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Sample records for identify personal characteristics

  1. Using Functional or Structural Magnetic Resonance Images and Personal Characteristic Data to Identify ADHD and Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ghiassian

    Full Text Available A clinical tool that can diagnose psychiatric illness using functional or structural magnetic resonance (MR brain images has the potential to greatly assist physicians and improve treatment efficacy. Working toward the goal of automated diagnosis, we propose an approach for automated classification of ADHD and autism based on histogram of oriented gradients (HOG features extracted from MR brain images, as well as personal characteristic data features. We describe a learning algorithm that can produce effective classifiers for ADHD and autism when run on two large public datasets. The algorithm is able to distinguish ADHD from control with hold-out accuracy of 69.6% (over baseline 55.0% using personal characteristics and structural brain scan features when trained on the ADHD-200 dataset (769 participants in training set, 171 in test set. It is able to distinguish autism from control with hold-out accuracy of 65.0% (over baseline 51.6% using functional images with personal characteristic data when trained on the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE dataset (889 participants in training set, 222 in test set. These results outperform all previously presented methods on both datasets. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a single automated learning process that can produce classifiers for distinguishing patients vs. controls from brain imaging data with above-chance accuracy on large datasets for two different psychiatric illnesses (ADHD and autism. Working toward clinical applications requires robustness against real-world conditions, including the substantial variability that often exists among data collected at different institutions. It is therefore important that our algorithm was successful with the large ADHD-200 and ABIDE datasets, which include data from hundreds of participants collected at multiple institutions. While the resulting classifiers are not yet clinically relevant, this work shows that there is a signal in

  2. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3......Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... dysfunction in the epilepsy group, the mere presence of a chronic disorder with potential social stigmatization influences personality....

  3. Social network characteristics and HIV vulnerability among transgender persons in San Salvador: identifying opportunities for HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents' social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population.

  4. Identifying Future Sacred Heart Administrators by Examining the Characteristics, Commonalities, and Personal Motivations of Current School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Julie Brill

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, all schools of the Sacred Heart have been headed by nuns of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus [RSCJ]. As the years have passed, many RSCJ nuns have aged and retired leaving vacancies that have proven difficult to fill. In this qualitative study, the characteristics, commonalities, and personal motivations of Sacred…

  5. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...

  6. Veterans' voices: use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) Survey to identify My HealtheVet personal health record users' characteristics, needs, and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazi, Kim M

    2010-01-01

    Consumer research reveals considerable interest in the use of Personal Health Records (PHRs), yet adoption remains relatively low. Both adopters and nonadopters represent important perspectives from which to understand this paradox. This study focuses on direct feedback from adopters obtained using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey on the My HealtheVet PHR portal (http://www.myhealth.va.gov) of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The results represent a source of direct feedback with which to better understand veterans' needs and preferences. The ACSI Survey was implemented in October 2007 to measure satisfaction and elicit information about characteristics and preferences of My HealtheVet PHR adopters. The data represent a continuous random sample of site visitors who have navigated at least four pages on the site. A total of 100 617 surveys were completed (17.2%). Satisfaction with My HealtheVet is high (8.3/10.0), and users are highly likely to return to the site (8.6/10.0) and recommend the site to other veterans (9.1/10.0). The majority of system adopters are male (91%), between the ages of 51 and 70 (68%), and served in the Vietnam War (60%). Most veterans currently visit the site to utilize pharmacy-related features. VHA has used the ACSI to monitor satisfaction, and to better understand the characteristics, needs, and preferences of early adopters. The data provide an important source of direct feedback to inform program development. Future research will include monitoring the impact of enhancements and new features on satisfaction, and conducting additional research with nonadopters to identify barriers to adoption and use.

  7. Veterans' voices: use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) Survey to identify My HealtheVet personal health record users' characteristics, needs, and preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumer research reveals considerable interest in the use of Personal Health Records (PHRs), yet adoption remains relatively low. Both adopters and nonadopters represent important perspectives from which to understand this paradox. Objective This study focuses on direct feedback from adopters obtained using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey on the My HealtheVet PHR portal (http://www.myhealth.va.gov) of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The results represent a source of direct feedback with which to better understand veterans' needs and preferences. Methods The ACSI Survey was implemented in October 2007 to measure satisfaction and elicit information about characteristics and preferences of My HealtheVet PHR adopters. The data represent a continuous random sample of site visitors who have navigated at least four pages on the site. A total of 100 617 surveys were completed (17.2%). Results Satisfaction with My HealtheVet is high (8.3/10.0), and users are highly likely to return to the site (8.6/10.0) and recommend the site to other veterans (9.1/10.0). The majority of system adopters are male (91%), between the ages of 51 and 70 (68%), and served in the Vietnam War (60%). Most veterans currently visit the site to utilize pharmacy-related features. Conclusion VHA has used the ACSI to monitor satisfaction, and to better understand the characteristics, needs, and preferences of early adopters. The data provide an important source of direct feedback to inform program development. Future research will include monitoring the impact of enhancements and new features on satisfaction, and conducting additional research with nonadopters to identify barriers to adoption and use. PMID:20190065

  8. [Collage work characteristics and personality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shizuka

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality and characteristics in collage work. Seventy undergraduates filled the Yatabe-Guilford (YG) personality test and produced a piece of collage work. The YG personality types were not different in terms of collage work characteristics. However, emotional adaptation and introvert/extrovert scores were reflected in the number of cuttings used in the piece. General activity score was reflected in the number of vehicle pictures used. Those who used an eye picture had a tendency to be depressed and lacking in confidence. Those who used a "stone circle" picture tended to be more emotionally adapted and extroverted. The results suggested a possibility that personality traits were reflected in specific characteristics in collage work.

  9. Self-Presentation, Desired Partner Characteristics, and Sexual Behavior Preferences in Online Personal Advertisements of Men Seeking Non-Gay-Identified Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite attention to the sexual behaviors of non-gay-identified (NGI) men who have same-sex encounters, virtually no research has focused on issues of partner desirability and selection. Limited evidence suggests that a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) advertise online for sexual encounters with NGI men. Exchange theory provided a framework to investigate this seeking of NGI men, based on the content of Internet personal advertisements for same-sex encounters. Researchers analyzed 282 ads posted to an online bulletin board. Ads by men who explicitly desired encounters with NGI men were compared with those by men who did not indicate this preference in potential partners. Multivariate analyses revealed that NGI-seeking men had significantly increased odds of identifying as discreet (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.82), seeking a discreet encounter (AOR = 4.68), seeking a masculine partner (AOR = 2.18), being willing to host (AOR = 2.77), as well as seeking oral-receptive sex (AOR = 2.69), unprotected oral sex (AOR = 6.76), and anal-receptive sex (AOR = 2.18). Further, NGI-seeking ads were more likely to not mention condom use or safer sex practices (AOR = 4.13) and were less likely to indicate a desire for oral-insertive sex (AOR = 0.34) and rimming (AOR = 0.21). Findings suggest that some men may deliberately present themselves in ways that they perceive as being attractive to NGI men, and have research implications for NGI MSM, their partners, and the risk outcomes of these online ads. PMID:25750927

  10. Self-Presentation, Desired Partner Characteristics, and Sexual Behavior Preferences in Online Personal Advertisements of Men Seeking Non-Gay-Identified Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W

    2014-03-14

    Despite attention to the sexual behaviors of non-gay-identified (NGI) men who have same-sex encounters, virtually no research has focused on issues of partner desirability and selection. Limited evidence suggests that a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) advertise online for sexual encounters with NGI men. Exchange theory provided a framework to investigate this seeking of NGI men, based on the content of Internet personal advertisements for same-sex encounters. Researchers analyzed 282 ads posted to an online bulletin board. Ads by men who explicitly desired encounters with NGI men were compared with those by men who did not indicate this preference in potential partners. Multivariate analyses revealed that NGI-seeking men had significantly increased odds of identifying as discreet (Adjusted odds ratio [ AOR ] = 2.82), seeking a discreet encounter ( AOR = 4.68), seeking a masculine partner ( AOR = 2.18), being willing to host ( AOR = 2.77), as well as seeking oral-receptive sex ( AOR = 2.69), unprotected oral sex ( AOR = 6.76), and anal-receptive sex ( AOR = 2.18). Further, NGI-seeking ads were more likely to not mention condom use or safer sex practices ( AOR = 4.13) and were less likely to indicate a desire for oral-insertive sex ( AOR = 0.34) and rimming ( AOR = 0.21). Findings suggest that some men may deliberately present themselves in ways that they perceive as being attractive to NGI men, and have research implications for NGI MSM, their partners, and the risk outcomes of these online ads.

  11. Prospective Teachers' Personal Characteristics to Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Menekse

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine prospective teachers' personal characteristics to multicultural education. It is also aimed to reveal whether there are meaningful differences in prospective teachers' personal characteristics to multicultural education according to their genders, age and number of siblings. The descriptive model was chosen to…

  12. Personal factors and personality characteristics as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study set to investigate personal factors and personality characteristics as Predictors of customers satisfaction with health care services. The study utilized Ex-Post Facto design. A total number of 100 participants took part in the study which were made up of 57 (57%) males and 48 (48%) females, with a mean age of ...

  13. Exploring the Innovative Personality Characteristics among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nooraini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of innovative personality among teachers in Malaysia. Samples of the research were randomly selected among secondary school teachers in three districts in Malaysia. Research instrument was self-developed by the researchers based on interviews carried out with some resource persons who are…

  14. The ethical reasoning variations of personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a comparison of the ethical reasoning components of business managers and executives based on personal characteristics of working experiences, gender and age group. Data were collected in Malaysia within the small and medium sized industry in the form of questionnaires which contain vignettes of questionable ethical reasoning issues. Factor analysis was used to identify the major ethical reasoning dimensions which were then used as the basic comparison. Our study reviews that SMEs managers’ and executives’ ethical reasoning influenced by their years of working experiences. The gap analysis between male and female managers and executives revealed that the significant difference only occurs for ethical awareness in business management and business practices but not for other dimensions. Besides, there are indications that generally, business people tend to have higher ethical reasoning evaluation when they reach thirty six years old. Based on our results, recommendations are made to improve the ethical reasoning evaluation of business managers and executives.

