjan; Wu, Shih-Lin
IEEE 802.15.4e standard proposes Deterministic and Synchronous Multichannel Extension (DSME) mode for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to support industrial, commercial and health care applications. In this paper, a new channel access scheme and beacon scheduling schemes are designed for the IEEE 802.15.4e enabled WSNs in star topology to reduce the network discovery time and energy consumption. In addition, a new dynamic guaranteed retransmission slot allocation scheme is designed for devices with the failure Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) transmission to reduce the retransmission delay. To evaluate our schemes, analytical models are designed to analyze the performance of WSNs in terms of reliability, delay, throughput and energy consumption. Our schemes are validated with simulation and analytical results and are observed that simulation results well match with the analytical one. The evaluated results of our designed schemes can improve the reliability, throughput, delay, and energy consumptions significantly.
Ray, Sayan K.; Pawlikowski, Krzysztof; Sirisena, Harsha
We propose a modification of the IEEE 802.16e hard handover (HHO) procedure, which significantly reduces the handover latency constraint of the original HHO procedure in IEEE 802.16e networks. It allows a better handling of the delay-sensitive traffic by avoiding unnecessary time-consuming scanning and synchronization activity as well as simplifies the network re-entry procedure. With the help of the backhaul network, it reduces the number of control messages in the original handover policy, making the handover latency acceptable also for real-time streaming traffic. Preliminary performance evaluation studies show that the modified handover procedure is able to reduce the total handover latency by about 50%.
Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton
Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.
Full Text Available We present a simple analytical method for capacity evaluation of IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX networks. Various overheads that impact the capacity are explained and methods to reduce these overheads are also presented. The advantage of a simple model is that the effect of each decision and sensitivity to various parameters can be seen easily. We illustrate the model by estimating the capacity for three sample applications—Mobile TV, VoIP, and data. The analysis process helps explain various features of IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX. It is shown that proper use of overhead reducing mechanisms and proper scheduling can make an order of magnitude difference in performance. This capacity evaluation method can also be used for validation of simulation models.
Cronin, V. S.; Bank, C.; Bobrowsky, P. T.; Geissman, J. W.; Kieffer, S. W.; Mogk, D. W.; Palinkas, C. M.; Pappas Maenz, C.; Peppoloni, S.; Ryan, A. M.
The daily quest of a geoscientist is to seek reliable information about Earth: its history, nature, materials, processes, resources and hazards. In science, reliable information is based on reproducible observations (scientific facts), and includes an estimate of uncertainty. All geoscientists share that basic quest, regardless of whether they wear a lab coat, business suit or field boots at work. All geoscientists also share a responsibility to serve society - the same society that invested in science and education, and thereby enabled the development of geoscience as well as the commercial ventures that utilize geoscience. What does society expect in return for that investment? It just wants the truth, along with a clear indication of the uncertainty. Society needs reliable geoscience information and expertise so that it can make good, informed decisions about resources, risk and our shared environment. Unreliable geoscience information, if represented as valid, might do irreparable harm. The authors represent the International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG, www.geoethics.org), which seeks to develop and advance geoethics worldwide. Geoethics is based on the moral imperative for geoscientists to use our knowledge and expertise about Earth for the benefit of humankind. Informed by the geologic record of the intertwined history of life and our planet, that moral imperative extends beyond our time, our culture, and even our species. Ultimately, Earth is a small lifeboat in space. Geoscientists form the essential interface between our human society and Earth, and we must act for the health and benefit of both. Einstein wrote, "Truth is what stands the test of experience." If geoscientists are unwilling to engage the public and to speak the truth about Earth, who else will assume that role? The challenges we face together - resources, energy, potable water, soil conservation, sea-level rise - are too serious for geoscientists to be mute. Voices motivated
Navarro, A.P.; Almoguera, L.; Alonso Gozalo, J.; Alonso Candenas, J.; Blaumoser, M.
Three communications about the TJ-II device, under construction at CIEMAT with preferential support from EURATOM, were presented to the 14th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering and are collected in this report. The first one describes in detail the device and its present status of design and construction. The remaining two deal with the two most critical components of the project: the vacuum vessel and the central hard conductor. (author) 16 fig. 16 ref
This paper presents information describing the concern for nuclear power plant electrical equipment maintenance and the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee's method to address that concern. That method includes the creation of Working Group 3.3, ''Maintenance Good Practices'' which is developing specific maintenance good practice documents, supporting technical information exchange, and providing a vehicle to promote practices which can reduce cost and enhance plant safety. The foundation for that effort is the utilization of Reliability concepts
Land, Susan K; Walz, John W
Practical Support for Lean Six Sigma Software Process Definition: Using IEEE Software Engineering Standards addresses the task of meeting the specific documentation requirements in support of Lean Six Sigma. This book provides a set of templates supporting the documentation required for basic software project control and management and covers the integration of these templates for their entire product development life cycle. Find detailed documentation guidance in the form of organizational policy descriptions, integrated set of deployable document templates, artifacts required in suppo
Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi
IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.
Presented is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) guide for general principles of reliability analysis of nuclear power generating station protection systems. The document has been prepared to provide the basic principles needed to conduct a reliability analysis of protection systems. Included is information on qualitative and quantitative analysis, guides for failure data acquisition and use, and guide for establishment of intervals
The Institute of Electrical and Electrical Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) standards for electrical equipment (Class IE) for nuclear power generating stations are given. The standards are to provide guidance for demonstrating and documenting the adequacy of electric equipment used in all Class IE and interface systems. Representative in containment design basis event conditions for the principal reactor types are included in the appendixes for guidance in enviromental simulation
Wolfe, C. J.
Why are there so few women faculty in the geosciences, while there are large numbers of women undergraduate and graduate students? According to National Science Foundation (NSF) estimates for 1995 in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences, women made up 34% of the bachelor's degrees awarded, 35% of the graduate students enrolled, and 22% of the doctorates granted. Yet progress has been slower in achieving adequate representation of women geoscientists in academia, where women represent only 12% of the overall faculty. This talk will present the results of a survey I conducted on the status of women faculty at the 20 top-ranked geology programs, which was originally published as a feature article in Eos [Wolfe, 1999]. Data from the 1997 AGI Directory of Geoscience Departments were used to compare the numbers of women faculty at different departments, as well as to consider the distribution of men and women faculty by year of Ph.D. Strong inequities were found to exist between the individual departments. The percentages of women in the departments ranged from 0% to as high as 23%, and 37% of the departments had either one woman faculty member or none. Histograms of the faculty sorted by year of Ph.D. showed that clear generational differences existed between the sets of men and women faculty. Thirty-nine percent of the men obtained their Ph.D. prior to 1970, whereas only 3% of the women obtained their Ph.D. before this date. The majority of women faculty members (64%) received their Ph.D. after 1980, but a minority of men (31%) received their degrees after 1980. In the 1960s and 1970s, the geosciences expanded and departments employed a high percentage of recent Ph.D.s, but hiring of young faculty decreased in the 1980s and 1990s. In contrast, the numbers of women graduate students only began to rise after 1970, and thus the quantity of women Ph.D.s increased as the number of young hires decreased. Two problems appeared evident from this study using 1997 data
Taber, M.; Ledley, T. S.; Prakash, A.; Domenico, B.
The scientific data collected by government funded research belongs to the public. As such, the scientific and technical communities are responsible to make scientific data accessible and usable by the educational community. However, much geoscience data are difficult for educators and students to find and use. Such data are generally described by metadata that are narrowly focused and contain scientific language. Thus, data access presents a challenge to educators in determining if a particular dataset is relevant to their needs, and to effectively access and use the data. The AccessData project (EAR-0623136, EAR-0305058) has developed a model for bridging the scientific and educational communities to develop robust inquiry-based activities using scientific datasets in the form of Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET, http://serc.carleton.edu/eet) chapters. EET chapters provide step-by-step instructions for accessing specific data and analyzing it with a software analysis tool to explore issues or concepts in science, technology, and mathematics. The AccessData model involves working directly with small teams made up of data providers from scientific data archives or research teams, data analysis tool specialists, scientists, curriculum developers, and educators (AccessData, http://serc.carleton.edu/usingdata/accessdata). The process involves a number of steps including 1) building of the team; 2) pre-workshop facilitation; 3) face-to-face 2.5 day workshop; 4) post-workshop follow-up; 5) completion and review of the EET chapter. The AccessData model has been evolved over a series of six annual workshops hosting ~10 teams each. This model has been expanded to other venues to explore expanding its scope and sustainable mechanisms. These venues include 1) workshops focused on the data collected by a large research program (RIDGE, EarthScope); 2) a workshop focused on developing a citizen scientist guide to conducting research; and 3) facilitating a team on an annual basis
Cronin, V. S.
