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Sample records for idiopathic condylar resorption

  1. Orthodontic camouflage via total arch movement in a Class II with idiopathic condylar resorption

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    Ji-Sung Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR, also known as idiopathic condylysis or condylar atrophy, is multifactorial pathology leading to severe mandibular retrognathism. The etiology has been shown to be multifactorial, such as avascular necrosis, traumatic injuries, hormone and autoimmune disease and it is largely difficult to distinguish the exact cause in each individual. In spite of the remarkable morphological alteration, surgical intervention is not readily recruited due to the possibility of recurrence of resorption. In order to restore balanced facial profile and occlusion. In this report, we present a camouflage treatment for skeletal Class II with ICR and facial asymmetry involving total arch movement, for the improvement facial profile and reconstruction of occlusion.

  2. Temporomandibular Joint Idiopathic Condylar Resorptions – A CBCT based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper Dahl; Schmidt, Bjarke Hjalting; Stoustrup, Peter Bangsgaard

    Aim: To describe condylar deformation in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in subjects with idiopathic condylar resorptions (ICR) and compare these changes to a healthy control group. Materials and method: CBCT scans were analyzed using anatomical points on the skull to create a reference line....... Subsequently, anatomical structures were identified on the mandible to measure the condylar axial angle, the condylar neck angle as well as the condylar width, length, and height in 25 patients with ICR and 25 controls (50 joints in each group). Secondly, cross sections of the TMJs were evaluated for deformity...... %), cavitation defect (22 %), and flattering (22 %). In the control group condylar flattening was seen in 2 %. More than 70 % of the joints with deformity changes evaluated in the sagittal and the coronal plane respectively showed deformity changes along the entire condylar surface. Conclusion: The results...

  3. Bilateral condylar resorption in down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippaudo, Cristina; Grippaudo, Francesca Romana; Marianetti, Tito Matteo; Cacucci, Laura; Deli, Roberto; Pelo, Sandro

    2014-11-01

    Asymptomatic idiopathic condylar resorption is a rare disease of difficult diagnosis and treatment. We review the literature about this rare condition and report a case of a patient, affected by Down syndrome, who underwent a complete untreated bilateral condylar resorption in adolescence and then developed pain on chewing only 20 years later. Despite a precise orthodontic and surgical therapeutic plan, treatment had to be discontinued because of patient lack of compliance. This case is the first of its kind to be reported and emphasizes the need for special attention in patients with disability.

  4. Three-dimensional morphological condylar and mandibular changes in a patient with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: interdisciplinary treatment

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    G. Farronato

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint (TMJ involvement is common but usually delayed in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. We describe the case of a JIA patient with bilateral TMJ involvement, mandibular retrognathia, bone erosion, and severely restricted mouth opening. The use of cone beam computed tomography and a 3D diagnostic protocol in young patients with JIA provides reliable, accurate and precise quantitative data and images of the condylar structures and their dimensional relationships. Analgesics and conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs were ineffective, but interdisciplinary treatment with etanercept and a Herbst functional appliance improved functional TMJ movement and bone resorption.

  5. Orthodontic treatment in patient with idiopathic root resorption: A case report

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    Diego Rey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple idiopathic external root resorption is a rare pathological condition usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. External root resorption of permanent teeth is a multifactorial process related to several local and systemic factors. If an etiological factor cannot be identified for root resorption, the term "idiopathic" is applied. This report presents a case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption. The condition was found in a young female patient seeking orthodontic treatment due to malocclusion. This kind of resorption starts apically and progresses coronally, causing a gradual shortening and rounding of the remaining root. Patients with this condition are not the ideal candidates for orthodontic treatment; however, the aim of this report is to describe an unusual case of idiopathic root resorption involving the entire dentition, and to present the orthodontic treatment of this patient. It describes the progress and completion of orthodontic therapy with satisfactory end results.

  6. Orthodontic treatment in patient with idiopathic root resorption: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Smit, Rosana Martínez; Gamboa, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Multiple idiopathic external root resorption is a rare pathological condition usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. External root resorption of permanent teeth is a multifactorial process related to several local and systemic factors. If an etiological factor cannot be identified for root resorption, the term "idiopathic" is applied. This report presents a case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption. The condition was found in a young female patient seeking orthodontic treatment due to malocclusion. This kind of resorption starts apically and progresses coronally, causing a gradual shortening and rounding of the remaining root. Patients with this condition are not the ideal candidates for orthodontic treatment; however, the aim of this report is to describe an unusual case of idiopathic root resorption involving the entire dentition, and to present the orthodontic treatment of this patient. It describes the progress and completion of orthodontic therapy with satisfactory end results.

  7. An unusual case of idiopathic multiple invasive cervical resorption

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    Sathya Prakash Reddy Kesary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is a rare form of root resorption, characterized by destruction of the cervical region of teeth resulting from the action of tooth resorbing cells. Being an asymptomatic condition, it is often discovered on routine radiographic examination. This multifactorial disease process can most commonly occur as a sequel to orthodontic treatment, dental trauma, bleaching procedures, and less commonly, as an outcome of segmental orthognathic surgery, periodontal root planning, tetracycline conditioning of the root canal, bruxism, transplantation of tooth, guided tissue regeneration, cementoenamel disjunction. In the absence of these predisposing factors, it can be labeled as ′idiopathic multiple cervical resorption′. This article describes the case of a medically fit Indian male, who displayed idiopathic invasive cervical resorption in multiple teeth.

  8. Evaluation of Mandibular Condylar Changes in Patients Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Condylar resorption as a cause of relapse after orthognathic surgery is well known. Several authors have presented evidence of the relation between orthognathic surgery and condylar remodeling and resorption. This study was done to appraise the condylar changes along with the form and function following ...

  9. Surgical treatment of adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR) with articular disc repositioning and orthognathic surgery in the growing patient?a pilot study

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    Bodine, Trevor P.; Wolford, Larry M.; Araujo, Eustaquio; Oliver, Donald R.; Buschang, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to better understand how surgical repositioning and stabilization of anteriorly displaced articular discs using the Mitek mini-anchor technique affects condylar growth in growing patients with adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR). Methods Twenty-two adolescent patients diagnosed with AICR and anterior temporomandibular disc displacement were compared to untreated control subjects without AICR matched for age, sex, and Angle classificatio...

  10. Surgical treatment of adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR) with articular disc repositioning and orthognathic surgery in the growing patient--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, Trevor P; Wolford, Larry M; Araujo, Eustaquio; Oliver, Donald R; Buschang, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand how surgical repositioning and stabilization of anteriorly displaced articular discs using the Mitek mini-anchor technique affects condylar growth in growing patients with adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR). Twenty-two adolescent patients diagnosed with AICR and anterior temporomandibular disc displacement were compared to untreated control subjects without AICR matched for age, sex, and Angle classification. Pre-surgical (T1 and T2) and post-surgical (T3 and T4) mandibular tracings were superimposed on natural stable structures to evaluate the horizontal, vertical, and total changes in the position of condylion. The treated group showed an overall decrease in condylar height pre-surgically and statistically significant changes in condylar growth direction between the pre- and post-surgical observation periods. Pre-surgically, the treated group showed significantly more posterior condylar growth than the control group; they also showed inferior condylar growth, while the controls showed superior growth. Controls and patients in the treated group showed no significant differences in condylar growth post-surgically. Adolescent patients diagnosed with AICR and anterior disc displacement treated with mandibular ramus and maxillary osteotomies, along with Mitek anchors to reposition internally deranged discs, showed post-surgical normalization of condylar growth.

  11. Surgical treatment of adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR with articular disc repositioning and orthognathic surgery in the growing patient—a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Bodine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to better understand how surgical repositioning and stabilization of anteriorly displaced articular discs using the Mitek mini-anchor technique affects condylar growth in growing patients with adolescent internal condylar resorption (AICR. Methods Twenty-two adolescent patients diagnosed with AICR and anterior temporomandibular disc displacement were compared to untreated control subjects without AICR matched for age, sex, and Angle classification. Pre-surgical (T1 and T2 and post-surgical (T3 and T4 mandibular tracings were superimposed on natural stable structures to evaluate the horizontal, vertical, and total changes in the position of condylion. Results The treated group showed an overall decrease in condylar height pre-surgically and statistically significant changes in condylar growth direction between the pre- and post-surgical observation periods. Pre-surgically, the treated group showed significantly more posterior condylar growth than the control group; they also showed inferior condylar growth, while the controls showed superior growth. Controls and patients in the treated group showed no significant differences in condylar growth post-surgically. Conclusions Adolescent patients diagnosed with AICR and anterior disc displacement treated with mandibular ramus and maxillary osteotomies, along with Mitek anchors to reposition internally deranged discs, showed post-surgical normalization of condylar growth.

  12. Three dimensional assessment of condylar surface changes and remodeling after orthognathic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hye; Lee, Jin Woo; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Shin, Jae Myung

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate condylar surface changes and remodeling after orthognathic surgery using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) imaging, including comparisons between the right and left sides and between the sexes. Forty patients (20 males and 20 females) who underwent multi-detector CT examinations before and after surgery were selected. Three-dimensional images comprising thousands of points on the condylar surface were obtained before and after surgery. For the quantitative assessment of condylar surface changes, point-to-point (preoperative-to-postoperative) distances were calculated using D processing software. These point-to-point distances were converted to a color map. In order to evaluate the types of condylar remodeling, the condylar head was divided into six areas (anteromedial, anteromiddle, anterolateral, posteromedial, posteromiddle, and posterolateral areas) and each area was classified into three types of condylar remodeling (bone formation, no change, and bone resorption) based on the color map. Additionally, comparative analyses were performed between the right and left sides and according to sex. The mean of the average point-to-point distances on condylar surface was 0.11±0.03 mm. Bone resorption occurred more frequently than other types of condylar remodeling, especially in the lateral areas. However, bone formation in the anteromedial area was particularly prominent. No significant difference was found between the right and left condyles, but condylar surface changes in males were significantly larger than in females. This study revealed that condylar remodeling exhibited a tendency towards bone resorption, especially in the lateral areas. Condylar surface changes occurred, but were small

  13. Three dimensional assessment of condylar surface changes and remodeling after orthognathic surgery

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    Lee, Jung Hye; Lee, Jin Woo; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae Myung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    This study was performed to evaluate condylar surface changes and remodeling after orthognathic surgery using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) imaging, including comparisons between the right and left sides and between the sexes. Forty patients (20 males and 20 females) who underwent multi-detector CT examinations before and after surgery were selected. Three-dimensional images comprising thousands of points on the condylar surface were obtained before and after surgery. For the quantitative assessment of condylar surface changes, point-to-point (preoperative-to-postoperative) distances were calculated using D processing software. These point-to-point distances were converted to a color map. In order to evaluate the types of condylar remodeling, the condylar head was divided into six areas (anteromedial, anteromiddle, anterolateral, posteromedial, posteromiddle, and posterolateral areas) and each area was classified into three types of condylar remodeling (bone formation, no change, and bone resorption) based on the color map. Additionally, comparative analyses were performed between the right and left sides and according to sex. The mean of the average point-to-point distances on condylar surface was 0.11±0.03 mm. Bone resorption occurred more frequently than other types of condylar remodeling, especially in the lateral areas. However, bone formation in the anteromedial area was particularly prominent. No significant difference was found between the right and left condyles, but condylar surface changes in males were significantly larger than in females. This study revealed that condylar remodeling exhibited a tendency towards bone resorption, especially in the lateral areas. Condylar surface changes occurred, but were small.

  14. Evaluation of mandibular condylar changes in patients following orthognathic surgery: A retrospective study

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    Vikas Aneja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Condylar resorption as a cause of relapse after orthognathic surgery is well known. Several authors have presented evidence of the relation between orthognathic surgery and condylar remodeling and resorption. This study was done to appraise the condylar changes along with the form and function following orthognathic surgery, as well as to assess what factors may have contributed to the problems. Methodology: A diagnosis of progressive condylar resorption (PCR was made by comparison of preoperative and postoperative radiographs (cephalometric radiograms, as well as clinical evaluations. The radiographs were taken for each patient preoperatively and postoperatively, which include immediately after osteotomy, at 6 months and 24 months. Additional radiographs were taken when required. Then, preoperative and postoperative tracings were compared at 24 months postoperatively. Results and Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that females of relative low age (<18 years appeared to be a high-risk factor for the occurrence of condylar alteration including PCR. A steep mandibular plane angle, the low facial height ratio (post/ant, and magnitude of surgery were also significantly related to the occurrence of condylar alteration, but the multivariance regression showed that these parameters had only limited value.

  15. Patellofemoral morphometry in patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar Carrion Martin, Maria del; Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Pozuelo Calvo, Rocio; Guzman Alvarez, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare clinical and computed tomography (CT) measures in extension, 20 o and 30 o of flexion of symptomatic knees of patient with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome with the contra lateral asymptomatic knee. Materials and methods: Knees of 52 consecutive patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain were studied with CT. In 28 patients this condition was unilateral and asymptomatic knee was used as control; 76 knees were symptomatic. Results: In patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain we found a greater Q angle and internal condylar facet width in symptomatic knees with regard to asymptomatic knees. Conclusion: Greater Q angle and medial condylar facet can lead to overpressure on the medial knee compartment during maneuvers that increase contact between patella and medial condylar facet, such as knee flexion and squatting, contributing to development of idiopathic patellofemoral pain.

  16. Patellofemoral morphometry in patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome

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    Mar Carrion Martin, Maria del [Department of Rehabilitation, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferruizsan@terra.e [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Pozuelo Calvo, Rocio [Department of Rehabilitation, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Guzman Alvarez, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To compare clinical and computed tomography (CT) measures in extension, 20{sup o} and 30{sup o} of flexion of symptomatic knees of patient with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome with the contra lateral asymptomatic knee. Materials and methods: Knees of 52 consecutive patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain were studied with CT. In 28 patients this condition was unilateral and asymptomatic knee was used as control; 76 knees were symptomatic. Results: In patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain we found a greater Q angle and internal condylar facet width in symptomatic knees with regard to asymptomatic knees. Conclusion: Greater Q angle and medial condylar facet can lead to overpressure on the medial knee compartment during maneuvers that increase contact between patella and medial condylar facet, such as knee flexion and squatting, contributing to development of idiopathic patellofemoral pain.

  17. High condylectomy for the treatment of mandibular condylar hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghawsi, Sodaba; Aagaard, Esben; Thygesen, Torben Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular condylar hyperplasia (MCH) is a rare, idiopathic disorder, which can cause both functional and aesthetic problems. MCH has often been described in the literature, but a comprehensive analysis of the current literature on MCH has not been undertaken. This study presents a systematic rev...

  18. [Three-dimensional evaluation of condylar morphology remodeling after orthognathic surgery in mandibular retrognathism by cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Zi-li; Liang, Cheng; Wang, Xiao-xia; Fu, Kai-yuan; Yi, Biao

    2015-08-18

    To evaluate the effect of orthognathic surgery on condylar morphology changes by comparing three-dimension surface reconstructions of condyles using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data. In the study, 18 patients with mandible retrognathism deformities were included and CBCT data of 36 temporomandibular joints were collected before surgery and 12 months after surgery. Condyles were reconstructed and superimposed pre- and post-operatively to compare the changes of condylar surfaces. One-sample t test and χ2 test were performed for the analysis of three-dimension metric measurement and condylar head remodeling signs. P<0.05 was considered significant. The root-mean-square (RMS) of condylar surface changes before and after the surgery was (0.37±0.11) mm, which was significant statistically (P<0.05). The distribution of condylar remodeling signs showed significant difference (P<0.05). Bone resorption occurred predominantly in the posterior area of condylar head and bone formation occurred mainly in the anterior area. Three-dimension superimposition method based on CBCT data showed that condylar morphology had undergone remodeling after mandibular advancement.

  19. Clinical and radiological outcomes of transoral endoscope-assisted treatment of mandibular condylar fractures.

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    You, H-J; Moon, K-C; Yoon, E-S; Lee, B-I; Park, S-H

    2016-03-01

    Fractures of the mandibular condyle are one of the most common craniofacial fractures. However, the diagnosis and treatment of these fractures is controversial because of the multiple surgical approaches available. The purposes of this study were to identify surgery-related technical tips for better outcomes and to evaluate the results as well as complications encountered during 7 years of endoscope use to supplement the limited intraoral approach in the treatment of mandibular condylar fractures. Between 2005 and 2012, 50 patients with condylar fractures underwent endoscope-assisted reduction surgery. Postoperative facial bone computed tomography and panoramic radiography demonstrated adequate reduction of the condylar fractures in all patients. No condylar resorption was detected, and most patients displayed a satisfactory functional and structural recovery. There was no facial nerve damage or transitory hypoesthesia, and there were no visible scars after the surgery. Transoral endoscope-assisted treatment is a challenging but reliable method with lower morbidity and a rapid recovery. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional aggressive root resorption caused by neuronal virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger; Strøm, Carsten; Worsaae, Nils

    2012-01-01

    During orthodontic treatment, root resorption can occur unexplainably. No clear distinction has been made between resorption located within specific regions and resorption occurring generally in the dentition. The purpose is to present cases with idiopathic (of unknown origin) root resorption...... occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One...... stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface...

  1. Regional Aggressive Root Resorption Caused by Neuronal Virus Infection

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    Inger Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During orthodontic treatment, root resorption can occur unexplainably. No clear distinction has been made between resorption located within specific regions and resorption occurring generally in the dentition. The purpose is to present cases with idiopathic (of unknown origin root resorption occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One of the patients was treated with dental implants. Virus spreading along nerve paths is a possible explanation for the unexpected resorptions. In both cases, the resorptions began cervically. The extent of the resorption processes in the dentition followed the virus infected nerve paths and the resorption process stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface against resorption. Therefore, the normal nerve pattern is important for diagnostics and for predicting the course of severe unexpected root resorption.

  2. No association between types of unilateral mandibular condylar abnormalities and facial asymmetry in orthopedic-treated patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Peter Bangsgaard; Ahlefeldt-Laurvig-Lehn, Nicole; Kristensen, Kasper Dahl

    2018-01-01

    with JIA. The contralateral TMJ was thereafter scored as either "normal," "deformed," or "erosive," consistent with predefined criteria. Based on the bilateral radiologic TMJ appearances, 3 JIA groups were assigned: normal/normal, normal/deformed, and normal/erosive. The severity of the dentofacial...... of the cone-beam computed tomography. Significantly greater dentofacial asymmetries were observed in the 2 groups of JIA patients with unilateral condylar abnormalities (deformation or erosion) than in the other groups. A similar degree of dentofacial asymmetry was observed in JIA patients with bilateral...... normal TMJs and in the nonarthritic control group. CONCLUSIONS: JIA patients with unilateral condylar abnormalities (deformation or erosion) exhibited significantly more severe dentofacial asymmetries than did the JIA patients without condylar abnormalities and the control subjects. We found the same...

  3. External root resorption: Different etiologies explained from the composition of the human root-close periodontal membrane

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    Inger Kjaer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper summarizes different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots. It also highlights factors important for individual susceptibility to root resorption. Furthermore, the paper focuses on idiopathic root resorption where the provoking factor is not known. The Hypothesis: The several different disturbances causing root resorption can be either orthodontically provoked or acquired by trauma, virus or congenital diseases. It is presumed that all these conditions lead to inflammatory processes in the three main tissue layers, comprising the peri-root sheet. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: This paper explains how different etiologies behind root resorption and how different phenotypic traits in root resorption can be understood from immunohistochemical studies of the human periodontal membrane close to the root and thus, gain a new understanding of the phenomenon of root resorption.

  4. The Effect of a Condylar Repositioning Plate on Condylar Position and Relapse in Two-Jaw Surgery

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    Gyu Sik Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNumerous condylar repositioning methods have been reported. However, most of them are 2-dimensional or are complex procedures that require a longer operation time and a highly trained surgeon. This study aims to introduce a new technique using a condylar repositioning plate and a centric relation splint to achieve a centric relationship.MethodsWe evaluated 387 patients who had undergone surgery for skeletal jaw deformities. During the operation, a centric relation splint, intermediate splint, final centric occlusion splint, and condylar repositioning plate along with an L-type mini-plate for LeFort I osteotomy or a bicortical screw for bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy were utilized for rigid fixation. The evaluation included: a physical examination to detect preoperative and postoperative temporomandibular joint dysfunction, 3-dimensional computed tomography and oblique transcranial temporomandibular joint radiography to measure 3-dimensional condylar head movement, and posteroanterior and lateral cephalometric radiography to measure the preoperative and postoperative movement of the bony segment and relapse rate.ResultsA 0.3% relapse rate was observed in the coronal plane, and a 2.8% relapse rate in the sagittal plane, which is indistinguishable from the dental relapse rate in orthodontic treatment. The condylar repositioning plate could not fully prevent movement of the condylar head, but the relapse rate was minimal, implying that the movement of the condylar head was within tolerable limits.ConclusionsOur condylar repositioning method using a centric relation splint and mini-plate in orthognathic surgery was found to be simple and effective for patients suffering from skeletal jaw deformities.

  5. A distal femoral supra-condylar plate: biomechanical comparison with condylar plate and first clinical application for treatment of supracondylar fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bowei; Ding, Zhenqi; Shen, Junguo; Zhai, Wenliang; Kang, Liangqi; Zhou, Liang; Sha, Mo; Liang, Dongzhu

    2012-08-01

    An anatomical supra-condylar plate is designed and analysed by biomechanical testing. The biomechanical properties of the supra-condylar and condylar plate were compared in six matched pairs of cadaveric femurs. A transverse osteotomy gap was created to simulate an OTA/AO type A3 supracondylar fracture. The left and right specimens were fitted with supra-condylar and condylar plate, respectively. Nondestructive axial compression, three-point bending and torsion tests were performed, and the peak load of the bone-implant construction was measured. The fracture site suitable for supra-condylar plate application and its correlation with femoral length were calculated. The gender influence on it was also discussed. The difference of stiffness between the supra-condylar and condyle groups were not significant (P > 0.05) at 363.4 and 362.5 N/mm for compression, 229.5 and 237.6 N/mm in the sagittal plane and 195.5 and 188.4 N/mm in the coronal plane for three-point bending, and 7.5 and 7.9 Nm/deg for axial torsion, respectively. The peak load was 4438 ± 136.15 N and 5215 ± 174.33 N, respectively, for the two groups. The average extent of the fracture site suitable for the application of the supra-condylar plate was 70.86 ± 4.61 mm. The femoral length and gender showed no influence on it. Despite the limited bone contact area provided by the supra-condylar plate, its construct stiffness is comparable to the condylar plate. The supra-condylar plate can be used to treat carefully-selected extra-articular supracondylar fractures.

  6. Assessment of Condylar Changes in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Pain Using Digital Volumetric Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, U.Sh.; Burde, K.N.; Naikmasur, V.G.; Sattur, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficiency of DVT in comparison with OPG in the assessment of bony condylar changes in patients of TMJ pain. Methods. 100 temporomandibular joints of 62 patients with the complaint of temporomandibular joint pain were included in the study. DVT and OPG radiographs were taken for all the 100 joints. Three observers interpreted the DVT and OPG radiograph for the bony changes separately for two times with an interval of one week. The bony changes seen in the condyle were given coding from 0 to 6. (0: Normal, 1: Erosion, 2: Flattening, 3: Osteophyte, 4: Sclerosis, 5: Resorption, and 6: other changes). Interobserver and intra observer variability was assessed with one-way Anoka statistics. Z test was used to see the significant difference between OPG and DVT. Results. In the present study the inter examiner reliability for Og and DVT was 0.903 and 0.978, respectively. Intra examiner reliability for OPG and DVT was 0.908 and 0.980, respectively. The most common condylar bony change seen in OPG and DVT was erosion followed by flattening and osteophyte. There was significant difference between OPG and DVT in detecting erosion and osteophytes. The other changes observed in our study were Elys cyst, pointed condyle, and bifid condyle. All the bony changes are more commonly seen in females than males. Conclusion. DVT provides more valid and accurate information on condylar bony changes. The DVT has an added advantage of lesser radiation exposure to the patient and cost effectiveness and could be easily accessible in a dental hospital

  7. Assessment of Condylar Changes in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Pain Using Digital Volumetric Tomography

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    Ujwala Shivarama Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficiency of DVT in comparison with OPG in the assessment of bony condylar changes in patients of TMJ pain. Methods. 100 temporomandibular joints of 62 patients with the complaint of temporomandibular joint pain were included in the study. DVT and OPG radiographs were taken for all the 100 joints. Three observers interpreted the DVT and OPG radiograph for the bony changes separately for two times with an interval of one week. The bony changes seen in the condyle were given coding from 0 to 6. (0: Normal, 1: Erosion, 2: Flattening, 3: Osteophyte, 4: Sclerosis, 5: Resorption, and 6: other changes. Interobserver and intraobserver variability was assessed with one-way ANOVA statistics. Z test was used to see the significant difference between OPG and DVT. Results. In the present study the interexaminer reliability for OPG and DVT was 0.903 and 0.978, respectively. Intraexaminer reliability for OPG and DVT was 0.908 and 0.980, respectively. The most common condylar bony change seen in OPG and DVT was erosion followed by flattening and osteophyte. There was significant difference between OPG and DVT in detecting erosion and osteophytes. The other changes observed in our study were Ely’s cyst, pointed condyle, and bifid condyle. All the bony changes are more commonly seen in females than males. Conclusion. DVT provides more valid and accurate information on condylar bony changes. The DVT has an added advantage of lesser radiation exposure to the patient and cost effectiveness and could be easily accessible in a dental hospital.

  8. Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia of the Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malachovsky I

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Condylar hyperplasia (CH of the mandible is a rare pathology that occurs at the head of the condyle and can lead to facial asymmetry affecting occlusion and possible association with pain and dysfunction. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia is an uncommon condition of unknown aetiology, proper diagnosis of which has to be established, as the patients may look for surgical help. A rare case of unilateral condylar hyperplasia of the mandible is reported here.

  9. Treatment of Pediatric Condylar Fractures: A 20-Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Swanson, Edward W; Utria, Alan F; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to define patterns of injury and treatment for condylar and subcondylar fractures and evaluate short-term outcomes in the pediatric population. A retrospective chart review was performed on pediatric patients with mandibular condylar fractures who presented between 1990 and 2010. Computed tomographic imaging was reviewed for all patients to assess fracture characteristics. Mandibular fractures were codified using the Strasbourg Osteosynthesis Research Group and Lindahl classification methods. Sixty-four patients with 92 condylar fractures were identified. Of these patients, 29 had isolated condylar fracture and 35 had a condylar fracture associated with an additional mandibular arch fracture. The most common fracture patterns were diacapitular fracture in the Strasbourg Osteosynthesis Research Group system (n = 46) and vertical condylar head fracture in the Lindahl system (n = 14). Condylar fracture with additional mandibular arch fractures were treated with maxillomandibular fixation more often than patients with condylar fracture [n = 40 (74.1 percent) versus n = 14 (25.9 percent); p = 0.004]. No condylar fracture was treated in an open fashion. Forty-three patients returned for follow-up. The median follow-up period was 81 days (interquartile range, 35 to 294 days). Ten patients had complications (23.3 percent). The most common complication was malocclusion (n = 5). Nine of 10 patients with complications had condylar fracture with an additional mandibular arch fracture. Closed treatment of condylar fractures yields satisfactory results in pediatric patients. Pediatric patients with condylar fractures combined with additional arch fractures experience a higher rate of unfavorable outcomes.

  10. Mandibular condylar morphology for bruxers with different grinding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianxiang; Wu, Junhua; Zhang, Xuying

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mandibular condylar morphology for bruxers with different grinding patterns. Condylar sectional morphology and condylar position of 30 subjects were determined by two viewers using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image data sets. The grinding patterns during sleep bruxism (SB) were determined objectively using a Brux-checker device.Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis for the condylar morphology type between different tooth grinding patterns. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis between condylar position and the canine guidance area during SB. Theincidence of condylarmorphologicaldivergence from idealwas35%.There isa significant difference in distribution of condylar morphology type between the group grinding (GG) and GG combined with mediotrusive side grinding (MG) (p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between condylar position and canine guidance area during bruxism. MG during SB is associated with condylar morphology that is considered not to be ideal.

  11. The normal range of condylar movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Han Up; Park, Tae Won

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of condylar movement of normal adults. The author gas observed roentgenographic images of four serial positions of condylar head taken by modified transcranial lateral oblique projection. The serial positions are centric occlusion, rest position, 1 inch open position and maximal open position. The results were obtained as follow; 1. Inter-incisal distance was 46.85 mm in maximal open position. 2. The length between the deepest point of glenoid fossa and summit of condylar head in rest position was wider than that in centric occlusion by 0.8 mm. 3. In 1 inch open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 12.64 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 1.84 mm of vertical direction. 4. In maximal open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 19.06 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 0.4 mm of vertical direction. 5. In centric occlusion, the width between glenoid fossa and margin of condylar head was greater in the posterior portion than in the anterior portion by 0.4 mm. 6. Except for estimated figures of 1 inch open position, all of the estimated figures was greater in male than in female.

  12. The Gothic arch (needle point) tracing and condylar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gheriani, A S; Winstanley, R B

    1987-11-01

    The records of 11 patients referred for treatment of TMJ disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a tangent and by using a mathematic technique. Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patients and were compared with the condylar inclination. It can be concluded that (1) the mathematic technique outlined records a more accurate condylar angulation, and (2) there is a great variation in condylar inclination values between patients and between left and right sides of the same patient, and (3) there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle.

  13. Comparative study of the prognosis of an extracorporeal reduction and a closed treatment in mandibular condyle head and/or neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Jang, Yong-Wook; Kim, Seong-Gon; Park, Young-Wook; Rotaru, Horatiu; Baciut, Grigore; Hurubeanu, Lucia

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was a comparison of the prognosis between an extracorporeal reduction technique and closed treatment of a mandibular condyle fracture. The relationship between condylar resorption and several clinical variables was also studied. Seventy-one patients who had a mandibular condyle fracture took part in this study. Thirty-five patients (female: 7, male: 28, age: 30.46 ± 14.27 years) were treated by extracorporeal reduction, and 36 patients (male: 24, female: 12, age: 24.28 ± 9.99 years) were treated using a closed treatment. The presence of complications such as condylar resorption, malocclusion, nerve disorder, and disc displacement was evaluated with panoramic radiographs and clinical examinations 12 months after treatment. The relationships between the complications and other clinical variables were evaluated statistically. The anatomic site and fracture type were closely related to condyle resorption in the bivariate analysis. Condylar head fractures showed significantly higher condyle resorption than condylar neck fractures (P = .023). A complex or compound fracture showed significantly higher condyle resorption compared with a simple fracture (P = .006). Patients who had a complex/compound fracture were 34.366 times more likely to have condyle resorption compared with those who had a simple fracture (P = .002). The patient's age and treatment method were also significant predictors for condyle resorption. Fracture type was the strongest predictor of condylar resorption. Because treatment method and patient age were also related to the prognosis, the optimal treatment for mandibular condylar head and/or neck fractures should be individualized according to the patient's condition. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Facilitation of bone resorption activities in synovial lavage fluid patients with mandibular condyle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, H; Takahashi, T; Nakata, A; Nogami, S; Yusa, K; Kuwajima, S; Yamazaki, M; Fukuda, M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bone resorption effect of the mediators delivered in joint cavity of patients with mandibular condyle fractures by detecting osteoclast markers using cellular biochemistry methods, and by analysing bone resorption activities via inducing osteoclast differentiation of the infiltrated cells from arthrocentesis. Sixteen joints in 10 patients with mandibular condyle fractures were evaluated. The control group consisted of synovial fluid (SF) samples from seven joints of four volunteers who had no clinical signs or symptoms involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or disc displacement. We collected SF cells from all patients during therapeutic arthrocentesis. The infiltrating cells from TMJ SF were cultured, differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells and examined bone resorption activities. We also investigated factors related to osteoclast induction of SF, using ELISA procedures. Osteoclast-like cells were induced from the SF cells obtained from all patients with condylar fractures. These multinucleated giant cells were positive for TRAP and actin, and had the ability to absorb dentin slices. The levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), soluble form of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), in SF samples from the patients, were significantly higher than in the controls. These findings indicate that bone resorption activities in SF from patients with mandibular condyle fractures were upregulated and may participate in the pathogenesis and wound healing. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Update on mandibular condylar fracture management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joshua P; Sawhney, Raja

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the mandibular condyle have provided a lasting source of controversy in the field of facial trauma. Concerns regarding facial nerve injury as well as reasonable functional outcomes with closed management led to a reluctance to treat with an open operative intervention. This article reviews how incorporating new technologies and surgical methods have changed the treatment paradigm. Multiple large studies and meta-analyses continue to demonstrate superior outcomes for condylar fractures when managed surgically. Innovations, including endoscopic techniques, three-dimensional miniplates, and angled drills provide increased options in the treatment of condylar fractures. The literature on pediatric condylar fractures is limited and continues to favor a more conservative approach. There continues to be mounting evidence in radiographic, quality of life, and functional outcome studies to support open reduction with internal fixation for the treatment of condylar fractures in patients with malocclusion, significant displacement, or dislocation of the temporomandibular joint. The utilization of three-dimensional trapezoidal miniplates has shown improved outcomes and theoretically enhanced biomechanical properties when compared with traditional fixation with single or double miniplates. Endoscopic-assisted techniques can decrease surgical morbidity, but are technically challenging, require skilled assistants, and utilize specialized equipment.

  16. Long-term results of nonsurgical management of condylar fractures in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovinga, J; Boering, G; Stegenga, B

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with 28 condylar or subcondylar fractures, sustained during their growth period and treated nonsurgically, have been followed for an average period of 15 years. The fractures were classified as intracapsular, high condylar neck and low condylar neck fractures, In 5 patients, two

  17. Varicella Zoster Virus and Internal Root Resorption: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebzadeh, Bita; Rahimi, Saeed; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Nouroloyuni, Ahmad; Asghari, Vahide

    2015-08-01

    Herpes zoster is a viral infection caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. One of the less well-recognized maxillofacial complications is tooth root resorption. To our knowledge, this is the first case report about internal resorption associated with varicella zoster virus involving different dental quadrants. A 38-year-old woman presented with internal resorption of maxillary canine and first premolar tooth roots on the right quadrant and generalized internal resorption of second molars of both mandibular quadrants. The patient's medical history showed mild oral lichen planus and infection with varicella zoster virus (chickenpox) with severe clinical manifestations 5 years previously. The patient developed diabetes mellitus type I and hypothyroidism a short time after varicella zoster virus infection, and by the time of infection with this virus, oral lichen planus had progressed from the reticular pattern to the generalized severe erosive form. Viral etiology could also be considered in these diseases. The root canals of the affected teeth were debrided, irrigated, and dried, and calcium hydroxide paste was placed in the root canals for a week during the first treatment session. The root canals were obturated during the second session. Six-month follow-up showed improvement of oral lichen planus and resolution of widening of periodontal ligament of the affected teeth, with follow-up radiographs revealing no periapical problems. It appears some cases of internal root resorption classified as idiopathic might have viral etiology. Therefore, it is recommended that patients be questioned about a history of chickenpox and herpes zoster. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Management of disk displacement with condylar fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-bin; Li, Zu-bing; Yang, Xue-wen; Zhao, Ji-hong; Dong, Yao-jun

    2003-07-01

    To investigate clinical features of disk displacement during the course of condylar fracture and to explore the techniques of disk reposition and suturation. 32 patients (10 females and 22 males) who had disk displacements with condylar fractures were followed up. Reduction and reposition of the dislocated disks simultaneously with fixation of fractures were performed. 7 patients underwent intermaxillary fixation with elastic bands for 1 to 2 weeks. The occlusions were satisfactory in all cases but one for the reason of ramus height loss. No TMJ symptom was found when examined 3 months post operation. Anterior disk displacements were most occurred with high condylar process fractures. Surgical reposition and suturation of disk play an important role for the later TMJ-function.

  19. Radiographic normal range of condylar movement of mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Myung Jin

    1981-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to determine various normal anatomic measurements of temporomandibular joint and normal range of condylar movement using relatively simple X-ray equipment and radiographic technique in consideration of popular clinical application. Author's cases consisted of 100 clinically normal adult males and temporomandibular joint radiographs of 3 serial positions of condylar head were taken by transcranial oblique lateral projection in each case. The serial positions are centric occlusion, 1 inch opening and maximal opening position. The results were as follows; 1. In centric occlusion, the length between the condylar head and glenoid fossa was 2.23 ± 0.58 mm in anterior part, 3.55 ± 0.80 mm in upper part and 2.76 ± 0.72 mm in posterior part. 2. In centric occlusion, the angle (α) between the horizontal standard line (AB) and anterior slope (BC) was 37.22 ± 3.87 .deg. . 3. In 1 inch opening position, the distance between the summit of condylar head from the standard point of articular eminence (B) was -0.64 ± 3.53 mm in horizontal direction and -1.07 ± 1.00 mm in vertical direction. 4. In maximal opening position, the distance between the summit of condylar head from the standard point of articular eminence (B) was 5.83 ± 3.05 mm in horizontal direction and +0.29 ± 1.58 mm in vertical direction. 5. In positional relationship between the condylar head and the standard point of articular eminence (B), the condyles were found to be at the eminences or anterior to them in 51% with 1 inch opening and 95% with maximal opening

  20. Relationship of condylar position to disc position and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incesu, L.; Taskaya-Yilmaz, N. E-mail: nergizy@omu.edu.tr; Oeguetcen-Toller, M.; Uzun, E

    2004-09-01

    Introduction/objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether condylar position, as depicted by magnetic resonance imaging, was an indicator of disc morphology and position. Methods and material: One hundred and twenty two TMJs of 61 patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were examined. Condylar position, disc deformity and degree of anterior disc displacement were evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging. Results and discussion: Posterior condyle position was found to be the main feature of temporomandibular joints with slight and moderate anterior disc displacement. No statistical significance was found between the condylar position, and reducing and nonreducing disc positions. On the other hand, superior disc position was found to be statistically significant for centric condylar position. Conclusion: It was concluded that posterior condyle position could indicate anterior disc displacement whereas there was no relation between the position of condyle and the disc deformity.

  1. Occlusal consequence of using average condylar guidance settings: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonsup; Lim, Young-Jun; Kim, Myung-Joo; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2017-04-01

    A simplified mounting technique that adopts an average condylar guidance has been advocated. Despite this, the experimental explanation of how average settings differ from individual condylar guidance remains unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine potential occlusal error by using average condylar guidance settings during nonworking side movement of the articulator. Three-dimensional positions of the nonworking side maxillary first molar at various condylar and incisal settings were traced using a laser displacement sensor attached to the motorized stages with biaxial freedom of movement. To examine clinically relevant occlusal consequences of condylar guidance setting errors, the vertical occlusal error was defined as the vertical-axis positional difference between the average setting trace and the other condylar guidance setting trace. In addition, the respective contribution of the condylar and incisal guidance to the position of the maxillary first molar area was analyzed by multiple regression analysis using the resultant coordinate data. Alteration from individual to average settings led to a positional difference in the maxillary first molar nonworking side movement. When the individual setting was lower than average, vertical occlusal error occurred, which might cause occlusal interference. The vertical occlusal error ranged from -2964 to 1711 μm. In addition, the occlusal effect of incisal guidance was measured as a partial regression coefficient of 0.882, which exceeded the effect of condylar guidance, 0.431. Potential occlusal error as a result of adopting an average condylar guidance setting was observed. The occlusal effect of incisal guidance doubled the effect of condylar guidance. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Clinical application of artificial condylar process for reconstructing temporomandibular joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangdao; Shao, Zhanying; Wang, Fasheng; Duan, Yi

    2012-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and clinical outcomes of artificial condylar process in reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint. Between January 2005 and January 2010, the reconstructions of the temporomandibular joints with artificial condylar process were performed in 10 cases (11 sides, including 7 left sides and 4 right sides). There were 7 males and 3 females with an average age of 50 years (range, 40-68 years). Mandibular condyle defects were caused by mandible tumor in 7 patients with a mean disease duration of 15 months (range, 9-24 months) and by bilateral condylar fractures in 3 patients with the disease duration of 2, 3, and 2 days respectively. According to Neff classification, there were type M and A in 1 case, type M and B in 1 case, and type M in one side and subcondylar fracture in the other side in 1 case. Incisions in all patients healed by first intention, and no complication occurred. All cases were followed up 1 to 4 years, showed facial symmetry and good occluding relation, and the mouth opening was 22-38 mm (mean, 30 mm). No temporomandibular joint clicking or pain and no recurrence of tumor were observed. Most of the artificial condylar process were in good position except 1 deviated from the correct angle slightly. All the patients could have diet normally. The results of temporomandibular joint reconstruction after tumor resection with artificial condylar process are good, but the clinical outcome for intracapsular condylar fracture is expected to be further verified.

  3. Treatment of displaced mandibular condylar fracture with botulinum toxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbay, Ercan; Cevik, Cengiz; Damlar, Ibrahim; Altan, Ahmet

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this case report is to discuss the effect on condylar reduction of botulinum toxin A treatment used in a child with displaced fracture at condylar neck of mandible. A 3-years old boy was admitted to our clinic for incomplete fracture of mandibular symphysis and displaced condylar fracture at the left side. An asymmetrical occlusal splint with intermaxillary fixation was used instead of open reduction and internal fixation because of incomplete fracture of symphysis and possible complications of condyle surgery. However, it was observed that condylar angulation persisted despite this procedure. Thus, botulinum toxin A was administered to masseter, temporalis and pterygoideus medialis muscles. At the end of first month, it was seen that mandibular condyle was almost completely recovered and that fusion was achieved. In conclusion, Botulinum A toxin injection aiming the suppression of masticatory muscle strength facilitates the reduction in the conservative management of displaced condyle in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  5. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tecco, Simona; Saccucci, Matteo; Nucera, Riccardo; Polimeni, Antonella; Pagnoni, Mario; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Festa, Felice; Iannetti, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm 3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm 3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm 2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm 2 in females). Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm 3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm 3 , p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm 2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care

  6. Condyle and mandibular bone change after unilateral condylar neck fracture in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Yang, H-f; Li, S; Chen, J-z; Luo, Y-w; Yang, C

    2012-08-01

    Unilateral fracture of the condylar neck in immature subjects might lead to mandible asymmetry and condyle remodelling. A rat model was used to investigate mandibular deviation and condylar remodelling associated with condyle fracture. 72 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into three groups: an experimental group (unilateral transverse condylar fracture induced surgically), a sham operation group (surgical exposure but no fracture), and a non-operative control group (no operation). The rats were killed at intervals up to 9weeks after surgery, and outcomes were assessed using various measures of mandible deviation, histological and X-ray observation, and immunohistochemical measures of expression levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and type II collagen (Col II). The fracture led to the degeneration of mandibular size, associated with atrophy of fractured condylar process. Progressive remodelling of cartilage and increasing expression levels of CTGF and Col II were found. The authors conclude that condylar fracture can lead to asymmetries in mandible and condyle remodelling and expression of CTGF and Col II in condylar cartilage on both the ipsilateral and the contralateral sides. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiographic study of bone deformans on charged condylar head position in TMJ arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo

    1983-01-01

    The author analyzed the morphologic changes of bone structure from 848 radiographics (424 joints) of 212 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and ortho pantomography. The interrelation of the bone changes and condylar head positions the results were as follows: 1. In the 212 patients with TMJ arthrosis, 210 patients (99.05%) show the condylar positional changes. Among them, 187 patients (89.05%) show the bone changes. 2. In TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes, 108 patients (57.75%) show both the condylar positional changes and bone changes. 66 patients show the condylar positional changes bilaterally and bone changes unilaterally. On the other hand, 11 patients (5.88%) show the condylar positional changes unilaterally and bone change bilaterally. 3. The bone changes in the TMJ arthrosis patients with the condylar positional changes were as follows: There were the flattening of articular surface in 103 cases (26.55%) the erosion in 99 cases (25.52%), and the erosion in 88 cases (22.68%). There were not much differences among the three types of bone changes. And the deformity in 70 cases (18.04%), the sclerosis in 22 cases (5.67%), the marginal proliferation in 6 cases (1.55%) were seen. 4. The regions of bone changes in TMJ arthrosis patients with condylar positional changes were as follows: They occurred at the condyle head (51.04%), the articular eminence (39.20%) and the articular fossa (9.60%) in that order. The condylar positional changes and bone changes according to the regions were as follows: a) In the bone changes at the condylar head, the flattening (34.63%) was a most frequent finding and the deformity (27.63%) the erosion (34.63%) in the order. In the condylar positional changes, the downward positioning of condyle (41.44%) was a most frequent finding in the mouth closed state and the restricted movement within the articular fossa (35.46%) in the mouth open state. b) In

  8. Radiographic study of bone deformans on charged condylar head position in TMJ arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Dong Soo [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-11-15

    The author analyzed the morphologic changes of bone structure from 848 radiographics (424 joints) of 212 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and ortho pantomography. The interrelation of the bone changes and condylar head positions the results were as follows: 1. In the 212 patients with TMJ arthrosis, 210 patients (99.05%) show the condylar positional changes. Among them, 187 patients (89.05%) show the bone changes. 2. In TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes, 108 patients (57.75%) show both the condylar positional changes and bone changes. 66 patients show the condylar positional changes bilaterally and bone changes unilaterally. On the other hand, 11 patients (5.88%) show the condylar positional changes unilaterally and bone change bilaterally. 3. The bone changes in the TMJ arthrosis patients with the condylar positional changes were as follows: There were the flattening of articular surface in 103 cases (26.55%) the erosion in 99 cases (25.52%), and the erosion in 88 cases (22.68%). There were not much differences among the three types of bone changes. And the deformity in 70 cases (18.04%), the sclerosis in 22 cases (5.67%), the marginal proliferation in 6 cases (1.55%) were seen. 4. The regions of bone changes in TMJ arthrosis patients with condylar positional changes were as follows: They occurred at the condyle head (51.04%), the articular eminence (39.20%) and the articular fossa (9.60%) in that order. The condylar positional changes and bone changes according to the regions were as follows: a) In the bone changes at the condylar head, the flattening (34.63%) was a most frequent finding and the deformity (27.63%) the erosion (34.63%) in the order. In the condylar positional changes, the downward positioning of condyle (41.44%) was a most frequent finding in the mouth closed state and the restricted movement within the articular fossa (35.46%) in the mouth open state. b) In

  9. Correlation between Condylar Fracture Pattern after Parasymphyseal Impact and Condyle Morphological Features: A Retrospective Analysis of 107 Chinese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Long, Ting; Tang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Jing, Wei; Tian, Wei-Dong; Long, Jie

    2017-02-20

    The treatment of the condylar fractures is difficult. Factors that result in the fractures are complex. The objective of this morphometric study was to investigate the relationship between condylar fracture patterns and condylar morphological characteristics. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 107 patients admitted to the West China Hospital of Stomatology for bilateral condylar fractures caused by parasymphyseal impact. The patients were divided into five groups according to the type of condylar fracture. Ten parameters were evaluated on three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction mandible models through the Mimics 16.0 (Materialize Leuven, Belgium) anthropometry toolkit. Each parameter of the 3D models was analyzed using multivariate analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between the five groups. The results showed that the differences of condylar head width (M1), condylar neck width (M3), the ratio of condylar head width to condylar anteroposterior diameter (M1/M2), the ratio of condylar head width to condylar neck width (M1/M3), the ratio of condylar height to ramus height (M8/M7), and mandibular angle (M10) were statistically significant (p fractures were positively associated with M1 (compared to Type B: OR =1.627, 95% CI: 1.123, 2.359; compared to Type C: OR = 1.705, 95% CI: 1.170, 2.484) and M1/M2 (compared to Type B: OR =1.034, 95% CI: 0.879, 2.484). Type B condylar head fractures were negatively associated with M10 (compared to Type C: OR = 0.909, 95% CI: 0.821, 1.007). Condylar neck fractures were negatively associated with M3 (compared to condylar head: OR = 0.382, CI: 0.203, 0.720 ; compared to condylar base: OR = 0.436, 95% CI: 0.218, 0.874), and positively associated with M1/M3 (compared to condylar head: OR = 1.229, 95% CI: 1.063, 1.420 compared to condylar base: OR = 1.223, 95% CI: 1.034, 1.447). Condylar base fractures were positively associated with M10 (OR = 1.095, 95% CI: 1.008, 1.189) and

  10. Effects of intermittent versus continuous parathyroid hormone administration on condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Wan, Qilong; Yang, Rongtao; Zhou, Haihua; Li, Zubing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different PTH administration exerts different effects on condylar chondrocyte. ► Intermittent PTH administration suppresses condylar chondrocyte proliferation. ► Continuous PTH administration maintains condylar chondrocyte proliferating. ► Intermittent PTH administration enhances condylar chondrocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Endochondral ossification is a complex process involving chondrogenesis and osteogenesis regulated by many hormones and growth factors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), one of the key hormones regulating bone metabolism, promotes osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis by intermittent administration, whereas continuous PTH administration inhibits bone formation. However, the effects of PTH on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are still unclear. In this study, intermittent PTH administration presented enhanced effects on condylar chondrocyte differentiation and bone formation, as demonstrated by increased mineral nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, up-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), ALP, collagen type X (COL10a1), collagen type I (COL1a1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and osterix (OSX) mRNA and/or protein expression. On the contrary, continuous PTH administration promoted condylar chondrocyte proliferation and suppressed its differentiation, as demonstrated by up-regulated collagen type II (COL2a1) mRNA expression, reduced mineral nodule formation and down-regulated expression of the mRNAs and/or proteins mentioned above. Our data suggest that PTH can regulate condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, depending on the type of PTH administration. These results provide new insight into the effects of PTH on condylar chondrocytes and new evidence for using local PTH administration to cure mandibular asymmetry.

  11. Open Reduction in Pediatric Condylar Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alexandre Agostini; Mariano, Ronaldo Célio

    2017-05-01

    Facial fractures in children are rare. Lack of pneumatization, fat pockets, mixed dentition, contribute to the elasticity and bone stability. When mandibular fractures occur in children, most often involve the condyle by indirect trauma. Such fractures are the center of discussion on the form of treatment if this should be performed conservatively, or held the reduction and fixation of the fracture with surgical exposure of the fragments. In condylar fractures in children, in most patients, the proposed treatment is closed reduction. Treatment with open reduction and fixation has its specific indications. In this case, the authors report a patient cycling accident victim, with cut-contusion injury in ment with limited mouth opening and left condylar fracture with medial rotation. The treatment was the reduction and fixation of fragments by open process.

  12. Effects of intermittent versus continuous parathyroid hormone administration on condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Wan, Qilong; Yang, Rongtao; Zhou, Haihua [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Li, Zubing, E-mail: lizubing0827@163.com [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different PTH administration exerts different effects on condylar chondrocyte. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration suppresses condylar chondrocyte proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous PTH administration maintains condylar chondrocyte proliferating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration enhances condylar chondrocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Endochondral ossification is a complex process involving chondrogenesis and osteogenesis regulated by many hormones and growth factors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), one of the key hormones regulating bone metabolism, promotes osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis by intermittent administration, whereas continuous PTH administration inhibits bone formation. However, the effects of PTH on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are still unclear. In this study, intermittent PTH administration presented enhanced effects on condylar chondrocyte differentiation and bone formation, as demonstrated by increased mineral nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, up-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), ALP, collagen type X (COL10a1), collagen type I (COL1a1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and osterix (OSX) mRNA and/or protein expression. On the contrary, continuous PTH administration promoted condylar chondrocyte proliferation and suppressed its differentiation, as demonstrated by up-regulated collagen type II (COL2a1) mRNA expression, reduced mineral nodule formation and down-regulated expression of the mRNAs and/or proteins mentioned above. Our data suggest that PTH can regulate condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, depending on the type of PTH administration. These results provide new insight into the effects of PTH on condylar chondrocytes and new evidence for using local PTH administration to cure mandibular

  13. [Root resorption and orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbar, M; Bourzgui, F

    2011-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of root resorption during and at the end of orthodontic treatment and to assess its relationship with age, sex and treatment with or without extractions. Our study included 82 patients (51 women and 31 men) aged between 6 and 38 years, who received orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of root resorption was performed on panoramics at the beginning and at the end of orthodontic treatment. All the teeth were observed. The degree of root resorption was increased respectively by the standards in four ordinal levels (4). Data analysis was performed by Epi Info 6.0. Root resorption was present in all the teeth and maxillary incisors are the most affected. The correlation between age and root resorption was significant (p = 0.008). Women were more affected by resorption (P = 0.002). Patients treated with extraction showed more root resorption (p = 0.12). Our results suggest that orthodontic treatment is involved in the development of root resorption. The most often teeth resorbed are maxillary incisors. Age, sex and orthodontic extractions can be considered as risk factors for root resorption.

  14. Epidemiology of Surgically Managed Mandibular Condylar Fractures at a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Urban Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Swosti; Wang, Jun; Hu, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Fu-Gui; Ji, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Mandibular condylar fracture is one of the commonest maxillofacial fractures treated by maxillofacial surgeons. Demography of the patients, causation, and characteristics of the fracture depends on various socio-economic factors. Hence, maxillofacial surgeons should be familiar with epidemiology of mandibular condylar fracture. This study retrospectively describes the demography, etiology, fracture characteristics, and hospital utilization of surgically treated mandibular condylar fractures in a tertiary referral hospital in urban China in past five years. Data of all patients who underwent surgical management between 2011 and 2015 were collected. This included aetiology, characteristics of fracture, time, age, sex, associated injuries, and hospital utilization of 166 patients with 208 mandibular condylar fractures. These patients had undergone open reduction and internal fixation with either miniplates or lag screws. Among the fracture of head of mandibular condyle, 21.28% of the patients had the fracture segments removed. These data were statistically analyzed to describe the epidemiology of mandibular condylar fracture. Most of the patients had unilateral mandibular condylar fractures (74.7%). Male patients (76.51%) outnumbered female patients (23.49%) in this cohort. The average age of the patients was 37 years. The fractures were mostly caused by fall from height (60.84%) and were located at the condylar neck (53.61%). Most of the patients had other associated maxillofacial injuries (71.08%) which were mostly located at symphysis and parasymphysis (44.59%). It took 12.58 +/- 0.35 days of hospitalization for the treatment. Fall from height was the most prevalent cause of mandibular condylar injury in mountainous urban China. The people at highest risk were middle-aged men. Mandibular condylar fracture was mostly located at the condylar neck and was usually associated with fracture at the symphysis and parasymphysis.

  15. Mastication markedly affects mandibular condylar cartilage growth, gene expression, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Akiko; Watahiki, Junichi; Nampo, Tomoki; Irie, Tarou; Ichikawa, Yuuta; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Maki, Koutaro

    2014-09-01

    Mandibular growth is believed to be strongly related to mastication. Furthermore, mandibular condylar cartilage is known to be derived from neural crest cells. We examined whether the degree of chewing affects condylar cartilage growth of the mandible. Mice were fed diets with varying hardness. Genes specific to neural crest-derived cells were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction to compare the expression changes between the mandibular and tibia cartilages. The mandibular condylar cartilage was then evaluated histologically, and proliferation was evaluated using proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Immunostaining was conducted for osteopontin, type X collagen, and Musashi1, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the expression levels of osteopontin and type X collagen. Markers including P75, Wnt-1, Musashi1, and Nestin were upregulated in the mandibular condylar cartilage as compared with the tibial cartilage. Histologic assessment of the mandibular cartilage showed that the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone was statistically significantly thicker in mice fed a hard diet. Chondrocyte proliferation and Musashi1 expression were lower in mice fed a hard diet. After 4 weeks, numerous osteopontin and type X collagen-positive cells were observed in mice fed a mixed diet. Mastication affects the balance between differentiation and proliferation in the mandibular condylar cartilage. This phenomenon might be attributed to the presence of neural crest-derived cells. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Digital diagnosis and treatment of mandibular condylar fractures based on Extensible Neuro imaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhongWei Zhou

    Full Text Available The treatment of condylar fractures has long been controversial. In this paper, we established a database for accurate measurement, storage, management and analysis of patients' data, in order to help determine the best treatment plan.First of all, the diagnosis and treatment database was established based on XNAT, including 339 cases of condylar fractures and their related information. Then image segmentation, registration and three-dimensional (3D measurement were used to measure and analyze the condyle shapes. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the anatomical structure changes of condyle and the surrounding tissues at different stages before and after treatment. The processes of condylar fracture reestablishment at different stages were also dynamically monitored. Finally, based on all these information, the digital diagnosis and treatment plans for condylar fractures were developed.For the patients less than 18 years old with no significant dislocation, surgical treatment and conservative treatment were equally effective for intracapsular fracture, and had no significant difference for neck and basal fractures. For patients above 18 years old, there was no significant difference between the two treatment methods for intracapsular fractures; but for condylar neck and basal fractures, surgical treatment was better than conservative treatment. When condylar fracture shift angle was greater than 11 degrees, and mandibular ramus height reduction was greater than 4mm, the patients felt the strongest pain, and their mouths opening was severely restricted. There were 170 surgical cases with condylar fracture shift angel greater than 11 degrees, and 118 of them (69.4% had good prognosis, 52 of them (30.6% had complications such as limited mouth opening. There were 173 surgical cases with mandibular ramus height reduction more than 4mm, and 112 of them (64.7% had good prognosis, 61 of them (35.3% had complications such as limited mouth opening

  17. Retroauricular transmeatal approach to manage mandibular condylar head fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benech, Arnaldo; Arcuri, Francesco; Baragiotta, Nicola; Nicolotti, Matteo; Brucoli, Matteo

    2011-03-01

    There is a multitude of reported surgical approaches and technical variants with some unresolved technical problems to gain direct access to mandibular condylar head fractures; they can be divided into 2 groups: intraoral and extraoral. In 2005, Neff et al (Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir 2005;9:80), supported by a previous experimental work, reported a successful clinical study of condylar head fractures treated by a retroauricular approach; this article is in German, and the later English-language literature does not mention about this approach to open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular condylar fractures. The retroauricular transmeatal access, selected and performed by the senior author to treat 14 patients affected by highly located condylar head fracture, is illustrated in details. We collected data of 14 consecutive adult patients who, after the discussion about all options, had consented to have 16 mandibular condylar head fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation by miniplates and screws via a retroauricular transmeatal approach. We exposed the temporomandibular joint area easily and better by dissecting via a retroauricular route with identification, ligation, and transection of the retromandibular vein; because of the posterior access, the frontal branch of the facial nerve and the auriculotemporal nerve are located and protected within the substance of the anteriorly retracted flap, superficial to the retromandibular vein. The follow-up clinical examination showed temporary weakness of the frontal branch of the facial nerve in 1 case with a recovery to normal function of 1.6 months; no patients had permanent weakness of the facial nerve or injury of the auriculotemporal nerve. There was absence of any salivary fistula, sialocele, and Frey syndrome; hearing was preserved in all cases, without any auditory stenosis or aesthetic deformity, and there was absence of any infections, hematoma, or scarring. Retroauricular approach provides

  18. Reduced proliferation and osteocalcin expression in osteoblasts of male idiopathic osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gaspà, Sílvia; Blanch-Rubió, Josep; Ciria-Recasens, Manuel; Monfort, Jordi; Tío, Laura; Garcia-Giralt, Natàlia; Nogués, Xavier; Monllau, Joan C; Carbonell-Abelló, Jordi; Pérez-Edo, Lluis

    2010-03-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), resulting in increasing susceptibility to bone fractures. In men, it has been related to some diseases and toxic habits, but in some instances the cause of the primary--or idiopathic--osteoporosis is not apparent. In a previous study, our group compared histomorphometric measurements in cortical and cancellous bones from male idiopathic osteoporosis (MIO) patients to those of control subjects and found reduced bone formation without major differences in bone resorption. To confirm these results, this study analyzed the etiology of this pathology, examining the osteoblast behavior in vitro. We compared two parameters of osteoblast activity in MIO patients and controls: osteoblastic proliferation and gene expression of COL1A1 and osteocalcin, in basal conditions and with vitamin D(3) added. All these experiments were performed from a first-passage osteoblastic culture, obtained from osteoblasts that had migrated from the transiliac explants to the plate. The results suggested that the MIO osteoblast has a slower proliferation rate and decreased expression of genes related to matrix formation, probably due to a lesser or slower response to some stimulus. We concluded that, contrary to female osteoporosis, in which loss of BMD is predominantly due to increased resorption, low BMD in MIO seems to be due to an osteoblastic defect.