  15. Xenophobic attitudes and personal characteristics of adolescents with deviant behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurina O.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are often racial, ethnic intolerance among adolescents, which, in our opinion, caused by the presence of xenophobic attitudes, some combination of personality structures and situational factors. We hypothesized that there is a specificity of the relationship of xenophobic attitudes and personality characteristics in the structure of the person of adolescents with deviating (including illegal behavior and normative behavior. The study involved 254 female and a teenage male aged 14 - 18 years. The study used a questionnaire to identify the severity of xenophobic attitudes, as well as the methodology and questionnaires to identify the personality characteristics of adolescents and semantic constructs of personality. As a result, significant differences were found in the personal features (criterion U-Mann-Whitney test with p <0,01 and semantic structures in adolescents with regulations and illegal behavior of offenders with a nationalist orientation and without it. The results can be used in the framework of the prevention of hate crimes among adolescents.

  16. Psychosocial characteristics of bullying personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Milo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence as a traditional appearance of a criminal nature in modern conditions is expressed in certain specific circumstances, especially the type and application of funds. However, behind the phenomena are violent - offender and victim. Criminology, even in its infancy of science, as well as in the classical theories have always dealt with the issues of violent offender, classifying it in the first criminals of passion. The question is whether modern conditions with changes in the type and nature of violence in recent times this type of crime and became a rational motive, and therefore habitually delinquent or professional criminal. The work in this regard primarily engaged in matters of general (psychological, pathological and social characteristics and dispositions of perpetrators of violence in the area.

  17. Personality Preferences in Students Identified as Gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjercke, Carol

    2006-01-01

    School achievement and even intelligence have been linked to personality styles. Extroversion (the desire to be surrounded by people) and introversion (the desire to be alone in a quiet area) are two of these styles. More students and teachers tend to be extroverted, so this style is more prominent in schools. Extroverts and introverts have almost…

  18. Personality characteristics in patients with somatized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolyevna Tolkach

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study personality characteristics, behavioral style, and modes of relations with their people in patients with somatized disorder. Subjects and methods. Eighty-six patients diagnosed as having somatized disorder were examined using Leary's interpersonal diagnosis system. Results. The author revealed the following personality characteristics and behavioral styles: a depressed need for authoritarianism, dominance, autonomy, aggressiveness, a display of qualities, such as superfriendliness, benevolence, submissiveness, dependency, and suspiciousness. These characteristics give an insight into the development of somatization in patients with somatized disorder.

  19. Relational support and person characteristics in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, M.A.G. van; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, an heuristic model of the personality characteristics of adolescents and the supportive dimensions of interactions, relationships and groups is presented. The model takes the concept of developmental tasks as its starting point and it is assumed that developmental tasks can be

  20. Significance of personal characteristics for entrepreneurial youth activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Adamoniene

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic policy of the European Union is based on the encouragement of every resident’s economic activity. The greatest attention is paid to motivating the youth to work and encouraging their entrepreneurial activity. Scientists are actively discussing the impact of personal characteristics on entrepreneurial activity, and entrepreneurship is analyzed under two key aspects in terms of this research. Scientists describe entrepreneurship differently: some claim entrepreneurship is simply initiative, others that these are natural and acquired human characteristics, which enable his/her innovative behaviours and active performance and risk. The research aim is, after having identified personal youth characteristics, to define their significance for entrepreneurial activity. During the research the significance of personal entrepreneurial characteristics was indicated, and their links to value principles and specific influential factors on youth entrepreneurial activity.

  1. Looking for students' personal characteristics predicting study outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. A. Bakx; Theo Bergen; Dr. Cyrille A.C. Van Bragt; Marcel Croon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The central goal of this study is to clarify to what degree former education and students' personal characteristics (the 'Big Five personality characteristics', personal orientations on learning and students' study approach) may predict study outcome (required credits and study

  2. Personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet. We used methods as follow: 16 factors Cattell personality questionnaire, subjective control level, life-style index, Buss-Perry questionnaire, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, a COPE inventory. 78 internet users were divided into two groups of 38 persons: the main group included people falling victim to illegal attacks on the Internet, the control group participants were not attacked on the internet. We identified specific aggregated symptoms of individual psychological characteristics of internet attack victims and show that victims of "non-forced" and "forced" offenses have different levels of situational and personal anxiety, aggression and locus of control.

  3. Human Behavioral Representations with Realistic Personality and Cultural Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zachary, Wayne; Le Mentec, Jean-Christopher; Miller, Lynn; Read, Stephen; Thomas-Meyers, Gina

    2005-01-01

    ...) with pre-defined and specific personality traits and cultural characteristics. This capability meets a current and growing need for human models that exhibit personality and cultural variability...

  4. Characteristics and performances of electronic personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    2002-01-01

    The regulations have made obligation for 2 years to measure and analyse the amounts of radiations actually received during an operation. The whole of these measurements taken uninterrupted for an immediate reading is indicated like the operational dosimetry, which is carried out with the means of personal electronic dosemeters. This study analyses the legislation relating to this type of dosimetry as well as the requirements in medical environment, and presents an assessment of the characteristics and performances of the devices available on the French market at the beginning of 2002 starting from the information provided by the various manufacturers. (author)

  5. An empirical study on entrepreneurs' personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The personality of an entrepreneur is one of the most important characteristics of reaching success by creating jobs and opportunities. In this paper, we demonstrate an empirical study on personal characteristics of students who are supposed to act as entrepreneur to create jobs in seven fields of accounting, computer science, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, metallurgy engineering, electrical engineering and drawing. There are seven aspects of accepting reasonable risk, locus of control, the need for success, mental health conditions, being pragmatic, tolerating ambiguity, dreaming and the sense of challenging in our study to measure the level of entrepreneurship. We uniformly distribute 133 questionnaires among undergraduate students in all seven groups and analyze the results based on t-student test. Our investigation indicates that all students accept reasonable amount of risk, they preserve sufficient locus of control and they are eager for success. In addition, our tests indicate that students believe they maintain sufficient level of mental health care with strong sense of being pragmatic and they could handle ambiguity and challenges.

  6. Experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the intimate relationship experiences of the cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine-identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners' self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified.

  7. Advancement of a Job- and Personal- Characteristics Placement Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frink, Dwight

    2001-01-01

    Research toward validation of a comprehensive model mapping personal characteristics onto differentiated job characteristics for effective placement, development, and retention of Navy personnel is described...

  8. Personality and affect characteristics of outpatients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, J V; Glaser, B A; Calhoun, G B; Campbell, L F

    2001-08-01

    This investigation was designed to examine the relationship between depression severity and personality disorders measured by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (Millon, 1987) and affectivity measured by the Positive Affectivity/Negative Affectivity Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Discriminant analyses were employed to identify the personality and affective dimensions that maximally discriminate between 4 different levels of depressive severity. Differences between the 4 levels of depressive severity are suggestive of unique patterns of personality characteristics. Discriminant analysis showed that 74.8% of the cases were correctly classified by a single linear discriminant function, and that 61% of the variance in depression severity was accounted for by selected personality and affect variables. Results extend current conceptualizations of comorbidity and are discussed with respect to depression severity.

  9. Creativity-Relevant Personal Characteristics among Indonesia Creative Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho J. Setiadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify Creativity-relevant Personal Characteristics among creative workers in Indonesia’s creative industry. Identification of the constituent elements of the nature of the changes needs to be measured. Researchers have advocated replacing creativity-relevant personal characteristics based on the five-factor model to investigate how individual differences stimulate creativity. This study presents data supporting reliability (internal consistency and validity (criterion and construct of the instrument. Validity of the instrument is based on the content validity involving art and design experts. The 220 creative workers from several creative industry firms in Indonesia participated as samples in this research. Results of a factor analysis indicated a five factor solution of creative characteristics and behavior. Discussion of findings and the most important ways in which individuals differ in their enduring emotional, interpersonal, experiential, attitudinal, and motivational styles for stimulating creativity are presented.

  10. Identifying PTSD personality subtypes in a workplace trauma sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R Michael

    2009-10-01

    The authors sought to identify personality clusters derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Personality Psychopathology Five Scales in a sample of workplace claimants with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three clusters--low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing were recovered similar to those obtained by M. W. Miller and colleagues (2003, 2004, 2007) in samples of combat veterans and sexual assault victims. Internalizers and externalizers scored comparably on measures of PTSD symptom severity, general distress, and negative affect. Internalizers were uniquely characterized by anhedonia and depressed mood; externalizers by antisocial behavior, substance abuse, and anger/aggression.

  11. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  12. Is Personalized Communication Superior? Personalization and Consumers’ Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslowska, E.; Smit, E.G.; van den Putte, B.

    2011-01-01

    Personalized communication has become a very popular marketing strategy, but the research on its effectiveness is still limited. This study examined the effectiveness of personalized digital newsletters in terms of increased attention, evaluation, attitude, and intention. Participants (N = 124) were

  13. The Personal Characteristics Predictors of Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelkoska, Slagana; Stankovska, Gordana; Dimitrovski, Dimitar

    2016-01-01

    When we speak about the academic achievement of the students and their personality, the internal state of a student is in connection with his personal experience and individual differences and talents, dispositions, motives, his "I" and a whole range of cognitive processes. Modern psychological theories of personality believe that the…

  14. Complex relationships among personality traits, job characteristics, and work behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P.T.; Feij, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the additive, mediating, and moderating effects of personality traits and job characteristics on work behaviors. Job applicants (N = 161) completed personality questionnaires measuring extraversion, neuroticism, achievement motivation, and experience seeking.

  15. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning : A latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, P.J.G.; Lucas, R.; Smulders, N.B.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    Background Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of

  16. Looking for students'personal characteristics predicting study outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, T.C.M.; Bragt, van C.A.C.; Bakx, A.W.E.A.; Croon, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The central goal of this study is to clarify to what degree former education and students’ personal characteristics (the ‘Big Five personality characteristics’, personal orientations on learning and students’ study approach) may predict study outcome (required credits and study

  17. Personality characteristics of depressed and non-depressed patients with Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholdt, Malene Flensborg; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    traits as risk factors for depression. The personality profiles of 290 non-depressed and 119 depressed patients with PD were compared. The depressed patients were characterized by elevated neuroticism, reduced extroversion, and reduced conscientiousness and less convincing findings of reduced openness......Depression and a specific personality profile are often outlined as premorbid characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, few studies have explored possible relations between personality and depression in PD despite research in non-parkinsonian samples identifying specific personality...