Positive change is sometimes difficult to accomplish within a university. While it might be easy to get faculty members and administrators to agree that facilitating the development of students as ethical geoscientists is a desirable goal in the abstract, formally proposing concrete plans to achieve that goal might generate negative responses and even roadblocks. For example, it might be a challenge to pass a course in geoethics through a college curriculum committee, because ethics is a topic usually taught by the philosophy faculty. Although there are recognized subfields in engineering, medical, business, and legal ethics that are commonly taught by faculty members in those respective departments, geoethics is not yet recognized in this way. A more productive approach might be to begin with change that can be accomplished simply, within existing courses. Faculty members are usually granted broad discretionary authority to decide how material is to be presented in geoscience courses, including required core courses. My suggestion is to structure a course that presents all of the material normally expected under that course title, but in such a way that the ethical dimensions are intentionally and consistently highlighted. As with any change in the way we present course material, there is a startup cost to be borne by the teacher. One cost is the time needed to deepen our understanding of applied professional and scientific ethics; however, this is more of a personal and professional benefit than a cost in the long run. Infusing a course with an awareness of ethical issues also takes prior thought and planning to be successful. But, of course, that is no different from any other improvement in science education. Impressions from a semester's effort to include geoethics in a required core course in structural geology to about 25 students will be shared. The main course topic is not particularly relevant, because there are a number of ethical questions that students
Hauhs, Michael; Trancón y Widemann, Baltasar; Lange, Holger
Models have a mixed record of success in the geosciences. In meteorology, model development and implementation has been among the first and most successful examples of triggering computer technology in science. On the other hand, notorious problems such as the 'equifinality issue' in hydrology lead to a rather mixed reputation of models in other areas. The most successful models in geosciences are applications of dynamic systems theory to non-living systems or phenomena. Thus, we start from the hypothesis that the success of model applications relates to the influence of life on the phenomenon under study. We thus focus on the (formal) representation of life in models. The aim is to investigate whether disappointment in model performance is due to system properties such as heterogeneity and historicity of ecosystems, or rather reflects an abstraction and formalisation problem at a fundamental level. As a formal framework for this investigation, we use category theory as applied in computer science to specify behaviour at an interface. Its methods have been developed for translating and comparing formal structures among different application areas and seems highly suited for a classification of the current "model zoo" in the geosciences. The approach is rather abstract, with a high degree of generality but a low level of expressibility. Here, category theory will be employed to check the consistency of assumptions about life in different models. It will be shown that it is sufficient to distinguish just four logical cases to check for consistency of model content. All four cases can be formalised as variants of coalgebra-algebra homomorphisms. It can be demonstrated that transitions between the four variants affect the relevant observations (time series or spatial maps), the formalisms used (equations, decision trees) and the test criteria of success (prediction, classification) of the resulting model types. We will present examples from hydrology and ecology in
Nahm, A.; Villalobos, J. I.; White, J.; Smith-Konter, B. R.
A workshop for high school and middle school Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers was held this summer (2012) as part of an ongoing collaboration between the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and El Paso Community College (EPCC) Departments of Geological Sciences. This collaborative effort aims to build local Earth science literacy and educational support for the geosciences. Sixteen teachers from three school districts from El Paso and southern New Mexico area participated in the workshop, consisting of middle school, high school, early college high school, and dual credit faculty. The majority of the teachers had little to no experience teaching geoscience, thus this workshop provided an introduction to basic geologic concepts to teachers with broad backgrounds, which will result in the introduction of geoscience to many new students each year. The workshop's goal was to provide hands-on activities illustrating basic geologic and scientific concepts currently used in introductory geology labs/lectures at both EPCC and UTEP to help engage pre-college students. Activities chosen for the workshop were an introduction to Google Earth for use in the classroom, relative age dating and stratigraphy using volcanoes, plate tectonics utilizing the jigsaw pedagogy, and the scientific method as a think-pair-share activity. All activities where designed to be low cost and materials were provided for instructors to take back to their institutions. A list of online resources for teaching materials was also distributed. Before each activity, a short pre-test was given to the participants to gauge their level of knowledge on the subjects. At the end of the workshop, participants were given a post-test, which tested the knowledge gain made by participating in the workshop. In all cases, more correct answers were chosen in the post-test than the individual activity pre-tests, indicating that knowledge of the subjects was gained. The participants enjoyed participating in these
Campoccia, F.; Di Silvestre, M.L.; Sanseverino, E.R.; Zizzo, G. [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy)
In power systems, on-line transmission between local units and the central unit can be done by means of power line communications or wireless technology. During an electrical fault, the reliability of the distribution system depends on the security of the timely protective and restorative actions on the network. This paper focused on the WiFi system because of its economy and ease of installation. However, WiFi systems are typically managed by the IEEE 802.11 protocol, which is not reliable in terms of security in data communication. In WiFi networks, data is divided into packets and sent in succession to reduce errors within the radio channel. The IEEE 802.11 protocol has high probability for loss of packets or delay in their transmission. In order to ensure the reliability of data transmission times between two terminal units connected by WiFi stations, a new protocol was derived by modifying the IEEE 802.11. The improvements of the new protocol were highlighted and its capability for the diagnostic service was verified. The modified protocol eliminates the danger of collisions between packets and optimizes the transmission time for sending information. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.
Sklavos, N.; Selimis, G.; Koufopavlou, O.
The explosive growth of internet and consumer demand for mobility has fuelled the exponential growth of wireless communications and networks. Mobile users want access to services and information, from both internet and personal devices, from a range of locations without the use of a cable medium. IEEE 802.11 is one of the most widely used wireless standards of our days. The amount of access and mobility into wireless networks requires a security infrastructure that protects communication within that network. The security of this protocol is based on the wired equivalent privacy (WEP) scheme. Currently, all the IEEE 802.11 market products support WEP. But recently, the 802.11i working group introduced the advanced encryption standard (AES), as the security scheme for the future IEEE 802.11 applications. In this paper, the hardware integrations of WEP and AES are studied. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) device has been used as the hardware implementation platform, for a fair comparison between the two security schemes. Measurements for the FPGA implementation cost, operating frequency, power consumption and performance are given.
M. Udin Harun Al Rasyid
Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.5 standard support structure of star and peer-to-peer network formation. Strating from these, the cluster tree network can be built as a special case of peer-to-peer network to increse coverage area. In this paper, we provide an performance evaluation of beacon- enabled mode for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor network on star and cluster topology in order to get the maximum result to apply the appropriate topology model as needed. We conduct analysis on each topology model by using the numbers of nodes from 10 nodes to 100 nodes to analyze throughput, delay, energy consumption, and probability success packet by using NS2 simulator. The simulation results show that the throughput and the probability of success packet of cluster topology are higher than that of star topology, and the energy consumption of cluster topology is lesser than that of star topology. However, cluster topology increases the delay more than star topology. Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4, wireless sensor network, beacon-enabled mode, topology, csma/ca
Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Serrano, Luis; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José
The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference frame for medical device interoperability. A draft for an ECG device specialization (ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02) has already been presented to the Personal Health Device (PHD) Working Group, and the Standard Communications Protocol for Computer-Assisted ElectroCardioGraphy (SCP-ECG) Standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064:2005+A1:2007) has recently been approved as part of the x73 family (ISO 11073-91064:2009). These factors suggest the coordinated use of these two standards in foreseeable telecardiology environments, and hence the need to harmonize them. Such harmonization is the subject of this paper. Thus, a mapping of the mandatory attributes defined in the second draft of the ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02 and the minimum SCP-ECG fields is presented, and various other capabilities of the SCP-ECG Standard (such as the messaging part) are also analyzed from an x73-PHD point of view. As a result, this paper addresses and analyzes the implications of some inconsistencies in the coordinated use of these two standards. Finally, a proof-of-concept implementation of the draft x73-PHD ECG device specialization is presented, along with the conversion from x73-PHD to SCP-ECG. This paper, therefore, provides recommendations for future implementations of telecardiology systems that are compliant with both x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.