  19. Conservative orthodontic fixed appliance management of pediatric mandibular bilateral condylar fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanhua; Gong, Siew-Ging; Zhu, Fangyong; Li, Ming; Biao, Xu

    2016-07-01

    Management of mandibular condylar fractures is difficult in children with their inherently dynamic and unstable deciduous and mixed dentitions. We present a variation of the conservative fixed orthodontic approach that was used as an adjunct to aid in the reduction of a bilateral condylar fracture in a pediatric patient. A boy, aged 10 years 9 months, came with clinical signs and symptoms of mandibular fracture after being involved in a motor vehicle accident. A computed tomography scan showed a vertical fracture on the left condylar head, a displaced fracture of the right condylar neck, and a mandibular symphysis fracture. The patient was treated with an orthodontic fixed appliance instead of an arch bar splint, followed by elastic traction to achieve a proper occlusion and condylar remodeling. Follow-up appointments were made 2 weeks and 1, 2, 20, 37, and 49 months after treatment. Clinical recovery was observed 2 months after treatment. At the follow-up appointments at 20, 37, and 49 months, jaw function and occlusal relationship remained stable, and no ankylosis was observed. The computed tomography scans showed that the right condyle had remodeled, and the left condyle exhibited a slight curve in the head at 49 months posttreatment. The patient's satisfaction with these treatment results was high. Conservative treatment of a mandibular fracture by fixed orthodontic means is a viable treatment option that is relatively straightforward and cost-effective and has a high level of patient acceptance and comfort. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Comparative effectiveness of surgical and non-surgical treatment for pediatric mandibular condylar fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Wang, Yanyi; Zhang, Lihai; Yao, Jun

    2010-12-01

    To compare the effectiveness of open reduction and conservative treatment for pediatric mandibular condylar fractures and to provide the evidence for the selection of clinical therapy. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed from 25 patients with the mandibular condylar fractures between January 1988 and December 2006. Of them, 8 patients (11 fractures) were treated with surgical treatment (surgical group) and 17 patients (22 fractures) with non-surgical treatment (non-surgical group). In surgical group, there were 6 males (9 fractures) and 2 females (2 fractures) with an age range of 8-13 years; fracture was caused by tumbling in 7 cases and by traffic accident in 1 with an interval of 1-6 days between injury and hospitalization; and 5 cases were identified as unilateral condylar fractures (3 complicated by mental fractures) and 3 cases as bilateral condylar fractures complicated by mental fractures. In non-surgical group, there were 12 males (15 fractures) and 5 females (7 fractures) with an age range of 3-12 years; fracture was caused by falling from height in 4 cases, by tumbling in 10, and by traffic accident in 3 with an interval of 1-25 days between injury and hospitalization; and 12 cases were identified as unilateral condylar fractures (3 complicated by mental fractures) and 5 cases as bilateral condylar fractures (1 complicated by mental fracture). Incision healed by first intention in surgical group, and 25 cases were followed up 1-6 years with an average of 3.5 years. At 12 months after treatment, no temporomandibular joint pain, eating disorder, or limited mandibular movement occurred in 2 groups. No significant difference was observed in opening mouth extent, protrusive and lateral movements between 2 groups at 6 and 12 months (P > 0.05). During centric occlusion, mental point located at the midline with symmetric face figure. Two patients in surgical group and 3 in non-surgical group had slight snap when opening their mouths. Mandible

  1. Unilateral Bimaxillary Idiopathic Fibrous Gingival Hyperplasia with Alveolar Bone Loss- Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Sathawane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargements are of many types and vary according to the etiologic factors and pathologic processes that produce them. Though there are many classifications of gingival enlargement, the most practical one is as follows: 1 Inflammatory gingival enlargement 2 Fibrous gingival hyperplasia 3 Combination of inflammatory and fibrous hyperplasia. Gingival hyperplasia is a heterogeneous group of disorder, which appears clinically as diffuse, firm, and massive enlargement of the gingiva covering most of the crown of the teeth. Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition of undetermined etiology, although some cases have definite hereditary basis. A case of unilateral idiopathic fibrous gingival hyperplasia on left side of both the jaws with severe bone resorption is presented.

  2. Comparison of 99mTc-MDP SPECT qualitative vs quantitative results in patients with suspected condylar hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Buitrago, D F; Ruiz Botero, J; Corral, C M; Carmona, A R; Sabogal, A

    To compare qualitative vs quantitative results of Single Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT), calculated from percentage of 99m Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) uptake, in condyles of patients with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on the 99m Tc-MDP SPECT bone scintigraphy reports from 51 patients, with clinical impression of facial asymmetry related to condylar hyperplasia referred by their specialist in orthodontics or maxillofacial surgery, to a nuclear medicine department in order to take this type of test. Quantitative data from 99m Tc-MDP condylar uptake of each were obtained and compared with qualitative image interpretation reported by a nuclear medicine expert. The concordances between the 51 qualitative and quantitative reports results was established. The total sample included 32 women (63%) and 19 men (37%). The patient age range was 13-45 years (21±8 years). According to qualitative reports, 19 patients were positive for right side condylar hyperplasia, 12 for left side condylar hyperplasia, with 8 bilateral, and 12 negative. The quantitative reports diagnosed 16 positives for right side condylar hyperplasia, 10 for left side condylar hyperplasia, and 25 negatives. Nuclear medicine images are an important diagnostic tool, but the qualitative interpretation of the images is not as reliable as the quantitative calculation. The agreement between the two types of report is low (39.2%, Kappa=0.13; P>.2). The main limitation of quantitative reports is that they do not register bilateral condylar hyperplasia cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgical treatment of unilateral condylar hyperplasia with piezosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Luigi; Albanese, Massimo; Anesi, Alexandre; Galzignato, Pier-Francesco; Mortellaro, Carmen; Nocini, Pierfrancesco; Bertossi, Dario

    2014-05-01

    Unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) is a disorder of unknown etiology mainly seen in growing patients, which results in facial asymmetry. High condylectomy alone or in association with orthognathic surgery can improve the occlusion and the facial aesthetics. Between 2005 and 2012, a total of 5 patients underwent high condylectomy for UCH using a piezoelectric cutting device. All patients were treated postoperatively with functional rehabilitation. The long-term follow-up showed that all patients had a satisfactory temporomandibular joint articular function associated with stable occlusion without any recurrence of further condylar growth. High condylectomy in the surgical treatment of unilateral UCH seems to be the procedure of choice in growing patients. The use of a piezoelectric cutting device allows a safe and less invasive high condylectomy.

  4. Development of a computer-assisted system for model-based condylar position analysis (E-CPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, M O; Jakstat, H

    2009-01-01

    Condylar position analysis is a measuring method for the three-dimensional quantitative acquisition of the position of the mandible in different conditions or at different points in time. Originally, the measurement was done based on a model, using special mechanical condylar position measuring instruments, and on a research scale with mechanical-electronic measuring instruments. Today, as an alternative, it is possible to take measurements with electronic measuring instruments applied directly to the patient. The computerization of imaging has also facilitated condylar position measurement by means of three-dimensional data records obtained by imaging examination methods, which has been used in connection with the simulation and quantification of surgical operation results. However, the comparative measurement of the condylar position at different points in time has so far not been possible to the required degree. An electronic measuring instrument, allowing acquisition of the condylar position in clinical routine and facilitating later calibration with measurements from later examinations by data storage and use of precise equalizing systems, was therefore designed by the present authors. This measuring instrument was implemented on the basis of already existing components from the Reference CPM und Cadiax Compact articulator and registration systems (Gamma Dental, Klosterneuburg, Austria) as well as the matching CMD3D evaluation software (dentaConcept, Hamburg).

  5. Assessment of condylar morphology and position using MSCT in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Wei, Xiaoer; Guan, Juanjuan; Wang, Ran; Zou, Derong; Yu, Lvfeng

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the volume, surface, morphometric index (MI), and position of the condyle in a normal population by applying Mimics 17.0 software. Then, the difference between left and right sides, sex, and age can be explored, which will contribute to establish the reference value of condylar morphology and position in normal individuals, and help us to study characteristics of condylar morphology and position in abnormal individuals. Three-hundred subjects were enrolled in our study from the radiology department of Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital. They were divided into three groups according to the age: group 1 (18-24 years old), group 2 (25-34 years old), and group 3 (35-44 years old). Each group included 100 subjects (with 50 males and 50 females). They were examined using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) after that. All images of condyle were reconstructed by Mimics 17.0 software, so as to measure the volume, surface, and MI of condyle, and to analyze the position of condyle in the articular fossa by means of joint spaces. The differences of condylar volume, surface, and MI between left and right sides were not obvious (P > 0.05). The condylar volume and surface were greater in males than females (P  0.05). No statistical differences were found in volume and surface among three age groups. However, the MI of group 1 was statistically lower than that of group 3 (P position (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, there were significant differences of condylar position regarding the gender and age (P position between left and right sides, but factors of gender and age were proven to have a certain influence on the morphology and position of the condyle. This information can be clinically useful in establishing the diagnostic criteria for condylar morphology and position in the normal Asian population. Examination of condylar morphology and position is important for evaluating the

  6. Treatment of mandibular symphyseal fracture combined with dislocated intracapsular condylar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Shi, Jun; Xu, Bing; Dai, Jiewen; Zhang, Shilei

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the treatment methods of mandibular symphyseal fracture combined with dislocated intracapsular condylar fractures (MSF&DICF) and to compare the effect of different treatment methods of condylar fractures. Twenty-eight patients with MSF&DICF were included in this study. Twenty-two sites were treated by open reduction, and all the medial condylar fragments were fixed with titanium screws; whereas the other 22 sites underwent close treatment. The surgical effect between these 2 groups was compared based on clinical examination and radiographic examination results. Seventeen of 22 condyle fractures were repositioned in the surgery group, whereas 4 of 22 condyle fractures were repositioned in the close treatment group. Statistical difference was observed between these 2 groups (P condyle fractures should be treated by surgical reduction with the maintenance of the attachment of lateral pterygoid muscle, which is beneficial to repositioning the dislocated condyle to its original physiological position, to closure of the mandibular lingual gap, to restore the mandibular width.

  7. Radiographic study on the interrelation between bone deformans and condylar head position in the TMJ arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo

    1981-01-01

    The author analysed the interrelation between the morphologic changes of bone structures and the position of condylar head from the routine radiographs of 134 cases of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis. The frequencies of coincidence between the site of bone deformity and condylar head positional change were examined. Also, the positional changes of condylar head and the direction of condylar movement in relation to the kind of bone deformities were observed. The results obtained were as follows; 1. In 52.65 per cent of total cases, the site of positional change of condylar head was coincided with the site of bone deformans. The frequencies of the coincidence between these in the five items among seven items examined were above 53 per cent. From the results, it seems that the positional changes of condylar head were related with the morphological change of bone structure. 2. Eburnation and erosion revealed frequently positional changes in the opening and closing position of the mouth, although in the early stages of the TMJ arthrosis. 3. In the bone deformans, during open position of the mouth 44.81 per cent of total cases revealed backward movement and 37.74 per cent showed forward movement. In closed position of the mouth, downward movement was revealed in 35.23 percent of total cases and upward movement 28.41 percent of total cases.

  8. Radiographic study on the interrelation between bone deformans and condylar head position in the TMJ arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-11-15

    The author analysed the interrelation between the morphologic changes of bone structures and the position of condylar head from the routine radiographs of 134 cases of the temporomandibular joint arthrosis. The frequencies of coincidence between the site of bone deformity and condylar head positional change were examined. Also, the positional changes of condylar head and the direction of condylar movement in relation to the kind of bone deformities were observed. The results obtained were as follows; 1. In 52.65 per cent of total cases, the site of positional change of condylar head was coincided with the site of bone deformans. The frequencies of the coincidence between these in the five items among seven items examined were above 53 per cent. From the results, it seems that the positional changes of condylar head were related with the morphological change of bone structure. 2. Eburnation and erosion revealed frequently positional changes in the opening and closing position of the mouth, although in the early stages of the TMJ arthrosis. 3. In the bone deformans, during open position of the mouth 44.81 per cent of total cases revealed backward movement and 37.74 per cent showed forward movement. In closed position of the mouth, downward movement was revealed in 35.23 percent of total cases and upward movement 28.41 percent of total cases.

  9. Nonsurgical management of horizontal root fracture associated external root resorption and internal root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraz Pasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal root fractures, which frequently affect the upper incisors, usually result from a frontal impact. As a result, combined injuries occur in dental tissues such as the pulp, dentin, cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Internal root canal inflammatory resorption involves a progressive loss of intraradicular dentin without adjunctive deposition of hard tissues adjacent to the resorptive sites. It is frequently associated with chronic pulpal inflammation, and bacteria might be identified from the granulation tissues when the lesion is progressive to the extent that it is identifiable with routine radiographs. With the advancement in technology, it is imperative to use modern diagnostic tools such as cone beam computed tomography and radiovisuography to diagnose and confirm the presence and extent of resorptions and fractures and their exact location. This case report presents a rare case having internal root resorption and horizontal root fracture with external inflammatory root resorption both which were treated successfully following guidelines by International Association of Dental Traumatology by nonsurgical treatment with 1 year follow-up.

  10. [Condylar hyperplasia: qualitative and quantitative study of temporomandibular joints remodeling before and after condylectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojare, Camille; Wojcik, Thomas; Coussens, Camille; Ferri, Joël; Pertuzon, Bruno; Raoul, Gwénaël

    2014-06-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate bone remodeling of temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) using computed tomography (CT) before and after condylectomy for condylar hyperplasia. TMJ bone remodeling was studied by comparing the pre and postoperative CT scan of ten patients. Qualitative evaluation was performed by two-dimensional analysis. Three-dimensional analysis superimpositions were done after digital condylar units isolation. Condylar volume modifications were measured and compared on both sides. Lastly, before and after surgery, we studied the radio-clinic correlations. After surgery, all the operated condyles developed a new cortical bone. We noticed also a thickening of the glenoid fossa. Surgical condylectomy leaded to a 43.5% volume reduction on the operated side and 2.14% on the controlateral side. On the controlateral side, most of abnormalities seen preoperatively disappeared after surgery. For two patients, the condylar resection took away over 80% of the initial volume. For these patients, we observed major radiologic modifications on the controlateral TMJ associated with symptoms of dysfunction. These problems did not worsen their quality of life. Both TMJ presented with bone remodelling after condylectomy. In condylar hyperplasia, condylectomy provides orthopaedic results on dysmorphia and removal of the pathological prechondroblastic zone. In the future, an earlier detection of this pathology may help the surgeon to treat in childhood. This would limit surgical excision and would avoid important dysmorphia. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  11. Condylar bony changes in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a CBCT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Diagnosis of osteoarthritis most commonly depends on clinical and radiographic findings. The present study attempted to observe the bony changes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) patients from all age groups. The first-visit clinical records and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data of 440 TMJs from 220 consecutive TMJ patients were reviewed retrospectively. The most frequent condylar bony change observed was sclerosis (133 joints, 30.2%) followed by surface erosion (129 joints, 29.3%), flattening of the articular surface (112 joints, 25.5%), and deviation in form (58 joints, 13.2%), which included 33 TMJs in a cane-shape, 16 with a lateral or medial pole depression, 6 with posterior condylar surface flattening, and 3 with a bifid-shaped condyle. Fifty-three joints (12.0%) showed hypoplastic condyles but only 1 joint showed hyperplasia. Osteophyte was found in 35 joints (8.0%) and subcortical cyst in 24 joints (5.5%), 5 of which had surface erosion as well. One hundred nineteen joints (27.0%) had only one kind of condylar bony change, 66 joints (15.0%) had two, 52 joints (11.8%) had three, 12 joints (5.0%) had four, and 6 joints (1.4%) had five kinds of condylar bony changes at the same time. Eighty-five (65.9%) of 129 joints with surface erosion had pain recorded at the chief complaint. With more widespread use of CBCT, more specific or detailed guidelines for osteoarthritis are needed.

  12. Condylar bony changes in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a CBCT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of osteoarthritis most commonly depends on clinical and radiographic findings. The present study attempted to observe the bony changes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) patients from all age groups. The first-visit clinical records and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data of 440 TMJs from 220 consecutive TMJ patients were reviewed retrospectively. The most frequent condylar bony change observed was sclerosis (133 joints, 30.2%) followed by surface erosion (129 joints, 29.3%), flattening of the articular surface (112 joints, 25.5%), and deviation in form (58 joints, 13.2%), which included 33 TMJs in a cane-shape, 16 with a lateral or medial pole depression, 6 with posterior condylar surface flattening, and 3 with a bifid-shaped condyle. Fifty-three joints (12.0%) showed hypoplastic condyles but only 1 joint showed hyperplasia. Osteophyte was found in 35 joints (8.0%) and subcortical cyst in 24 joints (5.5%), 5 of which had surface erosion as well. One hundred nineteen joints (27.0%) had only one kind of condylar bony change, 66 joints (15.0%) had two, 52 joints (11.8%) had three, 12 joints (5.0%) had four, and 6 joints (1.4%) had five kinds of condylar bony changes at the same time. Eighty-five (65.9%) of 129 joints with surface erosion had pain recorded at the chief complaint. With more widespread use of CBCT, more specific or detailed guidelines for osteoarthritis are needed.

  13. Radiographic cephalometry analysis of condylar position after bimaxillary osteotomy in patients with mandibular prognathism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miković Nikola D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Postoperative condylar position is a substantial concern in surgical correction of mandibular prognathism. Orthognathic surgery may change condylar position and this is considered a contributing factor for early skeletal relapse and the induction of temporomandibular disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in condylar position, and to correlate angular skeletal measurements following bimaxillary surgery. Methods. On profile teleradiographs of 21 patients with mandibular angular and linear parametres, the changes in condylar position, were measured during preoperative orthodontic treatment and 6 months after the surgical treatment. Results. A statistically significant difference in values between the groups was found. The most distal point on the head of condyle point (DI moved backward for 1.38 mm (p = 0.02, and the point of center of collum mandibulae point (DC moved backward for 1.52 mm (p = 0.007. The amount of upward movement of the point DI was 1.62 mm (p = 0.04. Conclusion. In the patients with mandibular prognathism, the condyles tend to migrate upward and forward six months after bimaxillary surgery.

  14. Endoscope-assisted conservative condylectomy combined with orthognathic surgery in the treatment of mandibular condylar osteochondroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Jiao, Feifei; Li, Biao; Zhang, Lei; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong

    2014-07-01

    Mandibular condylar osteochondroma (OC) results in asymmetric prognathism with facial morphologic and functional disturbance. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of endoscope-assisted conservative condylectomy combined with simultaneous orthognathic surgery in the treatment of condylar OC. Thirteen patients with OC of the mandibular condyle were enrolled in this study. With the aid of endoscope, condylar OC resection and conservative condylectomy were carried out via intraoral approach. A direct vision of the magnified and illuminated operative field was realized. Simultaneous orthognathic surgery was used to correct facial asymmetry and malocclusion. All patients healed uneventfully. No facial nerve injury and salivary fistula occurred. Facial symmetry and morphology were greatly improved, and stable occlusion was obtained in all cases. The patients showed no signs of recurrence and temporomandibular joint ankylosis in the 16 to 54 months of follow-up. Endoscope-assisted tumor resection and condylectomy combined with simultaneous orthognathic surgery provide us a valuable option in the treatment of mandibular condylar OC.

  15. Root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatania, Archana; Shivalinga, B M; Kiran, Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Root resorption that occurs in permanent teeth is an unwanted process and is considered pathologic. Although apical root resorption occurs in individuals who have never experienced orthodontic tooth movement, the incidence among treated individuals is seen to be significantly higher. Some resorption occurs in most orthodontic patients, but because of repair the changes are difficult to detect with radiographic examination and therefore are clinically insignificant. This article gives a review of the various types of root resorption, the etiological factors, the biology and the identification of root resorption.

  16. Resorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, L.L.; Mishkinis, D.A.; Antukh, A.A.; Kulakov, A.G.; Vasiliev, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    Resorption processes are based on at least two solid-sorption reactors application. The most favorable situation for the resorption heat pumps is the case, when the presence of a liquid phase is impossible. From simple case--two reactors with two salts to complicated system with two salts + active carbon fiber (fabric) and two branch of the heat pump acting out of phase to produce heat and cold simultaneously, this is the topic of this research program

  17. Transmasseteric anterior parotid approach for condylar fractures: experience of 129 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vinod; Ramadorai, Ashok; Ravi, Poornima; Nirvikalpa, Natarajan

    2012-07-01

    We have evaluated the transmasseteric anterior parotid (TMAP) approach in the treatment of 163 condylar fractures in 129 patients. Ninety-five patients presented with unilateral, and 34 with bilateral, fractures. The inclusion criteria were patient's choice for open reduction and internal fixation, displaced unilateral condylar fractures with occlusal derangement, and displaced bilateral condylar fractures with anterior open bite. Mean (SD) maximum interincisal opening after 3 months was 44(5)mm. There were no differences in lateral movements during the reviews 6 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. Protrusive movement at the end of 3 months was 7(2)mm. All patients achieved functional occlusion identical to the pretraumatic occlusion and good reduction of the condyles. No patient developed temporary or permanent facial palsy, sialocele, salivary fistula, or Frey syndrome. The mean (SD) operating time was 46(11)min. The TMAP approach avoids the complications of incision of the parotid gland, minimises the risk of facial nerve palsy, and offers excellent access to the fractured condyle. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Relationship of the Facial Nerve to the Condylar Process: A Cadaveric Study with Implications for Open Reduction Internal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Barham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The mandibular condyle is the most common site of mandibular fracture. Surgical treatment of condylar fractures by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF demands direct visualization of the fracture. This project aimed to investigate the anatomic relationship of the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Materials and Methods. Twelve fresh hemicadavers heads were used. An extended retromandibular/preauricular approach was utilized, with the incision being based parallel to the posterior edge of the ramus. Measurements were obtained from the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Results. The temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve was encountered during each approach, crossing the mandible at the condylar neck. The mean tissue depth separating the facial nerve from the condylar neck was 5.5 mm (range: 3.5 mm–7 mm, SD 1.2 mm. The upper division of the facial nerve crossed the posterior border of the condylar process on average 2.31 cm (SD 0.10 cm anterior to the tragus. Conclusions. This study suggests that the temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve will be encountered in most approaches to the condylar process. As visualization of the relationship of the facial nerve to condyle is often limited, recognition that, on average, 5.5 mm of tissue separates condylar process from nerve should help reduce the incidence of facial nerve injury during this procedure.

  19. Association between clinical and cone-beam computed tomography findings in patients with temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Imanimoghaddam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT findings in relation to bony changes in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD. METHODS: According to the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorder (RDC/TMD, forty-one patients with type II TMD (42 TM joints and type III TMD (40 TM joints were recruited for this study. Condylar position and bony changes including flattening, sclerosis, osteophytes, resorption, and erosion of joint were evaluated by CBCT and compared with clinical findings. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. RESULTS: Condylar flattening, sclerosis, resorption, and erosion were not significantly associated with joint/masticatory muscles pain or crepitus sound. The vertical or horizontal position of the condyle showed no significant relationship with the clinical findings. Condylar osteophyte was significantly associated with pain in masticatory muscles and crepitus (P = 0.030 and P = 0.010, respectively. There was no association between the condylar range of motion and pain in joint or masticatory muscles. CONCLUSION: Condylar osteophyte was significantly associated with both masticatory muscles pain and crepitus sound. No significant relationship was found between the other temporomandibular joint (TMJ radiographic and clinical findings in patients with TMD.

  20. Outcomes of Distal Femur Fracture Treated with Dynamic Condylar Screw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaq, M. N. U.; Muhammad, T.; Ahmed, A.; Adeel, M.; Ahmad, S.; Ahmad, S.; Sultan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implants for open reduction and internal fixation of distal femoral fracture includes angle blade plate, rush nails, enders nail and interlocking nails. But all these devices are technically demanding and less effective in providing inter-fragmentary compression in osteoporotic bones. These problems can be solved with dynamic condylar screw (DCS).The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of different outcomes of distal femoral fracture treated with dynamic condylar screw Methods: This case series study was carried out in the Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from 1st October 2014 to August 2015, after approval of the ethical committee of the institution. Data of all patients with distal femoral fractures aged 20-70 years, recruited through emergency, OPD or consultant clinic collected on a proforma. Standard treatment of trauma was given to the patients. Detailed history was taken including the past medical and surgical history. Detailed examination including air-way, breathing and circulation, general physical examination and abdomino-pelvic examination was done in each patient. Investigations including urinalysis, haemoglobin percent, full blood count, X-ray (both AP and lateral view) of the involved femur (including hip and knee) was done. Results: Mean age of the patients was 43.18±14.647 ranging from 20 to 70 years. Mean duration of hospital stay in days was 2.21±1.111 ranging from 1 to 6 days. Patients follow-up assessment after 4 months of surgery for union of femoral fracture treated with dynamic condylar screw was found in 96 (94.1 percent), wound infection was found in 7 (6.9 percent), knee stiffness was found in 21 (20.6 percent) and limb shortening was found in 7 (6.9 percent). Conclusion: Dynamic condylar screw is an easy, scientifically less difficult and satisfying method of treatment for fractures of femur. (author)

  1. Condylar position on the lateral individualized corrected tomography in internal derangement of temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keun Min; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To examine the possible relationship between condylar position and disk displacement in the temporomandibular joint. 79 temporomandibular joints in 40 patients having temporomandibular disorders were classified into three categories: no disk displacement (NDD), disk displacement with reduction (DDWR), and disk displacement without reduction (DDWOR). Disk positions were assessed from clinical and MRI findings. The relationship between the three categories and condylar positions was evaluated using lateral individualized corrected tomography. Clinical findings regarding the relationship between condyle and disk positions having anterior, centric, and posterior positions were 27%, 27%, and 46%, respectively, in NDD, 43%, 17%, and 40%, respectively, in DDWR, and 44%, 22%, and 34%, respectively, in DDWOR. There were no significant differences in condylar positions between each of the groups (P>0.05). In the relationship between condyle and disk positions with MRI findings, anterior, centric, and posterior positions were 38%, 38%, and 24%, respectively, in NDD, 29%, 21%, and 50%, respectively, in DDWR, and 44%, 9%, and 47% respectively, in DDWOR. There were significant differences in the condylar positions when MRI was utilized (P<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the condyle and disk positions with MRI findings on lateral individualized corrected tomography.

  2. Hyaline cartilage cells outperform mandibular condylar cartilage cells in a TMJ fibrocartilage tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Lazebnik, M; Detamore, M S

    2009-03-01

    To compare temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar cartilage cells in vitro to hyaline cartilage cells cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) environment for tissue engineering of mandibular condylar cartilage. Mandibular condylar cartilage and hyaline cartilage cells were harvested from pigs and cultured for 6 weeks in polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds. Both types of cells were treated with glucosamine sulfate (0.4 mM), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (100 ng/ml) and their combination. At weeks 0 and 6, cell number, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content were determined, types I and II collagen were visualized by immunohistochemistry and GAGs were visualized by histology. Hyaline cartilage cells produced from half an order to a full order of magnitude more GAGs and collagen than mandibular condylar cartilage cells in 3D culture. IGF-I was a highly effective signal for biosynthesis with hyaline cartilage cells, while glucosamine sulfate decreased cell proliferation and biosynthesis with both types of cells. In vitro culture of TMJ condylar cartilage cells produced a fibrous tissue with predominantly type I collagen, while hyaline cartilage cells formed a fibrocartilage-like tissue with types I and II collagen. The combination of IGF and glucosamine had a synergistic effect on maintaining the phenotype of TMJ condylar cells to generate both types I and II collagen. Given the superior biosynthetic activity by hyaline cartilage cells and the practical surgical limitations of harvesting cells from the TMJ of a patient requiring TMJ reconstruction, cartilage cells from elsewhere in the body may be a potentially better alternative to cells harvested from the TMJ for TMJ tissue engineering. This finding may also apply to other fibrocartilages such as the intervertebral disc and knee meniscus in applications where a mature cartilage cell source is desired.

  3. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  4. TMJ surgery following orthognathic surgery: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Politis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthognathic surgery may affect or cause temporomandibular joint (TMJ complaints. This study evaluated the need for TMJ surgery after orthognathic surgery.A retrospective cohort study was carried out on 630 consecutive patients undergoing at least a Le Fort I or bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO. The mean follow-up time was 2,3 years. Clinical, surgical and radiographic findings were collected.Ten of the 630 patients (1.6% had additional arthroscopic TMJ-surgery in one (9 or in both (1 joints because of internal derangement, resistant to conventional therapy. Only 4/10 patients had successful outcomes following arthroscopic surgery. One patient with unsuccessful outcome required multiple additional open TMJ-surgeries, all remaining ineffective to relieve pain and restricted mouth opening. If arthroscopy failed to relieve symptoms (5/10 patients, further conservative management was opted. Arthroscopy seemed effective mainly in patients without pre-existing TMJ complaints.A further five of the 630 patients (0.8% required more treatment because of bilateral postoperative condylar resorption, but none of them required TMJ-surgery.In contrast to patients with bilateral condylar resorption where the skeletal relapse remained the issue of concern, patients with internal derangement/osteoarthrosis exhibited major occlusal changes in one patient only (1/10, leaving the TMJ complaints as the main concern. Keywords: Sagittal split osteotomy, Le Fort I osteotomy, Orthognathic surgery, Condylar remodelling, Condylar resorption, Osteoarthrosis, Internal derangement, Relapse, Arthroscopy

  5. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of Wnt signaling pathway during the development of temporomandibular condylar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Quan, Huixin; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Di

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway in various aspects of skeletal and joint development; however, it is unclear whether it is involved in the process of temporomandibular joint development. In order to clarify this issue, we examined the spatio-temporal distribution of mRNAs and proteins of the Wnt family during the formation of the mandibular condylar cartilage at the prenatal and postnatal stages. An in situ hybridization test revealed no mRNAs of β-catenin and Axin2 during early mesenchymal condensation; the ligands surveyed in this study (including Wnt-4, 5a, and 9a) were clearly detected at various ranges of expression, mainly in the condylar blastema and later distinct cartilaginous layers. Apart from β-catenin and Axin2, the Wnt family members surveyed in this study, including Lef-1, were found to be immunopositive during early chondrogenesis in the condylar cartilage at E14.5. After distinct chondrocyte layers were identified within the cartilage at E16.5, the expression of the Wnt signaling members was different and mainly restricted to proliferating cells and mineralized hypertrophic chondrocytes. In the adult mandibular condylar cartilage, the Wnt-4 mRNA, as well as the Wnt-4 and Wnt-9a proteins, was not observed. Our findings demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway was associated with the development of mandibular condylar cartilage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Twenty-degree-tilt radiography for evaluation of lateral humeral condylar fracture in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Hideaki; Tanaka, Ryuji; Itoh, Yohei; Kishi, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of '20 -tilt anteroposterior (A-P) radiography' in the assessment of lateral condylar fractures of the distal humerus. Eighteen children with lateral humeral condylar fractures were studied. Every child underwent conventional A-P and lateral radiography, and six children underwent multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). For the investigation of 20 -tilt radiography, ten children with lateral humeral condylar fractures had conventional and 20 -tilt A-P and lateral radiography both preoperatively and postoperatively. Fragment dislocation was measured at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture on both the conventional A-P and 20 -tilt A-P radiographs. The lateral condylar fragment was triangular and was most prominent posteriorly. The fracture line was typically tilted approximately 20 to a reference line perpendicular to the long axis of the humerus in the lateral view. The extent of dislocation at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture site by 20 -tilt A-P radiography (9.3 ± 3.6 mm and 5.6 ± 2.5 mm) was significantly wider than that measured by the conventional method (6.8 ± 4.1 mm and 2.0 ± 1.5 mm), which may influence treatment. Twenty-degree-tilt A-P radiography may more precisely demonstrate fragment dislocation than standard radiographs and may influence patient treatment. (orig.)

  7. Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kang-Young; Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of condylar fractures is high, but the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, external fixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonly used in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsular or intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on the age of the patient, the co-existence of ...

  8. On the analysis of condylar path versus real motion of the temporomandibular joint: application for Sicat Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordaß, Bernd; Ruge, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function using condylar path tracings is a challenge in functionally oriented dentistry. In most cases, reference points on the skin surface over the TMJ region are defined as "arbitrary", "individual" or "kinematic" condylar hinge axis points, which are displayed as "condylar paths" in motion. To what extent these reference points represent the actual condylar paths in each individual patient is ultimately unclear because the geometric relationship of the actual condyle to the selected reference point is usually unknown. Depending on the location of the point on the condyle and the centers of rotation of mandibular movement, these trajectories can vary greatly during combined rotational and sliding movements (eg, opening and closing movements of the mandible); this represents a grid of points located in the vicinity of the TMJ. To record the actual condylar path as the movement trajectory of a given point (eg, the condylar center), technological solutions are needed with which to link the tracing technology with the appropriate imaging technology capable of scanning the condyle, including the points of interest, and displaying them in real dynamic motion. Sicat Function (Sicat, D-Bonn) is such a solution. Sicat Function links cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans (made using the Galileos CBCT scanner; Sirona, Bensheim, Germany) with ultrasound-based, three-dimensional (3D) functional jaw movement recordings of the mandible (made using the JMT+ Jaw Motion Tracker; Sicat, Bonn, Germany). Digital images of the dental arches acquired with the intraoral scanner Cerec system (Sirona) can also be superimposed. This results in the generation of a 3D model of the bony mandible, including the TMJ, which reproduces the 3D real dynamic movement of the condyles simultaneously with that of the condylar paths at defined points (with the condylar centers being a particular point of interest). Sicat Function is an integrated, digital

  9. Open reduction and internal fixation of dislocated condylar fractures in children: long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B; Vecchione, Lisa; Martin, Brian; Jiang, Shao; Sotereanos, George

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes of treating dislocated condylar fractures sustained in childhood with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Six children 14 years or younger with a condylar neck or subcondylar fracture with dislocation of the condyle from the glenoid fossa were treated with ORIF. Patients were followed for 27 to 92 months post-ORIF (mean: 67.6 months) with routine clinical and radiologic examinations. On the dislocated side, all patients radiographically showed signs of remodeling of the condylar process and shortening of the ramus. Subsequent to their fractures, 3 patients were classified with Angle class II malocclusion, retrognathism, and deviation of the mandibular symphysis. Four patients had objective and/or subjective signs of temporomandibular (TMJ) dysfunction. Until open surgery demonstrates a consistent functional advantage, nonsurgical management should be considered the first treatment option for the dislocated pediatric condylar fracture.

  10. A radiographic study on the condylar position in temporomandibular joint dysfunction patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Seo Howan; Kim, Jae Duck

    1987-01-01

    The author obtained the transcranial-oblique lateral radiograms from 78 patients (26 male, 52 female) with temporom andibular dysfunction problem. And then, the author analyzed the dimensional changes of the TMJ space on centric occlusion, horizontal condylar movement and antero-posterior positional relationship of condyle to the articular eminence on 2.54 cm mouth opening with clicking, TMJ pain and mouth opening limitation respectively, which were the symptoms of the temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction problem, and compared these data with control group. The results were as follow: 1. In centric occlusion, anterior and posterior TMJ space of experimental group was slightly lesser than those of the control group, also superior TMJ space of experimental group was significantly lesser than that of the control group. (p 2. In 2.54 cm mouth opening, the condylar horizontal movement and the antero-posterior positional relationship to the articular eminence were significantly lesser than those of the control group. (p 3. Examined experimental group, the degree of condylar horizontal movement of affected side was lesser than that of the normal side in 2.54 cm mouth opening.

  11. [Calcitonin as an alternative treatment for root resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A; Berg, J O; Lindskog, S

    1989-01-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a common finding following trauma and will cause eventual destruction of the tooth root if left untreated. This study examined the effects of intrapulpal application of calcitonin, a hormone known to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, on experimental inflammatory root resorption induced in monkeys. Results were histologically evaluated using a morphometric technique and revealed that calcitonin was an effective medicament for the treatment of inflammatory root resorption. It was concluded that this hormone could be a useful therapeutic adjunct in difficult cases of external root resorption.

  12. Condylar Joint Fusion and Stabilization (by Screws and Plates) in Nontraumatic Atlanto-Occipital Dislocation: Technical Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Forhad H; Haque, Mohammod Raziul; Alam, Sarwar Murshed; Khaled Chowdhury, S M Noman; Khan, Shamsul Islam; Goel, Atul

    2017-11-01

    Nontraumatic spontaneous atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is rare. In this report, we discuss the technical steps of condylar joint fusion and stabilization (by screws and plates) in nontraumatic AOD. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of such techniques. A young girl and a young man with progressive quadriparesis due to nontraumatic spontaneous atlanto-occipital dislocation were managed by microsurgical reduction, fusion, and stabilization of the joint by occipital condylar and C1 lateral mass screw and plate fixation after mobilization of vertebral artery. In both cases, condylar joints fixation and fusion were done successfully. Condylar joint stabilization and fusion may be a good or alternative option for AOD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Apical root resorption in orthodontically treated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L

    1996-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship in orthodontically treated adults between upper central incisor displacement measured on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measured on anterior periapical x-ray films. A multiple linear regression examined incisor displacements in four directions (retraction, advancement, intrusion, and extrusion) as independent variables, attempting to account for observed differences in the dependent variable, resorption. Mean apical resorption was 1.36 mm (sd +/- 1.46, n = 73). Mean horizontal displacement of the apex was -0.83 mm (sd +/- 1.74, n = 67); mean vertical displacement was 0.19 mm (sd +/- 1.48, n = 67). The regression coefficients for the intercept and for retraction were highly significant; those for extrusion, intrusion, and advancement were not. At the 95% confidence level, an average of 0.99 mm (se = +/- 0.34) of resorption was implied in the absence of root displacement and an average of 0.49 mm (se = +/- 0.14) of resorption was implied per millimeter of retraction. R2 for all four directional displacement variables (DDVs) taken together was only 0.20, which implied that only a relatively small portion of the observed apical resorption could be accounted for by tooth displacement alone. In a secondary set of univariate analyses, the associations between apical resorption and each of 14 additional treatment-related variables were examined. Only Gender, Elapsed Time, and Total Apical Displacement displayed statistically significant associations with apical resorption. Additional multiple regressions were then performed in which the data for each of these three statistically significant variables were considered separately, with the data for the four directional displacement variables. The addition of information on Elapsed Time or Total Apical Displacement did not explain a significant additional portion of the variability in apical resorption. On the other hand, the addition of information on Gender to the

  14. Frequency of the external resorptions of root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opačić-Galić Vanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorptions present a significant problem in endodontic therapy of the affected teeth and in dentistry in general. The objective of this study was to analyze, based on epidemiological and statistical research, the frequency of clinical incidence of pathological root resorptions in everyday practice related to localization, type of tooth, age and sex of patients. Radiographie documentation of patients treated from 1997 till 2002 at the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Stomatology in Belgrade, was used as baseline for this study. Retroalveolar radiographs of teeth with visible signs of resorptions were singled out from 15654 patients' clinical records used for this study. The external resorptions were shown as radiolucent areas localized on various outer root surfaces, followed by significant or less significant resorption of lamina dura and alveolar bone. Out of all teeth analyzed in this study, 594 (3.79% showed some kind of resorption. The external resorptions were found to be more present in the upper jaw (55.10% and molars (50.30% than in the lower jaw (44.90% and single root teeth (49.70%, but in both cases without significant statistical differences. The most frequent localization of resorptions was root apex (82.44%. In regard to age, the most frequent resorptions were recorded in patients aged between 21 and 30 years (28.40%, and the lowest incidence was found in the youngest population (5.51%. The results also showed that resorptions were more frequent among the female population (59.04% than among the male population (40.96%. Based on these results, we may conclude that the external root resorptions are not a frequent clinical phenomenon. Proper and early diagnostics of such tissue pathology is one of the basic prerequisites for successful endodontic therapy of the affected root.

  15. Evaluation of Mandibular Condylar Changes in Patients Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    orthognathic surgery, as well as to assess what factors may have contributed to ... study that females of relative low age (<18 years) appeared to be a high‑risk ... Maharaja Ganga Singh Dental College and Research Centre, ... cause alteration of the position of the condyle in the ... of condylar shape and decrease in mass.

  16. Correlation of the Condylar Guidance Obtained by Protrusive Interocclusal Record and Panoramic Radiographs in Completely Edentulous Patients: An in Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyati Shah

    2014-01-01

    Results: The results showed statistically significant difference between the condylar guidance values obtained from Orthopantomograph (Radiograph and the condylar guidance values obtained at the stage of jaw relation. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that the condylar guidance values obtained from the Radiographs were higher than those obtained at the stage of jaw relation recording stage.

  17. Bone changes in the condylar head and mandibular fossa in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Helical CT observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimahara, Satoru; Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Shimahara, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether bone changes are present in sites impossible to observe by panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination, namely the medial of the condylar head and mandibular fossa, in patients with type IV temporomandibular joint disorders. We observed the articular fossa using computed tomography, which is able to obtain detailed 3-dimensional information, in patients with type IV temporomandibular disorders. We examined 120 joints of 60 patiens who visited the Department of Oral Surgery, Osaka Medical College Hospital. Each condylar head was clearly visualized in panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination findings, and shown to have possible changes unilaterally. Each joint was diagnosed as type IV, according to the diagnostic guidelines set by Japanese Society for Temporomandibular Joint, and further examined using helical CT. Changes in condylar head; We concluded that bone changes were present with considerable probability in the medial of condylar head in a manner similar to those found in the lateral and center of joints with type IV temporomandibular disorders. Changes in mandibular fossa; The bone changes occurred in various locations of the mandibular fossa, while they appeared significantly more frequently in the condylar head. We think that our finding will contribute to development of treatment strategies for temporomandibular disorders, as they clarify bone changes in sites previously unreported. (author)

  18. Association between condylar morphology and changes in bony microstructure and subsynovial inflammation in experimental temporomandibular joint arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper Dahl; Hauge, Ellen Margrethe; Dalstra, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Association between condylar morphology and changes in bony microstructure and subsynovial inflammation in experimental temporomandibular joint arthritis. 86. Congress of the European Orthodontic Society, Slovenien, 2010.......Association between condylar morphology and changes in bony microstructure and subsynovial inflammation in experimental temporomandibular joint arthritis. 86. Congress of the European Orthodontic Society, Slovenien, 2010....

  19. Positional change of the condylar heads after wearing complete denture on dental cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Ho; Kim, Jae Duk; Chung, Chae Heon

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the position of the mandibular condyle within articular fossa by a CBCT after wearing complete denture (CD). CBCT of 34 temporomandibular joints were taken from 9 male and 8 female patients with CB Mercuray TM (Hitachi, Japan) before and after wearing a CD for rehabilitation. Position of mandibular condyle within articular fossa at centric occlusion was evaluated with Vimplant2.0 TM (CyberMed, Korea) on the central parasagittal view and curved panoramic coronal view of the condylar head. A statistical evaluation was done with SPSS. The range of anteroposterior positional rate (AP) of condylar head within articular fossa was -16-5 and -10-12 respectively on the right and left sides. Before wearing CD, the AP rate showed discrepancy between right and left sides (p<0.05). After wearing CD, both condyles showed a tendency to decrease in posterior condylar position (right side; p<0.05). The average discrepancy between right and left side in mediolateral positional rate (MD) was 15.5 and 4.5 respectively before and after wearing CD. The improvement was observed in mediolateral relationship of both condylar heads after wearing CD (p<0.01). Before wearing CD, the average horizontal angle of long axis of condylar head was 79.6 ± 2.7 .deg. C and 80.1 ± 5.7 .deg. C respectively on the right and left sides. After wearing CD, both condyles were rotated in the same direction in average on axial plane. We observed with CBCT the significant clinical evidence in case of positional change of mandibular condyle after wearing complete denture.

  20. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Haghanifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption, G1: mild resorption with blunt roots or ≤ 1/4 of root length, G2: moderate to severe resorption or > 1/4 to 1/2 of root length. Relationship between root resorption and sex and treatment duration was analyzed with Mann-whitney and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively.Results: The findings showed that 345 teeth were categorized as Grade 1. Grade 2 of root resorption was not found in this study. The highest amount of root resorption was recorded for the mandibular lateral incisor. In both gender, the root resorption of the mandible was more than that of the maxilla. The males showed significantly higher rate of resorption than the females (P0.05.Conclusion: The mandible and male patients showed higher amount of root resorption. In addition, root resorption was not related to the treatment duration and the side of the jaws.

  1. Root resorption: Focus on signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Kjaer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost - an ectodermal tissue layer (Malassez′s epithelium, a middle layer - composed by the collagen-mesodermal tissue layer, and an innermost root-close innervation layer. Abnormalities in one of these tissue layers are thought to cause inflammatory processes in the periodontal membrane comparable to inflammatory processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has formerly been demonstrated how demyelinization of the myelin sheaths in the peripheral nerves close to the root provoke resorption. Accordingly, conditions affecting these tissue layers can be associated not only with different morphologies but also with general symptoms and diseases (e.g., ectodermal dysplasia and hypophosphatasia.

  2. [Research progress of mechanism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signaling pathway in condylar cartilage growth and remodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaoli, Xu; Lili, Wu; Zhiwu, Wu; Zhiyuan, Gu

    2016-12-01

    The condylar cartilage was adapted to hypoxic conditions in vivo. However, condylar cartilage cells exposed in normoxia in vitro affect the chondrocyte phenotype and cartilage matrix formation. This condition also resulted in great difficulty in chondrocyte research. Culturing chondrocyte should be simulated in in vivo hypoxia environment as much as possible. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) demonstrates an important transcription factor of adaptive response to hypoxic conditions. HIF-1α also plays an active role in maintaining homeostasis and function of chondrocytes. This review summarized current knowledge of the HIF-1α structure, signaling pathway, and mechanism of HIF-1α in the condylar cartilage repair.

  3. Cellular and Matrix Response of the Mandibular Condylar Cartilage to Botulinum Toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane H Dutra

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cellular and matrix effects of botulinum toxin type A (Botox on mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC and subchondral bone.Botox (0.3 unit was injected into the right masseter of 5-week-old transgenic mice (Col10a1-RFPcherry at day 1. Left side masseter was used as intra-animal control. The following bone labels were intraperitoneally injected: calcein at day 7, alizarin red at day 14 and calcein at day 21. In addition, EdU was injected 48 and 24 hours before sacrifice. Mice were sacrificed 30 days after Botox injection. Experimental and control side mandibles were dissected and examined by x-ray imaging and micro-CT. Subsequently, MCC along with the subchondral bone was sectioned and stained with tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, EdU, TUNEL, alkaline phosphatase, toluidine blue and safranin O. In addition, we performed immunohistochemistry for pSMAD and VEGF.Bone volume fraction, tissue density and trabecular thickness were significantly decreased on the right side of the subchondral bone and mineralized cartilage (Botox was injected when compared to the left side. There was no significant difference in the mandibular length and condylar head length; however, the condylar width was significantly decreased after Botox injection. Our histology showed decreased numbers of Col10a1 expressing cells, decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in the subchondral bone and mandibular condylar cartilage, decreased TRAP activity and mineralization of Botox injected side cartilage and subchondral bone. Furthermore, we observed reduced proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan distribution and decreased expression of pSMAD 1/5/8 and VEGF in the MCC of the Botox injected side in comparison to control side.Injection of Botox in masseter muscle leads to decreased mineralization and matrix deposition, reduced chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation and increased cell apoptosis in the MCC and subchondral bone.

  4. Morphometric evaluation of condylar cartilage of growing rats in response to mandibular retractive forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Peixoto Nogueira de Sá

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The mandibular condylar surface is made up of four layers, i.e., an external layer composed of dense connective tissue, followed by a layer of undifferentiated cells, hyaline cartilage and bone. Few studies have demonstrated the behavior of the condylar cartilage when the mandible is positioned posteriorly, as in treatments for correcting functional Class III malocclusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the morphologic and histological aspects of rat condyles in response to posterior positioning of the mandible. METHODS: Thirty five-week-old male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into two groups: A control group (C and an experimental group (E which received devices for inducing mandibular retrusion. The animals were euthanized at time intervals of 7, 21 and 30 days after the experiment had began. For histological analysis, total condylar thickness was measured, including the proliferative, hyaline and hypertrophic layers, as well as each layer separately, totaling 30 measurements for each parameter of each animal. RESULTS: The greatest difference in cartilage thickness was observed in 21 days, although different levels were observed in the other periods. Group E showed an increase of 39.46% in the total layer, reflected by increases in the thickness of the hypertrophic (42.24%, hyaline (46.92% and proliferative (17.70% layers. CONCLUSIONS: Posteriorly repositioning the mandible produced a series of histological and morphological responses in the condyle, suggesting condylar and mandibular adaptation in rats.

  5. Morphometric evaluation of condylar cartilage of growing rats in response to mandibular retractive forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Milena Peixoto Nogueira; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis; de Salles, Carlos Luiz Fernandes; de Souza, Fabrício Dias; Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga

    2013-01-01

    The mandibular condylar surface is made up of four layers, i.e., an external layer composed of dense connective tissue, followed by a layer of undifferentiated cells, hyaline cartilage and bone. Few studies have demonstrated the behavior of the condylar cartilage when the mandible is positioned posteriorly, as in treatments for correcting functional Class III malocclusion. The aim of this study was to assess the morphologic and histological aspects of rat condyles in response to posterior positioning of the mandible. Thirty five-week-old male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into two groups: A control group (C) and an experimental group (E) which received devices for inducing mandibular retrusion. The animals were euthanized at time intervals of 7, 21 and 30 days after the experiment had began. For histological analysis, total condylar thickness was measured, including the proliferative, hyaline and hypertrophic layers, as well as each layer separately, totaling 30 measurements for each parameter of each animal. The greatest difference in cartilage thickness was observed in 21 days, although different levels were observed in the other periods. Group E showed an increase of 39.46% in the total layer, reflected by increases in the thickness of the hypertrophic (42.24%), hyaline (46.92%) and proliferative (17.70%) layers. Posteriorly repositioning the mandible produced a series of histological and morphological responses in the condyle, suggesting condylar and mandibular adaptation in rats.

  6. [Study on the method of two dimensional polycrylamide gel electrophoresis on rat condylar chondrocyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tuo-jiang; Li, Huang; Ma, Qiao-lin; Wang, Wen-mei

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the protein profile by two dimensional polycrylamide gel electrophoresis on the rat condylar chondrocyte in vitro. The third-passage chondrocytes were harvested from the mandibular condyles of 2-day-old rats in this study. The protein profile of the rat mandibular condylar chondrocytes was examined by two dimensional polycrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE-PAGE). The 2-DE gel maps on different pH gradients were obtained. The result of modified coomassi blue-sliver staining and sliver staining was compared using Pdquest 7.1 image analysis software. The results showed that the good protein profile of the condylar chondrocytes was obtained by standard Bio-Rad manual. The protein was mainly in the field from pH4 to pH7. The 1203±86 protein points were examined on 2-DE gel map by modified coomassi blue-sliver staining, and 1769±97 protein points was examined by sliver staining. The silver staining map showed more distinctly but higher background than modified coomassi blue-sliver staining. The protein profile of the condylar chondrocytes enriches the proteomic database and gives evidence to further proteomic research. The 2-DE map obtained by modified coomassi blue-sliver staining is more suitable for MALDI-TOF mass identification. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. C30700963), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(Grant No.20090461088), Jiangsu Provincial Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No.0802003C) and Nanjing City's Science and Technology Foundation (Grant No.200905011).

  7. An evaluation of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E; Evans, W G; Becker, P

    2012-08-01

    Root resorption is commonly seen, albeit in varying degrees, in cases that have been treated orthodontically. In this retrospective study the objective was to compare the amount of root resorption observed after active orthodontic treatment had been completed with one of three different appliance systems, namely, Tip Edge, Modified Edgewise and Damon. The sample consisted of pre and post-treatment cephalograms of sixty eight orthodontic cases. Root resorption of the maxillary central incisor was assessed from pre- and post- treatment lateral ce phalograms using two methods. In the first, overall tooth length from the incisal edge to the apex was measured on both pre and post-treatment lateral cephalograms and root resorption was recorded as an actual millimetre loss of tooth length. There was a significant upward linear trend (p = 0.052) for root resorption from the Tip Edge Group to the Damon Group. In the second method root resorption was visually evaluated by using the five grade ordinal scale of Levander and Malmgren (1988). It was found that the majorty of cases in the sample came under Grade 1 and Grade 2 category of root resorption. Statistical evaluation tested the extent of agree ment in this study between visual measurements and actual measurements and demonstrated a significant association (p = 0.018) between the methods.

  8. Multiple tooth resorption in an Italian Greyhound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.; Schawalder, P.; Stich, H.

    2011-01-01

    An Italian greyhound was presented three times during a two-year period for dental prophylaxis due to periodontal disease. Clinical examination revealed lesions on several teeth. Radiographs revealed extensive resorptive root lesions. On histological examination, the presence of odontoclasts and signs of boney remodeling of the roots confirmed the resorptive nature of the lesions. Given the extent of the lesions, and poor prognosis with conservative treatment alone, teeth affected by the most severe resorption were extracted at each visit using a flap technique combined with alveolar vestibular osteotomy. Dental resorptive lesions are rarely detected in the dog but may be more frequent than previously thought. The routine use of dental radiographs can be used to reveal these lesions in the dog

  9. Condylar growth after non-surgical advancement in adult subject: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradonna Carola

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A defect of condylar morphology can be caused by several sources. Case report A case of altered condylar morphology in adult male with temporomandibular disorders was reported in 30-year-old male patient. Erosion and flattening of the left mandibular condyle were observed by panoramic x-ray. The patient was treated with splint therapy that determined mandibular advancement. Eight months after the therapy, reduction in joint pain and a greater opening of the mouth was observed, although crepitation sounds during mastication were still noticeable. Conclusion During the following months of gnatologic treatment, new bone growth in the left condyle was observed by radiograph, with further improvement of the symptoms.

