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Sample records for ieds improvised explosive

  1. Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and Documentation of Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    E XC E L L E N C E Joint Improvised ‑Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and Documentation of Counter‑ Improvised Explosive Device...USE ONLY DODIG-2016-120 (Project No. D2015-D000AE-0222.000) │ i Results in Brief Joint Improvised ‑Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and...Documentation of Counter‑ Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether

  2. Igloo containment system for improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyckes, G.W.

    1980-09-01

    A method for containing or partially containing the blast and dispersal of radioactive particulate from improvised explosive devices is described. The containment system is restricted to devices located in fairly open areas at ground level, e.g., devices concealed in trucks, vans, transportainers, or small buildings which are accessible from all sides

  3. Real-time change detection for countering improvised explosive devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de D.W.J.M.; Rens, van K.; Lint, van R.H.; Jaspers, Egbert; With, de P.H.N.; Loce, R.P.; Saber, E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore an automatic real-time change detection system to assist military personnel during transport and surveillance, by detection changes in the environment with respect to a previous operation. Such changes may indicate the presence of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), which can then be

  4. An experimental study addressing the use of geoforensic analysis for the exploitation of improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Beth; Morgan, Ruth M; Rose, Neil L

    2017-09-01

    The use of geoforensic analysis in criminal investigations is continuing to develop, with the diversification of analytical techniques, many of which are semi-automated, facilitating prompt analysis of large sample sets at a relatively low cost. Whilst micro-scale geoforensic analysis has been shown to assist criminal investigations including homicide (Concheri et al., 2011 [1]), wildlife crime (Morgan et al., 2006 [2]), illicit drug distribution (Stanley, 1992 [3]), and burglary (Mildenhall, 2006 [4]), its application to the pressing international security threat posed by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is yet to be considered. This experimental study simulated an IED supply chain from the sourcing of raw materials through to device emplacement. Mineralogy, quartz grain surface texture analysis (QGSTA) and particle size analysis (PSA) were used to assess whether environmental materials were transferred and subsequently persisted on the different components of three pressure plate IEDs. The research also addressed whether these samples were comprised of material from single or multiple geographical provenances that represented supply chain activity nodes. The simulation demonstrated that material derived from multiple activity nodes, was transferred and persisted on device components. The results from the mineralogy and QGSTA illustrated the value these techniques offer for the analysis of mixed provenance samples. The results from the PSA, which produces a bulk signature of the sample, failed to distinguish multiple provenances. The study also considered how the environmental material recovered could be used to generate information regarding the geographical locations the device had been in contact with, in an intelligence style investigation, and demonstrated that geoforensic analysis has the potential to be of value to international counter-IED efforts. It is a tool that may be used to prevent the distribution of large quantities of devices, by aiding the

  5. Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2006-01-01

    .... IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan...

  6. Research and development to protect soldiers from landmines and improvised explosive devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ahmed, R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Landmines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) remain a major threat for military vehicles, their occupants and other assets. It is thus imperative that traditional methods of protection need to be adapted or new technologies developed....

  7. Maritime improvised explosive devices, modelling and large scale trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, W. van den; Trouwborst, W.; Vader, J.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices (MIEDs) such as small boats filled with explosives are likely to be a threat in future combat scenarios. For example the suicide attack against the USS Cole in Yemen (October 2000) has shown how disastrous MIEDs can be. With relatively simple means a complete

  8. Serious Gaming for Improvised Explosive Device Neutralization Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Christopher C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An improvised explosive device (IED is a “homemade” bomb intended to cause great harm when it explodes. The public safety task of identifying and neutralizing IEDs falls to military and police services often called explosive disposal units (EDU who act to neutralize the threat associated with the IED either rendering it inoperable or destroying it safely. EDUs train in various aspects of explosive handling and investigation but are limited in the tools available for safely analyzing real world bombs. This paper describes a game based approach to IED training that employs an interactive 3D simulation to spatially identify key IED components of interest. We give an example of how this approach might be used and provide a preliminary evaluation of its potential effectiveness. We employ images formed from a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM system captured using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI technology to a virtual IED in a game. Empirical evaluation and EDU testimony suggest accurate representation of the IED and the potential efficacy of the proposed approach for successfully identifying components in the bomb for the purposes of EDU training.

  9. Choreographing American Citizenship in the Age of the Improvised Explosive Device

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates contemporary citizenship through an investigation of intermedia choreography and performance during the first decade of the twenty-first century. I theorize the present era as the age of the improvised explosive device (IED) to argue that citizenship has been fundamentally redefined within instable, unpredictable political and social conditions best encapsulated by the signification of the IED. The IED represents one of two twenty-first century phenomena affecti...

  10. Improvised explosive devices: pathophysiology, injury profiles and current medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Clasper, J C

    2009-12-01

    The improvised explosive device (IED), in all its forms, has become the most significant threat to troops operating in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices range from rudimentary home made explosives to sophisticated weapon systems containing high-grade explosives. Within this broad definition they may be classified as roadside explosives and blast mines, explosive formed pojectile (EFP) devices and suicide bombings. Each of these groups causeinjury through a number of different mechanisms and can result in vastly different injury profiles. The "Global War on Terror" has meant that incidents which were previously exclusively seen in conflict areas, can occur anywhere, and clinicians who are involved in emergency trauma care may be required to manage casualties from similar terrorist attacks. An understanding of the types of devices and their pathophysiological effects is necessary to allow proper planning of mass casualty events and to allow appropriate management of the complex poly-trauma casualties they invariably cause. The aim of this review article is to firstly describe the physics and injury profile from these different devices and secondly to present the current clinical evidence that underpins their medical management.

  11. Getting it Right: The Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    NCO leadership and education was critical to success. This was especially true in divisional engineer units where squad operations in support of...Getting it Right: The Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army A Monograph by MAJ Christian R. Johnson United States...Endurance of Improvised Explosive Device Education in the US Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  12. Vulnerability of industrial facilities to attacks with improvised explosive devices aimed at triggering domino scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Reniers, Genserik; Cozzani, Valerio; Salzano, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Process- and chemical plants may constitute a critical target for a terrorist attack. In the present study, the analysis of industrial accidents induced by intentional acts of interference is carried out focusing on accident chains triggered by attacks with home-made (improvised) explosives. The effects of blast waves caused by improvised explosive devices are compared with those expected from a net equivalent charge of TNT by using a specific methodology for the assessment of stand-off distances. It is demonstrated that a home-made explosive device has a TNT efficiency comprised between 0.2 and 0.5. The model was applied to a case study, demonstrating the potentiality of improvised explosives in causing accident escalation sequences and severe effects on population and assets. The analysis of the case-study also allowed obtaining suggestions for an adequate security management. - Highlights: • Improvised explosives possibly used for terrorist attacks were described. • The TNT efficiency of ANFO and TATP was characterized. • Domino effects caused by an attack with improvised explosive were analyzed. • Domino scenarios induced by an attack were compared to conventional scenarios

  13. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  14. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-02-18

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  15. [Emotional Profile of a Group of Colombian Military Victims of Landmines or Improvised Explosive Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Jorge Emiro; Yara, Eduardo Alfonso; Cano Betancur, Jessica; Tavera, Luz Navia

    2014-01-01

    Antipersonnel Mines (MAP) and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are frequently used in Colombia as an armed resource without the need for direct combat. The Department of Antioquia has the highest number of events associated with the detonation of such battle techniques. There are no studies on the psychological effects that appear as a result of accidents with Antipersonnel Mines and IEDs in the military population. To establish the psychological profile of a group of military victims of MAP and AEI, and a control group of soldiers who were not victims from the analysis of four emotional variables (depression, anxiety, anger and stress). The research was conducted using a case-control design in a .quantitative, comparative, descriptive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 80 soldiers assigned to the Seventh Division of the National Army of Colombia at Medellin, Antioquia. The sample included a group of 30 military cases and 50 soldiers as controls. The anxiety state, trait anxiety, state anger, and trait anger variables showed statistically significant differences between groups. There were no significant differences in the variables depression and stress between groups variables. There was no depression, anxiety, or stress in either of the two groups, but there were clinically significant levels of anger in both groups. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. The signature-based radiation-scanning approach to standoff detection of improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, R.L.; Dunn, W.L.; Heider, S.; Matthew, C.; Yang, X.

    2012-01-01

    The signature-based radiation-scanning technique for detection of improvised explosive devices is described. The technique seeks to detect nitrogen-rich chemical explosives present in a target. The technology compares a set of “signatures” obtained from a test target to a collection of “templates”, sets of signatures for a target that contain an explosive in a specific configuration. Interrogation of nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples, which serve as surrogates for explosives, is shown experimentally to be able to discriminate samples of 3.8 L and larger. - Highlights: ► Signature-based radiation-scanning techniques applied to detection of explosives. ► Nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples served as surrogate explosive samples. ► Signatures of a target compared to collections of templates of surrogate explosives. ► Figure-of-merit determined for neutron and neutron-induced gamma-ray signatures. ► Discrimination of surrogate explosive from inert samples of 3.8 L and larger.

  17. DHS small-scale safety and thermal testing of improvised explosives-comparison of testing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J G; Hsu, P C; Sandstrom, M M; Brown, G W; Warner, K F; Phillips, J J; Shelley, T J; Reyes, J A

    2014-01-01

    One of the first steps in establishing safe handling procedures for explosives is small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing. To better understand the response of improvised materials or homemade explosives (HMEs) to SSST testing, 16 HME materials were compared to three standard military explosives in a proficiency-type round robin study among five laboratories-two DoD and three DOE-sponsored by DHS. The testing matrix has been designed to address problems encountered with improvised materials-powder mixtures, liquid suspensions, partially wetted solids, immiscible liquids, and reactive materials. More than 30 issues have been identified that indicate standard test methods may require modification when applied to HMEs to derive accurate sensitivity assessments needed for developing safe handling and storage practices. This paper presents a generalized comparison of the results among the testing participants, comparison of friction results from BAM (German Bundesanstalt für Materi-alprüfung) and ABL (Allegany Ballistics Laboratory) designed testing equipment, and an overview of the statistical results from the RDX (1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine) standard tested throughout the proficiency test.

  18. Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices: A Threat Based Technology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    id/3078682/ns/technology_and_science- science/t/dolphins-go-front-lines-iraq-war/#.VPsmDZU5DIV. Carnegie , Dale , and Rita Kiley. 1948. How to Stop...Besides, if I let those things get me, I wouldn’t last long. ( Carnegie and Kiley 1948, 6) ― Admiral Ernest J. King Admiral King’s focus on

  19. Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2005-01-01

    .... and coalition forces since the invasion of Iraq. The bombs have been hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with IEDs are becoming more numerous and deadly...

  20. Defeating Improvised Explosive Devices (IED): Asymmetric Threats and Capability Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    City, Oklahoma bombings in 1995. In order to adapt and avoid detection, terrorists are exploring other options, such as using potassium chlorate ...white, odorless powder) or sodium chlorate (yellow, odorless powder) when making IEDs. High-profile, historic examples include the London attacks...and potassium nitrate. It is the main ingredient found in fireworks. In the past it was used as a propellant powder in ammunition, http

  1. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  2. Multilateral haptics-based immersive teleoperation for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Daly, John

    2013-05-01

    Of great interest to police and military organizations is the development of effective improvised explosive device (IED) disposal (IEDD) technology to aid in activities such as mine field clearing, and bomb disposal. At the same time minimizing risk to personnel. This paper presents new results in the research and development of a next generation mobile immersive teleoperated explosive ordnance disposal system. This system incorporates elements of 3D vision, multilateral teleoperation for high transparency haptic feedback, immersive augmented reality operator control interfaces, and a realistic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) 3D simulation environment incorporating vehicle and manipulator dynamics for both operator training and algorithm development. In the past year, new algorithms have been developed to facilitate incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robotic hardware into the teleoperation system. In particular, a real-time numerical inverse position kinematics algorithm that can be applied to a wide range of manipulators has been implemented, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attitude stabilization system for manipulators has been developed and experimentally validated, and a voice­operated manipulator control system has been developed and integrated into the operator control station. The integration of these components into a vehicle simulation environment with half-car vehicle dynamics has also been successfully carried out. A physical half-car plant is currently being constructed for HIL integration with the simulation environment.

  3. Urea nitrate, an exceptionally easy-to-make improvised explosive: studies towards trace characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiri, Tsippy; Rozin, Rinat; Lemberger, Nitay; Almog, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    Urea nitrate is a powerful improvised explosive, frequently used by terrorists in the Israeli arena. It was also used in the first World Trade Center bombing in New York in February 1993. It is difficult to identify urea nitrate in post-explosion debris, since only a very small fraction survives the blast. Also, in the presence of water, it readily decomposes to its original components, urea and nitric acid. It is suspected that post-blast debris of urea nitrate can be confused with ammonium nitrate, the main solid product of urea nitrate thermal decomposition. In a comprehensive study towards identification of urea nitrate in post-blast traces, a spectrophotometric technique for quantitative determination of urea nitrate was developed, and conditions were found for extraction and separation of un-exploded traces of urea nitrate with minimal decomposition. Nevertheless, out of 28 samples collected from a series of three controlled firings of urea nitrate charges, only one gave the typical adduct ion by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. We found that urea nitrate can be extracted from solid mixtures to organic solvents by using Crown ethers as "host compounds." The adducts thus formed are solid, crystalline compounds that can be characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques.

  4. The incidence of pelvic fractures with traumatic lower limb amputation in modern warfare due to improvised explosive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, A M; Davis, C; Penn-Barwell, J; Taylor, D M; De Mello, W F; Matthews, J J

    2014-01-01

    A frequently-seen injury pattern in current military experience is traumatic lower limb amputation as a result of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). This injury can coexist with fractures involving the pelvic ring. This study aims to assess the frequency of concomitant pelvic fracture in IED-related lower limb amputation. A retrospective analysis of the trauma charts, medical notes, and digital imaging was undertaken for all patients arriving at the Emergency Department at the UK military field hospital in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, with a traumatic lower limb amputation in the six months between September 2009 and April 2010, in order to determine the incidence of associated pelvic ring fractures. Of 77 consecutive patients with traumatic lower limb amputations, 17 (22%) had an associated pelvic fracture (eleven with displaced pelvic ring fractures, five undisplaced fractures and one acetabular fracture). Unilateral amputees (n = 31) had a 10% incidence of associated pelvic fracture, whilst 30 % of bilateral amputees (n = 46) had a concurrent pelvic fracture. However, in bilateral, trans-femoral amputations (n = 28) the incidence of pelvic fracture was 39%. The study demonstrates a high incidence of pelvic fractures in patients with traumatic lower limb amputations, supporting the routine pre-hospital application of pelvic binders in this patient group.

  5. Detection of Materials Used for Improvised Explosive Devices Employing D-T (14 MeV) Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyam, Anurag; Sharma, Surender Kumar; Das, Basanta

    2010-01-01

    There is an increased use of improvised explosive devices (IED), especially for human targets. One of the substances used in these devices is ammonium nitrate. Since this IED substance also contains elements - hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O). The elemental density (of H, C, O, and N) and elemental density ratio (C/O, N/O, H/N etc) can be used to differentiate it from other substances. Neutrons based techniques are one of the methods for non-destructive these elemental characterization. For our experiments we are using two sealed neutron tubes. First tubes can produce 10 8 (maximum) D-T neutrons in ∼0.8 μs pulse and 100 (maximum) pulses can be generated per second. Second tube can produce (maximum) 10 10 D-T neutrons/s. The neutron output can be pulsed. Pulses of 1.5 μs duration and pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz to 10 kHz can be obtained. D-T neutrons pulses are impinged on ammonium nitrate samples (0.5 to 1.5 kg) and resultant gamma rays (prompt and due to activation) are recorded using sodium iodide (NaI) and bismuth germanium orthosilicate (BGO) scintillation detectors. To facilitate recording of high count rate a 2 GS/s high speed digitizer with large on board memory and high transfer rate has been used (instead of conventional multi channel analyzer). Preliminary results and analysis will be presented at the conference. To further refine the technique we are also developing a D-T neutron generator with associated particle detection facility. For this system we have already developed a penning ion source and a 140 kV battery operated SMPS. (author)

  6. Common Chemicals as Precursors of Improvised Explosive Devices: The Challenges of Controlling Domestic Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rostberg, James I

    2005-01-01

    ...). Explosives in the hands of terrorists continue to pose a significant threat. Lessons learned indicate that when traditional explosives become difficult to obtain, bomb makers turn to common chemicals as precursors to manufacture explosives...

  7. Research topics in explosives - a look at explosives behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J L

    2014-01-01

    The behaviors of explosives under many conditions - e.g., sensitivity to inadvertent reactions, explosion, detonation - are controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the explosive materials. Several properties are considered for a range of improvised and conventional explosives. Here I compare these properties across a wide range of explosives to develop an understanding of explosive behaviors. For improvised explosives, which are generally heterogeneous mixtures of ingredients, a range of studies is identified as needed to more fully understand their behavior and properties. For conventional explosives, which are generally comprised of crystalline explosive molecules held together with a binder, I identify key material properties that determine overall sensitivity, including the extremely safe behavior of Insensitive High Explosives, and discuss an approach to predicting the sensitivity or insensitivity of an explosive.

  8. Systems Approach to Defeating Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices in U.S. Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    with a few pounds of explosive in plastic pipes and a timer wrapped in trash bags to keep it afloat. One possible target was presidential hopeful...sonar, laser, gps, control system Benthos Modem Network REMUS reference Bouy WIFI Few equipment and parts N.A 5 3 2 1 5 4 Reliability prediction

  9. Identification of inorganic improvised explosive devices by analysis of postblast residues using portable capillary electrophoresis instrumentation and indirect photometric detection with a light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joseph P; Evenhuis, Christopher J; Johns, Cameron; Kazarian, Artaches A; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Miroslav; Hilder, Emily F; Guijt, Rosanne M; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R

    2007-09-15

    A commercial portable capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument has been used to separate inorganic anions and cations found in postblast residues from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) of the type used frequently in terrorism attacks. The purpose of this analysis was to identify the type of explosive used. The CE instrument was modified for use with an in-house miniaturized light-emitting diode (LED) detector to enable sensitive indirect photometric detection to be employed for the detection of 15 anions (acetate, benzoate, carbonate, chlorate, chloride, chlorite, cyanate, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, perchlorate, phosphate, sulfate, thiocyanate, thiosulfate) and 12 cations (ammonium, monomethylammonium, ethylammonium, potassium, sodium, barium, strontium, magnesium, manganese, calcium, zinc, lead) as the target analytes. These ions are known to be present in postblast residues from inorganic IEDs constructed from ammonium nitrate/fuel oil mixtures, black powder, and chlorate/perchlorate/sugar mixtures. For the analysis of cations, a blue LED (470 nm) was used in conjunction with the highly absorbing cationic dye, chrysoidine (absorption maximum at 453 nm). A nonaqueous background electrolyte comprising 10 mM chrysoidine in methanol was found to give greatly improved baseline stability in comparison to aqueous electrolytes due to the increased solubility of chrysoidine and its decreased adsorption onto the capillary wall. Glacial acetic acid (0.7% v/v) was added to ensure chrysoidine was protonated and to enhance separation selectivity by means of complexation with transition metal ions. The 12 target cations were separated in less than 9.5 min with detection limits of 0.11-2.30 mg/L (calculated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The anions separation system utilized a UV LED (370 nm) in conjunction with an aqueous chromate electrolyte (absorption maximum at 371 nm) consisting of 10 mM chromium(VI) oxide and 10 mM sodium chromate, buffered with 40 mM tris

  10. Research and Development of a portable microfocus x-ray system capable of providing ultra-high resolutions images of improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkala, G.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of x-ray screening has long been a recognized valuable tool as a means to evaluate and identify suspect articles for possible improvised explosive devices. Recent bombings indicate an increase in technical sophistication by the terrorist which demand additional means to further the possibility of detecting these devices before they reach their target or detonate. This paper discusses history of the use of x-ray and the design parameters of a portable micro-focus x-ray system capable of providing ultra high resolution radiographs as well as being able to be used with additional state-of-the-art imaging systems

  11. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  12. Collective Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Cooper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective improvisation as a creative practice is intensely social, trusting, unpopular, anti-hierarchical and, for these reasons, political. Cooper describes the risks and rich rewards of improvising with fellow artists and identifies the parallels between improvising ensembles of musicians in Australia with the collectively painted protest banners of the Taring Padi Collective in Indonesia after a brief visit to Jogjakarta.

  13. Organ Improvisation - An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidom, J.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas musicological attention to improvisation tended to neglect organ improvisation,new initiatives, both musically and musicologically, indicate an imminent rehabilitation. Such rehabilitation is more than justified: organ improvisation is the only unbroken western improvisation tradition,

  14. Idea Bank: I Can't Do That! Improvisation for Classically Trained Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills lists among its top priorities for students the development of "learning and innovation skills," of which the first are "creativity and innovation." The third National Standard from the National Association for Music Education is "Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments." These guiding…

  15. Identifying Future Unexpected Survivors: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Fatal Injury Patterns in Victims of Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    harass and often incorporating military stores’.2 IEDs have been shown to generate a different injury profile compared to con- ventional munitions, and...redress this, but is an evolving science and is both time intensive and labour intensive compared to a standard CT scan, requiring invasive access to

  16. Counterterrorism: U.S. Agencies Face Challenges Countering the Use of Improvised Explosive Devices in the Afghanistan/Pakistan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    make IEDs. According to DOD, other products available in Pakistan—such as potassium chlorate , used in making matches, and urea, another commonly used...IED precursor chemicals. According to State officials, other substitutes for CAN, including potassium chlorate and urea, are exported by countries

  17. Combating Terrorism: State Should Enhance Its Performance Measures for Assessing Efforts in Pakistan to Counter Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    readily switch to another precursor chemical to make IEDs. According to DOD, other products available in Pakistan such as potassium chlorate , used in...chemicals. According to State officials, other substitutes for CAN, including urea and potassium chlorate , are exported by countries other than Pakistan

  18. Pædagogisk improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dorthe Riis; Leegaard, Sarah Palle

    2017-01-01

    Sarah Palle Leegaard og Dorthe Riis Kristensen indleder deres artikel ”Pædagogisk improvisation” med at konstatere, at ”begrebet pædagogisk improvisation er en definition på pædagogens grundlæggende faglighed på højde med det at trække vejret”. Når vi trækker vejret ind, tager vi dét til os, som...... pædagogisk improvisation er udviklet i forbindelse med et forskningsprojekt, hvor Sarah Palle Leegaard og Dorthe Riis Kristensen har fokus på det, de betegner som pædagogens upåagtede faglighed i skoleregi. Hensigten er at udvikle en tydelig fagforskel i henholdsvis lærer- og pædagogprofessionen med henblik...... på at styrke samarbejdet. På baggrund af undersøgelser i praksis i form af bl.a. interviews med lærere og pædagoger, iagttagelser af situationer fra samarbejdet i klasserummet samt oplæg og praktiske øvelser i pædagogisk improvisation (dans) redegør artiklen for, hvordan de deltagende lærere og...

  19. Improvisation and identity : a biographical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2013-01-01

    Seeing improvisation as something that really needs its place in conservatoire training and education may be more or less ‘new’. However improvisation itself is of course not at all new and has existed since as long as we can remember. I will not go into that any further, it would take not a single

  20. Body memories in dance improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    In the analysis of body-memory and improvisation presented in this paper I contend that dancers’ specialised body-memory are not to be understood as more or less automatized. Rather, in each repetition, body-memories – or habits – are to be understood as unfolding in response to the actual context....... The repetition instantiates a fresh memory of these habits while moulding them at the same time. Accordingly, any movement performed is always improvised in different degrees. Throughout the analysis I draw on resent phenomenological discussions to describe how body-memories unfold and find their form...

  1. "I'm Not Sure if I Can...But I Want to Sing!" Research on Singing as a Soloist through the Art of Improvising Verses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Albert; Vilar, Merce; Ayats, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Singing individually is both a necessary activity within the music class and an essential part of the cultural activity of improvising verses through singing. In this article we show how the introduction of this activity in the educational system of Catalonia has made it possible to obtain positive results with regard to participation in singing,…

  2. Exploring improvisation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Fenton, Mary V

    2007-06-01

    Improvisation has long been considered a function of music, dance, and the theatre arts. An exploration of the definitions and characteristics of this concept in relation to the art and practice of nursing provide an opportunity to illuminate related qualities within the field of nursing. Nursing has always demonstrated improvisation because it is often required to meet the needs of patients in a rapidly changing environment. However, little has been done to identify improvisation in the practice of nursing or to teach improvisation as a nursing knowledge-based skill. This article strives to explore the concept of improvisation in nursing, to describe the characteristics of improvisation as applied to nursing, and to utilize case studies to illustrate various manifestations of improvisation in nursing practice.

  3. Improvisation and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Simon

    2013-08-07

    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating.

  4. Improvisation and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gilbertson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating.

  5. Improvisation and meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating. PMID:23930989

  6. Silver(i) complexes with 1'-(diphenylphosphino)-1-cyanoferrocene: the art of improvisation in coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škoch, Karel; Uhlík, Filip; Císařová, Ivana; Štěpnička, Petr

    2016-06-28

    1'-(Diphenylphosphino)-1-cyanoferrocene () reacts with silver(i) halides at a 1 : 1 metal-to-ligand ratio to afford the heterocubane complexes [Ag(μ3-X)(-κP)]4, where X = Cl (), Br (), and I (). In addition, the reaction with AgCl with 2 equiv. of leads to chloride-bridged dimer [(μ-Cl)2{Ag(-κP)2}2] () and, presumably, also to [(μ(P,N)-){AgCl(-κP)}]2 (). While similar reactions with AgCN furnished only the insoluble coordination polymer [(-κP)2Ag(NC)Ag(CN)]n (), those with AgSCN afforded the heterocubane [Ag(-κP)(μ-SCN-S,S,N)]4 () and the thiocyanato-bridged disilver(i) complex [Ag(-κP)2(μ-SCN-S,N)]2 (), thereby resembling reactions in the AgCl- system. Attempted reactions with AgF led to ill-defined products, among which [Ag(-κP)2(μ-HF2)]2 () and [(μ-SiF6){Ag(-κP)2}2] () could be identified. The latter compound was prepared also from Ag2[SiF6] and . Reactions between and AgClO4 or Ag[BF4] afforded disilver complexes [(μ(P,N)-)Ag(ClO4-κO)]2 () and [(μ(P,N)-)Ag(BF4-κF)]2 () featuring pseudolinear Ag(i) centers that are weakly coordinated by the counter anions. A similar reaction with Ag[SbF6] followed by crystallization from ethyl acetate produced an analogous complex, albeit with coordinated solvent, [(μ(P,N)-)Ag(AcOEt-κO)]2[SbF6]2 (). Ultimately, a compound devoid of any additional ligands at the Ag(i) centers, [(μ(P,N)-)Ag]2[B(C6H3(CF3)2-3,5)4]2 (), was obtained from the reaction of with silver(i) tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate. The reaction of Ag[BF4] with two equivalents of produced unique coordination polymer [Ag(-κP)(μ(P,N)-)]n[BF4]n (), the structure of which contained one of the phosphinoferrocene ligands coordinated as a P,N-chelate and the other forming a bridge to an adjacent Ag(i) center. All of these compounds were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, revealing that the lengths of the bonds between silver and its anionic ligand(s) typically exceed the sum of the respective

  7. Free Improvisation; Life Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hoon Hong

    2011-01-01

    This autoethnographic study seeks the value, position and possibilities of free improvisation in the musical field. It explores how embodied knowledge, dialectical exchanges, emotional and intellectual stimulation constructs and reconstructs experiences in various contexts for the free improviser, who is both researcher and actual piano performer.…

  8. The Neuroscience of Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Andrew T.; Limb, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Current research in the neuroscience of musical creativity reveals promising implications for the value of learning to improvise. This article outlines the neuroscientific literature on musical improvisation and relates these findings to the benefits of musical creativity. We begin by describing the neural substrates of flow with respect to the…

  9. Using Jazz to Teach Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Improvising has been around since the dawn of music. Most music in the world is improvised to some extent, and the idea of performing notes on the page "as written" is a fairly young development in music's history. One genre that does heavily stress improvisation from the start is jazz. Since jazz ethic is based on improvised performances,…

  10. Ready to improvise?

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Quite unusually for a CERN colloquium, on 8 and 9 August the CERN Auditorium will host a presentation on comedy and communication and a workshop by Charna Halpern, the founder of "iO theaters" in Chicago and Los Angeles. Members of Geneva’s Impro Federation (FIG) in full swing!Charna Halpern has been teaching performers how to work together for more than 20 years. She founded the world-famous iO theaters (formerly Improv Olympic) in Chicago and Los Angeles in 1981. Today, the theatres are the meccas of training in the art of improvisation, and they act as a "recruiting" stop for television shows supplying New York and Hollywood with writers and performers. Specializing in creating a "group mind" with hilarious end results, Charna Halpern will be sharing her secrets and skills with the CERN audience and she will make her public laugh as they learn. The following day, Saturday, she will give a workshop on how to prepare an improv gro...

  11. Keyboard Improvisation: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingscott, John; Durrant, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomenon of musical improvisation within two contrasting musical genres--jazz piano and liturgical and concert organ. While improvisation is well documented in both genres, there is little literature relating the two forms and, in particular, the process of improvisation. The aim of this study is to…

  12. The Effects of Group Free Improvisation Instruction on Improvisation Achievement and Improvisation Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Maud; Ankney, Kimberly; Healy, Daniel; Gallo, Donna

    2016-01-01

    While improvisation in K-12 schools in the USA has gained some traction since the inception of the US National Standards in 1994, there is still a dearth of improvisation activities in schools because of the lack of music teacher preparation in improvisation. The purpose of this study was to determine if providing group free improvisation…

  13. Dalcroze-Based Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is the Emile Jaques-Dalcroze method of improvisation, which he believed was the study of the direct relations between cerebral commands and muscular interpretations in order to express one's own musical feelings. Performance is propelled by developing the students' powers of sensation, imagination, and memory. (Author/KC)

  14. Improvisation for Leadership Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Sylvain; Nordgren, Mollie

    2017-04-01

    Leaders are required to demonstrate agility, creativity, and innovation. Professional development educators can help leaders to develop the skills to listen carefully, be present in the moment, and contribute to any conversation by using improvisation. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(4):151-153. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Descriptions of Improvisational Thinking by Developing Jazz Improvisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Research investigating improvisational skill development in adolescent learners is scant. In this study interviews with developing jazz improvisers are used to characterize the skill-building process. The findings were considered in light of two views of skill learning. In one view, students progress through several discrete levels, while in a…

  16. Improvisation: Thinking "and" Playing Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, David

    2013-01-01

    This article explores and contextualizes improvisation in music from an educational perspective. First, recent brain research that sees improvisation as a distinct cognitive activity is examined and used to illustrate the importance and uniqueness of this often ignored area of music learning. Next, the implications for the music classroom are…

  17. Experimental Learning Enhancing Improvisation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Christopoulos, Tania; Wilner, Adriana; Trindade Bestetti, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to present improvisation training and experimentation as an alternative method to deal with unexpected events in which structured processes do not seem to work. Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on the literature of sensemaking and improvisation, the study designs a framework and process model of experimental learning…

  18. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Philippe; Burnard, Pamela; Dubé, Francis; Stévance, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice's aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers' thinking…

  19. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  20. Improvisation in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of extemporaneous action and bricolage in designing and implementing information systems in organizations. We report a longitudinal field study of design and implementation of a Web-based groupware application in a multinational corporation. We adopt a sensemaking...... perspective to analyze the dynamics of this process and show that improvisational action and bricolage (making do with the materials at hand) played a vital role in the development of the application. Finally, we suggest that this case study provides an occasion to reconsider how we conceptualize information...

  1. Improvisation and Meditation in the Academy: Parallel Ordeals, Insights, and Openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This article examines parallel challenges and avenues for progress I have observed in my efforts to introduce improvisation in classical music studies, and meditation in music and overall academic settings. Though both processes were once central in their respective knowledge traditions--improvisation in earlier eras of European classical music,…

  2. Improvisation skills for clinical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    Creativity and flexibility are the hallmarks of effective improvisational technique. It is also becoming increasingly apparent that providing musical structure can be significant in enabling clients with poor communication, reciprocity and resistance to engagement. This workshop will offer some...... practical experiences of music making that utilise techniques. Creating a musical frame using an idiom or style, developing the ability to improvise in the style of a song or existing piece, developing the ability to introduce brief or lengthier transitions (Wigram 2004), and building up an improvisation...... based on a short theme or ‘leit-motif’ will all be included in the workshop activities, using both piano, and other instruments. While interventions utilising improvisational music therapy should never be driven by clinical procedures, applying therapeutic method, and also recognising method...

  3. Keywords in musical free improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents some keywords and concepts concerning free improvised music and its recent developments drawing from ongoing bibliographical research. A radical pluralism stems from musicians' backgrounds and the mixtures and fusions of styles and idioms resulting from these mixtures....... Seemingly very different "performance-driven" and "play-driven" attitudes exist, even among musicians who share the practice of performing at concerts. New models of musical analysis aiming specifically at free improvised music provide strategical observations of interaction and structure....

  4. En fænomenologisk undersøgelse af modoverføring i musikalsk improvisation i voksenpsykiatrien – en praksisbaseret og praksisrelateret forskningsundersøgelse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Nygaard Pedersen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikel er baseret på uddrag fra min senior-ph.d.-afhandling om modoverføring i musikterapi i voksenpsykiatrien. Der bringes uddrag fra de vigtigste teoretiske bidrag til emnet inden for den del af musikterapilitteraturen, som også er inkluderet i afhandlingen. Der bringes detaljerede beskrivelser af dele af undersøgelsesmetoden for at illustrere, hvordan jeg i forberedelsen til de dybdegående interviews har fokuseret på, at deltagernes subjektive betydningsfulde udsagn er knyttet til og har rod i udvalgte praksiserfaringer. Selve analysemetoden illustreres, og resultaterne af denne beskrives kort. Resultaterne fra undersøgelsen relateres til de beskrevne teorier i musikterapilitteraturen, og deres relevans for musikterapeutisk praksis præsenteres. Artiklens målgruppe er musikterapeuter og andre kolleger inden for psykiatrien. Jeg har derfor valgt - lidt utraditionelt - at bringe selektive uddrag fra de mest relevante dele af undersøgelsesmetoden i form af en ureflekteret illustration af disse. Med udgangspunkt i disse bringer jeg refleksioner over undersøgelsesresultaternes sammenhæng med den anvendte musikterapiteori og vigtige uddrag af resultaternes relevans for musikterapeutisk praksis.

  5. Surface motion induced by nuclear explosions beneath Pahute Mesa. Part I. Halfbreak, Greeley, Scotch, Boxcar events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, W.R.

    1976-10-01

    Results of surface motion studies conducted by Sandia Laboratories during seven underground nuclear explosions detonated beneath Pahute Mesa, Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, between 1966 and 1973 are reported. The report is divided into two parts of which this, Part I, includes (1) descriptions of the Pahute Mesa geological environment and of the purposes and instrumentation used in these programs (Chapter 1), and (2) description of four events, the data derived from each, and analysis of these data. These Part I events are HALFBEAK (Chapter 2), GREELEY (Chapter 3), SCOTCH (Chapter 4), and BOXCAR (Chapter 5) for all of which a nominally radial array of gage stations yielded data as a function of distance primarily, although in a few cases data were derived from stations at widely separated azimuths from the explosion. Results of the analysis indicate that average propagation velocity through the geologic column between the explosions and mesa surface was about 8800 ft/sec and that for horizontal distances greater than shot depth, refraction occurred within rhyolite flows with characteristic velocity of about 12,300 ft/sec. There is evidence which suggests possible deeper refraction at a velocity between 18,000 and 21,000 ft/sec. Only the verticle motion peaks follow a pattern amenable to regression analysis because geometrical effects influence horizontal motion amplitudes differently as horizontal distances increase. Particle velocities vary roughly as the inverse square of slant or radial range with exponent values ranging from -3.9 to -1.3. Displacements follow a similar pattern with exponents ranging from about -6 to -2. Displacement profiles at various times during the motion and displacement hodographs in the vertical-radial plane aid in understanding several local phenomena implied by individual motion records

  6. "Att slänga sig ut i det okända..." : En utredning av utmaningen att skapa en föreställning utgående ifrån improvisation

    OpenAIRE

    Krusberg, Catrine

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka nyckelelementen i att skapa en föreställning med improvisation som utgångspunkt. Forskningen fokuserar på skapandeprocessen av monologpjäsen Gillar, gillar inte, med frågeställningen: hur skapar jag en fungerande föreställning utan en befintlig dramaturgisk text som referens? Vad händer på scengolvet då jag som skådespelare har enbart de ramar som temat medför? Vad är för- och nackdelarna med att utgå ifrån detta slag av fri impro...