The IEEE has developed this document to provide direction for developing programs to seismically qualify Class 1E equipment for nuclear power generating stations. It supplements IEEE Std 323-1974, IEEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations, which describes the basic requirements for equipment qualification. The Class 1E equipment to be qualified by produres or standards established by this document are of many forms, characteristics, and materials; therefore, the document presents many acceptable methods with the intent of permitting the user to make a judicious selection from among the various options. In making such a selection, the user should choose those that best meet a particular equipment's requirements. Further, in using this document as a specification for the purchase of equipment, the many options should also be recognized and the document invoked accordingly. It is recommended that the need for specific standards for the seismic qualifiction of particular kinds of equipment be evaluated by those responsible for such documents and that consideration be given to the application of particular methods from these documents which are most suitable
IEEE P1596, the Scalable Coherent Interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained during the development of Fastbus (IEEE 960), Futurebus (IEEE 896.1) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of shared memory; and support for segmentation, bus repeaters and general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or full crossbar networks. To achieve these ambitious goals, SCI must sacrifice the immediate handshake characteristic of the present generation of buses in favor of a packet-like split-cycle protocol. Wire-ORs, broadcasts, and even ordinary passive bus structures are to be avoided. However, a lower performance (1 GByte/sec per backplane instead of per processor) implementation using a register insertion ring architecture on a passive ''backplane'' appears to be possible using the same interface as for the more costly switch networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, and reports the status of the work in progress
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs. The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC delay and power consumption of CCA detection.
Sklavos, N; Selimis, G; Koufopavlou, O
The explosive growth of internet and consumer demand for mobility has fuelled the exponential growth of wireless communications and networks. Mobile users want access to services and information, from both internet and personal devices, from a range of locations without the use of a cable medium. IEEE 802.11 is one of the most widely used wireless standards of our days. The amount of access and mobility into wireless networks requires a security infrastructure that protects communication within that network. The security of this protocol is based on the wired equivalent privacy (WEP) scheme. Currently, all the IEEE 802.11 market products support WEP. But recently, the 802.11i working group introduced the advanced encryption standard (AES), as the security scheme for the future IEEE 802.11 applications. In this paper, the hardware integrations of WEP and AES are studied. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) device has been used as the hardware implementation platform, for a fair comparison between the two security schemes. Measurements for the FPGA implementation cost, operating frequency, power consumption and performance are given
Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes
Wireless body area networks (WBAN) has penetrated immensely in revolutionizing the classical heath-care system. Recently, number of WBAN applications has emerged which introduce potential limits to existing solutions. In particular, IEEE 802.15.6 standard has provided great flexibility, provisions and capabilities to deal emerging applications. In this paper, we investigate the application-specific throughput analysis by fine-tuning the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) parameters of the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. Based on PHY characterizations in narrow band, at the MAC layer, carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and scheduled access protocols are extensively analyzed. It is concluded that, IEEE 802.15.6 standard can satisfy most of the WBANs applications throughput requirements by maximum achieving 680 Kbps. However, those emerging applications which require high quality audio or video transmissions, standard is not able to meet their constraints. Moreover, delay, energy efficiency and successful packet reception are considered as key performance metrics for comparing the MAC protocols. CSMA/CA protocol provides the best results to meet the delay constraints of medical and non-medical WBAN applications. Whereas, the scheduled access approach, performs very well both in energy efficiency and packet reception ratio.
Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Ruei-Lung; Wu, Huai-Kuei; Wong, Chi-Ming
Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA) detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS) algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC) delay and power consumption of CCA detection.
Niemelä, Ville; Hämäläinen, Matti; Iinatti, Jari
In 2002, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was the first in defining regulations for ultra wideband (UWB) communications followed by Europe and Japan some years later. Focusing on impulse radio (IR) UWB, in 2007 was the time for the first published standard targeting in personal area networks, released by the IEEE. The second IEEE released standard including UWB definitions is targeted for wireless body area networks (WBAN) and was published in 2012. As the wireless communications has been and will be passing through almost any levels in society, the natural step with WBAN is using it in different medical, healthcare and wellbeing applications. The arguments for these are related to the modern lifestyle, in which people have increasingly more free time and are more interested in taking care of their health and wellbeing. Another challenge is the population composition, i.e., aging in developed countries which call for new solutions and procedures, particularly from cost wise. In this paper, we are evaluating UWB receivers based on the IEEE 802.15.6 physical layer definitions and capable of detecting differentially encoded modulation. The evaluation is performed using two different WBAN channel models.
Lankenau, W.; Wetherill, T.M.
Although worldwide demand for new construction of nuclear power stations has been on a decline, the available opportunities for the design and construction of qualified electrical penetrations continues to offer challenges, requiring a highly versatile design. Versatility is necessary in order to meet unique customer requirements within the constraints of a design basis qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983. This paper summarizes such a versatile electrical penetration designed, built and tested to IEEE Std. 317-1983. The principal features are described including major materials of construction. Some of the design constraints such as sealing requirements, and conductor density (including numerical example) are discussed. The requirements for qualification testing of the penetration assembly to IEEE Std. 317-1983 are delineated in a general sense, and some typical test ranges for preconditioning, radiation exposure, and LOCA are provided. The paper concludes by describing ways in which this versatile design has been adapted to meet unique customer requirements in a variety of nuclear power plants
Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin
This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method.
Full Text Available In this paper we present a Cooperative Spectrum Sensing (CSS algorithm for Cognitive Radios (CR based on IEEE 802.22Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN standard. The core objective is to improve cooperative sensing efficiency which specifies how fast a decision can be reached in each round of cooperation (iteration to sense an appropriate number of channels/bands (i.e. 86 channels of 7MHz bandwidth as per IEEE 802.22 within a time constraint (channel sensing time. To meet this objective, we have developed CSS algorithm using unsupervised K-means clustering classification approach. The received energy level of each Secondary User (SU is considered as the parameter for determining channel availability. The performance of proposed algorithm is quantified in terms of detection accuracy, training and classification delay time. Further, the detection accuracy of our proposed scheme meets the requirement of IEEE 802.22 WRAN with the target probability of falsealrm as 0.1. All the simulations are carried out using Matlab tool.
Full Text Available In order to construct a successful Internet of things (IoT, reliable network construction and maintenance in a sensor domain should be supported. However, IEEE 802.15.4, which is the most representative wireless standard for IoT, still has problems in constructing a large-scale sensor network, such as beacon collision. To overcome some problems in IEEE 802.15.4, the 15.4e task group proposed various different modes of operation. Particularly, the IEEE 802.15.4e deterministic and synchronous multichannel extension (DSME mode presents a novel scheduling model to solve beacon collision problems. However, the DSME model specified in the 15.4e draft does not present a concrete design model but a conceptual abstract model. Therefore, in this paper we introduce a DSME beacon scheduling model and present a concrete design model. Furthermore, validity and performance of DSME are evaluated through experiments. Based on experiment results, we analyze the problems and limitations of DSME, present solutions step by step, and finally propose an enhanced DSME beacon scheduling model. Through additional experiments, we prove the performance superiority of enhanced DSME.