  10. Roles of Ihh signaling in chondroprogenitor function in postnatal condylar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurio, Naito; Saunders, Cheri; Bechtold, Till E; Salhab, Imad; Nah, Hyun-Duck; Sinha, Sayantani; Billings, Paul C; Pacifici, Maurizio; Koyama, Eiki

    2018-04-01

    Condylar articular cartilage in mouse temporomandibular joint develops from progenitor cells near the articulating surface that proliferate, undergo chondrogenesis and mature into hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, it remains unclear how these processes are regulated, particularly postnatally. Here we focused on the apical polymorphic layer rich in progenitors and asked whether the phenotype and fate of the cells require signaling by Indian hedgehog (Ihh) previously studied in developing long bones. In condyles in newborn mice, the apical polymorphic/progenitor cell layer was ~10 cell layer-thick and expressed the articular matrix marker Tenascin-C (Tn-C), and the underlying thick cell layer expressed Tn-C as well as the chondrogenic master regulator Sox9. By 1 month, condylar cartilage had gained its full width, but became thinner along its main longitudinal axis and displayed hypertrophic chondrocytes. By 3 months, articular cartilage consisted of a 2-3 cell layer-thick zone of superficial cells and chondroprogenitors expressing both Tn-C and Sox9 and a bottom zone of chondrocytes displaying vertical matrix septa. EdU cell tracing in juvenile mice revealed that conversion of chondroprogenitors into chondrocytes and hypertrophic chondrocytes required about 48 and 72 h, respectively. Notably, EdU injection in 3 month-old mice labeled both progenitors and maturing chondrocytes by 96 h. Conditional ablation of Ihh in juvenile/early adult mice compromised chondroprogenitor organization and function and led to reduced chondroprogenitor and chondrocyte proliferation. The phenotype of mutant condyles worsened over time as indicated by apoptotic chondrocyte incidence, ectopic chondrocyte hypertrophy, chondrocyte column derangement and subchondral bone deterioration. In micromass cultures of condylar apical cells, hedgehog (Hh) treatment stimulated chondrogenesis and alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity, while treatment with HhAntag inhibited both. Our findings

  11. Orthodontic aligners and root resorption: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaddaoui, Rajae; Qoraich, Halima Saadia; Bahije, Loubna; Zaoui, Fatima

    2017-03-01

    Root resorption is one of the leading problems in orthodontic treatment. Most earlier studies have assessed the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances as well as associated factors. However, few studies have assessed these parameters in the context of orthodontic treatment using thermoplastic splints or aligners. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using aligners and associated factors. A comparative analysis was also made with fixed multi-bracket treatments. The data bases consulted were: Medline, Embase, EBSCO Host, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Our search included meta-analyses, randomized and non-randomized controled trials, cohort studies and descriptive studies published before December 2015 and evidencing a connection with the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using aligners alone or compared with fixed multi-bracket treatments. Among the 93 selected references, only 3 studies met our selection criteria. The incidence of root resorption ranged between 0 and 46%, of which 6% were severe cases. Relative to fixed multi-bracket non-extraction treatments to correct the same malocclusions, the incidence of resorption ranged between 2% and 50%, of which 22% were severe cases. In both techniques, the incidence of resorption was higher for the maxillary incisors and was not influenced by either age or sex. In malocclusion cases not requiring extractions, orthodontic aligner treatment is possibly associated with a lower incidence of resorption than fixed multi-bracket treatment. Further research encompassing extraction cases is needed to better assess the incidence and severity of root resorption following the use of these removable appliances. Copyright © 2016 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Masticatory motion after surgical or nonsurgical treatment for unilateral fractures of the mandibular condylar process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Gaylord S; Ellis, Edward; Hayasaki, Haruaki

    2004-02-01

    We sought to compare mandibular motion during mastication in patients treated in either an open or a closed fashion for unilateral fractures of the mandibular condylar process. Eighty-one male patients with unilateral condylar process fractures were treated either with (n = 37) or without (n = 44) surgical reduction and rigid fixation of their condylar process fractures. At 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after treatment, the subjects' chewing cycles were recorded using a magnetic sensor array (Sirognathograph; Siemens Corp, Bensheim, Germany) while chewing Gummi-Bears (HARIBO, Bonn, Germany) unilaterally on the same side as the fracture and on the opposite side. The chewing cycles were analyzed using a custom computer program, and the duration, excursive ranges, and 3-dimensional cycle shape were compared between the 2 treatment groups at each time interval using multilevel linear modeling statistics. The 2 treatment groups did not differ significantly for any measure of cycle duration or any excursive range (except lateral excursions at 1 year post-treatment) at any of the time intervals. However, the 3-dimensional cycle shapes of the 2 groups did differ significantly at all time intervals. Surgical correction of unilateral condylar process fractures has relatively little effect on the more standard measures (duration and excursive ranges) of masticatory function. However, surgical correction better normalizes opening incisor pathways during mastication on the side opposite the fracture.

  13. Computed Tomography-Based Occipital Condyle Morphometry in an Indian Population to Assess the Feasibility of Condylar Screws for Occipitocervical Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Nanda, Geetanjali; Mahajan, Rajat; Nanda, Ankur; Mishra, Nirajana; Karmaran, Srinivasa; Batra, Sahil; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh

    2017-12-01

    A retrospective computed tomography (CT)-based morphometric study of 82 occipital condyles in the Indian population, focusing on critical morphometric dimensions with relation to placing condylar screws. This study focused on determining the feasibility of placing occipital condylar screws in an Indian population using CT anatomical morphometric data. The occipital condylar screw is a novel technique being explored as one of the options in occipitocervical stabilization. Sex and ethnic variations in anatomical structures may restrict the feasibility of this technique in some populations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no CT-based data on an Indian population that assess the feasibility of occipital condylar screws. We measured the dimensions of 82 occipital condyles in 41 adults on coronal, sagittal, and axial reconstructed CT images. The differences were noted between the right and left sides and also between males and females. Statistical analysis was performed using the t -test, with a p -value of occipital condyle shows that condylar screws are anatomically feasible in a large portion of the Indian population. However, because a small number of population may not be suitable for this technique, meticulous study of preoperative anatomy using detailed CT data is advised.

  14. Condylar guidance: correlation between protrusive interocclusal record and panoramic radiographic image: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannamala, Pavan Kumar; Pulagam, Mahesh; Pottem, Srinivas R; Swapna, B

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sagittal condylar angles set in the Hanau articulator by use of a method of obtaining an intraoral protrusive record to those angles found using a panoramic radiographic image. Ten patients, free of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder and with intact dentition were selected. The dental stone casts of the subjects were mounted on a Hanau articulator with a springbow and poly(vinyl siloxane) interocclusal records. For all patients, the protrusive records were obtained when the mandible moved forward by approximately 6 mm. All procedures for recording, mounting, and setting were done in the same session. The condylar guidance angles obtained were tabulated. A panoramic radiographic image of each patient was made with the Frankfurt horizontal plane parallel to the floor of the mouth. Tracings of the radiographic images were made. The horizontal reference line was marked by joining the orbitale and porion. The most superior and most inferior points of the curvatures were identified. These two lines were connected by a straight line representing the mean curvature line. Angles made by the intersection of the mean curvature line and the horizontal reference line were measured. The results were subjected to statistical analysis with a significance level of p record method. The mean condylar guidance angle between the right and left side by both the methods was not statistically significant. The comparison of mean condylar guidance angles between the right side of the protrusive record method and the right side of the panoramic radiographic method and the left side of the protrusive record method and the left side of the panoramic radiographic method (p= 0.071 and p= 0.057, respectively) were not statistically significant. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the protrusive condylar guidance angles obtained by panoramic radiograph may be used in programming semi-adjustable articulators. © 2012

  15. Internal fixation of severely displaced mandibular condylar neck fracture with the aid of ramus osteotomy. A revised technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S

    1997-01-01

    A technique is described whereby the mandibular condyle can be located, replaced and fixed in case of a severely displaced fracture with exarticulation of the condylar head.......A technique is described whereby the mandibular condyle can be located, replaced and fixed in case of a severely displaced fracture with exarticulation of the condylar head....

  16. [Application of temporomandibular joint dics reduction in the operation of condylar sagittal fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenli, Zeng; Wuchao, Zhou; Jingkun, Zhang; Yisen, Shao; Weihong, Xi

    2017-10-01

    To explore the selection of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc reduction and fixation methods in condylar sagittal fracture surgery. A total of 36 patients with condylar fractures were chosen. The follow-up period was more 6 months. All 36 cases of condylar sagittal fracture were fixed with long screw. In the operation, the displaced joint disc was repositioned and fixed. The fixed method included direct suture (22 cases) and anchorage (14 cases). Clinical followups were performed before surgery and 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Clinicians recorded data related to the Fricton craniomandibular index (CMI) and evaluated the postoperative joint function during followup before surgery and 6 months after surgery. In both groups, function of TMJ significantly improved after surgery. The CMI decreased from 0.213±0.162 and 0.273±0.154 to 0.059±0.072 and 0.064±0.068 (P0.05) before or after surgery. Both methods could effectively improve the dysfunction of the TMJ caused by trauma. The selection of joint disc reduction and fixation methods is based on the displacement and damage degree of the joint disc.

  17. Incidence and severity of root resorption in orthodontically moved premolars in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, J C; van Leeuwen, E J; Dijkman, G E H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2004-05-01

    To study treatment-related factors for external root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. An experimental animal study. Department of Orthodontics and Oral Biology, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Twenty-four young adult beagle dogs. Mandibular premolars were bodily moved with continuous or intermittent controlled orthodontic forces of 10, 25, 50, 100, or 200 cN according to standardized protocols. At different points in time histomorphometry was performed to determine the severity of root resorption. Prevalence of root resorptions, defined as microscopically visible resorption lacunae in the dentin. Severity of resorption was defined by the length, relative length, depth, and surface area of each resorption area. The incidence of root resorption increased with the duration of force application. After 14-17 weeks of force application root resorption was found at 94% of the root surfaces at pressure sides. The effect of force magnitude on the severity of root resorption was not statistically significant. The severity of root resorption was highly related to the force regimen. Continuous forces caused significantly more severe root resorption than intermittent forces. A strong correlation (0.60 < r < 0.68) was found between the amount of tooth movement and the severity of root resorption. Root resorption increases with the duration of force application. The more teeth are displaced, the more root resorption will occur. Intermittent forces cause less severe root resorption than continuous forces, and force magnitude is probably not decisive for root resorption.

  18. Preeruptive intracoronal resorption observed in 13 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger; Steiniche, Kirsten; Kortegaard, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    The literature on preeruptive intracoronal resorption is sparse, comprising mainly reports of single patients. This study includes 13 patients with preeruptive intracoronal resorption, forwarded for consultation regarding diagnostics and etiology. The purposes were to determine which teeth...

  19. Towards Establishing a Standardized Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring System for Temporomandibular Joints in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolend, Mirkamal A; Twilt, Marinka; Cron, Randy Q

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The temporomandibular joints (TMJs) are frequently affected in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Early detection is challenging, as major variation is present in scoring TMJ pathology on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Consensus-driven development and validation...... of a MRI scoring system for TMJs has important clinical utility in timely improvement of diagnosis, and serving as an outcome measure. We report on a multi-institutional collaboration towards developing a TMJ MRI scoring system for JIA. METHODS: Seven readers independently assessed MRI scans from 21...... preferable for assessing minor joint changes over time. Eight items were considered sufficiently reliable and/or important for integration into the consensus scoring system: bone marrow edema and enhancement (avICC=0.57-0.61; %SDD=±45-63% prior to re-defining), condylar flattening (0.95-0.96; ±23...

  20. Evaluation of Hanau's formula in determination of lateral condylar guidance: A clinical research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawsar, Sanjay Vasant; Marathe, Ashlesha Subhash; Ansari, Sadekh Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The accuracy and reliability of the methods used for programming the semi-adjustable articulators determine the accuracy in occlusion. The current recommended average settings using the Hanau's formula commonly used by clinicians is questionable, and thus reassessment is needed. This study was carried out to evaluate and compare the lateral condylar guidance: (1) Using the Hanau's formula and the computerized jaw tracking device (Kinesiograph). (2) On the right and left sides using both these methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 completely edentulous patients (14 male and 6 females) within 40–60 years of age were selected. Jaw relation was recorded followed by face bow transfer. Extraoral Gothic arch tracing was recorded; three protrusive records were obtained and condylar guidance was calculated. Lateral condylar guidance was then calculated using Hanau's formula, followed by the computerized jaw tracking device. A comparative evaluation was done of the obtained values. The same investigator worked with each of the study participants for the purpose of standardization. Results: The lateral condylar guidance values obtained using the Hanau's formula ranged from 14 to 17° while those obtained using the computerized K7 jaw tracking device ranged from 8 to 40°. Bennett angle values, obtained using the jaw tracking device and Hanau's formula showed statistically significant differences (P 0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, dentist and dental technicians should consider reassessing the current recommended average settings and use of the Hanau's formula for programming the semi-adjustable articulators. PMID:26929535

  1. Association between condylar morphology and inflammation in experimental temporomandibular joint TMJ arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper Dahl; Stoustrup, Peter bangsgaard; Küseler, Annelise

    not previously been investigated. Aim: We studied the effects of antigen-induced arthritis on the bony structures in rabbit mandibular condylar development, in particular the morphological changes and the bone micro-architecture. Materials and Methods: Included were juvenile rabbits with ovalbumin-induced TMJ...... arthritis treated with intraarticular saline, intra-articular etanercept (an anti-TNF-α drug) or subcutaneous etanercept. One TMJ from each animal was scanned using micro-computed tomography and structural parameters were calculated. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the mandibular condyle were scored...... blindly by two independent observers as normal or abnormal. TMJs were stratified for condylar morphology and evaluated against data on inflammation, trabecular structural parameters, and overall mandibular growth. Mineral apposition rate was measured using fluorochrome labelling. Results and discussion...

  2. Mandibular condylar fractures and acute atlanto-axial subluxation Part 2 A physiopathological factor for the cervical spine sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutilli, T; Corbacelli, A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physiopathology of the acute cervical injure in the event of mandibular condylar fractures. As in the Part 1, 25 non-consecutive cases of condylar mandibular fractures (16 males and 9 females, mean age: 22.96/range 14-36 years) observed and treated in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the University of L'Aquila, have been studied. Types of fractures examined included: unilateral: 19 cases (solitary: 12; associated with other mandibular fractures: 7, homolateral: 2); bilateral: 6 cases (equivalent: 2, not equivalent: 4). A control group was constituted of 10 patients, 5 males and 5 females, aged from 19 to 24 years (mean range: 21.6) suffering from acute isolated cervical distorsion (whiplash). The study has been performed by means of the analysis of X-ray and computed tomography (CT)-CT/3D of the mandibular condylar regions, the occipital-atlanto-axial structures and the cervical region. In all the patients the following constant alterations that link up with these fractures have been observed: the rotation of atlas, the atlanto-axial subluxation and the derangement of the occipital-atlanto-epistropheal joint, homolateral to the side of the mandibular condylar fracture. The cervical spine shows the constant loss of physiological lordosis with hinge between C3 and C4. In the whiplash, as the authors have been able to assess in the control group, there are no alterations of occipital-atlanto-axial joint and the kinetic vector is placed on the longitudinal plane. In the mandibular condylar fractures the kinetic mechanism is completely different regarding the whiplash. The point of entry is the chin and the kinetic vector is oriented down-up, sometimes oblique in the opposite side. Subsequently the kinetic force is transmitted throughout the mandibular structure and causes the condylar or bicondylar fracture. The kinetic vector is placed before on the vertical plane, then on the horizontal plane and later on the vertical

  3. Fetal jaw movement affects Ihh signaling in mandibular condylar cartilage development: the possible role of Ihh as mechanotransduction mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Esrat; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Rafiq, Ashiq Mahmood; Hashimoto, Ryuju; Inoue, Takayuki; Udagawa, Jun; Sekine, Joji; Otani, Hiroki

    2014-10-01

    Jaw movement is an important mechanical factor for prenatal development of the condylar cartilage of mandible. Fetal jaw movement restriction has been shown to cause deformity of the mandibular condyle. We hypothesized that this treatment affects the expression of mechanosensitive molecules, namely Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and Parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) in the condyle. We restrained jaw movement by suturing the jaw of E15.5 mouse embryos and allowed them to develop until E18.5 using exo utero system, and analyzed them by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methods. Morphological, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical study showed that the mandibular condylar cartilage was reduced and deformed, the volume and total cell numbers in the condylar cartilage were also reduced, and number and/or distribution of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells, Ihh-positive cells in the mesenchymal and pre-hypertrophic zones were significantly and correspondingly decreased in the sutured group. Using in situ hybridization, reduced expression of Ihh, PTHrP and their related receptors were observed in condylar cartilage of the sutured embryos. Our results revealed that the altered mechanical stress induced by prenatal jaw movement restriction decreased proliferating cells, the amount of cartilage, and altered expression of the Ihh and PTHrP, suggesting that Ihh act as mechanotransduction mediators in the development of mandibular condylar cartilage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-dentine antibodies with root resorption during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Solange de Paula; Ortolan, Geórgia Oliveira; Dos Santos, Lívia Marques; Tobouti, Priscila Lie; Hidalgo, Miriam Marubayashi; Consolaro, Alberto; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse serum IgG levels and salivary secretory IgA (sIgA) levels in human dentine extract (HDE) before (T0) and 6 months after (T6) orthodontic treatment and to correlate anti-HDE autoantibodies to root resorption. Fifty orthodontic patients were selected, 19 males (15.6 ± 8.5 years) and 31 females (21.4 ± 11.2 years), 19 in the mixed dentition (10.3 ± 1.9 years) and 31 in the permanent dentition (24.6 ± 9.9 years). Fifty individuals not undergoing orthodontic treatment matched by gender and age were selected as the controls. Periapical radiographs of the upper central incisors and saliva sampling were obtained of all patients at T0 and T6. Serum samples were collected from the permanent dentition patients (n = 31). Antibody levels were determined by means of immunoenzyme assay. At T6, root resorption was classified as grade 0 (no resorption), grade 1 (slight resorption), and grade 2 (moderate to severe resorption). Differences between antibody levels at T0 and T6 and among different grades of resorption were determined by paired t- and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was applied to detect correlation between sIgA and IgG levels, and logistic regression to determine the association of root resorption grade and the studied variables. Differences were considered significant at P root resorption patients during treatment and was not correlated to salivary sIgA levels or other variables. Patients who had grade 2 root resorption at T6 showed higher levels of anti-HDE sIgA (P root shape were the main factors associated with the degree of root resorption. The results suggest that variations to systemic and local humoural immune response to dentine antigens may occur during orthodontic treatment. High levels of salivary sIgA before treatment were associated with more advanced lesions after 6 months of treatment.

  5. Coupling of Bone Resorption and Formation in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Nicolai Ernlund; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pløen, Gro Grunnet

    2017-01-01

    measurements show that the latter contribute the most to overall resorption. Of note, the density of osteoprogenitors continuously grew along the "reversal/resorption" surface, reaching at least 39 cells/mm on initiation of bone formation. This value was independent of the length of the reversal......It is well known that bone remodeling starts with a resorption event and ends with bone formation. However, what happens in between and how resorption and formation are coupled remains mostly unknown. Remodeling is achieved by so-called basic multicellular units (BMUs), which are local teams...... of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and reversal cells recently proven identical with osteoprogenitors. Their organization within a BMU cannot be appropriately analyzed in common histology. The originality of the present study is to capture the events ranging from initiation of resorption to onset of formation...

  6. Resorbable triangular plate for osteosynthesis of fractures of the condylar neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Günter; Pradel, Winnie; Leonhardt, Henry; Loukota, Richard; Eckelt, Uwe

    2010-10-01

    We describe a new design of resorbable plate for use in the treatment of fractures of the condylar neck, and report the outcome of initial treatment in two patients. Copyright © 2009 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  7. Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Young Choi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of condylar fractures is high, but the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, external fixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonly used in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsular or intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on the age of the patient, the co-existence of other mandibular or maxillary fractures, whether the condylar fracture is unilateral or bilateral, the level and displacement of the fracture, the state of dentition and dental occlusion, and the surgeonnds on the age of the patient, the co-existence of othefrom which it is difficult to recover aesthetically and functionally;an appropriate treatment is required to reconstruct the shape and achieve the function ofthe uninjured status. To do this, accurate diagnosis, appropriate reduction and rigid fixation, and complication prevention are required. In particular, as mandibular condyle fracture may cause long-term complications such as malocclusion, particularly open bite, reduced posterior facial height, and facial asymmetry in addition to chronic pain and mobility limitation, great caution should be taken. Accordingly, the authors review a general overview of condyle fracture.

  8. Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of condylar fractures is high, but the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, external fixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonly used in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsular or intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on the age of the patient, the co-existence of other mandibular or maxillary fractures, whether the condylar fracture is unilateral or bilateral, the level and displacement of the fracture, the state of dentition and dental occlusion, and the surgeonnds on the age of the patient, the co-existence of othefrom which it is difficult to recover aesthetically and functionally;an appropriate treatment is required to reconstruct the shape and achieve the function ofthe uninjured status. To do this, accurate diagnosis, appropriate reduction and rigid fixation, and complication prevention are required. In particular, as mandibular condyle fracture may cause long-term complications such as malocclusion, particularly open bite, reduced posterior facial height, and facial asymmetry in addition to chronic pain and mobility limitation, great caution should be taken. Accordingly, the authors review a general overview of condyle fracture. PMID:22872830

  9. LINK BETWEEN SKELETAL RELATIONS AND ROOT RESORPTION IN ORTHODONTIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Preoteasa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available External root resorption is one of the possible complications of the orthodontic treatment, severe cases presenting a higher frequency. The aim of the present study was to test the existence of a relation between the severity of root resorption and the sagittal or vertical skeletal relations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 55 patients with fixed orthodontic devices, applied bimaxillarily for at least 6 months. The sample presented mostly mild or moderate apical root resorption, with an average value of 1.31 mm (standard deviation 0.60. Patients with abnormal sagittal skeletal relations presented a more severe root resorption compared to those with a normal pattern. The tendency towards more severe external root resorption was also noticed in cases with mandibular clockwise rotation and hiperdivergent facial pattern. A good knowledge on the variables associated to severe root resorption is essential for the identification of the high risk patients, as well as for the selection of the best suited treatment alternative in terms of low probability of root resorption occurrence.

  10. Effects of growth factors and glucosamine on porcine mandibular condylar cartilage cells and hyaline cartilage cells for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Detamore, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar cartilage is a distinct cartilage that has both fibrocartilaginous and hyaline-like character, with a thin proliferative zone that separates the fibrocartilaginous fibrous zone at the surface from the hyaline-like mature and hypertrophic zones below. In this study, we compared the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and glucosamine sulphate on porcine TMJ condylar cartilage and ankle cartilage cells in monolayer culture. In general, TMJ condylar cartilage cells proliferated faster than ankle cartilage cells, while ankle cells produced significantly greater amounts of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen than TMJ condylar cartilage cells. IGF-I and bFGF were potent stimulators of TMJ cell proliferation, while no signals statistically outperformed controls for ankle cell proliferation. IGF-I was the most effective signal for GAG production with ankle cells, and the most potent upregulator of collagen synthesis for both cell types. Glucosamine sulphate promoted cell proliferation and biosynthesis at specific concentrations and outperformed growth factors in certain instances. In conclusion, hyaline cartilage cells had lower cell numbers and superior biosynthesis compared to TMJ condylar cartilage cells, and we have found IGF-I at 100 ng/mL and glucosamine sulphate at 100 microg/mL to be the most effective signals for these cells under the prescribed conditions.

  11. Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia: two topographic facial pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María L; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gili, Pablo; Caminero, Ana B; Cebrián, José L

    2010-09-01

    To describe 2 topographic facial pain conditions with the pain clearly localized in the eye (idiopathic ophthalmodynia) or in the nose (idiopathic rhinalgia), and to propose their distinction from persistent idiopathic facial pain. Persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia, and facial arthromyalgia are idiopathic facial pain syndromes that have been separated according to topographical criteria. Still, some other facial pain syndromes might have been veiled under the broad term of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Through a 10-year period we have studied all patients referred to our neurological clinic because of facial pain of unknown etiology that might deviate from all well-characterized facial pain syndromes. In a group of patients we have identified 2 consistent clinical pictures with pain precisely located either in the eye (n=11) or in the nose (n=7). Clinical features resembled those of other localized idiopathic facial syndromes, the key differences relying on the topographic distribution of the pain. Both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location, and may deserve a nosologic status just as other focal pain syndromes of the face. Whether all such focal syndromes are topographic variants of persistent idiopathic facial pain or independent disorders remains a controversial issue.

  12. Study on imaging analysis using three-dimensional CT system for mandibular condylar fracture. Establishing quantitative classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hideto

    1997-01-01

    We examined 13 patients with fractures of the condylar process (7 men, 6 women) by using 3-dimensional images. A break-down of 15 examined joints revealed 11 patients with unilateral and 2 patients with bilateral fractures of the condylar process. Eight joints of healthy control individual (2 men and 2 women) were used as controls. Fractures of the condylar process and healthy controls were compared, which comparison led to the following conclusions: Bone fragments of deviated fractures may move slightly within the joint, preferentially internally and medially; following displaced fractures, internal and downward movement of bone fragments within the joint is observed; after the occurrence of deviated dislocation fractures, bone fragments protrude from the joint and clearly move internally and inferiorly, showing a rotation of the bone fragments; after the occurrence of displaced dislocation fractures, bone fragments also protrude from the joint and clearly move anteriorly and inferiorly; sometimes an internal rotation of the bone fragments is observed; and with linear fractures there is only minimal overall increase in, and characteristic changes are not observed. Regarding diagnosis, the classical classification of fractures of the condylar process does not provide a classification for linear fractures. Thus, this type has to be newly added to the common classification: Fissure fractures (type I), Deviated fractures (type II), Displaced fractures (type III), Deviated dislocation fractures (type IV), Displaced dislocation fractures (type V), Longitudinal (type VI). (author)

  13. Difficulties encountered in preauricular approach over retromandibular approach in condylar fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Jayavelu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture of mandible can be classified according to its anatomical location, in which condylar fracture is the most common one overall and is missed on clinical examination. Due to the unique geometry of the mandible and temporomandibular joint, without treatment the fractures can result in marked pain, dysfunction, and deformity. The condylar fracture may be further classified depending on the sides involved: unilateral/bilateral, depending on the height of fracture: intracapsular (within the head of condyle, extracapsular - head and neck (high condyle fracture, and subcondylar (low condyle fracture, and depending on displacement: nondisplaced, displaced (anteromedially, medially, and lateral, and dislocated. The clinical features include swelling and tenderness over the temporomandibular joint region, restricted mouth opening, and anterior open bite. A 34-year-old male patient reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Madha Dental College and Hospital; suffered fall trauma resulting in bilateral condyle fracture, dentoalveolar fracture in mandible with restricted mouth opening, and anterior open bite.

  14. Tooth resorption in cats: contribution of vitamin D and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth resorption in cats Tooth resorption affecting several teeth is a painful disease with a prevalence of up to 75% in household cats and is often accompanied by periodontitis. Tooth resorption is caused by an increased number and activity of tooth-resorbing odontoclasts, cells that share

  15. [Apical resorption in pre-surgical orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasente, M; Merlini, C; Amelotti, C; Antonioli, M; Roghi, M

    1991-07-15

    Apical root resorption is a frequent phenomenon observed in pre-surgical orthodontic; the reason is double: we deal with adult patients and we often move the teeth in the opposite direction compared to the position obtained in previous inefficacious orthodontic treatments. Notwithstanding the amount of apical root resorption we couldn't record an hyper-mobility of the teeth and a long term evaluation of occlusal stability didn't show any significant change.

  16. Three-dimensional studies on resorption spaces and developing osteons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappen, N C

    1977-07-01

    Resorption spaces and their continuations as developing osteons were traced in serial cross sections from decalcified long bones of dogs, baboons and a man, and from a human rib. Processes of formation of osteons and transverse (Volkmann's) canals can be inferred from three-dimensional studies. Deposits of new osseous tissue begin to line the walls of the spaces soon after termination of resorption. The first deposits are osteoid, usually stained very darkly by the silver nitrate procedure utilized, but a lighter osteoid zone adjacent to the canals occurs frequently. Osteoid linings continue to be produced as lamellar bone forms around them; the large canals of immature osteons usually narrow very gradually. Frequently they terminate both proximally and distally as resorption spaces, indicating that osteons often advance in opposite directions as they develop. Osteoclasts of resorption spaces tunnel preferentially into highly mineralized bone, and usually do not use previously existing canals as templates for their advance. Osteons evidently originate by localized resorption of one side of the wall of an existing vascular channel in bone, with subsequent orientation of the resorption front along the axis of the shaft. Advancing resorption spaces also apparently stimulate the formation of numerous additional transverse canal connections to neighboring longitudinal canals. Serial tracing and silver nitrate differential staining combine to reveal many of the processes of bone remodeling at work, and facilitate quantitative treatment of the data. Further uses in studies of bone tissue and associated cells are recommended.

  17. Condylar position analysis with a new electronic condylar position measuring instrument E-CPM: influence of different examiners and a working bite on reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahle-Hinz, K; Rybczynski, A; Jakstat, H; Ahlers, M O

    2009-01-01

    Condylar position analysis facilitates a quantitative comparison of the condylar position with and without a bite record, different records and changed influencing factors. Handling by the examiner when positioning the model is a significant factor with regard to the accuracy of the examination. Measurement accuracy could be improved when positioning the models by using special working bites, hence the objective of the experiments described in this study consisted in examining the extent to which the measuring results are influenced by different examiners and by using working bites. In the first trial, one examiner performed ten measurements without and with an interposed working bite for five model pairs in each case. In the second trial, nine examiners (three specialized dentists, three dental assistants, three students) performed ten measurements in each case without and with an interposed working bite. The three-dimensional position was read digitally with the E-CPM (Gamma Dental, Klosterneuburg/Vienna, Austria), recorded by means of spreadsheet software (Microsoft Excel) and diagnostic software (CMDfact, CMD3D module, dentaConcept, Hamburg), and evaluated with graphing software (Sigma Plot, Systat Software, USA). In the first trial, it was shown that the reproducibility of mounting was improved markedly (p <0.01) by using bite records in the form of working bites. In the second trial, it was shown that the mean error increased significantly (p <0.01) when several examiners performed the measurements compared with the results of one examiner alone. No significantly different results occurred (p < 0.01) in the comparison of the different groups of examiners with different educational and training backgrounds. This applied for the mounting methods without and with working bite. On the other hand, the reproducibility of mounting improved distinctly (p<0.01) in every group of examiners when working bites were used. Reproducibility of condylar position analysis was

  18. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature.

  19. Dental root periapical resorption caused by orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinandi Sri Pudyani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental root resorption especially in maxillary incisive region almost always happens simultaneously with orthodontic treatment, and it gained researchers attention, in particular after the use of periapical radiography. However, the fundamental etiology of dental root resorption is still dubious. Multifactoral causes are mentioned, among others are hormonal, nutritition, trauma, dental root form and dental root structure anomalies, genetic, while from treatment side are duration, types, strength scale and dental movement types. Based on these findings, orthodontic treatment was proven to cause dental root resorption in maxillary incisive teeth.

  20. Clinical Management of Two Root Resorption Cases in Endodontic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mincik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption is a pathological process involving loss of hard dental tissues. It may occur as a consequence of dental trauma, orthodontic treatment, and bleaching, and occasionally it accompanies periodontal disease. Although the mechanism of resorption process is examined in detail, its etiology is not fully understood. Wide open apical foramen is more difficult to manage and the root canal may often overfill. In this report we present two cases of root resorption and describe means for its clinical management. We conclude that useful measure of a success or failure in managing root resorption is the persistence of the resorption process. It is a clear sign of an active ongoing inflammatory process and shows the clinical need for retreatment.

  1. Can high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography imaging of subchondral and cortical bone predict condylar fracture in Thoroughbred racehorses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G D; Ghasem-Zadeh, A; Anderson, G A; Mackie, E J; Whitton, R C

    2015-07-01

    High-resolution 3D imaging may improve the prediction and/or early identification of condylar fractures of the distal metacarpus/tarsus and reduce the frequency of breakdown injury in racehorses. To test the hypotheses that horses suffering condylar fractures have higher bone volume fraction (BV/TV) of the distal metacarpal epiphysis, greater subchondral bone thickness at the fracture site and higher second moment of inertia in the metacarpal midshaft as identified with high-resolution 3D imaging. Cross-sectional study using cadaver material. Thoroughbreds that died on racetracks were grouped as: 1) horses with third metacarpal (McIII) fractures with a condylar component (cases, n = 13); 2) horses with no limb fracture (controls, n = 8); 3) horses with fractures in other bones or suspensory apparatus disruption (other fatal injuries, n = 16). The palmar condyles of McIII and the midshaft were examined with high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Statistical analysis included logistic regression and Spearman's correlation. There were no significant differences in BV/TV of distal McIII and second moment of inertia of the midshaft between cases and controls. Epiphyseal bone BV/TV was greater in injured limbs of horses with any fatal limb injury (Groups 1 and 3 combined) compared with controls (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.42, P = 0.034). An epiphyseal BV/TV>0.742 resulted in a sensitivity of 82.8% and specificity of 62.5% in identifying horses with fatal limb injury. In horses without condylar fracture, increased subchondral bone thickness was associated with palmar osteochondral disease lesions in the adjacent condyle (rs = 0.65, Phorses at risk of any fatal breakdown injury but not metacarpal condylar fractures. Measurement of parasagittal groove subchondral bone thickness is complicated by adjacent palmar osteochondral disease lesions. Thus, high-resolution imaging of the distal metacarpus appears to have limited

  2. Biomechanical aspects of external root resorption in orthodontic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Abuabara, Allan

    2007-01-01

    External apical root resorption is a common phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. The factors relevant to root resorption can be divided into biological and mechanical factors. Some mechanical and biological factors might be associated with an increased or decreased risk of root resorption during orthodontic treatment. For mechanical factors, the extensive tooth movement, root torque and intrusive forces, movement type, orthodontic force magnitude, duration and type of force a...

  3. A radiologic study of the teeth resorption in the area of a ameloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Choon Aei; Park, Tae Won [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    An ameloblastoma produces more extensive resorption of the teeth on which it encroaches than do most of the other lesions. In this study, intraoral and extraoral radiographs of 78 cases of ameloblastoma were observed and the root resorption associated with ameloblastoma was classified into four types of resorption. With these, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. The root resorption was observed in 72 cases of ameloblastoma. (92.3%) 2. In the aspect of resorptive changes of 424 roots observed, 342 roots showed smooth resorption. (80.6%) 3. The 424 roots associated with ameloblastoma revealed the following radiographic features. a) Root apex resorption in contact with the lesion appeared in 189 roots. (44.5%) b) The resorption of roots projected into the lesion appeared in 147 roots. (34.5%) c) Slight resorption of root surface in contact with the lesion was observed in 56 roots. (13.2%) d) Loss of lamina dura and periodontal space without root resorption were observed in 32 roots. (7.7%)

  4. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Liviu; Khammissa, Razia A G; Thomadakis, George; Fourie, Jeanine; Lemmer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Following root resorption there is repair by cellular cementum, but factors mediating the transition from resorption to repair are not clear. In this paper we review some of the biological events associated with orthodontically induced external root resorption.

  5. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Feller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Following root resorption there is repair by cellular cementum, but factors mediating the transition from resorption to repair are not clear. In this paper we review some of the biological events associated with orthodontically induced external root resorption.

  6. Amelogenesis Imperfecta with Coronal Resorption: Report of Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Shannu K; Hunter, M Lindsay; Ashley, Paul F

    2015-12-01

    Intracoronal resorption of the permanent dentition in cases of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a rare finding which poses an added complication to the already complex management of this condition. This paper presents three cases of AI associated with delayed eruption of permanent teeth in which asymptomatic intracoronal resorption occurred. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This paper highlights the fact that teeth affected with amelogenesis imperfecta may undergo asymptomatic intracoronal resorption which is only identifiable radiographically.

  7. Invasive cervical root resorption: Engineering the lost tissue by regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexton Antony Johns

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption (ICR is a localized resorptive process that commences on the surface of the root below the epithelial attachment and the coronal aspect of the supporting alveolar process, namely the zone of the connective tissue attachment′ early diagnosis, elimination of the resorption and restorative management are the keys to a successful outcome. Treatment done was a combined non-surgical root canal therapy, surgical treatment to expose the resorptive defect and the resorptive defect was filled up with reverse sandwich technique and finally the bony defect filled with platelet rich fibrin (PRF, hydroxylapatite and PRF membrane. Significant bone fill was obtained in our case after a 2 year follow-up period. This case report presents a treatment strategy that might improve the healing outcomes for patients with ICR.

  8. A comparative study to evaluate the discrepancy in condylar guidance values between two commercially available arcon and non-arcon articulators: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was comparative evaluation of sagittal condylar values of arcon and non-arcon articulators with cephalometric readings and to determine the amount of discrepancy in sagittal condylar guidance values between arcon and non-arcon articulators using same protrusive record. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects in the age group of 19-35 years, free from temporomandibular joint dysfunction, and occlusal disharmony, with healthy dentition participated in the study. Hanau H2 (non-arcon type and Hanau Wide-Vue (arcon type articulators were programmed for sagittal condylar guidance values using the same protrusive record made in polysiloxane bite registration material with edge to edge degree of protrusion. The resultant values for both the articulators on either side were compared with values obtained from tracing of digital lateral cephalogram using Kodak Dental imaging Window software 6.6.3.0-C program. The tabulated data were subjected to statistical analysis, ANOVA (Fishers ′F′ test for group comparison, Tukey′s HSD test for inter-comparison, student′s unpaired ′t′ test for intra-group comparison, and level of significance (P was calculated using the same. Results: The mean sagittal condylar guidance values of the three different groups were found to be very highly significant (P=0.001 and highly significant (P=0.002 on the right and left sides respectively. There was a very highly significant difference (P=0.001 and highly significant difference (P=0.003 between the arcon and non-arcon group on the right and left side respectively. No significant difference was found between the arcon and cephalometric group (P=0.284 right, P=0.853 left and a statistically significant difference was found between the non-arcon and cephalometric group (P=0.049 right, P=0.015 left. On intragroup comparison there was no statistically significant difference in sagittal condylar values on the right and left sides. Conclusion

  9. Calcitonin causes a sustained inhibition of protein kinase C-stimulated bone resorption in contrast to the transient inhibition of parathyroid hormone-induced bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransjoe, M.; Lerner, U.H.

    1990-01-01

    Calcitonin is a well known inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resortion, both in vivo and in vitro. However, it is also known that calcitonin has only a transient inhibitory effect on bone resorption. The mechanism for this so-called ''escape from inhibition'' phenomenon is not clear. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of calcitonin on phorbol ester-induced bone resorption was examined in cultured neonatal mouse calvaria. Bone resorption was assessed as the release of radioactivity from bones prelabelled in vivo with 45 Ca. Two proteon kinase C-activating phorbol esters, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, both stimulated 45 Ca release in 120-h cultures at a concentration of 10 nmul/l. Calcitonin (30 nmol/l) inhibited phorbol esterstimulated bone resorption without any ''escape from inhibition''. This was in contrast to the transient inhibitory effect of calcitonin on bone resorption stimulated by parathyroid hormone (10 nmol/l), prostaglandin E 2 (2 μmol/l), and bradykinin (1 μmol/l). Our results suggest that activation of protein kinase C produces a sustained inhibitory effect of calcitonin on bone resorption. (author)

  10. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine

  11. CT morphology and function of the condylar joints after conservative functional treatment of condylar fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.; Sahm, G.

    1990-01-01

    In 8 adult and 13 adolescent individuals who had undergone conservative treatment for condylar fractures 4.2 and 4.5 years earlier, respectively computed tomography was performed. In addition, joint mobility was examined clinically in 18 of these patients. The results of the radiological examination allow discrimination between high-grade and low-grade remodeling and excessive bone formation. With one exception, high-grade remodeling was invariably observed after childhood fractures. In the adult patients new bone formation was rarely observed. Correlation between the mrophologic appearance and joint mobility was detectable only in cases of severely limited function. In the presence of less severe functional lesions, the size of the insertion area of the lateral pterygoid muscle might indicate the degree of functional rehabilitation. The radiological procedure is discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. A comparative evaluation of static and functional methods for recording centric relation and condylar guidance: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mridul; Jain, Veena; Parkash, Hari; Kumar, Pravesh

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the centric relation and horizontal condylar guidance using interocclusal wax and extra oral Gothic arch methods and subjective evaluation of dentures thus fabricated. Centric relation and horizontal condylar guidance was recorded by using interocclusal wax and gothic arch tracing in 28 completely edentulous patients. These records were transferred to the articulator and difference in both values was recorded. After that patients were divided in two groups according to the centric relation and horizontal condylar guidance recording method used to achieve balanced occlusion. Response of the dentures was subjectively evaluated using "Woelfel subjective evaluation criteria". Centric relation recorded by both the methods did coincide in 7.14 % of patients. Centric relation recorded by interocclusal wax was posterior to Gothic centric relation in 21.43 % of patients, and anterior to Gothic centric relation in 71.42 % patients. Gothic arch tracings gave higher mean guidance values on both the sides as compared to protrusive wax record in all the subjects, although the difference was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Subjective evaluation showed statistical insignificance for all the parameters in both groups. Gothic arch method records the centric relation at a more posterior position than the Static method, but it does not make any difference in clinical performance of the complete denture. Horizontal condylar guidance angle was approximately similar by both the methods.

  13. Evaluation of the condylar movement on MRI during maximal mouth opening in patients with internal derangement of TMJ; comparison with transcranial view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the condylar movement at maximal mouth opening on MRI in patients with internal derangement. MR images and transcranial views for 102 TMJs in 51 patients were taken in closed and maximal opening positions, and the amount of condylar movement was analyzed annotatively and qualitatively. For MR images, the mean condylar movements were 9.4 mm horizontally, 4.6 mm vertically and 10.9 mm totally, while those for transcranial views were 12.5 mm, 4.6 mm, and 13.7 mm respectively. The condyle moved forward beyond the summit of the articular eminence in 41 TMJs (40.2%) for MR images than in transcranial views

  14. The effect of budesonide on orthodontic induced root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Hosseinagha; Meybodi, Seyed Amir Reza Fatahi; Ardekani, Mohammed Danesh; Bemanianashkezari, Mohammad Hassan; Modaresi, Jalil; Masomi, Yousef; Moghadam, Mahdjoube Goldani

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that budesonide increases the susceptibility of teeth to root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. A randomized controlled trial design (animal study) was employed. Budesonide was administered in test group for 14 days during which orthodontic force was applied to upper right molar. Afterwards, root resorption was measured on mesio-cervical and disto-apical parts of the mesial root on transverse histological sections. ANOVA and Bonfferoni tests were used. Statistical significance was considered to be P ≤ 0.05. In general, the subgroups in which the force was applied showed significantly greater root resorption. Where force was applied there was no significant difference, whether budesonide was administered or not. While where there was no force, a group who received budesonide showed significantly greater root resorption than the other, unless at the coronal level where the difference was not significant. Within the limitations of this study, it seems budesonide could increase root resorption, but in the presence of orthodontic force this effect is negligible.

  15. Cellular and Molecular Pathways Leading to External Root Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, A.; Hartsfield, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    External apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment implicates specific molecular pathways that orchestrate nonphysiologic cellular activation. To date, a substantial number of in vitro and in vivo molecular, genomic, and proteomic studies have supplied data that provide new insights into root resorption. Recent mechanisms and developments reviewed here include the role of the cellular component—specifically, the balance of CD68+, iNOS+ M1- and CD68+, CD163+ M2-like macrophages associated with root resorption and root surface repair processes linked to the expression of the M1-associated proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, the M1 activator interferon γ, the M2 activator interleukin 4, and M2-associated anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 and arginase I. Insights into the role of mesenchymal dental pulp cells in attenuating dentin resorption in homeostasis are also reviewed. Data on recently deciphered molecular pathways are reviewed at the level of (1) clastic cell adhesion in the external apical root resorption process and the specific role of α/β integrins, osteopontin, and related extracellular matrix proteins; (2) clastic cell fusion and activation by the RANKL/RANK/OPG and ATP-P2RX7-IL1 pathways; and (3) regulatory mechanisms of root resorption repair by cementum at the proteomic and transcriptomic levels. PMID:27811065

  16. Indirect reduction with a condylar blade plate for osteosynthesis of subtrochanteric femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenrock, K A; Müller, U; Ganz, R

    1998-01-01

    Subtrochanteric fractures frequently occur as high energy trauma usually in younger patients and may lead to severe comminution of the medial cortex. The medial cortex of the proximal femur is exposed to high compressive forces which make fracture stabilization a difficult problem. Bone healing may be seriously compromised due to extensive comminution and fragment devitalization. This requires reduction techniques which do not cause additional damage to the vitality of the bone. With indirect reduction techniques and the use of a condylar blade plate the results have been significantly improved in these fracture types in our department (1). In this report the essential aspects of indirect reduction for subtrochanteric fractures using a condylar blade plate and the treatment results from our department from earlier years (1) and from the last 2 1/2 years will be presented. In the latter period, fifteen patients with a mean age of 49 years (19-87 years) were treated with this method. Fractures resulted from traffic incidents or falls from a great height in 11 cases (73%). Union was achieved in 14 cases (93%) with full weight-bearing after a mean of 3 months (1-4 1/2 months). Malunion was seen in two cases (13%) without the need for further surgery. Non union occurred in one patient (7%) with a III B open injury due to early infection. After repeated debridements, bone grafting and decortication, the fracture was stabilized with a replacement condylar blade plate and healed uneventfully.

  17. Relationship between dental anomalies and orthodontic root resorption of upper incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parys, Katrien; Aartman, Irene H A; Kuitert, Reinder; Zentner, Andrej

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between the occurrence of orthodontic root resorption and presence of dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis and pipette-shaped roots. Dental anomalies and root resorption were assessed on dental panoramic tomographs (DPT) of 88 subjects, 27 males and 61 females, mean age 28.4 (SD = 11.3 years), selected from orthodontic patients on the basis of the following exclusion criteria: previous fixed appliance treatment, bad quality of the DPTs and no visibility of the periodontal ligament of every tooth, and younger than 15 years of age at the onset of treatment with fixed edgewise appliance lasting at least 18 months. A pipette-shaped root was identified as defined by a drawing. Tooth agenesis was assessed on DPTs and from subjects' dental history. Root resorption was calculated as the difference between the root length before and after treatment, with and without a correction factor (crown length post-treatment/crown length pre-treatment). If one of the four upper incisors showed root resorption of ≥2.3 mm with both formulas, the patient was scored as having root resorption. Chi-square tests indicated that there was no relationship between orthodontic root resorption and agenesis (P = 0.885) nor between orthodontic root resorption and pipette-shaped roots (P = 0.800). There was no relationship between having one of the anomalies and root resorption either (P = 0.750). In the present study, it was not possible to confirm on DPTs a relationship between orthodontic root resorption and dental anomalies, such as agenesis and pipette-shaped roots.

  18. Ion transporters involved in acidification of the resorption lacuna in osteoclasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K.; Sorensen, M.G.; Jensen, V.K.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoclasts possess a large amount of ion transporters, which participate in bone resorption; of these, the vacuolar-adenosine trisphosphatase (V-ATPase) and the chloride-proton antiporter ClC-7 acidify the resorption lacuna. However, whether other ion transporters participate in this process is ......, including carbonic anhydrase II, the NHEs, and potassium-chloride cotransporters, are all involved in resorption but do not seem to directly be involved in acidification of the lysosomes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9......Osteoclasts possess a large amount of ion transporters, which participate in bone resorption; of these, the vacuolar-adenosine trisphosphatase (V-ATPase) and the chloride-proton antiporter ClC-7 acidify the resorption lacuna. However, whether other ion transporters participate in this process...

  19. Pharyngeal Airway Space Changes After Condylar Replacement and Mandibular Advancement Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Holly; Rossouw, P Emile; Wolford, Larry M; Wang, Hongyue

    2018-01-03

    The aim of this study was to examine the total volume and cross-sectional areas of the pharyngeal airway after bilateral condylar replacement and mandibular advancement surgery. A total of 137 patients (126 women and 11 men) underwent bilateral temporomandibular joint total joint replacement performed by 1 surgeon. A subsample of 30 patients who underwent condylar replacement and only mandibular advancement were evaluated for impact on the airway. Measurements were taken preoperatively, postoperatively, and at a follow-up 1 year after surgery on cone beam computed tomography scans. InVivoDental 3-dimensional imaging (Anatomage, San Jose, CA) was used to measure airway space regarding total volume (in cubic centimeters); minimum cross-sectional area (in square millimeters); minimum cross sections of the first, second, and third cervical vertebrae; and whether the patient had mandibular retrognathia before surgery. A second operator was used to test for interoperator error. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and the P value was set at .05. There was a significant increase in all measurements at the follow-up visit compared with the preoperative visit. There were no significant differences between groups based on simultaneous Le Fort I surgery, mandibular retrognathia, and gender. However, there were statistically significant differences in cross sections 1 and 2, as well as minimum cross-sectional area, regarding age. Condylar replacement and mandibular advancement have a significant association with an increase in airway space. The intraclass correlation coefficient showed excellent agreement between interoperator measurements. Patients undergoing bilateral temporomandibular joint replacement and mandibular advancement surgery showed an increase in pharyngeal airway space at a 1-year follow-up. In this study, age was significantly associated with the cross-sectional areas of the airway, with older patients having smaller values. Copyright © 2018

  20. Laminar resorption in modified osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis procedure: a cause for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Geetha; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Agarwal, Shweta; Rachapalle, Sudhir Reddi

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the cases of lamina resorption following the modified osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (MOOKP) procedure. Retrospective case series. Case records of 18 eyes (20 laminae) of 17 patients who showed evidence of lamina resorption out of the 85 eyes (87 laminae) of 82 patients that underwent MOOKP procedure between March 2003 and March 2013 were analyzed. Of the 17 patients (20 laminae), 1 underwent MOOKP procedure following multiple graft failures, 6 (7 laminae) belonged to the chemical injury group, and 10 (12 laminae) to the Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) group. Resorption was noted in 20 out of 87 laminae (22.98%). The need for removal of lamina/extrusion was noted in 3 out of the 7 laminae in the chemical injury group and 8 out of the 12 laminae in the SJS group. The mean duration to the first sign suggestive of resorption among patients of SJS was 36.7 months and among patients of chemical injury was 43 months. Vitritis was the presenting feature (7 of 20 laminae, 35%) indicative of early resorption, and the occurrence of the same in eyes with lamina resorption was noted to be statistically significant in comparison to controls (P<.001). Sixteen out of 20 laminae showed evidence of resorption superiorly. Vitritis was the most common presenting feature of lamina resorption and could be an indicator of lamina resorption. Resorption of the laminae was noted to occur along the aspect with thinner bone support in all eyes. Incidence of severe resorption with extrusion of cylinder/requiring lamina removal was noted to be higher among patients with SJS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Open bite as a risk factor for orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motokawa, Masahide; Terao, Akiko; Kaku, Masato; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Gonzales, Carmen; Darendeliler, M Ali; Tanne, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the prevalence and degree of root resorption induced by orthodontic treatment in patients with and without open bite. One hundred and eleven patients treated with multibracket appliances were retrospectively selected from the patients and divided into non-open bite (NOB) and open bite (OB) groups. The severity of root resorption and the root shape were classified into five groups on periapical radiographs before and after treatment. Moreover, only in the OB group, all teeth were sub-divided into functional and hypofunctional ones that are occluding and non-occluding. As the results of multiple linear regression analysis of patient characteristics and clinical variables with the number of overall root resorption, the independent variables that were found to contribute significantly to root resorption were bite and abnormal root shape. The prevalences of root resorption evaluated in the number of patients were significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group, and those in the number of teeth were significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group, in particular anterior and premolar teeth. The prevalence of resorbed teeth with abnormal root shapes was also significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group. On the other hand, in OB group, the prevalences of root resorption and teeth with abnormal root shape were significantly greater in hypofunctional teeth than in normal functional teeth. There are more teeth with root resorption and abnormal root shape in open bite cases than in normal bite cases, and more teeth with abnormal root shapes and root resorption in hypofunctional teeth than in functional teeth.

  2. Factors affecting femoral rotational angle based on the posterior condylar axis in gap-based navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty for valgus knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Sahn; Lee, Yong-In; Kim, Dong-Uk; Lee, Dae-Hee; Moon, Young-Wan

    2018-01-01

    Achieving proper rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for valgus knee is challenging because of lateral condylar hypoplasia and lateral cartilage erosion. Gap-based navigation-assisted TKA enables surgeons to determine the angle of femoral component rotation (FCR) based on the posterior condylar axis. This study evaluated the possible factors that affect the rotational alignment of the femoral component based on the posterior condylar axis. Between 2008 and 2016, 28 knees were enrolled. The dependent variable for this study was FCR based on the posterior condylar axis, which was obtained from the navigation system archives. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify factors that might predict FCR, including body mass index (BMI), Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L grade), lateral distal femoral angles obtained from the navigation system and radiographs (NaviLDFA, XrayLDFA), hip-knee-ankle (HKA) axis, lateral gap under varus stress (LGVS), medial gap under valgus stress (MGVS), and side-to-side difference (STSD, MGVS - LGVS). The mean FCR was 6.1° ± 2.0°. Of all the potentially predictive factors evaluated in this study, only NaviLDFA (β = -0.668) and XrayLDFA (β = -0.714) predicted significantly FCR. The LDFAs, as determined using radiographs and the navigation system, were both predictive of the rotational alignment of the femoral component based on the posterior condylar axis in gap-based TKA for valgus knee. A 1° increment with NaviLDFA led to a 0.668° decrement in FCR, and a 1° increment with XrayLDFA led to a 0.714° decrement. This suggests that symmetrical lateral condylar hypoplasia of the posterior and distal side occurs in lateral compartment end-stage osteoarthritis with valgus deformity.

  3. Management of A Rare Case of Communicating Internal-External Inflammatory Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Suraj; Gill, Gurdeep Singh; Saluja, Priyanka; Setia, Vikas

    2015-05-01

    The present case describes the successful management of a rare case of communicating internal-external resorption in which both internal and external resorption seem to develop independent of each other. The case report highlights the importance of correct diagnosis and need of revision of classification system of resorptive defects.

  4. A clinico-radiographic study to compare and co-relate sagittal condylar guidance determined by intraoral gothic arch tracing method and panoramic radiograph in completely edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sanath; Kunta, Mythili; Shenoy, Kamalakanth

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and correlate sagittal condylar guidance determined by intraoral gothic arch tracing method and panoramic radiograph in edentulous patients. Twelve completely edentulous patients were selected by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Conventional steps in the fabrication of complete denture till jaw relation were carried out. Intraoral gothic arch tracing and protrusive interocclusal records were obtained for each patient. Protrusive interocclusal record was used to program the Hanau Wide-Vue semi-adjustable articulator, thus obtaining the sagittal condylar guidance angle. Using RadiAnt DICOM software, on the orthopantomogram obtained for each patient in the study, two reference lines were drawn. The Frankfort's horizontal plane and the mean curvature line (joining the most superior and the inferior points on the glenoid fossa curvature) were drawn. The mean curvature line was extended to intersect the Frankfort's horizontal plane, thus obtaining the radiographic sagittal condylar guidance angle. The condylar guidance angles obtained by these two methods were compared and subjected to paired t -test. There was no statistically significant difference between the sagittal condylar guidance angles obtained between right and left sides with intraoral gothic arch tracing and radiographic methods ( P = 0.107 and 0.07, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the protrusive condylar guidance angles obtained by panoramic radiograph may be used for programming semi-adjustable articulators.

  5. Idiopathic portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Kyun; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kim, Heung Chul; Hur, Hun; Eom, Kyeung Tae; Namkung, Sook; Park, Man Soo; Hwang, Woo Chul; Lee, Kwan Seop

    1996-01-01

    To describe the radiologic findings of idiopathic portal hypertension and to find the points of differentiation between idiopathic portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. Four portograms in five patients who for four years had suffered from pathologically confirmed idiopathic portal hypertension were retrospectively analyzed and compared with a portogram obtained from a control subject with liver cirrhosis. Portographic finding s of idiopathic portal hypertension were paucity of medium-sized portal branches, irregular and obtuse-angled division of peripheral branches, abrupt interruption and an avascular area beneath the liver margin. A portogram of idiopathic portal hypertension may be useful in differentiation this and liver cirrhosis

  6. Idiopathic anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenny, Nana; Grammer, Leslie C

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic anaphylaxis is a diagnosis of exclusion after other causes have been thoroughly evaluated and excluded. The pathogenesis of idiopathic anaphylaxis remains uncertain, although increased numbers of activated lymphocytes and circulating histamine-releasing factors have been implicated. Signs and symptoms of patients diagnosed with idiopathic anaphylaxis are indistinguishable from the manifestations of other forms of anaphylaxis. Treatment regimens are implemented based on the frequency and severity of patient symptoms and generally include the use of epinephrine autoinjectors, antihistamines, and steroids. The prognosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis is generally favorable with well-established treatment regimens and effective patient education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increasing the amount of corticotomy does not affect orthodontic tooth movement or root resorption, but accelerates alveolar bone resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurohama, Takeshi; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Megumi; Tajima, Takako; Arita, Kotaro; Kondo, Takanobu; Ino, Airi; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships among the volume of bone cut during corticotomy, amount of tooth movement, volume of root resorption, and volume of the resultant alveolar bone resorption after tooth movement. Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were distributed into the corticotomy groups and a control group that underwent sham corticotomy. Two experiments employing two different orthodontic forces (10 or 25g) and experimental periods (14 or 21 days) were performed. The volumes of the bone cut by corticotomy were 0.1, 1.0, and 1.7mm3 in the 25g groups, and 1.0 and 1.7mm3 in the 10g groups. Nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were set on the maxillary left first molars to induce mesial movement. After orthodontic tooth movement, the amount of tooth movement, volume of root resorption, and volume of alveolar bone resorption were measured. Despite differences in the volume of bone cut among the different corticotomy groups, there were not significant differences in the amount of tooth movement and volume of root resorption between the control group and any of the corticotomy groups. However, higher volume of bone cut during corticotomy was significantly related to the decreased alveolar bone volume-in particular, to the reduced height of the alveolar bone crest after tooth movement. The volume of the alveolar bone cut during corticotomy does not affect tooth movement or root resorption in 10-week-old female Wistar rats; however, it may increase alveolar bone loss after tooth movement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Temporomandibular joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: clinical predictors of magnetic resonance imaging signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Margariti, Persefoni N.; Astrakas, Loukas; Kosta, Paraskevi; Karali, Aikaterini; Alfandaki, Sapfo; Siamopoulou, Antigoni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define clinical predictors of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Forty-six patients, aged 2.08-36.7 years, with JIA (oligoartitular 18, polyarticular 17, systemic type 11) were examined with standard plain and contrast-enhanced sequences. Of 88 TMJs examined, an abnormal condyle was observed in 32%, flattened articular eminence in 27%, flattened articular disk in 17%, intra-articular fluid in 10%, enhancing pannus in 45% and restricted condylar motion in 9%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that for abnormal condyle and flattened articular eminence, independent predictors were type of JIA (P 0.5 when the disease started before 4 years of age. In conclusion, the systemic type of JIA, young age at onset and long duration of activity are risk factors for TMJ damage. MRI of the TMJ should be performed in patients who are less than 4 years of age at the onset of JIA, and in those with the systemic type, whatever the age of onset. (orig.)

  9. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  10. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Haghanifar; Valiollah Arash; Farhad Soboti; Nasim Jafari

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption...