  18. Research about reactor operator's personality characteristics and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2003-01-01

    To predict and evaluate the reactor operator's performance by personality characteristics is an important part of reactor operator safety assessment. Using related psychological theory combined with the Chinese operator's fact and considering the effect of environmental factors to personality analysis, paper does the research about the about the relationships between reactor operator's performance and personality characteristics, and offers the reference for operator's selection, using and performance in the future. (author)

  19. Identifying the key concerns of Irish persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; Wolfe, Marie; O'Doherty, Siobhain

    2014-11-01

    Internationally, people with intellectual disability are socially marginalized, and their rights under the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) are often ignored. This paper aims to define the key concerns of adults with an intellectual disability in relation to their participation in society using an inclusive research strategy for both data gathering and data analysis. A national study involving 23 focus groups and 168 persons was conducted on the island of Ireland with people with intellectual disability as co-facilitators. A thematic content analysis was undertaken of the verbatim transcripts initially by university co-researchers, and 19 themes were identified. Co-researchers with intellectual disability joined in identifying the eight core themes. These were as follows: living options, employment, relationships, citizenship, leisure time, money management, self-advocacy, and communication. The concerns are discussed within the framework of the CRPD, and implications for transforming service policy are drawn. Why we did the research In many countries, people with intellectual disability have difficulties doing things other people without disabilities do, for example to study, to get a job or to live independently. They also find that their rights are not respected under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (the Convention). We did this study to Learn what are the main issues for adults with intellectual disability in Ireland. Do research with people with intellectual disability. How we did the research People with intellectual disability and their supporters worked with university researchers to plan and do the research. We met with people in groups and 168 people told us about things important to them. What we found out We found that there were very important things that people talked about in the groups. We chose the most important: living options, employment, relationships, rights, leisure, money

  20. Personality Characteristics of Women of Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtold, Louise M.

    1976-01-01

    Women psychologists, scientists, artists and writers, and politicians (N=863) were compared on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire through a multiple discriminant analysis. When contrasted with women in the general population, the four groups of career women were all found to be brighter, more assertive, more adventurous, and less…

  1. Actual and preferred personality characteristics of physical educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Cecić Erpič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Five-Factor Model of personality, which includes dimensions energy, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness, gained a growing acceptance by personality researchers. In the present study the actual personality characteristics of physical educators and the personality profile of an ideal (according to subjective evaluations of experts physical educator were investigated. The aim of the study was to examine differences between profiles of actual and preferred personality characteristics and to present differences in personality characteristics between male and female physical educators of different ages. The study included 76 (40 male, 36 female 24 to 58 year-old physical educators (mean age 39.7 years. 34 experts from the field of sport, physical education, and kinesiology evaluated the preferred personality structure of an ideal physical educator. The Big Five Observer (BFO was used to assess actual and preferred personality structures. These results show that the actual personality profile of physical educators is described with all five moderately high dimensions, which is relatively congruent with the social type from Holland's typology, characteristic of educators. In comparison with participants, an ideal physical educator should have equally expressed agreeableness, while other four dimensions should be highly expressed. Gender differences in energy and agreeableness (women have higher results in both dimensions were found significant. No significant age differences in the personality structure were obtained by a cross-sectional comparison.

  2. The Impact of Personal Characteristics and Intrinsic Motivation on Creative Behavior among Indonesian Radio Station Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho J. Setiadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to increase understanding in some personal characteristics affecting creative performance among Indonesian radio station managers’ leadership context. Using creativity-relevant personal characteristics and motivation as input model, the authors identified that both of these two variables are positively related to creative performance. The study hypothesized that Leader-member exchange (LMX moderate the relationship between personal characteristics and creative performance. Among a sample of 283 Indonesian radio station managers, results found that creativity-relevant personal characteristics and intrinsic motivation were positively related to creative performance when managers’ perception of followers’ work contribution toward them (as the second dimension of LMX was high.Keywords: Creativity; Personal characteristics; Motivation; Leader-member exchange.

  3. Age-Relevance of Person Characteristics: Persons' Beliefs about Developmental Change across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Daniel; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Studer, Joseph; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated normative beliefs about personality development. Young, middle-aged, and older adults indicated the age-relevance of 835 French adjectives by specifying person characteristics as typical for any age decade from 0 to 99 years. With this paradigm, the authors determined age-relevance (How typical is a characteristic for a…

  4. Socialization characteristics in persons with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lorna; Lancman, Marcelo; Laban-Grant, Olgica; Lancman, Martin; Jones, Jace

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe social behaviors and preferences in adults with epilepsy, including self-reported use of various socialization media (face-to-face and indirect communication) as well as perceived social barriers. 1320 consecutive persons with epilepsy (PWEs) confirmed through inpatient video-EEG monitoring were administered a questionnaire on the day of their first appointment. The questionnaire was designed to assess preferences in socialization practices, frequency of interpersonal contact, use of social media, and perceived barriers to socialization. The survey was developed to gain a better understanding of the socialization behaviors and preferences of our patients for the future development of customized activities in our wellness program. Our sample revealed higher rates of unemployment and single status as compared to the US Census of 2012. With regard socialization however, many were quite social (86% reported daily/weekly communication with friends and family via telephone, 71% saw relatives in person weekly, 68% saw friends weekly, and 65% reported using the computer daily/weekly to socialize). Facebook® was the preferred on-line social media. Indoor/solitary activities were most common with 63% stating they watch TV/read/use the computer followed by physical exercise and spending time outdoors (36%). The frequency of socialization with friends, relatives, and coworkers decreased with the respondents' age and the longer the respondent had carried the diagnosis of epilepsy. Respondents who were taking a greater number of AEDs or were considered refractory were less likely to consider participating in socialization-enhancing activities. The primary barriers to socialization that respondents endorsed were driving prohibition and medication side-effects. Respondents expressed the greatest interest in online support groups or educational programs (31%), office-based support groups (25%), and volunteering (19%). Although the

  5. Teaching skills and personal characteristics of sex education teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Greetje; Timmerman, M.C.

    This article examines relationships between various dimensions of teachers' professionalism, that is, pedagogical content knowledge and personal characteristics. Using Shulman's notion of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) we explored the practical knowledge of twenty sex education teachers using

  6. Facebook use, personality characteristics and academic performance: A correlational study

    OpenAIRE

    Sapsani, Georgia; Tselios, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between the students personality, use of social media and their academic performance and engagement. In specific, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship of students facebook (fb) use and personality characteristics using the Big Five Personality Test with (a) student engagement, (b) time spent preparing for class, (c) time spent in co-curricular activities and (d) academic performance. Results illustrate that fb time was significantly ...

  7. Color preferences for different topics in connection to personal characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; Vink, P.; de Boon, J; Bazley, C

    2015-01-01

    Studies on color preferences are dependent on the topic and the relationships with personal characteristics, particularly personality, but these are seldom studied in one population. Therefore a questionnaire was collected from 1095 Dutch people asking for color preferences about different topics

  8. ERP differences between processing of physical characteristics and personality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited data from behavioral and brain-imaging studies indicate that personality traits and physical characteristics are processed differently by the brain. Additionally, electrophysiological results of studies comparing the processing of positive and negative words have produced mixed results. It is therefore not clear how physical and personality attributes with emotional valence (i.e., positive and negative valence) are processed. Thus, this study aimed to examine the neural activity associated with words describing personality traits and physical characteristics with positive or negative emotional valence using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). Methods A sample of 15 healthy adults (7 men, 8 women) participated in a computerized word categorization task. Participants were asked to categorize visual word stimuli as physical characteristics or personality traits, while ERPs were recorded synchronously. Results Behavioral reaction times to negative physical stimuli were shorter compared to negative personality words, however reaction times did not significantly differ for positive stimuli. Electrophysiological results showed that personality stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC (Late Positive Component) amplitudes compared to physical stimuli, regardless of negative or positive valence. Moreover, negative as compared with positive stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC amplitudes. Conclusion Personality and physical stimuli were processed differently regardless of positive or negative valence. These findings suggest that personality traits and physical characteristics are differentially classified and are associated with different motivational significance. PMID:22967478

  9. Personality and Background Characteristics of Adolescent Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Edward E., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined personality and background characteristics of adolescent sexual offenders (n=21) and oppositional defiant adolescents (n=17) who completed High School Personality Questionnaire. Findings revealed no significant difference between offenders and oppositional defiant adolescents using multiple analysis of variance. Sex offenders tended to be…

  10. Obtaining subjects' consent to publish identifying personal information: current practices and identifying potential issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akiko; Dowa, Yuri; Murakami, Hiromi; Kosugi, Shinji

    2013-11-25

    In studies publishing identifying personal information, obtaining consent is regarded as necessary, as it is impossible to ensure complete anonymity. However, current journal practices around specific points to consider when obtaining consent, the contents of consent forms and how consent forms are managed have not yet been fully examined. This study was conducted to identify potential issues surrounding consent to publish identifying personal information. Content analysis was carried out on instructions for authors and consent forms developed by academic journals in four fields (as classified by Journal Citation Reports): medicine general and internal, genetics and heredity, pediatrics, and psychiatry. An online questionnaire survey of editors working for journals that require the submission of consent forms was also conducted. Instructions for authors were reviewed for 491 academic journals (132 for medicine general and internal, 147 for genetics and heredity, 100 for pediatrics, and 112 for psychiatry). Approximately 40% (203: 74 for medicine general and internal, 31 for genetics and heredity, 58 for pediatrics, and 40 for psychiatry) stated that subject consent was necessary. The submission of consent forms was required by 30% (154) of the journals studied, and 10% (50) provided their own consent forms for authors to use. Two journals mentioned that the possible effects of publication on subjects should be considered. Many journal consent forms mentioned the difficulties in ensuring complete anonymity of subjects, but few addressed the study objective, the subjects' right to refuse consent and the withdrawal of consent. The main reason for requiring the submission of consent forms was to confirm that consent had been obtained. Approximately 40% of journals required subject consent to be obtained. However, differences were observed depending on the fields. Specific considerations were not always documented. There is a need to address issues around the study

  11. Obtaining subjects’ consent to publish identifying personal information: current practices and identifying potential issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In studies publishing identifying personal information, obtaining consent is regarded as necessary, as it is impossible to ensure complete anonymity. However, current journal practices around specific points to consider when obtaining consent, the contents of consent forms and how consent forms are managed have not yet been fully examined. This study was conducted to identify potential issues surrounding consent to publish identifying personal information. Methods Content analysis was carried out on instructions for authors and consent forms developed by academic journals in four fields (as classified by Journal Citation Reports): medicine general and internal, genetics and heredity, pediatrics, and psychiatry. An online questionnaire survey of editors working for journals that require the submission of consent forms was also conducted. Results Instructions for authors were reviewed for 491 academic journals (132 for medicine general and internal, 147 for genetics and heredity, 100 for pediatrics, and 112 for psychiatry). Approximately 40% (203: 74 for medicine general and internal, 31 for genetics and heredity, 58 for pediatrics, and 40 for psychiatry) stated that subject consent was necessary. The submission of consent forms was required by 30% (154) of the journals studied, and 10% (50) provided their own consent forms for authors to use. Two journals mentioned that the possible effects of publication on subjects should be considered. Many journal consent forms mentioned the difficulties in ensuring complete anonymity of subjects, but few addressed the study objective, the subjects’ right to refuse consent and the withdrawal of consent. The main reason for requiring the submission of consent forms was to confirm that consent had been obtained. Conclusion Approximately 40% of journals required subject consent to be obtained. However, differences were observed depending on the fields. Specific considerations were not always documented. There is a need

  12. Identifying learning characteristics of the gifted Students in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The failure of schools, teachers and counsellors to identify gifted students as well as responding to their unique characteristics and learning needs give rise to this paper. Gifted learners possess high level of intelligence than their peers, but are disadvantaged in the sense that they are not given the opportunity to reach their ...