Full Text Available IEEE 802.11 WLAN utilizes a distributed function at its MAC layer, namely, DCF to access the wireless medium. Due to its distributed nature, DCF is able to guarantee working stability in a wireless medium while maintaining the assembling and maintenance cost in a low level. However, DCF is inefficient in dealing with real-time traffics due to its incapability on providing QoS. IEEE 802.11e was introduced as a supplementary standard to cope with this problem. This standard introduces an Enhanced Distributed Coordination Function (EDCF that works based on diff-Serve model and can serve multiple classes of traffics (by using different prioritizations schemes. With the emergence of new time-sensitive applications, EDCF has proved to be yet inefficient in dealing with these kinds of traffics because it could not provide network with well-differentiated QoS. In this study, we propose a novel prioritization scheme to improve QoS level in IEEE 802.11e network. In this scheme, we replace Uniform PDF with Gamma PDF, which has salient differentiating properties. We investigate the suitability and superiority of this scheme on furnishing network with well-differentiated QoS using probabilistic analysis. We strengthen our claims by extensive simulation runs.
Schiff, A.J. [Precision Measurement Instruments, Los Altos Hills, CA (United States); Kempner, L.Jr. [Bonneville Power Administration, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
Standard 693-1997 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) is the recommended practice for seismic design of substations. It represents a significant improvement in the way the power industry seismically qualifies substation high-voltage equipment. This paper described the use of IEEE Standard 693 for hollow-core composite insulators that are used on high-voltage transformers and demonstrated that changes are warranted. The following four failure modes associated with the composite insulator were discussed: bond degradation, bond failure, tube degradation and tube layer delamination. The authors evaluated the IEEE 693 qualification procedure of time history shake-table and static-pull tests and were concerned about acceptance criteria. It was shown that acceptance criteria are not valid for qualifying hollow-core composites and that static-pull tests are needed after the vibration qualification tests are completed. It was suggested that more research is warranted to determine if bonding at the top part of the flange can be eliminated, thereby eliminating bond degradation. The resulting increase in system damping would improve the dynamic response of the unit. 1 ref., 10 figs.
Kiss, A.N.; Danis, W.D.; Cavusgil, S.T.
This article systematically reviews and critically examines international entrepreneurship research in emerging economies (IEEE research), and articulates its importance, timeliness and relevance in consideration of the growing influence of emerging markets in the global economy. A systematic
Raymond, O.; Duclaux, G.; Boisvert, E.; Cipolloni, C.; Cox, S.; Laxton, J.; Letourneau, F.; Richard, S.; Ritchie, A.; Sen, M.; Serrano, J.-J.; Simons, B.; Vuollo, J.
GeoSciML version 3.0 (http://www.geosciml.org), released in late 2011, is the latest version of the CGI-IUGS* Interoperability Working Group geoscience data interchange standard. The new version is a significant upgrade and refactoring of GeoSciML v2 which was released in 2008. GeoSciML v3 has already been adopted by several major international interoperability initiatives, including OneGeology, the EU INSPIRE program, and the US Geoscience Information Network, as their standard data exchange format for geoscience data. GeoSciML v3 makes use of recently upgraded versions of several Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO data transfer standards, including GML v3.2, SWE Common v2.0, and Observations and Measurements v2 (ISO 19156). The GeoSciML v3 data model has been refactored from a single large application schema with many packages, into a number of smaller, but related, application schema modules with individual namespaces. This refactoring allows the use and future development of modules of GeoSciML (eg; GeologicUnit, GeologicStructure, GeologicAge, Borehole) in smaller, more manageable units. As a result of this refactoring and the integration with new OGC and ISO standards, GeoSciML v3 is not backwardly compatible with previous GeoSciML versions. The scope of GeoSciML has been extended in version 3.0 to include new models for geomorphological data (a Geomorphology application schema), and for geological specimens, geochronological interpretations, and metadata for geochemical and geochronological analyses (a LaboratoryAnalysis-Specimen application schema). In addition, there is better support for borehole data, and the PhysicalProperties model now supports a wider range of petrophysical measurements. The previously used CGI_Value data type has been superseded in favour of externally governed data types provided by OGC's SWE Common v2 and GML v3.2 data standards. The GeoSciML v3 release includes worked examples of best practice in delivering geochemical
Ellins, K. K.; Bohls-Graham, E.; Riggs, E. M.; Serpa, L. F.; Jacobs, B. E.; Martinez, A. O.; Fox, S.; Kent, M.; Stocks, E.; Pennington, D. D.
The NSF-sponsored DIG Texas Instructional Blueprint project supports the development of online instructional blueprints for a yearlong high school-level Earth science course. Each blueprint stitches together three-week units that contain curated educational resources aligned with the Texas state standards for Earth and Space Science and the Earth Science Literacy Principles. Units focus on specific geoscience content, place-based concerns, features or ideas, or other specific conceptual threads. Five regional teams composed of geoscientists, pedagogy specialists, and practicing science teachers chose unit themes and resources for twenty-two units during three workshops. In summer 2014 three Education Interns (Earth science teachers) spent six weeks refining the content of the units and aligning them with the Next Generation Science Standards. They also assembled units into example blueprints. The cross-disciplinary collaboration among blueprint team members allowed them to develop knowledge in new areas and to share their own discipline-based knowledge and perspectives. Team members and Education Interns learned where to find and how to evaluate high quality geoscience educational resources, using a web-based resource review tool developed by the Science Education Resource Center (SERC). SERC is the repository for the DIG Texas blueprint web pages. Work is underway to develop automated tools to allow educators to compile resources into customized instructional blueprints by reshuffling units within an existing blueprint, by mixing units from other blueprints, or creating new units and blueprints. These innovations will enhance the use of the units by secondary Earth science educators beyond Texas. This presentation provides an overview of the project, shows examples of blueprints and units, reports on the preliminary results of classroom implementation by Earth science teachers, and considers challenges encountered in developing and testing the blueprints. The
Mogk, D. W.
The work of geoscientists is to engage inquiry, discovery and exploration of Earth history and processes, and increasingly, to apply this knowledge to the "grand challenges" that face humanity. Geoscience as a discipline is confronted with an incomplete geologic record, observations or data that are often ambiguous or uncertain, and a need to grasp abstract concepts such as temporal reasoning ('deep time'), spatial reasoning over many orders of magnitude, and complex system behavior. These factors provide challenges, and also opportunities, for training future geoscientists. Beyond disciplinary knowledge, it is also important to provide opportunities for students to engage the community of practice and demonstrate how to "be" a geoscientist. Inculcation of geoscience "ways of knowing" is a collective responsibility for geoscientists (teaching faculty and other professionals), at all instructional levels, in all geoscience disciplines, and for all students. A whole-student approach is recommended. Geoscience programs can be designed to focus on student success by explictly: 1) defining programmatic student learning outcomes , 2) embedding assessments throughout the program to demonstrate mastery, 3) aligning course sequences to reinforce and anticipate essential concepts/skills, 4) preparing students to be life-long learners; 5) assigning responsibilities to courses/faculty to ensure these goals have been met; 6) providing opportunities for students to "do" geoscience (research experiences), and 7) modeling professional behaviors in class, field, labs, and informal settings. Extracurricular departmental activities also contribute to student development such as journal clubs, colloquia, field trips, and internships. Successful design of geoscience department programs is informed by: the AGI Workforce program and Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education that define pathways for becoming a successful geoscientist; training in Geoethics; Geoscience Education
Allison, M. L.; Gallagher, K. T.; Richard, S. M.; Hutchison, V. B.
An external advisory working group has prepared a 5-year strategic roadmap for the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN). USGIN is a partnership of the Association of American State Geologists (AASG) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), who formally agreed in 2007 to develop a national geoscience information framework that is distributed, interoperable, uses open source standards and common protocols, respects and acknowledges data ownership, fosters communities of practice to grow, and develops new Web services and clients. The intention of the USGIN is to benefit the geological surveys by reducing the cost of online data publication and access provision, and to benefit society through easier (lower cost) access to public domain geoscience data. This information supports environmental planning, resource-development, hazard mitigation design, and decision-making. USGIN supposes that sharing resources for system development and maintenance, standardizing data discovery and creating better access mechanisms, causes cost of data access and maintenance to be reduced. Standardization in a wide variety of business domains provides economic benefits that range between 0.2 and 0.9% of the gross national product. We suggest that the economic benefits of standardization also apply in the informatics domain. Standardized access to rich data resources will create collaborative opportunities in science and business. Development and use of shared protocols and interchange formats for data publication will create a market for user applications, facilitating geoscience data discovery and utility for the benefit of society. The USGIN Working Group envisions further development of tools and capabilities, in addition to extending the community of practice that currently involves geoinformatics practitioners from the USGS and AASG. Promoting engagement and participation of the state geological surveys, and increasing communication between the states, USGS, and other
Sloan, V.; Haacker, R.