  7. The neuroscience of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have recently begun to examine the neural basis of musical improvisation, one of the most complex forms of creative behavior. The emerging field of improvisation neuroscience has implications not only for the study of artistic expertise, but also for understanding the neural underpinnings of domain-general processes such as motor control and language production. This review synthesizes functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) studies of musical improvisation, including vocal and instrumental improvisation, with samples of jazz pianists, classical musicians, freestyle rap artists, and non-musicians. A network of prefrontal brain regions commonly linked to improvisatory behavior is highlighted, including the pre-supplementary motor area, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal premotor cortex. Activation of premotor and lateral prefrontal regions suggests that a seemingly unconstrained behavior may actually benefit from motor planning and cognitive control. Yet activation of cortical midline regions points to a role of spontaneous cognition characteristic of the default network. Together, such results may reflect cooperation between large-scale brain networks associated with cognitive control and spontaneous thought. The improvisation literature is integrated with Pressing's theoretical model, and discussed within the broader context of research on the brain basis of creative cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvisational Practices in Elementary General Music Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenhagen, Lisa M.; Whitcomb, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Despite historic and ongoing support for the inclusion of improvisation in the elementary general music curriculum, music educators consistently report challenges with implementation of improvisational activities in their classes. This study was designed to examine (a) the extent to which improvisational activities were occurring in the…

  9. Detection of chemical explosives using multiple photon signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loschke, K.W.; Dunn, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A template-matching procedure to aid in rapid detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is being investigated. Multiple photon-scattered and photon-induced positron annihilation radiation responses are being used as part of a photon-neutron signature-based radiation scanning (SBRS) approach (see companion reference for description of the neutron component), in an attempt to detect chemical explosives at safe standoff distances. Many past and present photon interrogation methods are based on imaging. Imaging techniques seek to determine at high special resolution the internal structure of a target of interest. Our technique simply seeks to determine if an unknown target contains a detectable amount of chemical explosives by comparing multiple responses (signatures) that depend on both density and composition of portions of a target. In the photon component, beams of photons are used to create back-streaming signatures, which are dependent on the density and composition of part of the target being interrogated. These signatures are compared to templates, which are collections of the same signatures if the interrogated volume contained a significant amount of explosives. The signature analysis produces a figure-of-merit and a standard deviation of the figure-of-merit. These two metrics are used to filter safe from dangerous targets. Experiments have been conducted that show that explosive surrogates (fertilizers) can be distinguished from several inert materials using these photon signatures, demonstrating that these signatures can be used effectively to help IEDs

  10. Improvisation and the art of holistic nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Fenton, Mary V

    2013-10-01

    The art of improvisation is an essential component of responding on the front lines of caring. Improvisation expresses the nurse's capacity to perceive the changing patterns of patients and their environments in ways that foster creative and innovative approaches to meeting healthcare needs. Many holistic nurses across the country are working on the front lines of caring, improvising and implementing projects to create change within their communities. This article examines improvisation within the context of the art and science of nursing, and proposes that improvisation reflects qualities within holistic nursing that are essential in contemporary health care.

  11. Improvisation, change, works, and ragas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Studying change in music poses considerable challenges. Especially with respect to music that is not, or only partly, written, and improvised music in which the line between 'fixed' and 'free' is extremely fine. Where does internal variability turn into a breach with the established tradition? This

  12. Improvisation, change, works and ragas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Studying change in music poses considerable challenges. Especially with respect to music that is not, or only partly, written, and improvised music in which the line between ‘fixed’ and ‘free’ is extremely fine. Where does internal variability turn into a breach with the established tradition? This

  13. Surface motion near underground nuclear explosions in desert alluvium Operation Nougat I, Area 3, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, W.R.

    1978-05-01

    During Operation Nougat I, which was conducted in late 1961 and the first half of 1962, Sandia Laboratories measured surface motion in the vicinity of all contained underground nuclear explosions conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. This report presents and analyses most of the data derived from that study. Propagation velocities in the desert alluvium, 4440 ft/sec, and underlying tuff, 6020 ft/sec, are typical of those derived from later measurements. Motion attenuation data exhibit considerable scatter, in part because of early measurement and data reduction techniques but primarily because of differences in the characteristics of the geologic media which had not then been recognized. However, regression fits to the scaled data show attenuation of scaled acceleration at a rate 35% greater than that observed for Merlin event data (Merlin was conducted later in Area 3). The attenuation rate for particle velocity data from Nougat I events was 47% less than that for Merlin data, and the Nougat I scaled displacement data attenuation rate was 87% less than that for Merlin data. Analysis of data from a vertical string of gages extending to the surface above the Mink explosion has established a significant difference between normal spallation above contained explosions in competent rock and the reaction of uncemented alluvium to similar explosive loading

  14. Novice Music Teachers Learning to Improvise in an Improvisation Professional Development Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filsinger, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    With the intent of improving music improvisation pedagogy, the purpose of this research was to examine experiences of six novice music teachers and a professional development facilitator in an eight-week Improvisation Professional Development Workshop (IPDW). The research questions were: 1. How do teachers learn to improvise within the context of…

  15. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Despres, JP; Burnard, Pamela Anne; Dube, F; Stevance, S

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice’s aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers’ thinking processes are not yet thoroughly documented. As a result of this gap, our research addresses the following question: What strategies are implement...

  16. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-04-30

    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) device at the National Hospital Abuja gives immediate improvement in respiratory rate and oxygenation in neonates with respiratory distress.

  18. Ways of the Jam:Collective and improvisational perspectives on learning

    OpenAIRE

    Brinck, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In the PhD-dissertation Ways of the Jam I investigate jamming and learning as profoundly collective and improvisational matters. Bridging a theory of funk jamming with situated learning theoretical analyses of New Orleans second line, everyday leadership, and of a studio recording session demonstrate how looking at human activity from a jamming perspective enhances our understanding of learning as a complex collective and improvisational process. Ways of the Jam demonstrates how learning is a...

  19. iVCJ: A tool for Interactive Visualization of high explosives CJ states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, Hasani Omar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aslam, Tariq Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whitley, Von Howard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-12

    A graphical user interface (GUI) tool has been developed that facilitates the visualization and analysis of the Chapman-Jouguet state for high explosives gaseous products using the Jones- Wilkins-Lee equation of state.

  20. Creativity as a distinct trainable mental state: An EEG study of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Joel A; Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Joanisse, Marc F

    2017-05-01

    Alpha-band EEG was used to index how creative mental states relate to the creation of artistic works in skilled musicians. We contrasted differences in frontal upper alpha-band activity between tasks with high and low creativity demands by recording EEGs while skilled musicians listened to, played back, and improvised jazz melodies. Neural responses were compared for skilled musicians with training in musical improvisation versus those who had no formal improvisation training. Consistent with our hypotheses, individuals showed increased frontal upper alpha-band activity during more creative tasks (i.e., improvisation) compared to during less creative tasks (i.e., rote playback). Moreover, this effect was greatest for musicians with formal improvisation training. The strength of this effect also appeared to modulate the quality of these improvisations, as evidenced by significant correlations between upper alpha EEG power and objective post-hoc ratings of individuals' performances. These findings support a conceptualization of creativity as a distinct mental state and suggest spontaneous processing capacity is better nurtured through formal institutional training than informal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvisation: An Essential Element of Musical Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Bill

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of improvisation, suggesting that improvisation be introduced in the earliest stages of education and be taught through an approach that integrates ear training, sight-reading, instrumental and vocal techniques and theory into a unified and complete understanding of music as a language. (Author/KC)

  2. Informal Music Learning, Improvisation and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ruth; Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores firstly the sense in which improvisation might be conceived of as an informal music education process and, secondly, the effects of a course in free improvisation on student teachers' perceptions in relation to themselves as musicians, music as a school subject and children as musicians. The results of a study conducted in two…

  3. Improvisational Teaching as Mode of Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem-Tov, Naphtaly

    2011-01-01

    Theatrical improvisation is a joyful, creative, and playful activity of discovery and a spontaneous process. It seems to be the opposite of teaching, which requires proper planning and advance thinking and seems a very "serious business" that deals with values and knowledge. Improvisation is shaped by flexibility and by transformative…

  4. Experimental improvisation practise and notation. Addenda 2000-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    Addenda to Experimental improvisation practise and notation (please see this title for more information!) Stichwörter: experimentelle Musik, offenes Werk, grafische Notation, musikalische Notation, musikalische Aufführungspraxis, freie Improvisation, Musikpädagogik, Geschichte der Musik, Musikäst...

  5. Improvisation as a Way of Knowing Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens Skou

    This paper examines improvisation and points to improvisational practice as the central transforming force in music and the educational practice of the Rhythmic Music Conservatory (RMC). In less than 25 years RMC has radically changed its education methodology from one based on jazz and African....../African-American/Cuban orientation in a worldview of music as an ontological, intransitive fact to ‘music-as-artwork’ – as an extemporal, physically explicit art object; from a performance-based focus on live bands playing as a central source and key of learning and excellence with little or no theoretical awareness to project...... of improvisation in popular music that can inform the construction of meaningful and relevant popular music programs based on music improvisation is discussed. The author argues for a need to critically examine the tacit auxiliary hypotheses that seem to govern our understanding of musical improvisation through...

  6. Nano-Evaluris: an inhalation and explosion risk evaluation method for nanoparticle use. Part I: description of the methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillard, Jacques X.; Vignes, Alexis

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, an inhalation health and explosion safety risk assessment methodology for nanopowders is described. Since toxicological threshold limit values are still unknown for nanosized substances, detailed risk assessment on specific plants may not be carried out. A simple approach based on occupational hazard/exposure band expressed in mass concentrations is proposed for nanopowders. This approach is consolidated with an iso surface toxicological scaling method, which has the merit, although incomplete, to provide concentration threshold levels for which new metrological instruments should be developed for proper air monitoring in order to ensure safety. Whenever the processing or use of nanomaterials is introducing a risk to the worker, a specific nano pictogram is proposed to inform the worker. Examples of risk assessment of process equipment (i.e., containment valves) processing various nanomaterials are provided. Explosion risks related to very reactive nanomaterials such as aluminum nanopowders can be assessed using this new analysis methodology adapted to nanopowders. It is nevertheless found that to formalize and extend this approach, it is absolutely necessary to develop new relevant standard apparatuses and to qualify individual and collective safety barriers with respect to health and explosion risks. In spite of these uncertainties, it appears, as shown in the second paper (Part II) that health and explosion risks, evaluated for given MWCNTs and aluminum nanoparticles, remain manageable in their continuous fabrication mode, considering current individual and collective safety barriers that can be put in place. The authors would, however, underline that peculiar attention must be paid to non-continuous modes of operations, such as process equipment cleaning steps, that are often under-analyzed and are too often forgotten critical steps needing vigilance in order to minimize potential toxic and explosion risks.

  7. Developing clinical piano improvisation skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Teaching piano improvisation skills for use in clinical work relies on the development of a range of musical techniques and therapeutic methods that are combined and integrated. Simple musical styles of playing such as melody dialogues, two chord accompaniments, walking basses (tonal and atonal), 6...... skilful way of helping a client or group of clients move, or develop their musical expression (Wigram & Bonde 2002 pp 278-279). Frame-working is a method that offers a musical structure to the music of a client. This structure could have the goal of enhancing the music aesthetically, or guiding the client...

  8. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  9. Postural coordination during socio-motor improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gueugnon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation. Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively. Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and anti-phase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability. Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination.

  10. Fundamental characteristics of microwave explosion pretreatment of wood. I, Properties of temperature development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian-jun Li; Ke-yang Lu; Lan-ying Lin; Yong-dong Zhou; Zhi-yong Cai; Feng Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of microwave radiation intensity, radiation time and initial wood moisture content (MC) on the properties of temperature development in Eucalyptus urophylla wood samples during the microwave explosion pretreatment have been investigated using a new microwave pretreatment equipment. The results show that 1) with the increase of microwave...

  11. Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave Overpressure Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Many TBIs are associated with blast from improvised explosive devices.2–4 Explosions are physical, chemical , or nuclear reactions involving a rapid...ARL-TR-8210 ● NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave...Research Laboratory Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave Overpressure Impacts by Nicole E Zander, Thuvan

  12. Developing the Second Generation of Improvised Explosive Device Detector Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    impact learning capability and performance of learned tasks. Such emotional responses may arise from heritable temperament, genetic traits, early...Veterinary Medicine Project 11-093-O 25 by half points, to 6 for severe anxiety behavior exhibited most of the time. The scoring rubric used was

  13. Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization: Anomaly or Future Roadmap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadowski, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    .... JIEDDO itself has been compared to a 'Manhattan-style' project This paper provides historical perspective through case studies while exploring other analogs such as the North Atlantic shipping tragedy in WWII...

  14. Improvised Explosive Devices: Booklet of Related Readings 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-20

    component in U.S. strategy because it influences attitudes and behavior." According to Deputy National Security Advisor Juan Zarate, this is...technology to create robo -bugs and replicate the adaptive behavior of insects would be an huge milestone in Artificial Intelligence research. After all

  15. Innovation as improvisation 'in the shadow'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    processes of innovation, with a particular emphasis on the improvisational nature of interaction. Through an abductive approach, by iterating actual experiences and our understanding of them, we show that such processes are collective efforts that take place as informal, highly improvised conversations......, they can be induced by invitations – conscious or unconscious moves that encourage those involved to make spontaneous moves together in a mutually improvised context. Our experience shows that the emergence of shadow themes can have a long-term impact on the organization and the people involved...

  16. Ionospheric disturbances due to underground nuclear explosions and other sources: an elementary discussion, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, L.F.

    1971-01-01

    The possible effect of verticle ground surface motion on the ionosphere, as a consequence of acoustic propagation, is discussed. Estimates of R. F. phase path perturbations are developed for several representative sources and several propagative modes (both terrestrial and atmospheric). In particular, amplitude models for ionospheric density perturbations are used. The discrimination of earth quakes and nuclear explosive disturbances is considered and some detailed properties of the extended atmosphere are described. A list of references is provided. (U.S.)

  17. Improvised Apparatus: A Lab on a Shoestring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the construction of various types of physics equipment from laboratory "bits and pieces" (parts of discarded/unusable equipment). Includes comments on constructing improvised equipment from similar bits and pieces in schools in Peru and the Caribbean. (JN)

  18. Improvised Nuclear Device Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, Brooke [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suski, Nancy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-07-12

    Reducing the casualties of catastrophic terrorist attacks requires an understanding of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) effects, infrastructure damage, atmospheric dispersion, and health effects. The Federal Planning Guidance for Response to a Nuclear Detonation provides the strategy for response to an improvised nuclear device (IND) detonation. The supporting science developed by national laboratories and other technical organizations for this document significantly improves our understanding of the hazards posed by such an event. Detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, including extensive global geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations, are a key part of response planning. This presentation describes the methodology and results to date, including visualization aids developed for response organizations. These products have greatly enhanced the community planning process through first-person points of view and description of the dynamic nature of the event.

  19. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGaast, Brian W.; McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) identified a requirement for inert simulants to act as improvised, or homemade, explosives (IEs) when training on, or evaluating, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems commonly used in the detection of buried landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In response, Defence R and D Canada (DRDC) initiated a project to develop IE simulant formulations using commonly available inert materials. These simulants are intended to approximate the expected GPR response of common ammonium nitrate-based IEs, in particular ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) and ammonium nitrate/aluminum (ANAl). The complex permittivity over the range of electromagnetic frequencies relevant to standard GPR systems was measured for bulk quantities of these three IEs that had been fabricated at DRDC Suffield Research Centre. Following these measurements, published literature was examined to find benign materials with both a similar complex permittivity, as well as other physical properties deemed desirable - such as low-toxicity, thermal stability, and commercial availability - in order to select candidates for subsequent simulant formulation. Suitable simulant formulations were identified for ANFO, with resulting complex permittivities measured to be within acceptable limits of target values. These IE formulations will now undergo end-user trials with CAF operators in order to confirm their utility. Investigations into ANAl simulants continues. This progress report outlines the development program, simulant design, and current validation results.

  20. Biography, identity, improvisation, sound: intersections of personal and social identity through improvisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2016-01-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of improvisation and identity. Biographical research that was conducted by the author into professional musicians’ lifelong learning showed the huge importance of improvisation for personal expression. Musically, the concept of sound appeared to serve as a

  1. Biography, Identity, Improvisation, Sound: Intersections of Personal and Social Identity through Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2016-01-01

    This essay addresses the relationship of improvisation and identity. Biographical research that was conducted by the author into professional musicians' lifelong learning showed the huge importance of improvisation for personal expression. Musically, the concept of "sound" appeared to serve as a strong metaphor for identity. In addition,…

  2. Can Improvisation Be "Taught"?: A Call for Free Improvisation in Our Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Maud

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the idea that the music education profession's current drive to include improvisation in school music is limited in its approach, and that "teaching" improvisation, in the traditional sense, is not possible. These beliefs are based on an examination of current methodologies and texts in light of the…

  3. Fearless Improvisation: A Pilot Study to Analyze String Students' Confidence, Anxiety, and Attitude toward Learning Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…

  4. Instrumental Jazz Improvisation Development: Characteristics of Novice, Intermediate, and Advanced Improvisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the role aural imitation ability, jazz theory knowledge, and personal background variables play in the development of jazz improvisation achievement. Participants (N = 70) included 26 high school and 44 college instrumentalists with varying degrees of jazz improvisation experience. Data were…

  5. Pengaruh Tandem Booster TNT Terhadap Kecepatan Detonasi Campuran Bahan Peledak Tepung Kalium Klorat, Sulfur Dan Aluminium Sebagai Bahan Peldak High Explosive

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Tarsim

    2010-01-01

    There are a research on velocity of detonation explosives from Improvised Bomb with potassium chlorate, sulfur and aluminum with a composition of 65:20:15% (weight / weight), 70 mesh, galvanized pipes and containers with some blasting mechanism, starts with an explosion that ignite by a improvise detonator, factory detonator without a booster, factory detonator with a tandem booster TNT, and TNT booster modifications by adding a layer of Pb plate and make a cavity between the main booster ch...

  6. 342 Effects of Improvised Materials on Students' Achievement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Richardson formula 20 and a reliability index of 0.78 was obtained. Theory. The improvised ... removed and stored in a separate container. .... group taught with improvised material achieved higher than the control group.

  7. Using Baroque Techniques to Teach Improvisation in Your Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyesoo

    2015-01-01

    Before our current notation system was widely adopted by musicians, improvisation was a key component of music throughout the Western world. One of the fundamental elements of the baroque style, namely, using improvised embellishment, offered musicians great artist liberty. During the baroque period, improvisation spread across Europe and beyond.…

  8. Developing Musical Creativity through Improvisation in the Large Performance Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Improvisation is an ideal way to develop musical creativity in ensemble settings. This article describes two prominent theoretical frameworks related to improvisation. Next, based on research with developing and expert improvisers, it discusses how to sequence improvisatory activities so that students feel accomplished at every step. Finally, the…

  9. Symbolic Interactionism in Music Education: Eight Strategies for Collaborative Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Learning improvisation in music is often treated as the process of gaining skills to spontaneously perform within the conventions of a style. Alternatively, learning improvisation can offer musicians a place to explore sound as it happens in free improvisation. Within the school setting, the former approach is commonly used in the jazz programs,…

  10. Development of a Rubric for Collegiate Jazz Improvisation Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kendall Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a jazz improvisation rubric for the evaluation of collegiate jazz improvisation. To create this measure, research objectives were devised to investigate the aurally-observed performer-controlled components of improvisation, which aurally-observed components should be evaluated in an improvisatory…

  11. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology

    2013-06-01

    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  12. Rapid and flexible creativity in musical improvisation: review and a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche

    2018-03-25

    Creativity has been defined as the ability to produce output that is novel, useful, beneficial, and desired by an audience. But what is musical creativity, and relatedly, to what extent does creativity depend on domain-general or domain-specific neural and cognitive processes? To what extent can musical creativity be taught? To answer these questions from a reductionist scientific approach, we must attempt to isolate the creative process as it pertains to music. Recent work in the neuroscience of creativity has turned to musical improvisation as a window into real-time musical creative process in the brain. Here, I provide an overview of recent research in the neuroscience of musical improvisation, especially focusing on multimodal neuroimaging studies. This research informs a model of creativity as a combination of generative and reactive processes that coordinate their functions to give rise to perpetually novel and aesthetically rewarding improvised musical output. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Sinteza i fizičko-hemijske karakteristike eksploziva HNIW (CL-20 / Synthesis and physicochemical properties of the HNIW (CL-20 explosive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Lukić-Anđelković

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Novo jedinjenje CL-20 je ciklični nitramin sa najvećom kristalnom gustinom (iznad 2,0 g/cm3 i najsnažniji nenuklearni eksploziv. Opisana je sinteza HNIW ili CL-20 u tri stepena. CL-20 ima najveću gustinu i brzinu detonacije među poznatim eksplozivima, kao i najveću energiju među energetskim dodacima koji se koriste kao dodaci za eksplozive, barute i kompozitna raketna goriva. Prikazani su neki sastavi na bazi CL-20, energetskih polimera, aluminijuma i amonijumperhlorata, kao i gustine i brzine njihove detonacije. / The new compound CL-20, a cyclic nitramine with the highest crystal density (over 2.0 g/cm3, is the most powerful non-nuclear explosive. The three-step synthesis of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW or CL-20 has been described. The CL-20 has the highest density and the highest detonation velocity among existing explosives as well as the highest energy among existing energetic ingredients for explosives, gun propellants and rocket propellants. Same explosive formulations based on the CL-20, energetic polymers, aluminium and ammoniumperchlorate are presented. Their densities and detonation velocities are also presented.

  14. Novice Collaboration in Solo and Accompaniment Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    -accompaniment relationship. Results of interaction data and video analysis show that 1) teams related to each other through their experience with verbal conversation, 2) users searched for harmonic relations and 3) were able to establish rhythmical grounding. The paper concludes with some design guidelines for future solo...... in order to understand how future shared electronic music instruments can be de-signed to encourage non-musicians to engage in social action through music improvisation. A combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis was used to find characteristics in co-expression found in a solo......-accompaniment shared improvisation interfaces: How real time analysis of co-expression can be mapped to ad-ditional sound feedback that supports, strengthens and evolves co-expression in improvisation....

  15. Improvisation during Process-Technology Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Mathiassen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    SPI technology adoption and events that causes the process to drift in unpredictable directions. To further understand how management's attempt to control the process is complemented by drifting, this article investigates the role of improvisation in adoption of SPI technology in a Danish software......Most software firms struggle to take advantage of the potential benefits of software process improvement (SPI) as they adopt this technology into the complex and dynamic realities of their day-to-day operation. Such efforts are therefore typically fluctuating between management's attempt to control...... firm, SmallSoft, over a 10-year period (1996–2005). We found that micro-level and macro-level improvisations interacted, often in uncoordinated ways, to shape SPI technology adoption at SmallSoft. The improvisations enhanced employee creativity, motivation and empowerment, created momentum...

  16. Inexpensive semi-autonomous ground vehicles for defusing IEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Chris; Lodmell, James; Womble, Phillip C.; Barzilov, Alexander; Paschal, Jon; Hernandez, Robert; Moss, Kyle T.; Hopper, Lindsay

    2008-04-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are an important concern to coalition forces during the conflicts in the Middle East. These devices are responsible for many casualties to American armed forces in the Middle East. These explosives are particularly dangerous because they are improvised with materials readily available to the designer, and there is no systematic way of explosive ordinance disposal. IEDs can be made from things such as standard military ammunition and can be detonated with common electronic devices such as cell phones and garage door openers. There is a great need for a low cost solution to neutralize these IEDs. At the Applied Physics Institute we are building a single function disrupter robot whose sole purpose is to neutralize these IEDs. We are modifying a toy remote control car to control it either wirelessly using WI-FI (IEEE 802.11) or wired by tethering the vehicle with an Ethernet cable (IEEE 802.3). The robot will be equipped with a high velocity fuze disrupter to neutralize the IED as well as a video camera for inspection and aiming purposes. This robot utilizes commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components which keeps the cost relatively low. Currently, similar robot systems have been deployed in Iraq and elsewhere but their method of operation is such that it is impractical to use in non-combat situations. We will discuss our design and possible deployment scenarios.

  17. The Five Improvisation "Brains": A Pedagogical Model for Jazz Improvisation at High School and the Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The learning of jazz improvisation is often treated as the incorporation of stylistic vocabulary and development of technical dexterity. Although this methodology is effective, considering other aspects of jazz improvisation can make the learning process a more holistic and less technical endeavour. My experience teaching improvisation has led me…

  18. Creating Time: Social Collaboration in Music Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ashley E; Washburn, Auriel; Langland-Hassan, Peter; Chemero, Anthony; Kloos, Heidi; Richardson, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Musical collaboration emerges from the complex interaction of environmental and informational constraints, including those of the instruments and the performance context. Music improvisation in particular is more like everyday interaction in that dynamics emerge spontaneously without a rehearsed score or script. We examined how the structure of the musical context affords and shapes interactions between improvising musicians. Six pairs of professional piano players improvised with two different backing tracks while we recorded both the music produced and the movements of their heads, left arms, and right arms. The backing tracks varied in rhythmic and harmonic information, from a chord progression to a continuous drone. Differences in movement coordination and playing behavior were evaluated using the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems, with the aim of uncovering the multiscale dynamics that characterize musical collaboration. Collectively, the findings indicated that each backing track afforded the emergence of different patterns of coordination with respect to how the musicians played together, how they moved together, as well as their experience collaborating with each other. Additionally, listeners' experiences of the music when rating audio recordings of the improvised performances were related to the way the musicians coordinated both their playing behavior and their bodily movements. Accordingly, the study revealed how complex dynamical systems methods (namely recurrence analysis) can capture the turn-taking dynamics that characterized both the social exchange of the music improvisation and the sounds of collaboration more generally. The study also demonstrated how musical improvisation provides a way of understanding how social interaction emerges from the structure of the behavioral task context. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Analysis, comparison, and modeling of radar interferometry, date of surface deformation signals associated with underground explosions, mine collapses and earthquakes. Phase I: underground explosions, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxall, W; Vincent, P; Walter, W

    1999-01-01

    We have previously presented simple elastic deformation modeling results for three classes of seismic events of concern in monitoring the CTBT-underground explosions, mine collapses and earthquakes. Those results explored the theoretical detectability of each event type using synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) based on commercially available satellite data. In those studies we identified and compared the characteristics of synthetic interferograms that distinguish each event type, as well the ability of the interferograms to constrain source parameters. These idealized modeling results, together with preliminary analysis of InSAR data for the 1995 mb 5.2 Solvay mine collapse in southwestern Wyoming, suggested that InSAR data used in conjunction with regional seismic monitoring holds great potential for CTBT discrimination and seismic source analysis, as well as providing accurate ground truth parameters for regional calibration events. In this paper we further examine the detectability and ''discriminating'' power of InSAR by presenting results from InSAR data processing, analysis and modeling of the surface deformation signals associated with underground explosions. Specifically, we present results of a detailed study of coseismic and postseismic surface deformation signals associated with underground nuclear and chemical explosion tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Several interferograms were formed from raw ERS-1/2 radar data covering different time spans and epochs beginning just prior to the last U.S. nuclear tests in 1992 and ending in 1996. These interferograms have yielded information about the nature and duration of the source processes that produced the surface deformations associated with these events. A critical result of this study is that significant post-event surface deformation associated with underground nuclear explosions detonated at depths in excess of 600 meters can be detected using differential radar interferometry. An

  20. Drama Education in New Zealand: A Coming of Age? A Conceptualisation of the Development and Practice of Drama in the Curriculum as a Structured Improvisation, with New Zealand's Experience as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Janinka

    2009-01-01

    I propose a conceptualisation of drama in school education as improvisation within a framework that has a number of fixed but changing structures. I examine how the "drama in schooling" practice of one country, New Zealand, might be seen as a group improvisation in which, through dramatic negotiation, participants evolve their goals,…

  1. The Instant Composers Pool: Music Notation and the Mediation of Improvising Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article relates the recent development of a “relational musicology” to debates about participatory art and relational aesthetics. I present results from an ethnographic study of the Dutch improvising music collective the Instant Composers Pool, founded in 1967 and still performing. With a

  2. The model of counterpoint improvisation and the methods of improvisation in popular music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fulara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. The first, more general, contains a description of the phenomena associated with improvisation, especially guitar, detailing the execution issues facing the improviser. Two points of view are presented: the first, more detailed, describes the elements of music and its importance in the process of improvisation, the second - more general - speaks of phenomena which cannot be described or analyzed in a simple way, or that are different for each track. These include the interaction between team members, expressing emotions through music and research problem of searching for one's own voice in art. Moreover, this section contains a description of three very different approaches to guitar improvisation. The first is the use of a tonal center (enriched with dominant tensions; the second method (used in fusion music is to combine the harmony of the composition with relevant scales; the third (typical for bebop music is based on the strict use of improvised chord sounds without the use of scales. The second section of the text provides a description of a specific type of polyphonic improvisation with the use of two-handed tapping on the guitar. This model stands in contrast to the three previously described ways of understanding guitar improvisation. The system is based on methods used in both the Renaissance and Baroque polyphony (among others in the leading Cantus Firmus melody or the counterpoint rules as well as on assumptions of one voice bebop improvisation (the use of leading sound solutions specific to natural foursounds. This description refers back to the first part of the article, grouping issues around the individual elements of a musical work. This section contains notes and observations collected during the eight years the author spent searching for his own musical way.

  3. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. ► The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. ► The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. ► Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. ► The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  4. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert, E-mail: robert.matyas@upce.cz [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Selesovsky, Jakub; Musil, Tomas [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  5. Aesthetics and design for group music improvisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funk, M.; Hengeveld, B.J.; Frens, J.W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Streitz, N.; Stephanidis, C.

    2013-01-01

    Performing music as a group—improvised or from sheet music—is an intensive and immersive interaction activity that bears its own aesthetics. Players in such a setting are usually skilled in playing an instrument up to the level where they do not need to focus on the "operation" of the instrument,

  6. Proceedings of the CSNI specialist meeting on interaction of fire and explosion with ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers presented in the following areas: (1) fire and explosion perspectives; (2) fire, explosion, and radioactive source terms; and (3) development and verification of codes (a) mathematical and computer simulation and (b) analytical and experimental comparisons

  7. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabury, E.H.; Caffrey, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  8. Fizičko-hemijske i detonacione karakteristike nitraminskih eksploziva - RDX, HMX i CL-20 / Physico-chemical and detonation properties of nitramine explosives: RDX, HMX and CL-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Anđelković-Lukić

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazane fizičko-hemijske i detonacione karakteristike nitraminskih brizantnih eksploziva, heksogena i oktogena, uporedene sa osobinama novog cikličnog nitraminskog eksploziva CL-20. Novi visokobrizantni eksploziv CL-20 postoji u četiri kristalne forme, stabilne na različitim temepraturama. Ima bolje detonacione karakteristike od heksogena i oktogena veću gustinu i brzinu detonacije, all mnogo veću osetljivost na udar i trenje, reda PETN. Zbog toga se ovaj eksploziv flegmatizuje sa polimerima etilenvinilacetatom (EVA i estanom. Da bi se povećale energetske performanse eksploziva i smanjila osetljivost na mehanička dejstva eksplozivu CL-20 dodaju se visokoenergetski materijali, fluoronitrojedinjenja (FEFO. / In this paper the physico-chemical and detonation properties of nitramine high explosives, hexogen and octogen, are presented and compared with a polycyclic nitramine high explosive CL-20. This new high explosive CL-20 exists in four crystalline forms, stable at different temperatures. CL-20 has better detonation properties than hexogen and octogen, higher density and detonation rate, but greater impact and friction sensitivity (of PETN class. So it is necessary to bond this explosive with polymers-ethylenvinil acetat (EVA and estane to reduce sensitivity to mechanical effects. CL-20 can be prepared by adding high energy materials-fluoro-nitro compounds (FEFO as regulators of energy performances.

  9. Distributed improvisation: a systems perspective of improvisation 'epics' by led outdoor activity leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Margaret J; Salmon, Paul M; Goode, Natassia; Lenné, Michael G

    2018-02-01

    Improvisation represents the spontaneous and real-time conception and execution of a novel response to an unanticipated situation. In order to benefit from the positive safety potential of this phenomenon, it is necessary to understand what influences its appropriateness and effectiveness. This study has applied the system-based methodology Impromaps to analysing accounts of improvisation aimed at mitigating adverse safety outcomes. These accounts were obtained from led outdoor activity (LOA) leaders through critical decision method interviews. Influencing factors and interactions have been identified across all system levels. The factors most influential to leaders' ability to improvise are 'Policy, procedures and rules', 'Organisation culture', 'Training', 'Role responsibilities', 'Communication/instruction/demonstration', 'Situation awareness', 'Leader experience', 'Mental simulation', 'Equipment, clothing & PPE' and 'Terrain/physical environment'. To enhance the likelihood of effective, appropriate improvisation, LOA providers are recommended to focus on higher level factors over which they are able to exert greater control. Practitioner Summary: To enhance resilience in safety-critical situations, organisations need to understand what influences appropriate, effective improvisation. To elucidate this, the Impromaps methodology is applied to in-depth interview data. The Impromap affords a graphical depiction of the influencing factors and interactions across the system, providing a basis for the development of interventions.

  10. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  11. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for X-ray-based inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anthony A.; Nacson, Sabatino; Koffler, Bruce; Bourbeau, Éric; Gagne, Louis; Laing, Robin; Anderson, C. J.

    2014-05-01

    Transport Canada (TC), the Canadian Armed Forces, and other public security agencies have an interest in the assessment of the potential utility of advanced explosives detection technologies to aid in the detection and interdiction of commercial grade, military grade, and homemade or improvised explosives (HME or IE). The availability of suitable, non-hazardous, non-toxic, explosive simulants is of concern when assessing the potential utility of such detection systems. Lack of simulants limits the training opportunities, and ultimately the detection probability, of security personnel using these systems. While simulants for commercial and military grade explosives are available for a wide variety of detection technologies, the design and production of materials to simulate improvised explosives has not kept pace with this emerging threat. Funded by TC and the Canadian Safety and Security Program, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Visiontec Systems, and Optosecurity engaged in an effort to develop inert, non-toxic Xray interrogation simulants for IE materials such as ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and triacetone triperoxide. These simulants were designed to mimic key X-ray interrogation-relevant material properties of real improvised explosives, principally their bulk density and effective atomic number. Different forms of the simulants were produced and tested, simulating the different explosive threat formulations that could be encountered by front line security workers. These simulants comply with safety and stability requirements, and as best as possible match form and homogeneity. This paper outlines the research program, simulant design, and validation.

  12. Improvisation as an adaptive strategy for occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusen, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT As health care environments become increasingly complex, practitioners must develop new adaptive skills to master practice. The idea of using theatrical improvisation (improv) in health care is relatively new. Occupational therapy students were taught a module of improvisational techniques as part of an academic seminar, learning improvisation rules, and enacting solutions to typical daily professional challenges. The purpose of this article is to recommend improvisational techniques as an adaptive skill to effectively blend art and science for occupational therapy practice in fast-paced and unpredictable health care environments.