  13. Identifying a borderline personality disorder prodrome: Implications for community screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Lazarus, Sophie A

    2017-08-01

    Elucidating early signs and symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has important implications for screening and identifying youth appropriate for early intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify dimensions of child temperament and psychopathology symptom severity that predict conversion to a positive screen for BPD over a 14-year follow-up period in a large, urban community sample of girls (n = 2 450). Parent and teacher reports of child temperament and psychopathology symptom severity assessed when girls were ages 5-8 years were examined as predictors of new-onset BPD cases when girls were ages 14-22 years. In the final model, parent and teacher ratings of emotionality remained significant predictors of new-onset BPD. Additionally, parent ratings of hyperactivity/impulsivity and depression severity, as well as teacher ratings of inattention severity, were also predictive. Results also revealed that elevations in these dimensions pose a notable increase in risk for conversion to BPD over the follow-up period. Supplementary analyses revealed that with the exception of parent-reported depression severity, these same predictors were associated with increases in BPD symptom severity over the follow-up period. These findings suggest BPD onset in adolescence and early adulthood can be detected from parent and teacher reports of temperament and symptom severity dimensions assessed in childhood. The identification of this prodrome holds promise for advancing early detection of children at risk prior to the development of the full-blown disorder. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Psychological Characteristics of Personality in Students with Learning Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Shilova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of the psychological characteristics of the personality of a student with learning difficulties from the position of the mismatch of mental development in operational sphere. The article considers the system of methods of research with the personality-oriented approach. The influence of certain psychological characteristics of a personality on the outcome of the study is revealed. The ways of building correctional-developing programmes for psychological preparation of junior schoolchildren for successful learning are shown.

  15. Exploring universal personality characteristics: An objective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Butcher

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante mucho tiempo los profesionales de la salud mental se han preguntado acerca de algún núcleo común en la psicopatología o si la enfermedad mental se basa en gran parte en la cultura. Los problemas de salud mental podrían ser consecuencia principalmente de factores culturales. Muchos profesionales han observado las formas similares en que los trastornos psiquiátricos se manifiestan a pesar de los antecedentes únicos culturales y educativos de las personas. Varios trastornos mentales (e.g., esquizofrenia y el trastorno bipolar encontrados en el DSM-IV-TR o ICD-10 han demostrado tener muchas características en común a través de los límites culturales. La cuestión referida a la similitud del comportamiento anormal a través de las culturas sólo puede ser comprendida adecuadamente si se emplea una metodología común para investigar los problemas de salud mental a través de las culturas. El uso de estrategias de investigación objetivas, como el Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI- 2 puede proporcionar una forma valiosa para comparar objetivamente los problemas de salud mental a través de las culturas. Este estudio teórico estudia el valor de la investigación en la personalidad transcultural y examina la utilidad de comparar los problemas de salud mental con un instrumento, como el MMPI-2, que ha demostrado tener validez y utilidad a través de las culturas. Se consideran también los pasos más importantes para mejorar la investigación de la salud mental transcultural.

  16. Examination of personality characteristics in a Turkish sample: development of Basic Personality Traits Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençöz, Tülin; Öcül, Öznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor nature of personality. For this aim, an indigenous, psychometrically strong instrument measuring the basic personality dimensions within Turkish culture and language was developed through three consecutive studies. The first study aimed to reveal the adjectives that have been most frequently used to define people in the Turkish culture. In the second study, factor analysis of these personality characteristics revealed big five personality factors, along with the sixth factor, which had been called as the Negative Valence factor. The adjectives that most strongly represented and differentiated each factor constituted 45-item "Basic Personality Traits Inventory". Finally, in the third study, psychometric characteristics of the Basic Personality Traits Inventory were examined. Factor structure and psychometric properties of this instrument confirmed that five-factor nature of personality may not hold true in every culture.

  17. The Influence of Personality Characteristics on Children's Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Emma; McGeown, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that children's motivation to read is influenced by their level of reading skill and reading self-concept. However, it is possible that characteristics unrelated to reading, such as underlying personality characteristics, may also influence children's motivation to read. The current study examined the extent to which children's…

  18. Personal circumstances and social characteristics as determinants of landholder participation in biodiversity conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Marshall, Nadine; Cocklin, Chris

    2012-12-30

    Adequate conservation of biodiversity on private land remains elusive due, in part, to a failure to understand the personal circumstances and social characteristics of private landholders. Our aim was to identify those personal and social dimensions of landholders that might contribute to improved conservation policy and program design and, thereby, participation in private land conservation. We tested whether personal circumstances of landholders (e.g., lifestyle and wellbeing, information and knowledge, financial security) and social characteristics (e.g., attitudes, norms, and trust) would be important predictors of landholders' capacity and willingness to participate in biodiversity conservation programs. Forty-five participants and twenty-nine non-participants of biodiversity conservation programs in north Queensland, Australia, were surveyed to: 1) examine differences between their personal circumstances and social characteristics that may influence participation; and 2) explore whether personal circumstances and social characteristics were influenced by participation. The results revealed that, compared to participants, non-participants in conservation programs had significantly different personal circumstances and social characteristics for four of eight measured variables. Compared to participants, non-participants demonstrated a reduced capacity and willingness to participate in conservation programs. Participation did not appear to have a strong influence on participants' personal circumstances or social characteristics, and when social norms supported conservation, programs did not demonstrate additionality. Conservation policies that maintain or improve landholders' personal circumstances and that promote pro-environmental norms may result in increased participation and thereby conservation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Personal identifiers in medical research networks: evaluation of the personal identifier generator in the Competence Network Paediatric Oncology and Haematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pommerening, Klaus

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Society for Paediatric Oncology and Haematology (GPOH and the corresponding Competence Network Paediatric Oncology and Haematology conduct various clinical trials. The comprehensive analysis requires reliable identification of the recruited patients. Therefore, a personal identifier (PID generator is used to assign unambiguous, pseudonymous, non-reversible PIDs to participants in those trials. We tested the matching algorithm of the PID generator using a configuration specific to the GPOH. False data was used to verify the correct processing of PID requests (functionality tests, while test data was used to evaluate the matching outcome. We also assigned PIDs to more than 44,000 data records from the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR and assessed the status of the associated patient list which contains the PIDs, partly encrypted data items and information on the PID generation process for each data record. All the functionality tests showed the expected results. Neither 14,915 test data records nor the GCCR data records yielded any homonyms. Six synonyms were found in the test data, due to erroneous birth dates, and 22 synonyms were found when the GCCR data was run against the actual patient list of 2579 records. In the resulting patient list of 45,693 entries, duplicate record submissions were found for about 7% of all listed patients, while more frequent submissions occurred in less than 1% of cases. The synonym error rate depends mainly on the quality of the input data and on the frequency of multiple submissions. Depending on the requirements on maximally tolerable synonym and homonym error rates, additional measures for securing input data quality might be necessary. The results demonstrate that the PID generator is an appropriate tool for reliably identifying trial participants in medical research networks.

  20. Personal characteristics and job satisfaction among nurses in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaktin, Umayma S; Azoury, Nuhad Bou-Raad; Doumit, Myrna A A

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the level of satisfaction of Lebanese nurses in their job and the influence of their personal characteristics. Given the current difficulties experienced by Lebanese hospitals in recruiting and retaining a sufficient number of nurses, the need to understand the reasons of nurses' dissatisfaction became urgent. Moreover, satisfaction at work is essentially a personal experience also affected by cultural factors. Therefore, it was necessary to study the links between personal characteristics and nurses' dissatisfaction. The study included 421 registered nurses. A modified version of Measure of Job Satisfaction, developed by Taynor and Wade, was used to assess the effect of the personal characteristics, namely educational level, age, years of work experience, position, and marital and parental status, on 5 dimensions of satisfaction: personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, pay and prospect, and training. The findings suggest that personal characteristics have important influences on nurses' job perceptions. University graduate nurses reported more dissatisfaction with the quality of supervision and with respect and treatment they receive from their superiors. Nurses younger than 30 years and the technically trained were more dissatisfied with the available opportunities to attend continuing education courses. Results of staff nurses and unmarried nurses showed trends of more dissatisfaction than the married and nurses of higher positions. Moreover, the whole sample perceived that nursing provided a high level of personal satisfaction, but nurses were most dissatisfied with salary and lack of prospects for promotion. The results indicate the importance of personal characteristics on nurses' retention. Furthermore, intrinsic factors related to the nature and experience of nursing are more job satisfying than extrinsic factors.