Research shows that research science experiences for undergraduates are key to the engagement of students in science, and teach critical thinking and communication, as well as the professional development skills. Nonetheless, undergraduate research programs are time and resource intensive, and program managers work in relative isolation from each other. The benefits of developing an REU community include sharing strategies and policies, developing collaborative efforts, and providing support to each other. This paper will provide an update on efforts to further develop the Geoscience REU network, including running a national workshop, an email listserv, workshops, and the creation of online resources for REU leaders. The goal is to strengthen the connections between REU community members, support the sharing of best practices in a changing REU landscape, and to make progress in formalizing tools for REU site managers.
Computer simulations are increasingly important in geoscience research and development. At the core of stochastic or Monte Carlo simulations are the random number sequences that are assumed to be distributed with specific characteristics. Computer generated random numbers, uniformly distributed on (0, 1), can be very different depending on the selection of pseudo-random number (PRN), or chaotic random number (CRN) generators. Equidistributed quasi-random numbers (QRNs) can also be used in Monte Carlo simulations. In the evaluation of some definite integrals, the resulting error variances can even be of different orders of magnitude. Furthermore, practical techniques for variance reduction such as Importance Sampling and Stratified Sampling can be implemented to significantly improve the results. A comparative analysis of these strategies has been carried out for computational applications in planar and spatial contexts. Based on these experiments, and on examples of geodetic applications of gravimetric terrain corrections and gravity inversion, conclusions and recommendations concerning their performance and general applicability are included.
Blais, J.; Grebenitcharsky, R.; Zhang, Z.
Computer simulations are an increasingly important area of geoscience research and development. At the core of stochastic or Monte Carlo simulations are the random number sequences that are assumed to be distributed with specific characteristics. Computer generated random numbers, uniformly distributed on [0, 1], can be very different depending on the selection of pseudo-random number (PRN), quasi-random number (QRN) or chaotic random number (CRN) generators. In the evaluation of some definite integrals, the expected error variances are generally of different orders for the same number of random numbers. A comparative analysis of these three strategies has been carried out for geodetic and related applications in planar and spherical contexts. Based on these computational experiments, conclusions and recommendations concerning their performance and error variances are included.
Bell, Robin E.; Kastens, Kim A.; Cane, Mark; Muller, Roberta B.; Mutter, John C.; Pfirman, Stephanie
The blatant barriers are down. Women are now routinely chief scientists on major cruises, lead field parties to all continents, and have risen to leadership positions in professional organizations, academic departments, and funding agencies. Nonetheless, barriers remain. Women continue to be under-represented in the Earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences. Let's do the numbers: As of 1997, women received 41% of all Ph.D.s in science and engineering, but only 29% of the doctorates in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences [NSF, 1999a]. Women were 23% of employed Ph.D.s across all fields of science, but only accounted for 13% in the geosciences. Women's salaries also lag: the median salary for all Ph.D. geoscientists was $60,000; for women, the figure is $47,000 [NSF, 1999b]. The growing number of women students is a step in the right direction, but only a step.
Full Text Available Museums and their collections have specially customized databases in order to optimally gather and record their contents and associated metadata associated with their specimens. To share, exchange, and publish data, an appropriate data standard is essential. ABCD (Access to Biological Collection Data is a standard for biological collection units, including living and preserved specimen, together with field observation data. Its extension, EFG (Extension for Geoscience, enables sharing and publishing data related to paleontological, mineralogical, and petrological objects. The standard is very granular and allows detailed descriptions, including information about the collection event itself, the holding institution, stratigraphy, chemical analysis, and host rock. The standard extension was developed in 2006 and has been used since then by different initiatives and applied for the publication of collection-related data in domain-specific and interdisciplinary portals.
Wolfe, Cecily J.
Why are there so few women faculty in the geosciences, while there are large numbers of women undergraduate and graduate students? According to National Science Foundation (NSF) estimates [e.g.,NSF, 1996] for 1995 in the Earth, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences, women made up 34% of the bachelor's degrees awarded, 35% of the graduate students enrolled, and 22% of the doctorates granted. Yet progress has been slower in achieving adequate representation of women geoscientists in academia, where women represent only 12% of the faculty. The barriers confronting the advancement of women scientists are complex and difficult to unravel. Proposed factors include cultural stereotypes, childhood socialization, lack of women mentors and role models, lack of critical mass, family responsibilities, dual-career-couple status, isolation from collegial networks, different research and publishing strategy, and less adequate access to institutional resources [c.f., Widnall, 1988; Zuckerman et al., 1991].
The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is assessing the concept of deep disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock. As part of that assessment, a broad program of geoscience and geotechnical work has been undertaken to develop methods for characterizing sites, incorporating geotechnical data into disposal facility design, and incorporating geotechnical data into environmental and safety assessment of the disposal system. General field investigations are conducted throughout the Precambrian Shield, subsurface investigations are conducted at designated field research areas, and in situ rock mass experiments are being conducted in an Underground Research Laboratory. Samples from the field research areas and elsewhere are subjected to a wide range of tests and experiments in the laboratory to develop an understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in ground-water-rock-waste interactions. Mathematical models to simulate these processes are developed, verified and validated. 114 refs.; 13 figs
NIH and the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE/EMBS) hosted the third iteration of the Healthcare Innovations and Point-of-Care Technologies Conference last week.
Yundra, E.; Harsono, G. D.
This paper aims to determine the size of the Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) on the super frame structure required for each sensor as well as to know the performance of the GTS resized system compared to the GTS standard on IEEE 802.15.4. This article proposes a scheme to improve IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control, called allocation Guaranteed Time Slot (ALGATIS). ALGATIS is expected to effectively allocate guaranteed time slot to the requested sensors, it adjusts the length of the slot in super frame duration based on the length of the packet data. This article presents a simulation experiment of IEEE 802.15.4, especially for star network, to predict the throughput of networks and average energy consumption. The simulation experiments show that the performance of ALGATIS is better than that of IEEE 802.15.4 standard in term of the throughput of networks and average energy consumption
.... The application of TCM combines FEC coding and M-ary modulation in one operation. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the performance of an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) based IEEE...
Deng, Julia; Meng, Ke; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Roger
IEEE 802.11 wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) becomes very prevalent nowadays. Either as a simple range extender for a home wired Ethernet interface, or as a wireless deployment throughout an enterprise, WLAN provides mobility, convenience, and low cost. However, an IEEE 802.11b/g wireless network uses the frequency of unlicensed 2.4GHz, which makes the network unsafe and more vulnerable than traditional Ethernet networks. As a result, anyone who is familiar with wireless network may initiate a Denial of Service (DoS) attack to influence the common communication of the network or even make it crash. In this paper, we present our studies on the DoS attacks and mitigation strategies for IEEE 802.11b/g WLANs and describe some initial implementations using IEEE 802.11b/g wireless devices.
Correia, Miguel; Sousa, Jorge; Combo, Álvaro; Rodrigues, António P.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Batista, António J.N.; Gonçalves, Bruno; Correia, Carlos M.B.A.; Varandas, Carlos A.F.