  13. Control Improvisation with Application to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    Control Improvisation with Application to Music Alexandre Donze Sophie Libkind Sanjit A. Seshia David Wessel Electrical Engineering and Computer...to Music 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...domain of music . More speci cally, we consider the scenario of generating a monophonic Jazz melody (solo) on a given song harmonization. The music is

  14. Study by Monte Carlo methods of an explosives detection system made up with a D-D neutron generator and NaI(Tl) gamma detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos Robalino, Lenin E; García Fernández, Gonzalo Felipe; Gallego, Eduardo; Guzmán-García, Karen A; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2018-02-17

    Detection of hidden explosives is of utmost importance for homeland security. Several configurations of an Explosives Detection System (EDS) to intercept hidden threats, made up with a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) compact neutron generator and NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors, have been evaluated using MCNP6 code. The system's response to various samples of explosives, such as RDX and Ammonium Nitrate, is analysed. The D-D generator is able to produce fast neutrons with 2.5 MeV energy in a maximum yield of 10 10 n/s. It is surrounded by high-density polyethylene to thermalize the fast neutrons and to optimize interactions with the sample inspected, whose emission of gamma rays gives a characteristic spectrum of the elements that constitute it. This procedure allows to determine its chemical composition and to identify the type of substance. The necessary shielding is evaluated to estimate its thicknesses depending on the admissible dose of operation, using lead and polyethylene. The results show that its functionality is promising in the field of national security for explosives inspection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stellar explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.

    1987-01-01

    What is the energy source and which physical processes are powerful enough to generate this explosion which scatters the star. The knowledge progress of very dense matter allows the scenario reconstitution. An instability in the star core which is developing during milliseconds is the cause of this explosion [fr

  16. The dynamic behaviour of the floor of a surrogate vehicle under explosive blast loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Newell, N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvised Explosive Devices have been the signature weapon in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. High-rate axial forces exerted by the vehicle floor to the lower limbs of occupants have been the cause of severe injuries. In order to gain...

  17. The development of a ballistic method for simulating fragments from buried explosive devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    No standard scientific methodology currently exists to assess the performance of personal protection equipment (PPE) against secondary debris, such as soil, grit and stones, ejected when a buried improvised explosive device (IED) detonates. Different test methods are used for this evaluation. The

  18. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reber, Edward L.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Jewell, J. Keith; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Klinger, Jeffery B.

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004

  19. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Edward L. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States)]. E-mail: reber@inel.gov; Blackwood, Larry G. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Edwards, Andrew J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Jewell, J. Keith [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Rohde, Kenneth W. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Seabury, Edward H. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Klinger, Jeffery B. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  20. Using Comedy Improvisation Techniques to Support Dance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Although contemporary dance improvisation techniques and comedy improvisation are seldom linked, the two forms evolved around the same time and have many similarities. Both forms exist in the moment, share a highly ephemeral nature, and make use of physical games and structures. Both forms teach students the skill of being present, so essential to…

  1. Risk-Taking and Large-Group Dance (Improvisation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueira da Silva Jr., João

    2016-01-01

    Improvisation in dance is often conceived of as a practice that involves a kind of risk-taking that is occasioned by spontaneity and a ‘stepping into the unknown’. Choreography, usually considered to be the ‘other’ of improvisation, on the contrary, is associated with ‘knowing’ and repetition, and

  2. Free Improvisation and Performance Anxiety among Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of anxiety that students experienced according to whether their public performance consisted of a free improvisation or a repertory piece. The researcher had two objectives: (1) examine the relationship of students' levels of anxiety to free improvisation and repertory pieces during a…

  3. Pedagogical Techniques of Improvisation Instructors without Academic Credentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Richard Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The importance of music improvisation can be seen in its inclusion in the National Standards for Music Education and the accreditation standards for the National Association of Schools of Music. The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogical techniques and materials of improvisation instructors who do not hold academic credentials. The…

  4. Descriptions of Improvisational Thinking by Artist-Level Jazz Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Thought processes of seven artist-level jazz musicians, each of whom recorded an improvised solo, were investigated. Immediately after completing their improvisations, participants listened to recordings of their playing and looked at the notation of their solos as they described in a directed interview the thinking processes that led to the…

  5. Dramaturgical and Music-Theoretical Approaches to Improvisation Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Erkki; Tenkanen, Atte; Kuusinen, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the relative merits of two approaches to teaching musical improvisation: a music-theoretical approach, focusing on chords and scales, and a "dramaturgical" one, emphasizing questions of balance, variation and tension. Adult students of music pedagogy, with limited previous experience in improvisation,…

  6. Young Pianists Exploring Improvisation Using Interactive Music Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Victoria; Triantafyllaki, Angeliki; Anagnostopoulou, Xristina

    2015-01-01

    The use of music technology in the enhancement of young pianists' musical improvisations has been scarcely explored in instrumental music teaching and learning research. In the present study, 19 piano pupils aged 6-10 from the UK and Greece used an interactive improvisation system called Musical Interaction Relying On Reflexion (MIROR)-Impro for…

  7. Whose Classroom Is It, Anyway? Improvisation as a Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A.; Trieber, Rosalind H.

    2009-01-01

    Improvisational techniques derived from the experiences in improvisational theatre can be adapted for the college classroom to leverage the characteristics of the Net Generation, their multiple intelligences and learning styles, and the variety of collaborative learning activities already in place in a learner-centered environment. When…

  8. Improvisational Theater Games: Performatory Team-Building Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Joan S.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes five improvisational theater games for building "teams" in the classroom and on the sports field. Particular attention is given to understanding how teams must challenge the hyper-individuality of modern culture. Improvisational theater games for team building are designed to help participants find a balance…

  9. Use Jazz to Teach Your String Students Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Standards 3 and 9 of the National Standards for Music Education charge teachers to teach improvisation as well as music of diverse cultures. Jazz is a musical style that is perfect to cover both content areas. Until now, however, jazz repertoire and improvisation have not played a major role in the education of string students. One reason is that…

  10. Relationships among Selected Practice Behaviours and Achievement in Jazz Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the practice strategies that collegiate music majors chose to employ in preparing for a jazz improvisation performance, and the relationships among selected practice behaviours and achievement in instrumental jazz improvisation. Participants for the study (N = 62) were enrolled as music majors…

  11. Gas explosion in domestic buildings. The vented gas explosion[sub][/sub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Chyży

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the basic information, related to the so-called vented gas explosion, has been presented. The vented explosion it is an explosion, during which the destruction of the weakest elements of the structure occurs. Through the resulting holes (decompressing surfaces can flow both combustion products and non-burned gas mixture. In consequence, reduction of the maximum explosion pressure[i] P[sub]red [/sub][/i] may be significant. Often, a gas explosion occurs inside residential buildings. In this case, natural vents are window and door openings.[b]Keywords[/b]: gas, explosion, combustion, explosion vents

  12. Free Improvisation: What It Is, and Why We Should Apply It in Our General Music Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknafs, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation, the third content standard for the National Standards for Music Education (Music Educators National Conference, 1994), has received less attention from music teachers. This article advocates for more improvisation specifically free improvisation in general music classrooms. The nature of free improvisation, and its evolution in the…

  13. Vocal Improvisation and Creative Thinking by Australian and American University Jazz Singers: A Factor Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated factors underlying vocal improvisation achievement and relationships with the singers' musical background. Participants were 102 college students in Australia and the United States who performed 3 jazz improvisations and 1 free improvisation. Jazz improvisations were rated on rhythmic, tonal, and creative…

  14. The Bucket System – A computer mediated signaling system for group improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nilsson, Per Anders; Robair, Gino

    2015-01-01

    The Bucket System is a new system for computer-mediated ensemble improvisation, designed by improvisers for improvisers. Coming from a tradition of structured free ensemble improvisation practices (comprovisation), influenced by post-WW2 experimental music practices, it is a signaling system...

  15. [Beyond suffering, schizophrenic improvisation and therapeutic challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizot, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Led jointly by an actress and an occupational therapist, an 'improvisation' activity has been set up within the Sainte-Anne University Hospital SHU Sector 14 for hospitalised patients, on medical prescription. This containing environment provides psychological support and encourages patients with schizophrenia to explore their creativity and to 'let go' so as to discover new physical possibilities. The group thereby becomes a support for the relationship and the development of verbal and non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Health information systems: failure, success and improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeks, Richard

    2006-02-01

    The generalised assumption of health information systems (HIS) success is questioned by a few commentators in the medical informatics field. They point to widespread HIS failure. The purpose of this paper was therefore to develop a better conceptual foundation for, and practical guidance on, health information systems failure (and success). Literature and case analysis plus pilot testing of developed model. Defining HIS failure and success is complex, and the current evidence base on HIS success and failure rates was found to be weak. Nonetheless, the best current estimate is that HIS failure is an important problem. The paper therefore derives and explains the "design-reality gap" conceptual model. This is shown to be robust in explaining multiple cases of HIS success and failure, yet provides a contingency that encompasses the differences which exist in different HIS contexts. The design-reality gap model is piloted to demonstrate its value as a tool for risk assessment and mitigation on HIS projects. It also throws into question traditional, structured development methodologies, highlighting the importance of emergent change and improvisation in HIS. The design-reality gap model can be used to address the problem of HIS failure, both as a post hoc evaluative tool and as a pre hoc risk assessment and mitigation tool. It also validates a set of methods, techniques, roles and competencies needed to support the dynamic improvisations that are found to underpin cases of HIS success.

  17. Bilateral tension pneumothorax following equipment improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambricki, Christine; Schmidt, Carol; Vos, Karen

    2014-02-01

    This case report describes an unexpected event that took place as a result of using improvised equipment. The patient, a 16-year-old female undergoing complex oral surgery, suffered bilateral pneumothorax following the improper use of an airway support device. During the immediate postoperative period with the patient still intubated, oxygen tubing was attached to a right angle elbow connector with the port closed and 10 L/minute oxygen flow was administered to the patient in a manner that did not allow the patient to exhale. Within seconds, pneumothorax was apparent as the patient's vital signs deteriorated, visible swelling was noted in the shoulders and neck, and there was an absence of breath sounds on auscultation. This case study has application beyond the immediate discussion of bilateral pneumothorax, serving as a caution about the unintended consequences of equipment improvisation. In addition to highlighting the hazards of providing patient care with a non-standard device, this study also provides a powerful example of the human factors that can contribute to medical errors in the healthcare setting.

  18. Jazz improvisers' shared understanding: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2014-01-01

    To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard ("It Could Happen to You") on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner's musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded) interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener's statements more than their partner's argues against a simple notion that performers' interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider's.

  19. Keanakākoʻi Tephra produced by 300 years of explosive eruptions following collapse of Kīlauea's caldera in about 1500 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Donald A.; Rose, Timothy R.; Fiske, Richard S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The Keanakākoʻi Tephra at Kīlauea Volcano has previously been interpreted by some as the product of a caldera-forming eruption in 1790 CE. Our study, however, finds stratigraphic and 14C evidence that the tephra instead results from numerous eruptions throughout a 300-year period between about 1500 and 1800. The stratigraphic evidence includes: (1) as many as six pure lithic ash beds interleaved in sand dunes made of earlier Keanakākoʻi vitric ash, (2) three lava flows from Kīlauea and Mauna Loa interbedded with the tephra, (3) buried syneruptive cultural structures, (4) numerous intraformational water-cut gullies, and (5) abundant organic layers rich in charcoal within the tephra section. Interpretation of 97 new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages and 4 previous conventional ages suggests that explosive eruptions began in 1470–1510 CE, and that explosive activity continued episodically until the early 1800s, probably with two periods of quiescence lasting several decades. Kīlauea's caldera, rather than forming in 1790, predates the first eruption of the Keanakākoʻi and collapsed in 1470–1510, immediately following, and perhaps causing, the end of the 60-year-long, 4–6 km3 ʻAilāʻau eruption from the east side of Kīlauea's summit area. The caldera was several hundred meters deep when the Keanakākoʻi began erupting, consistent with oral tradition, and probably had a volume of 4–6 km3. The caldera formed by collapse, but no eruption of lava coincided with its formation. A large volume of magma may have quickly drained from the summit reservoir and intruded into the east rift zone, perhaps in response to a major south-flank slip event, leading to summit collapse. Alternatively, magma may have slowly drained from the reservoir during the prolonged ʻAilāʻau eruption, causing episodic collapses before the final, largest downdrop took place. Two prolonged periods of episodic explosive eruptions are known at Kīlauea, the Keanakākoʻi

  20. Keanakākoʻi Tephra produced by 300 years of explosive eruptions following collapse of Kīlauea's caldera in about 1500 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Donald A.; Rose, Timothy R.; Fiske, Richard S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The Keanakākoʻi Tephra at Kīlauea Volcano has previously been interpreted by some as the product of a caldera-forming eruption in 1790 CE. Our study, however, finds stratigraphic and 14C evidence that the tephra instead results from numerous eruptions throughout a 300-year period between about 1500 and 1800. The stratigraphic evidence includes: (1) as many as six pure lithic ash beds interleaved in sand dunes made of earlier Keanakākoʻi vitric ash, (2) three lava flows from Kīlauea and Mauna Loa interbedded with the tephra, (3) buried syneruptive cultural structures, (4) numerous intraformational water-cut gullies, and (5) abundant organic layers rich in charcoal within the tephra section. Interpretation of 97 new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages and 4 previous conventional ages suggests that explosive eruptions began in 1470–1510 CE, and that explosive activity continued episodically until the early 1800s, probably with two periods of quiescence lasting several decades. Kīlauea's caldera, rather than forming in 1790, predates the first eruption of the Keanakākoʻi and collapsed in 1470–1510, immediately following, and perhaps causing, the end of the 60-year-long, 4–6 km3 ʻAilāʻau eruption from the east side of Kīlauea's summit area. The caldera was several hundred meters deep when the Keanakākoʻi began erupting, consistent with oral tradition, and probably had a volume of 4–6 km3. The caldera formed by collapse, but no eruption of lava coincided with its formation. A large volume of magma may have quickly drained from the summit reservoir and intruded into the east rift zone, perhaps in response to a major south-flank slip event, leading to summit collapse. Alternatively, magma may have slowly drained from the reservoir during the prolonged ʻAilāʻau eruption, causing episodic collapses before the final, largest downdrop took place. Two prolonged periods of episodic explosive eruptions are known at Kīlauea, the Keanakākoʻi

  1. Creativity and improvisation as therapeutic tools within music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, Concetta M

    2013-11-01

    The neuroscience of creativity and music improvisation is a fascinating topic and one with strong implications for clinical music therapy. Music therapists are trained to use musical improvisation as a means to bring their clients into deeper therapeutic relationship as well as free up any inhibitions or limitations that may block recovery. Could recent fMRI studies of jazz musicians showing areas of brain activation during music improvisation provide a new framework to understand underlying mechanisms at work with neurologically impaired individuals? © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Probing the UV-Induced Photodissociation of CH3I and C6H3F2I with Femtosecond Time-Resolved Coulomb Explosion Imaging at FLASH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savelyev, Evgeny; Amini, Kasra; Brauße, Felix

    2017-01-01

    , the dominant reaction pathway in both molecules is neutral cleavage of the carbon--iodine bond, which allows studying the influence of the molecular environment on the XUV absorption and the subsequent Coulomb explosion process. The XUV probe pulse induces local inner-shell ionization of atomic iodine...

  3. A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

  4. Does Improvised Waterbed Reduce the Incidence of Pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Does Improvised Waterbed Reduce the Incidence of Pressure Ulcers in Patients with Spinal Injury? ... The use of bed replacements markedly reduces the incidence of pressure ... Keywords: Neurological deficits, plastic sachet, table water ...

  5. Electrochemical Sensor for Explosives Precursors’ Detection in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloé Desmet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although all countries are intensifying their efforts against terrorism and increasing their mutual cooperation, terrorist bombing is still one of the greatest threats to society. The discovery of hidden bomb factories is of primary importance in the prevention of terrorism activities. Criminals preparing improvised explosives (IE use chemical substances called precursors. These compounds are released in the air and in the waste water during IE production. Tracking sources of precursors by analyzing air or wastewater can then be an important clue for bomb factories’ localization. We are reporting here a new multiplex electrochemical sensor dedicated to the on-site simultaneous detection of three explosive precursors, potentially used for improvised explosive device preparation (hereafter referenced as B01, B08, and B15, for security disclosure reasons and to avoid being detrimental to the security of the counter-explosive EU action. The electrochemical sensors were designed to be disposable and to combine ease of use and portability in a screen-printed eight-electrochemical cell array format. The working electrodes were modified with different electrodeposited metals: gold, palladium, and platinum. These different coatings giving selectivity to the multi-sensor through a “fingerprint”-like signal subsequently analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. Results are given regarding the detection of the three compounds in a real environment and in the presence of potentially interfering species.

  6. Training generalized improvisation of tools by preschool children1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonson, Barry S.; Baer, Donald M.

    1978-01-01

    The development of new, “creative” behaviors was examined in a problem-solving context. One form of problem solving, improvisation, was defined as finding a substitute to replace the specifically designated, but currently unavailable, tool ordinarily used to solve the problem. The study examined whether preschool children spontaneously displayed generalized improvisation skills, and if not, whether they could be trained to do so within different classes of tools. Generalization across different tool classes was monitored but not specifically trained. Five preschool children participated in individual sessions that first probed their skill at improvising tools, and later trained and probed generalized improvisation in one or more of three tool classes (Hammers, Containers, and Shoelaces), using a multiple-baseline design. All five children were trained with Hammers, two were trained in two classes, and two were trained in all three tool classes. Four of the five children improvised little in Baseline. During Training, all five showed increased generalized improvisation within the trained class, but none across classes. Tools fabricated by item combinations were rare in Baseline, but common in Training. Followup probes showed that the training effects were durable. PMID:16795596

  7. Bodystorming: effects of collaboration and familiarity on improvising contemporary dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine J; Leach, James

    2015-09-01

    In contemporary dance, cognitive events are not necessarily restricted "to the skin or skull of an individual" (Hutchins in Int Encycl Soc Behav Sci 2068-2072, 2001) but distributed across dancers during collaborative improvisation. There is some experimental evidence of greater output when people perform problem-solving tasks alone. However, when a task is challenging and paired participants are familiar with each other, pairwise and emergent outcomes are more plentiful than solo outcomes. We investigate these factors in the context of dance with the broad hypothesis that innovation is enhanced when dancers improvise together compared with when they improvise alone. Dancers (N = 10) in a professional company improvised for 2 min alone and then with another dancer. Dancer familiarity (familiar, unfamiliar) and task (expressive, non-expressive) were crossed (within-subjects). The improvisations were video-recorded over 2 h in the dancers' usual improvisation space. After each improvisation, the dancers: stated the number of movement ideas expressed and rated task ease, satisfaction, interest, novelty, originality and clarity. In both tasks, there was a tendency for self-report of a greater number of movement ideas expressed in familiar and unfamiliar pairs than alone. Ratings of task ease, satisfaction, interest, clarity, etc. were slightly higher in the unfamiliar pair condition. In the non-expressive task, ratings of the task were higher in pairs (M = 3.02, SD 0.82) than in the solo (M = 2.67, SD 0.96) condition. Distributed creativity, relational cognition and social facilitation are used to interpret the results.

  8. Activation and connectivity patterns of the presupplementary and dorsal premotor areas during free improvisation of melodies and rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Manzano, Örjan; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-10-15

    Free, i.e. non-externally cued generation of movement sequences is fundamental to human behavior. We have earlier hypothesized that the dorsal premotor cortex (PMD), which has been consistently implicated in cognitive aspects of planning and selection of spatial motor sequences may be particularly important for the free generation of spatial movement sequences, whereas the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), which shows increased activation during perception, learning and reproduction of temporal sequences, may contribute more to the generation of temporal structures. Here we test this hypothesis using fMRI and musical improvisation in professional pianists as a model behavior. We employed a 2 × 2 factorial design with the factors Melody (Specified/Improvised) and Rhythm (Specified/Improvised). The main effect analyses partly confirmed our hypothesis: there was a main effect of Melody in the PMD; the pre-SMA was present in the main effect of Rhythm, as predicted, as well as in the main effect of Melody. A psychophysiological interaction analysis of functional connectivity demonstrated that the correlation in activity between the pre-SMA and cerebellum was higher during rhythmic improvisation than during the other conditions. In summary, there were only subtle differences in activity level between the pre-SMA and PMD during improvisation, regardless of condition. Consequently, the free generation of rhythmic and melodic structures, appears to be largely integrated processes but the functional connectivity between premotor areas and other regions may change during free generation in response to sequence-specific spatiotemporal demands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Shared periodic performer movements coordinate interactions in duo improvisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Moran, Nikki; Keller, Peter E.

    2018-01-01

    Human interaction involves the exchange of temporally coordinated, multimodal cues. Our work focused on interaction in the visual domain, using music performance as a case for analysis due to its temporally diverse and hierarchical structures. We made use of two improvising duo datasets—(i) performances of a jazz standard with a regular pulse and (ii) non-pulsed, free improvizations—to investigate whether human judgements of moments of interaction between co-performers are influenced by body movement coordination at multiple timescales. Bouts of interaction in the performances were manually annotated by experts and the performers’ movements were quantified using computer vision techniques. The annotated interaction bouts were then predicted using several quantitative movement and audio features. Over 80% of the interaction bouts were successfully predicted by a broadband measure of the energy of the cross-wavelet transform of the co-performers’ movements in non-pulsed duos. A more complex model, with multiple predictors that captured more specific, interacting features of the movements, was needed to explain a significant amount of variance in the pulsed duos. The methods developed here have key implications for future work on measuring visual coordination in musical ensemble performances, and can be easily adapted to other musical contexts, ensemble types and traditions. PMID:29515867

  10. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  11. Designing for group music improvisation: a case for jamming with your emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostos Rios, G.A.; Funk, M.; Hengeveld, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    During improvisation, musicians express themselves through live music. This project looks at the relationship between musicians during music improvisation, the processes of expression and communication taking place during performance and possible ways to use musicians’ emotions, to influence a

  12. Emission of toxic explosive and fire hazardous gases in coal piles stored under atmospheric conditions. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.L.; Cohen, H.

    1998-01-01

    Bituminous coal stockpiles stored in open air undergo weathering processes due to low temperature oxidation (40-100 degree C) resulting in quality deterioration. The process is accompanied by emission of hazardous explosive gases such as molecular hydrogen and low molecular weight organic gases. The article describes the process of low temperature oxidation of coal and goes on to report on simulation experiments carried out to assess the oxidation resistance of various coals stored in Israel, performed in small glass batch reactors and on the monitoring of temperatures and gas evolved in large coal piles stored in open air (performed using a portable unit which can penetrate up to 7 meters inside a coal pile). Molecular hydrogen emissions were found in small concentrations, in all types of coal studied. The amount of hydrogen formed in the batch reactors is linearly dependent on the amount of oxygen consumed in the coal oxidation process and also on the temperature. It was only slightly dependent on the coal mass and independent of particle size. Previous published work has only mentioned hydrogen emission at higher temperatures (240 degree C)

  13. Improvisation Planning and Jam Session Design using concepts of Sequence Variation and Flow Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Dubnov , Shlomo; Assayag , Gérard

    2005-01-01

    cote interne IRCAM: Assayag05a; National audience; We describe a model for improvisation design based on Factor Oracle automation, which is extended to perform learning and analysis of incoming sequences in terms of sequence variation parameters, namely replication, recombination and innovation. These parameters describe the improvisation plan and allow the design of new improvisations or analysis and modification of plans of existing improvisations. We further introduce an idea of flow exper...

  14. Individuality and togetherness in joint improvised motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Hart

    Full Text Available Actors, dancers and musicians that improvise together report special moments of togetherness: high performance and synchrony, seemingly without a leader and a follower. Togetherness seems to conflict with individuality- the idiosyncratic character of each person's performance. To understand the relation of individuality and togetherness, we employed the mirror game paradigm in which two players are asked to mirror each other and create interesting synchronized motion, with and without a designated leader. The mirror game enables quantitative characterization of moments of togetherness in which complex motion is generated with high synchrony. We find that each person as a leader does basic strokes of motion with a characteristic signature, in terms of the shape of their velocity profile between two stopping events. In moments of togetherness both players change their signature to a universal stroke shape. This universal velocity profile resembles a half-period of a sine wave, and is therefore symmetric and maximally smooth. Thus, instead of converging to an intermediate motion signature, or having one player dominate, players seem to shift their basic motion signatures to a shape that is altogether different from their individually preferred shapes; the resulting motion may be easier to predict and to agree on. The players then build complex motion by using such smooth elementary strokes.

  15. Individuality and togetherness in joint improvised motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Yuval; Noy, Lior; Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Mayo, Avraham E; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Actors, dancers and musicians that improvise together report special moments of togetherness: high performance and synchrony, seemingly without a leader and a follower. Togetherness seems to conflict with individuality- the idiosyncratic character of each person's performance. To understand the relation of individuality and togetherness, we employed the mirror game paradigm in which two players are asked to mirror each other and create interesting synchronized motion, with and without a designated leader. The mirror game enables quantitative characterization of moments of togetherness in which complex motion is generated with high synchrony. We find that each person as a leader does basic strokes of motion with a characteristic signature, in terms of the shape of their velocity profile between two stopping events. In moments of togetherness both players change their signature to a universal stroke shape. This universal velocity profile resembles a half-period of a sine wave, and is therefore symmetric and maximally smooth. Thus, instead of converging to an intermediate motion signature, or having one player dominate, players seem to shift their basic motion signatures to a shape that is altogether different from their individually preferred shapes; the resulting motion may be easier to predict and to agree on. The players then build complex motion by using such smooth elementary strokes.

  16. Pedagogical applications of cognitive research on musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the implementation of educational activities involving musical improvisation that is based on a review of the literature on the psychology of music. Psychology of music is a complex field of research in which quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed involving participants ranging from novices to expert performers. The cognitive research has been analyzed to propose a pedagogical approach to the development of processes rather than products that focus on an expert's use of improvisation. The intention is to delineate a reflective approach that goes beyond the mere instruction of some current practices of teaching improvisation in jazz pedagogy. The review highlights that improvisation is a complex, multidimensional act that involves creative and performance behaviors in real-time in addition to processes such as sensory and perceptual encoding, motor control, performance monitoring, and memory storage and recall. Educational applications for the following processes are outlined: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback, and flow. These characteristics are discussed in relation to the design of a pedagogical approach to musical improvisation based on reflection and metacognition development.

  17. Pedagogical applications of the cognitive research on music improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIchele eBiasutti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the implementation of educational activities involving musical improvisation that is based on a review of the literature on the psychology of music. Psychology of music is a complex field of research in which quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed involving participants ranging from novices to expert performers. The cognitive research has been analyzed to propose a pedagogical approach to the development of processes rather than products that focus on an expert’s use of improvisation. The intention is to delineate a reflective approach that goes beyond the mere instruction of some current practices of teaching improvisation in jazz pedagogy. The review highlights that improvisation is a complex, multidimensional act that involves creative and performance behaviors in real-time in addition to processes such as sensory and perceptual encoding, motor control, performance monitoring, and memory storage and recall. Educational applications for the following processes are outlined: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback and flow. These characteristics are discussed in relation to the design of a pedagogical approach to musical improvisation based on reflection and metacognition development.

  18. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusions associated with pneumonia (parapneumonic effusions are one of the most common causes of exudative pleural effusions in the world. Approximately 20 to 40% of patients hospitalized with pneumonia will have an accompanying pleural effusion. The term 'Explosive pleuritis' was originally described by Braman and Donat in 1986 as pleural effusions developing within hours of admission. We report a 38 years old male patient with minimal pleural effusion which progressed rapidly within one day to involve almost whole of the hemithorax. There were multiple loculations on ultrasonography of thorax. Pleural fluid was sero-sanguinous and revealed gram positive diplococcic. The patient improved with antibiotics and pigtail catheter drainage.

  19. Relationships among Vocal Jazz Improvisation Achievement, Jazz Theory Knowledge, Imitative Ability, Musical Experience, Creativity, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Patrice Dawn

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a study that examined the nature of vocal jazz improvisation and the factors that influence achievement in improvisation. Participating subjects performed two jazz improvisation tasks that were measured for tonal, rhythmic, and expressive items. Correlating independent variables included jazz theory knowledge, jazz experience, and…

  20. Teaching Improvisation through Melody and Blues-Based Harmony: A Comprehensive and Sequential Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Leila

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a sequential approach to improvisation teaching that can be used with students at various age and ability levels by any educator, regardless of improvisation experience. The 2014 National Core Music Standards include improvisation as a central component in musical learning and promote instructional approaches that are…

  1. Teaching Improvisation in Elementary General Music: Facing Fears and Fostering Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation is a vital part of an elementary general music education. While some music teachers successfully include improvisation in music instruction, others have fears and face challenges when attempting improvisational activities in the classroom. This article acknowledges obstacles facing music educators when attempting to incorporate…

  2. The Sign of Silence: Negotiating Musical Identities in an Improvising Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Graeme B.; MacDonald, Raymond A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Group musical improvisation, as a spontaneous process of collaborative creativity effected through non-verbal social interaction, is a unique psychological phenomenon and universal capacity. Existing studies focus on improvisation among professional jazz musicians, often using qualitative methods. However, improvisation transcends genres and…

  3. A Three-Stage Process of Improvisation for Teamwork: Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hains-Wesson, Rachael; Pollard, Vikki; Campbell, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This study examines street performing arts students' responses to using improvisation for teamwork during a first year, non-placement, work-integrated learning (WIL) experience. The aim of the study was to investigate: (1) students' perceptions of improvisation and (2) ways in which to design teamwork assessments that utilise improvisation. Data…

  4. Teaching Improvisation through Processes. Applications in Music Education and Implications for General Education

    OpenAIRE

    Biasutti, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities...

  5. Improvised Performances: Urban Ethnography and the Creative Tactics of Montreal’s Metro Buskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wees

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Buskers—street performers—evince the creative tactics of self-conscious agents who are both produced by and productive of the social and material conditions within which they carry out their practices. In this article, I discuss my ethnographic research among buskers in Montreal’s underground transit system—the metro—and examine their highly variable and improvisational practices (musical and spatial. I detail how buskers work with and against the constraints and possibilities posed by the material characteristics of those spaces (especially in terms of acoustics as well as formal regulations and prevailing social norms. This suggests understanding busking as a relational process of “cobbling together” that is never entirely fixed or bounded, but dispersed and always in-the-making. Further, I demonstrate how the research process in this context is itself a creative, improvisational approach, guided as much by the conditions at hand as by an overarching research design. By drawing parallels between the busker-performer and my role as researcher and creative producer, particularly in my use of audio-visual production, I argue that ethnographic research is, itself, a form of assemblaging, of bricolage—an embodied, relational process that involves multiple participants (human and material of varying influences, bound together by the tactical activities of the researcher.

  6. Clinical improvisation and the universe of musical idioms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2001-01-01

    (please choose Danish language to see a German summary) The music therapy education at Aalborg University, Denmark, takes five years of full-time study to accomplish and contains many special disciplines. One of these is called intuitive music. It deals with improvisation training and with the cr......(please choose Danish language to see a German summary) The music therapy education at Aalborg University, Denmark, takes five years of full-time study to accomplish and contains many special disciplines. One of these is called intuitive music. It deals with improvisation training...

  7. The Performative Presence in the Scenics Arts and the Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Reis Biancalana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a reflection about the relevance of improvisation aspect in the performative arts as a fomenter element of scenic presence. Performances can be defined by the moment when one or more bodies shows themselves to other people eyes and the presence here means the performer ability to attract the viewer‟s attention to himself. The improvisational aspect comes out of these situations can be applied at many levels and many ways but mainly depends on the performer in his desire to do, namely, in giving psychophysically himself to his art.

  8. Exit from Synchrony in Joint Improvised Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assi Dahan

    Full Text Available Motion synchrony correlates with effective and well-rated human interaction. However, people do not remain locked in synchrony; Instead, they repeatedly enter and exit synchrony. In many important interactions, such as therapy, marriage and parent-infant communication, it is the ability to exit and then re-enter synchrony that is thought to build strong relationship. The phenomenon of entry into zero-phase synchrony is well-studied experimentally and in terms of mathematical modeling. In contrast, exit-from-synchrony is under-studied. Here, we focus on human motion coordination, and examine the exit-from-synchrony phenomenon using experimental data from the mirror game paradigm, in which people perform joint improvised motion, and from human tracking of computer-generated stimuli. We present a mathematical mechanism that captures aspects of exit-from-synchrony in human motion. The mechanism adds a random motion component when the accumulated velocity error between the players is small. We introduce this mechanism to several models for human coordinated motion, including the widely studied HKB model, and the predictor-corrector model of Noy, Dekel and Alon. In all models, the new mechanism produces realistic simulated behavior when compared to experimental data from the mirror game and from tracking of computer generated stimuli, including repeated entry and exit from zero-phase synchrony that generates a complexity of motion similar to that of human players. We hope that these results can inform future research on exit-from-synchrony, to better understand the dynamics of coordinated action of people and to enhance human-computer and human-robot interaction.

  9. Explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-04-01

    An explosive composition containing ammonium nitrate consists of (1) from 40 to 75 Pt. by wt of particulate ammonium nitrate, (2) from 20 to 35 Pt. by wt of a solution selected from the group consisting of aqueous magnesium nitrate, aqueous ammonium nitrate and aqueous ammoniacal ammonium nitrate; and (3) at least 2 Pt. by wt of a setting agent selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metal oxides, zinc oxide, lead monoxide, calcined dolomitic limestone, anhydrous calcium sulfate, anhydrous magnesium sulfate, anhydrous sodium tetrapyrophosphate and anhydrous sodium thiosulfate. The setting agent is further characterized in setting the composition to a solid material which contains solvent used in the liquid phase. (Abstract only - original article not available from T.U.)

  10. Explosive composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slykhouse, T E

    1968-05-09

    An ammonium nitrate explosive composition is characterized in that it contains from 40 to 75 parts by wt of particulate ammonium nitrate, from 20 to 35 parts by wt of a solution selected from the group consisting of aqueous magnesium nitrate, aqueous ammonium nitrate, and aqueous ammoniacal ammonium nitrate. It also contains at least 2 parts by wt of a setting agent selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metal oxides, zinc oxide, lead monoxide, calcined dolomitic limestone, substantially anhydrous calcium sulfate, substantially anhydrous magnesium sulfate, substantially anhydrous sodium tetrapyrophosphate and substantially anhydrous sodium thiosulfate. The setting agent is further characterized in that it sets the composition to a solid material which contains solvent used in the liquid phase. (12 claims)

  11. Slurry explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-08-23

    A slurry explosive is comprised of (1) a composition consisting of ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate; or an alkaline earth metal nitrate; or an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate; at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels; and water; (2) 0.1 to 2.0% of guar gum; (3) between 0% and 0.3% of a sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium borate; and greater than 0% but not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine; and (4) 0.02 to 2.0% of antimony potassium tartarate, antimony trioxide, antimony trisulfide or a mixture of these antimony compounds, % by wt.

  12. Explosive processes in nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    There are many explosive processes in nucleosynthesis: big bang nucleosynthesis, the rp-process, the γ-process, the ν-process, and the r-process. However, I will discuss just the rp-process and the r-process in detail, primarily because both seem to have been very active research areas of late, and because they have great potential for studies with radioactive nuclear beams. I will also discuss briefly the γ-process because of its inevitability in conjunction with the rp-process. (orig.)

  13. Expertise in musical improvisation and creativity: the mediation of idea evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded M Kleinmintz

    Full Text Available The current study explored the influence of musical expertise, and specifically training in improvisation on creativity, using the framework of the twofold model, according to which creativity involves a process of idea generation and idea evaluation. Based on the hypothesis that a strict evaluation phase may have an inhibiting effect over the generation phase, we predicted that training in improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on the evaluation system, leading to greater creativity. To examine this hypothesis, we compared performance among three groups--musicians trained in improvisation, musicians not trained in improvisation, and non-musicians--on divergent thinking tasks and on their evaluation of creativity. The improvisation group scored higher on fluency and originality compared to the other two groups. Among the musicians, evaluation of creativity mediated how experience in improvisation was related to originality and fluency scores. It is concluded that deliberate practice of improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on creativity.

  14. Expertise in musical improvisation and creativity: the mediation of idea evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmintz, Oded M; Goldstein, Pavel; Mayseless, Naama; Abecasis, Donna; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the influence of musical expertise, and specifically training in improvisation on creativity, using the framework of the twofold model, according to which creativity involves a process of idea generation and idea evaluation. Based on the hypothesis that a strict evaluation phase may have an inhibiting effect over the generation phase, we predicted that training in improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on the evaluation system, leading to greater creativity. To examine this hypothesis, we compared performance among three groups--musicians trained in improvisation, musicians not trained in improvisation, and non-musicians--on divergent thinking tasks and on their evaluation of creativity. The improvisation group scored higher on fluency and originality compared to the other two groups. Among the musicians, evaluation of creativity mediated how experience in improvisation was related to originality and fluency scores. It is concluded that deliberate practice of improvisation may have a "releasing effect" on creativity.