  11. Comparison of various approaches for the treatment of fractures of the mandibular condylar process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschel, Jörg; Rüggeberg, Tim; Depprich, Rita; Schwarz, Frank; Meyer, Ulrich; Kübler, Norbert R; Naujoks, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Fractures of the mandibular condyle process are the most common fractures of the lower jaw. Unfortunately, the type of treatment is still a matter of debate. The aim of this investigation was to compare the outcome of different treatment approaches regarding function and surgical side-effects. 111 fractures of the mandibular condyle representing all types according to the classification of Spiessl and Schroll were included. Both closed reduction (CR) and open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) including the retromandibular/transparotid, submandibular, preauricular and intraoral approach were performed. The clinical examination included functional and aesthetic aspects at least 1 year after the fracture. The majority of fractures (45%) were classified into Type II and IV according to Spiessl and Schroll followed by fractures without any displacement or dislocation (29.7%). The submandibular approach showed the worst outcome regarding permanent palsy of the facial nerve and hypertrophic scarring. No significant differences between the various approaches were detected in the functional status in any diagnosis group. Inferior condylar neck fractures benefit from ORIF by an intraoral approach whereas in high condylar neck fractures the retromandibular/transparotid approach shows the best results. Fractures of the condylar head were almost all treated by CR and our results cannot contribute to the debate of CR vs. ORIF in this type of fracture. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bone scanning with /sup 99m/Tc phosphate to assess condylar hyperplasia. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, S.R.; Proffit, W.R.; Terry, B.C.; Staab, E.V.; Burkes, E.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia poses a problem in planning treatment because it is a self-limiting process for some but not all patients. Continued growth creates a progressive deformity that requires condylectomy, whereas an enlarged condyle can be left in place after hyperplastic growth ceases, even if ramus surgery is needed to correct asymmetry. Bone scan with /sup 99m/Tc phosphate can be used to assist in making the differential diagnosis. In the two patients reported here, abnormal metabolic activity revealed by bone scans supported clinical and historical evidence that the condylar hyperplasia was active and required surgical correction, including condylectomy. The two cases demonstrate different approaches to postsurgical orthodontic treatment, depending on the amount of normal growth expected

  13. Pulpal status of human primary teeth with physiological root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Joana; Day, Peter; Duggal, Monty; Morgan, Claire; Rodd, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to determine whether any changes occur in the pulpal structure of human primary teeth in association with physiological root resorption. The experimental material comprised 64 sound primary molars, obtained from children requiring routine dental extractions under general anaesthesia. Pulp sections were processed for indirect immunofluorescence using combinations of: (i) protein gene product 9.5 (a general neuronal marker); (ii) leucocyte common antigen CD45 (a general immune cell marker); and (iii) Ulex europaeus I lectin (a marker of vascular endothelium). Image analysis was then used to determine the percentage area of staining for each label within both the pulp horn and mid-coronal region. Following measurement of the greatest degree of root resorption in each sample, teeth were subdivided into three groups: those with physiological resorption involving less than one-third, one-third to two-thirds, and more than two-thirds of their root length. Wide variation was evident between different tooth samples with some resorbed teeth showing marked changes in pulpal histology. Decreased innervation density, increased immune cell accumulation, and increased vascularity were evident in some teeth with advanced root resorption. Analysis of pooled data, however, did not reveal any significant differences in mean percentage area of staining for any of these variables according to the three root resorption subgroups (P > 0.05, analysis of variance on transformed data). This investigation has revealed some changes in pulpal status of human primary teeth with physiological root resorption. These were not, however, as profound as one may have anticipated. It is therefore speculated that teeth could retain the potential for sensation, healing, and repair until advanced stages of root resorption.

  14. Postero-inferior condylar movement induced by artificial occlusal interference on the balancing side during fictive mastication in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takumi; Hiraba, Katsunari; Matsunaga, Tomoko; Ito, Yu; Maruo, Hisanobu; Kurita, Kenichi

    2016-06-01

    Tooth contact does not occur on the balancing side during mastication. Hence, it is possible that the presence of occlusal interference on the balancing side causes mandibular rotation followed by atypical condylar movement because the jaw-closing muscle activity on the working side is greater than on the balancing side. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between occlusal contact on the balancing side and condylar movement during mastication. EMG activity of the masseter (MS), lateral pterygoid (LP) and digastric (DG) muscles and jaw movements were recorded. Condylar movements in the sagittal plane were recorded using a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Incisal point movements were recorded using a magnet on the mentum and a magnetometric sensor on the nasal bone. A removable biting plate was used to introduce an artificial occlusal interference on the balancing side. Nine of the 10 rabbits showed large postero-inferior condylar movement (Pi-Cm) when a biting plate was applied on the balancing side. Five rabbits showed very small Pi-Cm when a biting plate was applied on the balancing side. In the small Pi-Cm group, MS activity decreased markedly and LP and DG transient activity appeared in the early occlusal phase in the presence of the biting plate. Interference on the balancing side always caused Pi-Cm on the ipsilateral side during mastication. However, the degree of Pi-Cm was often decreased by a jaw opening reflex response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Idiopathic Ophthalmodynia and Idiopathic Rhinalgia: A Prospective Series of 16 New Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Montojo, Teresa; Guerrero, Ángel L; Álvarez, Mónica; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Cuadrado, María L

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia were described a few years ago. These conditions seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location in the eye or in the nose. We aimed to present a new prospective series in order to verify the consistency of these syndromes. We performed a descriptive study of all patients referred to our regional neurologic clinics from 2010 to 2014 because of facial pain exclusively felt in the eye or in the nose fulfilling the proposed diagnostic criteria for idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia. There were 9 patients with idiopathic ophthalmodynia and 7 patients with idiopathic rhinalgia, with a clear female preponderance, and a mean age at onset in the fifth decade. The pain was usually moderate and the temporal pattern was generally chronic. Only one patient reported accompaniments (hypersensitivity to the light and to the flow of air in the symptomatic eye). Preventive treatment with amitriptyline, pregabalin, or gabapentin was partially or totally effective. The clinical features of this new series parallels those of the original description, thus indicating that both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia have clear-cut clinical pictures with excellent consistency both inter- and intra-individually. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  16. Responses of plant nutrient resorption to phosphorus addition in freshwater marsh of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Song, Chang-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However, the relationship between plant nutrient resorption and P availability is still unclear, and much less is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a multi-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6 g P m−2 year−1) to assess the effect of P enrichment on nutrient resorption at plant organ, species, and community levels in a freshwater marsh of Northeast China. The response of nutrient resorption to P addition generally did not vary with addition rates. Moreover, nutrient resorption exhibited similar responses to P addition across the three hierarchical levels. Specifically, P addition decreased nitrogen (N) resorption proficiency, P resorption efficiency and proficiency, but did not impact N resorption efficiency. In addition, P resorption efficiency and proficiency were linearly related to the ratio of inorganic P to organic P and organic P fraction in mature plant organs, respectively. Our findings suggest that the allocation pattern of plant P between inorganic and organic P fractions is an underlying mechanism controlling P resorption processes, and that P enrichment could strongly influence plant-mediated biogeochemical cycles through altered nutrient resorption in the freshwater wetlands of Northeast China. PMID:25631373

  17. A lateral approach for screw repair in lag fashion of spiral third metacarpal and metatarsal medial condylar fractures in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lewis C R; Greet, Timothy R C; Bathe, Andrew P

    2009-08-01

    To describe a lateral approach for screw fixation in lag fashion of simple spiral medial condylar fractures of the third metacarpus/metatarsus (MC3/MT3). Case series. Thoroughbred racehorses (n=9). Nondisplaced medial MC3/MT3 condylar fractures (3 thoracic, 6 pelvic limbs), with mean length 126 mm (range, 91-151 mm) were repaired by internal fixation, under general anesthesia, using multiple 4.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion from the lateral aspect of the limb, using radiographic or fluoroscopic guidance. Horses were recovered from anesthesia in half-limb casts; 7 unassisted and 2 using a rope-recovery system. Horses had 2 months box rest, 1 month in-hand walking, and follow-up radiographic examination at 3 months. Horses recovered uneventfully from anesthesia. Five horses raced; 1 returned to training, was persistently lame, and was retired to stud; 2 were retired directly to stud; and 1 horse was lost to follow-up. MC3/MT3 medial condylar fractures were successfully repaired by screws inserted n lag fashion form the lateral aspect. Use of a lateral approach to medial condylar MC3/MT3 fractures allows screw insertion perpendicular to the fracture plane without interference with palmar/plantar soft tissue structures or from the splint bones. Although repair was performed under general anesthesia, the technique should be adaptable to application in standing horses.

  18. [SCREW-BASED INTERMAXILLARY TRACTION COMBINED WITH OCCLUSAL SPLINT FOR TREATMENT OF PEDIATRIC MANDIBULAR CONDYLAR FRACTURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Long, Xing; Deng, Mohong; Cai, Hengxing; Meng, Qinggong; Li, Bo

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the screw-based intermaxillary traction combined with occlusal splint in the treatment of pediatric mandibular condylar fracture. Between June 2005 and December 2013, 35 pediatric patients with 49 mandibular condylar fractures were treated, and the clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. There were 25 boys and 10 girls, aged 3-13 years (mean, 7.3 years). The injury causes included falling (18 cases), traffic accident (14 cases), and violence (3 cases). The time between injury and treatment was 2-30 days (mean, 6.8 days). Restricted mouth opening was observed, and the maximal mouth opening was (22.74 +/- 7.22) mm except 3 patients who were too young to measure. Condylar fractures were located at the left (12 cases), at the right (9 cases), at bilateral (14 cases) based on the sites; and fractures were classified as intracapsular (35 fractures), neck (10 fractures), and subcondylar (4 fractures) based on the fracture line. Four self-drilling titanium screws were inserted into the alveolar bone of both maxilla and mandible. After screw inserting, an occlusal splint with a fulcrum was used on the affected side and elastic band was put to perform anterior intermaxillary traction. After 1 month, the screws and splint were removed. Follow-up examinations were carried out on schedule. All the patients were followed up from 6 months to 8 years and 10 months (median, 71 months). No screw-related complication occurred in the others except one case of screw loosening. The postoperative maximal mouth opening was (38.82 +/- 2.02) nim. Mild joint noise was found in 4 cases and opening deviation occurred in 6 cases. Radiographic results demonstrated complete condyle remodeling was achieved in 24 cases (32 fractures), and moderate remodeling in 11 cases (17 fractures) at last follow-up. The screw-based intermaxillary traction combined with occlusal splint might be an effective method for pediatric mandibular condylar fracture. The screw

  19. Lateral incisor root resorption and active orthodontic treatment in the early mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlani, M S; Inocencio, F; Hatibovic-Kofman, S

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the presence of root resorption in the lateral incisor after active orthodontic treatment in the early mixed dentition. Twenty-six children treated at the Children's Clinic of the Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry at the University of Western Ontario were examined radiographically for lateral incisors root resorption before and after early active treatment to align upper incisors (2 x 4 appliance). In addition, canine inclinations to the midline and to the long axis of the lateral incisor as well as the most medial position of the canine crown were measured as potential risk factors for root resorption. 8% (4) of the lateral incisors exhibited root resorption and the mean crown-to-root ratio of these teeth was significantly higher than that for lateral incisors not exhibiting root resorption. Similarly, mean canine inclinations to the midline and to the long axis of the lateral incisor were also significantly higher for the root resorption group. No association could be found between the most medial position of the canine crown and root resorption in the lateral incisor. This study showed that active orthodontic treatment in the early mixed dentition does not increase the risk for root resorption in the lateral incisors as long as the clinician takes into consideration canine inclinations and their potential effect on root resorption. Limitations inherent to radiographic assessment are acknowledged.

  20. Predisposing factors to severe external root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picanço, Gracemia Vasconcelos; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Valarelli, Fabricio Pinelli; Picanço, Paulo Roberto Barroso; Feijão, Camila Pontes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors among patients who developed moderate or severe external root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4), on the maxillary incisors, during fixed orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. Ninety-nine patients who underwent orthodontic treatment with fixed edgewise appliances were selected. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 - 50 patients with no root resorption or presenting only apical irregularities (Malmgren's grades 0 and 1) at the end of the treatment, with mean initial age of 16.79 years and mean treatment time of 3.21 years; G2 - 49 patients presenting moderate or severe root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4) at the end of treatment on the maxillary incisors, with mean initial age of 19.92 years and mean treatment time of 3.98 years. Periapical radiographs and lateral cephalograms were evaluated. Factors that could influence the occurrence of severe root resorption were also recorded. Statistical analysis included chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and independent t tests. The results demonstrated significant difference between the groups for the variables: Extractions, initial degree of root resorption, root length and crown/root ratio at the beginning, and cortical thickness of the alveolar bone. It can be concluded that: Presence of root resorption before the beginning of treatment, extractions, reduced root length, decreased crown/root ratio and thin alveolar bone represent risk factors for severe root resorption in maxillary incisors during orthodontic treatment.

  1. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maués, Caroline Pelagio Raick; do Nascimento, Rizomar Ramos; Vilella, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular), treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed), root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9%) presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset.

  2. The effect of ovalbumin on orthodontic induced root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Hosseinagha; Ardekani, Mohammad Danesh; Meybodi, Seyed Amir Reza Fatahi; Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Modaresi, Jalil; Mansouri, Reza; Momeni, Ehsan

    2013-09-01

    This randomized trial was undertaken to investigate the effect of experimentally induced allergy on orthodontic induced root resorption. A total of 30 Wistar rats were divided randomly into test and control groups. Starting from the first 3 days, the rats in the test group were injected intra-peritoneally by 2 mg ovalbumin as allergen and 0.5 mg Alume as adjuvant. Afterward only allergen was injected once a week. The control group was injected by normal saline. After 21 days, Wistar immunoglobulin E was measured and peripheral matured eosinophil was counted. A total of 50 g nickel-titanium closed coil spring was ligated between right incisor and first molar. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days. The mesial root of the right and left first molar was dissected in a horizontal plane. The specimens were divided into four groups considering whether force and/or ovalbumin was applied or not. Root resorption was measured and compared among these groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Bonferoni tests were used to analyze the data. The level of significance was determined at 0.05. In general, the differences were insignificant (P root resorption than the group in which neither force nor ovalbumin was applied (P > 0.001). Allergy may increase the susceptibility to root resorption. Application of light force, periodical monitoring of root resorption and control of allergy are advisable.

  3. Special considerations for orthodontic treatment in patients with root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haru S. Anggani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic treatment needs good consideration especially when there are unfavorable conditions for orthodontic treatment, such as periodontal diseases or tooth with root resorption. Root resorption should not become worse due to orthodontic treatment., All risk factors should be eliminated before orthodontic treatment is started. Otherwise, the goal of orthodontic treatment could be difficult to achieve because of poor dental and or oral health. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to learn more about mechanical factors that could worsen the root resorption that has already been there or even provoke root resorption to develop during orthodontic treatment. Reviews: Resorption of dental root surface is the condition in which cementum is depraved and the damage could also include dentin of dental root. It can occur either physiologically or pathologically due to some causes. The occurrence of the root resorption is suspected because of the biological factor, the tooth condition, the supportive tissue and the mechanical factors. Panoramic x-ray which routinely used to support diagnose in orthodontic cases, can detect root resorption in general, although sometimes periapical x-ray with parallel technique is needed to enhance the diagnosis. Before starting a treatment, the risk factors that suspected as the causes of root resorption should be eliminated, thus the mechanical treatment can be calculated. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment in patient with root resorption should not escalate the root resorption which already occurs. The treatment should be done effectively by using optimal forces. Giving discontinued forces and avoiding intrusion and torque movements could reduce the risk factors of root resorption.Latar belakang: Keadaan gigi dan jaringan pendukung yang kurang menguntungkan bagi perawatan ortodontik hendaknya membutuhkan perhatian ekstra para klinisi. Kondisi tersebut misalnya adanya penyakit periodontal ataupun adanya

  4. Repair of a pediatric bilateral condylar and symphyseal fracture using a transfacial Steinman pin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Jacob N; Flores, Roberto L; Tholpady, Sunil S

    2014-01-01

    The proper management of complex pediatric mandibular fractures remains a topic of debate because of the relatively uncommon presentation of these fractures, combined with concerns related with deciduous teeth, tooth buds, and growth inhibition. In this current study, we present a novel approach to the repair of bilateral condylar fractures with concomitant symphyseal fracture in a 4-year-old girl. Manual closed reduction was first obtained, followed by placement of a transfacial Steinman pin through the angles of the mandible and placement of circummandibular wires. Maxillomandibular fixation remained for 2 weeks and the Steinman pin was removed after 11 weeks. At 3 months of postsurgical follow-up, the patient displayed class I occlusion, facial symmetry, full range of jaw motion, and absence of deviation or pain on full oral excursion. Radiographic findings also revealed complete resolution of the symphyseal fracture with appropriate condylar healing and alignment.

  5. Biomechanical comparison of 3.0 mm headless compression screw and 3.5 mm cortical bone screw in a canine humeral condylar fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Mishka N; Jankovits, Daniel A; Huber, Michael L; Strom, Adam M; Garcia, Tanya C; Stover, Susan M

    2016-09-20

    To compare the biomechanical properties of simulated humeral condylar fractures reduced with one of two screw fixation methods: 3.0 mm headless compression screw (HCS) or 3.5 mm cortical bone screw (CBS) placed in lag fashion. Bilateral humeri were collected from nine canine cadavers. Standardized osteotomies were stabilized with 3.0 mm HCS in one limb and 3.5 mm CBS in the contralateral limb. Condylar fragments were loaded to walk, trot, and failure loads while measuring construct properties and condylar fragment motion. The 3.5 mm CBS-stabilized constructs were 36% stiffer than 3.0 mm HCS-stabilized constructs, but differences were not apparent in quality of fracture reduction nor in yield loads, which exceeded expected physiological loads during rehabilitation. Small residual fragment displacements were not different between CBS and HCS screws. Small fragment rotation was not significantly different between screws, but was weakly correlated with moment arm length (R² = 0.25). A CBS screw placed in lag fashion provides stiffer fixation than an HCS screw, although both screws provide similar anatomical reduction and yield strength to condylar fracture fixation in adult canine humeri.

  6. Hydrostatic Compress Force Enhances the Viability and Decreases the Apoptosis of Condylar Chondrocytes through Integrin-FAK-ERK/PI3K Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dandan; Kou, Xiaoxing; Jin, Jing; Xu, Taotao; Wu, Mengjie; Deng, Liquan; Fu, Lusi; Liu, Yi; Wu, Gang; Lu, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    Reduced mechanical stimuli in many pathological cases, such as hemimastication and limited masticatory movements, can significantly affect the metabolic activity of mandibular condylar chondrocytes and the growth of mandibles. However, the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena remain unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that integrin-focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-ERK (extracellular signal–regulated kinase)/PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase) signaling pathway mediated the cellular response of condylar chondrocytes to mechanical loading. Primary condylar chondrocytes were exposed to hydrostatic compressive forces (HCFs) of different magnitudes (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kPa) for 2 h. We measured the viability, morphology, and apoptosis of the chondrocytes with different treatments as well as the gene, protein expression, and phosphorylation of mechanosensitivity-related molecules, such as integrin α2, integrin α5, integrin β1, FAK, ERK, and PI3K. HCFs could significantly increase the viability and surface area of condylar chondrocytes and decrease their apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. HCF of 250 kPa resulted in a 1.51 ± 0.02-fold increase of cell viability and reduced the ratio of apoptotic cells from 18.10% ± 0.56% to 7.30% ± 1.43%. HCFs could significantly enhance the mRNA and protein expression of integrin α2, integrin α5, and integrin β1 in a dose-dependent manner, but not ERK1, ERK2, or PI3K. Instead, HCF could significantly increase phosphorylation levels of FAK, ERK1/2, and PI3K in a dose-dependent manner. Cilengitide, the potent integrin inhibitor, could dose-dependently block such effects of HCFs. HCFs enhances the viability and decreases the apoptosis of condylar chondrocytes through the integrin-FAK-ERK/PI3K pathway. PMID:27827993

  7. Root resorption following periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature evidence suggests that root resorption, an adverse side effect of orthodontic therapy, may be decreased under conditions of alveolar osteopenia, a condition characterized by diminished bone density and created secondary to alveolar corticotomy (Cort surgery. Purpose: To compare root resorption of the maxillary central incisors following nonextraction orthodontic therapy with and without Cort surgery. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised two groups, with and without Cort and was matched by age and gender: Cort-facilitated nonextraction orthodontics with 27 subjects, 53 central incisors of mean age 24.8 ± 10.2 years, and conventional (Conv nonextraction orthodontics with 27 subjects, 54 incisors with mean age of 19.6 ± 8.8 years. All periapical radiographs were taken with the paralleling technique; total tooth lengths of the right and left central incisors were measured by projecting and enlarging the periapical radiographs exactly 8 times. Results: t-tests revealed a significant decrease in treatment time in the Cort group (6.3 ± 8.0 vs. 17.4 ± 20.2 months, P = 0.000. Pretreatment root lengths were not significantly different (P = 0.11, but Conv had significantly shorter roots at posttreatment when compared with Cort (P = 0.03. Significant root resorption (P < 0.01 occurred in both Cort (0.3 mm and Conv (0.7 mm, but the increment of change was significantly greater in Conv (P < 0.03. The variable SNA increased significantly in the Cort (P = 0.001 group and decreased significantly in the Conv group (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Based on the conditions of this study, it may be concluded that Cort-facilitated nonextraction orthodontic therapy results in less root resorption and enhanced alveolar support within a significantly reduced clinical service delivery time frame. Rapid orthodontic treatment and reduced apical root resorption are probably due to the transient osteopenia induced by the Cort surgery and inspired by

  8. [Root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment: a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houb-Dine, Afaf; Rerhrhaye, Mariam; Ismaili, Zouheir; Rerhrhaye, Wiam

    2011-12-01

    Root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment is of multiple etiologies and a non intentional iatrogenic side effect which exists in almost all the orthodontic treatment. This clinical case of an apparently healthy patient illustrates the occurrence during the orthodontic treatment of a root resorption interesting the left central incisor, victims of previous traumatism and presenting a moderate periodontal attachment loss. The orthodontic treatment was carried out with light and continuous forces and a per-orthodontic periodontal maintenance in respect of periodontal requirements. As soon as the root resorption on the left central incisive was diagnosed, the active orthodontic treatment was interrupted in order to stabilize the lesion and a regular clinical and radiological monitoring was established.

  9. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pelagio Raick Maués

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular, treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed, root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. RESULTS: Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9% presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. CONCLUSION: This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset.

  10. A scanning electron microscopic study of the patterns of external root resorption under different conditions

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    Ravindran Sreeja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine if there are qualitative differences in the appearance of external root resorption patterns of primary teeth undergoing physiologic resorption and permanent teeth undergoing pathological root resorption in different conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 40 teeth undergoing external root resorption in different conditions were divided into 4 groups and prepared for examination under scanning electron microscopy at magnifications ranging from 20x to 1000x. Group I: 10 primary molars exfoliated due to physiologic root resorption; Group II: 10 permanent teeth with periapical granulomas showing signs of resorption; Group III:10 permanent teeth therapeutically extracted during the course of orthodontic therapy with evidence of resorption, and Group IV: 10 permanent teeth associated with odontogenic tumors that showed evidence of resorption. RESULTS: In Group I, the primary teeth undergoing resorption showed smooth extensive and predominantly regular areas reflecting the slow ongoing physiologic process. In Group II, the teeth with periapical granulomas showed the resorption was localized to apex with a funnel shaped appearance in most cases. Teeth in Group III, which had been subjected to a short period of light orthodontic force, showed the presence of numerous resorption craters with adjoining areas of cemental repair in some cases. Teeth associated with odontogenic tumors in Group IV showed many variations in the patterns of resorption with extensive loss of root length and a sharp cut appearance of the root in most cases. CONCLUSION: Differences were observed in the patterns of external root resorption among the studied groups of primary and permanent teeth under physiologic and pathological conditions.

  11. [Comparison of root resorption between self-ligating and conventional brackets using cone-beam CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Guo, Hong-ming

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the differences of root resorption between passive self-ligating and conventional brackets, and to determine the relationship between passive self-ligating brackets and root resorption. Fifty patients were randomly divided into 2 groups using passive self-ligating brackets or conventional straight wire brackets (0.022 system), respectively. Cone-beam CT was taken before and after treatment. The amount of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors was measured on CBCT images. Student's t test was performed to analyze the differences of root apical resorption between the 2 groups with SPSS17.0 software package. No significant difference(P> 0.05) in root resorption of maxillary incisors was found between passive self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets. Passive self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets can cause root resorption, but the difference was not significant. Passive self-ligating brackets do not induce more root resorption.

  12. Patterns in foliar nutrient resorption stoichiometry at multiple scales: controlling factors and ecosystem consequences (Invited)

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    Reed, S.; Cleveland, C. C.; Davidson, E. A.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    During leaf senescence, nutrient rich compounds are transported to other parts of the plant and this 'resorption' recycles nutrients for future growth, reducing losses of potentially limiting nutrients. Variations in leaf chemistry resulting from nutrient resorption also directly affect litter quality, in turn, regulating decomposition rates and soil nutrient availability. Here we investigated stoichiometric patterns of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency at multiple spatial scales. First, we assembled a global database to explore nutrient resorption among and within biomes and to examine potential relationships between resorption stoichiometry and ecosystem nutrient status. Next, we used a forest regeneration chronosequence in Brazil to assess how resorption stoichiometry linked with a suite of other nutrient cycling measures and with ideas of how nutrient limitation may change over secondary forest regrowth. Finally, we measured N:P resorption ratios of six canopy tree species in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We calculated species-specific resorption ratios and compared them with patterns in leaf litter and topsoil nutrient concentrations. At the global scale, N:P resorption ratios increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP; P1 in latitudes >23°. Focusing on tropical sites in our global dataset we found that, despite fewer data and a restricted latitudinal range, a significant relationship between latitude and N:P resorption ratios persisted (PAmazon Basin chronosequence of regenerating forests, where previous work reported a transition from apparent N limitation in younger forests to P limitation in mature forests, we found N resorption was highest in the youngest forest, whereas P resorption was greatest in the mature forest. Over the course of succession, N resorption efficiency leveled off but P resorption continued to increase with forest age. In Costa Rica, though we found species

  13. [Root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of age factor and prevalence in anterior teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu-lou; Wang, Kun; Wang, Jing; Liu, Fang; Piao, Mei-ling

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the impact of age factor on root resorption and the prevalence in anterior teeth during orthodontic treatment. Sixty extraction cases treated with straight wire appliance were divided into adult group and child group, with 30 cases in each group.The panoramic radiographs pre-treatment and post-treatment were examined to measure the degrees of root resorption. A total of 360 anterior teeth in each group were evaluated. SPSS 13.0 software package was applied to perform statistical analysis. There was significant difference in root resorption index before and after treatment(Proot resorption increased remarkably after orthodontic treatment. There was significant difference in the degree of root resorption in two groups (Proot resorption in anterior teeth was: upper central incisors, upper lateral incisors, lower central incisors, lower lateral incisors, upper canines and lower canines. The root resorption in adult patients are more obvious than child patients. The prevalence of root resorption in anterior teeth is different. Moderate or severe root resorption is prone to happen in upper central incisors or lateral incisors in adult patients.

  14. Botryllus schlosseri (Tunicata) whole colony irradiation: Do senescent zooid resorption and immunological resorption involve similar recognition events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkevich, B.; Weissman, I.L.

    1990-01-01

    The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri undergoes cyclic blastogenesis where feeding zooids are senescened and resorbed and a new generation of zooids takes over the colony. When non-identical colonies come into direct contact, they either reject each other or fuse. Fusion is usually followed by the resorption of one of the partners in the chimera (immunological resorption). The striking morphological similarities between the two resorption phenomena suggest that both may involve tissue destruction following self-nonself recognition events. Here we attempt to modify these two events by whole colony gamma irradiation assays. Three sets of experiments were performed: (1) different doses of whole colony irradiation for determination of irradiation effects (110 colonies); (2) pairs of irradiated-nonirradiated isografts of clonal replicates for the potential of reconstruction of the irradiated partners (23 pairs); (3) chimeras of irradiated-nonirradiated partners for analysis of resorption hierarchy. Mortality increased with the irradiation dose. All colonies exposed to more than 5,000 rads died within 19 days, while no colony died below 2,000 rads. The average mortality periods, in days, for doses of 6,000-8,000, 5,000, and 2,500-4,000 rads were 14.4 +/- 3.1 (n = 24), 19.8 +/- 6.0 (n = 15), and 19.6 + 5.1 (n = 22), respectively. Younger colonies (3-6 months old) may survive radiation better than older ones (more than 13 months). Many morphological alterations were recorded in irradiated colonies: ampullar contraction and/or dilation, accumulation of pigment cells within ampullae, abnormal bleeding from blood vessels, sluggish blood circulation, necrotic zones, reduction in bud number, and irregularities in zooid and system structures. With doses of 3,000-4,000 rads and above, irradiation arrested the formation of new buds and interrupted normal takeover

  15. Root Resorption with Orthodontic Mechanics: Pertinent Areas Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, V

    2017-03-01

    Root resorption can occur at any time during orthodontic treatment and lead to a compromise in the prognosis of the tooth and the stability of the treatment results. Recent research has focused more on the cause and effect relationship as well as preventive or treatment options to combat this unwelcome event. Investigations have highlighted the genetic as well as molecular aspects of the process and enabled clinicians to determine which patients might be susceptible. A proper medical history, an assessment of predisposing factors, a radiographic evaluation for alterations in root morphology and careful planning and execution of orthodontic mechanics may reduce the incidence of root resorption. The current review is aimed at providing clinicians and academics with an insight into the process of root resorption, the methods of identification during its early stages and intervention at the right time to reduce its severity. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Analysis of an optimal resorption cogeneration using mass and heat recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yiji; Wang, Yaodong; Bao, Huashan; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Liwei; Roskilly, Anthony Paul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Resorption cogeneration for electricity and refrigeration generation. • Mass and heat recovery to further improve the performance. • The first and second law analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimised resorption cogeneration using mass and heat recovery to improve the performance of a novel resorption cogeneration fist proposed by Wang et al. This system combines ammonia-resorption technology and expansion machine into one loop, which is able to generate refrigeration and electricity from low-grade heat sources such as solar energy and industrial waste heat. Two sets of resorption cycle are designed to overcome the intermittent performance of the chemisorption and produce continuous/simultaneous refrigeration and electricity. In this paper, twelve resorption working pairs of salt complex candidates are analysed by the first law analysis using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). The optimal resorption working pairs from the twelve candidates under the driven temperature from 100 °C to 300 °C are identified. By applying heat/mass recovery, the coefficient of performance (COP) improvement is increased by 38% when the high temperature salt (HTS) is NiCl 2 and by 35% when the HTS is MnCl 2 . On the other hand, the energy efficiency of electricity has also been improved from 8% to 12% with the help of heat/mass recovery. The second law analysis has also been applied to investigate the exergy utilisation and identify the key components/processes. The highest second law efficiency is achieved as high as 41% by the resorption working pair BaCl 2 –MnCl 2 under the heat source temperature at 110 °C.

  17. CHANGE IN CONDYLAR POSITION AND SKELETAL STABILITY ASSESSMENT FOLLOWING BSSO FOR MANDIBULAR SET BACK

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    Manjunath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Change in condylar position following mandibular bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO has been implicated as an important factor in the appearance of immediate postoperative relapse during rigid fixation. It has been suggested that the control of the condylar segment following BSSO is the most important aspect in preventing relapse. The study was done to evaluate changes in position of condyle taken with lateral and frontal cephalograms with 20 patients were assessed, 10 male and 10 female patients wer e divided as group 1 and group 2. Patients undergoing sagittal split ramus osteotomy for mandibular set back were selected; radiographs before operation/surgery, immediately after surgery, 3 months and 6 months post - surgery. Differences between groups were measured by PAIRED ‘T’ TEST a nd time dependent changes in cephalometric measurements were examined by FISCHERS TEST. The present study results conclude significant difference occurring in both proximal and distal segment including condyle. Occlusal stabil ity and skeletal stability also maintained post operatively

  18. Association between root resorption incident to orthodontic treatment and treatment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motokawa, Masahide; Sasamoto, Tomoko; Kaku, Masato; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Matsuda, Yayoi; Terao, Akiko; Tanne, Kazuo

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence and degree of root resorption induced by orthodontic treatment in association with treatment factors. The files of 243 patients (72 males and 171 females) aged 9-51 years were randomly selected from subjects treated with multi-bracket appliances. The severity of root resorption was classified into five categories on radiographs taken before and after treatment. The subjects were divided into extraction (n = 113 patients, 2805 teeth) and non-extraction (n = 130 patients, 3616 teeth) groups and surgical (n = 56 patients, 1503 teeth) and non-surgical treatment (n = 187 patients, 4918 teeth) groups. These subjects were also divided into two or three groups based on the duration of multiloop edgewise archwire (MEAW) treatment, elastic use, and total treatment time: 0 month (T1; n = 184 patients, 4831 teeth), range 1-6 months (T2; n = 37 patients, 994 teeth), more than 6 months (T3; n = 22 patients, 596 teeth); range 0-6 months (n = 114 patients, 3016 teeth) more than 6 months (n = 129 patients, 3405 teeth); range 1-30 months (n = 148 patients, 3913 teeth) and more than 30 months (n = 95 patients, 2508 teeth). The prevalence of overall and severe root resorption evaluated by the number of subjects and teeth was compared with a chi-square test. A Student's t-test for unpaired data was used to determine any statistically significant differences. The prevalence of severe root resorption based on the number of teeth was significantly higher in the group with extractions (P root resorption (P root resorption was not significantly different between the subjects treated with or without surgery, but there was a significant increase when treatment time was prolonged (P root movement of the upper central incisors and the distance from their root apices to the cortical bone surface (P root resorption. These results indicate that orthodontic treatment with extractions, long-term use of a MEAW appliance and elastics, treatment

  19. Multidimensional Scaling for Orthodontic Root Resorption

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    Cristina Teodora Preoteasa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the risk factors for the severity of orthodontic root resorption. The multidimensional scaling (MDS visualization method is used to investigate the experimental data from patients who received orthodontic treatment at the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Faculty of Dentistry, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, during a period of 4 years. The clusters emerging in the MDS plots reveal features and properties not easily captured by classical statistical tools. The results support the adoption of MDS for tackling the dentistry information and overcoming noise embedded into the data. The method introduced in this paper is rapid, efficient, and very useful for treating the risk factors for the severity of orthodontic root resorption.

  20. Hydroxychloroquine affects bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Tim; Zillikens, M Carola; Schreuders-Koedam, Marijke; Vis, Marijn; Lam, Wai-Kwan; Weel, Angelique E A M; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; van Hagen, P Martin; van der Eerden, Bram C J; van Daele, Paul L A

    2018-02-01

    We recently showed that patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) have significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) compared to healthy controls. The majority of those patients (69%) was using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which may have favorable effects on BMD. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether HCQ modulates osteoclast function. Osteoclasts were cultured from PBMC-sorted monocytes for 14 days and treated with different HCQ doses (controls 1 and 5 μg/ml). TRAP staining and resorption assays were performed to evaluate osteoclast differentiation and activity, respectively. Staining with an acidification marker (acridine orange) was performed to evaluate intracellular pH at multiple timepoints. Additionally, a fluorescent cholesterol uptake assay was performed to evaluate cholesterol trafficking. Serum bone resorption marker β-CTx was evaluated in rheumatoid arthritis patients. HCQ inhibits the formation of multinuclear osteoclasts and leads to decreased bone resorption. Continuous HCQ treatment significantly decreases intracellular pH and significantly enhanced cholesterol uptake in mature osteoclasts along with increased expression of the lowdensity lipoprotein receptor. Serum β-CTx was significantly decreased after 6 months of HCQ treatment. In agreement with our clinical data, we demonstrate that HCQ suppresses bone resorption in vitro and decreases the resorption marker β-CTx in vivo. We also showed that HCQ decreases the intracellular pH in mature osteoclasts and stimulates cholesterol uptake, suggesting that HCQ induces osteoclastic lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) leading to decreased resorption without changes in apoptosis. We hypothesize that skeletal health of patients with increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures may benefit from HCQ by preventing BMD loss. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The effect of ovalbumin on orthodontic induced root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinagha Aghili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This randomized trial was undertaken to investigate the effect of experimentally induced allergy on orthodontic induced root resorption. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Wistar rats were divided randomly into test and control groups. Starting from the first 3 days, the rats in the test group were injected intra-peritoneally by 2 mg ovalbumin as allergen and 0.5 mg Alume as adjuvant. Afterward only allergen was injected once a week. The control group was injected by normal saline. After 21 days, Wistar immunoglobulin E was measured and peripheral matured eosinophil was counted. A total of 50 g nickel-titanium closed coil spring was ligated between right incisor and first molar. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days. The mesial root of the right and left first molar was dissected in a horizontal plane. The specimens were divided into four groups considering whether force and/or ovalbumin was applied or not. Root resorption was measured and compared among these groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Bonferoni tests were used to analyze the data. The level of significance was determined at 0.05. Results: In general, the differences were insignificant (P > 0.05. As the only exception, the group in which both ovalbumin and force were applied had significantly more root resorption than the group in which neither force nor ovalbumin was applied (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Allergy may increase the susceptibility to root resorption. Application of light force, periodical monitoring of root resorption and control of allergy are advisable.

  2. Evaluation of intracerebral hematoma resorption dynamics with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzesniewski, P.; Lasek, W.; Serafin, Z.; Ksiazkiewicz, B.; Wanat-Slupska, E.

    2004-01-01

    High mortality and severe grade of disability observed in patients after intracerebral hemorrhage provide efforts to improve diagnostics and therapy of the hemorrhagic cerebral stroke. An aim of this paper was an evaluation of blood resorption dynamics in patients with intracerebral hematoma, performed with computed tomography of the head and an analysis of clinical significance of this process. An examined group included 133 patients with intracerebral hematoma proven by a CT exam. In 97 patients resorption of the hematoma was measured, based on control scans taken on 15 th and 30 th day on average. Volume of the hemorrhagic foci was measured as well as the width of ventricles and the displacement of medial structures. The mean hematoma volume reached 11,59 ml after 15 days, and 3,16 m after 30 days (average decrease of the volume 0,67 ml/day). There was a significant difference in the rate of resorption between the first (0-15 days) and the second (15-30 days) observation period - 0,78 and 0,62 ml/day respectively. The dynamics of the process was dependent on volume and localization of the hematoma and independent of the grade of displacement and compression of the ventricles. The calculated mean rate of the hematomas resorption enables to schedule control examinations precisely. The significant differences of the dynamics of blood resorption depending on hematomas size and the independence of compression and displacement of ventricular system suggest, that the most important factor in therapeutic decision-making should be a clinical status of the patient. (author)

  3. Changes in mineralised tissue at the site of origin of condylar fracture are present before athletic training in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, E C; Doube, M; Boyde, A

    2009-10-01

    To show that changes are present at the site of origin of metacarpal condylar fracture in young Thoroughbred horses before they enter race training. Bone slices, 2 mm thick, in three mediolateral planes through the centre of rotation of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint (MCPJ) of both distal third metacarpal bones (Mc3) of 12 Thoroughbred horses aged 17 months, were imaged using point-projection digital X-ray imaging (muXR). In some horses, linear or ovoid radiolucency was found in articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone of the palmaro-distal aspect of the sagittal groove, exactly at the site of more advanced stages of condylar fatigue fracture. An incidental finding was ovoid radiolucency in the apex of the dorso-distal aspect of the sagittal ridge, with or without fragmentation or disturbance of the subchondral mineralised tissue line, resembling equine osteochondrosis. The findings imply that the aetiology of condylar fatigue fracture in young Thoroughbred horses includes abnormality in development of the bone and joint that is present before athletic activity occurs.

  4. Condylectomy and "surgery first" approach: An expedited treatment for condylar hyperplasia in a patient with facial asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Diego Fernando; Aristizábal, Juan Fernando; Martínez-Smit, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Condylar Hyperplasia (CH) is a self-limiting pathology condition that produces severe facial deformity at the expense of mandibular asymmetry. In this case report a 15-year-old female patient was diagnosed with Unilateral Condylar Hiperplasia (UCH) by mean of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and histological study. A high condylectomy in the right condyle was performed to stop the active status of the hyperplasia. A month after condylectomy, orthognathic jaw impaction and asymmetric mandibular setback surgery was performed with the Surgery First Approach (SFA). After 10 days, orthodontic appointments were made every two weeks during 4 months. The active phase of treatment lasted 14 months. Excellent facial and occlusal outcomes were obtained and after 24 months in retention the results remained stable.

  5. Correction of rabbit model with mandibular ramus shortening by distraction osteogenesis at condylar neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinggong; Yang, Xuewen; Long, Xing; Li, Jian; Cai, Hengxing

    2012-04-01

    The rabbit model has been established to mimic the effect of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthroplasty of ankylosis, and distraction at the level of the condylar neck is used to elongate the ascending ramus. The histomorphologic changes of TMJ and distraction gap were investigated. The unilateral condyles and articular discs were extirpated, and the experimental mandibular rami were shortened by 5 mm. An embedded distracter was used to restore the height of the mandibular ramus by unilateral condylar neck distraction (0.8 mm daily for 7 days). A total of 12 adult white rabbits were used, 8 in the experimental group and 4 in the control group. Of the 8 rabbits in the experimental group, 4 each were killed at 4 and 8 weeks after completion of distraction. The TMJ and distracted calluses were harvested and processed for radiographic and histologic examination. An open bite was seen in all rabbits postoperatively that had diminished at the end of distraction. The newly formed condyles radiologically showed remodeling, flattening, and sclerosis. The bony transport disc had gradually remodeled to a new condyle that was similar to the original condyle in appearance and structure. The surface of the transport disc was covered with a fibrous tissue. Moreover, the bony regeneration was perfect in the distraction gap. These results suggest that distraction osteogenesis at the condylar neck using the traditional preauricular approach of TMJ surgery, without the additional incision, can be performed concurrently with arthroplasty of TMJ ankylosis at the same region. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Linking Global Patterns of Nitrogen Resorption with Nitrogen Mineralization During Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M.; Liu, L.; Jiang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle in terrestrial ecosystems is strongly influenced by resorption prior to litter fall and by mineralization after litter fall. Although both resorption and mineralization make N available to plants and are influenced by climate, their linkage in a changing environment remains largely unknown. Here, we show that, at the global scale, increasing N resorption efficiency has a negative effect on the N mineralization rate. With increasing temperature and precipitation, the increasing rate of the N cycle is closely related to the shift from the more conservative resorption pathway to an acquiring mineralization pathway. Furthermore, systems with faster N-cycle rates support plants with higher foliar N:P ratios and microbes with lower fungi:bacteria ratios. We highlight the importance of considering the geographic pattern and the dynamic interaction between N resorption and N mineralization, which should be incorporated into earth-system models to improve the simulation of nutrient constraints on ecosystem productivity.

  7. A cone-beam computed tomography study of orthodontic apical root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hong Yu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Results show that larger tooth movement after orthodontic treatment may be associated with increased severity of root resorption. This study has demonstrated that CBCT is a useful approach for evaluating apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  8. The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment

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    Nimeri G

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghada Nimeri, Chung H Kau, Rachel Corona, Jeffery Shelly Department of Orthodontics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm2 continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little's Irregularity Index (>2 mm in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little's Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little's Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected. Keywords: photobiomodulation, root resorption, accelerate tooth movement, orthodontics, cone beam computed tomography

  9. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  10. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Hoa; Cho, Bong-Hae

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  11. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  12. Transoral open reduction and fixation of mandibular condylar base and neck fractures in children and young teenagers--a beneficial treatment option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Sebastian; Mayer, Peter; Probst, Florian; Otto, Sven; Cornelius, Carl-Peter

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the possible benefits of open surgery, endoscopically assisted reduction and fixation using a transoral route was used in a selected series of pediatric patients with displaced condylar base and neck fractures. A cohort of 6 patients (1 male and 5 female; age range, 7 to 15 yr; mean, 13.4 yr) with displaced condylar base and neck fractures (n = 9) were included. Inclusion criteria were age younger than 16 years, fracture of the condylar base or neck, and displacement of the fracture by at least 45°. Fractures were classified using conventional radiography, cone-beam computed tomography, or computed tomography. Patients underwent transoral endoscopically assisted open reduction and fixation using miniplate osteosynthesis. Postoperatively, patients were followed clinically and radiographically for 18 months. Complete follow-up varied from 18 to 35 months (median, 24.5 months). All patients showed normal occlusion and pain-free unrestricted function of the temporomandibular joint at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. There were no signs of incomplete remodeling or deformation of the condyles. Transoral endoscopically assisted surgical treatment of severely displaced condylar base and neck fractures in children and young teenagers offers a reliable solution to preclude the sequelae of closed treatment, such as altered morphology and functional disturbances, eliminates visible scars, and lowers the risk of facial nerve damage compared with open reduction using an extraoral approach. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conservative approach of condylar fracture in a child by the use of rubber elastics: 7-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noleto, José Wilson; Leão, Ellen Inácio; Braga, Cícero Luis; Yang, Sérgio; Sardow, Aline

    2011-01-01

    Condylar fractures in pediatric patients occur frequently, often with minimal pain and discomfort. Thus, these fractures in children are overlooked during emergency care. Condylar fractures can be treated conservatively or by open reduction. As a rule, very good healing results are achieved by conservative treatment. In these cases, jaw function restoration using physiotherapy at an early stage can prevent complications such as asymmetry, interference in the facial growth, and ankylosis. The purpose of this case report was to discuss the peculiarities of treatment of mandibular condyle fractures in pediatric patients and report a case in which the condyles were successfully treated conservatively in a 10-year-old patient. The case was followed up for seven years.

  14. Evaluation of posterior lateral femoral condylar hypoplasia using axial MRI images in patients with complete discoid meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Dongyang; Shi, Dongquan; Dai, Jin; Yao, Yao; Jiang, Qing

    2016-03-01

    Hypoplasia of the lateral femoral condyle has been reported in discoid lateral meniscus patients, but associated imaging findings in the axial plane have not been characterized. In this study, we aimed to identify differences in the lateral femoral condyle between patients with discoid lateral meniscus and those with normal menisci using axial MRI images. Twenty-three patients (24 knees) with complete discoid lateral meniscus, 43 (45 knees) with incomplete discoid lateral meniscus, and 50 with normal menisci (50 knees) were enrolled and distributed into three groups. Two new angles, posterior lateral condylar angle (PLCA) and posterior medial condylar angle (PMCA), were measured on axial MRI images; the posterior condylar angle (PCA) was also measured. Differences between the three groups in the PLCA, PMCA, PCA, and PLCA/PMCA were analysed. The predictive value of PLCA and PLCA/PMCA for complete discoid lateral meniscus was assessed. In the complete discoid lateral meniscus group, PLCA and PLCA/PMCA were significantly smaller compared with the normal meniscus group and the incomplete discoid lateral meniscus group (P meniscus group compared with the incomplete discoid lateral meniscus group (P meniscus group (P meniscus. Hypoplasia of the posterior lateral femoral condyle is typically seen in patients with complete discoid lateral meniscus. PLCA and PLCA/PMCA can be measured from axial MRI images and used as excellent predictive parameters for complete discoid lateral meniscus. Diagnostic study, Level III.

  15. Identification of orthodontic patients at risk of severe apical root resorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artun, J.; Hullenaar, R. Van 't; Doppel, D.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current information suggests that the major variation in orthodontic root resorption can be explained by differences in individual predisposition. Our aim was therefore to test the predictive value of the amount of maxillary incisor resorption about 6 and 12 months after bracket

  16. Lithium chloride attenuates root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gao, Shang; Jiang, Huan; Lin, Peng; Bao, Xingfu; Zhang, Zhimin; Hu, Min

    2014-02-01

    Root resorption is a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. In the current study, lithium chloride (LiCl), a Wnt signaling activator, was examined to determine its effect on root resorption. In total, 10 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). Each group consisted of five subjects. By using closed nickel-titanium coil springs, a 50-g force was applied between the upper incisors and the maxillary right first molars in order to mimic orthodontic biomechanics in the EG and CG for 14 days. During the 14 days, the EG rats were gavage-fed 200 mg/kg LiCl every 48 h. Next, digital radiographs were captured using a micro-computational tomography scanner. The movement of the maxillary first molars and the root resorption area ratio were measured electronically on the digital radiographs. The outcomes were analyzed using ANOVA. Following 14 days of experimental force application, all rats had spaces of varying sizes between the first and second right maxillary molars. The average distance measured in the CG was slightly higher than in the EG, however, the difference was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.224). Root resorption craters were observed in the groups following the experiment. Rough cementum areas were observed on the mesial surface of the distobuccal and distopalatal roots. The mean root resorption area ratio of CG was significantly greater than EG (Porthodontically induce root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The effect of LiCl on tooth movement is insignificant.

  17. Identification of A Novel Root Resorptive Function of Osteopontin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Seifi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Osteopontin (OPN has been proposed to play a role in bone resorption. With regard to bone and cementum/dentin structural and histological similarities, it was hy-pothesized that expression of this gene might be increased in resorptive lacunae during orthodontic tooth movement.Materials and Methods: Fixed Nickel-Titanium closed coil springs (Dentaurum® capa-ble of delivering approximately 60 gf were applied for mesial movement of maxillary left first molars in 26 male 8-week-old Wistar rats. The right maxillary molar served as inter-nal control for each subject. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed. Tissues from 13 rats were examined by histomorphometric analysis and the scratched material from resorptive lacunae on mesial sides of the roots was used for extracting messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA in RT-PCR reactions. T-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test served for statistical analyses.Results: Histomorphometric analysis of histologic sections revealed an increased resorbed area in test group compared to control animals (P<0.001. The integrity of mRNA con-firmed by RT-PCR for housekeeping gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH. Densitometric analysis of OPN mRNA on electrophoresis gel showed an in-crease in background levels of OPN in resorptive lacunae of test group (P<0.001.Conclusion: Data indicates that in the controlled environment of this study, an increase in OPN expression is associated with root resorption induced by orthodontic tooth move-ment.

  18. Relationship between dental anomalies and orthodontic root resorption of upper incisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Parys, K.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Kuitert, R.; Zentner, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between the occurrence of orthodontic root resorption and presence of dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis and pipette-shaped roots. Dental anomalies and root resorption were assessed on dental panoramic tomographs (DPT) of 88

  19. Cervical external root resorption: 3-year follow-up of a case.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolidakis, D.; Nikou, G.; Meijer, G.J.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cervical external root resorption can be present in natural teeth, involving one or more teeth in the same patient. The incidence of these lesions appears random and the etiology remains unclear. Cervical external root resorption has been considered a difficult clinical situation, and its diagnosis

  20. Effect of Nonviral Plasmid Delivered Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Mandibular Condylar Growth: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF is an important regulator of tissue growth. Previous studies have shown that low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS stimulates bone growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible synergetic effect of LIPUS and local injection of nonviral bFGF plasmid DNA (pDNA on mandibular growth in rats. Design. Groups were control, blank pDNA, bFGF pDNA, LIPUS, and bFGF pDNA + LIPUS. Treatments were performed for 28 days. Significant increase was observed in mandibular height and condylar length in LIPUS groups. MicroCT analysis showed significant increase in bone volume fraction in bFGF pDNA + LIPUS group. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased cell count and condylar proliferative and hypertrophic layers widths in bFGF pDNA group. Results. Current study showed increased mandibular condylar growth in either bFGF pDNA or LIPUS groups compared to the combined group that showed only increased bone volume fraction. Conclusion. It appears that there is an additive effect of bFGF + LIPUS on the mandibular growth.

  1. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARTZ, João Paulo; RAVELI, Taísa Boamorte; ALMEIDA, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; SCHWARTZ-FILHO, Humberto Osvaldo; RAVELI, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance. PMID:26537718

  2. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo SCHWARTZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%.Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders.Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  3. Concomitant Suppurative Parotitis and Condylar Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorrasi, John; Zinberg, Geoffrey

    2017-03-01

    Parotitis is a common occurrence in the immunocompromised, dehydrated, and malnourished patient as a result of dysfunctional ductal and parotid cells. Inflammation can be acute or chronic based on clinical history, and it can be suppurative based on the presence of micro or macro abscess formation within the substance of the gland. This report presents a case of concomitant condylar osteomyelitis and chronic suppurative parotitis in the setting of previous methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus foot infection. Ultimately, resection of osteomyelitis, drainage of parotid infection, and intravenous antibiotic therapy led to full resolution of the infection and symptoms. The final pathology of osteomyelitis of the temporomandibular joint and methicillin-resistant S aureus infection is an unusual consequence of chronic parotitis. The patient was restored with a total joint replacement approximately 3 months after resection with no recurrence of infection after 24 months. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Condylectomy and “surgery first” approach: An expedited treatment for condylar hyperplasia in a patient with facial asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Diego Fernando; Aristizábal, Juan Fernando; Martínez-Smit, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Condylar Hyperplasia (CH) is a self-limiting pathology condition that produces severe facial deformity at the expense of mandibular asymmetry. In this case report a 15-year-old female patient was diagnosed with Unilateral Condylar Hiperplasia (UCH) by mean of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and histological study. A high condylectomy in the right condyle was performed to stop the active status of the hyperplasia. A month after condylectomy, orthognathic jaw impaction and asymmetric mandibular setback surgery was performed with the Surgery First Approach (SFA). After 10 days, orthodontic appointments were made every two weeks during 4 months. The active phase of treatment lasted 14 months. Excellent facial and occlusal outcomes were obtained and after 24 months in retention the results remained stable. PMID:28902254

  5. Custom total knee replacement in a dog with femoral condylar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, William D; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Eskelinen, Esa V; Sidebotham, Christopher G; Harrysson, Ola L A; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K

    2007-06-01

    To report surgical planning, technique, and outcome of custom total knee replacement (TKR) performed to manage a medial femoral condylar nonunion in a dog. Clinical case report. A 3-year-old, 20 kg Karelian Bear Hound. Computed tomographic scan of the left pelvic limb was used to build a stereolithography model of the distal portion of the femur. The model was used to create a custom augment to replace the missing medial femoral condyle and a custom stem for intramedullary condylar cemented fixation. The augment and stem were adapted to femoral and tibial components already available. The model was used to rehearse the surgery and then the custom prosthesis was implanted. Weight bearing returned 8 hours after surgery and improved thereafter. Joint alignment was normal and prosthetic joint motion was 60-165 degrees postoperatively. The dog resumed moose hunting 3 months after surgery. Peak vertical force and impulse of the operated limb measured 17 months after surgery were 65% and 47% of the normal, contralateral limb. Based on short-term follow-up, cemented canine TKR was successfully achieved for management of a severely abnormal stifle joint. With further refinement and development of commercially available prostheses, TKR should be possible for canine patients.

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, José Luis

    2005-01-01

    In tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree's nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. Perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. The aim of the study was to analyse N and P resorption proficiency from tropical rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. It was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. The soil concentrations of total N and extractable P, among other physical and chemical characteristics, were analysed in 30 samples in the soil surface (10 cm) of three undisturbed forest plots at 'Estaci6n de Biologia Los Tuxtlas' on the east coast of Mexico (18 degrees 34' - 18 degrees 36' N, 95 degrees 04' - 95 degrees 09' W). N and P resorption proficiency were determined from senescing leaves in 11 dominant tree species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid. Soil was rich in total N (0.50%, n = 30) and extractable P (4.11 microg g(-1) n = 30). As expected, trees showed incomplete N (1.13%, n = 11) and P (0.11%, n = 1) resorption. With a more accurate method of nutrient resorption assessment, it is possible to prove that a forest community with a nutrient-rich soil can have low levels of N and P resorption.

  7. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Ekinci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is called idiopathic when no other underlying disease can be identified. The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is still unknown despite many years of research effort. Theories on AIS's etiology have included mechanical, hormonal, metabolic, neuromuscular, growth, and genetic abnormalities. Skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are at risk of curve progression. The adolescent onset of severe idiopathic scoliosis has traditionally been evaluated using standing posteroanterior radiographs of the full spine to assess lateral curvature with the Cobb method. Scoliosis in children of school age and above primarily occurs in girls. The therapeutic goal in children is to prevent progression. In children, scoliosis of 20 and deg; or more should be treated with a brace, and scoliosis of 45 and deg; or more with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 174-182

  8. THE MANAGEMENT OF LIMITED MANDIBULAR MOVEMENT CAUSED BY CONDYLAR FRACTURE WITH REPOSITIONING SPLINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Tanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the neck of condyle usually are the result of a blow to the mandible. A lateral blow to the body of the mandible commonly causes a contralateral condyle fracture. There are many signs and symptoms of a condylar fracture, for example crepitation, deviation of the mandible to the side of injury, and spasm of the associated group of muscles. These will result in a functional disability, which is usually seen as a limited mandibular movement. This paper reported a patient with a fracture of the condylar neck. Patient had been treated with closed reduction and immobilization for 2 months. After that, she felt that her bite was changed, she could not occlude her teeth well, and she had clicking sound in the right joint when she opened her mouth. Besides that, patient had difficulties to move the mandible to the left side, and she could not open her mouth widely. The patient was treated with a repositioning splint and she had to do some jaw exercises. The purposes were to regain the position of condyle, to reduce the muscle spasm and finally got the normal jaw movement.

  9. [Topographological-anatomic changes in the structure of temporo-mandibular joint in case of fracture of the mandible condylar process at cervical level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, S I; Bazhenov, D V; Semkin, V A

    2011-01-01

    Pathological changes in soft tissues surrounding the fracture site as well as in the structural elements of temporo-mandibular joint always occured in condylar process fracture with shift at cervical mandibular jaw level. Other changes were also seen in the joint on the opposite normal side. Modelling of condylar process fracture at mandibular cervical level by means of three-dimensional computer model of temporo-mandibular joint contributed to proper understanding of this pathology emergence as well as to prediction and elimination of disorders arising in adjacent to the fracture site tissues.

  10. Acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment provides insight into the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, M.A.; Henriksen, K.; Sorensen, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with defective osteoclastic acidification have increased numbers of osteoclasts, with decreased resorption, but bone formation that remains unchanged. We demonstrate that osteoclast survival is increased when acidification is impaired, and that impairment of acidification results in inhi...

  11. Modified endaural approach for the treatment of condylar fractures: A review of 75 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Surgery for mandibular condyle fractures with modified approach allows direct vision of the fracture and reduces surgical trauma to the site while avoiding permanent facial nerve injury. Hence, the author's modified Al-Kayat Bramley incision via endaural approach could be considered as the best approach for open reduction and internal fixation of condylar neck and subcondylar mandibular fractures.

  12. The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimeri, Ghada; Kau, Chung H; Corona, Rachel; Shelly, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm(2) continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little's Irregularity Index (>2 mm) in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little's Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little's Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected.

  13. The early magnetic resonance imaging features of the knee in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karl; Wittkop, Berndt; Haigh, Fiona; Ryder, Clive; Gardner-Medwin, Janet M.