Highlights: ► IEEE-1588 over Ethernet protocol is implemented for the synchronization of all clock signals of an ATCA AMC carrier module. ► The ATCA hardware consists of an AMC quad-carrier main-board with PCI Express switching. ► IEEE-1588 is to be implemented on a Virtex-6 FPGA. ► Timing signals on the ATX-AMC4-PTP are managed and routed by a crosspoint-switch implemented on a Virtex-6 FPGA. ► Each clock signal source may be independently located (on each of the AMC cards, RTM or ATCA backplane). - Abstract: Control and data acquisition (C and DA) systems for Fusion experiments are required to provide accurate timing and synchronization (T and S) signals to all of its components. IPFN adopted PICMG's Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) industry standard to develop C and DA instrumentation. ATCA was chosen not only for its high throughput characteristics but also for its high availability (HA) features which become of greater importance in steady-state operation scenarios. However, the specified ATCA clock and synchronization interface may be too limited for the timing and synchronization needs in advanced Physics experiments. Upcoming specification extensions, developed by the “xTCA for Physics” workgroups, will contemplate, among others, a complementary timing specification, developed by the PICMG xTCA for Physics IO, Timing and Synchronization Technical Committee. The IEEE-1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) over Ethernet is one of the protocols, proposed by the Committee, aiming for precise synchronization of clocks in measurement and control systems, based on low jitter and slave-to-slave skew criteria. The paper presents an implementation of IEEE-1588 over Ethernet, in an ATCA hardware platform. The ATCA hardware consists of an Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) quad-carrier front board with PCI Express switching. IEEE-1588 is to be implemented on a Virtex-6 FPGA. Ethernet connectivity with the remote master clock is located on
Pérez-Campos, N.; Cárdenas-Soto, M.; Juárez-Casas, M.; Castrejón-Pineda, R.
3D immersive visualization is an innovative tool currently used in various disciplines, such as medicine, architecture, engineering, video games, etc. Recently, the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) mounted a visualization theater (Ixtli) with leading edge technology, for academic and research purposes that require immersive 3D tools for a better understanding of the concepts involved. The Division of Engineering in Earth Sciences of the School of Engineering, UNAM, is running a project focused on visualization of geoscience data. Its objective is to incoporate educational material in geoscience courses in order to support and to improve the teaching-learning process, especially in well-known difficult topics for students. As part of the project, proffessors and students are trained in visualization techniques, then their data are adapted and visualized in Ixtli as part of a class or a seminar, where all the attendants can interact, not only among each other but also with the object under study. As part of our results, we present specific examples used in basic geophysics courses, such as interpreted seismic cubes, seismic-wave propagation models, and structural models from bathymetric, gravimetric and seismological data; as well as examples from ongoing applied projects, such as a modeled SH upward wave, the occurrence of an earthquake cluster in 1999 in the Popocatepetl volcano, and a risk atlas from Delegación Alvaro Obregón in Mexico City. All these examples, plus those to come, constitute a library for students and professors willing to explore another dimension of the teaching-learning process. Furthermore, this experience can be enhaced by rich discussions and interactions by videoconferences with other universities and researchers.
Nuttall, Anne-Marie; Stott, Tim; Sparke, Shaun
This project aims to help geoscience undergraduates improve their competence and confidence in numeracy using online quizzes delivered via the Blackboard virtual learning environment. Numeracy materials are being developed based on actual examples used in a range of modules in the geoscience degree programmes taught at Liverpool John Moores University. This is to ensure the subject relevance which is considered vital to maintaining student interest & motivation. These materials are delivered as a collection of Blackboard quizzes on specific numeracy topics which students can access at any point in their studies, either on or off campus. Feedback and guidance is provided immediately so that a student gains a confidence boost if they get it right or else they can learn where they have gone wrong. It is intended that positive feedback and repetition/reinforcement will help build the confidence in numeracy which so many students seem to lack. The anonymous nature of the delivery means that students avoid the common fear of ‘asking a stupid question' in class, which can hamper their progress. The fact that students can access the quizzes anytime and from anywhere means that they can use the materials flexibly to suit their individual learning needs. In preliminary research, 70% of the students asked felt that they were expected to have greater numeracy skills than they possessed and 65% said that they would use numeracy support materials on Blackboard. Once fully developed and evaluated, the Blackboard quizzes can be opened up to other departments who may wish to use them with their own students.
Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming
This study focuses on the utilisation of lab based activities to enhance the learning experience of engineering students studying Water Engineering and Geosciences. In particular, the use of modern highly visual and tangible presentation techniques within an appropriate laboratory based space are used to introduce undergraduate students to advanced engineering concepts. A specific lab activity, namely "Flood-City", is presented as a case study to enhance the active engagement rate, improve the learning experience of the students and better achieve the intended learning objectives of the course within a broad context of the engineering and geosciences curriculum. Such activities, have been used over the last few years from the Water Engineering group @ Glasgow, with success for outreach purposes (e.g. Glasgow Science Festival and demos at the Glasgow Science Centre and Kelvingrove museum). The activity involves a specific setup of the demonstration flume in a sand-box configuration, with elements and activities designed so as to gamely the overall learning activity. Social media platforms can also be used effectively to the same goals, particularly in cases were the students already engage in these online media. To assess the effectiveness of this activity a purpose designed questionnaire is offered to the students. Specifically, the questionnaire covers several aspects that may affect student learning, performance and satisfaction, such as students' motivation, factors to effective learning (also assessed by follow-up quizzes), and methods of communication and assessment. The results, analysed to assess the effectiveness of the learning activity as the students perceive it, offer a promising potential for the use of such activities in outreach and learning.
Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley
A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines.
Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.
Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. For example, digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts, to the point where parts might be cheaper to print than to make by traditional means in a plant and ship. Some key benefits of additive manufacturing include short lead times, complex shapes, parts on demand, zero required inventory and less material waste. Even subtractive processing, such as milling and etching, may be economized by additive manufacturing. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that the marriage of these technologies can bring to geosciences, including examples from our current research initiatives in developing constitutive laws for transport and geomechanics via digital rock physics. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of
Kreylos, O.; Kellogg, L. H.; Reed, S.; Hsi, S.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Schladow, G.; Segale, H.; Chan, L.
The AR Sandbox is a combination of a physical box full of sand, a 3D (depth) camera such as a Microsoft Kinect, a data projector, and a computer running open-source software, creating a responsive and interactive system to teach geoscience concepts in formal or informal contexts. As one or more users shape the sand surface to create planes, hills, or valleys, the 3D camera scans the surface in real-time, the software creates a dynamic topographic map including elevation color maps and contour lines, and the projector projects that map back onto the sand surface such that real and projected features match exactly. In addition, users can add virtual water to the sandbox, which realistically flows over the real surface driven by a real-time fluid flow simulation. The AR Sandbox can teach basic geographic and hydrologic skills and concepts such as reading topographic maps, interpreting contour lines, formation of watersheds, flooding, or surface wave propagation in a hands-on and explorative manner. AR Sandbox installations in more than 150 institutions have shown high audience engagement and long dwell times of often 20 minutes and more. In a more formal context, the AR Sandbox can be used in field trip preparation, and can teach advanced geoscience skills such as extrapolating 3D sub-surface shapes from surface expression, via advanced software features such as the ability to load digital models of real landscapes and guiding users towards recreating them in the sandbox. Blueprints, installation instructions, and the open-source AR Sandbox software package are available at http://arsandbox.org .
Carrick, T. L.; Miller, K. C.; Levine, R.; Martinez-Sussmann, C.; Velasco, A. A.
Anecdotally, it is often stated that the majority of students that enter the geosciences usually do so sometime after their initial entrance into college. With the objective of providing concrete and useful information for individuals developing programs for inspiring interest in the Geosciences amongst pre-college students and trying to increase the number of freshman Geoscience majors, we conducted a critical incident study. Twenty-two students, who were undergraduate or graduate Geoscience majors, were asked, "Why did you decide to major in the Geosciences?" in a series of interviews. Their responses were then used to identify over 100 critical incidents, each of which described a specific behavior that was causally responsible for a student's choice to major in Geoscience. Using these critical incidents, we developed a preliminary taxonomy that is comprised of three major categories: Informal Exposure to the Geosciences (e.g., outdoor experiences, family involvement), Formal Exposure to the Geosciences (e.g., academic experiences, program participation) and a Combined Informal and Formal Exposure (e.g., media exposure). Within these three main categories we identified thirteen subcategories. These categories and subcategories, describe, classify, and provide concrete examples of strategies that were responsible for geosciences career choices. As a whole, the taxonomy is valuable as a new, data-based guide for designing geosciences recruitment programs for the pre-college student population.