  15. Expertise in Musical Improvisation and Creativity: The Mediation of Idea Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmintz, Oded M.; Goldstein, Pavel; Mayseless, Naama; Abecasis, Donna; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the influence of musical expertise, and specifically training in improvisation on creativity, using the framework of the twofold model, according to which creativity involves a process of idea generation and idea evaluation. Based on the hypothesis that a strict evaluation phase may have an inhibiting effect over the generation phase, we predicted that training in improvisation may have a “releasing effect” on the evaluation system, leading to greater creativity. To examine this hypothesis, we compared performance among three groups - musicians trained in improvisation, musicians not trained in improvisation, and non-musicians - on divergent thinking tasks and on their evaluation of creativity. The improvisation group scored higher on fluency and originality compared to the other two groups. Among the musicians, evaluation of creativity mediated how experience in improvisation was related to originality and fluency scores. It is concluded that deliberate practice of improvisation may have a “releasing effect” on creativity. PMID:25010334

  16. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ..., including non-cap sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting.... Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing... powder. [[Page 64247

  17. The effectiveness and influence of Vocal and Instrumental Improvisation in Music Therapy on children diagnosed with autism. Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Knapik-Szweda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a developmental disorder which is difficult to recognize and diagnose. The present study examines the effectiveness of music therapy intervention based on improvisational techniques with the elements of Creative Music Therapy by Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins and improvisational techniques by Tony Wigram (such as imitating, frameworking, dialogues, holding on developmentl of children with Autism (two boys diagnosed with autism - case 1. and case 2, especially in verbal and nonverbal communication, disturbance behavior patterns, cognitive and social-emotional areas. The results indicate a positive outcome in two music therapy observing tools: Scale I Child – Therapist Relationship in Coactive Musical Experience Rating Form and Scale II Musical Communicativeness Rating Form. The tables indicate the intensity of interaction between the therapist and the subject during the music therapy process (including communication skills, cognitive skills and behavior patterns. The results of case 1 are indicated in Scale I and Scale II and show a significant effect of improvisational music therapy. The important findings from the analysis of behavior in the sessions were Stability and confidence in interpersonal musical relationship, Activity relationship developing, (scale 1.. The results of the case 2. show small changes in musical behavior when it comes to Stability and confidence in interpersonal musical relationship, but in Activity relationship developing the indicators show a lot of changes between sessions. The results of the research indicate that music therapy intervention has a positive outcome and may be an effective method to increase functioning of children with autism

  18. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Haidet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by “mapping” them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30 completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b blinded standardized patient assessment of students’ adaptability and quality of listening; and (c qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students’ course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  19. The causal inference of cortical neural networks during music improvisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaogeng; Crüts, Björn; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2014-01-01

    We present an EEG study of two music improvisation experiments. Professional musicians with high level of improvisation skills were asked to perform music either according to notes (composed music) or in improvisation. Each piece of music was performed in two different modes: strict mode and "let-go" mode. Synchronized EEG data was measured from both musicians and listeners. We used one of the most reliable causality measures: conditional Mutual Information from Mixed Embedding (MIME), to analyze directed correlations between different EEG channels, which was combined with network theory to construct both intra-brain and cross-brain networks. Differences were identified in intra-brain neural networks between composed music and improvisation and between strict mode and "let-go" mode. Particular brain regions such as frontal, parietal and temporal regions were found to play a key role in differentiating the brain activities between different playing conditions. By comparing the level of degree centralities in intra-brain neural networks, we found a difference between the response of musicians and the listeners when comparing the different playing conditions.

  20. Improvisation and the self-organization of multiple musical bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eWalton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding everyday behavior relies heavily upon understanding our ability to improvise, how we are able to continuously anticipate and adapt in order to coordinate with our environment and others. Here we consider the ability of musicians to improvise, where they must spontaneously coordinate their actions with co-performers in order to produce novel musical expressions. Investigations of this behavior have traditionally focused on describing the organization of cognitive structures. The focus, here, however, is on the ability of the time-evolving patterns of inter-musician movement coordination as revealed by the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems to provide a new understanding of what potentiates the novelty of spontaneous musical action. We demonstrate this approach through the application of cross wavelet spectral analysis, which isolates the strength and patterning of the behavioral coordination that occurs between improvising musicians across a range of nested time-scales. Revealing the sophistication of the previously unexplored dynamics of movement coordination between improvising musicians is an important step towards understanding how creative musical expressions emerge from the spontaneous coordination of multiple musical bodies.

  1. Towards a Professionalization of Pedagogical Improvisation in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Oded

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge about strategies and techniques for training primary school education pre-service teachers (PSTs) for Pedagogical Improvisation (PI). Data was collected during two iterations of cross-disciplinary art/science school interventions in Norwegian 3rd-grade classes, which provided…

  2. Lessons from Lithuania: A Pedagogical Approach in Teaching Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the approach that a professor in Lithuania utilized in successfully teaching undergraduate music education majors how to improvise during a one-semester course. The research questions focused on the participant's philosophy of teaching and learning, his methods for motivating students, the learning…

  3. Improvisation and the self-organization of multiple musical bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ashley E; Richardson, Michael J; Langland-Hassan, Peter; Chemero, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Understanding everyday behavior relies heavily upon understanding our ability to improvise, how we are able to continuously anticipate and adapt in order to coordinate with our environment and others. Here we consider the ability of musicians to improvise, where they must spontaneously coordinate their actions with co-performers in order to produce novel musical expressions. Investigations of this behavior have traditionally focused on describing the organization of cognitive structures. The focus, here, however, is on the ability of the time-evolving patterns of inter-musician movement coordination as revealed by the mathematical tools of complex dynamical systems to provide a new understanding of what potentiates the novelty of spontaneous musical action. We demonstrate this approach through the application of cross wavelet spectral analysis, which isolates the strength and patterning of the behavioral coordination that occurs between improvising musicians across a range of nested time-scales. Revealing the sophistication of the previously unexplored dynamics of movement coordination between improvising musicians is an important step toward understanding how creative musical expressions emerge from the spontaneous coordination of multiple musical bodies.

  4. Oral Communication in ESL through Improvisations, Playwriting and Rehearsals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Chamkaur

    2013-01-01

    The application of drama strategies which focus more on meaning than on form can provide an impetus for ESL learners to be more confident about speaking, thereby increasing the quantity of their spoken English. This paper discusses existing research and the author's own experiences in an attempt to highlight the positive effects of improvisations,…

  5. Angelica Gets the Spirit Out: Improvisation, Epiphany and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignato, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This article presents excerpts from a case study describing Angelica Dawson, a New York State music educator. Angelica makes improvisation a central part of her curricula in ways that transcend traditional offerings prevalent in American public schools. Qualitative research methods were used to document Angelica's work over the course of an…

  6. Improvisation in Teaching and Education--Roots and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdhus, Kari; Høisaeter, Sissel; Maeland, Kjellfrid; Vangsnes, Vigdis; Engelsen, Knut Steinar; Espeland, Magne; Espeland, Åsmund

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this review article is to understand and discuss the concept of improvisation as a professional skill for teacher educators. The literature review suggests that five academic traditions are especially relevant to examine: Rhetoric, music, theatre/drama, organizational theory and education. The dialogic, open-scripted, interactive…

  7. Utilizing Improvisation to Teach Empathy Skills in Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Hannah B.; Jangha, Awa

    2016-01-01

    Empathy development is foundational to counselor training, yet there is scant research on techniques for teaching empathy aside from traditional microskills models. The authors discuss empathy as a skill set, highlight how improvisation (improv) can be used to enhance training, and describe how to incorporate improv activities within the classroom.

  8. The Causal Inference of Cortical Neural Networks during Music Improvisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaogeng; Crüts, Björn; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2014-01-01

    We present an EEG study of two music improvisation experiments. Professional musicians with high level of improvisation skills were asked to perform music either according to notes (composed music) or in improvisation. Each piece of music was performed in two different modes: strict mode and “let-go” mode. Synchronized EEG data was measured from both musicians and listeners. We used one of the most reliable causality measures: conditional Mutual Information from Mixed Embedding (MIME), to analyze directed correlations between different EEG channels, which was combined with network theory to construct both intra-brain and cross-brain networks. Differences were identified in intra-brain neural networks between composed music and improvisation and between strict mode and “let-go” mode. Particular brain regions such as frontal, parietal and temporal regions were found to play a key role in differentiating the brain activities between different playing conditions. By comparing the level of degree centralities in intra-brain neural networks, we found a difference between the response of musicians and the listeners when comparing the different playing conditions. PMID:25489852

  9. Bubble CPAP in Nigerian tertiary hospitals; Patented and improvised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-12

    Sep 12, 2016 ... used in resource poor settings. Objectives: To ... strategy is technically simple and effective in managing new-born .... Type of practice Public. 208(87.8) .... cost improvised bubble CPAP devise ($350).17 The im- pact of the ...

  10. Improvisation and utilization of resources in the teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the importance of improvisation in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics in the senior secondary schools in Cross River State of N Nigeria. Human and material resources are inevitable in enhancing the teaching and learning of science and mathematics generally and practically at this ...

  11. The Memory Ensemble: Improvising Connections among Performance, Disability, and Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Christine Mary; Yoshizaki-Gibbons, Hailee M.; Morhardt, Darby

    2017-01-01

    There is a recognised need for research that illuminates mutually beneficial connections among performance, ageing, disability theory, and praxis. One such project is the Memory Ensemble™, an improvisational theatre intervention for persons with early stage Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). This case study explores how the…

  12. Play Fluency in Music Improvisation Games for Novices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2011-01-01

    and evaluated through video analysis: A qualitative view of mutual action describes the social context of music improvisation: how two people with speech, laughter, gestures, postures and pauses negotiate individual and joint action. The objective behind the design of the game application was to support players...

  13. An Improvised Active Drain | Ogirima | Nigerian Journal of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An improvised active drain is designed from intravenous infusion set and recycled RedivacR or Haemovac® bottle. Outcome of the use of this system on 100 patients is presented. This suction drainage system had been used in major orthopaedic and common minor surgical procedures and no significant complication was ...

  14. Improvising information technology projects through the duality of structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiko Iyamu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is always emphasis on information technology (IT projects because of their significance in organisations. Thus, efforts and resources are reciprocally committed to ensure the successes. Still, failure of IT projects in many organisations remains high and affects competitiveness. As recourse for remedy, different techniques and approaches have been employed. However, little or no progress has been made in increasing the success rate of IT projects in many organisations. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the factors that influence and impact IT projects, improvisation and how improvisation manifests. Method: The study was carried out using a single case study approach. Qualitative data were collected and duality of structure from the perspective of structuration theory was used as lens to guide the analysis. Results: Findings from this study reveal how reproduction of actions manifests from non-technical factors, such as cultural value, organisational structure, power relationship, human capacity, know-how and change management. These factors help to gain a more constructive and better understanding of how IT projects improvisation is influenced or impacted by non-technical factors in organisations. Conclusion: The study is intended to benefit both practitioners and academics. Some of the benefits will be gained from fresh perspectives on the complexities of IT projects improvisation, which are often caused by various seen and unforeseen non-technical factors. This includes how actions from relationship, know-how about facilities and communicative scheme are produced and reproduced.

  15. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul; Jarecke, Jodi; Yang, Chengwu; Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L; Stuckey, Heather

    2017-08-04

    Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by "mapping" them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students ( N = 30) completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a) Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b) blinded standardized patient assessment of students' adaptability and quality of listening; and (c) qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students' course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  16. Organizational improvisation, jazz and the representations of time in organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzo Alves Aranha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is possible to verify an  increase  of academic articles about the phenomenon of time on  Organizations  Studies   field  which  has  close relation  to change  management  in  organization. Recently, investigations about time are associated to organizational improvisation and some of these researches offer  organizational  formats  and models.  This  article  aims  to  verify  how  cyclical and  linear  perspectives of time are present in organizational improvisation. Therefore, this article was structured in the following segments: the  first is  an  introduction,  the  second  deals  with  some conceptual aspects of cyclical and linear perspectives  of  time;  the  third  describes  organizational improvisational  conceptual  frames;  the  fourth presents  a  description  of  the  relations  between cyclical  and linear perspectives of time and organizational improvisational conceptual frames; and the  fith presents the  final considerations.

  17. Generating Ideas in Jazz Improvisation: Where Theory Meets Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Idea generation is an integral component of jazz improvising. This article merges theoretical origins and practical experiences through the examination of two seminal works from Pressing and Sudnow. A comparative analysis yields three common sources with distinct characteristics. The greater body of jazz literature supports this potential link…

  18. The development of improvisational expertise in jazz musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els

    2018-01-01

    Improvisation is a complex musical skill that takes many years of practice to master. An interesting question is what it takes to start and maintain such long period of practice and which environmental factors influence commitment to practice. This study aims to reveal factors that affect successful

  19. Learning to Lead, Unscripted: Developing Affiliative Leadership through Improvisational Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Suzanne; Vough, Heather C.; Nickerson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We argue that improvisational theatre training creates a compelling experience of co-creation through interaction and, as such, can be used to build a distinctive kind of leadership skills. Theories of leadership as relational, collaborative or shared are in pointed contrast to traditional notions of an individual "hero leader" who possesses the…

  20. The causal inference of cortical neural networks during music improvisations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogeng Wan

    Full Text Available We present an EEG study of two music improvisation experiments. Professional musicians with high level of improvisation skills were asked to perform music either according to notes (composed music or in improvisation. Each piece of music was performed in two different modes: strict mode and "let-go" mode. Synchronized EEG data was measured from both musicians and listeners. We used one of the most reliable causality measures: conditional Mutual Information from Mixed Embedding (MIME, to analyze directed correlations between different EEG channels, which was combined with network theory to construct both intra-brain and cross-brain networks. Differences were identified in intra-brain neural networks between composed music and improvisation and between strict mode and "let-go" mode. Particular brain regions such as frontal, parietal and temporal regions were found to play a key role in differentiating the brain activities between different playing conditions. By comparing the level of degree centralities in intra-brain neural networks, we found a difference between the response of musicians and the listeners when comparing the different playing conditions.

  1. Audacity in Vocal Improvisation: Motivating Elementary School Students through Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichivitsa, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Every day, music teachers face the challenge of motivating less-confident student singers in general music classes. Teaching vocal improvisation can be a difficult task, because students are often self-conscious about their voices and too intimidated to sing in front of their peers. Technology can be an excellent motivational tool in the classroom…

  2. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  3. Explosive Characteristics of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, Leonid; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous particles. These include SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226-10 protocol), at a (dilute) concentration of 500 g/m3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples exhibited overpressures of 5-7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V1/3 (dp/pt)max ~ 10 - 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1 (similar to cotton and wood dust). There was minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with particle size (BET specific surface area). Additional tests were performed on selected materials to identify minimum explosive concentration [MEC]. These materials exhibit MEC ~ 101 -102 g/m3 (lower than the MEC for coals). The concentration scans confirm that the earlier screening was performed under fuel-rich conditions (i.e. the maximum over-pressure and deflagration index exceed the screening values); e.g. the true fullerene KSt ~ 200 bar-m/s, placing it borderline St-1/St-2. Work supported through the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC)

  4. Cortical regions involved in the generation of musical structures during improvisation in pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Sara L; Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály; Ullén, Fredrik

    2007-05-01

    Studies on simple pseudorandom motor and cognitive tasks have shown that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and rostral premotor areas are involved in free response selection. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether these brain regions are also involved in free generation of responses in a more complex creative behavior: musical improvisation. Eleven professional pianists participated in the study. In one condition, Improvise, the pianist improvised on the basis of a visually displayed melody. In the control condition, Reproduce, the participant reproduced his previous improvisation from memory. Participants were able to reproduce their improvisations with a high level of accuracy, and the contrast Improvise versus Reproduce was thus essentially matched in terms of motor output and sensory feedback. However, the Improvise condition required storage in memory of the improvisation. We therefore also included a condition FreeImp, where the pianist improvised but was instructed not to memorize his performance. To locate brain regions involved in musical creation, we investigated the activations in the Improvise-Reproduce contrast that were also present in FreeImp contrasted with a baseline rest condition. Activated brain regions included the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the presupplementary motor area, the rostral portion of the dorsal premotor cortex, and the left posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus. We suggest that these regions are part of a network involved in musical creation, and discuss their possible functional roles.

  5. Understanding the Impact of Expertise in Joint and Solo-Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issartel, Johann; Gueugnon, Mathieu; Marin, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    Joint-improvisation is not only an open-ended creative action that two or more people perform together in the context of an artistic performance (e.g., theatre, music or dance). Joint-improvisation also takes place in daily life activities when humans take part in collective performance such as toddlers at play or adults engaged in a conversation. In the context of this article, joint-improvisation has been looked at from a social motor coordination perspective. In the literature, the nature of the social motor coordination characteristics of joint-improvisation for either the creative aspect or daily life features of this motor performance remains unclear. Additionally, both solo-improvisation and joint-improvisation need to be studied conjointly to establish the influence of the social element of improvisation in the emergence of multi-agent motor coordination. In order to better understand those two types of improvisation, we compared three level of expertise - novice, intermediate and professional in dance improvisation to identify movement characteristics for each of the groups. Pairs of the same level were asked to improvise together. Each individual was also asked to perform an improvisation on his/her own. We found that each of the three groups present specific movement organization with movement complexity increasing with the level of expertise. Experts performed shorter movement duration in conjunction with an increase range of movement. The direct comparison of individual and paired Conditions highlighted that the joint-improvisation reduced the complexity of the movement organization and those for all three levels while maintaining the differences between the groups. This direct comparison amongst those three distinct groups provides an original insight onto the nature of movement patterns in joint-improvisation situation. Overall, it reveals the role of both individual and collective properties in the emergence of social coordination.

  6. Understanding the Impact of Expertise in Joint and Solo-Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Issartel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint-improvisation is not only an open-ended creative action that two or more people perform together in the context of an artistic performance (e.g., theatre, music or dance. Joint-improvisation also takes place in daily life activities when humans take part in collective performance such as toddlers at play or adults engaged in a conversation. In the context of this article, joint-improvisation has been looked at from a social motor coordination perspective. In the literature, the nature of the social motor coordination characteristics of joint-improvisation for either the creative aspect or daily life features of this motor performance remains unclear. Additionally, both solo-improvisation and joint-improvisation need to be studied conjointly to establish the influence of the social element of improvisation in the emergence of multi-agent motor coordination. In order to better understand those two types of improvisation, we compared three level of expertise – novice, intermediate and professional in dance improvisation to identify movement characteristics for each of the groups. Pairs of the same level were asked to improvise together. Each individual was also asked to perform an improvisation on his/her own. We found that each of the three groups present specific movement organization with movement complexity increasing with the level of expertise. Experts performed shorter movement duration in conjunction with an increase range of movement. The direct comparison of individual and paired Conditions highlighted that the joint-improvisation reduced the complexity of the movement organization and those for all three levels while maintaining the differences between the groups. This direct comparison amongst those three distinct groups provides an original insight onto the nature of movement patterns in joint-improvisation situation. Overall, it reveals the role of both individual and collective properties in the emergence of social

  7. Intra- and inter-brain synchronization during musical improvisation on the guitar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Viktor; Sänger, Johanna; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    Humans interact with the environment through sensory and motor acts. Some of these interactions require synchronization among two or more individuals. Multiple-trial designs, which we have used in past work to study interbrain synchronization in the course of joint action, constrain the range of observable interactions. To overcome the limitations of multiple-trial designs, we conducted single-trial analyses of electroencephalography (EEG) signals recorded from eight pairs of guitarists engaged in musical improvisation. We identified hyper-brain networks based on a complex interplay of different frequencies. The intra-brain connections primarily involved higher frequencies (e.g., beta), whereas inter-brain connections primarily operated at lower frequencies (e.g., delta and theta). The topology of hyper-brain networks was frequency-dependent, with a tendency to become more regular at higher frequencies. We also found hyper-brain modules that included nodes (i.e., EEG electrodes) from both brains. Some of the observed network properties were related to musical roles during improvisation. Our findings replicate and extend earlier work and point to mechanisms that enable individuals to engage in temporally coordinated joint action.

  8. July/August 2009 89 Improvised Venous Canula Myringostomy i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Methods: This prospective study, carried out in the Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Surgery,. Federal Medical Center, Lokoja between February 2006 and August 2008, included consecutive. AOM patients who presented with excruciating otalgia and bulging, hyperaemic tympanic membrane and another group with ...

  9. How I improvised an external fixator to manage open fractures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pins to wobble and loosen. The chuck of the powered technician's drill does no communicate with the interior of the drill. For this reason only short drilling bits can be used. ... international suppliers. References. Мusa A A. Indigenous hospital technology in Nigeria: 1. Problems and recommendations. West African Journal of.

  10. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  11. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  12. Basic Research at the University of Washington to Counter Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    frequency equal to ωS = ω1 + ω2. As a concrete example of this process, when photons having wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm illuminate the surface of...Second, common obscuring materials (e.g., cellulose, plastic) are translucent to THz radiation, so detection and imaging of spectral signatures inside

  13. Preventing an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Terror Campaign in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wehri, Matthew T

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis will propose how to prevent a domestic IED terror campaign by utilizing the intelligence triggers indications and warnings and open source intelligence as well as placing increased...

  14. Sustaining Eleven Years of Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Relevancy for Tomorrow’s War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    working aggressively in concert with JIEDDO to find, develop, test , and rapidly deliver emerging CIED capabilities to Marine Corps forces for current...Tools Application Senior Leader’s Att;lC’.lr thP 1PltP1 TATT pmvi~ r.mi11ing C:nnnO#’. frtr GC::’F. m:lnPnvPr unit Nunm:utciPrs :lnci .~nff~ :1t thP

  15. Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq, 2003-09: A Case of Operational Surprise and Institutional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    plementation for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan under no-win, no-loss arrangements. While impos- sible to isolate in the published budget data...the slow erosion of our agreeable way of life. The dilemma facing modern militaries, therefore, is to balance their efforts and investment between

  16. Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Fusion Cells and the Brigade Combat Team: A Modern Day Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Center Observer Controller/Trainer Mentors. Lieutenant Colonel Kevin Brown , Brigade Special Troop Battalion Lead Observer Controller/Trainer Mentor...December 2010): 13-19. Joint Readiness Training C-IED Lead Observer Controller/Trainer Mentors. Lieutenant Colonel Kevin S. Brown , Brigade Special... Gareth . “How the U.S. Quietly Lost the IED War in Afghanistan.” Inter Press Service News Agency (10 June 2013). Powledge, Timothy R. “Beating the

  17. Dragon’s Claws: The Improvised Explosive Device (IED) as a Weapon of Strategic Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    admiration, respect, regret, sadness, guilt, and even anguish. They emotionally prepared themselves for loading their friends’ flag- draped coffins...including attacks on armoured vehicles, outposts and helicopters.164 AQI certainly has not limited its operations to the guidelines of Zarqawi’s letter...reports of American casualties, glimpses of flag- draped coffins, and stories of towns rallying behind the families of their fallen heroes accumulate in

  18. Assessment of Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) Training Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the RAND study team was asked to assess whether JIEDDO duplicated or showed close similarity to the training programs and functions already...duplication and relatively few cases of close similarity. We also note that Services or CCMDs did use the programs provided and indicated that they used...tailored interactive modules. TBD ALL Home station/CTC/ Theater VISDeS The expansion of KEYHOLE /Route Clearance Optic System/Marine Corps EOD Optic

  19. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using {sup 12}CO( J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  20. Enhancing Teaching, Adaptability and Presentation Skills through Improvisational Theater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Marlowe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Improvisational theater, creative role-playing and open-ended scenarios are increasingly being used as ways to emphasize the importance of combining planning with flexibility and evolution to respond to changes in context. These skills and capabilities are extremely valuable in teaching, especially for strengthening communication and interpersonal skills, as well as the capacity for critical thinking and problem solving. Further, this combination of planning with flexibility is also a major theme of agile software development and a number of other problem-solving domains, and in the collaborative development of intellectual property in technical areas. With improvisation, the plan becomes less of a fixed framework, and more of a guideline. In software engineering, it becomes a mutable structure on which to hang goals and objectives, progress, processes, artifacts, and properties. In this submission, we explore the ramifications of this approach.

  1. Photovoltaic Cells Improvised With Used Bipolar Junction Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akintayo, J. A

    2002-01-01

    The understanding of the underlying principle that the solar cell consists of a p-n junction is exploited to adapt the basic NPN or PNP Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) to serve as solar cells. In this mode the in improvised solar cell have employed just the emitter and the base sections with an intact emitter/base junction as the active PN area. The improvised devices tested screened and sorted are wired up in strings, blocks and modules. The photovoltaic modules realised tested as close replica of solar cells with output voltage following insolation level. Further work need be done on the modules to make them generate usable levels of output voltage and current

  2. Twelve tips for using applied improvisation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista; Rossing, Jonathan P; Weinstein, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    Future physicians will practice medicine in a more complex environment than ever, where skills of interpersonal communication, collaboration and adaptability to change are critical. Applied improvisation (or AI) is an instructional strategy which adapts the concepts of improvisational theater to teach these types of complex skills in other contexts. Unique to AI is its very active teaching approach, adapting theater games to help learners meet curricular objectives. In medical education, AI is particularly helpful when attempting to build students' comfort with and skills in complex, interpersonal behaviors such as effective listening, person-centeredness, teamwork and communication. This article draws on current evidence and the authors' experiences to present best practices for incorporating AI into teaching medicine. These practical tips help faculty new to AI get started by establishing goals, choosing appropriate games, understanding effective debriefing, considering evaluation strategies and managing resistance within the context of medical education.

  3. Oral Communication in ESL Through Improvisations, Playwriting And Rehearsals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamkaur Gill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of drama strategies which focus more on meaning than on form can provide an impetus for ESL learners to be more confident about speaking, thereby increasing the quantity of their spoken English. This paper discusses existing research and the author’s own experiences in an attempt to highlight the positive effects of improvisations, playwriting and rehearsals on the oral output of learners in relation to communicative English.

  4. Listeners' and performers' shared understanding of jazz improvisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Schober

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which a large set of musically experienced listeners share understanding with a performing saxophone-piano duo, and with each other, of what happened in three improvisations on a jazz standard. In an online survey, 239 participants listened to audio recordings of three improvisations and rated their agreement with 24 specific statements that the performers and a jazz-expert commenting listener had made about them. Listeners endorsed statements that the performers had agreed upon significantly more than they endorsed statements that the performers had disagreed upon, even though the statements gave no indication of performers' levels of agreement. The findings show some support for a more-experienced-listeners-understand-more-like-performers hypothesis: Listeners with more jazz experience and with experience playing the performers' instruments endorsed the performers' statements more than did listeners with less jazz experience and experience on different instruments. The findings also strongly support a listeners-as-outsiders hypothesis: Listeners' ratings of the 24 statements were far more likely to cluster with the commenting listener's ratings than with either performer's. But the pattern was not universal; particular listeners even with similar musical backgrounds could interpret the same improvisations radically differently. The evidence demonstrates that it is possible for performers' interpretations to be shared with very few listeners, and that listeners’ interpretations about what happened in a musical performance can be far more different from performers’ interpretations than performers or other listeners might assume.

  5. Jazz Guitar Improvisation: Beginning with Guide-Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an approach to teaching linear improvisation to beginning jazz guitarists through the function of voice leading in harmonic progressions. The student may gain a clear understanding of improvising melodies by establishing clear visual and aural relationships between the chordal and melodic textures. Three dominant 7th chord voicings are introduced and applied to a twelve bar blues progression in F major. After learning the rhythm guitar accompaniment, single note guide tones consisting of the flat 7th and 3rd chord tones of each dominant seventh chord are extracted from the chord voicings and applied in a melodic texture following chromatic voice leading principles within the harmonic progression. Musicality within the exercises is increased by the addition of a series of rhythmic variations that are applied to the guide-tone lines. Continuing with the concept, full dominant seventh arpeggios are introduced in order to expand the available note choices as a way to build a solid foundation for improvising within harmonic progressions prior to using diatonic scales.

  6. Listeners' and Performers' Shared Understanding of Jazz Improvisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a large set of musically experienced listeners share understanding with a performing saxophone-piano duo, and with each other, of what happened in three improvisations on a jazz standard. In an online survey, 239 participants listened to audio recordings of three improvisations and rated their agreement with 24 specific statements that the performers and a jazz-expert commenting listener had made about them. Listeners endorsed statements that the performers had agreed upon significantly more than they endorsed statements that the performers had disagreed upon, even though the statements gave no indication of performers' levels of agreement. The findings show some support for a more-experienced-listeners-understand-more-like-performers hypothesis: Listeners with more jazz experience and with experience playing the performers' instruments endorsed the performers' statements more than did listeners with less jazz experience and experience on different instruments. The findings also strongly support a listeners-as-outsiders hypothesis: Listeners' ratings of the 24 statements were far more likely to cluster with the commenting listener's ratings than with either performer's. But the pattern was not universal; particular listeners even with similar musical backgrounds could interpret the same improvisations radically differently. The evidence demonstrates that it is possible for performers' interpretations to be shared with very few listeners, and that listeners' interpretations about what happened in a musical performance can be far more different from performers' interpretations than performers or other listeners might assume.

  7. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  8. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10 6 M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints

  9. Think Piece: Sustainability Education and (Curriculum) Improvisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I (re)think sustainability education in view of a (re)turn to realisms because existing philosophies have failed to adequately respond to an impending ecological disaster and the fast pace of new technologies. This historical moment has made geologists posit a new epoch, the Anthropocene. I argue that ...

  10. Designing Life after the Storm: Improvisations in Post-Disaster Housing Reconstruction as Socio-Moral Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Gloria Cajilig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available If there is any endeavor so demanding of human creativity, it is the remaking of lives and property after disaster. However, post-disaster recovery is considered the greatest failure in disaster management, and within this field, post-disaster housing reconstruction is the most insufficiently investigated practice. Furthermore, studies of disaster management attribute failure to top-down and technocratic approaches that often overlook the agency, capacities, and moral priorities of those directly affected. In contrast, this paper attends to those displaced by disaster as creative and moral agents who manage to carry on with life despite their socio-economic and political vulnerabilities by drawing from theory in anthropology, disaster studies, and cognitive psychology. Through examining how inhabitants of a post-Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan reset­tlement site transform their housing to negotiate multiple and vague rules and regulations, I entangle myself with literature that assumes that the creativity of design lies in the capacity of individuals to improvise according to their values and in response to those of others, within a world that is continually unfolding. I also assume that improvisation is contingent upon processes of cognitive innovation in which social relations operate as indispensable intellectual resources for grasping and mobilizing knowledge that would give inhabitants of resettlement housing the best possible chance of attaining their hopes, dreams, and ambitions. Consequently, I propose that viewing creativity as an improvisational process highlights the agentic potential of design in even the bleakest and most quotidian of settings. My own hope is to extend the possibilities for correspondence between built environment practitioners and those who, because of their subaltern positionalities, tend to be overlooked by the field of post-disaster housing reconstruction and yet must live through the consequences of its practice.

  11. Close-in airblast from underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vortman, L J [Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Air overpressures as a function of time have been measured from surface zero to about 170 ft/lb{sup 1/3} along the ground from nuclear and chemical explosions. Charge depths varied from the surface to depths below which explosion gases are contained. A ground-shock-induced air pressure pulse is clearly distinguishable from the pulse caused by venting gases. Measured peak overpressures show reasonable agreement with the theoretical treatment by Monta. In a given medium the suppression of blast with explosion burial depth is a function of the relative distance at which the blast is observed. Rates of suppression of peak overpressure with charge burial are different for the two pulses. Rates are determined for each pulse over the range of distances at which measurements have been made of air overpressure from chemical explosions in several media. Nuclear data are available from too few shots for similar dependence on burial depth and distance to be developed, but it is clear that the gas venting peak overpressure from nuclear explosions is much more dependent on medium than that from chemical explosions. For above-ground explosions, experiment has shown that airblast from a I-kiloton nuclear explosion is equal to that from a 0.5-kiloton TNT explosion. Data on ground-shock-induced airblast is now sufficient to show that a similar relationship may exist for buried explosions. Because of medium dependence of the gas venting pulse from nuclear explosions, data from additional nuclear events will be required before a chemical/nuclear airblast equivalence can be determined for the gas-venting pulse. (author)

  12. The more I teach, the more I think the only thing that has any value is integrating skills : Interview with David Berkman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; Smids, Annejoke; Kors, Ninja

    2007-01-01

    In this interview David Berkman talks about many subjects, among them improvisation, and why classical musicians should improvise more. David Berkman: ‘I would say most Jazz musicians have a certain level of theoretical understanding of what they’re doing, and it’s probably higher than that of the

  13. The Anatomy of a Witch: Lessons in English Language, Literature and Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka (Nemet Flegar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a brief outline of the historical development, principles and implementation of improvisational theatre in both the theatrical and non-theatrical context in order to present the art of improvisation as a strategy in foreign and second language acquisition. Research shows that because of the adaptability of the improvisational game structure which allows for the applicability of improvisational techniques in different contexts and with subjects of various backgrounds, improvisational theatre can be incorporated in teaching an array of subjects and topics, including English as a foreign and second language. In order to demonstrate the possible application of the improvisational strategy in English language teaching, there is a detailed description of an interdisciplinary workshop The English Anatomy of a Witch, focusing on the oral tradition of storytelling and the fairy tale as the direct product of both storytelling and improvisational practices, which contains different aspects of improvisational techniques in the classroom setting. By discussing the figure of the witch, which is anthropologically and historically present in British and American culture, the workshop aims to achieve a number of goals and objectives pertaining to both foreign and second language acquisition, the re-evaluation of the literary tradition, as well as pedagogies that foster critical and divergent thinking.

  14. Improvisation and the Teaching of Literature: The Proceedings of a Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Ann, MO.