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Early diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) facilitates earlier more aggressive therapy, and improved outcome. Recognition of the features of early, untreated JIA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will improve disease detection and expedite treatment. This study aims to highlight the relevant MRI features. METHODS: MRI examinations of the knee joint were performed on 11 children with clinically confirmed, early, untreated JIA. The MRI images were obtained at a mean of 2 months after symptom onset and independently evaluated by two consultant paediatric radiologists. RESULTS: Abnormalities were found on all MRI examinations. Synovial hypertrophy, joint effusions, popliteal lymph nodes and soft tissue swelling were present in all patients. Gadolinium DTPA enhancement improved the detection of synovial hyperplasia. Metaphyseal splaying and condylar overgrowth were seen in five cases (41%), oedema of the lateral collateral ligament in two cases (18%) and superficial cartilage thinning in one case. Bony erosions and deep cartilage destruction were not demonstrated. CONCLUSION: MRI of the knee joint identifies early joint changes which are distinct from those in later disease. The presence of these features should alert the radiologist to the possible diagnosis of JIA and post gadolinium DTPA sequences should be performed. Gadolinium DPTA enhancement increases the sensitivity for the detection of inflammatory changes in JIA. Johnson, K. et al. (2002)

  14. Quantitative analysis by MRI on condylar motion of the temporomandibular joint in patients applied with occlusal splints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroki

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of a newly developed quantitative motion analysis method for the mandibular condyle before and after application of occlusal splints. The subjects were 50 consecutive patients with internal derangement. Stabilization type splints were applied in 23 cases (46%), anterior repositioning type in 18 cases (36%) and pivot type in 9 cases (18%). All patients underwent MR imaging with a 1.5-T MR unit with a 3-inch dual surface coil. Pseudodynamic MR study of the opening cycle was obtained using multiplanar GRASS sequence (MPGR). Incremental and decremental sagittal MR images before and after splint application were transferred to the workstation. Software originally developed by Nakasato and Katsuragawa was used to analyze the condylar motion and path. After splint application, normalized position of displaced discs was seen in 11 cases (22%), and occurred most frequently with anterior repositioning type splints. In patients with anterior repositioning type splints, improvement in the condylar motion was most significant, In patients with normalized disc position after application of occlusal splints, abnormal figure-eight-shaped'' condylar paths were corrected in 9 of 10 cases. In the case with normalized disc position after application of anterior repositioning splint, the maximum rotational angle before application of the splint is larger than that of the case without normalized disc position. Rotational function of the condyle in the inferior joint space may be associated with disc recapturing. (K.H.)

  15. Accuracy of volumetric measurement of simulated root resorption lacunas based on cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; He, S; Guo, Y; Wang, S; Chen, S

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of volumetric measurement of simulated root resorption cavities based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), in comparison with that of Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) which served as the reference. The State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases at Sichuan University. Thirty-two bovine teeth were included for standardized CBCT scanning and Micro-CT scanning before and after the simulation of different degrees of root resorption. The teeth were divided into three groups according to the depths of the root resorption cavity (group 1: 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 mm; group 2: 0.6, 1.0 mm; group 3: 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 mm). Each depth included four specimens. Differences in tooth volume before and after simulated root resorption were then calculated from CBCT and Micro-CT scans, respectively. The overall between-method agreement of the measurements was evaluated using the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). For the first group, the average volume of resorption cavity was 1.07 mm(3) , and the between-method agreement of measurement for the volume changes was low (CCC = 0.098). For the second and third groups, the average volumes of resorption cavities were 3.47 and 6.73 mm(3) respectively, and the between-method agreements were good (CCC = 0.828 and 0.895, respectively). The accuracy of 3-D quantitative volumetric measurement of simulated root resorption based on CBCT was fairly good in detecting simulated resorption cavities larger than 3.47 mm(3), while it was not sufficient for measuring resorption cavities smaller than 1.07 mm(3) . This method could be applied in future studies of root resorption although further studies are required to improve its accuracy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparison of Australian and American orthodontic clinical approaches towards root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Elaine; Sameshima, Glenn; Petocz, Peter; Darendeliler, Ali

    2012-11-01

    As part of The Rocky Mountain Travelling Fellowship, a pilot survey was conducted to assess current diagnostic and clinical approaches to the management of orthodontic patients in relation to root resorption. Groups comprising Australians (Sydney, New South Wales) and North Americans (Los Angeles, California), in two stages of their orthodontic careers (post-graduate orthodontic students from the University of Sydney and University of Southern California and qualified practising orthodontists) were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questions examined diagnosis and management approaches related to root resorption used in their clinical practice. Replies demonstrated that there were differences in management depending on operator experience and the country of clinical practice. However, a summarised common approach to orthodontic root resorption comprised (1) the use of an orthopantomogram as a screening diagnostic tool, followed by periapical radiographs for those perceived as 'higher risk' patients, particularly individuals with a history of root resorption; (2) a six monthly radiographic review during treatment; (3) the use of light forces and/or rest periods (discontinuous forces) every two to three months; (4) the extraction of deciduous teeth if permanent successors were erupting ectopically and causing damage to adjacent root structures; and (5) the use of fixed retention after treatment. This project was intended to initiate discussion and form a basis for further investigation into the clinical management of orthodontic root resorption.

  17. Condylectomy and “surgery first” approach: An expedited treatment for condylar hyperplasia in a patient with facial asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando López

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Condylar Hyperplasia (CH is a self-limiting pathology condition that produces severe facial deformity at the expense of mandibular asymmetry. In this case report a 15-year-old female patient was diagnosed with Unilateral Condylar Hiperplasia (UCH by mean of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and histological study. A high condylectomy in the right condyle was performed to stop the active status of the hyperplasia. A month after condylectomy, orthognathic jaw impaction and asymmetric mandibular setback surgery was performed with the Surgery First Approach (SFA. After 10 days, orthodontic appointments were made every two weeks during 4 months. The active phase of treatment lasted 14 months. Excellent facial and occlusal outcomes were obtained and after 24 months in retention the results remained stable.

  18. Apical root resorption 6 months after initiation of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smale, I.M.; Artun, J.; Behbehani, F.; Doppel, D.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individual predisposition might be a major reason for the observed variation in apical orthodontic root resorption. If so, resorption might be expressed during the initial stages of orthodontic therapy in patients at risk. METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we evaluated standardized,

  19. A clinical evaluation of a headless, titanium, variable-pitched, tapered, compression screw for repair of nondisplaced lateral condylar fractures in thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuppo, Larry D; Simpson, Edwin L; Greenman, Sylvia L; Dowd, Joseph P; Ferraro, Gregory L; Meagher, Dennis M

    2006-07-01

    To report clinical evaluation of headless compression screws for repair of metacarpal/metatarsal (MC/MT3) condylar fractures in horses. Retrospective case study. Racing Thoroughbreds (n=16) with nondisplaced lateral condylar fractures of MC/MT 3. Medical records (1999-2004) of horses with nondisplaced longitudinal fractures of the lateral condyle of MC/MT3 were reviewed. Pre-operative variables retrieved were: patient age, gender, limb involvement, injury occurrence, fracture length, and width, evidence of palmar comminution and degenerative joint disease, number of pre-injury starts, and pre-injury earnings. Post-operative variables retrieved were: surgical complications, surgical time, number of race starts, and post-operative earnings. MC3 (n=11) and MT3 (5) nondisplaced longitudinal fractures of the lateral condyle were repaired with Acutrak Equine (AE) screws. Left front limb fractures were most common (8) followed by left hind (5) and right front (3). Nine fractures occurred during training and 7 during racing; 4 fractures had palmar comminution. No surgical complications occurred. Of 15 horses that returned to training, 11 (73%) raced 306+/-67 days after injury and had greater mean (+/-SD) post-injury earnings/start ($5290.00+/-$8124.00) than pre-injury ($4971.00+/-$2842.00). Screw removal was not required in any horse. The AE screw is a viable option for repair of nondisplaced lateral condylar MC/MT3 fractures in Thoroughbred racehorses. Adequate stability of nondisplaced lateral condylar fractures can be achieved with a headless tapered compression screw while avoiding impingement on the collateral ligaments and joint capsule of the fetlock joint.

  20. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.; Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women. (orig.)

  1. Root resorption of permanent incisors during three months of active orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Iffat; Abbas, Hasnain; Abbas, Assad; Abbas, Iram

    2010-01-01

    Root resorption is one of the most common and undesirable sequelea of orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of root resorption in permanent incisors during 3 month active period of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy using periapical radiographs. Periapical radiographs of a total of 138 permanent teeth (n = 138, mandibular n1 = 52, maxillary n2 = 86) were evaluated for root resorption. All patients were treated with 3M MBT multi-bonded, pre-adjusted appliances with 0.022 inch slots. Initial levelling and alignment was achieved with 0.0175 inch co-axial wires. All four incisors (maxillary and mandibular) were measured for any change in root length. The change in root length between T0 (pre-treatment) and T1 (post-treatment) was measured in millimetres and expressed in terms of percentage of original root length. The mean pre treatment (T0) root length for the maxillary teeth (n1 = 62) was 19.27 +/- 2.86 mm and 20.01 +/- 2.57 mm for the mandibular teeth (n2 = 31). The post-treatment (T1) root length for the maxillary teeth was 18.96 +/- 2.85 mm and 19.49 +/- 2.4 mm for the mandibular teeth showing a mean resorption of 0.31 mm and 0.52 mm for the maxillary and mandibular teeth respectively. Root resorption was strongly correlated with active orthodontic appliance therapy with maxillary and mandibular incisors being most susceptible. It was found that root resorption can be detected even in the early levelling and alignment stages of orthodontic treatment.

  2. Management of External Invasive Cervical Resorption Tooth with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja Ikhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is entirely uncommon entities and the etiology is poorly understood. A 19 year old patient presented with fractured upper left central incisor and sinus tract opening on the distobuccal aspect in cervical region. Radiographic examination shows irregular radiolucency over the coronal one-third and it extended externally towards the external invasive resorption. After sectional obturation, the defect was accessed surgically. The resorption area was chemomechanically debrided using irrigant solution. Fibre post placement using flowable composite resin and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA was used to fill the resorptive defect, and the coronal access was temporarily sealed. Composite restoration was subsequently replaced with ceramic crown after 4 years. Radiographs at 1 and 4 years showed adequate repair of the resorption and endodontic success. Clinically and radiographically the tooth was asymptomatic, and no periodontal pocket was found after a 4-year followup.

  3. External root resorption with the self-ligating Damon system—a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Heiffig Handem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the degree of external apical root resorption (EARR in patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances and with conventional preadjusted appliances. Methods The sample comprised 52 patients, divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances, with an initial age of 16.04 years, final age of 18.06 years, and treatment time of 2.02 years. Group 2 consisted of 27 patients, treated with conventional preadjusted appliances, with an initial age of 16.77 years, final age of 18.47 years and treatment time of 1.70 years. The groups were matched regarding the initial and final ages, treatment time, type of malocclusion, and treatment protocol without extractions. Root resorption was evaluated on periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular incisors at the end of orthodontic treatment with the scores of Levander and Malmgren. Intergroup comparisons of root resorption were performed with Mann-Whitney tests. Results No significant difference in the degree of root resorption between the two groups was found. Conclusions Similar degrees of resorption can be expected after non-extraction treatment with Damon self-ligating or conventional preadjusted appliances.

  4. External root resorption with the self-ligating Damon system-a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handem, Roberta Heiffig; Janson, Guilherme; Matias, Murilo; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; de Lima, Darwin Vaz; Garib, Daniela Gamba; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the degree of external apical root resorption (EARR) in patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances and with conventional preadjusted appliances. The sample comprised 52 patients, divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances, with an initial age of 16.04 years, final age of 18.06 years, and treatment time of 2.02 years. Group 2 consisted of 27 patients, treated with conventional preadjusted appliances, with an initial age of 16.77 years, final age of 18.47 years and treatment time of 1.70 years. The groups were matched regarding the initial and final ages, treatment time, type of malocclusion, and treatment protocol without extractions. Root resorption was evaluated on periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular incisors at the end of orthodontic treatment with the scores of Levander and Malmgren. Intergroup comparisons of root resorption were performed with Mann-Whitney tests. No significant difference in the degree of root resorption between the two groups was found. Similar degrees of resorption can be expected after non-extraction treatment with Damon self-ligating or conventional preadjusted appliances.

  5. Idiopathic Retroperitoneal Hematoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6. Stewart BT, McLaughlin SJ, Thompson GA. Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage:a general surgeon's perspective. Aust N. Z J Surg 1998;68:371-3. Monib, et al.: Idiopathic retroperitoneal hematoma. How to cite this article: Monib S, Ritchie A, Thabet E. Idiopathic retroperitoneal hematoma. J Surg Tech Case Report ...

  6. A comparative study of the detectability of TMJ radiographic techniques for artificial mandibular condylar lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hee Jeong; Jung, Yeon Hwa; Cho, Bong Hae

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detectability of various radiographic techniques for mandibular condylar lesions. Erosive lesion, osteophyte and flattening were formed on the artificial mandibular condyle, and panoramic, transcranial, transorbital radiography, lateral and frontal tomography were taken. The results were as follows; 1. The detectability for erosive lesions was superior in the order of frontal tomography (96%), lateral tomography (78%), transorbital (59%), transcranial (56%) and panoramic (48%) radiography. 2. The location of erosive lesion that showed the highest detectability was the medial third in panoramic, the lateral third in transcranial, the central portion of anteroposterior direction in transorbital, the central portion of mediolateral direction and the posterior third in lateral tomography. Frontal tomography disclosed all erosive lesions except one anterolateral lesion. 3. The detectability of osteophyte was 100% in lateral tomography, 78% in transcranial and 56% in panoramic radiography. 4. For flattening, lateral tomography showed the flattened condyle, but both panoramic and transcranial views showed only decreased bone density without the change of condylar shape.

  7. Resorption of radionuclides through the surface of thermal burns and problems of decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, L.A.; Ivannikov, A.T.; Popov, B.A.; Parfenova, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Resorption of sup(137)Cs, sup(89)Sr, sup(131)I, sup(241)Am during thermal burns of 1-3 degrees and choice of a decontamination method used simultaneously for decontamination and disinfection of burn wounds were studied. It is shown that a degree of burns effects in a certain form on skin penetrability: through burns of 1-2 degrees the resorption increases 1 5-3 times, through burns of the thir degree the resorption decreases slightly as compared to the resorption through intact skin. High efficiency of 3% soap solution for removing radionuclides from burn csurfae of skin has been established. For burns accompanied with the disturbance of epidermis integrality, when considerable absorption of radionuclides is possible, decontamination must be accomplished as soon and complete as possible [ru

  8. Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Young Choi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of condylar fractures is high,but the management of fractures of the mandibularcondyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, externalfixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonlyused in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsularor intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on theage of the patient, the co-existence of other mandibular or maxillary fractures, whether thecondylar fracture is unilateral or bilateral, the level and displacement of the fracture, thestate of dentition and dental occlusion, and the surgeonnds on the age of the patient, theco-existence of othefrom which it is difficult to recover aesthetically and functionally;anappropriate treatment is required to reconstruct the shape and achieve the function oftheuninjured status. To do this, accurate diagnosis, appropriate reduction and rigid fixation, andcomplication prevention are required. In particular, as mandibular condyle fracture may causelong-term complications such as malocclusion, particularly open bite, reduced posterior facialheight, and facial asymmetry in addition to chronic pain and mobility limitation, great cautionshould be taken. Accordingly, the authors review a general overview of condyle fracture.

  9. Influence of diphenylhydantoin on lysosomal enzyme release during bone resorption in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, U.; Haenstroem, L.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of diphenylhydantoin (DPH) on the release of lysosomal enzymes during resorption of cultured mouse calvarial bone was studied. The enzyme activities of β-glucuronidase and β-galactosidase in the culture medium was taken as indicators for lysosomal enzyme release. In concentrations 50 μg/ml or higher, DPH inhibited the release of β-glucuronidase and β-galactosidase in parallel with bone resorption as indicated by reduced release of 4 Ca, Ca 2 , Psub(i) and hydroxyproline. The release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase was not influenced by concentrations of DPH up to 50 μg/ml but higher concentrations caused an increased release indicating cell injury. When bone resorption was stimulated by prostaglandin E 2 , DPH(50 μg/ml) also reduced the mobilization of bone mineral and the release of β- glucuronidase without influencing the release of lactate dehydrogenase. It is suggested that DPH by interfering with cellular release processes reduces the resorption on bone. (author)

  10. Convergent responses of nitrogen and phosphorus resorption to nitrogen inputs in a semiarid grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Reed, Sasha; Yu, Qiang; He, Nian-Peng; Wang, Zheng-Wen; Han, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Human activities have significantly altered nitrogen (N) availability in most terrestrial ecosystems, with consequences for community composition and ecosystem functioning. Although studies of how changes in N availability affect biodiversity and community composition are relatively common, much less remains known about the effects of N inputs on the coupled biogeochemical cycling of N and phosphorus (P), and still fewer data exist regarding how increased N inputs affect the internal cycling of these two elements in plants. Nutrient resorption is an important driver of plant nutrient economies and of the quality of litter plants produce. Accordingly, resorption patterns have marked ecological implications for plant population and community fitness, as well as for ecosystem nutrient cycling. In a semiarid grassland in northern China, we studied the effects of a wide range of N inputs on foliar nutrient resorption of two dominant grasses, Leymus chinensis and Stipa grandis. After 4 years of treatments, N and P availability in soil and N and P concentrations in green and senesced grass leaves increased with increasing rates of N addition. Foliar N and P resorption significantly decreased along the N addition gradient, implying a resorption-mediated, positive plant–soil feedback induced by N inputs. Furthermore, N : P resorption ratios were negatively correlated with the rates of N addition, indicating the sensitivity of plant N and P stoichiometry to N inputs. Taken together, the results demonstrate that N additions accelerate ecosystem uptake and turnover of both N and P in the temperate steppe and that N and P cycles are coupled in dynamic ways. The convergence of N and P resorption in response to N inputs emphasizes the importance of nutrient resorption as a pathway by which plants and ecosystems adjust in the face of increasing N availability.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the ...

  12. [Maxillo-facial surgery in skeletal Class II: repercussions on the temporo-mandibular joints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manière-Ezvan, Armelle; Savoldelli, Charles; Busson, Floriant; Oueiss, Arlette; Orthlieb, Jean-Daniel

    2016-03-01

    These interventions usually aimed at the correction of the skeletal discrepancy by mandibular retrognatism with an advancement of the distal portion of the mandible after mandibular osteotomy. The position of the condyle is determined during the osteosynthesis with miniplates. Condyles are set back in relation with the supine position of the patient and the weakness of his (her) curarized muscle. All studies show that surgery of mandibular advancement causes a lateral, torque and backward movement of the condyles, all harmful to the condyles. Factors that predispose to condylar resorption are "the patient": a woman, young (between 15 and 40), high mandibular angle, with a history of temporo-mandibular disorders and surgical overload applied to the condyles. What are the possible solutions to avoid failures? Patient preparation before surgery and surgery simulation with an articulator, condylar position control during surgery, working with surgeons to achieve a condylar portion stabilization system (with the CAD), quickly set up a mobilization of the mandible by physiotherapy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2016.

  13. Cardiotonic agent milrinone stimulates resorption in rodent bone organ culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, N S; Stappenbeck, T S; Stern, P H

    1987-01-01

    The cardiotonic agent amrinone inhibits bone resorption in vitro. Milrinone, an amrinone analog, is a more potent cardiotonic agent with lower toxicity. In contrast to amrinone, milrinone stimulated resorption in cultures of neonatal mouse calvaria and fetal rat limb bones. Threshold doses were 0.1 microM in calvaria and 0.1 mM in limb bones; maximal stimulation occurred in calvaria at 0.1 mM. Maximal responses to milrinone and parathyroid hormone were comparable. Milrinone concentrations bel...

  14. Conservative Management of Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Raza Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is a condition that affects the root surface area below the epithelial attachment. Multiple treatment modalities are advocated, involving exposure of the invasive defect, removal of the granulation tissue and sealing with various restorative materials. This report demonstrates conservative treatment of a patient presenting with peri-apical periodontitis in upper right central and lateral incisors, along with Class II invasive resorption defect cervically on the mesial aspect of the central incisor, as a result of trauma. As the patient was not willing for any surgical intervention, only ortho-grade root canal treatment was carried out in both teeth, with Calcium hydroxide as intra-canal medicament. At three year follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic demonstrating radiographic evidence of infilling of defect with bone-like tissue.Within the limitations of this report, it was seen that this conservative method for halting the progression of invasive cervical resorption could be under taken in patients who are un-willing for surgical intervention or in whom surgery is contra-indicated.

  15. External apical root resorption diagnosis by using FII human dentine fraction and salivary IGg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Costa, Tânia Maris Pedrini Soares; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Consolaro, Alberto; Lima, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Tanaka, Evelise Ono; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

    2018-06-01

    External apical root resorption as a consequence of orthodontic treatment is an inflammatory pathological process that results in permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic potential of human dentine fractions and salivary IgG in external apical root resorption. Saliva samples were collected from 10 patients before (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6) and 12 (T12) months of orthodontic treatment. The total dentinal extract, obtained from human third molars, was fractioned by gel filtration chromatography in three fractions denominated FI, FII and FIII. The root resorption analysis of the upper central incisors was performed by digital image subtraction method. Reactivity of salivary IgG to antigenic fractions of dentine was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa). Regardless of treatment, FI dentin fraction with high MM (root resorptions were detected. Our results suggest that FII human dentine fraction and salivary IgG have potential to be used in diagnosis and monitoring of external apical root resorption. The development of a practical and accessible biochemical test using saliva and FII dentine fraction may help in the prevention of severe root resorption. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. The clinical study of the early soft tissue healing and marginal bone resorption after non-submerged implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Anchen; Yang Desheng; Hu Bei; Leng Bin; Zhang Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first three months after non-submerged implants and to explore the relationship between the amount of early marginal bone resorption and the soft tissue healing in the first month. Method: ITI with non-submerged implants were implanted in 33 patients. Digital panoramic radiographs were taken during the operation, one month and three months later. The amount of marginal bone resorption was measured in the first, second and the third month after implant operation. The soft tissue healing was observed after 10 days. Results: There was significant difference (P<0.01) in the amount of early marginal bone resorption between one month and three months later. The early marginal bone resorption in the first month after implantation kept correlation with the soft tissue healing on 10th day(r=0.794, P<0.01). Conclusion: The amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first month exceeds that in the second and the third months after implant operation, and the soft tissue healing affects the amount of early marginal bone resorption in the first month. Biological seal is the critical factor influencing the early marginal bone resorption. (authors)

  17. The clinical meaning of external cervical resorption in maxillary canine: transoperative dental trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available External Cervical Resorption in maxillary canines with pulp vitality is frequently associated with dental trauma resulting from surgical procedures carried out to prepare the teeth for further orthodontic traction. Preparation procedures might surgically manipulate the cementoenamel junction or cause luxation of teeth due to applying excessive force or movement tests beyond the tolerance limits of periodontal ligament and cervical tissue structures. Dentin exposure at the cementoenamel junction triggers External Cervical Resorption as a result of inflammation followed by antigen recognition of dentin proteins. External Cervical Resorption is painless, does not induce pulpitis and develops slowly. The lesion is generally associated with and covered by gingival soft tissues which disguise normal clinical aspects, thereby leading to late diagnosis when the process is near pulp threshold. Endodontic treatment is recommended only if surgical procedures are rendered necessary in the pulp space; otherwise, External Cervical Resorption should be treated by conservative means: protecting the dental pulp and restoring function and esthetics of teeth whose pulp will remain in normal conditions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of well-grounded research evincing how often External Cervical Resorption associated with canines subjected to orthodontic traction occurs.

  18. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  19. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  20. Comparison between Two Radiological Methods for Assessment of Tooth Root Resorption: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Saccomanno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aims to verify the validity of the radiographic image and the most effective radiological techniques for the diagnosis of root resorption to prevent, cure, and reduce it and to verify if radiological images can be helpful in medical and legal situations. Methods. 19 dental elements without root resorption extracted from several patients were examined: endooral and panoramic radiographs were performed, with traditional and digital methods. Then the root of each tooth was dipped into 3-4 mm of 10% nitric acid for 24 hours to simulate the resorption of the root and later submitted again to radiological examinations and measurements using the same criteria and methods. Results. For teeth with root resorption the real measurements and the values obtained with endooral techniques and digital sensors are almost the same, while image values obtained by panoramic radiographs are more distorted than the real ones. Conclusions. Panoramic radiographs are not useful for the diagnosis of root resorption. The endooral examination is, in medical and legal fields, the most valid and objective instrument to detect root resorption. Although the literature suggests that CBCT is a reliable tool in detecting root resorption defects, the increased radiation dosage and expense and the limited availability of CBCT in most clinical settings accentuate the outcome of this study.

  1. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (proot resorption (proot resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  2. Correlation of Vitamin D status and orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranchi, Azita; Sadighnia, Azin; Younessian, Farnaz; Abdi, Amir H; Shirvani, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Adequate Vitamin D is essential for dental and skeletal health in children and adult. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of serum Vitamin D level with external-induced apical root resorption (EARR) following fixed orthodontic treatment. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (defined by25-hydroxyvitamin-D) was determined in 34 patients (23.5% male; age range 12-23 years; mean age 16.63 ± 2.84) treated with fixed orthodontic treatment. Root resorption of four maxillary incisors was measured using before and after periapical radiographs (136 measured teeth) by means of a design-to-purpose software to optimize data collection. Teeth with a maximum percentage of root resorption (%EARR) were indicated as representative root resorption for each patient. A multiple linear regression model and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the association of Vitamin D status and observed EARR. P 0.05). This study suggests that Vitamin D level is not among the clinical variables that are potential contributors for EARR. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency does not differ in patients with higher EARR. These data suggest the possibility that Vitamin D insufficiency may not contribute to the development of more apical root resorption although this remains to be confirmed by further longitudinal cohort studies.

  3. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 16. Comparisons of root resorption and resorption craters after the application of light and heavy continuous and controlled orthodontic forces for 4, 8, and 12 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetyangkul, Anchalee; Türk, Tamer; Elekdağ-Türk, Selma; Jones, Allan S; Petocz, Peter; Cheng, Lam L; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2011-03-01

    Orthodontic force duration can affect the severity of root resorption. The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the amounts of root resorption volumetrically after the application of controlled light and heavy forces in the buccal direction for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The sample consisted of 54 maxillary first premolars in 36 patients (mean age, 14.9 years; 21 girls, 15 boys) who required first premolar extractions as part of their orthodontic treatment. The teeth were allocated into 3 groups that varied in the duration of force application: 4, 8, or 12 weeks. The right or left first premolars were randomly selected to receive 2 levels of forces. A light buccally directed orthodontic force of 25 g was applied to the experimental tooth on 1 side, while a heavy orthodontic force of 225 g was applied on the contralateral premolar. At the end of the experimental period, the teeth were extracted and scanned with the microcomputed-tomography x-ray system. Resorption crater analysis was performed with specially designed software for direct volumetric measurements. Significant differences in the extent of root resorption were found between 4, 8, and 12 weeks of force application (P resorption in the longer force duration groups. The light force produced significantly less root resorption than did the heavy force. After 4, 8, or 12 weeks of buccally directed orthodontic forces applied on the maxillary first premolars, the volumes of root resorption craters were found to be related to the duration and the magnitude of the forces. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Luis E; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Kühl, Anja A; Drews, Barbara

    2014-05-10

    Embryo resorption is a major problem in human medicine, agricultural animal production and in conservation breeding programs. Underlying mechanisms have been investigated in the well characterised mouse model. However, post mortem studies are limited by the rapid disintegration of embryonic structures. A method to reliably identify embryo resorption in alive animals has not been established yet. In our study we aim to detect embryos undergoing resorption in vivo at the earliest possible stage by ultra-high frequency ultrasound. In a longitudinal study, we monitored 30 pregnancies of wild type C57BI/6 mice using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (30-70 MHz), so called ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). We compared the sonoembryology of mouse conceptuses under spontaneous resorption and neighbouring healthy conceptuses and correlated the live ultrasound data with the respective histology. The process of embryo resorption comprised of four stages: first, the conceptus exhibited growth retardation, second, bradycardia and pericardial edema were observed, third, further development ceased and the embryo died, and finally embryo remnants were resorbed by maternal immune cells. In early gestation (day 7 and 8), growth retardation was characterized by a small embryonic cavity. The embryo and its membranes were ill defined or did not develop at all. The echodensity of the embryonic fluid increased and within one to two days, the embryo and its cavity disappeared and was transformed into echodense tissue surrounded by fluid filled caverns. In corresponding histologic preparations, fibrinoid material interspersed with maternal granulocytes and lacunae filled with maternal blood were observed. In later stages (day 9-11) resorption prone embryos were one day behind in their development compared to their normal siblings. The space between Reichert's membrane and inner yolk sac membrane was enlarged The growth retarded embryos exhibited bradycardia and ultimately cessation of heart

  5. Treatment of root fracture with accompanying resorption using cermet cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, J L

    1992-02-01

    A method of treating an apical root fracture with accompanying resorption at the junction of the fracture fragments using glass-cermet cement is described. Endodontically, the material had previously been used for repair of lateral resorptive root defects and retrograde root fillings. Complete bone regeneration was observed three years post-operatively following treatment of the root fracture in the conventional manner. The various advantages of glass-cermet cement as a root filling material used in the technique described are discussed.

  6. Inhibition of Apical Root Resorption by Calcium Hydroxide During Orthodontic Treatment: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Cinthia Mara da Fonseca; Pacheco, Daniela da Fonseca; Motta, Patrícia Gonçalves da

    2016-01-01

    Apical root resorption is a common outcome of orthodontic treatment. The present article reports a case of absence of apical root resorption in a left maxillary lateral incisor filled with calcium hydroxide paste throughout orthodontic movement. After orthodontic treatment was completed the tooth was subsequently obturatedwith gutta-percha and the patient followed for 18 months. The presence of a periapical lesion and the properties of calcium hydroxide as a root resorption inhibitor were dec...

  7. Effect of interleukin-4 on orthodontic tooth movement and associated root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakami, Zaki; Kitaura, Hideki; Kimura, Keisuke; Ishida, Masahiko; Sugisawa, Haruki; Ida, Hiroto; Jafari, Saeed; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2015-02-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a recognized immunomodulatory cytokine that regulates bone homeostasis. However, the influence of IL-4 on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and subsequent root resorption is still unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-4 on tooth movement and its associated root resorption in a mouse model. The maxillary first molars of four male mice for each experimental group were subjected to mesial force by a nickel titanium coil spring for 12 days. Control mice were not given appliances and injections. Varying doses of IL-4 were injected locally, adjacent to the first molar. Two sets of experiments were designed. The first set was composed of three groups: the control, treatment with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), or 1.5 µg/day of IL-4. The second set was composed of five groups: the control, treatment with 0 (PBS only), 0.015, 0.15, or 1.5 µg/day of IL-4. The distance of OTM was measured and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive cells along the loaded alveolar bone and root surface were identified. The root resorption associated with OTM was evaluated by a scanning electron microscope. The amount of OTM and the number of osteoclasts were significantly decreased in the IL-4-treated mice. Moreover, IL-4 significantly suppressed force-induced odontoclasts and root resorption. IL-4 inhibits tooth movement and prevents root resorption in the mouse model. These results suggest that IL-4 could be used as a useful adjunct to regulate the extent of OTM and also to control root resorption. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A Rare Case of Apical Root Resorption during Orthodontic Treatment of Patient with Multiple Aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Chintan M; Mahida, Khyati; Agrawal, Charu C; Bothra, Jitendrakumar; Mashru, Ketan

    2015-07-01

    External apical root resorption is an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. It reduces the length of root and breaks the integrity of teeth and dental arch. Orthodontics is the only dental specialty that clinically uses the inflammatory process to correct the mal-aligned teeth. Hence, it is necessary to know the risk factors of root resorption and do everything to reduce the rate of root resorption. Hence, all predisposing factors which are systemic as well as local should be considered before treatment begins. This case report describes the incidence of root resorption following orthodontic treatment and the teeth affected in the patient with multiple aplasia.

  9. A possible association between early apical resorption of primary teeth and ectodermal characteristics of the permanent dentition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, M L B; Kvetny, M J; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    apical resorption in the primary dentition. Panoramic radiographs of 12 children (7 boys and 5 girls) aged 6 years 4 months to 8 years 9 months with unexpected early apical resorption of primary teeth were identified from a dental archive of 588 patients. After written request, follow-up radiographs were......The hypothesis of this study is that children with unexpected early apical resorption of the primary teeth are also predisposed to resorption in the permanent dentition. Accordingly, the aim was to perform a longitudinal study focussing on the permanent teeth in children with unexpected early...... obtained (2-15 year interval between early and follow-up radiographs). The radiographs were examined in order to verify the abnormal resorption pattern of the primary teeth and dental deviations in the permanent teeth, known to predispose for root resorption (i.e. invaginations, narrow crowns, abrupt root...

  10. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya (Japan); Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka [Aichi-Gakuin University, School of Dentistry, Nagoya (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  11. Association of orthodontic force system and root resorption: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Marina G; Meira, Josete B C; Cattaneo, Paolo M

    2015-05-01

    In this systematic review, we assessed the literature to determine which evidence level supports the association of orthodontic force system and root resorption. PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases were searched with no restrictions on year, publication status, or language. Selection criteria included human studies conducted with fixed orthodontic appliances or aligners, with at least 10 patients and the force system well described. A total of 259 articles were retrieved in the initial search. After the review process, 21 full-text articles met the inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 10 to 73 patients. Most articles were classified as having high evidence levels and low risks of bias. Although a meta-analysis was not performed, from the available literature, it seems that positive correlations exist between increased force levels and increased root resorption, as well as between increased treatment time and increased root resorption. Moreover, a pause in tooth movement seems to be beneficial in reducing root resorption because it allows the resorbed cementum to heal. The absence of a control group, selection criteria of patients, and adequate examinations before and after treatment are the most common methodology flaws. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation in the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanjun, Chen; Xiaoyang, Chen; Jing, Chen

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation during the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures. Twenty-four sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in18 patients were fixed by two appliances: intramedullary with one long-screw osteosynthesis or Kirschner wire and extramedullary with one micro-plate. The radiologically-recorded post-operative stability-associated com-plications included the screw/micro-plate loosening, micro-plate twisting, micro-plate fractures, and fragment rotation. The occluding relations, the maximalinter-incisal distances upon mouth opening, and the mandibular deflection upon mouth opening were evaluated based on follow-up clinical examination. Postoperative panoramic X-ray and CT scans showed good repositioning of the fragment, with no redislocation or rotation, no screw/plate loosening, and no plate-twisting or fracture. Clinical examination showed that all patients regained normal mandibular movements, ideal occlusion, and normal maximal inter-incisal distances upon mouth opening. Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation is highly recommended for sagittal condylar fractures because of the anti-rotation effect of the fragment and the reasonable place-ment of the fixation appliances.

  13. The relationship between apical root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement in growing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianmin; Baumrind, S

    2002-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between apical root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement in growing subjects. 58 growing subjects were collected randomly into the study sample and another 40 non-treated cases were used as control. The apical resoption of the upper central incisors was measured on periapical film and the incisor displacement was measured on lateral cephalogram. Using multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between root resoption and the displacement of the upper incisor apex in each of four direction (retraction, advancement, intrusion and extrusion). The statistically significant negative association were found between resorption and both intrusion (P < 0.001) and extrusion (P < 0.05), but no significant association was found between resorption and both retraction and advancement. The regression analysis implied an average of 2.29 mm resorption in the absence of apical displacement. The likelihood that the magnitude of displacement of the incisor root is positively associated with root resoption in the population of treated growing subjects is very small.

  14. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  15. A comparative study of cone beam computed tomography and conventional radiography in diagnosing the extent of root resorptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Alamadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root resorptions are assessed and diagnosed using different radiographical techniques. A comparison of the ability to assess resorptions on two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D radiographs is, hitherto, lacking. The aims of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of 2D (periapical radiographs, PA and panoramic radiograph, PAN and 3D (cone beam computed tomography, CBCT radiographic techniques in measuring slanted root resorptions compared to the true resorptions, a histological gold standard, in addition to a comparison of all the radiographic techniques to each other. Methods Radiographs (CBCT, PA, and PAN, in addition to histological sections, of extracted deciduous canines from thirty-four patients were analyzed. Linear measurements of the most and least resorbed side of the root, i.e., “slanted” resorptions, were measured using an analyzing software (Facad ®. For classification of slanted root resorptions, a modified Malmgren index was used. Results PAN underestimated the root length on both the least and most resorbed side. Small resorptions, i.e., low modified Malmgren scores, were more difficult to record and were only assessed accurately using CBCT. The root resorption scores were underestimated using PA and PAN. In assessment of linear measures, PAN differed significantly from both CBCT and PA. Conclusions CBCT is the most accurate technique when measuring and scoring slanted root resorptions.

  16. Clinical significance of condylar chondromalacia after arthroscopic resection of flap-tears of the medial meniscus. A prospective study of 93 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, A K; Madsen, J E; Moen, H

    1995-01-01

    We describe the results after arthroscopic resection of flap-tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn in 93 patients with (40) or without (53) chondromalacia of the adjacent condylar cartilage at the time of operation. These were 93 consecutive patients presenting with medial flap-tears during the period 1988-1990 in our departments. The follow-up averaged 42 (range 26-50) months. There was a significant difference in the functional results at review depending on the presence or absence of condylar chondromalacia at arthroscopy. Among the 40 patients with chondromalacia, the Lysholm score was significantly lower (P chondromalacia with age (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of minor degenerative changes in the articular cartilage adjacent to meniscal flap-tears correlated with a less favourable outcome.

  17. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Liviu; Khammissa, Razia A. G.; Thomadakis, George; Fourie, Jeanine; Lemmer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resor...

  18. Open versus closed reduction: mandibular condylar fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to review the literature regarding the evolution of current thoughts on management of mandibular condylar fractures (MCFs) in children. An electronic search in PubMed was undertaken in May 2012. The titles and abstracts from these results were read to identify studies within the selection criteria. Eligibility criteria included studies published in English or German from the last 20 years (from 1992 onwards) reporting clinical series of MCFs in children and adolescents until the age of 18. The search strategy initially identified 542 studies. The references from 1992 onwards totaled 339 articles. Twenty-seven studies were identified without repetition within the selection criteria. Additional hand-searching yielded two additional papers. Pediatric MCFs require thoughtful consideration in management to avoid significant growth disturbance. Early treatment is indicated in order to improve the chances for favorable development. Long-term follow-up is required, in order to properly treat late complications that may appear. Coronal computed tomography is helpful in substantiating the correct final diagnosis. Many studies show that conservative treatment (CTR) has satisfactory long-term outcome of jaw function, occlusion, and facial esthetics, despite a high frequency of radiological aberrations. Surgery before puberty should be reserved for exceptional cases such as missile injuries, in cases with extensive dislocation and lack of contact between the fragments, in cases with multiple midfacial fractures, in which the mandible has to serve as a guide to reposition the midfacial bones, and in cases which the dislocation of the fractured stump creates a functional impediment that cannot be resolved by CTR. As the craniofacial skeleton becomes more adult-like in its form at about 12 years of age, the decreased remodeling capacity in the adolescents may occasionally result in abnormally shaped condylar heads or shortened ramus heights that may

  19. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  20. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  1. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class......Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... be classified according to previously suggested radiologic characteristics and how this classification relates to prognosis. Searching the databases of eight tertiary referral centres we identified 90 adult patients (61 women, 29 men; mean age 34 years) with ≥1 AIIDL. We collected their demographic, clinical...

  2. The mode of progression of subperiosteal resorption in the hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meema, H.E.; Oreopoulos, D.G.; Toronto Univ., Ontario

    1983-01-01

    Subperiosteal resorption in finger phalanges is usually thought to be the result of osteoclastic bone resorption on the periosteal surface of bone, progressive centripetally with creation of the serrated appearances and ''lace-like'' patterns in periosteal cortical bone. Our longitudinal microradioscopic observations in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure have revealed evidence of another pathogenetic mechanism: by the enlargement of intracortical juxtaperiosteal resorption spaces, the remaining thin layer of bone is broken down from inside the bone, i.e., a centrifugal rather then centripetal process. (orig.)

  3. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. A prospective study using cone beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Henrik; Gröndahl, Kerstin; Hansen, Ken; Gröndahl, Hans-Göran

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the incidence and severity of root resorption during orthodontic treatment by means of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to explore factors affecting orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR). CBCT examinations were performed on 152 patients with Class I malocclusion. All roots from incisors to first molars were assessed on two or three occasions. At treatment end, 94% of patients had ≥1 root with shortening >1 mm, and 6.6% had ≥1 tooth where it exceeded 4 mm. Among teeth, 56.3% of upper lateral incisors had root shortening >1 mm. Of upper incisors and the palatal root of upper premolars, 2.6% showed root shortenings >4 mm. Slanted surface resorptions of buccal and palatal surfaces were found in 15.1% of upper central and 11.5% of lateral incisors. Monthly root shortening was greater after 6-month control than before. Upper jaw teeth and anterior teeth were significantly associated with the degree of root shortening. Gender, root length at baseline, and treatment duration were not. Practically all patients and up to 91% of all teeth showed some degree of root shortening, but few patients and teeth had root shortenings >4 mm. Slanted root resorption was found on root surfaces that could be evaluated only by a tomographic technique. A CBCT technique can provide more valid and accurate information about root resorption.

  4. Cardiotonic agent milrinone stimulates resorption in rodent bone organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N S; Stappenbeck, T S; Stern, P H

    1987-01-01

    The cardiotonic agent amrinone inhibits bone resorption in vitro. Milrinone, an amrinone analog, is a more potent cardiotonic agent with lower toxicity. In contrast to amrinone, milrinone stimulated resorption in cultures of neonatal mouse calvaria and fetal rat limb bones. Threshold doses were 0.1 microM in calvaria and 0.1 mM in limb bones; maximal stimulation occurred in calvaria at 0.1 mM. Maximal responses to milrinone and parathyroid hormone were comparable. Milrinone concentrations below 0.1 mM did not affect calvarial cyclic AMP. 0.5 microM indomethacin inhibited milrinone effects in calvaria but usually not in limb bones. 3 nM calcitonin inhibited milrinone-stimulated resorption and there was no escape from this inhibition. Structural homology between milrinone and thyroxine has been reported. We find similarities between milrinone and thyroxine actions on bone, because prostaglandin production was crucial for the effects of both agents in calvaria but not in limb bones, and neither agent exhibited escape from calcitonin inhibition. PMID:3027124

  5. The Effect of An Angiogenic Cytokine on Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Lotfi, Ali; Badiee, Mohammad Reza; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Amdjadi, Parisa; Bargrizan, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is an undesirable sequel of tooth movement after sterile necrosis that takes place in periodontal ligament due to blockage of blood vessels following exertion of orthodontic force. This study sought to assess the effect of an angiogenic cytokine on OIIRR in rat model. Materials and Methods In this experimental animal study, 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 each: E10, E100 and E1000 receiving an injection of 10, 100 and 1000 ng of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), respectively, positive control group (CP) receiving an orthodontic appliance and injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the negative control group (CN) receiving only the anesthetic agent. A nickel titanium coil spring was placed between the first molar and the incisor on the right side of maxilla. Twenty-one days later, the rats were sacrificed. Histopathological sections were made to assess the number and area of resorption lacunae, number of blood vessels, osteoclasts and Howship’s lacunae. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD) test. Results Number of resorption lacunae and area of resorption lacunae in E1000 (0.97 ± 0.80 and 1. 27 ± 0.01×10-3, respectively) were significantly lower than in CP (4.17 ± 0.90 and 2.77 ± 0.01×10-3, respectively, P=0.000). Number of blood vessels, osteoclasts and Howship’s lacunae were significantly higher in E1000 compared to CP (Proot resorption by providing more oxygen and angiogenesis. PMID:27551674

  6. Why not to treat the tooth canal to solve external root resorptions? Here are the principles!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims at exposing the foundations or reasons why, in cases of external tooth resorption, including those of orthodontic origin, one should not perform a root canal to treat it. That should be done only to teeth with contamination or pulp necrosis, to remove the periapical inflammation induced by microbial products. When facing cases of external tooth resorption, one's conduct must always respect the following sequence of steps: first of all, identifying the cause accurately; then, planning the therapeutic approach and, finally, adopting the conducts in a very well-founded way. The situations in which endodontic treatment is recommended for tooth resorptions are those when there are: a pulp necrosis with microbial contamination, b aseptic pulp necrosis, c developing calcific metamorphosis of the pulp and d diagnosis of internal resorption. It is not possible, through the pulp, to control the resorption process that is taking place in the external part, after all, the causes are acting in the periodontal ligament. There is no evidence that justifies applying endodontic treatment, by means of root canal, to control external resorption processes, when the pulp shows vitality.

  7. Bone resorption is decreased postprandially by intestinal factors and glucagon-like peptide-2 is a possible candidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Hartmann, Bolette; Gottschalck, Ida B

    2007-01-01

    -bowel syndrome (SBS) or total gastrectomy in order to elucidate whether the signal for the meal-induced reduction of bone resorption is initiated from the stomach or the intestine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bone resorption was assessed from the serum concentration of collagen type I C-telopeptide cross-links (s......OBJECTIVE: Food intake inhibits bone resorption by a mechanism thought to involve gut hormones, and the intestinotrophic glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a candidate because exogenous GLP-2 inhibits bone resorption in humans. The purpose of the study was to investigate patients with short...

  8. Root resorption diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography after 6 months and at the end of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonas, Dimitrios; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Ken

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of orthodontically induced root resorption after treatment and the correlation with resorption found after 6 months of treatment. One hundred fifty-six patients (11-18 years) treated with fixed appliances and extraction of four premolars were examined with cone beam computed tomography before treatment, after 6 months of treatment (n  =  97), and at the end of active treatment. The Malmgren Index was used to describe the degree of root resorption. Severe root resorption (>2 mm, score 3) was found in 25.6% of the patients at the end of treatment. Extreme root resorption was found in one patient. Root resorption was seen more frequently in the maxillary incisor region. There was no correlation between the severity of root resorption after 6 months and the amount observed at the end of treatment. Furthermore, no correlation was seen between treatment duration and the severity of root resorption. Clinically significant resorption was diagnosed in 25.6% of the patients, but no correlations, either with the resorption seen after 6 months or with the length of treatment, were found. Radiographic examination after 3 to 6 months of orthodontic treatment is too early and will not reduce the number of patients who will have teeth with severe root resorption.

  9. Effect of LED-mediated-photobiomodulation therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekizer, Abdullah; Uysal, Tancan; Güray, Enis; Akkuş, Derya

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of light-emitting diode-mediated-photobiomodulation therapy (LPT), on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (TM) and orthodontically induced root resorption, in rats. Twenty male 12-week-old Wistar rats were separated into two groups (control and LPT) and 50 cN of force was applied between maxillary left molar and incisor with a coil spring. In the treatment group, LPT was applied with an energy density of 20 mW/cm(2) over a period of 10 consecutive days directly over the movement of the first molar teeth area. The distance between the teeth was measured with a digital caliper on days 0 (T0), 10 (T1), and 21 (T2) on dental cast models. The surface area of root resorption lacunae was measured histomorphometrically using digital photomicrographs. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical evaluation at p root resorption, expressed as a percentage, showed that the average relative root resorption affecting the maxillary molars on the TM side was 0.098 ± 0.066 in the LPT group and 0.494 ± 0.224 in the control group. Statistically significant inhibition of root resorption with LPT was determined (p orthodontic tooth movement and inhibitory effects on orthodontically induced resorptive activity.

  10. Third metacarpal condylar fatigue fractures in equine athletes occur within previously modelled subchondral bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, R Christopher; Trope, Gareth D; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Anderson, Garry A; Parkin, Timothy D H; Mackie, Eleanor J; Seeman, Ego

    2010-10-01

    Bone modelling and remodelling reduce the risk of fatigue fractures; the former by adapting bone to its loading circumstances, the latter by replacing fatigued bone. Remodelling transiently increases porosity because of the normal delay in onset of the formation phase of the remodelling sequence. Protracted intense loading suppresses remodelling leaving modelling as the only means of maintaining bone strength. We therefore hypothesized that race horses with fatigue fractures of the distal third metacarpal bone (MC3) will have reduced porosity associated with suppressed remodelling while continued adaptive modelling will result in higher volume fraction (BV/TV) at this site. Using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), we measured the distal aspect of the MC3 obtained at postmortem from 13 thoroughbred race horses with condylar fractures of the MC3 (cases), 8 horses without fractures (training controls), 14 horses with a fracture at another site (fractured controls) and 9 horses resting from training (resting controls). Porosity of the subchondral bone of MC3 was lower in cases than resting controls (12±1.4% vs. 18±1.6%, P=0.017) although areas of focal porosity were observed adjacent to fractures in 6/13 horses. BV/TV of the distal metacarpal epiphysis tended to be higher in horses with condylar fractures (0.79±0.015) than training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.070), but also higher in controls with a fracture elsewhere (0.79±0.014) than the training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.040). BV/TV was higher in horses over three years of age than those aged two or three years (0.79±0.01 vs. 0.74±0.01, P=0.016). All metacarpal condylar fractures occurred within focal areas of high BV/TV. We infer that intense training in equine athletes suppresses remodelling of third metacarpal subchondral bone limiting damage repair while modelling increases regional bone volume in an attempt to minimise local stresses but may fail to offset bone

  11. Root resorption after orthodontic intrusion and extrusion:.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, G.; Huang, S.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Zeng, X.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare root resorption in the same individual after application of continuous intrusive and extrusive forces. In nine patients (mean age 15.3 years), the maxillary first premolars were randomly intruded or extruded with a continuous force of 100 cN for eight

  12. Radiographic comparison of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment between bidimensional and Roth straight-wire techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H; Malki, Ghadah A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount of root resorption after orthodontic treatment between the bidimensional and the Roth straight-wire techniques. Another objective was to compare the amount of root resorption in the whole sample studied and record the prevalence of root resorption. The sample consisted of 40 patients (age ranged between 11 and 18 years) with Angle Class II division 1 malocclusions, treated nonextraction. Twenty patients were treated with bidimensional technique and 20 with a 0.018-inch Roth straight-wire technique. Root lengths of the maxillary incisors were measured on pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. The results demonstrated that the bidimensional and Roth straight-wire groups showed significant root resorption after treatment, 1.11 (0.17) and 0.86 (0.05), respectively, P root shortening between the bidimensional and Roth straight-wire groups, there was no significant difference between the mean change from pre- to post-treatment between bidimensional group (mean = 1.00 ± 1.34) and Roth straight-wire group (mean = 0.88 ± 0.86), P = 0.63. Considering the whole sample, there was no root resoprtion in 32.5% of the analysed teeth. There was only mild resorption in 56.2%, moderate in 8.8% and severe in only 2.5% of the teeth. Treatment with the bidimensional technique did not produce an increase in the amount of root resorption. The prevalence and amount of root resorption was similar between bidimensional and Roth straight-wire techniques.

  13. Orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in ovariectomized rats treated by systemic administration of zoledronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisoontorn, Irin; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Megumi; Gonzales, Carmen; Luppanapornlarp, Suwannee; Darendeliler, M Ali; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2012-05-01

    The effect of zoledronic acid, a potent and novel bisphosphonate, on tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in osteoporotic animals systemically treated with zoledronic acid as similarly used in postmenopausal patients has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study was undertaken. Fifteen 10-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: ovariectomy, ovariectomy + zoledronic acid, and control. Only the ovariectomy and ovariectomy + zoledronic acid groups underwent ovariectomies. Two weeks after the ovariectomy, zoledronic acid was administered only to the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid group. Four weeks after the ovariectomy, 25-g nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were applied to observe tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption. There were significant differences in the amounts of tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption between the ovariectomy and the control groups, and also between the ovariectomy and the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid groups. There was no statistically significant difference in tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption between the ovariectomy + zoledronic acid and the control groups. Zoledronic acid inhibited significantly more tooth movement and significantly reduced the severity of orthodontically induced root resorption in the ovariectomized rats. The ovariectomy + zoledronic acid group showed almost the same results as did the control group in both tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption. Zoledronic acid inhibits excessive orthodontic tooth movement and also reduces the risk of severe orthodontically induced root resorption in ovariectomized rats. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Compression-absorption (resorption) refrigerating machinery. Modeling of reactors; Machine frigorifique a compression-absorption (resorption). Modelisation des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottin, O; Feidt, M; Benelmir, R [LEMTA-UHP Nancy-1, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies presenting a comparative study of the thermal performances of different types of refrigerating machineries: di-thermal with vapor compression, tri-thermal with moto-compressor, with ejector, with free piston, adsorption-type, resorption-type, absorption-type, compression-absorption-type. A prototype of ammonia-water compression-absorption heat pump is presented and modeled. (J.S.)

  15. Compression-absorption (resorption) refrigerating machinery. Modeling of reactors; Machine frigorifique a compression-absorption (resorption). Modelisation des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottin, O.; Feidt, M.; Benelmir, R. [LEMTA-UHP Nancy-1, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies presenting a comparative study of the thermal performances of different types of refrigerating machineries: di-thermal with vapor compression, tri-thermal with moto-compressor, with ejector, with free piston, adsorption-type, resorption-type, absorption-type, compression-absorption-type. A prototype of ammonia-water compression-absorption heat pump is presented and modeled. (J.S.)

  16. Chronic sleep restriction induces changes in the mandibular condylar cartilage of rats: roles of Akt, Bad and Caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Wu, Gaoyi; Zhu, Guoxiong; Ma, Chuan; Zhao, Huaqiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats that had been subjected to chronic sleep restriction and to investigate whether Akt, Bad and Caspase3 play a role in the mechanism underlying the changes. One hundred and eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 60 in each): cage control group, large-platform control group, and sleep restriction group. Each group was divided into three subgroups (n = 20 in each) of three different time points (7, 14 and 21 days), respectively. The modified multiple platform method was used to induce chronic sleep restriction. The TMJ tissue histology was studied by staining with haematoxylin and eosin. The expression of Akt, p-Aktser473, Bad, p-Badser136 and Caspase3 proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The expression of Akt, Bad and Caspase3 mRNAs was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Compared with the large-platform and cage control groups, condylar cartilage pathological alterations were found in the sleep restriction group. There were significantly decreased expression levels of Akt, p-Aktser473 and p-Badser136 and significantly increased expression levels of Bad and Caspase3 after sleep restriction. These data suggest that sleep restriction may induce pathological alterations in the condylar cartilage of rats. Alterations in Akt, Bad and Caspase3 may be associated with the potential mechanism by which chronic sleep restriction influences the condylar cartilage.

  17. A Rare Case of Apical Root Resorption during Orthodontic Treatment of Patient with Multiple Aplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Chintan M; Mahida, Khyati; Agrawal, Charu C; Bothra, Jitendrakumar; Mashru, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    External apical root resorption is an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. It reduces the length of root and breaks the integrity of teeth and dental arch. Orthodontics is the only dental specialty that clinically uses the inflammatory process to correct the mal-aligned teeth. Hence, it is necessary to know the risk factors of root resorption and do everything to reduce the rate of root resorption. Hence, all predisposing factors which are systemic as well as local should be considered be...

  18. Temporomandibular joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: clinical predictors of magnetic resonance imaging signs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Margariti, Persefoni N.; Astrakas, Loukas; Kosta, Paraskevi [Medical School University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Ioannina (Greece); Karali, Aikaterini; Alfandaki, Sapfo; Siamopoulou, Antigoni [University of Ioannina, Department of Child Health, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of the study was to define clinical predictors of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Forty-six patients, aged 2.08-36.7 years, with JIA (oligoartitular 18, polyarticular 17, systemic type 11) were examined with standard plain and contrast-enhanced sequences. Of 88 TMJs examined, an abnormal condyle was observed in 32%, flattened articular eminence in 27%, flattened articular disk in 17%, intra-articular fluid in 10%, enhancing pannus in 45% and restricted condylar motion in 9%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that for abnormal condyle and flattened articular eminence, independent predictors were type of JIA (P < 0.015), age at onset (P < 0.038), and duration of disease activity (P < 0.001). Plots of the logistic regression models showed that TMJ involvement approached certainty for systemic sooner than for the other JIA types. Pannus was present with probability >0.5 when the disease started before 4 years of age. In conclusion, the systemic type of JIA, young age at onset and long duration of activity are risk factors for TMJ damage. MRI of the TMJ should be performed in patients who are less than 4 years of age at the onset of JIA, and in those with the systemic type, whatever the age of onset. (orig.)

  19. Natural evolution from idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in an untreated young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Egeo, Gabriella; Fattouch, Jinan; Fanella, Martina; Morano, Alessandra; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-04-01

    Idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy (IPOE) is an idiopathic localization-related epilepsy characterized by age-related onset, specific mode of precipitation, occipital photic-induced seizures--frequently consisting of visual symptoms--and good prognosis. This uncommon epilepsy, which usually starts in childhood or adolescence, has rarely been observed in families in which idiopathic generalized epilepsy also affects other members. We describe a nuclear family in which the proband showed electro-clinical features of idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy in childhood, which subsequently evolved into absences and a single generalized tonico-clonic seizure in early adolescence. His mother had features suggestive of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. This case illustrates a continuum between focal and generalized entities in the spectrum of the so-called idiopathic (genetically determined) epileptic syndromes. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. External cervical resorption: an analysis using cone beam and microfocus computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, V; Mavridou, A; Huybrechts, B; Van Gorp, G; Bergmans, L; Lambrechts, P

    2013-09-01

    To provide a three-dimensional representation of external cervical resorption (ECR) with microscopy, stereo microscopy, cone beam computed tomography (CT), microfocus CT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). External cervical resorption is an aggressive form of root resorption, leading to a loss of dental hard tissues. This is due to clastic action, activated by a damage of the covering cementum and stimulated probably by infection. Clinically, it is a challenging situation as it is characterized by a late symptomatology. This is due to the pericanalar protection from a resorption-resistant sheet, composed of pre-dentine and surrounding dentine. The clastic activity is often associated with an attempt to repair, seen by the formation of osteoid tissue. Cone beam CT is extremely useful in the diagnoses and treatment planning of ECR. SEM analyses provide a better insight into the activity of osteoclasts. The root canal is surrounded by a layer of dentine that is resistant to resorption. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Differential expression of IGF-I and its mRNA in mandibular condylar cartilage of rat--direct evidence for servosystem theory of facial growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z; Luo, S

    1998-05-01

    It was studied the expression of IGF-I and its mRNA in the condylar cartilage of 10 7-week-old SD male rats by using in situ hybridization and immunohisto-chemistry technique. The results showed both IGF-I and its gene expressed in growing rat condyle. IGF-I peptide was abundant in germinal zone, and positive reaction of its mRNA was strongest in transitional and maturational zones. These indicate that condylar cartilage has the capability of local production and secretion of IGF-I, mediating the command effect of STH, and differential expression of IGF-I and its mRNA might establish the local feedback loop, which supply a direct evidence for servosystem theory of facial growth.