Hariyono, E.; Liliasari, Tjasyono, B.; Madlazim
The study aims was to describe of the profile of geoscience education conducted at the institution of teacher education for answer challenges of volcanic eruption crisis in Indonesia. The method used is descriptive analysis based on result of test and interview to 31 students of physics pre-service teachers about volcanoes through field study. The results showed that the students have a low understanding of volcanic material and there are several problems associated with the volcanoes concept. Other facts are geoscience learning does not support to the formation of geoscience knowledge and skills, dominated by theoretical studies and less focused on effort to preparing students towards disasters particularly to the volcanic eruption. As a recommendation, this require to restructuring geoscience education so as relevant with the social needs. Through courses accordingly, we can greatly help student's physics prospective teacher to improve their participations to solve problems of volcanic eruption crisis in the society.
Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai
To improve the access efficiency of geoscience data, efficient data model and storage solutions should be used. Geoscience data is usually classified by format or coordinate system in existing storage solutions. When data is large, it is not conducive to search the geographic features. In this study, a geographical information integration system of Shandong province, China was developed based on the technology of ArcGIS Engine, .NET, and SQL Server. It uses Geodatabase spatial data model and ArcSDE to organize and store spatial and attribute data and establishes geoscience database of Shangdong. Seven function modules were designed: map browse, database and subject management, layer control, map query, spatial analysis and map symbolization. The system's characteristics of can be browsed and managed by geoscience subjects make the system convenient for geographic researchers and decision-making departments to use the data.
Geoscience research in government agencies and universities across the US is anchored by data collection from field and lab experiments. In these settings, the composition and the culture of the environment can be less welcoming for individuals from groups that are traditionally underrepresented in the geosciences. Ongoing efforts to address diversity and inclusion in the field and lab include top-down approaches that provide support and training for established geoscience leaders and bottom-up approaches that offer research internships and fellowships for students. To achieve success, effective strategies for broadening representation in the field must be developed and shared across the geosciences community to advance scientific innovation and create opportunities for success.
[Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: The 2003 Peter Schmidt award presented to Joanne Lerud
Winkler Prins, C.F.
It was decided 'en petit comite' to present the Peter Schmidt award for 2003 to Joanne Lerud, a dear friend who attended many of the 'Erbe Symposia' and made valuable contributions to them. The award is especially for organising in such an excellent way the Fifth International Symposium 'Cultural
Prakash, A.; Connor, C.
Funded in 2005-2008, by the National Science Foundation's Geoscience Education Division, the Experiential Discoveries in Geoscience Education (EDGE) project was designed to use glacier and watershed field experiences as venues for geospatial data collected by Alaska's grade 6-12 middle and high school teachers and their students. EDGE participants were trained in GIS and learned to analyze geospatial data to answer questions about the warming Alaska environment and to determine rates of ongoing glacier recession. Important emphasis of the program was the recruitment of Alaska Native students of Inupiat, Yup'ik, Athabascan, and Tlingit populations, living in both rural and urban areas around the state. Twelve of Alaska's 55 school districts have participated in the EDGE program. To engage EDGE students in the practice of scientific inquiry, each was required to carry out a semester scale research project using georeferenced data, guided by their EDGE teacher and mentor. Across Alaska students investigated several Earth systems processes including freezing conditions of lake ice; the changes in water quality in storm drains after rainfall events; movements of moose, bears, and bison across Alaskan landscapes; changes in permafrost depth in western Alaska; and the response of migrating waterfowl to these permafrost changes. Students correlated the substrate beneath their schools with known earthquake intensities; measured cutbank and coastal erosion on northern rivers and southeastern shorelines; tracked salmon infiltration of flooded logging roads; noted the changing behavior of eagles during late winter salmon runs; located good areas for the use of tidal power for energy production; tracked the extent and range of invasive plant species with warming; and the change of forests following deglaciation. Each cohort of EDGE students and teachers finished the program by attended a 3-day EDGE symposium at which students presented their research projects first in a
Biondi, Riccardo; Nogherotto, Rita
In 2016 we have organized the first international Geoscience Communication School (GSC) with the purpose of promoting communication skills in scientists: communication not only meant for education but also designed to reach scientific objectives. We strongly believe that, in science communication, the practice and interaction are more important than frontal lectures so we facilitated the creation of a heterogeneous group. We supported the hotel room sharing between researchers with different backgrounds and we organized a social dinner the day before starting the school. The school was divided in 2 different modules: the first 4 days with general topics open to researchers of different disciplines and the last 2 days focusing on geosciences. We thought that having participants with different knowledge and background (in this school: biology, medicine, environment, remote sensing, meteorology, volcanology, seismology) would benefit the students to practice full time their communication skills since they all spent the school period together during the "lectures" and during the free time. All the lectures were accompanied by laboratories and the students experienced concrete activities and were able to practice what they just learnt getting feedbacks directly from the lecturers and the general public. Some innovative laboratories were implemented for the first time during this school: - with the "Poster Lab" each student presented a poster at the beginning of the school and the posters were corrected and improved at the end of the school by using scissors, white papers and colors; - with the "Pick the victim Lab" the local people with different backgrounds and different education level, not involved in scientific activities were invited to the school to interpret the being "victims" of the school participants. It was requested to the victims to listen a quick students` activity presentations and to be honest and frank telling them if they were using difficult terms
Nikolaus Küppers, Andreas
Starting in 2004, a geoscientific school lab for senior high school students was developed in the historical "Großer Refraktor" premises on the Telegraphenberg in Potsdam. Based on a one-day course architecture, laboratory days were developed covering singular themes: - Magnetic field of the Earth - Geographical Information Systems and geodata - Gravity field of the Earth - Geodynamics: seismology and seismics - Geoscience math - Geodata Brandenburg (Geological mapping with aerophotographs, remote sensing, underground data processing) With a focus on geophysical methodologies, course days generally focused on the field work around the Telegraphenberg site while introducing into the art of handling original professional equipment. Field data were afterwards compiled, analysed and interpreted in the group. Single days could be combined as clusters of up to one week and were bookable for national and international groups of max. 25 students. The courses were taught by active scientists with the assistance of student guides as the larger groups had to be split up. The paper gives an overview over the development history of the school lab and explains the course contents, the teaching methods and several employed escorting measures. Possible impact on the professional career decisions of the students is discussed.
Kollet, Stefan; Görgen, Klaus; Vereecken, Harry; Gasper, Fabian; Hendricks-Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Keune, Jessica; Kulkarni, Ketan; Kurtz, Wolfgang; Sharples, Wendy; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Simmer, Clemens; Sulis, Mauro; Vanderborght, Jan
The Centre of High-Performance Scientific Computing (HPSC TerrSys) was founded 2011 to establish a centre of competence in high-performance scientific computing in terrestrial systems and the geosciences enabling fundamental and applied geoscientific research in the Geoverbund ABC/J (geoscientfic research alliance of the Universities of Aachen, Cologne, Bonn and the Research Centre Jülich, Germany). The specific goals of HPSC TerrSys are to achieve relevance at the national and international level in (i) the development and application of HPSC technologies in the geoscientific community; (ii) student education; (iii) HPSC services and support also to the wider geoscientific community; and in (iv) the industry and public sectors via e.g., useful applications and data products. A key feature of HPSC TerrSys is the Simulation Laboratory Terrestrial Systems, which is located at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC) and provides extensive capabilities with respect to porting, profiling, tuning and performance monitoring of geoscientific software in JSC's supercomputing environment. We will present a summary of success stories of HPSC applications including integrated terrestrial model development, parallel profiling and its application from watersheds to the continent; massively parallel data assimilation using physics-based models and ensemble methods; quasi-operational terrestrial water and energy monitoring; and convection permitting climate simulations over Europe. The success stories stress the need for a formalized education of students in the application of HPSC technologies in future.