    This report comprises transcripts of tape recordings of (1) a short improvisation session conducted by a drama coach and (2) the subsequent seminar (edited) in which the 28 participants explore the relationship of improvisation to teaching literature. Topics discussed are the objectives of literature instruction, emotional experience as an…

  15. Teachers' Improvisation of Instructional Materials for Nigerian Home Economics Curriculum Delivery: Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olibie, Eyiuche Ifeoma; Nwabunwanne, Chinyere; Ezenwanne, Dorothy Nkem

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the challenges of improvising instructional materials by Home Economics teachers at the Upper Basic education level in Nigeria, and as a result identify strategies for enhancing improvisation. The study used survey research design based on two research questions. The sample was four hundred and thirty-one Home…

  16. Teaching Improvisation and the Pedagogical History of the Jimmy Giuffre 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Improvisation pedagogy has presented a challenge to music educators since jazz courses began being offered in North American universities in the 1950s, a development which has raised important pedagogical questions ranging from 'Can improvisation be taught?' to "Should it be taught?" Following on the increase in academic…

  17. Improvising with Material in the Higher Education Dance Technique Class: Exploration and Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author, Rachel Rimmer, explores how improvisation can facilitate skills that are transferable to other areas of dance practice, enabling different areas of study to complement each other. The experimental forum of improvisation as an alternative method of learning technique is considered, contemplating the value of this…

  18. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  19. An Approach to Improvisation Pedagogy in Post-Secondary Jazz Programmes Based on Negative Dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louth, Joseph Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that an approach to jazz improvisation pedagogy based on negative dialectics may provide a viable solution to the threat of codification of the jazz language as a result of the academisation of improvisation studies at the post-secondary level. Some tentative means of incorporating such an approach into the design of university…

  20. A National Survey of Music Education Majors' Confidence in Teaching Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, H. Christian, II.; Stringham, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate undergraduate music education majors' confidence in teaching improvisation, according to the NAfME (1994) K-12 Achievement Standards. Specific research questions were: 1) How confident are music education majors in implementing the 11 improvisation achievement standards for grades K-12? 2) How confident…

  1. A Beginning Workshop in the Basic Skill Areas of Theatre Sports Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Lynda

    1990-01-01

    Describes "Theatre Sports," a type of improvisational theater that actively involves the audience. Presents a beginning workshop that explains the basic skills of improvisation (group cohesion and trust, movement, pantomime, spontaneity, offers and blocking, characterization and status, narrative, and endowment) and explains how to play…

  2. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  3. Peaceful nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-07-01

    Article V of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) specifies that the potential benefits of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions be made available to non-nuclear weapon states party to the Treaty 'under appropriate international observation and through appropriate international procedures'. The International Atomic Energy Agency's responsibility and technical competence in this respect have been recognized by its Board of Governors, the Agency's General Conference and the United Nations' General Assembly. Since 1968 when the United Nations Conference of Non-Nuclear Weapon States also recommended that the Agency initiate the necessary studies in the peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) field, the Agency has taken the following steps: 1. The exchange of scientific and technical information has been facilitated by circulating information on the status of the technology and through the Agency's International Nuclear Information System. A bibliography of PNE-related literature was published in 1970. 2. In 1972, guidelines for 'the international observation of PNE under the provisions of NPT and analogous provisions in other international agreements' were developed and approved by the Board of Governors. These guidelines defined the basic purpose of international observation as being to verify that in the course of conducting a PNE project the intent and letter of Articles I and II of the NPT are not violated. 3. In 1974, an advisory group developed 'Procedures for the Agency to Use in Responding to Requests for PNE-Related Services'. These procedures have also been approved by the Board of Governors. 4. The Agency has convened a series of technical meetings which reviewed the 'state-of-the- art'. These meetings were convened in 1970, 1971, 1972 and in January 1975. The Fourth Technical Committee was held in Vienna from 20-24 January 1975 under the chairmanship of Dr. Allen Wilson of Australia with Experts from: Australia, France, Federal

  4. Preciscavanje otpadnih voda u postupcima prerade i flegmatizacije eksploziva / Refining of waste waters in processes of manufacturing and coating of high explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Anđelković-Lukić

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazani tehnološki postupci prerade (flegmatizacije eksploziva pri kojima dolazi do zagađenja okoline otpadnim vodama. Prikazani su neki od načina prerade otpadnih voda pre nego što se ispuste u javne vodotokove. / The paper deals with production processes of manufacturing and coating Ugh explosives which pollute environment with waste waters. Some methods of refining waste waters before letting them into open water current are presented.

  5. Effects of hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation on the electrical infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Evrenosoglu, C. Yaman; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Phadke, Arun; Thorp, James; Vullikanti, Anil

    2013-01-01

    We study the impacts of a hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation (IND) on the electrical infrastructure and its cascading effects on other urban inter-dependent infrastructures of a major metropolitan area in the US. We synthesize open source information, expert knowledge, commercial software and Google Earth data to derive a realistic electrical transmission and distribution network spanning the region. A dynamic analysis of the geo-located grid is carried out to determine the cause of malfunction of components, and their short-term and long-term effect on the stability of the grid. Finally a detailed estimate of the cost of damage to the major components of the infrastructure is provided.

  6. Patterns of Joint Improvisation in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezis, Rachel-Shlomit; Noy, Lior; Alony, Tali; Gotlieb, Rachel; Cohen, Rachel; Golland, Yulia; Levit-Binnun, Nava

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggests that individuals with autism may have a basic deficit in synchronizing with others, and that this difficulty may lead to more complex social and communicative deficits. Here, we examined synchronization during an open-ended joint improvisation (JI) paradigm, called the mirror game (MG). In the MG, two players take turns leading, following, and jointly improvising motion using two handles set on parallel tracks, while their motion tracks are recorded with high temporal and spatial resolution. A series of previous studies have shown that players in the MG attain moments of highly synchronized co-confident (CC) motion, in which there is no typical kinematic pattern of leader and reactive follower. It has been suggested that during these moments players act as a coupled unit and feel high levels of connectedness. Here, we aimed to assess whether participants with ASD are capable of attaining CC, and whether their MG performance relates to broader motor and social skills. We found that participants with ASD ( n = 34) can indeed attain CC moments when playing with an expert improviser, though their performance was attenuated in several ways, compared to typically developing (TD) participants ( n = 35). Specifically, ASD participants had lower rates of CC, compared with TD participants, which was most pronounced during the following rounds. In addition, the duration of their CC segments was shorter, across all rounds. When controlling for participants' motor skills (both on the MG console, and more broadly) some of the variability in MG performance was explained, but group differences remained. ASD participants' alexithymia further correlated with their difficulty following another's lead; though other social skills did not relate to MG performance. Participants' subjective reports of the game suggest that other cognitive and emotional factors, such as attention, motivation, and reward-processing, which were not

  7. Patterns of Joint Improvisation in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel-Shlomit Brezis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs suggests that individuals with autism may have a basic deficit in synchronizing with others, and that this difficulty may lead to more complex social and communicative deficits. Here, we examined synchronization during an open-ended joint improvisation (JI paradigm, called the mirror game (MG. In the MG, two players take turns leading, following, and jointly improvising motion using two handles set on parallel tracks, while their motion tracks are recorded with high temporal and spatial resolution. A series of previous studies have shown that players in the MG attain moments of highly synchronized co-confident (CC motion, in which there is no typical kinematic pattern of leader and reactive follower. It has been suggested that during these moments players act as a coupled unit and feel high levels of connectedness. Here, we aimed to assess whether participants with ASD are capable of attaining CC, and whether their MG performance relates to broader motor and social skills. We found that participants with ASD (n = 34 can indeed attain CC moments when playing with an expert improviser, though their performance was attenuated in several ways, compared to typically developing (TD participants (n = 35. Specifically, ASD participants had lower rates of CC, compared with TD participants, which was most pronounced during the following rounds. In addition, the duration of their CC segments was shorter, across all rounds. When controlling for participants’ motor skills (both on the MG console, and more broadly some of the variability in MG performance was explained, but group differences remained. ASD participants’ alexithymia further correlated with their difficulty following another’s lead; though other social skills did not relate to MG performance. Participants’ subjective reports of the game suggest that other cognitive and emotional factors, such as attention, motivation, and reward

  8. Effects of hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation on the electrical infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Evrenosoglu, C. Yaman; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Phadke, Arun; Thorp, James; Vullikanti, Anil [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Network Dynamics and Simulation Science Lab.

    2013-07-01

    We study the impacts of a hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation (IND) on the electrical infrastructure and its cascading effects on other urban inter-dependent infrastructures of a major metropolitan area in the US. We synthesize open source information, expert knowledge, commercial software and Google Earth data to derive a realistic electrical transmission and distribution network spanning the region. A dynamic analysis of the geo-located grid is carried out to determine the cause of malfunction of components, and their short-term and long-term effect on the stability of the grid. Finally a detailed estimate of the cost of damage to the major components of the infrastructure is provided.

  9. Interprofessional communication and teambuilding using applied improvisational exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Candace

    2014-01-01

    According to The Joint Commission (TJC), the most frequently cited root cause of sentinel events is ineffective communication or miscommunication (TJC, 2002, 2012). The need to improve communication among health care professionals is a high priority because of the serious consequences of poor communication for everyone involved, on both personal and corporate levels. Applied improvisational exercises (AlEs) comprise a strategy for enhancing interprofessional communication (IPC). This article asks: What are the challenges inherent in IPC and teambuilding in the health care setting, and how can AIE help bridge the communication gap?

  10. Free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  11. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  12. Chernobyl explosion bombshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Arnott, D.

    1988-01-01

    It is suggested that the explosion at the Chernobyl-4 reactor in April 1986 was a nuclear explosion. The evidence for this is examined. The sequence of events at Chernobyl is looked at to see if the effects were like those from a nuclear explosion. The question of whether a United Kingdom reactor could go prompt critical is discussed. It is concluded that prompt criticality excursions are possible, but the specific Chernobyl sequence is impossible. (UK)

  13. Explosive Technology Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  14. Creativity as openness: improvising health and care 'situations'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, James

    2009-12-01

    Creativity has become an oft-used word in UK public policy, but perhaps it is also under-imagined. This paper contends that there is an instrumental tendency to narrowly frame creativity as innovation, implying a reproducible product, instead of more openly as improvisation, a situational, embodied and temporal process. This is not a simple dichotomy (innovation and improvisation, product and process, can be mutually informing concepts), nor is it specifically a question of definition; rather, it relates to an ontological orientation, and related to that are issues of epistemological implications. In particular the paper is concerned with the value of the arts in public policy, as situated in the social, and therefore human, spaces of health and care; and more generally the arts in society. The paper brings together a broad discussion from across disciplines, not in an interdisciplinary attempt to solve a problem, or to be reductive in the analysis, but to begin to approach a reorienting of understandings of creativity and the human value and foundation of the arts in society.

  15. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5–7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8–12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15–29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state. PMID:29740300

  16. Teaching Improvisation through Processes. Applications in Music Education and Implications for General Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Biasutti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper. The challenge is to overcome the mere instructional dimension of some practices of teaching improvisation by designing activities that stimulate self-regulated learning strategies in the students. In the article the present thesis is declined in three ways, concerning the following three possible areas of application: (1 high-level musical learning, (2 musical pedagogy with children, (3 general pedagogy. The applications in the music field focusing mainly on an expert's use of improvisation are discussed. The last section considers how these ideas should transcend music studies, presenting the benefits and the implications of improvisation activities for general learning. Moreover, the application of music education to the following cognitive processes are discussed: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback and flow. These characteristics could be used to outline a pedagogical method for teaching music improvisation based on the development of reflection, reasoning, and meta-cognition.

  17. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians ( N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5-7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8-12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15-29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

  18. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Boasen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG. However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG. With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13 in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5–7 Hz activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8–12 Hz activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15–29 Hz activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

  19. Teaching Improvisation through Processes. Applications in Music Education and Implications for General Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper. The challenge is to overcome the mere instructional dimension of some practices of teaching improvisation by designing activities that stimulate self-regulated learning strategies in the students. In the article the present thesis is declined in three ways, concerning the following three possible areas of application: (1) high-level musical learning, (2) musical pedagogy with children, (3) general pedagogy. The applications in the music field focusing mainly on an expert's use of improvisation are discussed. The last section considers how these ideas should transcend music studies, presenting the benefits and the implications of improvisation activities for general learning. Moreover, the application of music education to the following cognitive processes are discussed: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback and flow. These characteristics could be used to outline a pedagogical method for teaching music improvisation based on the development of reflection, reasoning, and meta-cognition.

  20. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION SITES: CONSTRAINING THE MASS AND METALLICITY OF THE PROGENITORS. I. TYPE Ib AND Ic SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Doi, Mamoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Hashiba, Yasuhito [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Aldering, Greg [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Arimoto, Nobuo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Pereira, Rui [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, 4 Rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Usuda, Tomonori, E-mail: hanindyo.kuncarayakti@ipmu.jp [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of 11 Type Ib/Ic supernova (SN Ib/Ic) explosion sites in nearby galaxies has been obtained using UH88/SNIFS and Gemini-N/GMOS. The use of integral field spectroscopy enables us to obtain both spatial and spectral information about the explosion site, enabling the identification of the parent stellar population of the SN progenitor star. The spectrum of the parent population provides metallicity determination via strong-line method and age estimation obtained via comparison with simple stellar population models. We adopt this information as the metallicity and age of the SN progenitor, under the assumption that it was coeval with the parent stellar population. The age of the star corresponds to its lifetime, which in turn gives the estimate of its initial mass. With this method we were able to determine both the metallicity and initial (zero-age main sequence) mass of the progenitor stars of SNe Ib and Ic. We found that on average SN Ic explosion sites are more metal-rich and younger than SN Ib sites. The initial mass of the progenitors derived from parent stellar population age suggests that SN Ic has more massive progenitors than SN Ib. In addition, we also found indication that some of our SN progenitors are less massive than {approx}25 M{sub Sun }, indicating that they may have been stars in a close binary system that have lost their outer envelope via binary interactions to produce SNe Ib/Ic, instead of single Wolf-Rayet stars. These findings support the current suggestions that both binary and single progenitor channels are in effect in producing SNe Ib/Ic. This work also demonstrates the power of integral field spectroscopy in investigating SN environments and active star-forming regions.

  1. Measurements and standards for bulk-explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Larry, E-mail: larry.hudson@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8460, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Bateman, Fred; Bergstrom, Paul; Cerra, Frank; Glover, Jack; Minniti, Ronaldo; Seltzer, Stephen; Tosh, Ronald [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8460, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in the application of radiation and isotopes to security screening. This has been driven primarily by increased incidents involving improvised explosive devices as well as their ease of assembly and leveraged disruption of transportation and commerce. With global expenditures for security-screening systems in the hundreds of billions of dollars, there is a pressing need to develop, apply, and harmonize standards for x-ray and gamma-ray screening systems used to detect explosives and other contraband. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been facilitating the development of standard measurement tools that can be used to gauge the technical performance (imaging quality) and radiation safety of systems used to screen luggage, persons, vehicles, cargo, and left-behind objects. After a review of this new suite of national standard test methods, test objects, and radiation-measurement protocols, we highlight some of the technical trends that are enhancing the revision of baseline standards. Finally we advocate a more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders and outline the advantages this would accrue. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work responds to the need for standards for x-ray screening systems used to detect explosives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Described are new measurement tools to gage the performance and radiation safety of such systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders is argued.

  2. Measurements and standards for bulk-explosives detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, Larry; Bateman, Fred; Bergstrom, Paul; Cerra, Frank; Glover, Jack; Minniti, Ronaldo; Seltzer, Stephen; Tosh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in the application of radiation and isotopes to security screening. This has been driven primarily by increased incidents involving improvised explosive devices as well as their ease of assembly and leveraged disruption of transportation and commerce. With global expenditures for security-screening systems in the hundreds of billions of dollars, there is a pressing need to develop, apply, and harmonize standards for x-ray and gamma-ray screening systems used to detect explosives and other contraband. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been facilitating the development of standard measurement tools that can be used to gauge the technical performance (imaging quality) and radiation safety of systems used to screen luggage, persons, vehicles, cargo, and left-behind objects. After a review of this new suite of national standard test methods, test objects, and radiation-measurement protocols, we highlight some of the technical trends that are enhancing the revision of baseline standards. Finally we advocate a more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders and outline the advantages this would accrue. - Highlights: ► This work responds to the need for standards for x-ray screening systems used to detect explosives. ► Described are new measurement tools to gage the performance and radiation safety of such systems. ► A more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders is argued.

  3. Explosion metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Process parameters pertaining to welding similar and dissimilar metals using explosives are reviewed. The discussion centers on the interrelationship of physical parameters which play a part in achieving desirable metallurgical results. Present activities in explosion metal welding at LASL are presented and shown how they related to the interests of the ERDA community

  4. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  5. Steam explosion studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-03-01

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  6. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Gary H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  8. Underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Gary H.

    1970-01-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  9. Jazz and the ‘Art’ of Medicine: Improvisation in the Medical Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Improvisation is an important aspect of patient-physician communication. It is also a defining feature of jazz music performance. This essay uses examples from jazz to illustrate principles of improvisation that relate to an individual communication act (ie, building space into one’s communication), a physician’s communicative style (ie, developing one’s voice), and the communicative process of the medical encounter (ie, achieving ensemble). At all 3 levels, the traditions of jazz improvisation can inform efforts to research and teach medical interviewing by fostering a contextualized view of patient-physician communication. PMID:17389542

  10. Jazz and the 'art' of medicine: improvisation in the medical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Improvisation is an important aspect of patient-physician communication. It is also a defining feature of jazz music performance. This essay uses examples from jazz to illustrate principles of improvisation that relate to an individual communication act (ie, building space into one's communication), a physician's communicative style (ie, developing one's voice), and the communicative process of the medical encounter (ie, achieving ensemble). At all 3 levels, the traditions of jazz improvisation can inform efforts to research and teach medical interviewing by fostering a contextualized view of patient-physician communication.

  11. Increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of gas sensors for the detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Daniel

    Over the past decade, the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has increased, domestically and internationally, highlighting a growing need for a method to quickly and reliably detect explosive devices in both military and civilian environments before the explosive can cause damage. Conventional techniques have been successful in explosive detection, however they typically suffer from enormous costs in capital equipment and maintenance, costs in energy consumption, sampling, operational related expenses, and lack of continuous and real-time monitoring. The goal was thus to produce an inexpensive, portable sensor that continuously monitors the environment, quickly detects the presence of explosive compounds and alerts the user. In 2012, here at URI, a sensor design was proposed for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The design entailed a thermodynamic gas sensor that measures the heat of decomposition between trace TATP vapor and a metal oxide catalyst film. The sensor was able to detect TATP vapor at the part per million level (ppm) and showed great promise for eventual commercial use, however, the sensor lacked selectivity. Thus, the specific objective of this work was to take the original sensor design proposed in 2012 and to make several key improvements to advance the sensor towards commercialization. It was demonstrated that a sensor can be engineered to detect TATP and ignore the effects of interferent H2O2 molecules by doping SnO2 films with varying amounts of Pd. Compared with a pure SnO2 catalyst, a SnO2, film doped with 8 wt. % Pd had the highest selectivity between TATP and H2O2. Also, at 12 wt. % Pd, the response to TATP and H2O2 was enhanced, indicating that sensitivity, not only selectivity, can be increased by modifying the composition of the catalyst. An orthogonal detection system was demonstrated. The platform consists of two independent sensing mechanisms, one thermodynamic and one conductometric, which take measurements from

  12. Influence of external-detonation-generated plasmas on the performance of semi-confined explosive charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udy, L.L.

    1979-02-01

    External-detonation-generated plasmas, highly ionized zones of reacting material ejected from the surface of detonating explosive charges, are shown to be the cause of channel desensitization, i.e., the self-quenching of a detonating explosive column loaded in a borehole with an air annulus between the explosive and the borehole wall. The effects of this phenomenon on several explosive compositions and types are demonstrated and discussed. The explosives tested include aluminum-sensitized and explosive-sensitized slurries, ANFO, liquid explosives and dynamites. Various techniques are described that can be used to reduce or eliminate the plasma effect.

  13. The Role of Head Teacher in Improvisation and Maintenance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... aid effective teaching and learning in the school system. In his own view ... Enrolment explosion leading to excessive pressure on existing school facilities. .... Financing maintenance cost internally: The head teacher must be.

  14. Higher-order superclustering in the Ostriker explosion scenario I. Three-point correlation functions of clusters in the constant and power-law models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Yipeng.

    1989-08-01

    We study the three-point correlation functions ρ(r, u, v) of clusters in the two types of explosion models by numerical simulations. The clusters are identified as the ''knots'' where three shells intersect. The shells are assumed to have the constant radii (the constant models) or have the power law radius distributions (the power law models). In both kinds of models, we find that ρ can be approximately expressed by the scaling form: ρ = Q(ξ 1 ξ 2 + ξ 2 ξ 3 + ξ 3 ξ 1 ), and Q is about 1, which are consistent with the observations. More detailed studies of r-, u- and v-dependences of Q show that Q remains constant in the constant models. In the power-law models, Q is independent of the shape parameters u and v, while it has some moderate r-dependences (variations with r about a factor of 1 or 2). (author). 27 refs, 9 figs

  15. Neural correlates of lyrical improvisation: an FMRI study of freestyle rap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Chow, Ho Ming; Xu, Yisheng; Erkkinen, Michael G; Swett, Katherine E; Eagle, Michael W; Rizik-Baer, Daniel A; Braun, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of creativity are poorly understood. Freestyle rap provides a unique opportunity to study spontaneous lyrical improvisation, a multidimensional form of creativity at the interface of music and language. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize this process. Task contrast analyses indicate that improvised performance is characterized by dissociated activity in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, providing a context in which stimulus-independent behaviors may unfold in the absence of conscious monitoring and volitional control. Connectivity analyses reveal widespread improvisation-related correlations between medial prefrontal, cingulate motor, perisylvian cortices and amygdala, suggesting the emergence of a network linking motivation, language, affect and movement. Lyrical improvisation appears to be characterized by altered relationships between regions coupling intention and action, in which conventional executive control may be bypassed and motor control directed by cingulate motor mechanisms. These functional reorganizations may facilitate the initial improvisatory phase of creative behavior.

  16. Improviser non verbalement pour l’apprentissage de la langue parlée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Chaîné

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Un texte réflexif sur la pratique de l'improvisation dans un contexte scolaire en vue d'apprendre la langue parlée. D'aucun penserait que l'improvisation verbale est le moyen par excellence pour faire l'apprentissage de la langue, mais l'expérience nous a fait découvrir la richesse de l'improvisation non-verbale suivie de prise de parole sur la pratique comme moyen privilégié. L'article est illustré d'un atelier d'improvisation-non verbale s'adressant à des enfants ou à des adolescents.

  17. WORLD-WIDE PERSPECTIVES ON IMPROVISATIONAL MUSIC THERAPY FROM THE TIME-A PROJECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfried, Tali; Thompson, Grace; Geretsegger, Monika

    Background Improvisational music therapy methods have been viewed as a valuable way of working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) since the pioneering efforts of Alvin and Nordoff and Robbins (Alvin, 1978; Nordoff & Robbins, 1977). The TIME-A project is a unique international...... collaboration targeted at investigating the effectiveness of improvisational music therapy (IMT) (Geretsegger, Holck, & Gold, 2012; Wigram, 2004) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within this project, an international “consensus model” for IMT has been developed by drawing on the worldwide...... perspectives of the international collaborators. World Wide Perspectives on Improvisational Music Therapy with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Clinicians from 4 continents around the world presented examples of clinical work highlighting an aspect of working improvisationally in their local context...

  18. Emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness of children with autism in improvisational music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint attention ep...

  19. Explosives 92. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnfield, R.A. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    17 papers are presented. Topics covered include: the POG system - a new concept in the use of ANFO; demolition of a motorway bridge; presplit and smooth blasting; VIBReX - a predictive code for assessing the effect of blast design on ground vibration; ground vibrations from blasting; digital seismographs; human response to blasting and the effects on planning conditions; landform construction by restoration blasting; use of small diameter explosives; efficient priming; safety management in the explosives industry; and the law on packaging of explosives. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  20. Danger of the improvisation in the services of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, Laura M.A.; Azevedo, Ana C.P.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the safety conditions and of the radiological protection procedures in some X-rays rooms at the Radiodiagnostic Service of the HUCFF was performed. This evaluation was carried through the radiometric survey of the rooms, using an ion chamber of ionization Victoreen 450 P, calibrated for radiodiagnostic and a water phantom of 25 x 35 cm. The results showed that in the places shielded by proper barriers, the dose rates were in accordance with international recommendations and Norm CNEN 3.01. In the rooms where mobile shielding were placed, presented dose rates above the acceptable limits being critical in small rooms. Very often the improvisations are made without communication to the technical department. Periodic radiometric surveys help in the detection of situations. (author)

  1. A Preliminary Analysis of Teaching Improvisation with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Marckel, Julie M; Neef, Nancy A; Ferreri, Summer J

    2006-01-01

    Two young boys with autism who used the picture exchange communication system were taught to solve problems (improvise) by using descriptors (functions, colors, and shapes) to request desired items for which specific pictures were unavailable. The results of a multiple baseline across descriptors showed that training increased the number of improvised requests, and that these skills generalized to novel items, and across settings and listeners in the natural environment.

  2. Planning to Improvise? The Role of Reasoning in the Strategy Process: Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Paul; Hodgkinson, Ian R.; Arshad, Darwina; Hughes, Mathew; Leone, Vitor

    2017-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Planning and improvisation are depicted as alternate decision-making orientations in the strategy process literature, executed by two parallel cognitive contexts: rational or intuitive, but can rationality and intuition be harmonised in the strategy process? Strategic managers may not have to choose to either plan or improvise, rather there is ...

  3. Being in the zone: physiological markers of togetherness in joint improvisation

    OpenAIRE

    Noy, Lior; Levit-Binun, Nava; Golland, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Performers improvising together describe special moments of ‘being in the zone’ – periods of high performance, synchrony, and enhanced sense of togetherness. Existing evidence suggests a possible route for attaining togetherness – interpersonal synchrony, the fine-grained sensory-motor coordination that promotes social connectedness. Here, we investigated the physiological characteristics of togetherness using a practice from theater and dance, the mirror game. Pairs of expert improvisers joi...

  4. Being in the zone: physiological markers of togetherness in joint improvisation

    OpenAIRE

    Lior eNoy; Lior eNoy; Nava eLevit Binnun; Uri eAlon; Uri eAlon; Yulia eGolland

    2015-01-01

    Performers improvising together describe special moments of ‘being in the zone’ – periods of high performance, synchrony and enhanced sense of togetherness. Existing evidence suggests ¬a possible route for attaining togetherness - interpersonal synchrony, the fine-grained sensory-motor coordination that promotes social connectedness. Here we investigated the physiological characteristics of togetherness using a practice from theater and dance, the mirror game.Pairs of expert improvisers joint...

  5. Sinteza i fizičko-hemijske karakteristike eksploziva HNIW (CL-20) / Synthesis and physicochemical properties of the HNIW (CL-20) explosive

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Lukić-Anđelković

    2009-01-01

    Novo jedinjenje CL-20 je ciklični nitramin sa najvećom kristalnom gustinom (iznad 2,0 g/cm3) i najsnažniji nenuklearni eksploziv. Opisana je sinteza HNIW ili CL-20 u tri stepena. CL-20 ima najveću gustinu i brzinu detonacije među poznatim eksplozivima, kao i najveću energiju među energetskim dodacima koji se koriste kao dodaci za eksplozive, barute i kompozitna raketna goriva. Prikazani su neki sastavi na bazi CL-20, energetskih polimera, aluminijuma i amonijumperhlorata, kao i gustine i brzi...

  6. The control and prevention of dust explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Papers presented discussed: explosion characteristics and hybrid mixtures explosion characteristics and influencing factors, propagation of dust explosions in ducts, prevention of dust explosions, desensitization, explosion-proof type of construction, explosion pressure relief, optical flame barriers, slide-valves for explosion protection, Ventex explosion barrier valves, grinding and mixing plants, spray driers, dust explosions in silos, and explosion-proof bucket elevators. One paper has been abstracted separately.

  7. The acquisition of socio-motor improvisation in the mirror game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Socio-motor improvisation is defined as the creative action of two or more people without a script or anticipated preparation. It is evaluated through two main parameters: movement synchronization and movement richness. Experts in art (e.g., dance, theater or music) are known to exhibit higher synchronization and to perform richer movements during interpersonal improvisation, but how these competences evolve over time is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether performing more synchronized and richer movements over time can promote the acquisition of improvisation. Pairs of novice participants were instructed to play an improvisation mirror game in three different sessions. Between sessions, they performed an unintended interpersonal coordination task in which synchronization and richness were manipulated, resulting in four different groups of dyads. Our results demonstrate that synchronization during improvisation improved for all groups whereas movement richness only enhanced for dyads that performed synchronized movements during unintended coordination tasks. Our findings suggest that movement synchrony contributes more than movement richness to the acquisition of socio-motor improvisation in the mirror game. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The mirror game as a paradigm for studying the dynamics of two people improvising motion together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Dekel, Erez; Alon, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Joint improvisation is the creative action of two or more people without a script or designated leader. Examples include improvisational theater and music, and day-to-day activities such as conversations. In joint improvisation, novel action is created, emerging from the interaction between people. Although central to creative processes and social interaction, joint improvisation remains largely unexplored due to the lack of experimental paradigms. Here we introduce a paradigm based on a theater practice called the mirror game. We measured the hand motions of two people mirroring each other at high temporal and spatial resolution. We focused on expert actors and musicians skilled in joint improvisation. We found that players can jointly create novel complex motion without a designated leader, synchronized to less than 40 ms. In contrast, we found that designating one player as leader deteriorated performance: The follower showed 2–3 Hz oscillation around the leader's smooth trajectory, decreasing synchrony and reducing the range of velocities reached. A mathematical model suggests a mechanism for these observations based on mutual agreement on future motion in mirrored reactive–predictive controllers. This is a step toward understanding the human ability to create novelty by improvising together. PMID:22160696

  9. Thermal explosion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Tso Chin [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1984-12-01

    The phenomenon of thermal explosion arises in several important safety problems, yet scientists are still baffled by its origin. This article reviews some of the models that have been proposed to explain the phenomenon.

  10. Thermal explosion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chin Ping

    1984-01-01

    The phenomenon of thermal explosion arises in several important safety problems, yet scientists are still baffled by its origin. This article reviews some of the models that have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. (author)

  11. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  12. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  13. Nuclear explosive driven experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressures are generated in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion. We have developed diagnostic techniques to obtain precise high pressures equation-of-state data in this exotic but hostile environment

  14. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  15. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... explosive disorder involves repeated, sudden episodes of impulsive, aggressive, violent behavior or angry verbal outbursts in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation. Road rage, domestic abuse, throwing or breaking objects, or other temper tantrums ...

  16. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  17. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  18. Do peaceful nuclear explosions have a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The idea of peaceful uses for nuclear explosive devices arose almost simultaneously with the concept of the nuclear explosion itself. It has been a powerful idea in that it soon generated major study efforts in the United States and the USSR and also captured the interest of many developing nations. But in spite of this considerable interest and much expenditure of funds and effort, the expectation that economically viable uses will be found for peaceful nuclear explosions looks even more distant now that when the first studies were initiated. This, at least, is the conclusion of two recent U.S. studies of the economic feasibility and time scale for application of peaceful nuclear explosions by the United States. The larger of these two studies was prepared by the Gulf Universities Research Consortium, and dealt particularly with possibilities for use in the United States by 1990 of contained, i.e., underground, peaceful nuclear explosions. This paper provides briefer analysis by an ad hoc panel assesses the implications of the Gulf report, considers other uses for peaceful nuclear explosions, and summarizes the reasons why there is only a small possibility that there will be significant use of them by the United States before the year 2000

  19. Sensitivities of ionic explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Lane, Pat; Murray, Jane S.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the relevance for ionic explosive sensitivity of three factors that have been demonstrated to be related to the sensitivities of molecular explosives. These are (1) the maximum available heat of detonation, (2) the amount of free space per molecule (or per formula unit) in the crystal lattice and (3) specific features of the electrostatic potential on the molecular or ionic surface. We find that for ionic explosives, just as for molecular ones, there is an overall tendency for impact sensitivity to increase as the maximum detonation heat release is greater. This means that the usual emphasis upon designing explosives with large heats of detonation needs to be tempered somewhat. We also show that a moderate detonation heat release does not preclude a high level of detonation performance for ionic explosives, as was already demonstrated for molecular ones. Relating the free space per formula unit to sensitivity may require a modified procedure for ionic explosives; this will continue to be investigated. Finally, an encouraging start has been made in linking impact sensitivities to the electrostatic potentials on ionic surfaces, although limited so far to ammonium salts.

  20. The effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in autistic children: A randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy a...... skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further....

  1. A study on vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, N.; Shoji, M.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out for vapor explosions of molten tin falling in water. For various initial metal temperatures and subcooling of water, transient pressure of the explosions, relative frequency of the explosions and the position where the explosions occur were measured in detail. The influence of ambient pressure was also investigated. From the results, it was concluded that the vapor explosion is closely related to the collapse of a vapor film around the molten metal. (author)

  2. Photodissociation of aligned CH3I and C6H3F2I molecules probed with time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging by site-selective extreme ultraviolet ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Kasra; Savelyev, Evgeny; Brauße, Felix; Berrah, Nora; Bomme, Cédric; Brouard, Mark; Burt, Michael; Christensen, Lauge; Düsterer, Stefan; Erk, Benjamin; Höppner, Hauke; Kierspel, Thomas; Krecinic, Faruk; Lauer, Alexandra; Lee, Jason W L; Müller, Maria; Müller, Erland; Mullins, Terence; Redlin, Harald; Schirmel, Nora; Thøgersen, Jan; Techert, Simone; Toleikis, Sven; Treusch, Rolf; Trippel, Sebastian; Ulmer, Anatoli; Vallance, Claire; Wiese, Joss; Johnsson, Per; Küpper, Jochen; Rudenko, Artem; Rouzée, Arnaud; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Rolles, Daniel; Boll, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    We explore time-resolved Coulomb explosion induced by intense, extreme ultraviolet (XUV) femtosecond pulses from a free-electron laser as a method to image photo-induced molecular dynamics in two molecules, iodomethane and 2,6-difluoroiodobenzene. At an excitation wavelength of 267 nm, the dominant reaction pathway in both molecules is neutral dissociation via cleavage of the carbon-iodine bond. This allows investigating the influence of the molecular environment on the absorption of an intense, femtosecond XUV pulse and the subsequent Coulomb explosion process. We find that the XUV probe pulse induces local inner-shell ionization of atomic iodine in dissociating iodomethane, in contrast to non-selective ionization of all photofragments in difluoroiodobenzene. The results reveal evidence of electron transfer from methyl and phenyl moieties to a multiply charged iodine ion. In addition, indications for ultrafast charge rearrangement on the phenyl radical are found, suggesting that time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging is sensitive to the localization of charge in extended molecules.

  3. Automation in airport security X-ray screening of cabin baggage: Examining benefits and possible implementations of automated explosives detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hättenschwiler, Nicole; Sterchi, Yanik; Mendes, Marcia; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2018-10-01

    Bomb attacks on civil aviation make detecting improvised explosive devices and explosive material in passenger baggage a major concern. In the last few years, explosive detection systems for cabin baggage screening (EDSCB) have become available. Although used by a number of airports, most countries have not yet implemented these systems on a wide scale. We investigated the benefits of EDSCB with two different levels of automation currently being discussed by regulators and airport operators: automation as a diagnostic aid with an on-screen alarm resolution by the airport security officer (screener) or EDSCB with an automated decision by the machine. The two experiments reported here tested and compared both scenarios and a condition without automation as baseline. Participants were screeners at two international airports who differed in both years of work experience and familiarity with automation aids. Results showed that experienced screeners were good at detecting improvised explosive devices even without EDSCB. EDSCB increased only their detection of bare explosives. In contrast, screeners with less experience (tenure automated decision provided better human-machine detection performance than on-screen alarm resolution and no automation. This came at the cost of slightly higher false alarm rates on the human-machine system level, which would still be acceptable from an operational point of view. Results indicate that a wide-scale implementation of EDSCB would increase the detection of explosives in passenger bags and automated decision instead of automation as diagnostic aid with on screen alarm resolution should be considered. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Monaci, Fabrizio; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Baroni, Davide; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2010-04-15

    In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain "homemade" explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components can be procured. Many methods such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, stereomicroscopy, capillary electrophoresis are available for use in the identification of explosive residues on objects and bomb fragments. Identification and reconstruction of the distribution of explosive residues on the decedent's body may give additional hints in assessing the position of the victim in relation to the device. Traditionally these residues are retrieved by swabbing the body and clothing during the early phase, at autopsy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other analytical methods may be used to analyze the material swabbed from the victim body. The histological examination of explosive residues on skin samples collected during the autopsy may reveal significant details. The information about type, quantity and particularly about anatomical distribution of explosive residues obtained utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) together with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), may provide very significant evidence in the clarification and reconstruction of the explosive-related events. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Humor doesn't retire: Improvisation as a health-promoting intervention for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Lucy A; Xiong, Linda; Ramirez-Zohfeld, Vanessa; Anne, Seltzer; Barish, Becca; Lindquist, Lee A

    As our population ages and aging in place continues to remain a priority of older adults, identifying novel ways to promote the wellbeing of older adults and reduce isolation is of the utmost importance. The Second City is a Chicago-based comedy improvisation organization that provides training in improvisation. One of their training courses, Humor Doesn't Retire, specifically teaches adults 55 and over, on improvisation. This study sought to explore the experiences of older adults enrolled in Humor Doesn't Retire, and to characterize any benefits that older adult participants perceived following participation in the comedy improvisation course. Qualitative analysis was used to identify and describe common themes that emerged in a survey of open-ended questions regarding benefits of the improvisation course on outlook and mood as well as behavior changes. Results for perceived benefits showed main themes of increased positivity, an increased sense of comfort and ease with the unexpected, a sense of self-development and self-awareness, and a feeling of acceptance by their social group. Participants reported that these changes fed into their behaviors, and resulted in enhanced problem solving abilities, greater facility in social situations, and the tangible outcome of an expanded and closer-knit social circle. As the first study in our knowledge to examine the effect of improvisation comedy on healthy older adults, this exploratory analysis has suggested that improvisation comedy may be a mechanism by which to combat several geriatric syndromes, including depression, stress, and isolation - all of which are detrimental to older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  7. Reading the Music and Understanding the Therapeutic Process: Documentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Improvisational Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Parker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned primarily with the challenges of presenting clinical material from improvisational music therapy. My aim is to propose a model for the transcription of music therapy material, or “musicotherapeutic objects” (comparable to Bion’s “psychoanalytic objects”, which preserves the integrated “gestalt” of the musical experience as far as possible, whilst also supporting detailed analysis and interpretation. Unwilling to resort to use of visual documentation, but aware that many important indicators in music therapy are non-sounding, I propose a richly annotated score, where traditional music notation is integrated with graphic and verbal additions, in order to document non-sounding events. This model is illustrated within the context of a clinical case with a high functioning autistic woman. The four transcriptions, together with the original audio tracks, present significant moments during the course of music therapy, attesting to the development of the dyadic relationship, with reference to John Bowlby’s concept of a “secure base” as the most appropriate dynamic environment for therapy.