  2. Detection of tibial condylar fractures using 3D imaging with a mobile image amplifier (Siemens ISO-C-3D): Comparison with plain films and spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsianos, D.; Rock, C.; Wirth, S.; Linsenmaier, U.; Brandl, R.; Fischer, T.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Reiser, M.; Euler, E.; Mutschler, W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze a prototype mobile C-arm 3D image amplifier in the detection and classification of experimental tibial condylar fractures with multiplanar reconstructions (MPR). Method: Human knee specimens (n=22) with tibial condylar fractures were examined with a prototype C-arm (ISO-C-3D, Siemens AG), plain films (CR) and spiral CT (CT). The motorized C-arm provides fluoroscopic images during a 190 orbital rotation computing a 119 mm data cube. From these 3D data sets MP reconstructions were obtained. All images were evaluated by four independent readers for the detection and assessment of fracture lines. All fractures were classified according to the Mueller AO classification. To confirm the results, the specimens were finally surgically dissected. Results: 97% of the tibial condylar fractures were easily seen and correctly classified according to the Mueller AO classification on MP reconstruction of the ISO-C-3D. There is no significant difference between ISO-C and CT in detection and correct classification of fractures, but ISO-CD-3D is significant by better than CR. (orig.) [de

  3. The management trauma of permanent teeth to prevent resorption: Experience in seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsiah Syam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption is one of the complications that often occur as a result of trauma in the permanent dentition. Resorption may be frequently observed unexpectedly because asymptomatic. The anterior teeth are more affected by root resorption and therefore it is very important for patients in social economic and psychological life, the different ways to do so that the teeth remain intact from damage. The objective of this case reports is to know the management trauma of the permanent teeth so as to prevent the occurrence of resorption. Case reports: Case 1 is a case that has been done replanted avulsed; Case 2 is a case that has been done replanted avulsed and fixed with orthodontic appliance; case 3 and 4 is a case of post-trauma has done an inadequate endodontic treatment; 5 case is a case of post-traumatic avulsion and luxation without a crown fracture that has been by interdental wiring IDW and endodontict; case 6 is a case of post-trauma simphisis fracture, condylus bilateral fractures, and 2/3 crown fracture that has been treatment by Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF, IDW, endodontics, and restoration of the crown; 7 case is a case of post-trauma with fracture of the crown that has been treatment by endodontic and restoration of the crown, however resorption is remaining after the treatment  done. Treatment is based on removal or reduction of the source of infection.

  4. Health of periodontal tissues and resorption status after orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, A Z; Ciger, S

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes of incisor root resorption associated with impacted maxillary canines and health of periodontal tissues around maxillary canines erupted with orthodontic treatment. Twenty patients with a unilateral palatally impacted maxillary canine were included in the study. Cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after orthodontic treatment were compared with the contralateral canines serving as control teeth. Root resorption was present in 10% of central and 40% of lateral incisors before treatment. After treatment, the incidence of resorption decreased. The thickness of the buccal bone surrounding the impacted canines was similar to that surrounding the contralateral canines, except in the apical area. Periodontal pocket depth and alveolar bone loss were greater for the impacted canine teeth than for the contralateral canines. Incisor root resorption associated with impacted canine teeth showed signs of repair after orthodontic treatment. Slight differences related to periodontal health were found between the previously impacted teeth and contralateral canine teeth.

  5. In vivo microcomputed tomography evaluation of rat alveolar bone and root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Nan; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao; Zhuang, Li; Li, Song; Bai, Yuxing

    2013-05-01

    To observe the real-time microarchitecture changes of the alveolar bone and root resorption during orthodontic treatment. A 10 g force was delivered to move the maxillary left first molars mesially in twenty 10-week-old rats for 14 days. The first molar and adjacent alveolar bone were scanned using in vivo microcomputed tomography at the following time points: days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Microarchitecture parameters, including bone volume fraction, structure model index, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and trabecular separation of alveolar bone, were measured on the compression and tension side. The total root volume was measured, and the resorption crater volume at each time point was calculated. Univariate repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections were performed to compare the differences in each parameter between time points with significance level at P Root resorption volume of the mesial root increased significantly on day 7 of orthodontic loading. Real-time root and bone resorption during orthodontic movement can be observed in 3 dimensions using in vivo micro-CT. Alveolar bone resorption and root resorption were observed mostly in the apical third on day 7 on the compression side; bone formation was observed on day 14 on the tension side during orthodontic tooth movement.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ROOT RESORPTION DEGREE OF INCISORS AFTER ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Luchian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main iatrogenic effects associated with orthodontic treatment refer to: influence of orthodontic rings on the periodontal tissue; gum retractions; the effect of the orthodontic treatment on dental root (root resorption; the effect of the orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone height; mobility and pain associated with orthodontic treatment. AIM of the study: To assess the degree of root resorption of incisors, after orthodontic treatment, on a group of 48 adults with dental-maxillary abnormalities. Materials and method: The study included 48 young adult patients, 35 women and 13 men aged 18 to 30 years, who had received fixed orthodontic treatment. To assess the degree of root resorption (changes at root level and apical contour length, apical radiographies were taken in the maxillary incisors and jaw both at the beginning and end of the orthodontic treatment. Results: Out of the 239 incisors examined at the beginning of orthodontic treatment, 163 showed code 0, meaning 88.1%, and 50 showed a slight squash apex (code 1, respectively 10.9%. Only 1% of all incisors assessed presented mild and severe root resorption. Conclusions: The results of the study show that, generally, an adult orthodontic treatment, applied for functional and aesthetic objectives, may have clinically acceptable iatrogenic effects.

  7. Long-term clinical outcomes and survivorship of press-fit condylar sigma fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total knee prostheses in the same patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik; Kulkarni, Sourabh S; Kim, Yoon-Hong

    2014-10-01

    We are aware of no study that has compared press-fit condylar Sigma fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total knee prostheses in the same patients after more than ten years of follow-up. The purpose of the current study was to compare these two implants with respect to the functional and radiographic results, prevalence of osteolysis, and overall revision rates at a mean of 12.1 years of follow-up. The study consisted of a consecutive series of 444 patients (mean age [and standard deviation], 66.5 ± 7.4 years) who underwent simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty, with one side treated immediately after the other. All of the patients received a press-fit condylar Sigma mobile-bearing prosthesis on one side and a press-fit condylar Sigma fixed-bearing prosthesis on the contralateral side. The minimum duration of follow-up was ten years (mean, 12.1 years; range, ten to thirteen years). At the time of each follow-up visit, the patients were assessed clinically and radiographically. Postoperative total knee scores (95 and 94 points), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (19 and 18 points), University of California, Los Angeles activity score (both prostheses, 5 points), range of motion (129° ± 6.3° and 127° ± 6.8°), and radiographic findings did not differ significantly between the press-fit condylar Sigma mobile and fixed-bearing designs at the final follow-up. The prevalence of aseptic loosening (1.4% and 1.8%) did not differ significantly between the mobile and fixed-bearing implant designs. No knee in either group had osteolysis. The estimated survival rate with revision as the end point was 98.2% (95% confidence interval, 91% to 99%) and 97.5% (95% confidence interval, 91% to 99%) at 12.1 years for the mobile and fixed-bearing implant groups, respectively. The results of the present long-term clinical study suggest that excellent clinical and radiographic results were achieved with both the press-fit condylar Sigma mobile and

  8. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause is determined and is referred to as “secondary” intracranial hypertension. What are the risk factors for idiopathic intracranial ... clotting disorders, anemia and malnutrition. Can idiopathic intracranial ... to be “secondary” which affects males and females equally. The second ...

  9. Apical root resorption of incisors after orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canines: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusveen, Elin Marie Gravdal; Brudvik, Pongsri; Bøe, Olav Egil; Mavragani, Maria

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate impacted maxillary canines as risk factor for orthodontic apical root resorption. The sample comprised 66 patients treated with fixed appliances. Thirty-two patients with a unilateral impacted maxillary canine, which was distanced from the roots of the incisors at a preliminary phase of treatment before bonding, formed the impaction group, and 34 patients without impactions served as the controls. Root shortening was calculated by using pretreatment and posttreatment intraoral radiographs. Inclination of the eruption path of the impacted canine relative to the midline, axis of the lateral incisor, and nasal line, root development, and the medial and vertical positions of the impacted tooth were recorded on orthopantomograms and lateral cephalometric films. The follicle/tooth ratio was evaluated by using periapical radiographs. No significant difference in apical resorption of the maxillary incisors was detected between the impaction and control groups, or between the incisors of the impacted and contralateral sides in the same subject. Likewise, no difference in the severity of root resorption was found between the incisors of impacted side alone and the incisors of the control group. Mesial and vertical inclinations of the impacted canines were negatively related to a lateral incisor's root resorption. No correlations were found between resorption and medial or vertical position of the crown of the canine. The follicle/tooth ratio was significantly related to the mesial inclination of the impacted canine, but not to root resorption. An impacted maxillary canine, after being distanced from the incisor roots, does not seem to be a risk factor for apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of mechanical vibration on orthodontically induced root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sumit; Dobie, Thomas; Assefnia, Amir; Kalajzic, Zana; Nanda, Ravindra

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of low-frequency mechanical vibration (LFMV) on orthodontically induced root resorption. Forty male CD1, 12-week-old mice were used for the study. The mice were randomly divided into five groups: group 1 (baseline)-no spring and no mechanical vibration, group 2-orthodontic spring but no vibration, group 3-orthodontic spring and 5 Hz of vibration applied to the maxillary first molar, group 4-orthodontic spring and 10 Hz of vibration applied to maxillary first molar, and group 5-orthodontic spring and 20 Hz of vibration applied to maxillary first molar. In the different experimental groups, the first molar was moved mesially for 2 weeks using a nickel-titanium coil spring delivering 10 g of force. LFMVs were applied at 5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography imaging was used to analyze root resorption. Additionally, to understand the mechanism, we applied LFMV to MC3T3 cells, and gene expression analyses were done for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Orthodontic tooth movement leads to decreased root volume (increased root resorption craters). Our in vivo experiments showed a trend toward increase in root volume with different frequencies of mechanical vibration. In vitro gene expression analyses showed that with 20 Hz of mechanical vibration, there was a significant decrease in RANKL and a significant increase in OPG expression. There was a trend toward decreased root resorption with different LFMVs (5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz); however, it was not more statistically significant than the orthodontic-spring-only group.

  11. Resorptive tooth root lesions in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Kortegaard, Hanne E; Choong, Siew Shean; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2011-03-01

    Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature. seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. Dental disease, Malayan tapir, radiology, resorptive lesions, Tapirus indicus.

  12. The Effect of Root Coating with Titanium on Prevention of Root Resorption in Avulsed Teeth: An Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Azar; Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Badiee, Mohammadreza; Izadi, SeyedSadra; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tooth avulsion is a real dental emergency. If immediate replantation is not performed, the avulsed tooth may be lost due to inflammatory or replacement resorption. This animal study aimed to evaluate the bone response to the titanium coating of the root surface as an artificial barrier, and prevention of resorption of avulsed teeth. Methods and Materials: This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups for assessment at two and eight weeks. Four teeth were extracted in each animal. The root surfaces of the test group were coated with a titanium layer using the Electron Beam Deposition system. After 24 h, replantation of the teeth was performed. Two animals were sacrificed after two weeks and the remaining dogs were killed after eight weeks. The presence of inflammation, inflammatory resorption, replacement resorption, periodontal regeneration, periapical granuloma and ankylosis were evaluated through histological analyses. Results: Inflammatory root resorption was not present in any tooth except one tooth in the coated group after eight weeks. Replacement resorption was noted just in three of the non-coated teeth after two weeks and two teeth after eight weeks. The McNemar's test revealed that the frequency of replacement resorption in the non-coated group was significantly higher than the coated group (P=0.031). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems that coating the root surfaces of avulsed teeth with titanium may control the replacement root resorption. PMID:27790261

  13. Surgical repair of propagating condylar fractures of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bones with cortical screws placed in lag fashion in 26 racehorses (2007-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, N; François, I; Coté, N; Alford, C; Cleary, O; Desjardins, M R

    2018-01-19

    Despite the recommendation of plate fixation for propagating condylar fractures of the third metacarpal (McIII) or third metatarsal bone (MtIII), lag screw fixation can be a viable surgical option. To evaluate short-term outcome and long-term racing performance of horses that underwent lag screw fixation of long condylar fractures of the McIII/MtIII. Retrospective case series. Medical records, post-surgical racing performance and outcome of 26 horses with propagating fractures of the medial and/or lateral condyle of McIII/MtIII were reviewed. Medical information included were age, breed, sex, physical examination at admission, circumstances of fracture, radiographic evaluation, anaesthesia and recovery records, surgical and post-operative management, as well as complications. Outcome included racing data and information from telephone interviews. Twenty-six horses (9 Standardbreds and 17 Thoroughbreds) were admitted with a long condylar fracture of the McIII/MtIII. Fore- and hindlimbs were equally represented with the left hindlimb being more frequently involved. Most of the fractures had a spiralling component (76%) and four (15%) were comminuted. Fifteen (58%) horses raced post-surgery including nine Standardbreds (100%) and six Thoroughbreds (35%). Twelve of them were placed in at least one race and 11 won at least once. One horse sustained a severe complication in recovery. No significant difference was observed in the racing performances before and after surgery. Follow-up method and duration were not standardised and there is a low number of cases with six surgeons. Long condylar fractures can be repaired using lag fashion technique combined with a half-limb or full-limb tight cast for recovery as a good surgical alternative. Similar results to plate fixation can be expected, with a return to racing of more than 50%, and the prognosis being even better for pacers. © 2018 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Etiology and sequelae of root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskalic, V; Boyd, R L; Baumrind, S

    1998-06-01

    This article reviews the current status of investigation into apical root resorption within the context of orthodontic treatment. Treatment and patient factors that have traditionally been investigated are discussed, along with the results of current research in this area. The need for rethinking traditional research strategies in the quest for identifying both control and causative mechanisms is explored. Finally, proposals for key areas of future interest are highlighted.

  15. Insufficient irrigation induces peri-implant bone resorption: an in vivo histologic analysis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisi, Paolo; Berardini, Marco; Falco, Antonello; Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele; Perfetti, Giorgio

    2014-06-01

    To measure in vivo impact of dense bone overheating on implant osseointegration and peri-implant bone resorption comparing different bur irrigation methods vs. no irrigation. Twenty TI-bone implants were inserted in the inferior edge of mandibles of sheep. Different cooling procedures were used in each group: no irrigation (group A), only internal bur irrigation (group B), both internal and external irrigation (group C), and external irrigation (group D). The histomorphometric parameters calculated for each implant were as follows: %cortical bone-implant contact (%CBIC) and %cortical bone volume (%CBV). Friedman's test was applied to test the statistical differences. In group A, we found a huge resorption of cortical bone with %CBIC and %CBV values extremely low. Groups B and C showed mean %CBIC and %BV values higher than other groups The mean %CBV value was significantly different when comparing group B and group C vs. group A (P bone caused massive resorption of the cortical bone and implant failure. Drilling procedures on hard bone need an adequate cooling supply because the bone matrix overheating may induce complete resorption of dense bone around implants. Internal-external irrigation and only internal irrigation showed to be more efficient than other types of cooling methods in preventing bone resorption around implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Effect of piezocision on root resorption associated with orthodontic force: A microcomputed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Braydon M; Dalci, Oyku; Papadopoulou, Alexandra K; Madukuri, Suman; Mahon, Jonathan; Petocz, Peter; Spahr, Axel; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of piezocision on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption. Fourteen patients were included in this split-mouth study; 1 side was assigned to piezocision, and the other side served as the control. Vertical corticotomy cuts of 4 to 5 mm in length were performed on either side of each piezocision premolar, and 150-g buccal tipping forces were applied to the premolars. After 4 weeks, the maxillary first premolars were extracted and scanned with microcomputed tomography. There was a significantly greater total amount of root resorption seen on the piezocision sides when compared with the control sides (P = 0.029). The piezocision procedure resulted in a 44% average increase in root resorption. In 5 patients, there was noticeable piezocision-related iatrogenic root damage. When that was combined with the orthodontic root resorption found on the piezocision-treated teeth, there was a statistically significant 110% average increase in volumetric root loss when compared with the control side (P = 0.005). The piezocision procedure that initiates the regional acceleratory phenomenon may increase the iatrogenic root resorption when used in conjunction with orthodontic forces. Piezocision applied close to the roots may cause iatrogenic damage to the neighboring roots and should be used carefully. Copyright © 2017.

  17. Evaluation of skeletal and dental age using third molar calcification, condylar height and length of the mandibular body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedarisetty, Sunil Gupta; Rao, Guttikonda Venkateswara; Rayapudi, Naveen; Korlepara, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    To identify the most reliable method for age estimation among three variables, that is, condylar height, length of mandibular body and third molar calcification by Demirjian's method. Orthopantomograms and lateral cephalograms of 60 patients with equal gender ratio were included in the study, among each gender 15 subjects were below 18 years and 15 subjects were above 18 years. Lateral cephalograms were traced, height of condyle and mandibular body are measured manually on the tracing paper, OPG's were observed on radiographic illuminator and maturity score of third molar calcification was noted according to Demirjian's method. All the measurements were subjected to statistical analysis. The results obtained are of no significant difference between estimated age and actual age with all three parameters (P > 0.9780 condylar height, P > 0.9515 length of mandibular body, P > 0.8611 third molar calcification). Among these three, length of mandibular body shows least standard error test (i.e. 0.188). Although all three parameters can be used for age estimation, length of mandibular body is more reliable followed by height of condyle and third molar calcification.

  18. Impacted maxillary canines and root resorption of adjacent teeth: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, R; Cavallini, C; Vernucci, R; Vichi, M; Leonardi, R; Barbato, E

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of impacted maxillary canine is reported to be between 1% and 3%. The lack of monitoring and the delay in the treatment of the impacted canine can cause different complications such as: displacement of adjacent teeth, loss of vitality of neighbouring teeth, shortening of the dental arch, follicular cysts, canine ankylosis, recurrent infections, recurrent pain, internal resorption of the canine and the adjacent teeth, external resorption of the canine and the adjacent teeth, combination of these factors. An appropriate diagnosis, accurate predictive analysis and early intervention are likely to prevent such undesirable effects. The objective is to evaluate, by means of a retrospective observational study, the possibility of carrying out a predictive analysis of root resorption adjacent to the impacted canines by means of orthopantomographs, so as to limit the prescription of additional 3D radiography. 120 subjects with unilateral or bilateral maxillary impacted canine were examined and 50 patients with 69 impacted maxillary canine (22 male, 28 female; mean age: 11.7 years) satisfied the inclusion criteria of the study. These patients were subjected to a basic clinical and radiographic investigation (orthopantomographs and computerized tomography). All panoramic films were viewed under standardized conditions for the evaluation of two main variables: maxillary canine angulations (a, b, g angles) and the overlapping between the impacted teeth and the lateral incisor (Analysis of Lindauer). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of resorbed lateral incisors depending on sector location and angle measurements. Results indicated that b angle has the greatest influence on the prediction of root resorption (predictive value of b angle = 76%). If β angle <18° and Lindauer = I, the probability of resorption is 0.06. Evaluation of b angle and superimposition lateral incisor/impacted canine analysed on orthopantomographs could be one of

  19. D-xylose test of resorption as a method to determine radiation side effects in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koest, S.; Keinert, K.; Glaser, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    Background: The D-xylose test is the most important method to determine a disorder of carbohydrates resorption in proximal small intestine. The application is based on an impaired resorption due to pathological change of small intestine surface, leading to a decreased blood level or decreased excretion in urine. Patients and Method: D-xylose test was applied in 91 patients before, shortly after, 1/2 and 1 year after radiotherapy. All patients received an abdominal radiotherapy. We determined the blood level of D-xylose by a capillary blood sample 1 hour after oral D-xylose administration. Results: A significant decrease of the mean blood level of D-xylose to 1.88 mmol/l was determined after radiotherapy in comparison with 2.17 mmol/l before radiotherapy. Half a year after radiotherapy the mean blood level of D-xylose returned to normal. Regarding a threshold value of D-xylose blood level of 1.70 mmol/l 29 patients (32%) showed a pathologically decreased D-xylose resorption after radiotherapy. Twenty out of the 29 patients already showed a normal resorption half a year after the determination of the resorption disorder, 5 patients after 1 year and 4 patients after 1 1/2 years. There was no correlation between the detection of a disorder of D-xylose resorption and of a loss of body weight. The acute clinical side effects seemed to be more marked in connection with a disorder of D-xylose resorption, but this correlation is not significant. Eleven or 14 of the 29 patients, respectively, with pathologically decreased D-xylose resorption only had complaints of lower or upper gastrointestinal tract, respectively, and 10 patients did not have abdominal complaints at all. Conclusions: The D-xylose test is an important and simple method for determination of radiogen induced carbohydrate malabsorption in proximal small intestine. By means of its radiation side effects on small intestine can also be determined in patients who are otherwise free of complaints. (orig.) [de

  20. Mechanisms of Bone Resorption in Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A. Hienz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of periodontitis progression and its prevention is a key clinical challenge in periodontal disease treatment. Bone destruction is mediated by the host immune and inflammatory response to the microbial challenge. However, the mechanisms by which the local immune response against periodontopathic bacteria disturbs the homeostatic balance of bone formation and resorption in favour of bone loss remain to be established. The osteoclast, the principal bone resorptive cell, differentiates from monocyte/macrophage precursors under the regulation of the critical cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand, and osteoprotegerin. TNF-α, IL-1, and PGE2 also promote osteoclast activity, particularly in states of inflammatory osteolysis such as those found in periodontitis. The pathogenic processes of destructive inflammatory periodontal diseases are instigated by subgingival plaque microflora and factors such as lipopolysaccharides derived from specific pathogens. These are propagated by host inflammatory and immune cell influences, and the activation of T and B cells initiates the adaptive immune response via regulation of the Th1-Th2-Th17 regulatory axis. In summary, Th1-type T lymphocytes, B cell macrophages, and neutrophils promote bone loss through upregulated production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of the RANK-L expression pathways.

  1. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, B; Viskin, S

    1993-06-01

    Important data have recently been added to our understanding of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias occurring in the absence of demonstrable heart disease. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is usually of monomorphic configuration and can be classified according to its site of origin as either right monomorphic (70% of all idiopathic VTs) or left monomorphic VT. Several physiopathological types of monomorphic VT can be presently individualized, according to their mode of presentation, their relationship to adrenergic stress, or their response to various drugs. The long-term prognosis is usually good. Idiopathic polymorphic VT is a much rarer type of arrhythmia with a less favorable prognosis. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation may represent an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death in ostensibly healty patients. A high incidence of inducibility of sustained polymorphic VT with programmed ventricular stimulation has been found by our group, but not by others. Long-term prognosis on Class IA antiarrhythmic medications that are highly effective at electrophysiologic study appears excellent.

  2. Correlation Between Orthodontic Forces and Root Resorption – a Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasa Alexandru

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR is a major concern regarding periodontal status after nonsurgical orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess this sequel by a systematic review of published data. For assessment, we performed an electronic search of one database for comprehensive data, using keywords in different combinations: “root resorption”, “periodontics” and “nonsurgical orthodontic treatment”. We supplemented the results searching by hand in published journals and we cross-referenced with the accessed articles. Patients included in the results presented a good general health status, with no previous history of OIEARR and no other associated pathologies. Finally, twenty-three studies were selected and included in this review. A high prevalence (69–98% and moderate severity of OIEARR (<5 mm and <1/3 from original root length were reported. No difference in root resorption was found regarding the sex of the patients. A moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption was found. Also, a mild correlation regarding antero-posterior apical displacement and root resorption was found.

  3. Effect of calvarial burring on resorption of onlay cranial bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Clune, James E; Mulliken, John B; Arany, Praveen R; Rogers, Gary F; Kulungowski, Ann M; Greene, Arin K

    2012-09-01

    Variable resorption occurs whenever calvarial bone graft is used for onlay cranioplasty. The recipient ectocortex may be burred to expose vessels and osteocytes to maximize healing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether abrading the recipient site improves the volume of onlay graft. The parietal bones of 17 rabbits were sectioned into split-thickness and full-thickness grafts. The right frontal cortex was abraded with a bur to punctate bleeding. Pairs of split-thickness (n = 48) or full-thickness (n = 20) grafts were onlayed to the burred right frontal bone and to the nonburred left frontal bone. Micro-computed tomography was used to determine graft volume immediately postoperatively and 16 weeks later. Histology, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, was performed to quantify vascular channels and osteoclasts per high-power field 10 days postoperatively. Split-thickness graft volume decreased 58.0% when placed on the burred calvarial site, compared with grafts on the nonburred cortex (28.4%) (P = 0.01). Full-thickness grafts showed a similar trend: greater resorption (39.1%) when onlayed onto abraded calvaria compared with nonburred ectocortex (26.0%) (P = 0.11). Split-thickness graft orientation (cortical vs cancellous side in contact with the recipient site) did not affect resorption (P = 0.67). Onlay grafts placed on the burred recipient site had more vascular channels (11.8) and osteoclasts (5.7), compared with grafts over nonabraded cortex (3.4 and 4.2, respectively) (P cranial bone grafting promotes resorption, possibly by increasing vascularization and osteoclastic activity. This technique cannot be recommended.

  4. Meckel’s and condylar cartilages anomalies in achondroplasia result in defective development and growth of the mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosse Duplan, Martin; Komla-Ebri, Davide; Heuzé, Yann; Estibals, Valentin; Gaudas, Emilie; Kaci, Nabil; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Zerah, Michel; Kramer, Ina; Kneissel, Michaela; Porta, Diana Grauss; Di Rocco, Federico; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Activating FGFR3 mutations in human result in achondroplasia (ACH), the most frequent form of dwarfism, where cartilages are severely disturbed causing long bones, cranial base and vertebrae defects. Because mandibular development and growth rely on cartilages that guide or directly participate to the ossification process, we investigated the impact of FGFR3 mutations on mandibular shape, size and position. By using CT scan imaging of ACH children and by analyzing Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice, a model of ACH, we show that FGFR3 gain-of-function mutations lead to structural anomalies of primary (Meckel’s) and secondary (condylar) cartilages of the mandible, resulting in mandibular hypoplasia and dysmorphogenesis. These defects are likely related to a defective chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation and pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-BGJ398 corrects Meckel’s and condylar cartilages defects ex vivo. Moreover, we show that low dose of NVP-BGJ398 improves in vivo condyle growth and corrects dysmorphologies in Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice, suggesting that postnatal treatment with NVP-BGJ398 mice might offer a new therapeutic strategy to improve mandible anomalies in ACH and others FGFR3-related disorders. PMID:27260401

  5. A Comparison of pical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed Zahedani, Sm; Oshagh, M; Momeni Danaei, Sh; Roeinpeikar, Smm

    2013-09-01

    One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments. In this study, parallel periapical radiographs of 127 patients imaging a total of 737 individual teeth, were collected. A total of 76 patients were treated by standard edgewise and 51 patients by straight wire method. The periapical radiographs were scanned and then the percentage of root resorption was calculated by Photoshop software. The data were analyzed by Paired-Samples t-test and the Generalized Linear Model adopting the SPSS 15.0. In patients treated with straight wire method (MBT), mean root resorption was 18.26% compared to 14.82% in patients treated with standard edgewise technique (proot resorption,statistically significant (proot resorption in this study. Having more root resorption in the straight wire method and less in the standard edgewise technique can be attributed to more root movement in pre-adjusted MBT technique due to the brackets employed in this method.

  6. The cell biology and role of resorptive cells in diseases: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Devanna, Raghu; Jagtap, Kiran; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Jerry, Jeethu John; Choudhury, Basanta Kumar; Duhan, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Resorptive cells are responsible for the resorption of mineralized matrix of hard tissues. Bone-resorbing cells are called osteoclasts; however, they can resorb mineralized dental tissues or calcified cartilage and then they are called odontoclasts and chondroclasts, respectively. Resorptive cells form when mononuclear precursors derived from a monocyte-macrophage cell lineage are attracted to certain mineralized surfaces and subsequently fuse and adhere onto them for exerting their resorbing activity. These cells are responsible for degradation of calcified extracellular matrix composed of organic molecules and hydroxyapatite. The activity of these cells can be observed in both physiological and pathological processes throughout life and their activity is mainly required in bone turnover and growth, spontaneous and induced (orthodontic) tooth movement, tooth eruption, and bone fracture healing, as well as in pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone metastasis. In addition, they are responsible for daily control of calcium homeostasis. Clastic cells also resorb the primary teeth for shedding before the permanent teeth erupt into the oral cavity.

  7. Meckel's and condylar cartilages anomalies in achondroplasia result in defective development and growth of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosse Duplan, Martin; Komla-Ebri, Davide; Heuzé, Yann; Estibals, Valentin; Gaudas, Emilie; Kaci, Nabil; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Zerah, Michel; Kramer, Ina; Kneissel, Michaela; Porta, Diana Grauss; Di Rocco, Federico; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2016-07-15

    Activating FGFR3 mutations in human result in achondroplasia (ACH), the most frequent form of dwarfism, where cartilages are severely disturbed causing long bones, cranial base and vertebrae defects. Because mandibular development and growth rely on cartilages that guide or directly participate to the ossification process, we investigated the impact of FGFR3 mutations on mandibular shape, size and position. By using CT scan imaging of ACH children and by analyzing Fgfr3 Y367C/+ mice, a model of ACH, we show that FGFR3 gain-of-function mutations lead to structural anomalies of primary (Meckel's) and secondary (condylar) cartilages of the mandible, resulting in mandibular hypoplasia and dysmorphogenesis. These defects are likely related to a defective chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation and pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-BGJ398 corrects Meckel's and condylar cartilages defects ex vivo. Moreover, we show that low dose of NVP-BGJ398 improves in vivo condyle growth and corrects dysmorphologies in Fgfr3 Y367C/+ mice, suggesting that postnatal treatment with NVP-BGJ398 mice might offer a new therapeutic strategy to improve mandible anomalies in ACH and others FGFR3-related disorders. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Mechanisms of tail resorption during anuran metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yuya; Nakajima, Keisuke; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2017-09-26

    Amphibian metamorphosis has historically attracted a good deal of scientific attention owing to its dramatic nature and easy observability. However, the genetic mechanisms of amphibian metamorphosis have not been thoroughly examined using modern techniques such as gene cloning, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction or genomic editing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms underlying tadpole tail resorption.

  9. Dynamic compression plate (DCP) fixation of propagating medial condylar fractures of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone in 30 racehorses: retrospective analysis (1990-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, L R; Nixon, A J; Conway, J D; Morley, P S; Bladon, B M; Hogan, P M

    2014-11-01

    An in-depth review of dynamic compression plate (DCP) fixation of propagating medial condyle fractures of the third metacarpus or metatarsus has not been previously reported. To describe the technique, evaluate short-term outcome and long-term race performance of racehorses that underwent DCP fixation for repair of propagating or spiralling medial condylar fractures of the third metacarpal (McIII) or metatarsal (MtIII) bone. Retrospective case series. The surgical case records of 30 horses with propagating fractures of the medial condyle of McIII or MtIII were reviewed. Medical information included: age, breed, sex, presentation, how injury occurred (racing or training), surgical treatment and post operative complications. Racing information included: starts, top 3 placing and career earnings. Long propagating fractures of the medial condyle of Mc/tIII were identified in 23 Thoroughbred (TB) and 7 Standardbred (STB) racehorses. The fracture spiralled proximally in 22 of 30 cases (73%). Standardbreds had a higher propensity for hindlimb involvement (71%), whereas TBs tended to have more front limb involvement (61%). Twelve of 30 (40%) horses raced post surgery. Career earnings were significantly lower for TB horses with medial condylar fractures; $34,916 when compared with the national average of $60,841 (P≤0.03). Overall, horses having DCP fixation for medial condylar fractures had less starts post surgery (3.1 TBs and 5.8 STBs) compared with the national average (7 TBs and 17.3 STBs) and decreased lifetime starts 13.4 (TBs) compared with 17.3 nationally. Propagating medial condyle fractures can be repaired with plate fixation to potentially lessen the risk of catastrophic fracture destabilisation and return to racing can be expected in 40% of horses. Further prospective studies are warranted comparing lag screw fixation with DCP fixation for repair of severe medial condylar fractures of the metacarpus/metatarsus. © 2013 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal

  10. Assessment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction in condylar fracture of the mandible using the Helkimo index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Suhas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Condylar fractures of the mandible are functionally important fractures as the condyle of the mandible being a part of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ and can lead to TMJ dysfunction if not properly treated. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of a total of 33 treated patients with fracture of the mandibular condyle who underwent examination as per the Helkimo index. Their dysfunction was quantified and clinicoepidemiological characteristics were assessed. It was found that majority of our patients were young males involved in a two-wheeler accident. All patients underwent intermaxillary fixation as the minimum treatment and 30% underwent open reduction and internal fixation in addition. Results: There was no statistically significant association between the degree of clinical dysfunction and factors such as age, mechanism of injury, type of condyle fracture, presence of other mandible fractures, and surgical procedure. However, dislocation of the mandibular condyle was found to be a negative prognostic factor and all these patients had some degree of dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of TMJ dysfunction according to the Helkimo index was 90%. About 61% of patients had mild dysfunction (Di1 and 30% had moderate dysfunction (Di2. None of the patients had severe dysfunction. To conclude, the Helkimo index is a simple, effective, inexpensive, reliable screening index to assess TMJ dysfunction in condylar fractures of mandible.

  11. Internal and external resorption in a lower molar with an associated endodontic-periodontic lesion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang

    2012-08-01

    This article describes a unique case in which both internal and external inflammatory resorption and endodontic-periodontic lesions were present at the same time in the patient's left mandibular first molar. Based on clinical and radiographic findings, it was determined that the nature of this case was a pulpal infection-induced inflammatory resorption and furcation lesion. After root canal therapy, the furcation lesion and external inflammatory resorption were completely resolved. This case indicates that the correct diagnosis of the stimulating factor for tooth resorption and determination of the primary origin of endodontic-periodontic lesions are critical for clinical management and success. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Association analysis of clinical aspects and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with external apical root resorption in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Maria Luiza S Simas Netta; de Souza, Cleber Machado; Bernardino, José Fabio; Hoette, Felix; Hoette, Maura Levi; Thum, Lotario; Ozawa, Terumi O; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Olandoski, Marcia; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Vitamin D is responsible for the regulation of certain genes at the transcription level, via interaction with the vitamin D receptor, and influences host immune responses and aspects of bone development, growth, and homeostasis. Our aim was to investigate the association of TaqI vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with external apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Our subjects were 377 patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion, divided into 3 groups: (1) 160 with external apical root resorption ≤1.43 mm, (2) 179 with external apical root resorption >1.43 mm), and (3) 38 untreated subjects. External apical root resorption of the maxillary incisors was evaluated on periapical radiographs taken before and after 6 months of treatment. After DNA collection and purification, vitamin D receptor TaqI polymorphism analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to verify the association of clinical and genetic variables with external apical root resorption (P root resorption in orthodontically treated patients compared with the untreated subjects. In patients orthodontically treated, age higher than 14 years old, initial size of the maxillary incisor root superior to 30 mm, and premolar extraction were associated with increased external apical root resorption. Genotypes containing the C allele were weakly associated with protection against external apical root resorption (CC + CT × TT [odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-1.23; P = 0.091]) when treated orthodontic patients were compared to untreated individuals. Clinical factors and vitamin D receptor TaqI polymorphism were associated with external apical root resorption in orthodontic patients. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Root resorption of endodontically treated teeth following orthodontic treatment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou-Marathiotou, Ioulia; Zafeiriadis, Anastasios A; Papadopoulos, Moschos A

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on root resorption of endodontically treated teeth compared to vital teeth. A literature search was conducted in 18 electronic databases. Review articles and relevant articles were searched for cross-references. Two independent reviewers screened all articles according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and extracted the corresponding data. The pooled estimate of mean difference of root resorption weighted by the fixed-effect model and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to construct a forest plot by implementing the "RevMan 5.1" software. Quality and heterogeneity assessments as well as publication bias evaluation and sensitivity analyses were performed. Inter-reviewer agreement for data selection, data extraction and quality analysis was evaluated by Cohen's kappa. Six out of 1,942 original papers met the inclusion criteria. Four out of six studies were included in the quantitative analysis. Root resorption was less in endodontically treated teeth than in vital teeth (MD = -0.48 mm; 95 % CI = -0.81 to -0.14 mm). The funnel plot indicated no evidence of publication bias, while no data heterogeneity was present (I(2) = 0 %). However, the overall quality of the included studies was considered as "low." Following orthodontic treatment, endodontically treated teeth exhibit relatively less root resorption than teeth with vital pulps. Clinicians should consider orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth as a relatively safe clinical procedure.

  14. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of the association of cortical plate proximity and apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Tomoo; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Horinuki, Eri; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of proximity of the root apex to the maxillary labial cortical plate, palatal cortical plate, and incisive canal cortical plate on apical root resorption. Cone-beam computed tomography was used to measure the amount of root resorption and root apex movement around maxillary right and left central incisors in 30 adults who underwent four-bicuspid extraction followed by treatment with multibracket appliances. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of the direction of root apex movement, after which the correlation between the amount of root resorption and root apex movement was determined. Mean apical root resorption was 1.80 ± 0.82 mm (range, 0.18-3.96 mm). The amount of root apex movement was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption on the side of pressure. Root apex proximity to the maxillary labial cortical plate, palatal cortical plate, and incisive canal cortical plate was associated with apical root resorption. Orthodontic treatment plans should carefully consider root proximity to the maxillary cortical plate. (J Oral Sci 58, 231-236, 2016).

  15. Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutin Jean A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts. Methods Human osteoclasts were generated from CD14+ monocytes. The effect of different kinase inhibitors on lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts was investigated using acridine orange for different incubation times (45 minutes, 4 and 24 hours. The inhibitors were tested in an acid influx assay using microsomes isolated from human osteoclasts. Bone resorption by human osteoclasts on bone slices was measured by calcium release. Cell viability was measured using AlamarBlue. Results Of the 51 compounds investigated only few inhibitors were positive in both acidification and resorption assays. Rottlerin, GF109203X, Hypericin and Ro31-8220 inhibited acid influx in microsomes and bone resorption, while Sphingosine and Palmitoyl-DL-carnitine-Cl showed low levels of inhibition. Rottlerin inhibited lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts potently. Conclusions In conclusion, a group of inhibitors all indicated to inhibit PKC reduced acidification in human osteoclasts, and thereby bone resorption, indicating that acid secretion by osteoclasts may be specifically regulated by PKC in osteoclasts.

  16. Root resorption diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography after 6 months of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance and the relation to risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonas, Dimitrios; Lund, Henrik; Gröndahl, Kerstin; Hansen, Ken

    2012-03-01

    To investigate root resorption after 6 months of active orthodontic treatment and its relation to possible risk factors. Ninety-seven patients (10-18 years) with a Class I malocclusion and crowding treated with fixed appliance and premolar extractions were examined with cone beam computed tomography before and after 6 months of active treatment. The exposure covered all teeth from first molar to first molar in both jaws. The Malmgren index was used to evaluate the degree of root resorption. Irregular root contour (score 1) was seen in most teeth already before active treatment, and therefore resorptions were registered only as score 2 (resorption) or higher. Minor root resorption was noted in 10% of the patients and severe root resorption, >2 mm (score 3) was found in four patients. Root resorption was more frequently seen in the upper jaw, especially the incisors. There was no statistically significant correlation of root resorption with any of the selected risk factors. After 6 months of treatment, clinically significant resorption was diagnosed in 4% of the patients, ie, in 96% of the patients the radiographic examination did not reveal any significant information. The selected risk factors did not have any impact on the amount of resorption after 6 months of active treatment.

  17. The role of lipopolysaccharide in infectious bone resorption of periapical lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Sze-Kwan; Kok, Sang-Heng; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Lee, Ming-Shu; Wang, Tong-Mei; Chen, Chuan-Shuo; Lin, Li-Deh; Wang, Juo-Song

    2004-03-01

    The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in periapical lesion-induced bone resorption was investigated. Polymyxin B (PMB), a specific inhibitor of LPS, was evaluated to treat the apical lesion. Lipopolysaccharide isolated from two common endodontic pathogens, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas endodontalis, stimulated mouse macrophage (J774) to release interleukin-1alpha (IL-1 alpha) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in a time-dependent manner. Combination of LPS further enhanced the stimulation. PMB inhibited these effects significantly. LPS also stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) gene expression in J774, whereas anti-IL-1 alpha and anti-TNF-alpha antibodies, as well as PMB, diminished this effect. A disease model of periapical lesion was established in Wistar rat. Administration of PMB reduced the extent of lesion-associated bone resorption by 76% to approximately 80%, and simultaneously reduced the numbers of MMP-1-producing macrophages. It is suggested that LPS released from the infected root canal triggers the synthesis of IL-1 alpha and TNF-alpha from macrophages. These pro-inflammatory cytokines up-regulate the production of MMP-1 by macrophages to promote periapical bone resorption.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these health problems has idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Other respiratory diseases, some of which are less serious, can cause similar signs and symptoms. In people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , scarring of the lungs increases over time until the lungs can no longer ...

  19. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption efficiency, and N : P ratios in natural populations of Typha domingensis Pers. in a coastal tropical lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno dos Santos Esteves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We studied nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P resorption patterns in Typha domingensis Pers. in a tropical coastal lagoon during different seasons of throughout one year. METHODS: Resorption of N and P is uttered as resorption efficiency (NRE and PRE, respectively, which may be used as an indicator of a nutrient limitation. Higher resorption efficiency values might indicate limitation of a certain element for the growth of aquatic macrophytes. RESULTS: N was inferred to be less limiting than P for the growth of T. domingensis in Campelo Lagoon, since N content varied less than P content and resorption efficiency of N was lower than that of P and, concomitantly, low resorption efficiency of this element. However, T. domingensis of Campelo Lagoon frequently utilized P that was already present in its tissues, contributing to the longer residence time of this element in system. Green leaves of T. domingensis showed N : P ratio, ranging 49-96, corroborating the inference of P limitation. CONCLUSIONS: N : P ratio and resorption efficiency indicate P limitation by T. domingensis in Campelo Lagoon.

  20. Radiographic study on the anterior portion of the neck of the condylar process. Aged-related developmental changes based on Hellman's dental stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Yamato, Rieko; Tada, Miwako [Meikai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The condylar process is directly and indirectly influenced by the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint, which functions to regulate jaw movement. Age-related changes in the condylar process were found in both external and internal structures. Observation of X-ray profiles afforded identification of areas of interest in the anterior portion of the neck of condylar process. This portion anatomically includes the pterygoid fovea; moreover, the process serves as a terminal for the lateral pterygoid muscle. Rather than directly analyzing bone structure, we made distinct measurements in regions of interest by X-ray image analysis. Subsequently, changes in occlusion during each developmental stage were evaluated. In addition, bone mineral density measurements were performed. Greater growth was recognized in the long axis of the condylar process in comparison to the short axis. The long axis indicated a 2.7-fold increase in ODL (length along the major axis) from the IA period to the VA period; additionally, the total absolute length increased by 3.1-fold. The short axis demonstrated a 2.3-fold increase in ODS (length along the minor axis) from the IA period to the VA period; furthermore, the total average length revealed a 1.9-fold increase. Bone mineral density was highest in the anterior portion (region of interest) and was higher in the posterior portion (cortical bone); than in the middle portion (central bone). Among these 3 areas, density differences became larger as the developmental stage of occlusion progressed. Detailed measurements in the region of interest demonstrated significant increases from the IIC period to the IIIA (B) period, and distinct peak times of increases were observed in bone mineral density: the center bone structure, as well as the posterior cortical bone, showed significant increases between the IIIC period and the IVA period. The anterior border displayed to constant increase with an exception for the period between stages

  1. Effect of gingival fibroblasts and ultrasound on dogs' root resorption during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Jacqueline; Hassan, Ali H; Saleem, Ali; Felemban, Nayef; Aldaghreer, Saleh; Fawzi, Elham; Farid, Mamdouh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled; Gargoum, Ausama; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of using osteogenic induced gingival fibroblasts (OIGFs) and low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on root resorption lacunae volume and cementum thickness in beagle dogs that received orthodontic tooth movement. Seven beagle dogs were used, from which gingival cells (GCs) were obtained and were induced osteogenically to produce OIGFs. Each third and fourth premolar was randomly assigned to one of the five groups, namely, LIPUS, OIGFs, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), OIGFs + LIPUS, and control. All groups received 4 weeks of bodily tooth movement, then LIPUS-treated groups received LIPUS for 20 min/day for 4 weeks, and OIGFs groups received an injection of OIGFs near the root apex. Microcomputed tomography analysis was used to calculate root resorption lacunae volume and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the cementum thickness of each root at 3 root levels on compression and tension sides. There was no significant difference in resorption volume between the treatment groups. OIGFs + LIPUS increased cementum thickness ( P > 0.05) in third premolars near the apex, and LIPUS increased cementum thickness ( P > 0.05) in fourth premolars near the apex. Furthermore, BMP2 increased cementum thickness at the coronal third at the compression side. OIGFs, LIPUS, and BMP-2 can be potential treatments for orthodontically induced root resorption, however, improvements in experimental design and treatment parameters are required to further investigate these repair modalities.

  2. Effects of pulpectomy on the amount of root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Masato; Sumi, Hiromi; Shikata, Hanaka; Kojima, Shunichi; Motokawa, Masahide; Fujita, Tadashi; Tanimoto, Kotaro; Tanne, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have revealed that orthodontic force affects dental pulp via the rupture of blood vessels and vacuolization of pulp tissues. We hypothesized that pulp tissues express inflammatory cytokines and regulators of odontoclast differentiation after excess orthodontic force. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tensile force in human pulp cells and to measure inflammatory root resorption during tooth movement in pulpless rat teeth. After cyclic tensile force application in human pulp cells, gene expression and protein concentration of macrophage colony-stimulating factor, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, interleukin-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoassay. Moreover, the role of the stretch-activated channel was evaluated by gadolinium (Gd(3+)) treatment. The upper right first molars of 7-week Wistar rats were subjected to pulpectomy and root canal filling followed by mesial movement for 6 months. The expression of cytokine messenger RNAs and proteins in the experimental group peaked with loading at 10-kPa tensile force after 48 hours (P root resorption was significantly larger in the control teeth than the pulpectomized teeth (P root resorption during tooth movement. It also suggests that root canal treatment is effective for progressive severe inflammatory root resorption during tooth movement. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of calcitonin on orthodontic tooth movement and associated root resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Lin, Suai; Yan, Weijun; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    Our main aim was to evaluate the effects of calcitonin (CT) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats in the negative control group were not given any appliances or injections. All the remaining rats were used to establish a model of OTM. The positive control group were then injected with normal saline, while rats in the three experimental groups were injected with 0.2 IU, 1 IU or 5 IU/kg/day CT. Nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were used to deliver an initial 50 g mesial force to the left maxillary first molar for 14 days in rats in the positive control group and the experimental groups. Each group was randomly subdivided into two groups, one for analysis of tooth movement, tissue changes and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells in alveolar bone, the other to examine root resorption by scanning electron microscopy. The OTM distance, the number of force-induced osteoclasts and root resorption areas were significantly decreased in CT-injected rats in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of CT reduces the root resorption area and may therefore be effective as a novel adjunctive orthodontic approach to diminish undesired tooth movement via enhancing anchorage or preventing relapse after OTM.

  4. Aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli

    2014-12-16

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail.

  5. Th17-cells in atopic dermatitis stimulate orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K; Yamaguchi, M; Asano, M; Fujita, S; Kobayashi, R; Kasai, K

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how atopic dermatitis (AD) contributes to root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Atopic dermatitis model mice and wild-type mice were subjected to an excessive orthodontic force (OF) to induce movement of the upper first molars. The expression levels of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL proteins were determined in the periodontal ligament (PDL) by an immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the compression force on co-cultures of CD4(+) cells from AD patients or healthy individuals and human PDL cells were investigated with regard to the levels of secretion and mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-6, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin. The immunoreactivities for TRAP, IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL in the AD group were found to be significantly increased. The double immunofluorescence analysis for IL-17/CD4 detected immunoreaction. The secretion of IL-17, IL-6, and RANKL, and the mRNA levels of IL-6 and RANKL in the AD patients were increased compared with those in healthy individuals. Th17 cells may therefore be associated with the deterioration of root resorption of AD mice, and may explain why AD patients are more susceptible to root resorption than healthy individuals when an excessive OF is applied. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of digital template in the assistant of a giant condylar osteochondroma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guo; He, Dongmei; Yang, Chi; Lu, Chuan; Huang, Dong; Chen, Minjie; Yuan, Jianbing

    2014-05-01

    Exostosis osteochondroma is usually resected with the whole condyle even part of it is not involved. This study was to report the effect of using digital template in the assistant of resection while protecting the uninvolved condyle. We used computer-aided design technique in the assistant of making preoperative plan of a patient with giant condylar osteochondroma of exogenous type, including determining the boundary between the tumor and the articular surface of condyle, and designing the virtual tumor resection plane, surgical approach, and remove-out path of the tumor. The digital osteotomy template was made by rapid prototyping technique based on the preoperative plan. Postoperative CT scan was performed and merged with the preoperative CT by the Proplan 1.3 system to evaluate the accuracy of surgical resection with the guide of digital template. The osteotomy template was attached to the lateral surface of condyle accurately, and the tumor was removed totally by the guide of the template without injuries to adjacent nerves and vessels. Postoperative CT showed that the osteochondroma was removed completely and the unaffected articular surface of condyle was preserved well. The merging of postoperative and preoperative CT by Proplan 1.3 system showed the outcome of the operation matched with the preoperative planning quite well with an error of 0.92 mm. There was no sign of recurrence after 6 months of follow-up. The application of digital template could improve the accuracy of the giant condylar tumor resection and help to preserve the uninvolved condyle. The use of digital template could reduce injuries to the nerves and vessels as well as save time for the operation.

  7. Assessing joint space and condylar position in the people with normal function of temporomandibular joint with cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dalili

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The assessment of joint spaces in right and left sides should be done independently. Overall, the measured joint spaces except Sjs are not different in two sexes. The data from this study could be a useful and comparable reference for the clinical assessment of condylar position in patients with normal functional joints.

  8. Glycosylation of DMP1 Is Essential for Chondrogenesis of Condylar Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Y; Liu, Y; Du, H; Li, L; Jing, B; Zhang, Q; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Sun, Y

    2017-12-01

    The mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) shoulders force for the subchondral bone during mastication. The cartilage matrix contains various large molecules, such as type I, II, and X collagens and proteoglycans (PGs), which jointly play essential roles in maintaining cartilage characteristics. PGs play key roles in maintaining the elasticity of cartilage and providing a cushion against mastication forces. In addition to the well-known PGs, DMP1-PG, which is the PG form of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), is a newly identified PG. DMP1 is proteolytically processed in vivo, and the N-terminus is glycosylated into its PG form-that is, DMP1-PG, which is highly expressed not only in tooth and bone but also in the matrix of the MCC. However, the specific functions of DMP1-PG in the MCC remain unclear. In human temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis and hyperocclusion model rat specimens, PGs are significantly downregulated, and DMP1-PG is the most prominently affected PG. To further investigate the role of DMP1-PG in condylar chondrogenesis, a glycosylation site mutant (S 89 -G 89 ) mouse model was established with knock-in methods. In the MCC of the S89G-DMP1 mice, the glycosylation level of DMP1 was significantly downregulated, and a series of abnormal developmental and pathologic changes could be observed. The morphologic changes included thinner cartilage layers, deformations of the MCC, and disordered arrangements of the chondrocytes, and an earlier onset of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis-like changes was observed. In addition, markers of chondrogenesis were downregulated, and the matrix of the MCC displayed OA phenotypes in the S89G-DMP1 mice. Further investigations showed that the transforming growth factor β signaling molecules were affected in the MCC after the loss of DMP1-PG. In addition, the loss of DMP1-PG significantly accelerated the progression of cartilage injuries in the hyperocclusion models. Given these findings, we investigated the significant

  9. Bis-enoxacin Inhibits Bone Resorption and Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, E.J.; Zuo, J.; Guiterrez, A.; La Rosa, R.L.; Gawron, A.J.; Bradaschia-Correa, V.; Arana-Chavez, V.; Dolce, C.; Rivera, M.F.; Kesavalu, L.; Bhattacharyya, I.; Neubert, J.K.; Holliday, L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Enoxacin inhibits binding between the B-subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) and microfilaments, and also between osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. We hypothesized that a bisphosphonate derivative of enoxacin, bis-enoxacin (BE), which was previously studied as a bone-directed antibiotic, might have similar activities. BE shared a number of characteristics with enoxacin: It blocked binding between the recombinant B-subunit and microfilaments and inhibited osteoclastogenesis in cell culture with IC50s of about 10 µM in each case. BE did not alter the relative expression levels of various osteoclast-specific proteins. Even though tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b was expressed, proteolytic activation of the latent pro-enzyme was inhibited. However, unlike enoxacin, BE stimulated caspase-3 activity. BE bound to bone slices and inhibited bone resorption by osteoclasts on BE-coated bone slices in cell culture. BE reduced the amount of orthodontic tooth movement achieved in rats after 28 days. Analysis of these data suggests that BE is a novel anti-resorptive molecule that is active both in vitro and in vivo and may have clinical uses. Abbreviations: BE, bis-enoxacin; V-ATPase, vacuolar H+-ATPase; TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; αMEM D10, minimal essential media, alpha modification with 10% fetal bovine serum; SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B-ligand; NFATc1, nuclear factor of activated T-cells; ADAM, a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain; OTM, orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:23958763

  10. Effect of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Socket Preservation on Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Arayesh, Ali; Shamloo, Nafise; Hamedi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Objective Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is considered to be an important sequel associated with orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). OTM after Socket preservation enhances the periodontal condition before orthodontic space closure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histologic effects of NanoBone®, a new highly nonsintered porous nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone on root resorption following OTM. Materials and Methods This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. In each dog, four defects were created at the mesial aspects of the maxillary and mandibular first premolars. The defects were filled with NanoBone®. We used the NiTi closed coil for mesial movement of the first premolar tooth. When the experimental teeth moved approximately halfway into the defects, after two months, the animals were sacrificed and we harvested the area of interest. The first premolar root and adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The three-way ANOVA statistical test was used for comparison. Results The mean root resorption in the synthetic bone substitute group was 22.87 ± 11.25×10-4mm2 in the maxilla and 21.41 ± 11.25×10-4mm2 in the mandible. Statistically, there was no significant difference compared to the control group (p>0.05). Conclusion The use of a substitution graft in the nano particle has some positive effects in accessing healthy periodontal tissue following orthodontic procedures without significant influence on root resorption (RR). Histological evaluation in the present study showed osteoblastic activity and remodeling environment of nanoparticles in NanoBone®. PMID:25685742

  11. Effect of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite socket preservation on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Arayesh, Ali; Shamloo, Nafise; Hamedi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is considered to be an important sequel associated with orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). OTM after Socket preservation enhances the periodontal condition before orthodontic space closure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histologic effects of NanoBone®, a new highly nonsintered porous nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone on root resorption following OTM. This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. In each dog, four defects were created at the mesial aspects of the maxillary and mandibular first premolars. The defects were filled with NanoBone®. We used the NiTi closed coil for mesial movement of the first premolar tooth. When the experimental teeth moved approximately halfway into the defects, after two months, the animals were sacrificed and we harvested the area of interest. The first premolar root and adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The three-way ANOVA statistical test was used for comparison. The mean root resorption in the synthetic bone substitute group was 22.87 ± 11.25×10(-4)mm(2) in the maxilla and 21.41 ± 11.25×10(-4)mm(2) in the mandible. Statistically, there was no significant difference compared to the control group (p>0.05). The use of a substitution graft in the nano particle has some positive effects in accessing healthy periodontal tissue following orthodontic procedures without significant influence on root resorption (RR). Histological evaluation in the present study showed osteoblastic activity and remodeling environment of nanoparticles in NanoBone®.

  12. Treatment of medial condylar fractures of the third metatarsus in three horses with fibreglass casts under standing neuroleptanalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, D; Johanson, C; Phillips, T J

    2008-05-03

    Minimally displaced condylar fractures propagating into the third metatarsal diaphysis were treated conservatively in one thoroughbred and two Arabian racehorses. In each case a neuroleptanalgesic protocol provided adequate pain relief for a rigid fibreglass cast to be applied in a weight-bearing position. The fractures healed completely and the three horses recovered uneventfully. Two of them returned successfully to racing and the third was used for breeding.

  13. A clinico-radiographic study to compare and co-relate sagittal condylar guidance determined by intraoral gothic arch tracing method and panoramic radiograph in completely edentulous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanath Shetty

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the protrusive condylar guidance angles obtained by panoramic radiograph may be used for programming semi-adjustable articulators.

  14. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology(®); Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR.

  15. BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF BONE RESORPTION AND HORMONAL REGULATION OF BONE METABOLISM FOLLOWING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparative evaluation of two biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormonal regulation of bone metabolism in liver recipients. Methods and results. Bоne densitometry of L2–L4 and neck of femur, serum level of some hormones (PTH, vitamin D3, estradiol, testosterone regulating osteoclastogenesis as well as com- parative analyses of two bone resorption markers β-crosslaps and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5b (TRAP-5b were fulfilled in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. In 1 month after OLT bone density reduction of L2–L4 and neck of femur; decrease of vitamin D3, estradiol in women, testosterone in men and increase levels of bone resorption markers were observed. In 1 and 2 years after OLT the rise of bone density, increased levels of PTH, estradiol, testosterone and decreased β-crosslaps levels were revealed, while vitamin D3 and TRAP-5b levels remained stable. Conclusion. TRAP-5b was found to be a more speciffic marker of bone resorption, independent from collagen metabolism in liver. Osteoporosis defined in long-term period after OLT was associated with higher TRAP-5b and revialed in women with low estradiol level. 