Some recent changes in the social mindset are particularly relevant to the geosciences. Among them, the awareness that humanity is an integral, internal part of the Earth System ; the finding that, within this systemic environment, any action affects the whole, and specifically some components ; irrefutable characterization of Man as a geological agent ; and the inevitable acceptance of vulnerability and / or finiteness of certain natural resources. Thus, concepts were developed that has been gaining importance and are now part of a new mentality of the geoscientific community; among them: - Geodiversity: variety of landscapes, rocks, minerals, fossils, soils, etc.. many of these items are the basis of life on Earth. - Geoconservation: enjoyment, conscious use of resources and protection of geodiversity. - Geotourism: tourism that respects the principles of self - sustainability, where the geological information, transmitted properly, play a major role. - Geological Heritage: special portion of the Geodiversity, materialized in geossítios ( outcrops with special features), which deserves protection for future generations. - Geopark: defined area, which is subject to a development plan based on the visit to geossítios and other attractions. Continue her normal activities occurring in the economy. These concepts constitute a holistic view of concern about the conscious use of geological resources. They can also, without abandoning the traditional areas of geology, form themselves into new work front to geologists, which in characteristically multidisciplinary and love of nature training has great potential in it
Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world. Providing women and girls with equal access to education, decent work, and representation in institutional, scientific research, political and economic decision-making processes will fuel sustainable economies and benefit societies and humanity at large. With a stand-alone goal SDG 5, awareness has been raised about the need for high quality gender data statistics. What is the state of the art in public research institutions? I will present the four main areas of action of the "Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS" namely fostering gender equality within CNRS, promoting gender(ed) research, outreach to young women, female role models, profile raising, and developing networks and partnerships. I will compare data statistics with other research institutions and present the strong partnership that CNRS has developed at national, European and international levels. Belonging to the 27% of women senior scientists at CNRS in geosciences, I will, based on my personal life experience, provide vision on how, in the laboratories world, to promote equality in our disciplines.
Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.): Collaborative Action Education in Building and Guiding the Future Under-represented Geosciences Workforce Through Tribal Foundations, Mentorship and Professional Development.
Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.) was created as an Indian Self-Determination Organization to meet the every growing Tribal and under-represented minorities (URM) geosciences workforce needs. I.S.S. is one of only a few Indian Self-Determined Organizations in the U.S. with a distinct focused on buidling the Tribal and URM geosciences and natural resources workforces. In past three years, I.S.S has worked in partnership with U.S. colleges/universities, state/federal agencies (Bureau of Indian Affairs), private and International organizations and most importantly U.S. Tribal Nations to ensure emerging high school students, undergraduates, graduate students and post doctorates have the opportunities for training in supportive and unique environments, navigational mentoring, and broad professional development to build and practice the skills required for blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions. I.S.S. has been highly successful in filling workforce opportunities within the broad range of geosciences positions. I.S.S. students are proficient in understanding and maneuvering the complex landscapes of interdisciplinary research, multidisciplinary multi-partner projects, traditional/western philosophies as well as being highly proficient in all areas of problem solving and communications. Research and on-site projects have heightened the educational experiences of all participants, in addition to addressing a perplexing geosciences challenge grounded in a Tribal environment. A number of the I.S.S. participants and students have found geosciences positions in Tribes, state/federal agencies, enterprize as well as International organizations. I.S.S. practices and has infused all research and projects with intergenerational teaching/learning, participation solution-focused initiatives, and holistic/multicultural mentoring. The presentation will highlight the vision, design, implementation, outcomes and future directions of I.S.S and participants.
Huang, Lan; Du, Youfu; Chen, Gongyang
Unlike English, the Chinese language has no space between words. Segmenting texts into words, known as the Chinese word segmentation (CWS) problem, thus becomes a fundamental issue for processing Chinese documents and the first step in many text mining applications, including information retrieval, machine translation and knowledge acquisition. However, for the geoscience subject domain, the CWS problem remains unsolved. Although a generic segmenter can be applied to process geoscience documents, they lack the domain specific knowledge and consequently their segmentation accuracy drops dramatically. This motivated us to develop a segmenter specifically for the geoscience subject domain: the GeoSegmenter. We first proposed a generic two-step framework for domain specific CWS. Following this framework, we built GeoSegmenter using conditional random fields, a principled statistical framework for sequence learning. Specifically, GeoSegmenter first identifies general terms by using a generic baseline segmenter. Then it recognises geoscience terms by learning and applying a model that can transform the initial segmentation into the goal segmentation. Empirical experimental results on geoscience documents and benchmark datasets showed that GeoSegmenter could effectively recognise both geoscience terms and general terms.
Manduca, C. A.
To develop a diverse geoscience workforce, the EarthConnections collective impact alliance is developing regionally focused, Earth education pathways. These pathways support and guide students from engagement in relevant, Earth-related science at an early age through the many steps and transitions to geoscience-related careers. Rooted in existing regional activities, pathways are developed using a process that engages regional stakeholders and community members with EarthConnections partners. Together they connect, sequence, and create multiple learning opportunities that link geoscience education and community service to address one or more local geoscience issues. Three initial pilots are demonstrating different starting points and strategies for creating pathways that serve community needs while supporting geoscience education. The San Bernardino pilot is leveraging existing academic relationships and programs; the Atlanta pilot is building into existing community activities; and the Oklahoma Tribal Nations pilot is co-constructing a pathway focus and approach. The project is using pathway mapping and a collective impact framework to support and monitor progress. The goal is to develop processes and activities that can help other communities develop similar community-based geoscience pathways. By intertwining Earth education with local community service we aspire to increase the resilience of communities in the face of environmental hazards and limited Earth resources.
Full Text Available The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF protocols described in the IEEE standard . Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi , and Liu and Saadawi  to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator  to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS and the results are presented to validate the algorithm.
Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek
The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard . Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi , and Liu and Saadawi  to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator  to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm.
Sambridge, M.; Tkalcic, H.; Jackson, A.
Benford's Law is a curious property of numerous datasets whereby the frequency distribution of the first digit (i.e. first non zero number from the left) follows a well defined logarithmic function, namely P_D = log_b(1+1/D), where D is the first digit and b is the base of the data. This was initially observed by Newcomb (1881) and later quantified and expanded by Benford (1938). The latter author first put forward a set of 20 distinct data sets with differing physical dimension and character which collectively obeyed this 1st digit law. The nature of each data is the most startling feature of all in that they range from physical properties of matter such as molecular weight and specific heat capacity through river areas and drainage rates to population numbers in the USA as well as American baseball league averages of 1936. A universal law of digits was proposed by Benford and in recent times has been widely accepted. Investigations into the nature and use of Benford's Law have continued in multiple fields. Mathematicians have more recently proven the correctness of this universal law of digits under general conditions and Nigrini (1992) has made use of it for uncovering anomalous data errors and fraud in accountancy practices. To date Benford's Law appears to have received no attention within the Geosciences. Here we demonstrate its widespread applicability for geophysical data sets as well as models derived from data of varying type and physical dimension. Specifically we verify Benford's Law holds for a geomagnetic Field model of the Earth (gufm1), Seismic models obtained from tomography (including mantle shear wave and regional body wave P and S models for various parts of the globe), and the GRACE gravity model up to degree 160. It would appear that Benford's Law has widespread applicability to geoscience data. Departures from Benford's Law are of interest as they seem to indicate changes in the local character of data, possibly due to fraud, error, or
Kessler, H.; Ward, E.; Geological ModelsTeaching Project Team
3D geological models have great potential as a resource for universities when teaching foundation geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for all students of geology. Today’s earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including the application of schema’s, spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, memorising figures, mental manipulation and interpretation, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves and the rocks. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. Learning issues faced by students may also be encountered by experts, policy managers, and stakeholders when dealing with environmental problems. Therefore educational research of student learning in earth science may also improve environmental decision making. 3D geological framework models enhance the learning of Geosciences because they: ● enable a student to observe, manipulate and interpret geology; in particular the models instantly convert two-dimensional geology (maps, boreholes and cross-sections) into three dimensions which is a notoriously difficult geospatial skill to acquire. ● can be orientated to whatever the user finds comfortable and most aids recognition and interpretation. ● can be used either to teach geosciences to complete beginners or add to experienced students body of knowledge (whatever point that may be at). Models could therefore be packaged as a complete educational journey or students and tutor can select certain areas of the model