  8. Novel high explosive compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  9. High-nitrogen explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAz

  10. Randomised controlled Trial of Improvisational Music therapy's Effectiveness for children with Autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2012-01-01

    methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.......e., number of music therapy sessions per week) affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three......Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either...

  11. Disciplined Improvisation: Characteristics of Inquiry in Mindfulness-Based Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Rebecca S; Stanley, Steven; Rooney, Michael; Bartley, Trish; Cooper, Lucinda; Mardula, Jody

    Evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is rapidly growing as interest in this field expands. By contrast, there are few empirical analyses of the pedagogy of MBSR and MBCT. Development of the evidence base concerning the teaching of MBCT or MBSR would support the integrity of the approach in the context of rapid expansion. This paper describes an applied conversation analysis (CA) of the characteristics of inquiry in the MBSR and MBCT teaching process. Audio-recordings of three 8-week MBCT and MBSR classes, with 24, 12, and 6 participants, were transcribed and systematically examined. The study focused on the teacher-led interactive inquiry which takes place in each session after a guided meditation practice. The study describes and analyzes three practices within the inquiry process that can be identified in sequences of talk: turn-taking talk involving questions and reformulations; the development of participant skills in a particular way of describing experience; and talk that constructs intersubjective connection and affiliation within the group. CA enables fine-grained analysis of the interactional work of mindfulness-based inquiry. Inquiry is a process of disciplined improvisation which is both highly specific to the conditions of the moment it took place in and uses repeated and recognizable patterns of interaction.

  12. Explosive material treatment in particular the explosive compaction of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruemmer, R.

    1985-01-01

    The constructive use of explosives in the last decades has led to new procedures in manufacturing techniques. The most important of these are explosive forming and cladding, the latter especially for the production of compound materials. The method of explosive compaction has the highest potential for further innovation. Almost theoretical densities are achievable in the green compacts as the pressure released by detonating explosives are very high. Also, the production of new conditions of materials (metastable high pressure phases) is possible. (orig.) [de

  13. Design of a Virtual Player for Joint Improvisation with Humans in the Mirror Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chao; Alderisio, Francesco; Słowiński, Piotr; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; di Bernardo, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Joint improvisation is often observed among humans performing joint action tasks. Exploring the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms behind the emergence of joint improvisation is an open research challenge. This paper investigates jointly improvised movements between two participants in the mirror game, a paradigmatic joint task example. First, experiments involving movement coordination of different dyads of human players are performed in order to build a human benchmark. No designation of leader and follower is given beforehand. We find that joint improvisation is characterized by the lack of a leader and high levels of movement synchronization. Then, a theoretical model is proposed to capture some features of their interaction, and a set of experiments is carried out to test and validate the model ability to reproduce the experimental observations. Furthermore, the model is used to drive a computer avatar able to successfully improvise joint motion with a human participant in real time. Finally, a convergence analysis of the proposed model is carried out to confirm its ability to reproduce joint movements between the participants.

  14. Creating the next steps to care: Maternal heath, improvisation, and Fulani women in Niamey, Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    On paper, Niger's maternal healthcare system is extensively outlined by policies which assure access to certain services and create hierarchical referral chains. In practice it remains intensely improvisational: actors in the system must frequently make up the next steps to giving and receiving care, often outside the existing policies and procedures. Although population health in Niger has improved since the recently enacted gratuité des soins policy (which guarantees free access to certain material and child health services), care on the ground is still dictated by difficult circumstances and scarce resources. Health workers often lack the required medications and supplies; nevertheless, they must find ways to deliver services. Patients seeking maternal health services are frequently dissatisfied with the care they receive and so move forward of their own volition, by negotiating with health workers or by looking for services elsewhere. This research builds on recent scholarly work on improvisation, and asks us to further look at the ways that improvisation can be informed by the identity of the actors. Examining case studies of women from the Fulani ethnic group illustrates how particular cultural differences can inform improvisation. Analysing improvisation can also have policy implications; identifying typical points of departure from the official maternal health care system can reveal points where Niger can bolster its commitment to a universally high quality of care.

  15. The role of emotion in musical improvisation: an analysis of structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda J; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Rankin, Summer K; Limb, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary functions of music is to convey emotion, yet how music accomplishes this task remains unclear. For example, simple correlations between mode (major vs. minor) and emotion (happy vs. sad) do not adequately explain the enormous range, subtlety or complexity of musically induced emotions. In this study, we examined the structural features of unconstrained musical improvisations generated by jazz pianists in response to emotional cues. We hypothesized that musicians would not utilize any universal rules to convey emotions, but would instead combine heterogeneous musical elements together in order to depict positive and negative emotions. Our findings demonstrate a lack of simple correspondence between emotions and musical features of spontaneous musical improvisation. While improvisations in response to positive emotional cues were more likely to be in major keys, have faster tempos, faster key press velocities and more staccato notes when compared to negative improvisations, there was a wide distribution for each emotion with components that directly violated these primary associations. The finding that musicians often combine disparate features together in order to convey emotion during improvisation suggests that structural diversity may be an essential feature of the ability of music to express a wide range of emotion.

  16. The role of emotion in musical improvisation: an analysis of structural features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda J McPherson

    Full Text Available One of the primary functions of music is to convey emotion, yet how music accomplishes this task remains unclear. For example, simple correlations between mode (major vs. minor and emotion (happy vs. sad do not adequately explain the enormous range, subtlety or complexity of musically induced emotions. In this study, we examined the structural features of unconstrained musical improvisations generated by jazz pianists in response to emotional cues. We hypothesized that musicians would not utilize any universal rules to convey emotions, but would instead combine heterogeneous musical elements together in order to depict positive and negative emotions. Our findings demonstrate a lack of simple correspondence between emotions and musical features of spontaneous musical improvisation. While improvisations in response to positive emotional cues were more likely to be in major keys, have faster tempos, faster key press velocities and more staccato notes when compared to negative improvisations, there was a wide distribution for each emotion with components that directly violated these primary associations. The finding that musicians often combine disparate features together in order to convey emotion during improvisation suggests that structural diversity may be an essential feature of the ability of music to express a wide range of emotion.

  17. Using the Native American Flute in a Beginning Instrumental Classroom: The Native American Flute Can Be a Great Tool for Helping Students Learn to Improvise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Michael; Winslow, Hayley

    2006-01-01

    Although the National Standards include achievement standards for improvisation for elementary school students, music teachers sometimes are reluctant to pursue improvisation study with young students. First- and second-year instrumental students, often older elementary or middle school students, may have difficulty studying improvisation because…

  18. 75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting powder. BTNEC [bis.... Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing... powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating...

  19. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ..., including non-cap sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting.... Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing... powder. Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating...

  20. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

  1. The Multiple-Demand System in the Novelty of Musical Improvisation: Evidence from an MRI Study on Composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; He, Hui; Jeon, Seun; Hou, Changyue; Evans, Alan C; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    The multiple-demand (MD) system has proven to be associated with creating structured mental programs in comprehensive behaviors, but the functional mechanisms of this system have not been clarified in the musical domain. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that the MD system is involved in a comprehensive music-related behavior known as musical improvisation. Under a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, 29 composers were recruited to improvise melodies through visual imagery tasks according to familiar and unfamiliar cues. We found that the main regions of the MD system were significantly activated during both musical improvisation conditions. However, only a greater involvement of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) within the MD system was shown when improvising with unfamiliar cues. Our results revealed that the MD system strongly participated in musical improvisation through processing the novelty of melodies, working memory, and attention. In particular, improvising with unfamiliar cues required more musical transposition manipulations. Moreover, both functional and structural analyses indicated evidence of neuroplasticity in MD regions that could be associated with musical improvisation training. These findings can help unveil the functional mechanisms of the MD system in musical cognition, as well as improve our understanding of musical improvisation.

  2. Freedom and Responsibility: The Aesthetics of Free Musical Improvisation and Its Educational Implications--A View from Bakhtin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to examine how specific aspects of Bakhtin's theoretical perspective might inform our understanding of improvisation. Moreover, it outlines the possible educational implications of such a perspective. Specifically, a sketch of a Bakhtinian conception of improvisation is proposed, a sketch which emphasizes the cultivation of an…

  3. Towards a Typology of Improvisation as a Professional Teaching Skill: Implications for Pre-Service Teacher Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Helga; Espeland, Magne; Arnesen, Trond Egil

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss the concept of improvisation as a professional teaching skill. Our professional context is teacher education and our discussion is aimed at developing a categorized understanding, or rather a tentative typology, of what professional improvisation in teaching and teacher education might be. Undertaking such a bold…

  4. "Play It Again, Billy, but This Time with More Mistakes": Divergent Improvisation Activities for the Jazz Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The jazz ensemble represents an important performance opportunity in many school music programs. Due to the cultural history of jazz as an improvisatory art form, school jazz ensemble directors must address methods of teaching improvisation concepts to young students. Progress has been made in the field of prescribed improvisation activities and…

  5. Differential parietal and temporal contributions to music perception in improvising and score-dependent musicians, an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert Harris; Bauke M. de Jong

    2015-01-01

    Using fMRI, cerebral activations were studied in 24 classically-trained keyboard performers and 12 musically unskilled control subjects. Two groups of musicians were recruited: improvising (n=12) and score-dependent (non-improvising) musicians (n=12). While listening to both familiar and unfamiliar

  6. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  7. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... the Storage of Ammonium Nitrate. OSHA subsequently made several minor revisions to the standard (37 FR... explosives; storing ammonium nitrate; and storing small arms ammunition, small arms primers, and small arms..., which is extremely widespread, causes lung disease, silicosis and lung cancer. Terminating the...

  8. New slurry explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, D.C.

    1982-12-01

    Mining engineers will soon have an additional 2 or 3 types of explosives which increase rock yield without increasing cost. A new variety of Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil (ANFO), which is much heavier and more powerful, is being introduced in the US. New types of NCN (nitrocarbonitrate) blasting agents have also been developed.

  9. STIDP: A U.S. Department of Homeland Security program for countering explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Christa K.; Kemp, Michael C.; Lombardo, Nicholas J.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Standoff Technology Integration and Demonstration Program is designed to accelerate the development and integration of technologies, concepts of operations, and training to defeat explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities. The program will address threats posed by suicide bombers, vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices, and leave-behind bombs. The program is focused on developing and testing explosives countermeasure architectures using commercial off-the-shelf and near-commercial standoff and remotely operated detection technologies in prototypic operational environments. An important part of the program is the integration of multiple technologies and systems to protect against a wider range of threats, improve countermeasure performance, increase the distance from the venue at which screening is conducted, and reduce staffing requirements. The program will routinely conduct tests in public venues involving successively more advanced technology, higher levels of system integration, and more complex scenarios. This paper describes the initial field test of an integrated countermeasure system that included infrared, millimeter-wave, and video analytics technologies for detecting person-borne improvised explosive devices at a public arena. The test results are being used to develop a concept for the next generation of integrated countermeasures, to refine technical and operational requirements for architectures and technologies, and engage industry and academia in solution development.

  10. Beginning from the End: Strategies of Composition in Lyrical Improvisation with End Rhyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venla Sykäri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the basic principles of constructing improvised verses with end rhyme in three contemporary cultures: _mandinadhes_, Mallorcan _gloses_, and Finnish freestyle rap. This study is based on ethnographic interviews, in which improvisers analyze their methods of composition. This knowledge is complemented by a textual analysis of examples of performances in the given traditions. Sykäri shows that competent improvisers master complex cognitive methods when they create their lines that end with the poetic device of end rhyme, and in particular when they structure the discourse so that the strong arguments are situated at the end of the structural unit of composition. This “reversed” method witnesses a tendency to use parallel phonic patterns in a way that is largely the opposite of those employed with semantic (or canonical parallelism.

  11. Tinkering toward departure: The limits of improvisation in rural Ethiopian biomedical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores Ethiopian physicians' responses to tensions produced by gaps between ideals of biomedicine and realities of clinical practice in two rural Ethiopian hospitals. Physicians engage in creativity and improvisation, including relying on informal networks and practices and tinkering within diagnoses and procedures, to overcome constraints of lack of resources and limited opportunities to engage in "good medicine." These courageous, but often unsuccessful attempts to mitigate professional and personal conflicts within their medical practices represent improvisation in impossible circumstances. This paper results from ethnographic research conducted in 2013-2014 and includes participant observations and qualitative interviews in two hospitals within the same community. The inherent conflicts among globalized standards, unpredictable transnational medical networks, and innovative practices produce tenuous clinical spaces and practices that rely on a mosaic of techniques and ad hoc connections. Tinkering and improvisation often fail to mediate these conflicts, contributing to physician disenchantment and departure from the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Moments of resonance in musical improvisation with persons with severe dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coomans, Anke

    In this book, Anke Coomans presents her doctoral study on music therapy and dementia. The study will be of interest to music therapists, psychotherapists, and other professionals working in the field of dementia, or to music therapists that use musical improvisation with clinical populations...... deterioration is less in the foreground. This book may encourage music therapists to take an introspective look at their therapeutic listening attitude and to consider listening play as important for facilitating moments of resonance in music therapy with persons with severe dementia. The terminology presented...... that benefit from a non-verbal approach. The findings of the study provide insights in the role of musical improvisation for the occurrence of moments of resonance in music therapy with persons with severe dementia. The reader is led through the characteristics of musical improvisation and the specifics...

  13. The Carnegie Supernova Project. I. Third Photometry Data Release of Low-redshift Type Ia Supernovae and Other White Dwarf Explosions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Contreras, Carlos; Burns, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    We present final natural-system optical (ugriBV) and near-infrared (YJH) photometry of 134 supernovae (SNe) with probable white dwarf progenitors that were observed in 2004-2009 as part of the first stage of the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). The sample consists of 123 Type. Ia SNe, 5 Type...

  14. The Carnegie Supernova Project. I. Third Photometry Data Release of Low-redshift Type Ia Supernovae and Other White Dwarf Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Contreras, Carlos; Burns, Christopher R.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Morrell, Nidia; Hamuy, Mario; Anais, Jorge; Boldt, Luis; Busta, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Folatelli, Gastón; Freedman, Wendy L.; González, Consuelo; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Persson, Sven Eric; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Serón, Jacqueline; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Torres, Simón; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Madore, Barry F.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Villanueva, Steven

    2017-11-01

    We present final natural-system optical (ugriBV) and near-infrared (YJH) photometry of 134 supernovae (SNe) with probable white dwarf progenitors that were observed in 2004-2009 as part of the first stage of the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). The sample consists of 123 Type Ia SNe, 5 Type Iax SNe, 2 super-Chandrasekhar SN candidates, 2 Type Ia SNe interacting with circumstellar matter, and 2 SN 2006bt-like events. The redshifts of the objects range from z=0.0037 to 0.0835; the median redshift is 0.0241. For 120 (90%) of these SNe, near-infrared photometry was obtained. Average optical extinction coefficients and color terms are derived and demonstrated to be stable during the five CSP-I observing campaigns. Measurements of the CSP-I near-infrared bandpasses are also described, and near-infrared color terms are estimated through synthetic photometry of stellar atmosphere models. Optical and near-infrared magnitudes of local sequences of tertiary standard stars for each supernova are given, and a new calibration of Y-band magnitudes of the Persson et al. standards in the CSP-I natural system is presented.

  15. Study by Monte Carlo methods of an explosive detection system using a D-D generator and Nal (Tl) detectors; Estudio mediante metodos Monte Carlo de un sistema de deteccion de explosivos utilizando un generador D-D y detectores de NaI (Tl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevallos R, L. E.; Guzman G, K. A.; Gallego, E.; Garcia F, G. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: lenin_cevallos@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    The detection of hidden explosive material is very important for national security. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the code MCNP6, several proposed configurations of a detection system with a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) generator, in conjunction with NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors, have been evaluated to intercept hidden explosives. The response of the system to various explosive samples such as Rdx and ammonium nitrate are analyzed as the main components of home-military explosives. The D-D generator produces fast neutrons of 2.5 MeV in a maximum field of 10{sup 10} n/s (Dd-110) which is surrounded with high density polyethylene in order to thermalized the fast neutrons making them interact with the sample inspected, giving rise to the emission of gamma rays that generates a characteristic spectrum of the elements that constitute it, being able in this way to determine its chemical composition and identify the type of substance. The necessary shielding is evaluated to estimate the admissible operation dose, with thicknesses of lead and borated polyethylene, in order to place it at some point of the Laboratory of Neutron Measurements of the Polytechnic University of Madrid where the shielding is optimal. The results show that its functionality is promising in the field of national security for the explosives inspection. (Author)

  16. Impaired Maintenance of Interpersonal Synchronization in Musical Improvisations of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Foubert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a serious and complex mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 5.9%, characterized by pervasive difficulties with emotion regulation, impulse control, and instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image. Impairments in interpersonal functioning have always been a prominent characteristic of BPD, indicating a need for research to identify the specific interpersonal processes that are problematic for diagnosed individuals. Previous research has concentrated on self-report questionnaires, unidirectional tests, and experimental paradigms wherein the exchange of social signals between individuals was not the focus. We propose joint musical improvisation as an alternative method to investigate interpersonal processes. Using a novel, carefully planned, ABA′ accompaniment paradigm, and taking into account the possible influences of mood, psychotropic medication, general attachment, and musical sophistication, we recorded piano improvisations of 16 BPD patients and 12 matched healthy controls. We hypothesized that the insecure attachment system associated with BPD would be activated in the joint improvisation and manifest in measures of timing behavior. Results indicated that a logistic regression model, built on differences in timing deviations, predicted diagnosis with 82% success. More specifically, over the course of the improvisation B section (freer improvisation, controls' timing deviations decreased (temporal synchrony became more precise whereas that of the patients with BPD did not, confirming our hypothesis. These findings are in accordance with previous research, where BPD is characterized by difficulties in attachment relationships such as maintaining strong attachment with others, but it is novel to find empirical evidence of such issues in joint musical improvisation. We suggest further longitudinal research within the field of music therapy, to study how recovery of these timing

  17. Perception of 'Back-Channeling' Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Moran

    Full Text Available In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling' by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed. The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'. Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60 with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction.

  18. Perception of 'Back-Channeling' Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling') by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction.

  19. Perception of ‘Back-Channeling’ Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V.; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues (‘back-channeling’) by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians’ nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers’ musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician (‘back-channeler’). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction. PMID:26086593

  20. Explosive double salts and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Howard H.; Lee, Kien-yin

    1984-01-01

    Applicants have discovered a new composition of matter which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. The compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46.degree. C., decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46.degree. C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm.sup.3, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound of the invention and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.

  1. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah

    2006-01-01

    play, and also in unstructured part than structured part. The findings highlighted the ‘motivational aspects’ of musical interaction between the child and the therapist, and supported the long-lived claims of improvisational music therapy, promoting self-expression’, emotional communication and social...... joint attention behaviours in children than free play. The most clinically relevant and important findings were that children displayed markedly more and longer events of ‘eye contact’ ‘joy’ ‘emotional synchronicity’ and ‘initiation of engagement’ spontaneously in improvisational music therapy than free...

  2. MUSIC TEACHERS’ EDUCATIONAL IMPROVISATION AS AN IMPORTANT INDICATOR OF THEIR PROFESSIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Smyrenskyi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with music teachers’ creative activity in comprehensive school, where they solve a number of both typical and creative tasks encountered while working with students. The teacher should design the result in accordance with the lesson plan, analyze the situation and find ways to achieve the goal, critically evaluate the data and pose a new task. In the real process of musical and aesthetic education and upbringing teacher’s work has a predetermined character, and even small unintended deviations from the lesson plan that are very difficult for them. The multifactor, rapidly changing circumstances of the development of the musical and educational process and the teachers’ creative abilities often lead to various, sometimes unpredictable situations of educational and musical communication and unexpected appearing of a new, more constructive option that arises directly in the lesson. In such circumstances the music teacher must be ready for the prompt resolution of contradictions, which appear suddenly, with the help of intuition based on the acquired experience of creative activity. This solution of contradictions is considered to be pedagogical improvisation. The music teacher’s pedagogical improvisation is the most important indicator of his/her professionalism. The main purpose of the article is to define the essence of the concept “a music teacher’s pedagogical improvisation”. The author reveals the criteria for the effectiveness of pedagogical improvisation, determines its functions and types. Specificity of a music teacher’s pedagogical improvisation is a free association of various types of musical performance and lecture activities. The pedagogical condition for using pedagogical improvisation by a teacher is a set of improvisational skills, which ensure the efficiency of searching for an operative adoption of a pedagogical decision that is adequate to the unexpected situation of educational and musical

  3. Structural and Magnetic Behavioral Improvisation of Nanocalcium Hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sable, Sharad N., E-mail: sharadtz@hotmail.co [Department of Applied Physics, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur (India); Rewatkar, Kishor G. [Department of Physics, Dr. Ambedkar College, Dikshabhumi, Nagpur (India); Nanoti, Vivek M. [Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur (India)

    2010-04-15

    In modern technoscientific era, the industrial application of nanomaterials has grabbed a paramount importance owing to their improved characteristics. Hexagonal ferrites especially M-type ferrites have been proved to be the promising candidates for nanomaterials by virtue of their ease of applicability in high density recording media, microwave absorption devices, magneto-optic recording media, etc. Keeping a bird's view over, the samples of varied combinations of M-type substituted hexaferrites are synthesized using sol-gel combustion route by blending nitrates and chlorides as oxidants accompanied with fuels like urea, glycine, citric acid, etc. as reducing agents. The substitution of Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions lie essentially in the octahedral and tetrahedral sites. As the Fe{sup 3+} ions are being replaced by Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions, the probability of having oxygen vacancies in the structure was found to be greatly reduced. The magnetic particles produced by conventional solid state reactions are often larger than those produced by sol-gel combustion route. Larger particles of magnetic oxides generally exhibit multidomain magnetic structure whereas nanosized particles generally exhibit single domain magnetic structure. The simultaneous or coupled divalent and tetravalent substitution of Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} for Fe{sup 3+} ions greatly helps to improvise the magnetic parameters such as Curie temperature, coercivity, remanent magnetization, saturation magnetization, etc. The structural comparison is being analyzed through the XRD, TEM. The samples so synthesized are found to be reseasonably homogeneous and the average particle size of the sample synthesized is found to be in the nanorange. The structural and magnetic properties are observed be improved upon those of the samples reported earlier. This confirms the more viability of such samples in the various applications of digital data devices. Further attempts could possibly lead to

  4. Sources of Embodied Creativity: Interactivity and Ideation in Contact Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Michael; Hristova, Dayana; Kussmaul, Kerstin

    2018-05-23

    Drawing on a micro-phenomenological paradigm, we discuss Contact Improvisation (CI), where dancers explore potentials of intercorporeal weight sharing, kinesthesia, touch, and momentum. Our aim is to typologically discuss creativity related skills and the rich spectrum of creative resources CI dancers use. This spectrum begins with relatively idea-driven creation and ends with interactivity-centered, fully emergent creation: (1) Ideation internal to the mind, the focus of traditional creativity research, is either restricted to semi-independent dancing or remains schematic and thus open to dynamic specification under the partner’s influence. (2) Most frequently, CI creativity occurs in tightly coupled behavior and is radically emergent. This means that interpersonal synergies emerge without anybody’s prior design or planned coordination. The creative feat is interpersonally “distributed” over cascades of cross-scaffolding. Our micro-genetic data validate notions from dynamic systems theory such as interpersonal self-organization , although we criticize the theory for failing to explain where precisely this leaves skilled intentionality on the individuals’ part. Our answer is that dancers produce a stream of momentary micro-intentions that say “yes, and”, or “no, but” to short-lived micro-affordances, which allows both individuals to skillfully continue, elaborate, tweak, or redirect the collective movement dynamics. Both dancers can invite emergence as part of their playful exploration, while simultaneously bringing to bear global constraints, such as dance scores, and guide the collective dynamics with a set of specialized skills we shall term emergence management .

  5. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A): study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.e., number of music therapy sessions per week) affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months). In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity) or three sessions (high-intensity) per week. Generalised effects of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS) and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS) before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Discussion Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well generalisable to clinical practice. Addressing the issue of dose variation, this study's results will also provide information on the relevance of session frequency for therapy

  6. Laughter is the best medicine: The Second City® improvisation as an intervention for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bega, Danny; Palmentera, Pamela; Wagner, Abby; Hovde, Matt; Barish, Becca; Kwasny, Mary J; Simuni, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Expressive therapies are increasingly incorporated into the management of Parkinson's disease (PD), although there are little objective data assessing their benefits. Develop and study a novel community Improvisation Theater (IT) program for PD in order to improve quality of life. A prospective, rater-blinded, modified cross-over design study of IT for PD. 22 subjects were randomized 1:1 to active-start (AS) or control-start (CS) groups, controlling for age and Hoehn and Yahr stage. Participants were recruited from the Northwestern PD and Movement Disorders Center. 60 min IT sessions were led by The Second City ® faculty weekly for 12 weeks. The primary aim was to assess feasibility, determined as 70% of participants attending at least 75% of the classes. Exploratory data were obtained comparing pre- and post-intervention outcomes using Wilcoxon signed rank test for UPDRS parts I-IV, PDQ-39, and 5 neuro-QoL measures (communication, anxiety, stigma, depression, and wellbeing). All 22 participants completed the study. 21/22 (95%) participants attended at least 80% of the classes. All participants indicated that they would recommend the class to others with PD. 21/22 participants enjoyed the class and felt it was beneficial for their symptoms. A significant improvement pre-to-post intervention was seen with the UPDRS part II ADL measure (mean -1.5, p = 0.019). A novel improvisation program can be well-attended, enjoyable, and improve ADL measures among patients with PD of varying ages and disease severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geretsegger Monika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.e., number of music therapy sessions per week affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months. In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity or three sessions (high-intensity per week. Generalised effects of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Discussion Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well generalisable to clinical practice. Addressing the issue of dose variation, this study's results will also provide information on the relevance of session

  8. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2012-01-05

    Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.e., number of music therapy sessions per week) affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months). In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity) or three sessions (high-intensity) per week. Generalised effects of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS) and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS) before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well generalisable to clinical practice. Addressing the issue of dose variation, this study's results will also provide information on the relevance of session frequency for therapy outcome. Current Controlled Trials

  9. From Whack-a-Mole to Three-Dimensional Chess: Leveraging Airpower to Defeat the Improvised Explosive Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    AY10 3 physical destruction and loss of life, there is the higher-order effect of generating headlines and statistics unfavorable to maintaining...Army for Counterinsurgency Operations.” In Warfare Studies AY10 Coursebook , edited by Sharon McBride, 326-341. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University...Studies AY10 Coursebook , edited by Sharon McBride, 364-386. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, October 2009. United States Government Interagency

  10. The Hungarian Counter Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED) Strategy: Considering the Use of Military Working Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    language forming efforts. Special thanks for Dr. Rhoda Risner, my small group leader, for the guidance and support. Finally, thanks to my student...in the “no man’s land” but also in the trenches. The unburied dead bodies and the countless injures mixed with the muddy environment and provided...There are many war stories about canine heroes that carried messages for long periods with several injuries. The other effort was the fight against the

  11. Services Textbook of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-03-01

    the propagation in such systems of the detonation wave which had been observed in 1881 by Berthelot and Vieille and by Mallard and le Chatelier . In...detonation, Berthelot and Le Chatelier , Dautrich 4 - 63: Calorometric value 4 -- 66, Power of explosive, lead block, Trauzl 4 - 67- Ballistic pendulum 4...the principles of electric ignition were applied to this system also. 75. In 1890-91 Curtius first prepared lead, silver and mercury azides. The

  12. Explosive Leidenfrost droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Pierre; Moreau, Florian; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2017-11-01

    We show that Leidenfrost droplets made of an aqueous solution of surfactant undergo a violent explosion in a wide range of initial volumes and concentrations. This unexpected behavior turns out to be triggered by the formation of a gel-like shell, followed by a sharp temperature increase. Comparing a simple model of the radial surfactant distribution inside a spherical droplet with experiments allows highlighting the existence of a critical surface concentration for the shell to form. The temperature rise (attributed to boiling point elevation with surface concentration) is a key feature leading to the explosion, instead of the implosion (buckling) scenario reported by other authors. Indeed, under some conditions, this temperature increase is shown to be sufficient to trigger nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the highly superheated liquid bulk, stretching the surrounding elastic shell up to its rupture limit. The successive timescales characterizing this explosion sequence are also discussed. Funding sources: F.R.S. - FNRS (ODILE and DITRASOL projects, RD and SRA positions of P. Colinet and S. Dorbolo), BELSPO (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST project).

  13. CFD analysis of gas explosions vented through relief pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, G; Di Benedetto, A; Salzano, E; Russo, G

    2006-09-21

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safe locations by means of relief pipes. However, the presence of the duct increases the severity of explosion if compared to simply vented vessels (i.e. compared to cases where no duct is present). Besides, the identification of the key phenomena controlling the violence of explosion has not yet been gained. Multidimensional models coupling, mass, momentum and energy conservation equations can be valuable tools for the analysis of such complex explosion phenomena. In this work, gas explosions vented through ducts have been modelled by a two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach in which the laminar, flamelet and distributed combustion models have been implemented. Numerical test have been carried out by varying ignition position, duct diameter and length. Results have evidenced that the severity of ducted explosions is mainly driven by the vigorous secondary explosion occurring in the duct (burn-up) rather than by the duct flow resistance or acoustic enhancement. Moreover, it has been found out that the burn-up affects explosion severity due to the reduction of venting rate rather than to the burning rate enhancement through turbulization.

  14. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Qingjie Jiao; Qiushi Wang; Jianxin Nie; Xueyong Guo; Wei Zhang; Wenqi Fan

    2018-01-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-...

  15. Musical friends and foes: The social cognition of affiliation and control in improvised interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Canonne, Clément

    2017-04-01

    A recently emerging view in music cognition holds that music is not only social and participatory in its production, but also in its perception, i.e. that music is in fact perceived as the sonic trace of social relations between a group of real or virtual agents. While this view appears compatible with a number of intriguing music cognitive phenomena, such as the links between beat entrainment and prosocial behaviour or between strong musical emotions and empathy, direct evidence is lacking that listeners are at all able to use the acoustic features of a musical interaction to infer the affiliatory or controlling nature of an underlying social intention. We created a novel experimental situation in which we asked expert music improvisers to communicate 5 types of non-musical social intentions, such as being domineering, disdainful or conciliatory, to one another solely using musical interaction. Using a combination of decoding studies, computational and psychoacoustical analyses, we show that both musically-trained and non musically-trained listeners can recognize relational intentions encoded in music, and that this social cognitive ability relies, to a sizeable extent, on the information processing of acoustic cues of temporal and harmonic coordination that are not present in any one of the musicians' channels, but emerge from the dynamics of their interaction. By manipulating these cues in two-channel audio recordings and testing their impact on the social judgements of non-musician observers, we finally establish a causal relationship between the affiliation dimension of social behaviour and musical harmonic coordination on the one hand, and between the control dimension and musical temporal coordination on the other hand. These results provide novel mechanistic insights not only into the social cognition of musical interactions, but also into that of non-verbal interactions as a whole. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Framework for Reducing Teaching Challenges Relating to Improvisation of Science Education Equipment and Materials in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuma, Fru Vitalis; Callaghan, Ronel

    2016-01-01

    The science education budget of many secondary schools has decreased, while shortages and environmental concerns linked to conventional Science Education Equipment and Materials (SEEMs) have emerged. Thus, in some schools, resourceful educators produce low-cost equipment from basic materials and use these so-called improvised SEEMs in practical…

  17. Shaping Interpersonal Learning in the Jazz Improvisation Lesson: Observing a Dynamic Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Leon Rene

    2018-01-01

    Music institutions predominantly utilize the one-to-one lesson in developing and supporting music students' learning of skill and knowledge. This article explores the effect that interpersonal interaction plays in shaping pedagogical applications between teacher and student. Observing the learning of improvisation within this individualized social…

  18. Learning Pre-Played Solos: Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Jazz/Improvised Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the self-regulated learning strategies of two advanced students in jazz/improvised music education when learning pre-played solos over well-known jazz tunes. The students were enrolled in a well-established performance degree programme in a music conservatoire, and videotaped their own individual practice sessions. In…

  19. Improv(ing) the Academy: Applied Improvisation as a Strategy for Educational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Jonathan P.; Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista

    2016-01-01

    Improvisational theater training (or "improv") is a strategy employed by many business leaders and educators to cultivate creativity and collaboration amid change. Drawing on improv principles such as "Yes, And…" and "Make your scene partners look good," we explore the ways in which educational developers might apply…

  20. The Effects of Harmonic Accompaniment on the Tonal Improvisations of Students in First through Sixth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbault, Denise Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of harmonic accompaniment on the tonal improvisations of elementary school students. Specifically, this study was designed to (a) determine if the addition of a root melody accompaniment to song instruction affects the implied harmonic changes and harmonic rhythm in the tonal improvisations…

  1. Expertise-related deactivation of the right temporoparietal junction during musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Aaron L; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Musical training has been associated with structural changes in the brain as well as functional differences in brain activity when musicians are compared to nonmusicians on both perceptual and motor tasks. Previous neuroimaging comparisons of musicians and nonmusicians in the motor domain have used tasks involving prelearned motor sequences or synchronization with an auditorily presented sequence during the experiment. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine expertise-related differences in brain activity between musicians and nonmusicians during improvisation--the generation of novel musical-motor sequences--using a paradigm that we previously used in musicians alone. Despite behaviorally matched performance, the two groups showed significant differences in functional brain activity during improvisation. Specifically, musicians deactivated the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) during melodic improvisation, while nonmusicians showed no change in activity in this region. The rTPJ is thought to be part of a ventral attentional network for bottom-up stimulus-driven processing, and it has been postulated that deactivation of this region occurs in order to inhibit attentional shifts toward task-irrelevant stimuli during top-down, goal-driven behavior. We propose that the musicians' deactivation of the rTPJ during melodic improvisation may represent a training-induced shift toward inhibition of stimulus-driven attention, allowing for a more goal-directed performance state that aids in creative thought.