  16. Treatment of Lateral Tibial Condylar Fractures Using Bioactive, Bioresorbable Forged Composites of Raw Particulate Unsintered Hydroxyapatite/Poly-L-Lactide Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kunio; Yoshida, Yukio; Otsuka, Takanobu; Takada, Naoya

    2018-05-01

    Forged composites of raw particulate unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (F-u-HA/PLLA) devices possess high mechanical strength, bioactivity, and radio-opacity. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of F-u-HA/PLLA screws in the treatment of lateral tibial condylar fractures. From January 2005 to December 2010, a total of 7 patients with displaced closed lateral tibial condylar fractures (Schatzker type II) were treated using F-u-HA/PLLA screws. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed using 2 or 3 F-u-HA/PLLA screws. After surgery, weight bearing was not allowed for 6 weeks. Range of motion exercise was initiated after removal of the plaster splint. Radiographs were evaluated for fracture healing, joint depression, and the radioopacity of F-u-HA/PLLA screws. Clinical outcomes and postoperative complications were also assessed. Average follow-up was 44 months. All fractures were successfully healed. Average values for joint depression were 4.7 mm (range, 2-9 mm) preoperatively, 0.4 mm (range, 0-1 mm) postoperatively, and 0.4 mm (range, 0-1 mm) at final follow-up. Whole shadows of F-u-HA/PLLA screws were observed during the follow-up period. Breakage of screws, osteolysis, and a radiolucent zone around the screws were not observed at final follow-up. Average knee flexion and extension were 134° (range, 110° to 150°) and -1° (range, -10° to 0°), respectively. No patient had wound infection, late aseptic tissue response, or foreign body reaction postoperatively. None of the patients reported pain at final follow-up. These results suggest that F-u-HA/PLLA screws could be an alternative option for the treatment of lateral tibial condylar fractures. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(3):e365-e368.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. [In vitro study on bone resorption of odontogenic cysts and ameloblastomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Li, Tie-jun

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the effect of bone resorption by odontogenic cysts and ameloblastomas in vitro. Fragments of odontogenic cysts (14 odontogenic keratocysts, 6 inflamed odontogenic keratocysts, 5 dentigerous cysts) and ameloblastomas (n = 7) were incubated in vitro for 24 h. The supernatant was then removed into the culture system of SD rat calvaria. After incubation (48 h), the calcium contents of the media were measured by atom spectrophotometer. The supernatant of odontogenic cysts and ameloblastomas was measured for the bone resorption related factors such as IL-6, TNF-alpha, PGE(2), bone Gla-containing protein (BGP) and calcitonin (CT) by a radioimmunoassay system. The calcium released in the calvaria culture media by all the odontogenic lesions was significantly higher than that in the blank controls (P keratocyst group had a significantly higher calcium concentration than odontogenic keratocyst and ameloblastoma groups (P keratocyst groups were significantly higher than that of ameloblastoma group (P keratocyst was significantly higher than those of odontogenic keratocyst and dentigerous cyst groups (P < 0.05). Correlation and regression analysis showed that IL-6 was significantly correlated with the calcium content (P < 0.01). The odontogenic lesions could promote bone resorption in vitro and it is likely to be related to some of the cytokines secreted by the lesions.

  18. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: treatment update.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-11-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Despite multiple recent clinical trials, there is no strong evidence supporting a survival advantage for any agent in the management of patients with IPF. The limited effectiveness of current treatment regimes has led to a search for novel therapies including antifibrotic strategies. This article reviews the evidence supporting the treatments currently used in the management of IPF.

  19. Prevalent of root resorption of second molar adjustment the impacted third molar in prepiacal and panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahimi Saravi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Impacted third molar reduces the bone level in the distal aspect of second molar, and sometimes it can lead to root resorption of the adjacent tooth. The purpose of this study was to determine this resorption using panoramic and periapical radiographs.   Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study 54 patient (28 men, 26 women above 15 years old with the average of 22 years in Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Tehran University were studied. A periapical radiography from the third molar and a panoramic radiograph were taken from each patient (Because of their routine use and evaluation of accuracy of panoramic compared with periapical, and the magnitude of the root resorption for the second molar was determined by 2 observers and written in a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Fisher test.   Results: The prevalence of the root resorption of the second molar adjacent to the impacted third molar in the panoramic and the periapical radiographies, with respect to the limitation of the sample size were 46.3% and 31.5%, respectively, with 95% confidence(P>0.05. Most of these resorptions were in the cervical third of the second molar roots and in cases in which the third molars were mesially oriented or horizontal. There was also no significant difference between panoramic and periapical radiographs.   Conclusion: Due to the increased risk of the resorption of the second molar adjacent to the third molar, extraction of the impacted third molars, especiall y mesially oriented or horizontal ones are recommended.

  20. Resorption of Lateral Incisors during Canine Eruption: Two Clinical Cases with Focus on Root Lengths and Heredity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Zargham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well-known that pressure from orthodontic appliance can provoke root resorption in dentitions with short roots. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate two clinical cases with focus on root length in dentitions exposed due to pressure from erupting teeth. This is a pilot study aimed to improve diagnostics for avoiding the resorption of lateral maxillary incisors by pressure from erupting canines. Case Report: The first reported case is of a girl who was 11 years and 7 months old when radiographs showed severe resorption of the lateral incisors, along with malformed central incisors and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated several short roots. The second reported case is of a girl who was 9 years and 5 months old when radiographs demonstrated nearly complete resorption on her lateral incisor roots, extremely short roots in the central incisors, and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated extremely short roots in general. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that short root length in general and abnormal incisor morphology are phenotypic traits that were characteristic for both girls who presented with severe lateral incisor resorption due to erupting canines. Furthermore, short roots were also demonstrated in the mothers. Accordingly, short root length in general could be a phenotypic trait, which should be diagnosed early for preventing severe resorption of lateral incisors during canine eruption.

  1. The application of X-ray microtomography for the assessement of root resorption caused by the orthodontic treatment of premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sawicka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate potential application of micro-computed tomography in the morphometric analysis of the root resorption in extracted human first premolars subjected to the orthodontic force. In one patient treated in the orthodontic clinic two mandibular first premolars subjected to orthodontic force for 4 weeks and one control tooth were selected for micro-computed tomographic analysis. The hardware device used in this study was a desktop X-ray microfocus CT scanner (SkyScan 1072. The morphology of root’s surfaces was assessed by TView and Computer Tomography Analyzer (CTAn softwares (SkyScan, bvba which allowed analysis of all microscans, identification of root resorption craters and measurement of their length, width and volume. Microscans showed in details the surface morphology of the investigated teeth. The analysis of microscans allowed to detect 3 root resorption cavities in each of the orthodontically moved tooth and only one resorption crater in the control tooth. The volumes of the resorption craters in orthodontically-treated teeth were much larger than in a control tooth. Micro-computed tomography is a reproducible technique for the three-dimensional non-invasive assessment of root’s morphology ex vivo. TView and CTan softwares are useful in accurate morphometric measurements of root’s resorption.

  2. The application of X-ray microtomography for the assessement of root resorption caused by the orthodontic treatment of premolars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Monika; Bedini, Rossella; Pecci, Raffaella; Pameijer, Cornelis Hans; Kmiec, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate potential application of micro-computed tomography in the morphometric analysis of the root resorption in extracted human first premolars subjected to the orthodontic force. In one patient treated in the orthodontic clinic two mandibular first premolars subjected to orthodontic force for 4 weeks and one control tooth were selected for micro-computed tomographic analysis. The hardware device used in this study was a desktop X-ray microfocus CT scanner (SkyScan 1072). The morphology of root's surfaces was assessed by TView and Computer Tomography Analyzer (CTAn) softwares (SkyScan, bvba) which allowed analysis of all microscans, identification of root resorption craters and measurement of their length, width and volume. Microscans showed in details the surface morphology of the investigated teeth. The analysis of microscans allowed to detect 3 root resorption cavities in each of the orthodontically moved tooth and only one resorption crater in the control tooth. The volumes of the resorption craters in orthodontically-treated teeth were much larger than in a control tooth. Micro-computed tomography is a reproducible technique for the three-dimensional non-invasive assessment of root's morphology ex vivo. TView and CTan softwares are useful in accurate morphometric measurements of root's resorption.

  3. Polyethylene and methyl methacrylate particle-stimulated inflammatory tissue and macrophages up-regulate bone resorption in a murine neonatal calvaria in vitro organ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiping; Wu, Bin; Mayton, Lois; Wooley, Paul H

    2002-09-01

    There is considerable evidence that orthopaedic wear debris plays a crucial role in the pathology of aseptic loosening of joint prostheses. This study examined the effect of inflammatory membranes stimulated with methyl methacrylate and polyethylene on bone resorption, using the murine air pouch model. The capacity of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages exposed to polymer particles to produce factors affecting bone metabolism was also studied. Neonatal calvaria bones were co-cultured with either pouch membranes or conditioned media from activated macrophages. Bone resorption was measured by the release of calcium from cultured bones, and the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in both bone sections and culture medium was also assayed. Results showed that inflammatory pouch membrane activated by methyl methacrylate and polyethylene enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption. Conditioned media from particles stimulated mouse macrophages also stimulated bone resorption, although this effect was weaker than resorption induced by inflammatory pouch membranes. The addition of the particles directly into the medium of cultured calvaria bones had little effect on bone resorption. Our observations indicate that both inflammatory tissue and macrophages provoked by particles can stimulate bone resorption in cultured mouse neonatal calvaria bones. This simple in vitro bone resorption system allows us to investigate the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanism of wear debris induced bone resorption and to screen potential therapeutic approaches for aseptic loosening.

  4. Retrospective panoramic radiographic analysis for idiopathic osteosclerosis in Indians

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    Srikanth H Srivathsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Idiopathic osteosclerosis is an area of increased radiodensity observed on panoramic radiographs. The prevalence of this entity is not known, especially in Indians. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of idiopathic osteosclerosis. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and forty panoramic radiographs were retrospectively analyzed for the presence of idiopathic osteosclerosis by a single trained oral radiologist. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were analyzed using Microsoft Excel (Version 2007 for Windows. Results: Idiopathic osteosclerosis was identified in 32 individuals with a prevalence of 5%. There were 21 female (65.7% and 11 male (34.3% participants. There were 31 single, unilateral (96.85% osteosclerotic lesions and 1 (3.15% bilateral lesion. Right side localization was noted in 19 participants (57.57% and left side localization in 14 participants (42.42%. Conclusion: This study illustrates the prevalence of idiopathic osteosclerosis in Indians. Further, it depicts the characteristics of idiopathic osteosclerotic lesions.

  5. [Idiopathic facial paralysis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, I; Chakroun, A; Ayedi, S; Ben Rhaiem, Z; Mnejja, M; Charfeddine, I; Hammami, B; Ghorbel, A

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic facial palsy is the most common cause of facial nerve palsy in children. Controversy exists regarding treatment options. The objectives of this study were to review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the outcome of idiopathic facial palsy in children to suggest appropriate treatment. A retrospective study was conducted on children with a diagnosis of idiopathic facial palsy from 2007 to 2012. A total of 37 cases (13 males, 24 females) with a mean age of 13.9 years were included in this analysis. The mean duration between onset of Bell's palsy and consultation was 3 days. Of these patients, 78.3% had moderately severe (grade IV) or severe paralysis (grade V on the House and Brackmann grading). Twenty-seven patients were treated in an outpatient context, three patients were hospitalized, and seven patients were treated as outpatients and subsequently hospitalized. All patients received corticosteroids. Eight of them also received antiviral treatment. The complete recovery rate was 94.6% (35/37). The duration of complete recovery was 7.4 weeks. Children with idiopathic facial palsy have a very good prognosis. The complete recovery rate exceeds 90%. However, controversy exists regarding treatment options. High-quality studies have been conducted on adult populations. Medical treatment based on corticosteroids alone or combined with antiviral treatment is certainly effective in improving facial function outcomes in adults. In children, the recommendation for prescription of steroids and antiviral drugs based on adult treatment appears to be justified. Randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population are recommended to define a strategy for management of idiopathic facial paralysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. 3H-tetracycline as a proxy for 41Ca for measuring dietary perturbations of bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Connie; Cheong, Jennifer; Jackson, George; Elmore, David; McCabe, George; Martin, Berdine

    2007-01-01

    Our group is interested in evaluating early effects of dietary interventions on bone loss. Postmenopausal women lose bone following reduction in estrogen which leads to increased risk of fracture. Traditional means of monitoring bone loss and effectiveness of treatments include changes in bone density, which takes 6 months to years to observe effects, and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, which are highly variable and lack specificity. Prelabeling bone with 41 Ca and measuring urinary 41 Ca excretion with accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid approach to evaluating effectiveness of treatment. To better understand 41 Ca technology as a tool for measuring effective treatments on reducing bone resorption, we perturbed bone resorption by manipulating dietary calcium in rats. We used 3 H-tetracycline ( 3 H-TC) as a proxy for 41 Ca and found that a single dose is feasible to study bone resorption. Suppression of bone resorption, as measured by urinary 3 H-TC, by dietary calcium was observed in rats stabilized after ovariectomy, but not in recently ovariectomized rats

  7. Total fertilization failure and idiopathic subfertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goverde Angelique J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain more insight in whether failure of intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment in patients with idiopathic subfertility could be related to diminished fertilization, the aim of this study is to compare the fertilization of an initial IVF procedure after six cycles of IUI and the fertilization of an initial IVF procedure without preceding IUI cycles in couples with idiopathic subfertility. Methods We performed a complimentary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, in which the number of total fertilization failure (TFF in the first IVF procedure after unsuccessful IUI was compared to those of IVF without preceding IUI in patients with idiopathic subfertility. These patients participated in a previous study that assessed the cost effectiveness of IUI versus IVF in idiopathic subfertility and were randomized to either IUI or IVF treatment. Results 45 patients underwent IVF after 6 cycles of unsuccessful IUI and 58 patients underwent IVF immediately without preceding IUI. In 7 patients the IVF treatment was cancelled before ovum pick. In the IVF after unsuccessful IUI group TFF was seen in 2 of the 39 patients (5% versus 7 of the 56 patients (13% in the immediate IVF group. After correction for confounding factors the TFF rate was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.08, OR 7.4; 95% CI: 0.5–14.9. Conclusion Our data showed that TFF and the fertilization rate in the first IVF treatment were not significantly different between couples with idiopathic subfertility undergoing IVF after failure of IUI versus those couples undergoing IVF immediately without prior IUI treatment. Apparently, impaired fertilization does not play a significant role in the success rate of IUI in patients with idiopathic subfertility.

  8. Heterotopic new bone formation causes resorption of the inductive bone matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, O.S.; Persson, P.E.; Ekelund, A.

    1990-01-01

    The bone matrix of growing rats was labeled by multiple injections of 3H-proline, and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was prepared. The DBM was allotransplanted heterotopically into growing rats. New bone formation was induced in and around the implants. The new bone formation was accompanied by a decrease in the content of 3H; 20 and 30 days after implantation, 72% and 46%, respectively, of the activity remained in the implants. Daily injections of indomethacin (2 mg/kg) inhibited calcium uptake by about 20% at 20 and 30 days and inhibited the release of 3H from the DBM to a similar degree. Heterotopic bone induction by DBM is accompanied by matrix resorption, and inhibition of the new bone formation decreases the resorption of DBM

  9. Drug therapy for chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, A. F. J. E.; van Schaik, I. N.; Hughes, R. A. C.; Notermans, N. C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy is an insidiously progressive sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy that affects elderly people. Although severe disability or handicap does not occur, it reduces quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether drug therapy for chronic idiopathic

  10. Conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions: A comparative study

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    C J Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate and compare the efficacy of conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorption cavities and also to evaluate whether the detectability was influenced by resorption cavity sizes. Methods : Thirty-two selected teeth from human dentate mandibles were radiographed in orthoradial, mesioradial and distoradial aspect using conventional film (Insight Kodak F-speed; Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY and a digital sensor (Trophy RVG advanced imaging system with 0.7mm and 1.0mm deep cavities prepared on their vestibular, mesial and distal surfaces at the cervical, middle and apical thirds. Three dental professionals, an endodontist, a radiologist and a general practitioner, evaluated the images twice with a one-week time interval. Results : No statistical significance was seen in the first observation for both conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions and for small and medium cavities but statistical difference was noted in the second observation (P< 0.001 for both the methods. Conclusion : Considering the methodology and the overall results, conventional radiographic method (F-speed performed slightly better than the digital radiographic method in the detection of simulated radiographic method but better consistency was seen with the digital system. Overall size of the resorption cavity had no influence on the performance of both methods and suggests that initial external root resorption lesion is not well-appreciated with both the methods as compared to the advanced lesion.

  11. Investigation on non-equilibrium performance of composite adsorbent for resorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.; Wang, L.W.; Zhou, Z.S.; Zhu, F.Q.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of resorption refrigeration is analyzed based on non-equilibrium reaction process. • The porous matrix improves the heat and mass performance of composite adsorbent. • The actual desorption process has the significant hysteresis phenomenon. • The highest energy efficiency of Manganese and Calcium chloride working pair is 0.272. - Abstract: The aims of this paper is to indicate that the non-equilibrium adsorption testing results is more suitable for prediction of real refrigeration performance than equilibrium data. Therefore, a test unit is constructed to test the non-equilibrium performance of different composite adsorbents. The adsorption and desorption quantity are measured and calculated by smart differential pressure transmitter. The non-equilibrium adsorption performances of working pair of Manganese chloride–ammonia, Calcium chloride–ammonia and Ammonium chloride–ammonia are investigated respectively. Results show that hysteresis phenomena happens obviously in non-equilibrium desorption process, which is related with dual variables rather than single variable. Based on the testing results, resorption refrigeration performance is analyzed, in which Manganese chloride is used as high temperature salt (HTS), and Calcium chloride, Ammonium chloride are selected as low temperature salt (LTS) for comparison. Results show that the highest COP and SCP for resorption refrigeration are about 0.272 and 45.6 W/kg, respectively. Performance of Manganese chloride–Calcium chloride and Manganese chloride–Ammonium chloride working pairs are much lower when compared with theoretical data.

  12. 3D in vivo femoro-tibial kinematics of tri-condylar total knee arthroplasty during kneeling activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Sharma, Adrija; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Ito, Hiromu; Nakamura, Kenji; Zingde, Sumesh M; Nakamura, Takashi; Komistek, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Kneeling position can serve as an important posture, providing stability and balance from a standing position to sitting on the floor or vice-versa. The purpose of the current study was to determine the kinematics during kneeling activities after subjects were implanted with a tri-condylar total knee arthroplasty. Kinematics was evaluated in 54 knees using fluoroscopy and a three-dimensional model fitting approach. The average knee flexion at before contact status, at complete contact and at maximum flexion was 98.1±9.0°, 107.2±6.7°, and 139.6±12.3°, respectively. On average, there was no gross anterior displacement from before contact status to complete contact. Only slight posterior rollback motion of both condyles from complete contact to maximum flexion was observed. Three of 39 (7.7%) knees experienced anterior movement of both condyles more than 2mm from before contact status to complete contact. Reverse rotation pattern from before contact status to complete contact and then normal rotation pattern from complete contact to maximum flexion were observed. Condylar lift-off greater than 1.0 mm was observed in 45 knees (83.3%). The presence of the ball-and-socket joint articulation provides sufficient antero-posterior stability in these designs to enable the patients to kneel safely without the incidence of any dislocation. This study suggests a safe implant design for kneeling. © 2013.

  13. Intracanal management of a post traumatic perforative invasive cervical root resorption using calcium enriched matrix cement

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    Saeed Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical root resorption (ICR is a consequence of a resorptive soft-tissue penetrating into dentin that starts below the gingival attachment and tends to be asymptomatic unless dental pulp involvement. Prompt diagnosis is the key to retention of the involved tooth. Treatment procedure includes non-surgical elimination of the resorptive soft-tissues and restoration of the cavity. In case of pulp involvement, endodontic treatment is indicated. This is a report of a non-surgical intra canal treatment case in a maxillary central incisor, which involved the pulp and was successfully treated with calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement. Based on favorable long-term treatment outcomes, CEM cement may be a promising biomaterial in treatment of ICR cases.

  14. Glucocorticoids maintain human osteoclasts in the active mode of their resorption cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    that glucocorticoids deeply modify this resorptive behavior. First, glucocorticoids gradually induce excavations with a trenchlike morphology while reducing the time-dependent increase in excavation numbers. This indicates that glucocorticoids make osteoclasts elongate the excavations they initiated rather than...... migrating to a new resorption site, as in control conditions. Second, the round excavations in control conditions contain undegraded demineralized collagen as repeatedly reported earlier, whereas the excavations with a trenchlike morphology generated under glucocorticoid exposure appear devoid of leftovers...... of demineralized collagen. This indicates that collagenolysis proceeds generally at a lower rate than demineralization under control conditions, whereas collagenolysis rates are increased up to the level of demineralization rates in the presence of glucocorticoids. Taking these observations together leads...

  15. Effects of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Graft Resorption in an Experimental Model of Maxillary Alveolar Arch Defects

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    Ozgur Pilanci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most commonly used treatments use autologous bone grafts to address bony defects in patients with cleft palate. Major disadvantages of autogenous bone grafts include donor site morbidity and resorption. Suggestions to overcome such problems include biomaterials that can be used alone or in combination with bone. We examined the effect of hydroxyapatite cement on bone graft resorption in a rabbit maxillary alveolar defect model. We divided 16 young adult albino New Zealand rabbits into two groups. A defect 1 cm wide was created in each rabbit's maxillary arch. In Group 1, the removed bone was disrupted, and the pieces were replaced in the defect. In the other group, the pieces were replaced after mixing (1:1 with hydroxyapatite cement. Quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of these grafts was performed in axial and coronal planes for each rabbit at 2 and 12 weeks. In axial images at 12 weeks, the group without cement showed mean bone resorption of 15%. In the cement group, a mean volumetric increase of 68% was seen. No resorption occurred when bone grafts were mixed with hydroxyapatite cement. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(3.000: 170-175

  16. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Common Questions & Glossary Resources ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis Diagnosed ...

  17. Quantitative electromyographic characteristics of idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Han; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Wong, Alice M K; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis with no preceding causes is diagnosed as idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis. However, comprehensive guidelines for evaluating the defining characteristics of idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis are still lacking. In the present study, we hypothesized that idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis may have different clinical and neurologic characteristics from unilateral vocal fold paralysis caused by surgical trauma. Retrospective, case series study. Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis were evaluated using quantitative laryngeal electromyography, videolaryngostroboscopy, voice acoustic analysis, the Voice Outcome Survey, and the Short Form-36 Health Survey quality-of-life questionnaire. Patients with idiopathic and iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis were compared. A total of 124 patients were recruited. Of those, 17 with no definite identified causes after evaluation and follow-up were assigned to the idiopathic group. The remaining 107 patients with surgery-induced vocal fold paralysis were assigned to the iatrogenic group. Patients in the idiopathic group had higher recruitment of the thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid muscle complex and better quality of life compared with the iatrogenic group. Idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis has a distinct clinical presentation, with relatively minor denervation changes in the involved laryngeal muscles, and less impact on quality of life compared with iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:E362-E368, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. The relationships between the arrangement of teeth, root resorption, and dental maturity in bovine mandibular incisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jin-kyu; Ono, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the eruption pattern and root resorption of the bovine anterior dentition in relation to growth-related parameters based on dental maturity. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 bovine anterior mandibles by using standard radiography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and actual measurements. We determined the relationships between the stages of dental maturity by using a modification of Demirjian's method and various growth-related parameters, such as the activity of the root-resorbing tissue and mobility of the deciduous teeth. The correlation of growth-related parameters with interdental spacing and distal unusual root resorption (DRR) of the deciduous fourth incisor was assessed. The cause of mesial unusual root resorption (MRR) of the deciduous fourth incisor was determined on the basis of the arrangement of the permanent third incisor. Results An independent t-test and chi-square test indicated significant differences in growth-related parameters associated with dental arch length discrepancy and factors related to the shedding of deciduous teeth between the low and high dental maturity groups. The samples with interdental spacing and DRR showed a larger sum of mesiodistal permanent crown widths and higher dental maturity than did the respective controls. Samples with MRR tended to show a lingually rotated distal tip of the adjacent tooth crown. Conclusions Dental maturity has relevance to the interdental spaces and unusual root resorption of mixed dentition. The position of the adjacent tooth crown on CBCT may be correlated with the occurrence of unusual root resorption of the incisor. PMID:29090124

  19. Three-dimensional quantification of orthodontic root resorption with time-lapsed imaging of micro-computed tomography in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongshi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Despite various X-ray approaches have been widely used to monitor root resorption after orthodontic treatment, a non-invasive and accurate method is highly desirable for long-term follow up. The aim of this study was to build a non-invasive method to quantify longitudinal orthodontic root resorption with time-lapsed images of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in a rodent model. Twenty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 180-220 g) were used in this study. A 25 g orthodontic force generated by nickel-titanium coil spring was applied to the right maxillary first molar for each rat, while contralateral first molar was severed as a control. Micro-CT scan was performed at day 0 (before orthodontic load) and days 3, 7, 14, and 28 after orthodontic load. Resorption of mesial root of maxillary first molars at bilateral sides was calculated from micro-CT images with registration algorithm via reconstruction, superimposition and partition operations. Obvious resorption of mesial root of maxillary first molar can be detected at day 14 and day 28 at orthodontic side. Most of the resorption occurred in the apical region at distal side and cervical region at mesiolingual side. Desirable development of molar root of rats was identified from day 0 to day 28 at control side. The development of root concentrated on apical region. This non-invasive 3D quantification method with registration algorithm can be used in longitudinal study of root resorption. Obvious root resorption in rat molar can be observed three-dimensionally at day 14 and day 28 after orthodontic load. This indicates that registration algorithm combined with time-lapsed images provides clinic potential application in detection and quantification of root contour.

  20. Effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 exposure on bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askov-Hansen, Carsten; Jeppesen, Palle B; Lund, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    In healthy subjects, subcutaneous injections of GLP-2 have been shown to elicit dose-related decrease in the bone resorption marker, carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), and have been proposed for the treatment of osteoporosis. This study investigated the relation between GLP-2...

  1. Syphilis mimicking idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne; Wegener, Marianne; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of yet unknown aetiology affecting predominantly obese females of childbearing age. IIH is a diagnosis of exclusion as raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure may occur secondary to numerous other medical conditions. An atypical phenotype...... or an atypical disease course should alert the physician to reevaluate a presumed IIH-diagnosis. The authors report a case of a 32-year-old non-obese male with intracranial hypertension, secondary to a syphilitic central nervous system infection, initially misdiagnosed as being idiopathic. Upon relevant...

  2. Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis: Case Report and Its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant P. Jaju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis is a rare condition. We present a case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis with its multidisciplinary approach of management. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathological features have been described in detail.

  3. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a neotropical rain forest of a nutrient-rich soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martínez-Sánchez

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests with nutrient-rich soil tree’s nutrient resorption from senesced leaves has not always been observed to be low. Perhaps this lack of consistence is partly owing to the nutrient resorption methods used. The aim of the study was to analyse N and P resorption proficiency from tropical rain forest trees in a nutrient-rich soil. It was hypothesised that trees would exhibit low nutrient resorption in a nutrient-rich soil. The soil concentrations of total N and extractable P, among other physical and chemical characteristics, were analysed in 30 samples in the soil surface (10 cm of three undisturbed forest plots at ‘Estación de Biología Los Tuxtlas’ on the east coast of Mexico (18°34’ - 18°36’ N, 95°04’ - 95°09’ W. N and P resorption proficiency were determined from senescing leaves in 11 dominant tree species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid. Soil was rich in total N (0.50%, n = 30 and extractable P (4.11 µg g-1, n = 30. As expected, trees showed incomplete N (1.13%, n = 11 and P (0.11%, n = 11 resorption. With a more accurate method of nutrient resorption assessment, it is possible to prove that a forest community with a nutrient-rich soil can have low levels of N and P resorption. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 353-359. Epub 2005 Oct 3.En las selvas tropicales con suelos fértiles se ha observado que la reabsorción de nutrientes de los arboles de las hojas seniles no siempre es baja. Esta falta de consistencia en el resultado es talvez debida en parte a la metodología de reabsorción de nutrientes utilizada. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la reabsorción final de N y P de arboles de la selva húmeda tropical en un suelo rico en nutrientes. La hipótesis planteada fue que en un suelo rico en nutrientes los arboles presentarían una baja reabsorción final de

  4. External apical root resorption in maxillary root-filled incisors after orthodontic treatment: a split-mouth design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Carreras, José María; Amarilla, Almudena; Espinar-Escalona, Eduardo; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; López-Frías, Francisco Javier

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare, in a split mouth design, the external apical root resorption (EARR) associated with orthodontic treatment in root-filled maxillary incisors and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. The study sample consisted of 38 patients (14 males and 24 females), who had one root-filled incisor before completion of multiband/bracket orthodontic therapy for at least 1 year. For each patient, digital panoramic radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to determine the root resortion and the proportion of external root resorption (PRR), defined as the ratio between the root resorption in the endodontically treated incisor and that in its contralateral incisor with a vital pulp. The student's t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between EARR in vital teeth (1.1 ± 1.0 mm) and endodontically treated incisors (1.1 ± 0.8 mm). Twenty-six patients (68.4%) showed greater resorption of the endodontically treated incisor than its homolog vital tooth (p > 0.05). The mean and standard deviation of PPR were 1.0 ± 0.2. Multivariate logistic regression suggested that PRR does not correlate with any of the variables analyzed. There was no significant difference in the amount or severity of external root resorption during orthodontic movement between root-filled incisors and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

  5. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-06-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  6. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagina, N.B.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Degteva, M.O.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  7. Effects of diabetes on tooth movement and root resorption after orthodontic force application in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, K; Hotokezaka, H; Hashimoto, M; Nakano-Tajima, T; Kurohama, T; Kondo, T; Darendeliler, M A; Yoshida, N

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of diabetes on orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in rats. Twenty-three 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into control (n = 7), diabetes (n = 9), and diabetes + insulin (n = 7) groups. Diabetes was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats with a blood glucose level exceeding 250 mg/dl were assigned to the diabetes group. Insulin was administered daily to the diabetes + insulin group. A nickel-titanium closed-coil spring of 10 g was applied for 2 weeks to the maxillary left first molar in all rats to induce mesial tooth movement. Tooth movement was measured using microcomputed tomography images. To determine the quantity of root resorption, the mesial surfaces of the mesial and distal roots of the first molar were analyzed using both scanning electron microscopy and scanning laser microscopy. After 2 weeks, the amount of tooth movement in the diabetic rats was lower than that in the control rats. Root resorption was also significantly lower in the diabetic rats. These responses of the rats caused by diabetes were mostly diminished by insulin administration. Diabetes significantly reduced orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in rats. The regulation of blood glucose level through insulin administration largely reduced these abnormal responses to orthodontic force application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Intraspinal anomalies in early-onset idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E A C; Oxenham, M; Lam, K S

    2017-06-01

    In the United Kingdom, lower incidences of intraspinal abnormalities in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis have been observed than in studies in other countries. We aimed to determine the rates of these abnormalities in United Kingdom patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis before the age of 11 years. This retrospective study of patients attending an urban scoliosis clinic identified 71 patients satisfying a criteria of: clinical diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis; age of onset ten years and 11 months or less; MRI screening for intraspinal abnormalities. United Kingdom census data combined with patient referral data was used to calculate incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was six years with 39 right-sided and 32 left-sided curves. Four patients (5.6%) were found to have intraspinal abnormalities on MRI. These consisted of: two combined Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformations with syrinx; one syrinx with a low lying conus; and one isolated syrinx. Overall annual incidence of early onset idiopathic scoliosis was one out of 182 000 (0.0006%). This study reports the lowest rates to date of intraspinal anomalies in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis, adding to knowledge regarding current incidences of these abnormalities as well as any geographical variation in the nature of the disease. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:829-33. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. Idiopathic epileptic syndromes and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommet, Caroline; Sauerwein, Hannelore C; De Toffol, Bertrand; Lassonde, Maryse

    2006-01-01

    Epilepsy is frequently associated with cognitive impairments which result from various interacting factors. The present paper deals with the contribution of neuropsychology to the characterization of the type of epilepsy and the possible mechanisms underlying idiopathic epileptic syndromes. The non-lesional, so-called idiopathic epilepsies, constitute an interesting model for assessing the relationship between epileptiform EEG discharges and cognition. Among the idiopathic generalized epilepsies, disorders of social integration and personality have been frequently reported in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Since similar disturbances are observed in frontal-lobe-lesioned patients, impairments in other frontal lobe functions (e.g. executive functions) might be expected in JME. This gives rise to speculation about the possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in JME. With regard to partial idiopathic epilepsies, benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) may provide a useful model for the study of the relationship between epileptiform EEG discharges in the peri-sylvian region and language functions. Furthermore, the description of mild cognitive dysfunctions in BCECTS, and their persistence into adulthood, can provide information about compensatory mechanisms and may allow for the generation of remedial strategies. Thus, 'lesional' neuropsychology has given way to 'dynamic' neuropsychology based on specific postulates. By using the cognitive profile to specify the mechanism underlying the behavioral disturbances observed in different types of epilepsy, neuropsychology may eventually contribute to a revision of the present classification of epileptic syndromes. In addition, the neuropsychological data may help predict the extent and limits of functional recovery and cerebral plasticity.

  10. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, E.; Akin, M.; Can, Mehmet F.; Ozrehan, I.; Yagci, G.; Tufan, T.; Kurt, B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to discuss the clinical and radiological features and treatment approaches in 14 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (GM). We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings and treatment approaches in 14 patients with idiopathic GM in the General Surgery Department, Gulhane School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between April 2000 and June 2006. The mean age of the patients was 34.5 years (range 27-41 years). The complaints at admission were a mass in the breast in 7 (50%) patients, an abscess and a mass in 6 (42.8%) and a skin fisculain one (7.2%). Granulomatous mastitis was unilateral in all subjects (on the right in 5 patients and on the left in 9). All of the patients underwent ultrasonographic evaluation. Mammography was performed in 8 and magnetic resonance imaging in 5 patients. Seven patients (50%) were suspected to have breast carcinoma according radiological findings. We performed the large excision in 11, incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage in one, and incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage plus medical treatment (prednisolone, methotrexate) in 2 patients. Due to the development of abscess after 9 months, drainage and large excision were performed in one patient who received medical treatment. Idiopathic GM is a disease that generally affects young women of reproductive age and may be mistaken for breast carcinoma in clinical and radiological evaluations. The gold standard for the diagnosis is histopathologic evaluation. (author)

  11. Role of gastrointestinal hormones in postprandial reduction of bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Bjarnason, Nina H

    2003-01-01

    Collagen type I fragments, reflecting bone resorption, and release of gut hormones were investigated after a meal. Investigations led to a dose escalation study with glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in postmenopausal women. We found a dose-dependent effect of GLP-2 on the reduction of bone...

  12. Age-dependent external root resorption during tooth movement in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C.; Liem, Robert S. B.; Stokroos, Ietse; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of age on root resorption and distribution along different parts of the root during prolonged light force application. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Orthodontic appliances were placed in two groups of 30 rats (one group 6 weeks old, the other 9-12 months old), with

  13. Age-dependent external root resorption during tooth movement in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Maltha, J.C.; Liem, R.S.; Stokroos, I.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of age on root resorption and distribution along different parts of the root during prolonged light force application. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Orthodontic appliances were placed in two groups of 30 rats (one group 6 weeks old, the other 9-12 months old), with

  14. Angiopoietin-2 polymorphism in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, Detlef; Tempfer, Clemens; Bettendorf, Hertha; Bürkle, Bernd; Nagele, Fritz; Unfried, Gertrud; Keck, Christoph

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between idiopathic recurrent miscarriage and a polymorphism of the gene encoding for angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), an autochthonous modulator of angiogenesis during pregnancy. Prospective case control study. Academic research institution. One hundred thirty-one women with a history of three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks' gestation, and 125 healthy, postmenopausal controls with at least two live births and no history of pregnancy loss. Peripheral venous puncture. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were performed to identify the different ANGPT2 alleles. No association between mutant (mt) allele and the occurrence of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage was found. Between women with primary and secondary idiopathic recurrent miscarriage, no statistically significant differences with respect to allele frequencies were observed. This is the first report on the ANGPT2 gene polymorphism in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage, demonstrating that the investigated polymorphism is not associated with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage in a white population.

  15. Odontoclastic resorption in two dogs - Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Basilio de Oliveira Gneidin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Gneiding J.E.B. de O., Gneiding B., Lucioli J., Pimpão C.T. & Prado A.M. do R.B. [Odontoclastic resorption in two dogs - Case report.] Reabsorção odontoclástica em dois cães - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(3:281-286, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, BR 376 Km 14, São José dos Pinhais, PR 83010-500, Brasil. E-mail: joseeduardo@veterinario.med.br Most often the lesions by odontoclastic resorption (LRO, have been observed in dogs around the globe. Despite being a relatively common disease in cats, it is rarely reported in dogs. Perhaps the lack of reports is related to the non realization of intraoral radiographs for dental treatments in veterinary clinics and hospitals. The LRO is characterized by presenting symptoms such as halitosis, dysphagia, ptyalism, anorexia, dehydration, weight loss, lethargy, head shaking, sneezing and mandibular trismus. These symptoms can often be confused with severe periodontal disease, since in both situations, often makes this a massive amount of dental calculus, which usually complicates the diagnosis by physical examination only. This article describes two cases of LRO in dogs treated at the Hospital Unit of Companion Animals (UHAC, the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUC-PR Sant Joseph of Pinhais campus, which showed satisfactory results after extraction treatment.

  16. Technological advances in endodontics: treatment of a mandibular molar with internal root resorption using a reciprocating single-file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Samir Noronha; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Sponchiado-Júnior, EmÍlio Carlos; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; da Frota, Matheus Franco; de Carvalho, Fredson Márcio Acris

    2017-01-01

    The field of endodontics has become increasingly successful due to technological advances that allow clinicians to solve clinical cases that would have been problematic a few years ago. Despite such advances, endodontic treatment of teeth with internal root resorption remains challenging. This article presents a clinical case in which a reciprocating single-file system was used for endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with internal root resorption. Radiographic examination revealed the presence of internal root resorption in the distobuccal root canal of the mandibular right first molar. A reciprocating single-file system was used for root canal instrumentation and final preparation, and filling was obtained through a thermal compaction technique. No painful symptoms or periapical lesions were observed in 12 months of follow-up. The results indicate that a reciprocating single-file system is an adequate alternative for root canal instrumentation, particularly in teeth with internal root resorption.

  17. Spontaneous resorption of sub-retinal cortical lens material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil S Gadkari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of retained sub-retinal cortical material, which underwent spontaneous resorption. Patient presented with a left eye traumatic retinal detachment with a large retinal tear and posteriorly dislocated cataractous lens. Vitrectomy, lensectomy, silicone oil injection, and endolaser were performed. A good visual result was achieved. The report draws attention to this condition and highlights possible technique for minimizing risk of this complication in similar cases.

  18. Leaf N resorption efficiency and litter N mineralization rate have a genotypic tradeoff in a silver birch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, Juha; Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Possen, Boy J M H; Rousi, Matti

    2018-02-07

    Plants enhance N use efficiency by resorbing N from senescing leaves. This can affect litter N mineralization rate due to the C:N-ratio requirements of microbial growth. We examined genotypic links between leaf N resorption and litter mineralization by collecting leaves and litter from 19 Betula pendula genotypes and following the N release of litter patches on forest ground. We found significant genotypic variation for N resorption efficiency, litter N concentration, cumulative three-year patch N-input and litter N release with high broad-sense heritabilities (H 2  = 0.28-0.65). The genotype means of N resorption efficiency varied from 46% to 65% and correlated negatively with the genotype means of litter N concentration, cumulative patch N-input and litter N release. NH 4 + yield under patches had a positive genotypic correlation with the cumulative patch N-input. During the first year of litter decomposition, genotypes varied from N immobilization (max 2.71 mg/g dry litter) to N release (max 1.41 mg/g dry litter), creating a genotypic tradeoff between the N conserved by resorption and the N available for root uptake during the growing season. We speculate that this tradeoff is one likely reason for the remarkably wide genotypic range of N resorption efficiencies in our birch population. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Orthodontic-surgical management of a case of severe mandibular deficiency due to condylar ankylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi Padmanabhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentofacial deformities involve deviations from the normal facial proportions and dental relationships and can range from mild to being severe enough to be severely handicapping.The term handicapping malocclusions though not a term commonly used, involves a fortunately small section (2-4% of patients who can suffer from esthetic,psychological and functional problems. Craniofacial Orthodontics is the area of orthodontics that treats patients with congenital and acquired deformities of the integument and it′s underlying musculoskeletal system within the craniofacial area and associated structures.This case report of a young woman with severe mandibular deficiency and facial asymmetry due to condylar ankylosis highlights the importance of team work in rehabilitation of such severe craniofacial deformities.

  20. Excellent Survival and Good Outcomes at 15 Years Using the Press-Fit Condylar Sigma Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, William M; Arthur, Calum H C; Wood, Alexander M; Clayton, Robert A E; Brenkel, Ivan J; Walmsley, Philip

    2018-03-27

    We report 15-year survival, clinical, and radiographic follow-up data for the Press-Fit Condylar Sigma total knee arthroplasty. Between October 1998 and October 1999, 235 consecutive TKAs were performed in 203 patients. Patients were reviewed at a specialist nurse-led clinic before surgery and at 5, 8-10, and 15 years postoperatively. Clinical outcomes, including Knee Society Score, were recorded prospectively at each clinic visit, and radiographs were obtained. Of our initial cohort, 99 patients (118 knees) were alive at 15 years, and 31 patients (34 knees) were lost to follow-up. Thirteen knees (5.5%) were revised; 5 (2.1%) for infection, 7 (3%) for instability, and 1 (0.4%) for aseptic loosening. Cumulative survival with the end point of revision for any reason was 92.3% at 15 years and with revision for aseptic failure as the end point was 94.4%. The mean Knee Society Score knee score was 77.4 (33-99) at 15 years, compared with 31.7 (2-62) preoperatively. Of 71 surviving knees for which X-rays were available, 12 (16.9%) had radiolucent lines and 1 (1.4%) demonstrated clear radiographic evidence of loosening. The Press-Fit Condylar Sigma total knee arthroplasty represents a durable, effective option for patients undergoing knee arthroplasty, with excellent survival and good clinical and radiographic outcomes at 15 years. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis triggered by Aspergillus empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Suzuki

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbation (AE is a severe and life-threatening complication of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. In 2016, the definition and diagnostic criteria for AE-IPF were updated by an international working group. The new definition includes any acute, clinically significant respiratory deterioration (both idiopathic and triggered events characterized by evidence of new widespread alveolar abnormality in patients with IPF. There are no currently proven beneficial management strategies for idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. This is the first report describing AE-IPF triggered by Aspergillus empyema, which was improved by a combination of corticosteroid, systemic antifungal therapy, local antifungal therapy, and additional pharmacological therapies. Future research may reveal optimal strategies for both idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Acute exacerbation, AE-IPF, Triggered AE, Aspergillus infection

  2. Strontium ranelate improved tooth anchorage and reduced root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero

    2014-12-05

    The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Methods of X-ray examination of condylar knee replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrik, P.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the methodology of X-ray examination of patients with a condylar knee replacement. Preoperative examination includes standard anterio-posterior and lateral projections, axial projection of the patella in 30 deg flexion of the knee, examination of the mechanical axis of the extremity on a 90 x 30 format and the radioscopic assessment of the centre of the hip joint, essential for the correct centering of the knee implant. Immediately after surgery the position of the implant is checked in two standard projections. Another X-ray check is made after six weeks, before partial loading of the joint is permitted. A complete X-ray examination is made prior to the full loading of the knee joint. The methods are also discussed of the X-ray evaluation of complications such as aseptic loosening of the components, infection, instability, fractures. The general solution od these problems is described. The necessity is underlined of the deliberate and qualified indication of X-ray examinations. The basic prerequisites are listed for reducing the present considerable radiation burden of these patients in the course of the many X-ray examinations. (author). 7 figs., 3 tab., 6 refs

  4. Impact of mounting methods in computerized axiography on assessment of condylar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierz, Oliver; Wagner, Philipp; Rauch, Angelika; Reissmann, Daniel R

    2017-08-30

    Valid and reliable recording is a key requirement for accurately simulating individual jaw movements. Horizontal condylar inclination (HCI) and Bennett's angle were measured using a digital jaw tracker (Cadiax® Compact 2) in 27 young adults. Three mounting methods (paraocclusal tray adapter, periocclusal tray adapter, and tray adapter with mandibular clamp) were tested. The mean values of the HCI differed by up to 10° between the mounting methods; however, the values for Bennett's angle did not differ substantially. While the intersession reliability of the Bennett's angle assessment did not depend on the mounting method, the reliability of the HCI assessment was only fair to good for the paraocclusal mounting method but poor for both periocclusal mounting methods. For attaching the tracing bow of jaw trackers to the mandible, a paraocclusal tray adapter should be applied, to achieve the most reliable results.

  5. Comparison of CSF Distribution between Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Ishikawa, M; Yamamoto, K

    2016-07-01

    CSF volumes in the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure are increased in both idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, though the differences in these volumes in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease have not been well-described. Using CSF segmentation and volume quantification, we compared the distribution of CSF in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease. CSF volumes were extracted from T2-weighted 3D spin-echo sequences on 3T MR imaging and quantified semi-automatically. We compared the volumes and ratios of the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces after classification in 30 patients diagnosed with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, 10 with concurrent idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, 18 with Alzheimer disease, and 26 control subjects 60 years of age or older. Brain to ventricle ratios at the anterior and posterior commissure levels and 3D volumetric convexity cistern to ventricle ratios were useful indices for the differential diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus or idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease from Alzheimer disease, similar to the z-Evans index and callosal angle. The most distinctive characteristics of the CSF distribution in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were small convexity subarachnoid spaces and the large volume of the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure. The distribution of the subarachnoid spaces in the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was the most deformed among these 3 groups, though the mean ventricular volume of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was intermediate between that of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease groups. The z-axial expansion of the lateral ventricle and compression of the brain just above the ventricle were the common findings in the parameters for differentiating

  6. Intestinal Volvulus in Idiopathic Steatorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, H. A.; Kinnear, D. G.; Cameron, D. G.

    1963-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestine has recently been observed in three patients with idiopathic steatorrhea in relapse. Two patients gave a history of intermittent abdominal pain, distension and obstipation. Radiographic studies during these attacks revealed obstruction at the level of the sigmoid colon. Reduction under proctoscopic control was achieved in one instance, spontaneous resolution occurring in the other. The third patient presented as a surgical emergency and underwent operative reduction of a small intestinal volvulus. Persistence of diarrhea and weight loss postoperatively led to further investigation and a diagnosis of idiopathic steatorrhea. In all cases, treatment resulted in clinical remission with a coincident disappearance of obstructive intestinal symptoms. The pathogenesis of volvulus in sprue is poorly understood. Atonicity and dilatation of the bowel and stretching of the mesentery likely represent important factors. The symptoms of recurrent abdominal pain and distension in idiopathic steatorrhea necessitate an increased awareness of intestinal volvulus as a complication of this disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Figs. 4 and 5Fig. 6 PMID:13998948

  7. Effects of clodronate on early alveolar bone remodeling and root resorption related to orthodontic forces: a histomorphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Josefina; Baek, Seung-Hak; Lee, Jae-Il; Chang, Young-Il

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of clodronate, a first-generation bisphosphonate, on early alveolar bone remodeling and root resorption related to orthodontic tooth movement. The samples consisted of 54 sex-matched Wistar rats (weight, 180-230 g) allocated to the 2.5 mmol/L clodronate, 10 mmol/L clodronate, and control groups (n = 18 for each group). After application of a nickel-titanium closed-coil spring (force, 60 g) between the maxillary central incisor and first molar, 2.5 mmol/L of clodronate, 10 mmol/L of clodronate, or saline solution was injected into the subperiosteum adjacent to the maxillary first molar every third day. All animals received tetracycline, calcein, and alizarin red by intraperitoneal injection at 1, 6, and 14 days, respectively. The amounts of tooth movement were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days. The animals were killed at 4, 7, and 17 days. Histomorphometric analyses of bone mineral appositional rate, labeled surface, percentage of root resorption area, and number of root resorption lacunae of the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar at 4, 7, and 17 days were done. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc test were done for statistical analyses. Rats in the 10 mmol/L clodronate group had significant decreases of tooth movement (12 and 15 days, P root resorption area and numbers of root resorption lacunae (7 day, P root resorption related to orthodontic tooth movement, patients should be informed about a possible decrease in the amount of tooth movement and a prolonged period of orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roelof; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular membrane that proliferates on the inner surface of the retina at the macular area. Membrane contraction is an important sight-threatening event and is due to fibrotic remodeling. Methods: Analysis of the current literature

  9. Efficacy of XP-endo Finisher File in Removing Calcium Hydroxide from Simulated Internal Resorption Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cangül; Sariyilmaz, Evren; Sariyilmaz, Öznur

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementary use of XP-endo Finisher file, passive ultrasonic activation (PUI), EndoActivator (EA), and CanalBrush (CB) on the removal of calcium hydroxide (CH) paste from simulated internal resorption cavities. The root canals of 110 extracted single-rooted teeth with straight canals were prepared up to size 50. The specimens were split longitudinally, and standardized internal resorption cavities were prepared with burs. The cavities and root canals were filled with CH paste. The specimens were divided into 5 groups as follows: XP-endo Finisher, EA, PUI, CB, and syringe irrigation (SI). The root canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes, respectively. Apart from the SI group, both solutions were activated by using tested techniques for 1 minute. The quantity of CH remnants on resorption cavities was scored. Data were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests. XP-endo Finisher and PUI removed significantly more CH than SI, EA, and CB (P  .05). Differences among SI, EA, and CB were also non-significant (P > .05). None of the tested techniques render the simulated internal resorption cavities free of CH debris. XP-endo Finisher and PUI were superior to SI, CB, and EA. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone augmentation of the osteo-odonto alveolar lamina in MOOKP--will it delay laminar resorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Geetha; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Agarwal, Shweta; Rishi, Ekta; Rishi, Pukhraj; Rajan, Gunaseelan; Shanmugasundaram, Shanmugasundaram

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to describe a new technique and analyse the early outcomes of augmenting the canine tooth using a mandibular bone graft in an attempt to delay or retard the process of laminar resorption following the modified osteo odonto keratoprosthesis (MOOKP) procedure. This was a retrospective case series. Eyes that underwent the bone augmentation procedure between December 2012 and February 2014 were retrospectively analysed. The procedure, performed by the oromaxillofacial surgeon, involved securing a mandibular bone graft beneath the periosteum on the labial aspect of the canine tooth chosen to be harvested for the MOOKP procedure. This procedure was performed simultaneously with the Stage 1 A of the MOOKP. Three months later, the tooth was harvested and fashioned into the osteo-odonto alveolar lamina similar to the method described in the Rome-Vienna Protocol. The bone augmentation procedure was performed in 11 eyes (five SJS/ six chemical injuries). The mean follow-up after Stage 2 of MOOKP procedure in these eyes was 7.45 months (2 to 20 months). Complications noted were peripheral laminar exposure (three eyes-SJS) and bone graft exposure and necrosis in the mouth (nine-SJS). No evidence of clinical laminar resorption was noted in any of the eyes. Laminar resorption in MOOKP can lead to vision and globe threatening complications due to the consequent cylinder instability and chances of extrusion. Augmenting the bone on the labial aspect of the canine tooth might have a role to play in delaying or preventing laminar resorption.

  11. BoneCeramic graft regenerates alveolar defects but slows orthodontic tooth movement with less root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Nan; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao; Bai, Yuxing; Li, Song; Liu, Yunfeng; Wei, Xiaoxia

    2016-04-01

    BoneCeramic (Straumann, Basel, Switzerland) can regenerate bone in alveolar defects after tooth extraction, but it is unknown whether it is feasible to move a tooth through BoneCeramic grafting sites. The objective of this study was to investigate 3-dimensional real-time root resorption and bone responses in grafted sites during orthodontic tooth movement. Sixty 5-week-old rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups to receive BoneCeramic, natural bovine cancellous bone particles (Bio-Oss; Geistlich Pharma, Wolhusen, Switzerland), or no graft, after the extraction of the maxillary left first molar. After 4 weeks, the maxillary left second molar was moved into the extraction site for 28 days. Dynamic bone microstructures and root resorption were evaluated using in-vivo microcomputed tomography. Stress distribution and corresponding tissue responses were examined by the finite element method and histology. Mixed model analysis of variance was performed to compare the differences among time points with Bonferroni post-hoc tests at the significance level of P root resorption volumes and craters, and the highest bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and mean trabecular thickness, followed by the Bio-Oss and the control groups. The highest stress accumulated in the cervical region of the mesial roots. BoneCeramic has better osteoconductive potential and induces less root resorption compared with Bio-Oss grafting and naturally recovered extraction sites. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resorption of lateral incisors during canine eruption: two clinical cases with focus on root length and heredity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zargham, Mostafa; Kjær, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is well-known that pressure from orthodontic appliance can provoke root resorption in dentitions with short roots. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate two clinical cases with focus on root length in dentitions exposed due to pressure from erupting teeth...... resorption on her lateral incisor roots, extremely short roots in the central incisors, and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated extremely short roots in general. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that short...... root length in general and abnormal incisor morphology are phenotypic traits that were characteristic for both girls who presented with severe lateral incisor resorption due to erupting canines. Furthermore, short roots were also demonstrated in the mothers. Accordingly, short root length in general...

  13. [Inferior hemiarthroplasty of the temporo-mandibular joint with articulated condylar prosthesis type Stryker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, A; Dincă, O; Totan, C; Ghită, V

    2007-01-01

    The optimal reconstruction of the mandible and of the temporo-mandibular joint after mandibular hemi-resection with disarticulation is still controversial in literature. This paperwork presents our experience on four cases in the reconstruction of the mandible together with the inferior arthroplasty of the temporo-mandibular joint, after the resection of extended benign tumors of the mandible, based on fibular free vascularized grafts having attached a Stryker titanium condylar prosthesis reconstructing the inferior segment of the temporo-mandibular joint. Our results for the this technique were excellent, with a functional rehabilitation very close to normal. After reviewing the various techniques and their arguments in literature, with accent on the TMJ reconstruction, we consider this method to be optimal for the reconstruction of mandibular defects in patients with neoplastic conditions.

  14. All washed out? Foliar nutrient resorption and leaching in senescing switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideal bioenergy feedstocks are low in nutrients that act as anti-quality factors during conversion processes. Research has shown that delaying harvest of temperate perennial grasses until late winter reduces nutrient content, primarily due to end-season resorption, but also indicates a role for foli...

  15. Idiopathic scoliosis; a biomechanical and functional anatomical study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, Albert Gerrit

    1985-01-01

    Although many types of causes of scoliosis are known, the idiopathic variety comprises the largest group and as its name indicates, its a etiology is unknown. Idiopathics coliosis develops in a previously normal vertebral column and has been recognized as an entity for more than a century.

  16. External apical root resorption in non-extraction cases after clear aligner therapy or fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianru Yi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: The application of removable aligner in orthodontic treatment has increased rapidly in recent years, while its effects on root resorption remains unclear. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the amount of external apical root resorption (EARR in non-extraction patients receiving clear aligner therapy (CAT or fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT. Materials and methods: Eighty non-extraction patients treated with CAT or FOT exclusively were evaluated retrospectively. Panoramic radiographs were used to measure the length of crowns and roots of the incisors before and after treatment. The amount of EARR was determined by the relative change of root-crown ratio and compared between the two groups. The potential predictive factors of EARR were investigated using spearman correlation analysis. Results: The overall EARR in the CAT patients was significantly less than the FOT. Similar results were observed in maxillary central incisors, maxillary lateral incisors, mandibular central incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. The duration of treatment positively correlated with the amount of EARR in both modalities. Gender, age, skeletal pattern or degree of malocclusion did not affect the occurrence of EARR. Conclusion: Clear aligner therapy may have a superiority of reducing external apical root resorption compared to fixed orthodontic treatment in non-extraction patients. Keywords: Clear aligner, Fixed orthodontics, Root resorption

  17. Pathology of idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Maria; Sarcognato, Samantha; Sacchi, Diana; Colloredo, Guido

    2018-04-12

    Idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension is an under-recognized vascular liver disease of unknown etiology, characterized by clinical signs of portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis. By definition, any disorder known to cause portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis and any cause of chronic liver disease must be excluded to make a diagnosis of idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. However, the diagnosis is often difficult because the disease resembles cirrhosis and there is no gold standard test. Liver biopsy is an essential tool: it is able to exclude cirrhosis and other causes of portal hypertension and it allows the identification of the characteristic lesions. Nonetheless, the histological diagnosis of idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension is not always straightforward, in particular by needle biopsy samples, because there is no pathognomonic lesion, but rather a variety of vascular changes which are unevenly distributed, very subtle, and not all necessarily identified in a single specimen. Pathologists should be able to recognize several patterns of injury, involving portal/periportal areas as well as parenchymal structures.The histological features of idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension are described in this review, focusing on their interpretation in needle biopsy specimens.