  1. Personality Matters: Relevance and Assessment of Personality Characteristics. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 157

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaraš, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Personality characteristics shape human behaviour and influence a wide range of life events and outcomes. They do so not only through their direct effects on life outcomes, but also through their indirect effects on other important personal factors and intermediate life events, such as the development of cognitive capacities, the attainment of…

  2. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12 year old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belsky, D.; Caspi, A.; Arseneault, L.; Bleidorn, W.; Fonagy, P.; Goodman, M.; Houts, R.; Moffitt, T.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in

  3. Personality characteristics and body image in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarısoy, Gökhan; Atmaca, Ayşegül; Ecemiş, Gülçin; Gümüş, Kübra; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the personality characteristics of obese and morbidly obese individuals with no psychiatric disorder and the correlation between these characteristics and body image and self-esteem. Sixty-nine obese individuals and 69 healthy controls, matched in age, sex and marital status, were included in the study. Psychiatric disorders were excluded for all participants using SCID-I and II. Obese and healthy volunteers were compared in terms of body image, self-esteem and personality characteristics. TCI harm avoidance scores were higher in obese individuals compared to healthy controls. Harm avoidance scores were also higher in individuals with morbid obesity compared to non-morbid individuals, while self-directedness and persistence scores were lower. Body image dissatisfaction was higher in obese individuals. There was a negative correlation in obese individuals between body image and self-esteem scale scores and harm avoidance scores, and a positive correlation with self-directedness scores. An elevated harm avoidance temperament characteristic may be correlated with obesity. Furthermore, high harm avoidance, low self-directedness and low persistence may be significant personality characteristics in a process leading to morbid obesity. In addition, harm avoidance temperament and self-directedness personality characteristics may be correlated with body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem in obese individuals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Identifying job characteristics related to employed women's breastfeeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzmueller, Christiane; Zhang, Jing; Thomas, Candice L; Wang, Zhuxi; Fisher, Gwenith G; Matthews, Russell A; Strathearn, Lane

    2018-05-14

    For employed mothers of infants, reconciliation of work demands and breastfeeding constitutes a significant challenge. The discontinuation of breastfeeding has the potential to result in negative outcomes for the mother (e.g., higher likelihood of obesity), her employer (e.g., increased absenteeism), and her infant (e.g., increased risk of infection). Given previous research findings identifying return to work as a major risk factor for breastfeeding cessation, we investigate what types of job characteristics relate to women's intentions to breastfeed shortly after giving birth and women's actual breastfeeding initiation and duration. Using job titles and job descriptors contained in a large Australian longitudinal cohort data set (N = 809), we coded job titles using the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)'s Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and extracted job characteristics. Hazardous working conditions and job autonomy were identified as significant determinants of women's breastfeeding intentions, their initiation of breastfeeding, and ultimately their breastfeeding continuation. Hence, we recommend that human resource professionals, managers, and public health initiatives provide breastfeeding-supportive resources to women who, based on their job characteristics, are at high risk to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding to ensure these mothers have equal opportunity to reap the benefits of breastfeeding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Identifying the Entrepreneurship Characteristics of the Oil Palm Community Plantation Farmers in the Riau Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilliant Asmit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is an essential and strategic commodity in the Riau area because of its considerable role in supporting the peoples’ economy, especially for plantation farmers. Oil palm plantation activities have brought economic impacts to society there, both for the people who are directly involved with the plantations and for their surrounding communities. This regional advantage is a facility for farmers to be able to develop their farms as plantations. The aims of this research are to identify the entrepreneurship characteristics of the oil palm farmers, and also to identify the entrepreneurship characteristics that differentiate the farmers, as seen from their business’ achievements. The research used a grounded theory approach to identify the characteristics of oil palm farmers systematically. The sampling method used for the research was theoretical sampling, which is data gathering driven by the concepts derived from the theory of previous entrepreneurship characteristics studies. The research object is the oil palm farmers in Riau, Indonesia. The results of the analysis identified the entrepreneurship characteristics of the oil palm farmers, they are growth oriented, risk-taking, innovative, with a sense of personal control, self confident, and cooperative. But, among the characteristics, only the characteristic of their cooperation did not differentiate the oil palm farmers in the achievement of their business activities.

  6. Personality Characteristics of Counselors Rated as Effective or Ineffective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, J. D.; Weslander, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) was used to discriminate counselors rated as highly effective, as average, or as ineffective. Results indicated significant correlations between tested personality characteristics and rated job performances. Employment level, sex, age, certification, and degree status were of no significance in predicting…

  7. The influence of personality characteristics and gender on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB). One hundred and fifty (150) respondents comprising eighty (80) males and seventy (70) females were randomly drawn from the Ministries of Finance, Health, Lands and Survey; State Government ...

  8. personal characteristics and compliance to health education among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    2016-10-08

    Oct 8, 2016 ... This study investigated personal characteristics (individual factors) ... Three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to ... Literature ... good nutrition, exercise, clothing and travel during ... health education, she must be aware of the benefits of ..... International Journal for Women's Health.

  9. Identifying person-fit latent classes, and explanation of categorical and continuous person misfit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.M.; Sijtsma, K.; Emons, W.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Latent class (LC) cluster analysis of a set of subscale lz person-fit statistics was proposed to explain person misfit on multiscale measures. The proposed explanatory LC person-fit analysis was used to analyze data of students (N = 91,648) on the nine-subscale School Attitude Questionnaire Internet

  10. Personality characteristics and parent-child relationships juveniles who commit violent crimes of a sexual nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartanyan G.A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of aggressive behavior of teenagers and sexual aggression in particular in the last time are particularly relevant and valuable in modern society. This is confirmed by the data of criminological statistics, according to which the rate of minor crime in the Russian Federation in recent years has virtually the same range. A comprehensive study of the person of a minor convicted of violent crimes of a sexual nature (personal characteristics, characteristics of sexual identity and parent-child relationship on the basis of comparative analysis with a group of teenagers convicted of the crime of mercenary-violent type, and a group of students emerging in socially favourable environment, enabled them to identify some distinctive features. The obtained results allow to suggest a possible mutual influence of personal characteristics and characteristics of sexual identity with the peculiarities of child-parent relationships in a group of juveniles convicted for violent crimes of a sexual nature.

  11. A survey on relationship among consumer personal characteristics, brand personality and brand love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eilaghi Karvandi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumer’s personality traits, as one of the most important aspects of human psychological tendency, may influence people towards different brands. Therefore, the owners of most well-known brands also try to learn more about people’s personal characteristics to gain more market shares. The purpose of this paper is to find out more about consumer personality, which creates motivation in consumer’s mind and to learn more about the effect of this image on consumer’s interest on purchasing products. The population of this survey includes all people in city of Tehran, Iran who own one of Apple’s products. The results of the survey have indicated that neuroticism, extroversion, openness, compatibility, loyalty and brand love, as the main characteristics of brand personality, maintained positive impacts on brand love.

  12. [Characteristics of Hospitalizations of Homeless Persons in Seville, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero Patricio, Sebastián; Fernández Ajuria, Alberto; Charris Castro, Liliana

    2016-02-10

    The aim was to determine the characteristics of hospital admissions of homeless persons in Seville, Spain. Observational study of 103,802 hospital admissions of 71,756 patients admitted in the Hospitals "Virgen del Rocío" and "Virgen Macarena" (Seville), in 2013 and 2014. Bivariate analysis were performed using χ2 and t-Student tests and multivariate analysis using binomial logistic regression model. 0.16% (n=163) of admissions were homeless persons and 99.84% (n=103,639) were not. The mean age at admission in homeless patients was 48 years and 76.5% of them were men. Hospital deaths of homeless patients occurred being 23 years younger. 92% of hospital admissions came from emergency departments and 10.0% of their discharges were against medical advice. The average length of stay was 4.8 days longer in homeless persons and the most frequent diagnoses on admission were mental (27.0%), infectious (19.6%) and respiratory diseases (18.4%). Mental disorders were present on 83.7% of homeless patients as secondary diagnose and 77.6% referred drugs consumption. Hospital admissions characteristics of homeless persons were particularly different. Homeless patients were hospitalized and died at a younger age than non-homeless patients. The morbidity and mortality of homeless persons reflect their vulnerable health condition.

  13. A survey on relationship among consumer personal characteristics, brand personality and brand love

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eilaghi Karvandi

    2016-01-01

    Consumer’s personality traits, as one of the most important aspects of human psychological tendency, may influence people towards different brands. Therefore, the owners of most well-known brands also try to learn more about people’s personal characteristics to gain more market shares. The purpose of this paper is to find out more about consumer personality, which creates motivation in consumer’s mind and to learn more about the effect of this image on consumer’s interest on purchasing produc...

  14. Characteristics and Travel Patterns of New York Residents: Subpopulations of Persons with a Disability in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reuscher, Tim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the NYS Department of Transportation (DOT) to conduct a detailed examination of travel behaviors, and identify patterns and trends, on several NYS subpopulations, including disabled persons. Unlike other studies that concentrated on national level statistics, this research is focused on examining issues associated with travelers among NYS residents only. For each special subpopulation group, ORNL will identify differences, if any, in travel patterns that are attributable to demographic characteristics, household characteristics, modal characteristics, geographic location, and other concepts. Focus will be given to trip frequency, trip chaining, as well as travel by time of day, trip purpose, and mode choice.

  15. [Relationship between exercise adherence and personality characteristics in persons experienced in the Medical Fitness program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yuko; Seki, Nao; Umeda, Kimie; Tanabe, Naohito; Shinoda, Kunihiko; Konishi, Isamu; Sekiya, Akiyoshi; Sekii, Akiko; Ohta, Tamaki

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined effective exercise adherence support methods for persons experienced in the Medical Fitness (MF) program to clarify the relation of personality traits with exercise adherence and the factors that improve exercise adherence.Methods Subjects were 283 adults who had registered as members in the MF program at an affiliate of Hospital A. We implemented an anonymous self-administered questionnaire by postal mail. Using the Japanese version of the Ten Item Personality Inventory (which contains 10 items that measure the Big Five personality traits), we evaluated the following characteristics: "Extraversion", "Agreeableness", "Conscientiousness", "Neuroticism", and "Openness". The subjects who reported exercising regularly at the time of survey were considered persons with subjective exercise adherence.Results In persons with subjective exercise adherence, "Conscientiousness" was significantly lower (P=0.003) among men and "Neuroticism" was significantly higher (P=0.018) among women when compared to persons with subjective exercise adherence. There was no correlation between the things that emphasize exercise adherence and "Conscientiousness" among men. There was a negative correlation between "can achieve goal" and "Neuroticism" among women.Conclusions It is essential to consider personality and gender differences when devising exercise adherence support measures for the MF program. Our results suggest that women with high neuroticism do not need "can achieve goal" to maintain their exercise habits; therefore, it is necessary to examine teaching methods that do not focus on only goal achievement as part of exercise adherence support for MF.

  16. Personal characteristics of a law enforcement unit of special purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko T.G.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of the personal characteristics of law enforcement officers due to a significant number of crimes of an aggressive nature, committed by employees of internal Affairs bodies, and the need to develop preventive measures. The purpose of this research is to study peculiarities of the manifestation of progressive and inhibiting aggression personality factors in the structure of law enforcement officers, whose activities directly associated with aggression in the performance of official duties. The study involved 149 employees of special forces of law enforcement are male aged 18 to 35 years. Used a wide battery of psychodiagnostic methods aimed at a comprehensive study of the individual respondents. the data Obtained were analyzed using the method of correlation pleiades. According to the results, was discovered a unique picture of the relationship among personality structures and interaction progressive and deterrent aggression factors with the prevalence of progressive on inhibitory factors in the studied structure.