  2. Improvisation as a Curricular Metaphor: Imagining Education for a Rural Creative Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Rural communities contain a largely unacknowledged innovative capacity founded on improvisational traditions. These traditions may be rooted in work practices in agriculture and other rurally-based productive activities but today they have expanded into other lifeworld locations, particularly virtual spaces that accelerate time-space compression.…

  3. Group Playing by Ear in Higher Education: The Processes That Support Imitation, Invention and Group Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how group playing by ear (GEP) through imitation of recorded material and opportunities for inventive work during peer interaction was used to support first year undergraduate western classical music students' aural, group creativity and improvisation skills. The framework that emerged from the analysis of the data describes…

  4. The Power of Limits and the Pleasure of Games: An Easy and Fun Piano Duo Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    This column presents an improvisation game designed to be played by any two musicians from beginner through professional skill level. The author argues that two aspects are critical for success: one, an understanding of the creative power of limits; and, two, the importance of framing the activity as a game. The game, based on the limit of the…

  5. A Case Study of Diverse Multimodal Influences on Music Improvisation Using Visual Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    This case study employed multimodal methods and visual analysis to explore how a young multilingual student used music improvisation to form a speech rap. This student, recently arrived in Australia from Ethiopia, created piano music that was central to his music identity and that simultaneously, through dialogue with his mother, enhanced his…

  6. The Touch "Taboo" and the Art of Contact: An Exploration of Contact Improvisation for Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the experience of participating in Contact Improvisation by male prisoners. It specifically focuses on issues of touch for this participant group and how inmates can learn different ways of acting from acquiring Contact skills, contributing to their rehabilitation. The paper looks at the culture in prisons that propagates a…

  7. A Duet between Science and Art: Neural Correlates of Dance Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savrami, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Dance Improvisation is an essential skill and tool for dancers. It is grounded in the kinesthetic experience and its constantly changing dynamic qualities through self-movement. It requires a spontaneous kinesthetic response in a spatiotemporal vigorous qualitative dynamic happening of affect and movement; a momentum that allows dancers to perform…

  8. Using Improvisational Exercises in General Education to Advance Creativity, Inventiveness and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbert, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Creativity is the process of generating something new or original that has value to an individual, a group, an organization, an industry or a society. Improvisational theater techniques are used to enhance creative thinking and action in a variety of disciplines as broad as education, theater, dance, painting, writing and music, law, business, and…

  9. "The 'Principal' Character": The Triad Approach and Improvisation in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem-Tov, Naphtaly

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on a teaching case, Rona, a student in the educational dance-theatre programme that adopted improvisational teaching to deal with her lack of self-confidence. This lack had denied her feeling free and teaching without inhibitions in the classroom. Rona found a way to release her lack of self-confidence by spontaneously acting…

  10. Behavioral Quantification of Audiomotor Transformations in Improvising and Score-Dependent Musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; van Kranenburg, Peter; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    The historically developed practice of learning to play a music instrument from notes instead of by imitation or improvisation makes it possible to contrast two types of skilled musicians characterized not only by dissimilar performance practices, but also disparate methods of audiomotor learning.

  11. Learning from the Experts: A Study of Free-Improvisation Pedagogues in University Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Maud

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in alternative forms of pedagogy for students in K-12 settings. Free improvisation, a relatively new and unfamiliar genre, offers potential as an ensemble for teachers to provide in order to offer more egalitarian and creative music experiences for their students. The purpose of this multiple case study was to determine…

  12. Common ground: 1970s improvised music as part of a cross-genre Dutch ensemble culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the way in which jazz and Western art music in the Netherlands during the 1970s were intertwined, both social and musically, and how alliances between their avant-gardes (Improvising Musicians and Contemporary Musicians) contributed to what came to be known as Dutch ensemble

  13. Exploring the 12-Key Approach: Perceptions and Experiences of Improvising Jazz Vocalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The 12-key approach is considered a foundational practice strategy for jazz instrumentalists. Its relevance to vocalists, however, seems less clear. This article investigates improvising jazz vocalists' perceptions and experiences of using the 12-key approach as distinguished from instrumentalists'. It uses data from a two-phase, mixed methods…

  14. Beyond borders : broadening the artistic palette of (composing) improvisers in jazz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de D.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this on-line dissertation, jazz saxophonist Dick de Graaf investigates a variety of compositional and improvisational models and techniques in contemporary jazz and Western art music, and discusses possible applications of these materials in current jazz practices. The study includes

  15. Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, Charles J; Braun, Allen R

    2008-02-27

    To investigate the neural substrates that underlie spontaneous musical performance, we examined improvisation in professional jazz pianists using functional MRI. By employing two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity, we found that improvisation (compared to production of over-learned musical sequences) was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex: extensive deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbital regions with focal activation of the medial prefrontal (frontal polar) cortex. Such a pattern may reflect a combination of psychological processes required for spontaneous improvisation, in which internally motivated, stimulus-independent behaviors unfold in the absence of central processes that typically mediate self-monitoring and conscious volitional control of ongoing performance. Changes in prefrontal activity during improvisation were accompanied by widespread activation of neocortical sensorimotor areas (that mediate the organization and execution of musical performance) as well as deactivation of limbic structures (that regulate motivation and emotional tone). This distributed neural pattern may provide a cognitive context that enables the emergence of spontaneous creative activity.

  16. A Preliminary Analysis of Teaching Improvisation with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckel, Julie M.; Neef, Nancy A.; Ferreri, Summer J.

    2006-01-01

    Two young boys with autism who used the picture exchange communication system were taught to solve problems (improvise) by using descriptors (functions, colors, and shapes) to request desired items for which specific pictures were unavailable. The results of a multiple baseline across descriptors showed that training increased the number of…

  17. Coordinated Interpersonal Behaviour in Collective Dance Improvisation: The Aesthetics of Kinaesthetic Togetherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Tommi; Laroche, Julien; Bigé, Romain; Buchkowski, Megan; Bachrach, Asaf

    2018-02-09

    Collective dance improvisation (e.g., traditional and social dancing, contact improvisation) is a participatory, relational and embodied art form which eschews standard concepts in aesthetics. We present our ongoing research into the mechanisms underlying the lived experience of "togetherness" associated with such practices. Togetherness in collective dance improvisation is kinaesthetic (based on movement and its perception), and so can be simultaneously addressed from the perspective of the performers and the spectators, and be measured. We utilise these multiple levels of description: the first-person, phenomenological level of personal experiences, the third-person description of brain and body activity, and the level of interpersonal dynamics. Here, we describe two of our protocols: a four-person mirror game and a 'rhythm battle' dance improvisation score. Using an interpersonal closeness measure after the practice, we correlate subjective sense of individual/group connectedness and observed levels of in-group temporal synchronization. We propose that kinaesthetic togetherness, or interpersonal resonance, is integral to the aesthetic pleasure of the participants and spectators, and that embodied feeling of togetherness might play a role more generally in aesthetic experience in the performing arts.

  18. Emotional, Motivational and Interpersonal Responsiveness of Children with Autism in Improvisational Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint engagement episodes. The randomized controlled study (n = 10)…

  19. Feasibility of a Trial on Improvisational Music Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Bieleninik, Łucja

    2016-01-01

    and strategies to facilitate study implementation is available in the music therapy literature. Objective: Using data from a subsample of a multi-center RCT on improvisational music therapy (IMT) for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study aims to evaluate feasibility of study procedures, evaluate safety...

  20. Common characteristics of improvisational approaches in music therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Carpente, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improvisational methods of music therapy have been increasingly applied in the treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades in many countries worldwide. Objective: This study aimed at developing treatment guidelines based on the most important...

  1. Coordinated Interpersonal Behaviour in Collective Dance Improvisation: The Aesthetics of Kinaesthetic Togetherness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Himberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Collective dance improvisation (e.g., traditional and social dancing, contact improvisation is a participatory, relational and embodied art form which eschews standard concepts in aesthetics. We present our ongoing research into the mechanisms underlying the lived experience of “togetherness” associated with such practices. Togetherness in collective dance improvisation is kinaesthetic (based on movement and its perception, and so can be simultaneously addressed from the perspective of the performers and the spectators, and be measured. We utilise these multiple levels of description: the first-person, phenomenological level of personal experiences, the third-person description of brain and body activity, and the level of interpersonal dynamics. Here, we describe two of our protocols: a four-person mirror game and a ‘rhythm battle’ dance improvisation score. Using an interpersonal closeness measure after the practice, we correlate subjective sense of individual/group connectedness and observed levels of in-group temporal synchronization. We propose that kinaesthetic togetherness, or interpersonal resonance, is integral to the aesthetic pleasure of the participants and spectators, and that embodied feeling of togetherness might play a role more generally in aesthetic experience in the performing arts.

  2. The “Elbow-Way” to Proper Handwashing: A Device Improvised for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of running pipe-borne water is common to developing countries and therefore, water used in hospitals and laboratories are collected in buckets or basins from wells or bore holes. This often leads to contamination of the water from contact with the hands when this is used for routine handwashing. By improvising a ...

  3. Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Limb

    Full Text Available To investigate the neural substrates that underlie spontaneous musical performance, we examined improvisation in professional jazz pianists using functional MRI. By employing two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity, we found that improvisation (compared to production of over-learned musical sequences was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex: extensive deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbital regions with focal activation of the medial prefrontal (frontal polar cortex. Such a pattern may reflect a combination of psychological processes required for spontaneous improvisation, in which internally motivated, stimulus-independent behaviors unfold in the absence of central processes that typically mediate self-monitoring and conscious volitional control of ongoing performance. Changes in prefrontal activity during improvisation were accompanied by widespread activation of neocortical sensorimotor areas (that mediate the organization and execution of musical performance as well as deactivation of limbic structures (that regulate motivation and emotional tone. This distributed neural pattern may provide a cognitive context that enables the emergence of spontaneous creative activity.

  4. Kulanaokuaiki Tephra (ca, A.D. 400-1000): Newly recognized evidence for highly explosive eruptions at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, R.S.; Rose, T.R.; Swanson, D.A.; Champion, D.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    K??lauea may be one of the world's most intensively monitored volcanoes, but its eruptive history over the past several thousand years remains rather poorly known. Our study has revealed the vestiges of thin basaltic tephra deposits, overlooked by previous workers, that originally blanketed wide, near-summit areas and extended more than 17 km to the south coast of Hawai'i. These deposits, correlative with parts of tephra units at the summit and at sites farther north and northwest, show that K??lauea, commonly regarded as a gentle volcano, was the site of energetic pyroclastic eruptions and indicate the volcano is significantly more hazardous than previously realized. Seventeen new calibrated accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon ages suggest these deposits, here named the Kulanaokuaiki Tephra, were emplaced ca. A.D. 400-1000, a time of no previously known pyroclastic activity at the volcano. Tephra correlations are based chiefly on a marker unit that contains unusually high values of TiO2 and K2O and on paleomagnetic signatures of associated lava flows, which show that the Kulanaokuaiki deposits are the time-stratigraphic equivalent of the upper part of a newly exhumed section of the Uw??kahuna Ash in the volcano's northwest caldera wall. This section, thought to have been permanently buried by rockfalls in 1983, is thicker and more complete than the previously accepted type Uw??kahuna at the base of the caldera wall. Collectively, these findings justify the elevation of the Uw??kahuna Ash to formation status; the newly recognized Kulanaokuaiki Tephra to the south, the chief focus of this study, is defined as a member of the Uw??kahuna Ash. The Kulanaokuaiki Tephra is the product of energetic pyroclastic falls; no surge- or pyroclastic-flow deposits were identified with certainty, despite recent interpretations that Uw??kahuna surges extended 10-20 km from K??lauea's summit. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  5. Sorbent Film-Coated Passive Samplers for Explosives Vapour Detection Part A: Materials Optimisation and Integration with Analytical Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneff, Gillian L; Murphy, Bronagh; Webb, Tony; Wood, Dan; Irlam, Rachel; Mills, Jim; Green, David; Barron, Leon P

    2018-04-11

    A new thin-film passive sampler is presented as a low resource dependent and discrete continuous monitoring solution for explosives-related vapours. Using 15 mid-high vapour pressure explosives-related compounds as probes, combinations of four thermally stable substrates and six film-based sorbents were evaluated. Meta-aramid and phenylene oxide-based materials showed the best recoveries from small voids (~70%). Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-high resolution accurate mass spectrometry which also enabled tentative identification of new targets from the acquired data. Preliminary uptake kinetics experiments revealed plateau concentrations on the device were reached between 3-5 days. Compounds used in improvised explosive devices, such as triacetone triperoxide, were detected within 1 hour and were stably retained by the sampler for up to 7 days. Sampler performance was consistent for 22 months after manufacture. Lastly, its direct integration with currently in-service explosives screening equipment including ion mobility spectrometry and thermal desorption mass spectrometry is presented. Following exposure to several open environments and targeted interferences, sampler performance was subsequently assessed and potential interferences identified. High-security building and area monitoring for concealed explosives using such cost-effective and discrete passive samplers can add extra assurance to search routines while minimising any additional burden on personnel or everyday site operation.

  6. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Pras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When musicians improvise freely together—not following any sort of script, predetermined harmonic structure, or “referent”—to what extent do they understand what they are doing in the same way as each other? And to what extent is their understanding privileged relative to outside listeners with similar levels of performing experience in free improvisation? In this exploratory case study, a saxophonist and a pianist of international renown who knew each other's work but who had never performed together before were recorded while improvising freely for 40 min. Immediately afterwards the performers were interviewed separately about the just-completed improvisation, first from memory and then while listening to two 5 min excerpts of the recording in order to prompt specific and detailed commentary. Two commenting listeners from the same performance community (a saxophonist and drummer listened to, and were interviewed about, these excerpts. Some months later, all four participants rated the extent to which they endorsed 302 statements that had been extracted from the four interviews and anonymized. The findings demonstrate that these free jazz improvisers characterized the improvisation quite differently, selecting different moments to comment about and with little overlap in the content of their characterizations. The performers were not more likely to endorse statements by their performing partner than by a commenting listener from the same performance community, and their patterns of agreement with each other (endorsing or dissenting with statements across multiple ratings—their interrater reliability as measured with Cohen's kappa—was only moderate, and not consistently higher than their agreement with the commenting listeners. These performers were more likely to endorse statements about performers' thoughts and actions than statements about the music itself, and more likely to endorse evaluatively positive than negative statements

  7. What About Their Performance Do Free Jazz Improvisers Agree Upon? A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pras, Amandine; Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2017-01-01

    When musicians improvise freely together-not following any sort of script, predetermined harmonic structure, or "referent"-to what extent do they understand what they are doing in the same way as each other? And to what extent is their understanding privileged relative to outside listeners with similar levels of performing experience in free improvisation? In this exploratory case study, a saxophonist and a pianist of international renown who knew each other's work but who had never performed together before were recorded while improvising freely for 40 min. Immediately afterwards the performers were interviewed separately about the just-completed improvisation, first from memory and then while listening to two 5 min excerpts of the recording in order to prompt specific and detailed commentary. Two commenting listeners from the same performance community (a saxophonist and drummer) listened to, and were interviewed about, these excerpts. Some months later, all four participants rated the extent to which they endorsed 302 statements that had been extracted from the four interviews and anonymized. The findings demonstrate that these free jazz improvisers characterized the improvisation quite differently, selecting different moments to comment about and with little overlap in the content of their characterizations. The performers were not more likely to endorse statements by their performing partner than by a commenting listener from the same performance community, and their patterns of agreement with each other (endorsing or dissenting with statements) across multiple ratings-their interrater reliability as measured with Cohen's kappa-was only moderate, and not consistently higher than their agreement with the commenting listeners. These performers were more likely to endorse statements about performers' thoughts and actions than statements about the music itself, and more likely to endorse evaluatively positive than negative statements. But these kinds of statements

  8. A study on Improvisation in a Musical performance using Multifractal Detrended Cross Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Shankha; Banerjee, Archi; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak

    2016-11-01

    MFDFA (the most rigorous technique to assess multifractality) was performed on four Hindustani music samples played on same 'raga' sung by the same performer. Each music sample was divided into six parts and 'multifractal spectral width' was determined for each part corresponding to the four samples. The results obtained reveal that different parts of all the four sound signals possess spectral width of widely varying values. This gives a cue of the so called 'musical improvisation' in all music samples, keeping in mind they belong to the bandish part of the same raga. Formal compositions in Hindustani raga are juxtaposed with the improvised portions, where an artist manoeuvers his/her own creativity to bring out a mood that is specific for that particular performance, which is known as 'improvisation'. Further, this observation hints at the association of different emotions even in the same bandish of the same raga performed by the same artist, this interesting observation cannot be revealed unless rigorous non-linear technique explores the nature of musical structure. In the second part, we applied MFDXA technique to explore more in-depth about 'improvisation' and association with emotion. This technique is applied to find the degree of cross-correlation (γx) between the different parts of the samples. Pronounced correlation has been observed in the middle parts of the all the four samples evident from higher values of γx ​whereas the other parts show weak correlation. This gets further support from the values of spectral width from different parts of the sample - width of those parts is significantly different from other parts. This observation is extremely new both in respect of musical structure of so called improvisation and associated emotion. The importance of this study in application area of cognitive music therapy is immense.

  9. Does improvised waterbed reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude-Kennedy C Emejulu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pressure ulcers are lesions caused by unrelieved pressure over bony prominences, resulting in damage to underlying tissues. The etiology is multifactorial including prolonged immobility. They usually complicate spinal cord injuries with long periods of bed confinement. The use of bed replacements markedly reduces the incidence of pressure ulcers, but the unaffordability of these replacements in low-income countries has necessitated the need to explore cheaper alternatives. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the use of our cheap and locally improvised waterbeds would reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients on prolonged bed confinement due to spinal injury. Methodology: Over a 16-month period, 51 patients (age range 1-80 years with spinal injuries were managed conservatively in our service using improvised waterbeds in 21 (41.2%, while using the regular hospital bed/foam in 30 (58.8%. Biodata, the time interval between injury and presentation to the hospital, nature of the injury, use of improvised waterbed and development of pressure ulcer, were collected, collated, and analyzed. Statistical significance was calculated with the Chi-square test. Results: Most were males (98%, in the age range of 21-30 years (25.5%, and due to fall from heights (35.3%. Of 21 patients who were managed on improvised waterbeds, 6 (28.6% had pressure ulcers, and of the 30 who did not use the waterbed, 17 (56.7% developed ulcers. The c2 = 3.9381, while P = 0.0472. This difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The improvised waterbed, which is much cheaper than the standard waterbed, was observed to have significantly reduced the incidence of pressure ulcers among our patients. Nonetheless, further studies would still be needed to confirm this observation.

  10. Underbody Blast Models of TBI Caused by Hyper-Acceleration and Secondary Head Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    brain injury (TBI), with most of these head injuries caused by explosive munitions such as bombs , land mines, improvised explosive devices and missiles...with most of these injuries caused by explosive munitions such as bombs , land mines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and missiles.1,2 Little is...Neurosurg. 2008;108: 124–131. 21. Richards EM , Fiskum G, Rosenthal RE, Hopkins I, McKenna MC. Hyperoxic reperfusion after global ischemia decreases

  11. Explosive Infrasonic Events: Sensor Comparison Experiment (SCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garces, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    SCE (sensor comparison experiment) 1 through 4 consists of a series of four controlled above-ground explosions designed to provide new data for overpressure propagation. Infrasound data were collected by LLNL iPhones and other sensors. Origin times, locations HOB, and yields are not being released at this time and are therefore not included in this report. This preliminary report will be updated as access to additional data changes, or instrument responses are determined.

  12. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  13. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  14. Simulation of steam explosion in stratified melt-coolant configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, Matjaž; Centrih, Vasilij; Uršič, Mitja

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously in stratified configurations. • Considerable melt-coolant premixed layer formed in subcooled water with hot melts. • Analysis with MC3D code provided insight into stratified steam explosion phenomenon. • Up to 25% of poured melt was mixed with water and available for steam explosion. • Better instrumented experiments needed to determine dominant mixing process. - Abstract: A steam explosion is an energetic fuel coolant interaction process, which may occur during a severe reactor accident when the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. In nuclear reactor safety analyses steam explosions are primarily considered in melt jet-coolant pool configurations where sufficiently deep coolant pool conditions provide complete jet breakup and efficient premixture formation. Stratified melt-coolant configurations, i.e. a molten melt layer below a coolant layer, were up to now believed as being unable to generate strong explosive interactions. Based on the hypothesis that there are no interfacial instabilities in a stratified configuration it was assumed that the amount of melt in the premixture is insufficient to produce strong explosions. However, the recently performed experiments in the PULiMS and SES (KTH, Sweden) facilities with oxidic corium simulants revealed that strong steam explosions may develop spontaneously also in stratified melt-coolant configurations, where with high temperature melts and subcooled water conditions a considerable melt-coolant premixed layer is formed. In the article, the performed study of steam explosions in a stratified melt-coolant configuration in PULiMS like conditions is presented. The goal of this analytical work is to supplement the experimental activities within the PULiMS research program by addressing the key questions, especially regarding the explosivity of the formed premixed layer and the mechanisms responsible for the melt-water mixing. To

  15. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting powder. BTNEC [bis.... Esters of nitro-substituted alcohols. Ethyl-tetryl. Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive... silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G Gelatinized...

  16. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting powder. BTNEC [bis.... Esters of nitro-substituted alcohols. Ethyl-tetryl. Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive.... Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver. G...

  17. A Computational Investigation of Various Water-Induced Explosion Mitigation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Guidelines for Evaluating the Characteristics of Vapor Cloud Explosions, Flash Fires, and BLEVEs , Center for Chemical Process Safety, AIChE, New York, NY...1994. [6]. Liebman and J. K. Richmond, Suppression of Coal Dust Explosions by Passive Water Barriers in a single Entry Mine , U.S. Bureau of Mines ...R.I. 8294, 1974. [7]. Liebman, J. Corry and J. K. Richmond, Water Barriers for Suppressing Coal Dust Explosions, U.S. Bureau of Mines R.I. 8170

  18. Aspects regarding explosion risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Părăian Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive risk occurs in all activities involving flammable substances in the form of gases, vapors, mists or dusts which, in mixture with air, can generate an explosive atmosphere. As explosions can cause human losses and huge material damage, the assessment of the explosion risk and the establishment of appropriate measures to reduce it to acceptable levels according to the standards and standards in force is of particular importance for the safety and health of people and goods.There is no yet a recognized method of assessing the explosion risk, but regardless of the applied method, the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere occurrence has to be determined, together with the occurrence of an efficient ignition source and the magnitude of foreseeable consequences. In assessment processes, consequences analysis has a secondary importance since it’s likely that explosions would always involve considerable damage, starting from important material damages and up to human damages that could lead to death.The purpose of the work is to highlight the important principles and elements to be taken into account for a specific risk assessment. An essential element in assessing the risk of explosion in workplaces where explosive atmospheres may occur is technical installations and personal protective equipment (PPE that must be designed, manufactured, installed and maintained so that they cannot generate a source of ignition. Explosion prevention and protection requirements are governed by specific norms and standards, and a main part of the explosion risk assessment is related to the assessment of the compliance of the equipment / installation with these requirements.

  19. Emotional Intent Modulates The Neural Substrates Of Creativity: An fMRI Study of Emotionally Targeted Improvisation in Jazz Musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Malinda J. McPherson; Frederick S. Barrett; Monica Lopez-Gonzalez; Patpong Jiradejvong; Charles J. Limb

    2016-01-01

    Emotion is a primary motivator for creative behaviors, yet the interaction between the neural systems involved in creativity and those involved in emotion has not been studied. In the current study, we addressed this gap by using fMRI to examine piano improvisation in response to emotional cues. We showed twelve professional jazz pianists photographs of an actress representing a positive, negative or ambiguous emotion. Using a non-ferromagnetic thirty-five key keyboard, the pianists improvise...

  20. The effectiveness and influence of Vocal and Instrumental Improvisation in Music Therapy on children diagnosed with autism. Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Knapik-Szweda

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder which is difficult to recognize and diagnose. The present study examines the effectiveness of music therapy intervention based on improvisational techniques with the elements of Creative Music Therapy by Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins and improvisational techniques by Tony Wigram (such as imitating, frameworking, dialogues, holding) on developmentl of children with Autism (two boys diagnosed with autism - case 1. and case 2), especially in verbal and nonver...

  1. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  2. Kaliski's explosive driven fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment performed by a group in Poland on the production of DD fusion neutrons by purely explosive means is discussed. A method for multiplying shock velocities ordinarily available from high explosives by a factor of ten is described, and its application to DD fusion experiments is discussed

  3. Degassing Processes at Persistently Active Explosive Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, Jean-Francois

    Among volcanic gases, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is by far the most commonly measured. More than a monitoring proxy for volcanic degassing, SO 2 has the potential to alter climate patterns. Persistently active explosive volcanoes are characterized by short explosive bursts, which often occur at periodic intervals numerous times per day, spanning years to decades. SO 2 emissions at those volcanoes are poorly constrained, in large part because the current satellite monitoring techniques are unable to detect or quantify plumes of low concentration in the troposphere. Eruption plumes also often show high concentrations of ash and/or aerosols, which further inhibit the detection methods. In this work I focus on quantifying volcanic gas emissions at persistently active explosive volcanoes and their variations over short timescales (minutes to hours), in order to document their contribution to natural SO2 flux as well as investigate the physical processes that control their behavior. In order to make these measurements, I first develop and assemble a UV ground-based instrument, and validate it against an independently measured source of SO2 at a coal-burning power plant in Arizona. I establish a measurement protocol and demonstrate that the instrument measures SO 2 fluxes with Indonesia), a volcano that has been producing cycles of repeated explosions with periods of minutes to hours for the past several decades. Semeru produces an average of 21-71 tons of SO2 per day, amounting to a yearly output of 8-26 Mt. Using the Semeru data, along with a 1-D transient numerical model of magma ascent, I test the validity of a model in which a viscous plug at the top of the conduit produces cycles of eruption and gas release. I find that it can be a valid hypothesis to explain the observed patterns of degassing at Semeru. Periodic behavior in such a system occurs for a very narrow range of conditions, for which the mass balance between magma flux and open-system gas escape repeatedly

  4. A Hydrogen Ignition Mechanism for Explosions in Nuclear Facility Piping Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, Robert A.

    2013-09-18

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  5. Nuclear explosions and their effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-01-01

    A brief historical background is given of the development of the atomic bomb. Also included is an account of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombing, plus some information on the testing and production of nuclear weapons by the United States, United Kingdom, and Russia. More detailed consideration is given to the following: the scientific principles of fission and fusion explosions; the energy released in fission and the radioactivity of fission products; blast, thermal, and radiologicalal effects of nuclear explosions; long-term radiological hazards from fall-out; and genetic effects of nuclear explosions. A brief account is given of the fission chain process, the concept of critical size, and the principles of implosion as applied to nuclear explosions. Limited information is presented on the controlled release of thermonuclear energy and catalyzed fusion reaction. Discussions are included on dose rates from radiation sources inside and outside the body, the effect of nuclear explosions on the weather, and the contamination of fish and marine organisms.

  6. Thermochemistry of mixed explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janney, J.L.; Rogers, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In order to predict thermal hazards of high-energy materials, accurate kinetics constants must be determined. Predictions of thermal hazards for mixtures of high-energy materials require measurements on the mixtures, because interactions among components are common. A differential-scanning calorimeter (DSC) can be used to observe rate processes directly, and isothermal methods enable detection of mechanism changes. Rate-controlling processes will change as components of a mixture are depleted, and the correct depletion function must be identified for each specific stage of a complex process. A method for kinetics measurements on mixed explosives can be demonstrated with Composition B is an approximately 60/40 mixture of RDX and TNT, and is an important military explosive. Kinetics results indicate that the mator process is the decomposition of RDX in solution in TNT with a perturbation caused by interaction between the two components. It is concluded that a combination of chemical kinetics and experimental self-heating procedures provides a good approach to the production of predictive models for thermal hazards of high-energy materials. Systems involving more than one energy-contributing component can be studied. Invalid and dangerous predictive models can be detected by a failure of agreement between prediction and experiment at a specific size, shape, and density. Rates of thermal decomposition for Composition B appear to be modeled adequately for critical-temperature predictions with the following kinetics constants: E = 180.2 kJ mole -1 and Z = 4.62 X 10 16 s -1

  7. Explosive magnetorotational instability in Keplerian disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtemler, Yu., E-mail: shtemler@bgu.ac.il; Liverts, E., E-mail: eliverts@bgu.ac.il; Mond, M., E-mail: mond@bgu.ac.il [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-06-15

    Differentially rotating disks under the effect of axial magnetic field are prone to a nonlinear explosive magnetorotational instability (EMRI). The dynamic equations that govern the temporal evolution of the amplitudes of three weakly detuned resonantly interacting modes are derived. As distinct from exponential growth in the strict resonance triads, EMRI occurs due to the resonant interactions of an MRI mode with stable Alfvén–Coriolis and magnetosonic modes. Numerical solutions of the dynamic equations for amplitudes of a triad indicate that two types of perturbations behavior can be excited for resonance conditions: (i) EMRI which leads to infinite values of the three amplitudes within a finite time, and (ii) bounded irregular oscillations of all three amplitudes. Asymptotic explicit solutions of the dynamic equations are obtained for EMRI regimes and are shown to match the numerical solutions near the explosion time.

  8. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  9. An Analysis of improvisational budgeting from calendar year 1990 to 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Buell, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Improvisational budgeting represents an interruption to the normal budgeting process, resulting in costly delays to the defense Planning Programming and Budgeting Process (PPBS). A normal congressional budget process was characterized by Congress' ability to follow established procedures, complete their budget in a timely manner and fulfill their expected roles for applying incremental adjustments to the budget. The latent pro-spending...

  10. The Role of Emotion in Musical Improvisation: An Analysis of Structural Features

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, Malinda J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Rankin, Summer K.; Limb, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary functions of music is to convey emotion, yet how music accomplishes this task remains unclear. For example, simple correlations between mode (major vs. minor) and emotion (happy vs. sad) do not adequately explain the enormous range, subtlety or complexity of musically induced emotions. In this study, we examined the structural features of unconstrained musical improvisations generated by jazz pianists in response to emotional cues. We hypothesized that musicians would not u...

  11. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading.

  12. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose eEngel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the aesthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%, which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners’ hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners’ judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer’s actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual’s action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  13. Taking two to tango: fMRI analysis of improvised joint action with physical contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Many forms of joint action involve physical coupling between the participants, such as when moving a sofa together or dancing a tango. We report the results of a novel two-person functional MRI study in which trained couple dancers engaged in bimanual contact with an experimenter standing next to the bore of the magnet, and in which the two alternated between being the leader and the follower of joint improvised movements. Leading showed a general pattern of self-orientation, being associated with brain areas involved in motor planning, navigation, sequencing, action monitoring, and error correction. In contrast, following showed a far more sensory, externally-oriented pattern, revealing areas involved in somatosensation, proprioception, motion tracking, social cognition, and outcome monitoring. We also had participants perform a “mutual” condition in which the movement patterns were pre-learned and the roles were symmetric, thereby minimizing any tendency toward either leading or following. The mutual condition showed greater activity in brain areas involved in mentalizing and social reward than did leading or following. Finally, the analysis of improvisation revealed the dual importance of motor-planning and working-memory areas. We discuss these results in terms of theories of both joint action and improvisation. PMID:29324862

  14. Generation of novel motor sequences: the neural correlates of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Aaron L; Ansari, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    While some motor behavior is instinctive and stereotyped or learned and re-executed, much action is a spontaneous response to a novel set of environmental conditions. The neural correlates of both pre-learned and cued motor sequences have been previously studied, but novel motor behavior has thus far not been examined through brain imaging. In this paper, we report a study of musical improvisation in trained pianists with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using improvisation as a case study of novel action generation. We demonstrate that both rhythmic (temporal) and melodic (ordinal) motor sequence creation modulate activity in a network of brain regions comprised of the dorsal premotor cortex, the rostral cingulate zone of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the inferior frontal gyrus. These findings are consistent with a role for the dorsal premotor cortex in movement coordination, the rostral cingulate zone in voluntary selection, and the inferior frontal gyrus in sequence generation. Thus, the invention of novel motor sequences in musical improvisation recruits a network of brain regions coordinated to generate possible sequences, select among them, and execute the decided-upon sequence.

  15. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annerose; Keller, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the esthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%), which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners' hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness) in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners' judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer's actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual's action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  16. Core Themes in Music Therapy Clinical Improvisation: An Arts-Informed Qualitative Research Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Anthony; Wimpenny, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Although clinical improvisation continues to be an important focus of music therapy research and practice, less attention has been given to integrating qualitative research in this area. As a result, this knowledge base tends to be contained within specific areas of practice rather than integrated across practices and approaches. This qualitative research synthesis profiles, integrates, and re-presents qualitative research focused on the ways music therapists and clients engage in, and make meaning from, clinical improvisation. Further, as a conduit for broadening dialogues, opening up this landscape fully, and sharing our response to the analysis and interpretation process, we present an arts-informed re-presentation of this synthesis. Following an eight-step methodological sequence, 13 qualitative studies were synthesized. This included reciprocal and refutational processes associated with synthesizing the primary studies, and additional steps associated with an arts-informed representation. Three themes, professional artistry, performing self, and meaning-making, are presented. Each theme is explored and exemplified through the selected articles, and discussed within a larger theoretical framework. An artistic re-presentation of the data is also presented. Music therapists use complex frameworks through which to engage clients in, and make meaning from, improvisational experiences. Artistic representation of the findings offers an added dimension to the synthesis process, challenging our understanding of representation, and thereby advancing synthesis methodology. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Peaceful applications of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, L.B.

    1975-12-01

    The intension of this report is to give a survey of the field of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions. As an introduction some examples of possibilities of application are given together with a simple description of nuclear explosions under ground. After a summary of what has been done and will be done in this field nationally and internationally, a short discussion of advantages and problems with peaceful application of nuclear explosions follows. The risks of spreading nuclear weapons due to this applications are also touched before the report is finished with an attempt to judge the future development in this field. (M.S.)

  18. Donor free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  19. Explosive coalescence of Magnetic Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.I.

    1985-04-01

    An explosive reconnection process associated with nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability is found through studies of particle and magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The explosive coalescence is a self-similar process of magnetic collapse, in which the magnetic and electrostatic energies and temperatures explode toward the explosion time t 0 as (t 0 -t)/sup 8/3/,(t 0 -t) -4 , and (t 0 -t)/sup -8/3/, respectively. Ensuing amplitude oscillations in these quantities are identified by deriving an equation of motion for the scale factor in the Sagdeev potential

  20. Explosive strength training improves speed and agility in wheelchair basketball athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tarik Ozmen; Bekir Yuktasir; Necmiye Un Yildirim; Birol Yalcin; Mark ET Willems

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs) were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES); control (CN)] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Fede...

  1. Development of steam explosion simulation code JASMINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nagano, Katsuhiro; Araki, Kazuhiro

    1995-11-01

    A steam explosion is considered as a phenomenon which possibly threatens the integrity of the containment vessel of a nuclear power plant in a severe accident condition. A numerical calculation code JASMINE (JAeri Simulator for Multiphase INteraction and Explosion) purposed to simulate the whole process of steam explosions has been developed. The premixing model is based on a multiphase flow simulation code MISTRAL by Fuji Research Institute Co. In JASMINE code, the constitutive equations and the flow regime map are modified for the simulation of premixing related phenomena. The numerical solution method of the original code is succeeded, i.e. the basic equations are discretized semi-implicitly, BCGSTAB method is used for the matrix solver to improve the stability and convergence, also TVD scheme is applied to capture a steep phase distribution accurately. Test calculations have been performed for the conditions correspond to the experiments by Gilbertson et al. and Angelini et al. in which mixing of solid particles and water were observed in iso-thermal condition and with boiling, respectively. (author).

  2. Development of steam explosion simulation code JASMINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Sugimoto, Jun; Nagano, Katsuhiro; Araki, Kazuhiro.