  18. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreich, Eliane Maria; Chibinski, Ana Cláudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Letícia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosário de Arruda Moura; de Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; de Moraes, Luiz Cesar

    2016-03-01

    This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  19. A posterior registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreich, Eliane Maria; Chibinski, Ana Claudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Leticia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosaio De Arruda Moura [School of Dentistry, Ponta Grossa State University, Ponta Grossa, Parana (Brazil); De Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; De Moraes, Luiz Cesar [Dept. of Dental Radiology, School of Dentistry, State University of Sao Paulo, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  20. A posterior registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreich, Eliane Maria; Chibinski, Ana Claudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Leticia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosaio De Arruda Moura; De Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; De Moraes, Luiz Cesar

    2016-01-01

    This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment

  1. Morphometric evaluation of external root resorption of mandibular second molar teeth adjacent to the impacted third molars in CBCT imaging of Tehran\\'s population between 2011-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ezoddini Ardakani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of external root resorption in second molars associated with impacted mandibular third molars was not rare. The neglect of this issue may leads to penetration of the pulp and loss of the second molars. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors affecting the external root resorption in second molars associated with mandibular impacted third molars were inclined mesially and horizontally by Cone Beam Computer Tomography (CBCT images. Methods: In this cross sectional study the samples consisted of 231 scans with mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars. Incidence of external root resorption of second molars and the effects of age, gender and clinical parameters such as location and intensity of external root resorption were considered. Moreover, depth and inclination of impacted mandibular third molar were evaluated by CBCT. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: The overall incidence of external root resorption in the second molars was 22.08%. Incidence of external root resorption in second molars was significantly related to gender and inclination of third molar. The relations between external root resorption and impaction depth of third molar or the patient's age was not statistically significant. However, the relationship between external root resorption and the intensity or depth of impacted third molar and location of root resorption was statistically meaningful. Conclusion: Patient’s gender and horizontal inclination of third molars are the most important factors affecting the presence of external root resorption in the second molars associated with mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars.

  2. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaubet, Antoni; Ancochea, Julio; Molina-Molina, María

    2017-02-23

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia associated with the radiological and/or histological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Its aetiology is unknown, but probably comprises the action of endogenous and exogenous micro-environmental factors in subjects with genetic predisposition. Its diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic findings of high-resolution computed tomography scans and pulmonary biopsies in absence of interstitial lung diseases of other aetiologies. Its clinical evolution is variable, although the mean survival rate is 2-5 years as of its clinical presentation. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may present complications and comorbidities which modify the disease's clinical course and prognosis. In the mild-moderate disease, the treatment consists of the administration of anti-fibrotic drugs. In severe disease, the best therapeutic option is pulmonary transplantation. In this paper we review the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence for cognitive vestibular integration impairment in idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercier Pierre

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is characterized by a three-dimensional deviation of the vertebral column and its etiopathogenesis is unknown. Various factors cause idiopathic scoliosis, and among these a prominent role has been attributed to the vestibular system. While the deficits in sensorimotor transformations have been documented in idiopathic scoliosis patients, little attention has been devoted to their capacity to integrate vestibular information for cognitive processing for space perception. Seated idiopathic scoliosis patients and control subjects experienced rotations of different directions and amplitudes in the dark and produced saccades that would reproduce their perceived spatial characteristics of the rotations (vestibular condition. We also controlled for possible alteration of the oculomotor and vestibular systems by measuring the subject's accuracy in producing saccades towards memorized peripheral targets in absence of body rotation and the gain of their vestibulo-ocular reflex. Results Compared to healthy controls, the idiopathic scoliosis patients underestimated the amplitude of their rotations. Moreover, the results revealed that idiopathic scoliosis patients produced accurate saccades to memorized peripheral targets in absence of body rotation and that their vestibulo-ocular reflex gain did not differ from that of control participants. Conclusion Overall, results of the present study demonstrate that idiopathic scoliosis patients have an alteration in cognitive integration of vestibular signals. It is possible that severe spine deformity developed partly due to impaired vestibular information travelling from the cerebellum to the vestibular cortical network or alteration in the cortical mechanisms processing the vestibular signals.

  4. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Chowanska, Joanna; Kinel, Edyta; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Marek; Janusz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%–3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid the need for surgical treatment. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe idiopathic scoliosis which is rapidly progressive, with early onset, late diagnosis, and neglected or failed conservative treatment. The psychologic impact of idiopathic scoliosis, a chronic disease occurring in the psychologically fragile period of adolescence, is important because of its body distorting character and the onerous treatment required, either conservative or surgical

  5. Eubacterium brachy - Reactivity in In Vitro Bone Resorptive Bioassay,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-10

    Center Washington, D. C . 20307 If Eubacterium brachy - Reactivity in In Vitro Bone Resorptive Bioassay 1. ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated an...Relative distribution of bacteria at clinically healthy and periodontally diseased sites in humans. J Clin Periodontal 5:115, 1978. 3. Evian, C ...applied foreign protein into rat gingiva. J Periodont Res 6:89, 1971. 21. Gaffer, A., Coleman, E.J., and Marcussen, H.W.: Penetration of dental plaque

  6. Incidence and severity of root resorption in orthodontically moved premolars in dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltha, J.C.; Leeuwen, E.J. van; Dijkman, G.E.H.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study treatment-related factors for external root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. DESIGN: An experimental animal study. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Department of Orthodontics and Oral Biology, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Twenty-four young

  7. Is idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis attributed to small stones?

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Wai-Keung; Peng, Yen-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis remains a clinical challenge. Intraductal ultrasonography in the management of idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis may be a new strategy for undetermined causes after initial diagnostic approaches, including endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). However, no definite cause after ERCP should be defined under optimal settings and with experienced technique.

  8. Fifteen-year Clinical Follow-up of Restoration of Extensive Cervical Resorption in a Maxillary Central Incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reston, E G; Bueno, Rpr; Closs, L Q; Zettermann, J

    Internal bleaching in endodontically treated teeth requires care and protection to prevent harm to the periodontal ligament due to peroxide and may result in external root resorption. There is a myriad of treatment options when this occurs, such as monitoring, extraction, and subsequent rehabilitation with implants or fixed prosthodontics. In some cases, such as the one described here, a conservative attempt to maintain the tooth as a single structure can be made by sealing the resorptive defect. In the present case, we show a multidisciplinary approach where orthodontics, periodontics, and restorative dentistry were involved in treating the maxillary right central incisor (#8) of a 65-year-old patient with extensive cervical resorption, whose chief complaint was esthetics. The proposed treatment was extrusion of the tooth followed by curettage and restoration of the defect with glass ionomer cement. The patient has been followed for 15 years with no signs of recurrence, maintenance of periodontal health, and patient satisfaction with the esthetic outcome.

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Charge-coupled Device Sensor and Photostimulable Phosphor Plate Receptor in the Detection of External Root Resorption In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Sakhdari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Early diagnosis of external root resorption is important for accurate treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a charge-coupled device (CCD sensor and a photostimulable phosphor (PSP plate receptor in the diagnosis of artificial external root resorption. Materials and methods. In this diagnostic in-vitro study, 40 maxillary incisors were mounted in a segment of dry bone and preliminary radiographs were obtained using CCD and PSP sensors. Artificial resorption cavities were produced on the middle-third in half of the samples and on the cervical-third in the other half on the buccal root surfaces. Radiographs were repeated and images were evaluated. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and diagnostic tests. Results. There were no significant differences between the two sensors in the sensitivity (p=0.08 and 0.06 and specificity (p=0.13 for the diagnosis of resorption in both root areas. The overall accuracy of CCD was higher than PSP sensor; how-ever, the difference was not statistically significance (p>0.05. Conclusion. CCD and PSP sensors chosen for the present study produced similar results in diagnosing simulated external root resorption.

  10. Pre-Eruptive Coronal Resorption and Congenitally Missing Teeth in a Patient with Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Miloglu, Ozkan; Karaalioglu, Osman Fatih; Caglayan, Fatma; Yesil, Zeynep Duymus

    2009-01-01

    This clinical report describes a male with autosomal recessive generalized hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. This case is unusual in coronal resorptions prior to tooth eruption. This finding has been reported in some cases of autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant and X linked amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). In reported cases, the defects were usually small and occurred in a maximum of 2 teeth per person. In our case, pre-eruptive coronal resorptions affected three second molar teeth from b...

  11. Effect of periodontal ligament removal with gauze prior to delayed replantation in rabbit incisors on rate of replacement resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslamani, Manal; Joseph, Bobby; Gabato, Severino; Andersson, Lars

    2018-03-23

    Delayed (dry storage > 60 minutes) replantation results in ankylosis and replacement resorption. It has been suggested to remove the non-viable periodontal ligament before replantation to possibly reduce the rate of replacement resorption. However there has been no study on the rate of replacement resorption after such measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if there was any difference in the rate of replacement resorption by either removing the periodontal ligament (PDL) with gauze or not removing PDL in teeth subjected to delayed replantation followed by healing for 2 or 6 weeks. Maxillary central incisors were extracted in 8 rabbits. In the right central incisors, the necrotic PDL was removed by dry gauze over the root surface. In the left eight extracted teeth PDL was left on the root surface. All extracted teeth were left to dry for 60 minutes. Extra-oral root canal treatment was performed before replantation. The rabbits were sacrificed after 2 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. Histologic processing and evaluation was done. In the 2 weeks group, all teeth showed ankylosis. The cementum was intact, and fusion of the bone and root was generally seen without resorption of the root, whereas in the 6 weeks group regardless of whether PDL had been kept or not, ankylosis and osseous replacement of the dentin was seen. There was no evidence of inflammatory infiltrate in the sections examined. Removal of PDL prior to delayed replantation may result in some initial protection of the cementum during the first few weeks. However, over longer times there seems to be neither protection of the dentin from ankylosis and osseous replacement, nor any influence on the rate of replacement resorption. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of gingival fibroblasts and ultrasound on dogs′ root resorption during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Crossman

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: OIGFs, LIPUS, and BMP-2 can be potential treatments for orthodontically induced root resorption, however, improvements in experimental design and treatment parameters are required to further investigate these repair modalities.

  13. Treatment of the idiopathic scoliosis with brace and physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundozi-Hysenaj, Hajrije; Dallku, Iliriana Boshnjaku; Murtezani, Ardiana; Rrecaj, Shkurte

    2009-01-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformation of the spine with a lateral curvature or deviation greater than 10 degrees and associated with vertebral rotation. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but the evidence for their effectiveness is still questioned. The objective of this study was to define the effectiveness of braces and individual physiotherapy for the comprehensive treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. A retrospective study of 57 children with idiopathic thoracic dextroscoliosis with the magnitude of the thoracic curve between 20 degrees-35 degrees, treated in Orthopedic and Physiatrist Clinic as well as National Ortho-prosthetic Center within University Clinical Center of Kosova in Prishtina, during the period of 2003-2006. Inclusion of kinesitherapy in the comprehensive management of idiopathic scoliosis varied in the improvement of the muscle strength (satisfied and moderate) in almost 80% of the children while the correction of the curve was small in approximately 42.1% of cases. For children with idiopathic scoliosis, who require braces, an exercise program helps chest mobility, muscle strength, proper breathing flexibility in the spine, correct posture and keeps muscles in tone so that the transition period after brace removal is easier.

  14. PATTERN OF INHERITANCE OF IDIOPATHIC HYPERCALCIURIA IN TWO FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nickavar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic hypercalciuria is a leading cause of frequency-dysuria syndrome in childhood. Different modes of inheritance have been suggested in this disease. This article presents the occurrence of idiopathic hypercalciuria in all children of two families. In the first family, a 5.5 year old girl with a history of renal stones and dysuria due to hypercalciuria, had two involved brothers and one sister. In the second family, hypercalciuria and medullary nephrocalcinosis were detected in two siblings who were admitted for polyuria and dysuria. Idiopathic type of hypercalciuria was diagnosed in these two families by normal laboratory exams and exclusion of other causes of normocalcemic hypercalciuria. According to the involvement of all offsprings (both sexes in these two families, it is suggested that idiopathic hypercalciuria is an autosomal dominant disease with complete penetration.

  15. Guidelines for the medical treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaubet, Antoni; Molina-Molina, María; Acosta, Orlando; Bollo, Elena; Castillo, Diego; Fernández-Fabrellas, Estrella; Rodríguez-Portal, José Antonio; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ancochea, Julio

    2017-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is defined as chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia limited to the lung, with poor prognosis. The incidence has been rising in recent years probably due to improved diagnostic methods and increased life expectancy. In 2013, the SEPAR guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were published. Since then, clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown strong scientific evidence for the use of pirfenidone and nintedanib in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In 2015, the international consensus of 2011 was updated and new therapeutic recommendations were established, prompting us to update our recommendation for the medical treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis accordingly. Diagnostic aspects and non-pharmacological treatment will not be discussed as no relevant developments have emerged since the 2013 guidelines. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison between anterior segmental osteotomy versus conventional orthodontic treatment in root resorption: a radiographic study using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bo-Yeon; Choi, Byung-Joon; Lee, Baek-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Lee, Jung-Woo; Jung, Junho; Ohe, Joo-Young

    2017-12-01

    Patients who received orthodontic treatment are likely to have apical root shortening. It appears that external apical root resorption results from a combination of patient-related risk factors such as genetic influences, systemic factors, and orthodontic treatment-related factors. Regarding the fact that the anterior segmental osteotomy (ASO) has been known for its possibility of complementing external apical root resorption and of buffering periodontal problems, it has been the preferred treatment. However, the studies on the efficacy of ASO in preserving the root are not sufficient. In this study, we compared the amount of root resorption between the patients who only received orthodontic treatment and the patients who received orthodontic treatment with ASO. This study included 28 patients (the number of incisor = 198) who received orthodontic treatment with or without ASO. We categorize them into groups A and B by the type of orthodontic treatment (group A: conventional orthodontic treatment; group B: orthodontic treatment with ASO). Cone-beam computed tomographic and cephalometric evaluations were retrospectively performed on the radiographs taken for the diagnosis of the treatment before treatment and at the end of active treatment. In group B, root resorption itself and its rate both turned out to have significantly lower than those in group A. Also, the change of incisal angle is significantly smaller in group B than in group A. On the other hand, in group A, the change of incisal angle was positively correlated with the change of AP (anteroposterior) position. In group B, the change of incisal angle was negatively correlated with the duration of the orthodontic treatment. In group B, amount of root resorption (mm) was positively correlated with the duration of the orthodontic treatment. The results show lesser root resorption and shorter treatment duration with ASO than with conventional orthodontic treatment. Therefore, if the indications are accurately

  17. Using Micro-Computed Tomography to Evaluate the Dynamics of Orthodontically Induced Root Resorption Repair in a Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Xu

    Full Text Available To observe dynamic changes in root resorption repair, tooth movement relapse and alveolar bone microstructure following the application of orthodontic force.Forces of 20 g, 50 g or 100 g were delivered to the left maxillary first molars of fifteen 10-week-old rats for 14 days. Each rat was subjected to micro-computed tomography scanning at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 28 and 42 days after force removal. The root resorption crater volume, tooth movement relapse and alveolar bone microarchitecture were measured at each time point.From day 3 to day 14, the root resorption volume decreased significantly in each group. In the 20-g force group, the root resorption volume gradually stabilized after 14 days, whereas in the 50-g and 100-g force groups, it stabilized after 28 days. In all groups, tooth movement relapsed significantly from day 0 to day 14 and then remained stable. From day 3 to day 10, the 20-g group exhibited faster relapse than the 50-g and 100-g groups. In all groups, the structure model index and trabecular separation decreased slowly from day 0 to day 10 and eventually stabilized. Trabecular number increased slowly from day 0 to day 7 and then stabilized.The initial stage of root resorption repair did not change significantly and was followed by a dramatic repair period before stabilizing. The most serious tooth movement relapse occurred immediately after the appliance was removed, and then the tooth completely returned to the original position.

  18. Does increased local bone resorption secondary to breast and prostate cancer result in increased cartilage degradation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Byrjalsen, Inger; Qvist, Per

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast and prostate cancer patients often develop lesions of locally high bone turnover, when the primary tumor metastasizes to the bone causing an abnormal high bone resorption at this site. The objective of the present study was to determine whether local increased bone turnover in ...... experiments revealed that osteoclasts released CTXI fragments but not CTXII from bone specimens. The same was observed for cathepsin K. CONCLUSION: Data suggest that an uncoupling between bone resorption and cartilage degradation occurs in breast and lung cancer patient....

  19. [Effect of pamidronate and ibandronate on orthodontic root resorption in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-ya; Wang, Xu-xia; Liu, Wan-xin; Dong, Rui; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jun

    2013-09-01

    To compare the effects of pamidronate and ibandronate on orthodontic root resorption. Seventy-two 6-week-old female specific pathogen free (SPF) Wistar rats were selected to establish models for orthodontic tooth movement. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (C group), pamidronate group (Pm group) and ibandronate group (Ib group). 0.9% normal saline,0.5 mmol/L pamidronate and 0.5 mmol/L ibandronate were injected every 3 days. The rats were executed in batch on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day to make tissue sections. All statistical analysis was performed using the PASW Statistics 18 software package. On the 7th and 14th day, the amount of cementoclast, the expression of osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF) and root resorption index were significantly lower in Pm group [the 7th day: (2.675 ± 0.002), (0.1683 ± 0.0007), (0.103 ± 0.003); the 14th day: (3.886 ± 0.048), (0.1873 ± 0.0014), (0.283 ± 0.001)] and Ib groups[the 7th day: (2.601 ± 0.001), (0.1634 ± 0.0010), (0.099 ± 0.002); the 14th day: (3.754 ± 0.019), (0.1818 ± 0.0016), (0.281 ± 0.001)] than in C group[the 7th day: (2.810 ± 0.001), (0.1792 ± 0.0008), (0.120 ± 0.001); the 14th day: (4.800 ± 0.001), (0.2060 ± 0.0007), (0.401 ± 0.001)] (P 0.05). Both pamidronate and ibandronate could inhibit orthodontic root resorption.

  20. Family history of idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Postuma, Ronald B; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort.......To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort....

  1. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Stimulation of Osteoblasts Mediates Staphylococcus Aureus Induced Bone Resorption and Osteoclastogenesis through Enhanced RANKL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ali; Lindholm, Catharina; Lerner, Ulf H

    2016-01-01

    Severe Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections pose an immense threat to population health and constitute a great burden for the health care worldwide. Inter alia, S. aureus septic arthritis is a disease with high mortality and morbidity caused by destruction of the infected joints and systemic bone loss, osteoporosis. Toll-Like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune cell receptors recognizing a variety of microbial molecules and structures. S. aureus recognition via TLR2 initiates a signaling cascade resulting in production of various cytokines, but the mechanisms by which S. aureus causes rapid and excessive bone loss are still unclear. We, therefore, investigated how S. aureus regulates periosteal/endosteal osteoclast formation and bone resorption. S. aureus stimulation of neonatal mouse parietal bone induced ex vivo bone resorption and osteoclastic gene expression. This effect was associated with increased mRNA and protein expression of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) without significant change in osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. Bone resorption induced by S. aureus was abolished by OPG. S. aureus increased the expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines and prostaglandins in the parietal bones but the stimulatory effect of S. aureus on bone resorption and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression was independent of these cytokines and prostaglandins. Stimulation of isolated periosteal osteoblasts with S. aureus also resulted in increased expression of Tnfsf11 mRNA, an effect lost in osteoblasts from Tlr2 knockout mice. S. aureus stimulated osteoclastogenesis in isolated periosteal cells without affecting RANKL-stimulated resorption. In contrast, S. aureus inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow macrophages. These data show that S. aureus enhances bone resorption and periosteal osteoclast formation by increasing osteoblast RANKL production through TLR2. Our study indicates the importance of using different in vitro approaches for studies of how S

  2. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption by using cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic aid: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Toshiya; Tsurumachi, Tamotsu; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2011-10-01

    This case report presents the endodontic treatment of a maxillary right lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption in a 50-year-old woman. Radiographically, internal resorption appears as a fairly uniform, radiolucent enlargement of the pulp canal and distortion of the original root canal outline. The use of cone beam computed tomography can help the clinician in making a confirmatory diagnosis and determining the treatment plan before undertaking the actual treatment. After cleaning the root canal space and the resorptive defect by mechanic instrumentation, irrigation, and interim calcium hydroxide dressing, the apical third canal was filled with a gutta-percha point by lateral condensation. The resorptive defect was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. Follow-up radiographs at 3 years showed adequate repair of the resorption, and the tooth remained asymptomatic.

  3. Qualitative assessment of bone density at the distal articulating surface of the third metacarpal in Thoroughbred racehorses with and without condylar fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughridge, A B; Hess, A M; Parkin, T D; Kawcak, C E

    2017-03-01

    Changes in subchondral bone density, induced by the repetitive cyclical loading of exercise, may potentiate fatigue damage and the risk of fracture. To use computed tomography (CT) to characterise bone density patterns at the articular surface of the third metacarpal bone in racehorses with and without lateral condylar fractures. Case control METHODS: Computed tomographic images of the distal articulating surface of the third metacarpal bone were obtained from Thoroughbred racehorses subjected to euthanasia in the UK. Third metacarpal bones were divided into 3 groups based on lateral condyle status; fractured (FX, n = 42), nonfractured contralateral condyle (NFX, n = 42) and control condyles from horses subjected to euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the third metacarpal bone (control, n = 94). Colour CT images were generated whereby each colour represented a range of pixel values and thus a relative range of bone density. A density value was calculated qualitatively by estimating the percentage of each colour within a specific region. Subchondral bone density was assessed in 6 regions from dorsal to palmar and 1 mm medial and lateral to the centre of the lateral parasagittal groove in NFX and control condyles and 1 mm medial and lateral to the fracture in FX condyles. Bone density was significantly higher in the FX and NFX condyles compared with control condyles for all 6 regions. A significantly higher bone density was observed in FX condyles relative to NFX condyles in the lateral middle and lateral palmar regions. Fractured condyles had increased heterogeneity in density among the 6 regions of interest compared with control and NFX condyles. Adjacent to the fracture, a focal increase in bone density and increased heterogeneity of density were characteristic of limbs with lateral condylar fractures compared with control and NFX condyles. These differences may represent pathological changes in bone density that increase the risk for lateral condylar fractures in

  4. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a 3-dimensional quantification of asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Verhoeven

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Objective quantifications of facial asymmetry in patients with Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia (UCH have not yet been described in literature. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify soft-tissue asymmetry in patients with UCH and to compare the findings with a control group using a new method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty 3D photographs of patients diagnosed with UCH were compared with 30 3D photographs of healthy controls. As UCH presents particularly in the mandible, a new method was used to isolate the lower part of the face to evaluate asymmetry of this part separately. The new method was validated by two observers using 3D photographs of five patients and five controls. RESULTS: A significant difference (0.79 mm between patients and controls whole face asymmetry was found. Intra- and inter-observer differences of 0.011 mm (-0.034-0.011 and 0.017 mm (-0.007-0.042 respectively were found. These differences are irrelevant in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: After objective quantification, a significant difference was identified in soft-tissue asymmetry between patients with UCH and controls. The method used to isolate mandibular asymmetry was found to be valid and a suitable tool to evaluate facial asymmetry.

  5. Management of an internal root resorption on a permanent tooth. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Maldonado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal root resorption (IRR is a rare pulp disease. Its etiology involves late pulpal inflammations and trauma, among others. IRR may also show some symptoms, and is usually detected by X-rays. However, its diagnosis is significantly improved by the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. The objective of this case report was to account for the diagnosis and management of an internal root resorption without perforation. The patient, a 26-year-old male, went to the School of Dentistry at Universidad Andres Bello, Concepción, without having symptoms in the tooth 1.1. Anamnesis revealed the presence of previous symptoms. CBCT examination showed absence of bowl-shaped calcified dentin tissue on the inner walls of the root canal with apical lesion but without perforation of surrounding tissues. Endodontic treatment was performed using the following methods: irrigation of the root canal with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX using a Max-i-probe cannula and simultaneous cavitation of the irrigant Then calcium hydroxide (CH was applied as intracanal medication for a week and Schilder’s technique for vertical compaction was used. The patient was checked after one week and then after six months. He did not have any symptoms. Early diagnosis using modern imaging equipment, appropriate use of ultrasound for chemomechanical debridement and thermoplastic filling techniques contribute to a more favorable prognosis of patients with internal root resorption.

  6. Effects of loxoprofen on the apical root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Taeko; Kaku, Masato; Sumi, Hiromi; Yashima, Yuka; Izumino, Jin; Tanimoto, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    Studies have revealed that severe apical root resorption during tooth movement is caused by the noninfective inflammatory reaction of apical root tissues. We hypothesized that loxoprofen can suppress apical root resorption during tooth movement. Cyclic tensile force (CTF) of 10 kPa was applied to the human pulp cells for 48 hours by the Flexcell Strain Unit. Loxoprofen (10 and 100 μM) was added to the culture cells, and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were examined. To determine the effects of loxoprofen sodium on apical root reabsorption during tooth movement, the upper first molars of 7-week-old rats were subjected to mesial movement by 10g force for 30 days with or without the oral administration of loxoprofen. Gene expression and protein concentration of COX-1, COX-2, IL-1β, TNF-α, RANKL and M-CSF were significantly higher in the CTF group than in the control group. However, these levels were decreased by loxoprofen administration. After orthodontic tooth movement, the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, RANKL and M-CSF decreased in the loxoprofen group than in the control group by immunohistochemical staining. In comparison to control group, less number of odontoclasts and a decrease in the amount of apical root resorption was observed in the loxoprofen group. Many osteoclasts became visible on the pressure side of the alveolar bone in the both groups, and the amount of tooth movement did not show a significant difference. These findings demonstrate that severe apical root resorption may be suppressed by loxoprofen administration, without a disturbance of tooth movement.

  7. Analysis of Transforming Growth Factor- β1 Expression in Resorptive Lacunae following Orthodontic Tooth Movement in An Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Kazemi, Bahram; Kabiri, Sattar; Badiee, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Objective Root resorption is a complication of orthodontic treatment and till date, there is a dearth of information regarding this issue. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, an inflammatory cytokine) is related to orthodontic force. Moreover, if associated, the expression level may be helpful in differential diagnosis, control and ultimate treatment of the disease. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a total of 24 eight-week-old male Wistar rats were selected randomly. On day 0, an orthodontic appliance, which consisted of a closed coil spring, was ligated to the upper right first molar and incisor. The upper left first molar in these animals was not placed under orthodontic force, thus serving as the control group. On day 21, after anesthesia, the animals were sacrificed. The rats were then divided into two equal groups where the first group was subjected to histological evaluation and the second group to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Orthodontic tooth movement was measured in both groups to determine the influence of the applied force. Results Statistical analysis of data showed a significant root resorption between the experimental group and control group (Porthodontic force and orthodontic induced inflammatory root resorption. In addition, no relationship is likely to exist between root resorption and TGF-β1 expression in the resorptive lacunae. PMID:28670520

  8. Morphological characteristics of frontal sinus and nasal bone focusing on bone resorption and apposition in hypophosphatemic rickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, L

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the size and the morphology of the frontal sinus (i.e., structure evolved by bone resorption) and the nasal bone (i.e., structure evolved by bone formation) in adults with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls.......To characterize the size and the morphology of the frontal sinus (i.e., structure evolved by bone resorption) and the nasal bone (i.e., structure evolved by bone formation) in adults with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls....

  9. Resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment--clinical study of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaddaoui, Rajae; Benyahia, Hicham; Azeroual, Mohamed-Faouzi; Zaoui, Fatima; Razine, Rachid; Bahije, Loubna

    2016-03-01

    External apical root resorption (EARR) is one of the major problems associated with orthodontic treatment. Such lesions represent an iatrogenic risk that must be detected as early as possible, with regular radiological follow-up and appropriate therapeutic precautions. The causes and mechanisms leading to susceptibility to root resorption following the application of an orthodontic force are often not clear and are generally said to be of multifactorial origin. The aim of this clinical study was to analyze the factors linked to the occurrence of moderate to severe resorption (MSR) of upper incisors during orthodontic treatment in a group of Moroccan patients treated in the Dento-Facial Orthopedic Department of the Dental Consultation and Treatment Center (Centre de consultation et de traitements dentaires [CCTD]) in Rabat. A total of 82 patients (28% males, 72% females) aged between 12 and 27, with various malocclusions, who had been treated with fixed appliances for at least 1 year and for whom panoramic X-rays at the start, during and at the end of treatment were available, were selected randomly. The reduction in maxillary incisor root length was evaluated using resorption scores. The factors studied in relation to the risk of occurrence of MSR were: age, sex, treatment duration, extraction or non-extraction, type of malocclusion (Class I arch-length discrepancy, Class II, Class III), the vertical diagnosis (normal, supraocclusion, open bite), presence of dysfunction, impacted canines and root morphology. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 18.0. Statistical tests used were: Kaplan-Meier analysis and the univariate and multivariate Cox models for the study of factors associated with MSR. The threshold of significance adopted was 0.05. The factors that were significantly associated with the occurrence of MSR at the level of the upper incisors were: tooth type, with a greater risk for the lateral incisor (HR=3.2 95% CI [2.3-4.5] Proot

  10. Computed tomography in the assessment of idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Doo Yun; Kim, Hyung Jung

    1991-01-01

    It is well known that idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax is caused by rupture of the subpleural bleb and presents difficulty in exact detection and localization of the bleb with plain chest X - ray alone. The authors performed chest CT scans for accurate diagnosis of bleb that would act as a guide for optimal management of idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax patients in order to prevent recurrent pneumothorax. We could detect blebs in 93 % (26/28) of the patients with idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax, and 68 % (19/ 28) of the patient had bilateral blebs. Sensitivity was 0.63, and false negative was 37% (37/100) of the blebs, and 51% (19/37) of these 37 false negative cases were ruptured blebs. Only 7 % (2/28) of the patients had a single bleb. The authors concluded that CT is a useful method of study for optimal management of idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax patients

  11. Idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Brad J; Elmore, James M; Roehrborn, Claus G

    2005-02-01

    Scrotal lymphedema (scrotal elephantiasis) is a condition that has historically been described in areas endemic to filariasis. We present a unique case of a 22-year-old man with idiopathic lymphedema isolated to the scrotum. After acquired causes of lymphedema were ruled out, the patient was treated with scrotectomy and scrotal reconstruction.

  12. Understanding idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Keira A; Mollan, Susan P; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a disorder characterised by raised intracranial pressure that predominantly affects young, obese women. Pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, but several causal factors have been proposed. Symptoms can include headaches, visual loss, pulsatile tinnitus...

  13. Dioscin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption though down-regulating the Akt signaling cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Xinhua; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Wu, Chuanlong; Liu, Guangwang; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A natural-derived compound, dioscin, suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. •Dioscin inhibits osteolytic bone loss in vivo. •Dioscin impairs the Akt signaling cascades pathways during osteoclastogenesis. •Dioscin have therapeutic value in treating osteoclast-related diseases. -- Abstract: Bone resorption is the unique function of osteoclasts (OCs) and is critical for both bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we for the first time demonstrated that dioscin suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of dioscin is supported by the reduced expression of osteoclast-specific markers. Further molecular analysis revealed that dioscin abrogated AKT phosphorylation, which subsequently impaired RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and inhibited NFATc1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, in vivo studies further verified the bone protection activity of dioscin in osteolytic animal model. Together our data demonstrate that dioscin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through Akt signaling cascades. Therefore, dioscin is a potential natural agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases

  14. Dioscin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption though down-regulating the Akt signaling cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Xinhua; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Ouyang, Zhengxiao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital and Tumor Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha (China); Wu, Chuanlong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Guangwang [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Central Hospital of Xuzhou, Affiliated Hospital of Medical Collage of Southeast University, Xuzhou (China); Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Qin, An, E-mail: dr.qinan@gmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Dai, Kerong, E-mail: krdai@163.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •A natural-derived compound, dioscin, suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. •Dioscin inhibits osteolytic bone loss in vivo. •Dioscin impairs the Akt signaling cascades pathways during osteoclastogenesis. •Dioscin have therapeutic value in treating osteoclast-related diseases. -- Abstract: Bone resorption is the unique function of osteoclasts (OCs) and is critical for both bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we for the first time demonstrated that dioscin suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of dioscin is supported by the reduced expression of osteoclast-specific markers. Further molecular analysis revealed that dioscin abrogated AKT phosphorylation, which subsequently impaired RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and inhibited NFATc1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, in vivo studies further verified the bone protection activity of dioscin in osteolytic animal model. Together our data demonstrate that dioscin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through Akt signaling cascades. Therefore, dioscin is a potential natural agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

  15. Effect of odanacatib on root resorption and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism.

  16. Idiopathic diaphragmatic paralysis: Bell's palsy of the diaphragm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crausman, Robert S; Summerhill, Eleanor M; McCool, F Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic diaphragm paralysis is probably more common and responsible for more morbidity than generally appreciated. Bell's palsy, or idiopathic paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve, may be seen as an analogous condition. The roles of zoster sine herpete and herpes simplex have increasingly been recognized in Bell's palsy, and there are some data to suggest that antiviral therapy is a useful adjunct to steroid therapy. Thus, we postulated that antiviral therapy might have a positive impact on the course of acute idiopathic diaphragm paralysis which is likely related to viral infection. Three consecutive patients with subacute onset of symptomatic idiopathic hemidiaphragm paralysis were empirically treated with valacyclovir, 1,000 mg twice daily for 1 week. Prior to therapy, diaphragmatic function was assessed via pulmonary function testing and two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound, with testing repeated 1 month later. Diaphragmatic function pre- and post-treatment was compared to that of a historical control group of 16 untreated patients. All three subjects demonstrated ultrasound recovery of diaphragm function 4-6 weeks following treatment with valacyclovir. This recovery was accompanied by improvements in maximum inspiratory pressure (PI(max)) and vital capacity (VC). In contrast, in the untreated cohort, diaphragm recovery occurred in only 11 subjects, taking an average of 14.9 +/- 6.1 months (mean +/- SD). The results of this small, preliminary study suggest that antiviral therapy with valacyclovir may be helpful in the treatment of idiopathic diaphragm paralysis induced by a viral infection.

  17. Idiopathic gastric perforation in an asplenic infant | Olsen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The cause of idiopathic gastric perforations in neonates remains unknown. Perforations of the abdominal oesophagus, stomach and duodenum in infants and children are the rarest type of intestinal perforations. There are 21 reported cases of an idiopathic gastric rupture in nonneonates. Case Report: A ...

  18. Temporomandibular joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: treatment with an orthodontic appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gattinara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: About 65% of children suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA shows a more or less marked involvement of temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ with altered mandibular growth, resorption of the condyles, occlusary instability, reduced chewing ability and facial dysmorphia. The purpose of our study is to prevent and to treat the progressive evolution of JIA on craniofacial growth and morphology with a functional appliance; surgery should be considered only in so far as the adequacy of TMJ movement is concemed. Methods: From 1992 until now 72 children with proved JIA and TMJ involvement have been treated (50 females, 22 males, aged 6 to 16 years old. TMJ involvement was bilateral in 61% and unilateral in 39% of patients. A diagnostic workup was carried out involving tomograms of TMJ and cephalometric radiograph and analysis. The authors used a bimaxillary activator in the attempt to modify the unfavourable growth pattern and provide a gradual ante-rotation of the jaw. Results: Almost all JIA patients showed satisfactory long term results, easing of pain, reduced skeletal discrepancy, increased function and good facial profile. Conclusions: The long term results of this study indicate that orthopaedic therapy might control the vicious circle of the malocclusion in children with JIA, preventing exacerbation of mandibular clockwise rotation. Surgical intervention for the improvement of TMJ function should be considered only if a severe restricted state is imminent.

  19. Bone Resorption Increases as Early as the Second Day in Head- Down Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Kamps, N.; Mika, C.; Boese, A.; Gerzer, R.

    Long-term bed rest and space mission studies have shown that immobilization as well as microgravity induce increased bone resorption while bone formation tends to decrease. In order to analyze the kinetics of short-term changes in bone turnover we studied in a randomized, strictly controlled crossover design the effects of 6 days 6° head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) in 8 male healthy subjects (mean body weight (BW): 70.1 +/- 1.88 kg; mean age: 25.5 +/- 1.04 years) in our metabolic ward. Two days before arriving in the metabolic ward the subjects started with a diet consisting of an energy content of 10 MJ/d, 2000 mg Calcium/d, 400 i.U. Vitamin D, 200 mEq Na+ and 50 ml water/kg BW/d. The diet was continued in the metabolic ward. The metabolic ward period (11days) was divided into 3 parts: 4 ambulatory days, 6 days either HDT or control and 1 recovery day. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze calcium excretion and bone resorption markers, namely C-telopeptide (CTX) and N-telopeptide (NTX). On the 2nd ambulatory day in the metabolic ward and on the 5th day in HDT or control blood was drawn to analyze serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, and bone formation markers (bone Alkaline Phosphatase (bAP), Procollagen-I-Propeptide (P-I-CP). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions, study protocol and diet. Urinary calcium excretion was as early as the first day in immobilization increased (pcontrol. But, already on the 2nd day of immobilization both bone resorption markers significantly increased. NTX-excretion was increased by 28.7 +/- 14.0% (pcontrol. In contrast to the bone resorption markers, the formation marker P-I-CP tended to decrease as early as the fifth day of immobilization (phormone-, as well as bAP concentrations were unchanged. We conclude from these results of a pronounced rise of bone resorption markers that already 24 hours of immobilization induce a significant rise in osteoclast

  20. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotwicki T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Kotwicki,1 Joanna Chowanska,1,2 Edyta Kinel,3 Dariusz Czaprowski,4,5 Marek Tomaszewski,1 Piotr Janusz1 1Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2National Scoliosis Foundation, Stoughton, MA, USA; 3Department of Rehabilitation, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan Poland; 4Department of Physiotherapy, Józef Rusiecki University College, Olsztyn, 5Rehasport Clinic, Poznan, Poland Abstract: Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%–3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid

  1. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 stimulate bone resorption in vivo as measured by urinary [3H]tetracycline excretion from prelabeled mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, A.M.; Muehlbauer, R.C.F.; Fleisch, H.

    1988-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been shown to stimulate bone resorption in vitro. We have now investigated whether these cytokines also cause a similar action when administered in vivo. This was made possible by the adaptation of a newly developed technique that enables the continual assessment of bone resorption in vivo in mice by measuring urinary excretion of 3 H from [ 3 H]tetracycline-prelabeled animals. Experiments using maneuvers known to influence bone resorption, such as a change in dietary calcium or administration of parathyroid hormone or dichloromethylenebisphosphonate, indicate that the technique is reliable and sensitive in mice. Daily intravenous administration of either recombinant human or recombinant murine TNF-alpha, as well as subcutaneous administration of recombinant human IL-1 alpha, were found to stimulate bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was maximal within 2 days. Thus, exogenous TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha can stimulate bone resorption in vivo, suggesting that these cytokines may also exert a systemic effect on bone

  2. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  3. Meta-Analysis of Correlations Between Marginal Bone Resorption and High Insertion Torque of Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyan; Liang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate correlations between marginal bone resorption and high insertion torque value (> 50 Ncm) of dental implants and to assess the significance of immediate and early/conventional loading of implants under a certain range torque value. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to retrieve eligible articles from Ovid, PubMed, and EBSCO up to December 2013. Screening of eligible studies, quality assessment, and data extraction were conducted in duplicate. The results were expressed as random/fixed-effects models using weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Initially, 154 articles were selected (11 from Ovid, 112 from PubMed, and 31 from EBSCO). After exclusion of duplicate articles and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, six clinical studies were selected. Assessment of P values revealed that correlations between marginal bone resorption and high insertion torque were not statistically significant and that there was no difference between immediately versus early/conventionally loaded implants under a certain range of torque. None of the meta-analyses revealed any statistically significant differences between high insertion torque and conventional insertion torque in terms of effects on marginal bone resorption.

  4. Three-dimensional localization of impacted canines and root resorption assessment using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuhtaseb, Eyad; Mao, Jing; Mahony, Derek; Bader, Rawan; Zhang, Zhi-xing

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new way to localize the impacted canines from three dimensions and to investigate the root resorption of the adjacent teeth by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Forty-six patients undergoing orthodontic treatments and having impacted canines in Tongji Hospital were examined. The images of CBCT scans were obtained from KaVo 3D exam vision. Angular and linear measurements of the cusp tip and root apex according to the three planes (mid-sagittal, occlusal and frontal) have been taken using the cephalometric tool of the InVivo Dental Anatomage Version 5.1.10. The measurements of the angular and linear coordinates of the maxillary and mandibular canines were obtained. Using this technique the operators could envision the location of the impacted canine according to the three clinical planes. Adjacent teeth root resorption of 28.26 % was in the upper lateral incisors while 17.39% in upper central incisors, but no lower root resorption was found in our samples. Accurate and reliable localization of the impacted canines could be obtained from the novel analysis system, which offers a better surgical and orthodontic treatment for the patients with impacted canines.

  5. Nectar resorption in flowers of Sinapis alba L., Brassicaceae and Platanthera chlorantha Custer (Rchb.), Orchidaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masierowska, M.L.; Stpiczynska, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the flowers of Sinapis alba nectar is secreted by two pairs of nectaries and accumulated as drops between filaments and in the cavity of sepals whereas in Platanthera chlorantha nectar is produced and accumulated within a spur. Previous studies of these species revealed that after a period of secretion and cessation, rapid nectar resorption occurs. The aim of this study was the observation of nectar resorption by the nectaries using radiolabelled sucrose. During the peak of secretion the nectar accumulated in unpollinated flowers was replaced with the same volume of labelled sucrose and after 12-48 hrs of incubation, at the resorption phase, parts of S. alba flowers with nectaries as well as fragments of P. chlorantha spur were sampled and fixed for microautoradiographic studies. In S. alba the presence of [ 14 C(U)] sucrose was detected at the base of nectaries, in phloem elements of main vascular strands supplying glands, whereas both epidermis and nectary parenchyma showed no traces of radiolabelled sugars. In P. chlorantha the presence of labelled sucrose was stated mainly in the walls of nectary cells, which indicate an apoplastic route of reabsorbed nectar. (author)

  6. Perceived health status in self-reported adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2010-01-01

    A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and measure of Short Form-12 (SF-12) in a big twin-cohort.......A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and measure of Short Form-12 (SF-12) in a big twin-cohort....

  7. Clinical and Polysomnographic Comparison between Narcolepsy without Cataplexy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective The aim of this study is to compare the clinical, electrophysiological (Polysomnography, PSG; Multiple Sleep Latency Test, MSLT and biological data (HLA DQB1*0602 typing in idiopathic hypersomnia with narcolepsy without cataplexy. Methods 80 patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy and 71 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without a long sleep time were recruited at the Sleep Center of St. Vincent’s Hospital. MSLT data and PSG findings from the time of their diagnosis were reviewed. HLA typing was performed. Results Results indicated that the idiopathic hypersomnia group showed a significant longer mean sleep latency in MSLT compared with the narcolepsy without cataplexy group. But there was no significant difference in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS scores between the two groups. Although HLA positivity of both groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.065, HLA positivity tended to be higher in the narcolepsy without cataplexy group than the idiopathic hypersomnia group. The number of awakenings was slightly higher in the idiopathic hypersomnia group, but there was no statistical significance. The number of spontaneous arousal and total arousal indices was not significantly different between the groups. For the PSG, the idiopathic hypersomnia group showed a significantly longer sleep latency than the narcolepsy without cataplexy group (p = 0.009. REM sleep latency (REML was significantly shorter in the narcolepsy without cataplexy group compared to the idiopathic hypersomnia group. The percentage of REM (SREM was significantly higher in the narcolepsy without cataplexy group, and the percentage of the wake time during sleep period (SWT was significantly lower in the narcolepsy without cataplexy group. Conclusions There were no significant differences of subjective sleep measures such as ESS, disturbed nocturnal sleep, number of naps, age of onset of hypnagogic hallucination, and age of onset of sleep

  8. Intrinsic Hormone-Like Molecules and External Root Resorption During Orthodontic Tooth Movement. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Preclinical in-Vivo Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Andreas; Koletsi, Despina; Eliades, Theodore

    2018-01-01

    Background: External root resorption constitutes an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to identify the effect of induced intrinsic/ hormone-like molecules such as prostaglandins, interleukins and others on external root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement in experimental animals Methods: An electronic database search of the literature was performed (Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, and Open Gray). Search terms included root resorption, tooth movement and animal type. Risk of bias assessment was made using the SYRCLE guidelines for animal studies and reporting quality was assessed through ARRIVE. Random effects meta-analysis was performed for the outcome root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement. Results: Of the 124 articles initially retrieved, 13 were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, while only 2 were included in the quantitative synthesis. Five studies investigated the effect of Prostaglandin E2, four studies the effect of Thyroxine, two the effect of Calcium ions (Ca++), while the rest investigated Misoprostol, Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-4. Risk of Bias in all studies was judged to be high overall, while reporting quality was suboptimal. According to the quantitative synthesis, there was no difference in root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement when Prostaglandin E2 coupled with Ca++ was administered in comparison to no substance administration (SMD: 0.48 mm 2 ; 95% CI: -0.22, 1.19; p = 0.18). Conclusions: Overall, there was no evidence to suggest a variation in root resorption when Prostaglandin E2 and Ca++ were administered, while there is an overriding need for further high quality experimental studies to inform available evidence on the effect of intrinsic substances on external root resorption.

  9. An anatomical study of the proximal aspect of the medial femoral condyle to define the proximal-distal condylar length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ming Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite its possible role in knee arthroplasty, the proximal-distal condylar length (PDCL of the femur has never been reported in the literature. We conducted an anatomic study of the proximal aspect of the medial femoral condyle to propose a method for measuring the PDCL. Materials and Methods: Inspection of dried bone specimens was carried out to assure the most proximal condylar margin (MPCM as the eligible starting point to measure the PDCL. Simulation surgery was performed on seven pairs of cadaveric knees to verify the clinical application of measuring the PDCL after locating the MPCM. Interobserver reliability of this procedure was also analyzed. Results: Observation of the bone specimens showed that the MPCM is a concavity formed by the junction of the distal end of the supracondylar ridge and the proximal margin of the medial condyle. This anatomically distinctive structure made the MPCM an unambiguous landmark. The cadaveric simulation surgical dissection demonstrated that the MPCM is easily accessed in a surgical setting, making the measurement of the PDCL plausible. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.78, indicating good interobserver reliability for this technique. Conclusion: This study has suggested that the PDCL can be measured based on the MPCM in a surgical setting. PDCL measurement might be useful in joint line position management, selection of femoral component sizes, and other applications related to the proximal-distal dimension of the knee. Further investigation is required.

  10. Fixation of fractures of the condylar head of the mandible with a new magnesium-alloy biodegradable cannulated headless bone screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, H; Franke, A; McLeod, N M H; Lauer, G; Nowak, A

    2017-07-01

    It is difficult to fix fractures of the condylar head of the mandible. Several techniques have been described which show satisfactory outcomes, but stability can be questionable, and some can cause irritation of the soft tissues. We describe a technique and first results of treating such fractures with resorbable magnesium-based headless bone screws (Magnezix ® 2.7mm CS; Syntellix AG, Hanover, Germany). Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental study on a resorption system for power and refrigeration cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.; Wang, L.W.; Liu, C.Z.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Energy conversion technologies, especially for power generation and refrigeration technologies driven by the low temperature heat, are gathering the momentum recently. This paper presents a novel resorption system for electricity and refrigeration cogeneraion. Compared with adsorption refrigeration system, resorption refrigeration is characterized as safety and simple structure since there is no ammonia liquid in the system. The cogeneration system is mainly composed of three HTS (high temperature salt) unit beds; three LTS (low temperature salts) unit beds, one expander, three ammonia valves, two oil valves, four water valves and connection pipes. Chemical working pair of MnCl 2 –CaCl 2 –NH 3 is selected. Since scroll expander is suitable for small type power generation system, it is chosen for expansion process. 4.8 kg MnCl 2 and 3.9 kg CaCl 2 impregnated in expanded natural graphite treated with sulfuric acid (ENG-TSA) are filled in the cogeneration system. Experimental results show that maximum cooling power 2.98 kW is able to be obtained while maximum shaft power is about 253 W with 82.3 W average value. The cogeneration system can be utilized for the heat source temperature lower than 170 °C. Total energy efficiency increases from 0.293 to 0.417 then decreases to 0.407 while exergy efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.16. - Highlights: • A resorption system for power and refrigeration cogeneration is established and investigated. • ENG-TSA as the additive improves the heat and mass performance of composite adsorbent. • The highest shaft power and refrigeration power are 253 W and 2.98 kW, respectively. • Total energy efficiency of the system increases from 0.293 to 0.417 then decreases to 0.407.

  12. Type III occipital condylar fracture presenting with hydrocephalus, vertebral artery injury and vasospasm: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez, J.A.; Baskaya, M.K.; Day, M.A.; Nanda, A.

    2001-01-01

    Occipital condylar fractures (OCF) are rare and have a high mortality rate. We report a patient with OCF who presented with acute hydrocephalus and died from diffuse vasospasm secondary to vertebral artery injury. A 45-year-old man fell 20 feet from a deer stand and landed on his head. CT showed a type III OCF continuing to the anterior rim of the foramen magnum on the left, with a bone fragment pushing into the medulla, causing hydrocephalus. The patient was stabilized, and a four-vessel arteriogram showed diffuse vasospasm with complete occlusion of the left vertebral artery at the level of the OCF. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of the conjunction of OCF, hydrocephalus, and vasospasm. (orig.)

  13. Pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Goo, Jin Mo E-mail: jmgoo@plaza.snu.ac.kr; Im, Jung-Gi

    2004-11-01

    Objectives: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, detecting pulmonary tuberculosis may be difficult due to the underlying fibrosis. The aim of this report is to describe the radiological and clinical findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and methods: We reviewed 143 consecutive patients in whom IPF was diagnosed by either the histological or radio-clinical criteria. Among them, nine patients were histologically (n=2) or bacteriologically (n=7) confirmed to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. The location and patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis were examined on a thin section CT scan. Results: The most common thin section CT findings were subpleural nodules (n=6; mean diameter, 3.2 cm) and a lobar or segmental consolidation (n=3). The lesions were located most commonly in the right lower lobe (n=4). The incidence of tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was more than five times higher than that of the general population. Conclusion: The atypical manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which may mimic lung cancer or bacterial pneumonia.

  14. Pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung-Gi

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, detecting pulmonary tuberculosis may be difficult due to the underlying fibrosis. The aim of this report is to describe the radiological and clinical findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and methods: We reviewed 143 consecutive patients in whom IPF was diagnosed by either the histological or radio-clinical criteria. Among them, nine patients were histologically (n=2) or bacteriologically (n=7) confirmed to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. The location and patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis were examined on a thin section CT scan. Results: The most common thin section CT findings were subpleural nodules (n=6; mean diameter, 3.2 cm) and a lobar or segmental consolidation (n=3). The lesions were located most commonly in the right lower lobe (n=4). The incidence of tuberculosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was more than five times higher than that of the general population. Conclusion: The atypical manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which may mimic lung cancer or bacterial pneumonia

  15. Hypercalcemia in idiopathic myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, A; Schmidt, K; Hasselbalch, H

    1992-01-01

    A case of idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) presenting with hypercalcemia and hypercalcitriolemia is reported. It is proposed that ectopic production of the active vitamin D metabolite related to ongoing clonal expansion in the bone marrow accounts for the hypercalcemic state. Consistently low level...

  16. Physical properties of root cementum: part 20. Effect of fluoride on orthodontically induced root resorption with light and heavy orthodontic forces for 4 weeks: a microcomputed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Ersan Ilsay; Gonzales, Carmen; Nebioglu-Dalci, Oyku; Dwarte, Dennis; Turk, Tamer; Isci, Devrim; Sahin-Saglam, Aynur M; Alkis, Huseyin; Elekdag-Turk, Selma; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2011-11-01

    The major side effect of orthodontic treatment is orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption. Fluoride was previously shown to reduce the volume of the root resorption craters in rats. However, the effect of fluoride on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption in humans has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high and low amounts of fluoride intake from birth on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption under light (25 g) and heavy (225 g) force applications. Forty-eight patients who required maxillary premolar extractions as part of their orthodontic treatment were selected from 2 cities in Turkey with high and low fluoride concentrations in the public water of ≥ 2 and ≤ 0.05 ppm, respectively. The patients were randomly separated into 4 groups of 12 each: group 1, high fluoride intake and heavy force; group 2, low fluoride intake and heavy force; group 3, high fluoride intake and light force; and group 4, low fluoride intake and light force. Light or heavy buccal tipping orthodontic forces were applied on the maxillary first premolars for 28 days. At day 28, the teeth were extracted, and the samples were analyzed with microcomputed tomography. Fluoride reduced the volume of root resorption craters in all groups; however, this effect was significantly different with high force application (P = 0.015). It was also found that light forces caused less root resorption than heavy forces. There was no statistical difference in the amount of root resorption observed on root surfaces (buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal) in all groups. However, the middle third of the roots showed the least root resorption. With high fluoride intake and heavy force application, less root resorption was found in all root surfaces and root thirds. Fluoride may reduce the volume of root resorption craters. This effect is significant with heavy force applications (P root showed significantly greater root

  17. Impact of bone graft harvesting techniques on bone formation and graft resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saulacic, Nikola; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harvesting techniques can affect cellular parameters of autogenous bone grafts in vitro. Whether these differences translate to in vivo bone formation, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of different harvesting techniques on bone fo......: Transplantation of autogenous bone particles harvested with four techniques in the present model resulted in moderate differences in terms of bone formation and graft resorption.......BACKGROUND: Harvesting techniques can affect cellular parameters of autogenous bone grafts in vitro. Whether these differences translate to in vivo bone formation, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of different harvesting techniques on bone...... formation and graft resorption in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four harvesting techniques were used: (i) corticocancellous blocks particulated by a bone mill; (ii) bone scraper; (iii) piezosurgery; and (iv) bone slurry collected from a filter device upon drilling. The grafts were placed into bone defects...

  18. Study of external root resorption during orthodontic treatment in root filled teeth compared with their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Carreras, J M; Amarilla, A; Solano, E; Velasco-Ortega, E; Rodríguez-Varo, L; Segura-Egea, J J

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether root filled teeth and those with vital pulps exhibit a similar degree of external root resorption (ERR) as a consequence of orthodontic treatment. The study sample consisted of 77 patients, with a mean age of 32.7 +/- 10.7 years, who had one root filled tooth before completion of multiband/bracket orthodontic therapy for at least 1 year. For each patient, digital panoramic radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to determine the proportion of external root resorption (PRR), defined as the ratio between the root resorption in the root filled tooth and that in its contralateral tooth with a vital pulp. The student's t-test, anova and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance. The mean PRR was 1.00 +/- 0.13, indicating that, in the total sample, there were no significant differences in root resorption in the root filled teeth and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that PRR was significantly greater in incisors (P = 0.0014; odds ratio = 6.2885, C.I. 95% = 2.0-19.4), compared to other teeth, and in women (P = 0.0255; odds ratio = 4.2, C.I. 95% = 1.2-14.6), compared to men. There was no significant difference in the amount or severity of external root resorption during orthodontic movement between root filled teeth and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

  19. Apical root resorption in maxillary incisors when employing micro-implant and J-hook headgear anchorage: a 4-month radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhu; Chen, Wenjing; Smales, Roger J; Peng, Hui; Hu, Xiaokun; Yin, Lu

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated, over a 4-month study period, the amount of apical root resorption occurring in maxillary central incisors following their retraction when employing either micro-implant or J-hook headgear anchorage. The prospective randomised clinical trial was conducted in Orthodontic Clinic, College of Stomatology, China from 2008-2009. Subjects are patients requiring fixed appliances on waiting list (n=20). In female Han Chinese patients aged from 16-26 years, standardized periapical radiographs from 10 randomly assigned patients with maxillary protrusions comprising the micro-implant group, and from 10 similar patients comprising the J-hook headgear group, were assessed for maxillary central incisor apical root resorption. Measurements before and after orthodontic therapy were also obtained from lateral cephalometric radiographs to calculate incisor horizontal retraction and vertical intrusion distances. Estimated retraction force vectors were calculated in horizontal and vertical directions for both treatment groups. Data analysis employed t-tests and the Pearson correlation test, with α=0.05 for statistical significance. The results showed that when compared with the J-hook group, significantly more apical root resorption shortening of the maxillary central incisors was observed in the micro-implant group (1.27 mm difference, 95% CI=0.70-1.84, Pmicro-implant group resulted in significantly more apical root resorption shortening and maxillary central incisor retraction than when intermittent J-hook retraction was employed. The employment of continuous duration orthodontic forces presents a risk for increased apical root resorption that requires careful radiographic monitoring.

  20. Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice

    2010-01-01

    To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI).......To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI)....

  1. Sleepiness in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Neutel, Dulce; Herlin, Bastien; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Cochen de Cock, Valérie; Vidailhet, Marie

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether patients with idiopathic and symptomatic RBD were sleepier than controls, and if sleepiness in idiopathic RBD predicted earlier conversion to Parkinson disease. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and its determinants were compared at the time of a video-polysomnography for an RBD diagnosis in patients with idiopathic RBD, in patients with Parkinson disease, and in controls. Whether sleepiness at time of RBD diagnosis predicted an earlier conversion to neurodegenerative diseases was retrospectively analyzed in the followed-up patients. The 75 patients with idiopathic RBD were sleepier (ESS: 7.8 ± 4.6) at the time of RBD diagnosis than 74 age- and sex-matched controls (ESS: 5.0 ± 3.6, P sleep measures. Among the 69 patients with idiopathic RBD who were followed up for a median 3 years (1-15 years), 16 (23.2%) developed parkinsonism (n = 6), dementia (n = 6), dementia plus parkinsonism (n = 2), and multiple system atrophy (n = 2). An ESS greater than 8 at time of RBD diagnosis predicted a shorter time to phenoconversion to parkinsonism and dementia, from RBD onset, and from RBD diagnosis (when adjusted for age and time between RBD onset and diagnosis). Sleepiness is associated with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and predicts more rapid conversion to parkinsonism and dementia, suggesting it is an early marker of neuronal loss in brainstem arousal systems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Obesity is a significant susceptibility factor for idiopathic AA amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Norbert; Hegenbart, Ute; Dietrich, Sascha; Brune, Maik; Beimler, Jörg; Röcken, Christoph; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Schönland, Stefan O

    2018-03-01

    To investigate obesity as susceptibility factor in patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were obtained from 146 patients with AA amyloidosis. Control groups comprised 40 patients with long-standing inflammatory diseases without AA amyloidosis and 56 controls without any inflammatory disease. Patients with AA amyloidos