  17. Clinical characteristics of older psychiatric inpatients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappler, B; Backfield, J

    2001-01-01

    This case study investigation considers typical and potentially unique characteristics of older (> 50 years) Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients and describes their impact on an inpatient psychiatric unit encompassing a therapeutic milieu setting and multidisciplinary treatment teams. The somatization of symptoms, in particular, and the associated therapeutic, medical, and psychopharmacological interventions, result in prolonged and elaborate treatments that undermine clinical and personal boundaries, clash with managed care directives, and engender frustrating and elusive transferential and countertransferential reactions. Moreover, the guilt-inducing nature of somatization and physical frailty in older individuals, combined with the well-documented ability of BPD patients, regardless of age, to incite stormy and 'split' relationships, are linked characteristics that may describe a diagnostic subtype of BPD. Rather than suggesting a diminution of psychopathology as BPD patients age, the results of this investigation indicate that their persistent difficulties may only be altering in content and in pathological adaptation to changing needs.

  18. The characteristics of medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yera; Cho, A-Ra; Kim, Sun

    2013-12-01

    Medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs must be considered. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs. A total of 171 students in Konyang University College of Medicine were examined using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B). The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, t-test, and one-sample proportion test. The proportion of the 4 pairs of MBTI dimensions were Extroversion (E)-Introversion (I) (53.2% vs. 46.8%), Sensing (S)-Intuition (N) (63.2% vs. 36.8%), Thinking (T)-Feeling (F) (59.7% vs. 40.4%), and Judging (J)-Perceiving (P) (56.1% vs. 43.9%). The predominant personality types were ISTJ (16.4%), ESTJ (14.0%), and ESFJ (10.5%). The level of interpersonal needs were medium rage that was inclusion (mean=8.1), control (mean=8.8), affection (mean=8.1), expressed behavior (mean=12.1), wanted behavior (mean=12.9), and overall interpersonal needs (mean=25.0). Of the basic social needs, males and females differed significantly with regard to control needs (p=0.028). Educational programs that take into account personality types and characteristics of interpersonal needs are crucial in providing effective medical education. Our results suggest that the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs should be considered in developing an interpersonal relations improvement program for medical students.

  19. Comparing Personality Characteristics of Addicts with Non Addicts in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Sizeable sector of the population in Iran continues to use substance abuse despite government efforts to prevent addiction. Present study was designed to compare personality characteristics of addicts with non addicts. One hundred and six addicts who sought treatment at addiction rehabilitation department of Hamadan , were recruited in this study. A selective control group matched for demographic variables with the first group were also requested to take part in the study. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV and MMPI were administered. The results showed that patients in studied group represented a significantly different personality characteristics in contrast to the control group. Overal 77.8% of addicts were diagnosed as mental disorder. This figure for control group was 26.2% . Also 41.3% of addicts were diagnosed as personality disorders, while the figure for non addicts was 5.8%. High rates of mental disorders and personality problems are reported for addicts. It Seems that psychiatric symptoms and psychological vulnerabilities have important role in addictive behavior.

  20. The perfectly motivated nurse and the others: workplace and personal characteristics impact preference of nursing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Proynova, Rumyana; Paech, Barbara; Wetter, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    To identify whether motivation of nurses coincides with personal values, workplace or personal characteristics. Shortage of nursing workforce compromises patient care. Motivation and job satisfaction are factors considered to make nurses quit. Little is known about measurement and variation of nurses' motivation. Funding for human resource programmes is limited - effective programmes could focus on nurses in need of motivational support. Exploratory study with nurses using questionnaires in an academic hospital in Germany. Work motivation was approximated through preference of nursing tasks. Questionnaires measured personal values, preference of generic nursing tasks, and workplace and personal characteristics. A total of 212 questionnaires were usable. Higher motivation was found in groups of nurses with the dominant personal value 'Benevolence', with high self-rated expertise, in the middle of their career or working in surgical or general wards. Motivation was low in nurses with the dominant value 'Hedonism', or nurses in internal medicine or with low to medium self-rated expertise or who used computers infrequently. Motivation coincided with dominant personal values, workplace and personal characteristics. The results should be validated in other settings. Human resource programmes could focus on nurses whose motivation is at risk. Prospectively highly motivated individuals should be hired with priority. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Development of a questionnaire for identifying driver's personal values in driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahab, Q.M.; Terken, J.M.B.; Eggen, J.H.; Terken, J.; Martens, M.; Mueller, C.; Healey, J.; Osswald, S.

    2013-01-01

    The speed behavior of drivers is influenced by their personal driving values. It is assumed that these personal values may differ between drivers. In this paper, we describe the development of the Personal Driving Values (PDV) questionnaire. The questionnaire is to be used as a means of identifying

  2. Using a measure of person-perception skills to identify outstanding home care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, Kerry; Medvene, Louis; Walker, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This study involved university-community collaboration with an international home care company for the purpose of developing a tool to identify talented caregivers. Tested was the hypothesis that workers' ability to provide care in person-centered ways would be positively associated with their ability to describe others in complex ways--that is, their person-perception skills. Company coordinators functioning as supervisors used an innovative 10-item instrument to screen 554 home health aides for their person centeredness. The most and least person-centered workers were evaluated for their person-perception skills. Person centeredness was positively associated with the complexity of home care workers' descriptions of others.

  3. 20 CFR 1010.300 - What processes are to be implemented to identify covered persons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What processes are to be implemented to identify covered persons? 1010.300 Section 1010.300 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... processes to identify covered persons who physically access service delivery points or who access virtual...

  4. Characteristics associated with family money management for persons with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis

    2018-05-11

    Persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) commonly have their money officially or unofficially managed by others, with money managers most commonly being family members. (i) Identify characteristics of persons with PD, adult family members, and interactions with each other significantly associated with family money management (FMM). (ii) Identify significant differences in aforementioned characteristics between official versus unofficial FMM. Five hundred and seventy-three adults residing in USA with an adult relative with PD completed a survey. Among persons with PD, FMM was positively associated with lower income, diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective or bipolar disorder, psychiatric hospitalization, and arrest history. FMM was negatively associated with family members having a mental health diagnosis. FMM was positively associated with interaction characteristics of co-residence, financial assistance, caregiving, and use of limit-setting practices. Compared to official FMM, when unofficial FMM was present, persons with PD were less likely to have been psychiatrically hospitalized or to have regularly attended mental health treatment. When unofficial FMM was present, adult family members were less likely to be a parent of the person with PD. Practitioners should assess the level of burden experienced by family money managers and assess and address with family money managers the use of limit-setting practices.

  5. The Importance of Fitting Personality Dimensions and Job Characteristics in Employees in the Hotel Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jovičić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the importance of the connection between personality dimensions of employees with the characteristics of their job in order to achieve more productive work and accomplish maximum customer satisfaction, as well as to create competitive advantage. The survey was conducted on a sample of 50 employees in the hotel “Prezident” in Novi Sad. In the survey was used the questionnaire of personality dimensions of the big five, and traits that have been described in this questionnaire are extroversion, conscientiousness, pleasantness, openness to new experiences and negative affectivity. The results of the survey show that in the selected facility prevail positive personality dimensions, and the negative affectivity is at its lowest level. For that reason this hotel should serve as an example of how to coordinate work in hotel management with the personality dimensions of employees, all in the service of satisfaction of guests. In that sense a very important role has the sector of human resources whose task is identifying personality characteristics and fitting personality characteristics with business activities that an individual performs, and the development of emotional intelligence which is especially important in hotel management.

  6. Identifying depression severity risk factors in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan T; Wilson, Catherine S; Heinemann, Allen W; Lazowski, Linda E; Fann, Jesse R; Bombardier, Charles H

    2014-02-01

    Examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, health-, and injury-related characteristics, and substance misuse across multiple levels of depression severity. 204 persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) volunteered as part of screening efforts for a randomized controlled trial of venlafaxine extended release for major depressive disorder (MDD). Instruments included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression scale, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Substance Abuse in Vocational Rehabilitation-Screener (SAVR-S), which contains 3 subscales: drug misuse, alcohol misuse, and a subtle items scale. Each of the SAVR-S subscales contributes to an overall substance use disorder (SUD) outcome. Three proportional odds models were specified, varying the substance misuse measure included in each model. 44% individuals had no depression symptoms, 31% had mild symptoms, 16% had moderate symptoms, 6% had moderately severe symptoms, and 3% had severe depression symptoms. Alcohol misuse, as indicated by the AUDIT and the SAVR-S drug misuse subscale scores were significant predictors of depression symptom severity. The SAVR-S substance use disorder (SUD) screening outcome was the most predictive variable. Level of education was only significantly predictive of depression severity in the model using the AUDIT alcohol misuse indicator. Likely SUD as measured by the SAVR-S was most predictive of depression symptom severity in this sample of persons with traumatic SCI. Drug and alcohol screening are important for identifying individuals at risk for depression, but screening for both may be optimal. Further research is needed on risk and protective factors for depression, including psychosocial characteristics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics Identified for Success by Restorative Dental Science Department Chairpersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Alvin G; Weiss, Robert O; Wichman, Christopher S; Sukotjo, Cortino; Brundo, Gerald C

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the characteristics that current chairpersons in restorative dentistry, general dentistry, prosthodontics, and operative dentistry departments in U.S. dental schools feel are most relevant in contributing to their success. The secondary aim was to determine these individuals' rankings of the importance of a listed set of characteristics for them to be successful in their position. All 82 current chairs of the specified departments were invited to respond to an electronic survey. The survey first asked respondents to list the five most essential characteristics to serve as chair of a department and to rank those characteristics based on importance. Participants were next given a list of ten characteristics in the categories of management and leadership and, without being aware of the category of each individual item, asked to rank them in terms of importance for their success. A total of 39 chairpersons completed the survey (47.6% response rate; 83.3% male and 16.2% female). In section one, the respondents reported that leadership, vision, work ethic, integrity, communication, and organization were the most essential characteristics for their success. In section two, the respondents ranked the leadership characteristics as statistically more important than the management characteristics (psuccessful in their positions.