    1995-11-01

    A steam explosion is considered as a phenomenon which possibly threatens the integrity of the containment vessel of a nuclear power plant in a severe accident condition. A numerical calculation code JASMINE (JAeri Simulator for Multiphase INteraction and Explosion) purposed to simulate the whole process of steam explosions has been developed. The premixing model is based on a multiphase flow simulation code MISTRAL by Fuji Research Institute Co. In JASMINE code, the constitutive equations and the flow regime map are modified for the simulation of premixing related phenomena. The numerical solution method of the original code is succeeded, i.e. the basic equations are discretized semi-implicitly, BCGSTAB method is used for the matrix solver to improve the stability and convergence, also TVD scheme is applied to capture a steep phase distribution accurately. Test calculations have been performed for the conditions correspond to the experiments by Gilbertson et al. and Angelini et al. in which mixing of solid particles and water were observed in iso-thermal condition and with boiling, respectively. (author)

  3. Explosive actuated valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means

  4. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Joshua David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  5. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  6. Phenomenological modelling of steam explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Drumheller, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    During a hypothetical core meltdown accident, an important safety issue to be addressed is the potential for steam explosions. This paper presents analysis and modelling of experimental results. There are four observations that can be drawn from the analysis: (1) vapor explosions are suppressed by noncondensible gases generated by fuel oxidation, by high ambient pressure, and by high water temperatures; (2) these effects appear to be trigger-related in that an explosion can again be induced in some cases by increasing the trigger magnitude; (3) direct fuel liquid-coolant liquid contact can explain small scale fuel fragmentation; (4) heat transfer during the expansion phase of the explosion can reduce the work potential

  7. Water-bearing explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, G M

    1970-12-21

    An explosive water-bearing composition, with high detonation velocity, comprises a mixture of (1) an inorganic oxidizer salt; (2) nitroglycerine; (3) nitrocellulose; (4) water; and (5) a water thickening agent. (11 claims)

  8. Neutrino oscillations in magnetically driven supernova explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawagoe, Shio; Kotake, Kei [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Takiwaki, Tomoya, E-mail: shio.k@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: takiwaki.tomoya@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: kkotake@th.nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2009-09-01

    We investigate neutrino oscillations from core-collapse supernovae that produce magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) explosions. By calculating numerically the flavor conversion of neutrinos in the highly non-spherical envelope, we study how the explosion anisotropy has impacts on the emergent neutrino spectra through the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In the case of the inverted mass hierarchy with a relatively large θ{sub 13} (sin{sup 2} 2θ{sub 13} ∼> 10{sup −3}), we show that survival probabilities of ν-bar {sub e} and ν{sub e} seen from the rotational axis of the MHD supernovae (i.e., polar direction), can be significantly different from those along the equatorial direction. The event numbers of ν-bar {sub e} observed from the polar direction are predicted to show steepest decrease, reflecting the passage of the magneto-driven shock to the so-called high-resonance regions. Furthermore we point out that such a shock effect, depending on the original neutrino spectra, appears also for the low-resonance regions, which could lead to a noticeable decrease in the ν{sub e} signals. This reflects a unique nature of the magnetic explosion featuring a very early shock-arrival to the resonance regions, which is in sharp contrast to the neutrino-driven delayed supernova models. Our results suggest that the two features in the ν-bar {sub e} and ν{sub e} signals, if visible to the Super-Kamiokande for a Galactic supernova, could mark an observational signature of the magnetically driven explosions, presumably linked to the formation of magnetars and/or long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

  9. Neutrino oscillations in magnetically driven supernova explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Shio; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei

    2009-09-01

    We investigate neutrino oscillations from core-collapse supernovae that produce magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) explosions. By calculating numerically the flavor conversion of neutrinos in the highly non-spherical envelope, we study how the explosion anisotropy has impacts on the emergent neutrino spectra through the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In the case of the inverted mass hierarchy with a relatively large θ13 (sin2 2θ13 gtrsim 10-3), we show that survival probabilities of bar nue and νe seen from the rotational axis of the MHD supernovae (i.e., polar direction), can be significantly different from those along the equatorial direction. The event numbers of bar nue observed from the polar direction are predicted to show steepest decrease, reflecting the passage of the magneto-driven shock to the so-called high-resonance regions. Furthermore we point out that such a shock effect, depending on the original neutrino spectra, appears also for the low-resonance regions, which could lead to a noticeable decrease in the νe signals. This reflects a unique nature of the magnetic explosion featuring a very early shock-arrival to the resonance regions, which is in sharp contrast to the neutrino-driven delayed supernova models. Our results suggest that the two features in the bar nue and νe signals, if visible to the Super-Kamiokande for a Galactic supernova, could mark an observational signature of the magnetically driven explosions, presumably linked to the formation of magnetars and/or long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with explosives...

  11. Explosives mimic for testing, training, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John G.; Durban, Matthew M.; Gash, Alexander E.; Grapes, Michael D.; Kelley, Ryan S.; Sullivan, Kyle T.

    2018-02-13

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is used to make mimics for explosives. The process uses mixtures of explosives and matrices commonly used in AM. The explosives are formulated into a mixture with the matrix and printed using AM techniques and equipment. The explosive concentrations are kept less than 10% by wt. of the mixture to conform to requirements of shipping and handling.

  12. 8. Peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter deals with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Described are the development of the underground nuclear explosion, properties of radionuclides formed during the explosion, their distribution, the release of radioactive products of underground nuclear explosions into the air, their propagation in the atmosphere, and fallout in the landscape. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 8 figs., 19 refs

  13. Computer simulation of explosion crater in dams with different buried depths of explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Ye, Longzhen

    2018-04-01

    Based on multi-material ALE method, this paper conducted a computer simulation on the explosion crater in dams with different buried depths of explosive using LS-DYNA program. The results turn out that the crater size increases with the increase of buried depth of explosive at first, but closed explosion cavity rather than a visible crater is formed when the buried depth of explosive increases to some extent. The soil in the explosion cavity is taken away by the explosion products and the soil under the explosion cavity is compressed with its density increased. The research can provide some reference for the anti-explosion design of dams in the future.

  14. Vapour cloud explosion hazard greater with light feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windebank, C.S.

    1980-03-03

    Because lighter chemical feedstocks such as propylene and butylenes are more reactive than LPG's they pose a greater risk of vapor cloud explosion, particularly during their transport. According to C.S. Windebank (Insurance Tech. Bur.), percussive unconfined vapor cloud explosions (PUVCE's) do not usually occur below the ten-ton threshold for saturated hydrocarbons but can occur well below this threshold in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons such as propylene and butylenes. Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVE's) are more likely to be ''hot'' (i.e., the original explosion is associated with fire) than ''cold'' in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons. No PUVCE or BLEVE incident has been reported in the UK. In the US, 16 out of 20 incidents recorded between 1970 and 1975 were related to chemical feedstocks, including propylene and butylenes, and only 4 were LPG-related. The average losses were $20 million per explosion. Between 1968 and 1978, 8% of LPG pipeline spillages led to explosions.

  15. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  16. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  17. Safety engineering experiments of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Noboru

    1987-07-24

    The outline of large scale experiments carried out every year since 1969 to obtain fundamental data and then establish the safety engineering standards concerning the manufacturing, storage and transportation, etc. of all explosives was described. Because it becomes recently difficult to ensure the safety distance in powder magazines and powder plants, the sandwich structure with sand is thought to be suitable as the neighboring barrier walls. The special vertical structure for embankments to provide against a emergency explosion is effective to absorb the blast. Explosion behaviors such as initiating sensitivity, detonation, sympathetic detonation, and shock occurence of the ANFO explosives in place of dynamite and the slurry explosives were studied. The safety engineering standards for the manufacturing and application of explosives were studied to establish because accidents by tabacco fire are not still distinguished. Much data concerning early stage fire fighting, a large quantity of flooding and shock occurence from a assumption of ignition during machining in the propellants manufacturing plant, could be obtained. Basic studies were made to prevent pollution in blasting sites. Collected data are utilized for the safety administration after sufficient discussion. (4 figs, 2 tabs, 3 photos, 17 refs)

  18. Trace explosives sensor testbed (TESTbed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Greg E.; Malito, Michael P.; Tamanaha, Cy R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Giordano, Braden C.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Field, Christopher R.; Rogers, Duane A.; Jeffries, Russell A.; Colton, Richard J.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2017-03-01

    A novel vapor delivery testbed, referred to as the Trace Explosives Sensor Testbed, or TESTbed, is demonstrated that is amenable to both high- and low-volatility explosives vapors including nitromethane, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, triacetone triperoxide, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The TESTbed incorporates a six-port dual-line manifold system allowing for rapid actuation between a dedicated clean air source and a trace explosives vapor source. Explosives and explosives-related vapors can be sourced through a number of means including gas cylinders, permeation tube ovens, dynamic headspace chambers, and a Pneumatically Modulated Liquid Delivery System coupled to a perfluoroalkoxy total-consumption microflow nebulizer. Key features of the TESTbed include continuous and pulseless control of trace vapor concentrations with wide dynamic range of concentration generation, six sampling ports with reproducible vapor profile outputs, limited low-volatility explosives adsorption to the manifold surface, temperature and humidity control of the vapor stream, and a graphical user interface for system operation and testing protocol implementation.

  19. Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Anna Rita; Anelli, Filomena; Benghi, Diber; Friberg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this article children's musical improvisation is investigated through the "reflexive interaction" paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a "reflexive" output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6-7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the children's abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the children's ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational skills, and necessary

  20. Connecting to create: expertise in musical improvisation is associated with increased functional connectivity between premotor and prefrontal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ana Luísa; de Manzano, Örjan; Fransson, Peter; Eriksson, Helene; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-04-30

    Musicians have been used extensively to study neural correlates of long-term practice, but no studies have investigated the specific effects of training musical creativity. Here, we used human functional MRI to measure brain activity during improvisation in a sample of 39 professional pianists with varying backgrounds in classical and jazz piano playing. We found total hours of improvisation experience to be negatively associated with activity in frontoparietal executive cortical areas. In contrast, improvisation training was positively associated with functional connectivity of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, dorsal premotor cortices, and presupplementary areas. The effects were significant when controlling for hours of classical piano practice and age. These results indicate that even neural mechanisms involved in creative behaviors, which require a flexible online generation of novel and meaningful output, can be automated by training. Second, improvisational musical training can influence functional brain properties at a network level. We show that the greater functional connectivity seen in experienced improvisers may reflect a more efficient exchange of information within associative networks of importance for musical creativity.

  1. Nucleosynthesis in cold white dwarf explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, R.; Hernanz, M.

    1986-01-01

    Type I supernovae (SNI) are generally thought to be the main contributors to the galactic nucleosynthesis of iron-peak elements and their yields of intermediate-mass elements may also be important. We concentrate here upon a different class of models, based on the explosion of cold, massive, partially solid white dwarfs. We show that such white dwarfs must be relatively frequent among SNI progenitors and how their hydrodynamics upon ignition is very different from that of hotter, fluid white dwarfs. The implications for nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed and some preliminary results are presented

  2. Explosive coalescence of magnetic islands and explosive particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.I.

    1985-07-01

    An explosive reconnection process associated with the nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability is found through studies of the electromagnetic particle simulation and the magnetohydrodynamic particle simulation. The explosive coalescence is a process of magnetic collapse, in which we find the magnetic and electrostatic field energies and temperatures (ion temperature in the coalescing direction, in particular) explode toward the explosion time t 0 as (t 0 - t)/sup -8/3/, (t 0 - t) -4 , and (t 0 - t)/sup -8/3/, respectively for a canonical case. Single-peak, double-peak, and triple-peak structures of magnetic energy, temperature, and electrostatic energy, respectively, are observed on the simulation as overshoot amplitude oscillations and are theoretically explained. The heuristic model of Brunel and Tajima is extended to this explosive coalescence in order to extract the basic process. Since the explosive coalescence exhibits self-similarity, a temporal universality, we theoretically search for a self-similar solution to the two-fluid plasma equations

  3. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Jiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E and energy release rate (η peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  4. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qingjie; Wang, Qiushi; Nie, Jianxin; Guo, Xueyong; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Wenqi

    2018-03-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX) based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm) grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es) continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb) increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E) and energy release rate (η) peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  5. Fa-fa-fa-fa, de doo doo doo, de da da da, sha la la la lee : What is the optimal syllable in improvised singing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, Laura; Gilbers, Dicky; Lowie, Wander; Kager, René; Grijzenhout, Janet; Sebregts, Koen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and account for the optimal syllable structure in improvised singing without lyrics. Improvised singing has an overall relaxed character and it is abstracted from meaning. Furthermore, singing in general involves an exaggerated articulation of speech sounds.

  6. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sehwan; Lee, Jihyeon; KIm, Jeongkwon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungman; Koh, Sungsuk [Sensor Tech Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H]{sup -} for TNT and DNT or [M]{sup ·-}. for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO]{sup -}. These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available.

  7. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sehwan; Lee, Jihyeon; KIm, Jeongkwon; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee; Lee, Sungman; Koh, Sungsuk

    2013-01-01

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H] - for TNT and DNT or [M] ·- . for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO] - . These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available

  8. Frictional properties of single crystals HMX, RDX and PETN explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.Q.; Huang, F.L.

    2010-01-01

    The frictional properties of single crystals of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) secondary explosives are examined using a sensitive friction machine. The explosive crystals used for the measurements are at least 3.5 mm wide. The friction coefficients between crystals of the same explosive (i.e., HMX on HMX, etc.), crystals of different explosives (i.e., HMX on RDX, etc.), and each explosive and a well-polished gauge steel surface are determined. The frictional surfaces are also studied under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) to analyze surface microstructural changes under increasing loading forces. The friction coefficients vary considerably with increasing normal loading forces and are particularly sensitive to slider shapes, crystal roughness and the mechanical properties of both the slider and the sample. With increasing loading forces, most friction experiments show surface damage, consisting of grooves, debris, and nano-particles, on both the slider and sample. In some cases, a strong evidence of a localized molten state is found in the central region of the friction track. Possible mechanisms that affect the friction coefficient are discussed based on microscopic observations.

  9. 2. Rhythmical Creativity in Duple and Triple Meter of Students of Early-School Education in the Light of Their Stabilised Musical Aptitudes and Rhythm Readiness to Improvise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołodziejski Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of (author's own research on the students of earlyschool education imitation and the rhythmical improvisation in the light of their stabilised musical aptitudes measured with Edwin E. Gordon's AMMA test and also Edwin E. Gordon's readiness to rhythm improvisation readiness record (RIRR. In the first part of the research the students imitated some rhythmical patterns diversified in terms of difficulty in duple and triple meter and the subsequent part concerned guiding the oral rhythmical dialogue (on the BAH syllable by the teacher with the application of various rhythmical motives in different metres. The students' both imitative and improvising performances were rated by three competent judges. What was undertaken was searching for the relations between musical aptitudes, improvisation readiness and the pupils' rhythmical imitation and improvisation abilities.

  10. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    the star's explosion. They did this by comparing images of the object, called G1.9+0.3, made more than two decades apart. In 1985, astronomers led by Green observed G1.9+0.3 with the VLA and identified it as a supernova remnant. At that time, they estimated its age as between 400 and 1,000 years. It is near the center of our Galaxy, roughly 25,000 light-years from Earth. In 2007, another team of astronomers, led by Stephen Reynolds of North Carolina State University, observed the object with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. To their surprise, their image showed the object to be about 16 percent larger than in the 1985 VLA image. "This is a huge difference. It means the explosion debris is expanding very quickly, which in turn means the object is much younger than we originally thought," Reynolds explained. However, this expansion measurement came from comparing a radio image to an X-ray image. To make an "apples to apples" comparison, the scientists sought and were quickly granted observing time on the VLA. "I've never seen a large astronomical institution move so fast," said Reynolds. Their new VLA observations confirmed the supernova remnant's rapid expansion. The discovery provides scientists with a valuable source of new information about exploding stars. "Our previous situation was as if someone studying humans could look at babies and at adults, but could not study teenagers. Now, we're filling in that gap," said Reynolds. The object already has provided surprises. The velocities of its explosion debris and extreme energies of its particles are unprecedented. "No other object in the Galaxy has properties like this," said Reynolds. "Finding G1.9+0.3 is extremely important for learning more about how some stars explode and what happens in the aftermath," he added. The discovery was possible because radio and X-ray telescopes, unlike visible-light telescopes, can penetrate the thick clouds of gas and dust in our Galaxy. "Looking out of the Milky Way, we can see some

  11. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  12. Electromagnetic field effects in explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas

    2009-06-01

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: measurements of conductivity; enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Hayes...()^1 showed a strong correlation of peak electrical conductivity with carbon content of the detonation products. Ershov.......^2 linked detailed electrical conductivity measurements with reaction kinetics and this work was extended to enhance detonation performance electrically;...^3 for this, electrical power densities of the order of 100 TW/m^2 of explosive surface normal to the detonation front were required. However, small electrical powers are required to affect the initiation and growth of reaction.......^4,5 A continuation of this work will be reported. LA-UR 09-00873 .^1 B. Hayes, Procs. of 4th Symposium (International) on Detonation (1965), p. 595. ^2 A. Ershov, P. Zubkov, and L. Luk'yanchikov, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 10, 776-782 (1974). ^3 M. Cowperthwaite, Procs. 9th Detonation Symposium (1989), p. 388-395. ^4 M. A. Cook and T. Z. Gwyther, ``Influence of Electric Fields on Shock to Detonation Transition,'' (1965). ^5 D. Salisbury, R. Winter, and L. Biddle, Procs. of the APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (2005) p. 1010-1013.

  13. Medical improvisation training to enhance the antenatal counseling skills of neonatologists and neonatal fellows: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Taylor; Fu, Belinda; Gray, Megan; Umoren, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    Neonatologists must be skilled at providing antenatal counseling to expectant parents of premature infants at the limits of viability. We conducted a medical improvisation workshop with the objective of enhancing antenatal counseling skills. Pre- and postworkshop questionnaires were collected to examine the impact of the training. A follow-up survey was distributed 3 months after the workshop to examine the impact of the training on antenatal counseling skills. Nine neonatologists and three neonatal fellows participated in the workshop. Participants reported the skills learned in the workshop could enhance the quality of antenatal counseling. On follow-up survey, 90% of subjects reported improvements in the quality of their antenatal counseling. Participation in a medical improvisation workshop resulted in enhancements of self-perceived antenatal counseling skills. Medical improvisation training may provide a feasible and effective method of communication training for neonatologists. Further research into this innovative method are needed.

  14. Tablets in the Classroom: Improvisational Rhythms and Change through Bricolage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bente

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the multiple agents of educational change associated with the implementation of ICTs in elementary schooling. The focus of the paper is on emergent patterns of change, i.e. the way technologies are adapted over time in different configurations that involve both pupils, teachers, activities and the different resources used in…

  15. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude

    2009-06-01

    An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures. The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples to the manufacturing source was demonstrated through the development of a preliminary AN classification scheme based on nitrogen isotopes. Although the discrimination utilising nitrogen isotopes alone was limited and only relevant to samples from the three Australian manufacturers during the evaluated time period, the classification scheme has potential as an investigative aid. Combining oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values permitted the differentiation of AN prills from three different Australian manufacturers. Samples from five different overseas sources could be differentiated utilising a combination of the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Limited differentiation between Australian and overseas prills was achieved for the samples analysed. The comparison of nitrogen isotope values from intact AN prill samples with those from post-blast AN prill residues highlighted that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the prills was not maintained post-blast; hence, limiting the technique to analysis of un-reacted explosive material.

  16. Video Conferencing for Opening Classroom Doors in Initial Teacher Education: Sociocultural Processes of Mimicking and Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Wiesemes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an alternative framework for conceptualising video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education and in Higher Education (HE more generally. This alternative framework takes into account the existing models in the field, but – based on a set of interviews conducted with teacher trainees and wider analysis of the related literature – we suggest that there is a need to add to existing models the notions of ‘mimicking’ (copying practice and improvisation (unplanned and spontaneous personal learning moments. These two notions are considered to be vital, as they remain valid throughout teachers’ careers and constitute key affordances of video-conferencing uses in HE. In particular, we argue that improvisational processes can be considered as key for developing professional practice and lifelong learning and that video-conferencing uses in initial teacher education can contribute to an understanding of training and learning processes. Current conceptualisations of video conferencing as suggested by Coyle (2004 and Marsh et al. (2009 remain valid, but also are limited in their scope with respect to focusing predominantly on pragmatic and instrumental teacher-training issues. Our article suggests that the theoretical conceptualisations of video conferencing should be expanded to include elements of mimicking and ultimately improvisation. This allows us to consider not just etic aspects of practice, but equally emic practices and related personal professional development. We locate these arguments more widely in a sociocultural-theory framework, as it enables us to describe interactions in dialectical rather than dichotomous terms (Lantolf & Poehner, 2008.

  17. Being in the zone: physiological markers of togetherness in joint improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Levit-Binun, Nava; Golland, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Performers improvising together describe special moments of 'being in the zone' - periods of high performance, synchrony, and enhanced sense of togetherness. Existing evidence suggests a possible route for attaining togetherness - interpersonal synchrony, the fine-grained sensory-motor coordination that promotes social connectedness. Here, we investigated the physiological characteristics of togetherness using a practice from theater and dance, the mirror game. Pairs of expert improvisers jointly improvised synchronized linear motion, while their motion tracks and cardiovascular activity were continuously monitored. Players also provided dynamic ratings of togetherness while watching video recordings of their games. We identified periods of togetherness using kinematic and subjective markers and assessed their physiological characteristics. The kinematic and the subjective measures of togetherness showed some agreement, with more extensive game periods being marked by the subjective than the kinematic one. Game rounds with high rates of togetherness were characterized by increased players' cardiovascular activity, increased correlation of players' heart rates (HRs), and increased motion intensity. By comparing motion segments with similar motion intensity, we showed that moments of togetherness in the mirror game were marked by increased players' HRs, regardless of motion intensity. This pattern was robust for the subjectively defined periods of togetherness, while showing a marginal effect for the kinematically defined togetherness. Building upon similar findings in flow research we suggest that the observed increase of players' HRs during togetherness periods in the mirror game might indicate the enhanced engagement and enjoyment reported by performers going into 'the zone.' The suggested approach, combining temporal measurements of kinematic, physiological and subjective responses, demonstrates how the dynamics of spontaneously emerging dyadic states can be

  18. Being in the zone: physiological markers of togetherness in joint improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior eNoy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Performers improvising together describe special moments of ‘being in the zone’ – periods of high performance, synchrony and enhanced sense of togetherness. Existing evidence suggests ¬a possible route for attaining togetherness - interpersonal synchrony, the fine-grained sensory-motor coordination that promotes social connectedness. Here we investigated the physiological characteristics of togetherness using a practice from theater and dance, the mirror game.Pairs of expert improvisers jointly improvised synchronized linear motion, while their motion tracks and cardiovascular activity were continuously monitored. Players also provided dynamic ratings of togetherness while watching video recordings of their games. We identified periods of togetherness using kinematic and subjective markers and assessed their physiological characteristics. The kinematic and the subjective measures of togetherness showed some agreement, with more extensive game-periods being marked by the subjective than the kinematic one.Game rounds with high rates of togetherness were characterized by increased players’ cardiovascular activity, increased correlation of players’ heart rates, and increased motion intensity. By comparing motion segments with similar motion intensity, we showed that moments of togetherness in the mirror game were marked by increased players’ heart rates, regardless of motion intensity. This pattern was robust for the subjectively defined periods of togetherness, while showing a marginal effect for the kinematically defined togetherness. Building upon similar findings in flow research we suggest that the observed increase of players’ heart rates during togetherness periods in the mirror game might indicate the enhanced engagement and enjoyment reported by performers going into ‘the zone’. The suggested approach, combining temporal measurements of kinematic, physiological and subjective responses, demonstrates how the dynamics of

  19. Indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013. The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5% males and 61 (36.5% females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%. Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%, Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%, postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%, empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%, heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6% each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8% and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%. A hundred and one (60.5% of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6% by consultants, house officers 15 (9% and senior registrars 10 (6%. The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6% and pneumothorax (3.6%. The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion : Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles.

  20. Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)

  1. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 x 10 -3 to as low as 5.8 x 10 -6 . Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson 8 provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10 -1

  2. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  3. Calculating overpressure from BLEVE explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planas-Cuchi, E.; Casal, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Technological Risk Studies; Salla, J.M. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Department of Heat Engines

    2004-11-01

    Although a certain number of authors have analyzed the prediction of boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) and fireball effects, only very few of them have proposed methodologies for predicting the overpressure from such explosions. In this paper, the methods previously published are discussed and shown to introduce a significant overestimation due to erroneous thermodynamic assumptions - ideal gas behaviour and isentropic vapour expansion - on which they are based (in fact, they give the maximum value of overpressure which can be caused by a BLEVE). A new approach is proposed, based on the - more realistic - assumption of an adiabatic and irreversible expansion process; the real properties of the substance involved in the explosion are used. The two methods are compared through the application to a given case. (author)

  4. The vapor pressures of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  5. Evidence for nearby supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Narciso; Maiz-Apellaniz, Jesus; Canelles, Matilde

    2002-01-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are one of the most energetic--and potentially lethal--phenomena in the Universe. We show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at ∼130 pc from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. The deposition on Earth of 60 Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that ∼2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction

  6. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O A Ojo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. Aim: The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients′ survival. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. Results: A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9% male and 9 (32.1% females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9% survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6% of the patients died. Conclusions: External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a

  7. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, O A; Asha, M A; Bankole, O B; Kanu, O O

    2015-01-01

    The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD) sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients' survival. This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9%) male and 9 (32.1%) females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9%) survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6%) of the patients died. External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a standard feeding tube as described.

  8. The effects of parent-implemented PECS training on improvisation of mands by children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Chaabane, Delia B; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R; DeBar, Ruth M

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which mothers were able to train their children, 2 boys with autism, to exchange novel pictures to request items using the picture exchange communication system (PECS). Generalization probes assessing each child's ability to mand for untrained items were conducted throughout conditions. Using a multiple baseline design, results demonstrated that both children improvised by using alternative symbols when the corresponding symbol was unavailable across all symbol categories (colors, shapes, and functions) and that parents can teach their children to use novel pictorial response forms.

  9. Graphic Notation as a Tool in Describing and Analyzing Music Therapy Improvisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    1993-01-01

    , involving graphic brainstorms,using coordinative systems and other frameworks, interpretative method including working on specifically musical counter-transference and special graphic exercises are outlined. Work by students at Aalborg University, Denmark, is quoted. General perspectives including relations......Presents graphic notation as the making of aural scores to memorise or analyse improvised music therapy processes, capturing also those aspectsthe usual music notation would not cover. An example in some detail is shown, the music taken from a well known Nordoff/Robbins recording. Training method...... to music analysis in musicology and to the history,epistemology and cultural status of musical notation is discussed....

  10. Difficulties in the neuroscience of creativity: jazz improvisation and the scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda; Limb, Charles J

    2013-11-01

    Creativity is a fundamental and remarkable human capacity, yet the scientific study of creativity has been limited by the difficulty of reconciling the scientific method and creative processes. We outline several hurdles and considerations that should be addressed when studying the cognitive neuroscience of creativity and suggest that jazz improvisation may be one of the most useful experimental models for the study of spontaneous creativity. More broadly, we argue that studying creativity in a way that is both scientifically and ecologically valid requires collaboration between neuroscientists and artists. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Improvised external ventricular drain in neurosurgery: A Nigerian tertiary hospital experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, O. A.; Asha, M. A.; Bankole, O. B.; Kanu, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common type of hydrocephalus in developing countries is post infective hydrocephalus. Infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) however cannot be shunted for the reason that it will block the chamber of the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt due to its high protein content. In centers where standard external ventricular drain (EVD) sets are not available, improvised feeding tube can be used. Aim: The main focus of this study is to encourage the use of improvised feeding tube catheters for EVD when standard sets are not available to improve patients’ survival. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Consecutive patients with hydrocephalus that cannot be shunted immediately for high chances of shunt failure or signs of increasing intracranial pressure were recruited into the study. Other inclusion criteria were preoperative brain tumor with possibility of blocked CSF pathway and massive intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating ventricular drainage as a salvage procedure. Standard EVD set is not readily available and too expensive for most of the parents to afford. Improvised feeding tube is used to drain/divert CSF using the standard documented procedure for EVD insertion. Outcome is measured and recorded. Results: A total of 28 patients were recruited into the study over a time frame of 2 years. There were 19 (67.9%) male and 9 (32.1%) females with a ratio of about 2:1. Age ranges varied from as low as 7 days to 66 years. The median age of the study sample was 6.5 months while the mean was 173.8 months. Duration of EVD varied from 2 days to 11 days with a median of 7 while the average was 6 days. Eventual outcome following the procedure of EVD showed that 19 (67.9%) survived and were discharged either to go home or to have VP shunt afterwards while 8 (28.6%) of the patients died. Conclusions: External ventricular drain can and should be done when it is necessary. Potential mortalities could be reduced by the improvised drainage using a standard

  12. Destituent Spaces, Fugitive Practices and Improvised Institutions between collectivity and critique: Searching for the threshold of articulability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gigi Argyropoulou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the critical relationship between self-organisation, modes of social improvisation and sedimental societal practices in order to consider how emergent practices may ephemerally contested the dominant production of space by enforcing, destabilising and initiating new modes of organisation. Focusing on the cultural and political landscape of Athens during the years of crisis this article will discuss practices that appeared in unexpected forms engaging with cultural production, research cultures and social solidarity in relation to the changing socio-political landscape. While social frameworks collapsed, cultural workers questioned the limits of their praxes and a diversity of self-instituted forms emerged such as occupations, interventions, acts of institutional critique, emergent DIY performance praxes, curatorial and research platforms. I argue that such praxes could be understood and examined as forms of ‘instituting otherwise’ in relation to social and material contexts. Specifically, this article will discuss two cultural occupancies that took place in recent years: Embros Theatre occupancy in 2011 and Green Park Occupancy in 2015. These ephemeral experiments as instances of study engaged simultaneously with theoretical production, performance practice, spatial organisation, and social action which seemed to reinforce each other through public programs/actions. Examining curatorial practices, political methods, research clusters, modus operandi and public participation I will work from specific conditions in order to offer wider considerations on imaginative destituent strategies that bear the potential to criticality devise ephemeral forms of instituting otherwise. This article problematises the relation between art and activism, resistance and incorporation, collectivity and disintegration in order to theorise potential positions we might seek to institute in the coming years.

  13. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991 small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility which processes nuclear material in an economical fashion. The material dissolved in this facility was uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid. The paper explained the release of fission material, and the decontamination and recovery of the fuel material. The safety and protection procedures were also discussed. Also described was the chemical analysis which was used to speculate the most probable cause of the explosion. (MB)

  14. Explosions in Landau Vlasov dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.; Cussol, D.; Gregoire, C.; Boilley, D.; Pi, M.; Schuck, P.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1988-01-01

    A microscopic study of the quasi-fusion/explosion transition is presented in the framework of Landau-Vlasov simulations of intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions (bombarding energies between 10 and 100 MeV/A). A detailed analysis in terms of the Equation of State of the system is performed. In agreement with schematic models we find that the composite nuclear system formed in the collision does explode when it stays long enough in the mechanically unstable region (spinodal region). Quantitative estimates of the explosion threshold are given for central symmetric reactions (Ca+Ca and Ar+Ti). The effect of the nuclear matter compressibility modulus is discussed

  15. System for detecting nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting underground nuclear explosions is described that is comprised of an antenna located in the dielectric substance of a deep waveguide in the earth and adapted to detect low frequency electromagnetic waves generated by a nuclear explosion, the deep waveguide comprising the high conductivity upper sedimentary layers of the earth, the dielectric basement rock, and a high conductivity layer of basement rock due to the increased temperature thereof at great depths, and means for receiving the electromagnetic waves detected by said antenna means

  16. Biological consequences of atomic explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1984-01-01

    After an introductory chapter of the development and properties of nuclear weapons and the events of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, this books shows the effects of atomic explosions for man: effects of the pressure wave, thermal radiation, initial nuclear radiation alone or in conjunction and possible medical help. In addition the less massive damage caused by induced radioactivity and fallout, their prevention resp. treatment and the malignant/nonmalignant late effects are discussed. A further chapter deals with the psychological and epidemiological effects of atomic explosions, the consequences for food and water supply, and the construction of shetters. The last chapter is concerned with the problem of organising medical help. (MG) [de

  17. Atmospheric emission of NOx from mining explosives: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwoye, Ibukun; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Gore, Jeff; Oskierski, Hans C.; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor

    2017-10-01

    High-energy materials such as emulsions, slurries and ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil (ANFO) explosives play crucial roles in mining, quarrying, tunnelling and many other infrastructure activities, because of their excellent transport and blasting properties. These explosives engender environmental concerns, due to atmospheric pollution caused by emission of dust and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from blasts, the latter characterised by the average emission factor of 5 kg (t AN explosive)-1. This first-of-its-kind review provides a concise literature account of the formation of NOx during blasting of AN-based explosives, employed in surface operations. We estimate the total NOx emission rate from AN-based explosives as 0.05 Tg (i.e., 5 × 104 t) N per annum, compared to the total global annual anthropogenic NOx emissions of 41.3 × 106 t N y-1. Although minor in the global sense, the large localised plumes from blasting exhibit high NOx concentration (500 ppm) exceeding up to 3000 times the international standards. This emission has profound consequences at mining sites and for adjacent atmospheric environment, necessitating expensive management of exclusion zones. The review describes different types of AN energetic materials for civilian applications, and summarises the essential properties and terminologies pertaining to their use. Furthermore, we recapitulate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the reactive nitrogen species in blasting of AN-based explosives, review their implications to atmospheric air pollution, and compare the mechanisms with those experienced in other thermal and combustion operations. We also examine the mitigation approaches, including guidelines and operational-control measures. The review discusses the abatement technologies such as the formulation of new explosive mixtures, comprising secondary fuels, spin traps and other additives, in light of their effectiveness and efficiency. We conclude the review with a summary of unresolved problems

  18. An experimental study of an explosively driven flat plate launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Philip; Haroz, Erik; Armstrong, Chris; Perry, Lee; M Division Team

    2017-06-01

    For some upcoming experiments it is desired to impact a large explosive assembly with one or more moderate diameter flat metal plates traveling at high velocity (2-3 km s-1). The time of arrival of these plates will need to carefully controlled and delayed (i.e. the time(s) of arrival known to approximately a microsecond). For this reason, producing a flyer plate from more traditional gun assemblies is not possible. Previous researchers have demonstrated the ability to throw reasonably flat metal flyers from the so-called Forest flyer geometry. The defining characteristics of this design are a carefully controlled reduction in explosive area from a larger explosive plane-wave-lens and booster pad to a smaller flyer plate to improve the planarity of the drive available and an air gap between the explosive booster and the plate to reduce the peak tensile stresses generated in the plate to suppress spalling. This experimental series comprised a number of different design variants and plate and explosive drive materials. The aim was to calibrate a predictive computational modeling capability on this kind of system in preparation for later more radical design ideas best tested in a computer before undertaking the expensive business of construction.

  19. Excavation research with chemical explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, William E.; Day, Walter C.

    1970-01-01

    The US Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) is located at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore, California. NCG was established in 1962 and assigned responsibility for technical program direction of the Corps of Engineers Nuclear Excavation Research Program. The major part of the experimental program has been the execution of chemical explosive excavation experiments. In the past these experiments were preliminary to planned nuclear excavation experiments. The experience gained and technology developed in accomplishing these experiments has led to an expansion of NCG's research mission. The overall research and development mission now includes the development of chemical explosive excavation technology to enable the Corps of Engineers to more economically accomplish Civil Works Construction projects of intermediate size. The current and future chemical explosive excavation experiments conducted by NCG will be planned so as to provide data that can be used in the development of both chemical and nuclear excavation technology. In addition, whenever possible, the experiments will be conducted at the specific sites of authorized Civil Works Construction Projects and will be designed to provide a useful portion of the engineering structures planned in that project. Currently, the emphasis in the chemical explosive excavation program is on the development of design techniques for producing specific crater geometries in a variety of media. Preliminary results of two such experiments are described in this paper; Project Pre-GONDOLA III, Phase III, Reservoir Connection Experiment; and a Safety Calibration Series for Project TUGBOAT, a small boat harbor excavation experiment

  20. Excavation research with chemical explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberg, William E; Day, Walter C [U.S. Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The US Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) is located at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore, California. NCG was established in 1962 and assigned responsibility for technical program direction of the Corps of Engineers Nuclear Excavation Research Program. The major part of the experimental program has been the execution of chemical explosive excavation experiments. In the past these experiments were preliminary to planned nuclear excavation experiments. The experience gained and technology developed in accomplishing these experiments has led to an expansion of NCG's research mission. The overall research and development mission now includes the development of chemical explosive excavation technology to enable the Corps of Engineers to more economically accomplish Civil Works Construction projects of intermediate size. The current and future chemical explosive excavation experiments conducted by NCG will be planned so as to provide data that can be used in the development of both chemical and nuclear excavation technology. In addition, whenever possible, the experiments will be conducted at the specific sites of authorized Civil Works Construction Projects and will be designed to provide a useful portion of the engineering structures planned in that project. Currently, the emphasis in the chemical explosive excavation program is on the development of design techniques for producing specific crater geometries in a variety of media. Preliminary results of two such experiments are described in this paper; Project Pre-GONDOLA III, Phase III, Reservoir Connection Experiment; and a Safety Calibration Series for Project TUGBOAT, a small boat harbor excavation experiment.