  8. Clinical Characteristics of Comorbid Narcissistic Personality Disorder in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörz-Sagstetter, Susanne; Diamond, Diana; Clarkin, John F; Levy, Kenneth N; Rentrop, Michael; Fischer-Kern, Melitta; Cain, Nicole M; Doering, Stephan

    2017-07-31

    This study examines psychopathology and clinical characteristics of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and comorbid narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) from two international randomized controlled trials. From a combined sample of 188 patients with BPD, 25 also fulfilled criteria for a comorbid diagnosis of NPD according to DSM-IV. The BPD patients with comorbid NPD, compared to the BPD patients without comorbid NPD, showed significantly more BPD criteria (M = 7.44 vs. M = 6.55, p personality disorders, and were more likely to meet criteria for full histrionic PD diagnosis (44.0% vs. 14.2%, p disorders (M = 2.68 vs. M = 3.75, p = .033). No differences could be found in general functioning, self-harming behavior, and suicide attempts.

  9. Personal and Perceived Depression Stigma among Arab Adolescents: Associations with Depression Severity and Personal Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa Ali; Silva, Susan G; Smoski, Moria J; Noonan, Devon; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2017-10-01

    In Arab communities, the selection, utilization, and attitudes towards mental health services are substantially affected by existing mental illness stigma. However, little is known about how the stigma of depression manifests among Arab adolescents, which makes it difficult to design, implement, and disseminate effective anti-stigma interventions for this vulnerable population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine levels of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. The specific aims were to (1) describe the severity of personal and perceived depression stigma among Arab adolescents and its relationship to severity of depression, and (2) determine characteristics associated with severity of depression stigma among Arab adolescents. This study was conducted in Jordan, a Middle Eastern Arab country. A nationally representative, school-based survey was utilized. A total of 2349 Jordanian adolescents aged 12-17 completed and returned the survey packets, which included measures on individual characteristics, depression severity, and depression stigma. The majority of the adolescents (88%) reported scores indicating moderate to high depression stigma. Adolescents reported higher rates of perceived stigma than personal stigma. Depression stigma was not significantly associated with severity of depression, but with adolescent's sex, age, region of residence, parents' education, and history of mental health problem. This is the first Arab study to isolate the influence of adolescent depression and personal characteristics on personal and perceived depression stigmas, and highlight the presence of these distinctions early in adolescence. Such distinction can inform the design and implementation of policies and interventions to reduce both personal and perceived stigma. The study provides important recommendations on when, how, and why to utilize school settings for anti-depression stigma interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological adjustment and marital satisfaction following head injury. Which critical personal characteristics should both partners develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Marie Claude; Boisvert, Jean-Marie

    2007-04-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH DESIGN: Using a correlational design, this study verifies the relationships between personal characteristics of individuals with TBI and their spouses and their level of psychological and marital adjustment. Seventy individuals with TBI and their spouses in the post-acute rehabilitation phase completed self-report questionnaires assessing the predictive variables (coping and social problem-solving strategies; perceived communication skills) and the criteria variables of psychological and marital adjustment. In the target group, the characteristics most strongly related to adjustment variables were an effective attitude towards problems, infrequent use of avoidance coping strategies, and a positive perception of one's spouse's communication skills. Individuals with TBI and their spouses report significantly lower scores on some of these personal characteristics, compared to those of a matched control group of 70 couples from the general population. Specific personal characteristics are critical for psychological and marital adjustment following TBI. This knowledge may be of relevance for detecting couples at risk for developing difficulties in the post-acute rehabilitation phase. Rehabilitation interventions targeting the personal characteristics identified as critical for the adjustment process could help to prevent these difficulties.

  11. Postural Response Signal Characteristics Identified by Method of Developed Statokinesigram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbolyas Boris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human postural system is taken as complex biological system with specific input and output time characteristics, in this study. Evaluation of measured output characteristics is useful in medical diagnostics or in describing postural system disorders. System theory principle provide suitable basis for postural signals analysis. Participating volunteers were instructed to maintain quiet upright stance posture on firm support surface of stabilometric platform for 60s. Postural system actuation was realized by vibration stimuli applied bilaterally on Achilles tendons for 20s. Postural reaction signal, its time profile and static and dynamic characteristics were evaluated by Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST.

  12. A social work study for assessment of entrepreneurs' personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The personality of an entrepreneur plays an important role on the success of creating new ideas. There are different characteristics such as courage, hardness, braveness, which could help an entrepreneur reach his/her goals. In this paper, we present an empirical study to learn more about students who are supposed to act as entrepreneur to create jobs in different fields of accounting, computer science, mechanical engineering, etc. In this paper, There are seven aspects of accepting reasonable risk, locus of control, the need for success, mental health conditions, being pragmatic, tolerating ambiguity, dreaming and the sense of challenging in our study to measure the level of entrepreneurship. We implement ANOVA test to measure different entrepreneurship characteristics of students who study in various educational fields. The case study is associated with Sama private university located in city of Zanjan/Iran. The results indicate that there are not meaningful differences among pairwise comparison of many engineering fields.

  13. Health and wellness characteristics of persons with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Cynthia A; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Brenner, Lisa; Hawley, Lenore; Morey, Clare; Newman, Jody; Staniszewski, Kristi; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    To describe health and wellness characteristics of persons with TBI living in the community, compare to other disability populations and evaluate the associations between health-related constructs. Observational. Outpatient rehabilitation hospital and a Veterans Affairs Medical Centre. Seventy-four community-dwelling adults with moderate-to-severe TBI. None. Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II), Self Rated Abilities Health Practices Scale (SRAHP), Barriers to Health Promoting Activities for Disabled Scale (BHPAD), Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Health Status Survey Short Form (SF-12), Personal Resource Questionnaire-adapted (PRQ-a), Perceived Wellness Survey (PWS), Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective (PART-O). Health-promoting behaviours, self-efficacy and barriers to health were comparable to other disability populations. Perceived health status, participation and life satisfaction were decreased. Measures of health promotion and self-efficacy were positively associated with perceived mental health status, life satisfaction and participation. Barriers to healthy activities were negatively associated with health promotion, self-efficacy and perceived mental health status. Health and wellness status was below desired levels for the study cohort, and comparable to other disability populations. Better understanding of associations among health-related constructs is needed. Continued research on conceptually-based health and wellness interventions for persons with TBI is recommended.

  14. The Importance of Considering Context in the Assessment of Personality Characteristics: Evidence from Ratings of Dolphin Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczaj II, Stan A.; Highfill, Lauren; Byerly, Holli

    2012-01-01

    One of the tenets of personality is that an individual’s distinguishing behavioral characteristics arerelatively stable over time and across contexts. Both humans and animals demonstrate suchconsistency, at least for certain personality traits. However, the relative extent to which personality isstable is rarely addressed in studies of animal personality, the focus typically being on stability ratherthan its absence. Here we present data on dolphin personality that suggest dolphin behavior (a...

  15. Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; León, Elsa; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; Dongo, Mario; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; Munayco, César V.; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program “Vida Digna” and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. Materials ande methods. We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time ...

  16. Identifying molecular markers associated with stigma characteristics in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigma characteristics play essential roles in hybrid seed production of rice and marker-assisted breeding plays essential role because they are quantitatively inherited with single-flowered perfect spikelet. Ninety four accessions originated from 47 countries were selected from the USDA rice core c...

  17. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    OpenAIRE

    De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Lewi, Martine; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer scre...

  18. Competence Description for Personal Recommendations: The Importance of Identifying the Complexity of Learning and Performance Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Frans J.; Nadolski, Rob J.; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    For competences development of learners and professionals, target competences and corresponding competence development opportunities have to be identified. Personal Recommender Systems (PRS) provide personal recommendations for learners aimed at finding and selecting learning activities that best match their needs. This article argues that a…

  19. 38 CFR 74.25 - What types of personally identifiable information will VA collect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VETERANS SMALL BUSINESS REGULATIONS Records Management § 74.25 What types of personally identifiable information will VA collect? In order to establish owner... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of personally...

  20. Identifying British Army infantry recruit population characteristics using biographical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, M D; Arthur, A; Repper, J; Mukhuty, S; Fear, N T

    2016-04-01

    The infantry accounts for more than a quarter of the British Army but there is a lack of data about the social and educational background of its recruits. To provide an insight into British Army infantry recruits' personal, social and educational background prior to enlistment. The study sample consisted of infantry recruits who enlisted into the British Army School of Infantry. Each recruit completed a 95-item biographical questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample in terms of demographic, physical, personal, social and educational attributes. The study sample consisted of 1000 male recruits. Over half of the recruits were consuming alcohol at a hazardous or harmful level prior to enlistment and 60% of recruits had used cannabis prior to joining the Army. Academic attainment was low, with the majority of recruits achieving GCSE grade C and below in most subjects, with 15% not taking any examinations. Over half the recruits had been in trouble with the police and either been suspended or expelled from school. Substance misuse and poor behaviour are highly prevalent among recruits prior to enlistment. Taken alongside existing evidence that some of these problems are commonplace among personnel in regular service, the assumption that the British Army infantry is, in itself, a cause of these behaviours should be questioned. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The SADI Personal Health Lens: A Web Browser-Based System for Identifying Personally Relevant Drug Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, Ben; McCarthy, E Luke; Cruz-Toledo, José; Klein, Artjom; Baker, Christopher J O; Dumontier, Michel; Wilkinson, Mark D

    2013-04-05

    The Web provides widespread access to vast quantities of health-related information that can improve quality-of-life through better understanding of personal symptoms, medical conditions, and available treatments. Unfortunately, identifying a credible and personally relevant subset of information can be a time-consuming and challenging task for users without a medical background. The objective of the Personal Health Lens system is to aid users when reading health-related webpages by providing warnings about personally relevant drug interactions. More broadly, we wish to present a prototype for a novel, generalizable approach to facilitating interactions between a patient, their practitioner(s), and the Web. We utilized a distributed, Semantic Web-based architecture for recognizing personally dangerous drugs consisting of: (1) a private, local triple store of personal health information, (2) Semantic Web services, following the Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) design pattern, for text mining and identifying substance interactions, (3) a bookmarklet to trigger analysis of a webpage and annotate it with personalized warnings, and (4) a semantic query that acts as an abstract template of the analytical workflow to be enacted by the system. A prototype implementation of the system is provided in the form of a Java standalone executable JAR file. The JAR file bundles all components of the system: the personal health database, locally-running versions of the SADI services, and a javascript bookmarklet that triggers analysis of a webpage. In addition, the demonstration includes a hypothetical personal health profile, allowing the system to be used immediately without configuration. Usage instructions are provided. The main strength of the Personal Health Lens system is its ability to organize medical information and to present it to the user in a personalized and contextually relevant manner. While this prototype was limited to a single knowledge domain

  2. The SADI Personal Health Lens: A Web Browser-Based System for Identifying Personally Relevant Drug Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, Ben; McCarthy, E Luke; Cruz-Toledo, José; Klein, Artjom; Baker, Christopher J O; Dumontier, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background The Web provides widespread access to vast quantities of health-related information that can improve quality-of-life through better understanding of personal symptoms, medical conditions, and available treatments. Unfortunately, identifying a credible and personally relevant subset of information can be a time-consuming and challenging task for users without a medical background. Objective The objective of the Personal Health Lens system is to aid users when reading health-related webpages by providing warnings about personally relevant drug interactions. More broadly, we wish to present a prototype for a novel, generalizable approach to facilitating interactions between a patient, their practitioner(s), and the Web. Methods We utilized a distributed, Semantic Web-based architecture for recognizing personally dangerous drugs consisting of: (1) a private, local triple store of personal health information, (2) Semantic Web services, following the Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) design pattern, for text mining and identifying substance interactions, (3) a bookmarklet to trigger analysis of a webpage and annotate it with personalized warnings, and (4) a semantic query that acts as an abstract template of the analytical workflow to be enacted by the system. Results A prototype implementation of the system is provided in the form of a Java standalone executable JAR file. The JAR file bundles all components of the system: the personal health database, locally-running versions of the SADI services, and a javascript bookmarklet that triggers analysis of a webpage. In addition, the demonstration includes a hypothetical personal health profile, allowing the system to be used immediately without configuration. Usage instructions are provided. Conclusions The main strength of the Personal Health Lens system is its ability to organize medical information and to present it to the user in a personalized and contextually relevant manner. While this

  3. 26 CFR 301.7609-2 - Notification of persons identified in third-party summonses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... records of the business transactions or affairs of a person identified in the summons have been made or... through intimidation, bribery, or collusion, or to flee to avoid prosecution, testifying, or production of...

  4. Investigating personal characteristics on e-banking adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arfaeian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been increasing interests on doing banking transactions using online services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the role of personal and social characteristics on acceptance of e-banking adoption. The proposed study designs two questionnaires and distributes them among 384 randomly selected people who use online banking in province of Alborz, Iran. The proposed study examines the effects of five factors including Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness on e-banking adoption. Using regression techniques, the study has confirmed that Neuroticism and Agreeableness have negative and meaningful impact on e-banking adoption while Conscientiousness has positive and meaningful relationship with e-banking adoption.

  5. H.S.W. Massey. Life, work personality and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Harrie Stewart Wilson Massey was born in Melbourne in 1908 and died at home in Surrey in 1983. This brief biography begins with his boyhood in Australia and his schooling both in Melbourne and at Cambridge and then discusses his achievements and positions in the academic and scientific communities before returning to his Cambridge period to discuss his accomplishments there in greater detail. Among them are his experiments on electron diffraction by atom; the first Born approximation; electron exchange; electron-molecule collisions; collisions between atomic systems and transport phenomena in gases; and nuclear collisions. The paper concludes by describing Massey's personality and characteristics and then lists an 11-page bibliography of his journal papers and books

  6. Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssens A Cecile JW

    2011-06-01

    newer notion of 'personal utility.' Summary Consideration of test characteristics is essential to any valuable discourse on the ELSI of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases. Four key characteristics of the test - targeted/non-targeted testing, analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility - together determine the applicability and the relevance of ELSI to specific tests. The paper identifies and discusses four areas of interest for the ELSI-debate on personal genome testing: informational problems, risks, regulatory issues, and the notion of personal utility.

  7. Identifying problematic drugs based on the characteristics of their targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Tiago J S; Shoemaker, Jason E; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Identifying promising compounds during the early stages of drug development is a major challenge for both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. The difficulties are even more pronounced when we consider multi-target pharmacology, where the compounds often target more than one protein, or multiple compounds are used together. Here, we address this problem by using machine learning and network analysis to process sequence and interaction data from human proteins to identify promising compounds. We used this strategy to identify properties that make certain proteins more likely to cause harmful effects when targeted; such proteins usually have domains commonly found throughout the human proteome. Additionally, since currently marketed drugs hit multiple targets simultaneously, we combined the information from individual proteins to devise a score that quantifies the likelihood of a compound being harmful to humans. This approach enabled us to distinguish between approved and problematic drugs with an accuracy of 60-70%. Moreover, our approach can be applied as soon as candidate drugs are available, as demonstrated with predictions for more than 5000 experimental drugs. These resources are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/psin/.

  8. Identifying problematic drugs based on the characteristics of their targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Jose eDa Silva Lopes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying promising compounds during the early stages of drug development is a major challenge for both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. The difficulties are even more pronounced when we consider multi-target pharmacology, where the compounds often target more than one protein, or multiple compounds are used together. Here, we address this problem by using machine learning and network analysis to process sequence and interaction data from human proteins to identify promising compounds. We used this strategy to identify properties that make certain proteins more likely to cause harmful effects when targeted; such proteins usually have domains commonly found throughout the human proteome. Additionally, since currently marketed drugs hit multiple targets simultaneously, we combined the information from individual proteins to devise a score that quantifies the likelihood of a compound being harmful to humans. This approach enabled us to distinguish between approved and problematic drugs with an accuracy of 60%¬–70%. Moreover, our approach can be applied as soon as candidate drugs are available, as demonstrated with predictions for more than 5000 experimental drugs. These resources are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/psin/.

  9. Comparison of 10 single and stepped methods to identify frail older persons in primary care: diagnostic and prognostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutorius, Fleur L; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Prins, Bernard A H; van Hout, Hein P J

    2016-08-03

    Many instruments have been developed to identify frail older adults in primary care. A direct comparison of the accuracy and prevalence of identification methods is rare and most studies ignore the stepped selection typically employed in routine care practice. Also it is unclear whether the various methods select persons with different characteristics. We aimed to estimate the accuracy of 10 single and stepped methods to identify frailty in older adults and to predict adverse health outcomes. In addition, the methods were compared on their prevalence of the identified frail persons and on the characteristics of persons identified. The Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI), the PRISMA-7, polypharmacy, the clinical judgment of the general practitioner (GP), the self-rated health of the older adult, the Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS), the Identification Seniors At Risk Primary Care (ISAR PC), the Frailty Index (FI), the InterRAI screener and gait speed were compared to three measures: two reference standards (the clinical judgment of a multidisciplinary expert panel and Fried's frailty criteria) and 6-years mortality or long term care admission. Data were used from the Dutch Identification of Frail Elderly Study, consisting of 102 people aged 65 and over from a primary care practice in Amsterdam. Frail older adults were oversampled. The accuracy of each instrument and several stepped strategies was estimated by calculating the area under the ROC-curve. Prevalence rates of frailty ranged from 14.8 to 52.9 %. The accuracy for recommended cut off values ranged from poor (AUC = 0.556 ISAR-PC) to good (AUC = 0.865 gait speed). PRISMA-7 performed best over two reference standards, GP predicted adversities best. Stepped strategies resulted in lower prevalence rates and accuracy. Persons selected by the different instruments varied greatly in age, IADL dependency, receiving homecare and mood. We found huge differences between methods to identify frail persons in prevalence

  10. The Impact of Personal Characteristics on Contraceptive Choices and Use Over 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Carlson PhD, APN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, there is an unintended pregnancy rate of 40%. That rate is higher in some areas, such as in the United States—where it is nearly 50%. These pregnancies have potentially negative outcomes for the mother and child that include health, economic, social, and psychological aspects. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs are highly reliable methods for family planning. Identifying personal characteristics associated with choosing LARCs will better address the unintended pregnancy rates. The purpose of this research project was to evaluate characteristics of adolescents and women at high risk for unintended pregnancies by (a describing the use of a LARC and selected personal characteristics for the years 2009 and 2014 and (b exploring relationships among LARC choice and selected personal characteristics of clients seeking family planning services. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 268 randomly selected records, half of which were each from the years 2009 and 2014. One Midwestern U.S. family planning clinic was the site of the research. The characteristics used in the chart reviews were derived from the literature and Healthy People 2020 goals. Key differences between the years 2009 and 2014 included a significant increase in the number of LARCs prescribed to high-risk women. There was a significant relationship between the choice of a LARC and having used one in the past. Personal characteristics influencing LARC birth control choice included White, Hispanic females, those with a history of a teen pregnancy, those who experienced any previous pregnancy or live birth, and those below the poverty level. The findings indicate the importance of educating clients on LARC options. To foster initial use of a LARC, an application, based on the findings of this study, has been developed that provides individualized choices and education on contraceptive methods including LARCs.

  11. CT Perfusion Characteristics Identify Metastatic Sites in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue perfusion plays a critical role in oncology because growth and migration of cancerous cells require proliferation of new blood vessels through the process of tumor angiogenesis. Computed tomography (CT perfusion is an emerging functional imaging modality that measures tissue perfusion through dynamic CT scanning following intravenous administration of contrast medium. This noninvasive technique provides a quantitative basis for assessing tumor angiogenesis. CT perfusion has been utilized on a variety of organs including lung, prostate, liver, and brain, with promising results in cancer diagnosis, disease prognostication, prediction, and treatment monitoring. In this paper, we focus on assessing the extent to which CT perfusion characteristics can be used to discriminate liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors from normal liver tissues. The neuroendocrine liver metastases were analyzed by distributed parameter modeling to yield tissue blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, mean transit time (MTT, permeability (PS, and hepatic arterial fraction (HAF, for tumor and normal liver. The result reveals the potential of CT perfusion as a tool for constructing biomarkers from features of the hepatic vasculature for guiding cancer detection, prognostication, and treatment selection.

  12. 78 FR 17222 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection, License for the Use of Personally Identifiable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Identifiable Information Protected Under the E-Government Act of 2002, Title V and the Privacy Act of 1974...) and Title V, subtitle A of the E-Government Act of 2002 (CIPSEA) (U.S.C. 3501 note). HUD wishes to... Information Collection, License for the Use of Personally Identifiable Information Protected Under the E...

  13. Identifying and Responding to Personal Stressors: Utilizing Photo Elicitation in Health Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    The "Photo Elicitation Project" teaching idea applies the techniques of photo elicitation to stress prevention and management. This activity is designed to help students identify their personal stressors and to determine which stress prevention strategies are most useful for them. Objectives: students will be able to (a) identify current…

  14. Brief Report: Using the Internet to Identify Persons with Cognitive Impairment for Participation in Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay F. Morra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying, recruiting, and enrolling persons in clinical trials of dementia treatments is extremely difficult. One approach to first-wave screening of potential participants is the use of online assessment tools. Initial studies using the Dementia Risk Assessment (DRA—which includes a previously validated recognition memory test—support the use of this self-administered assessment to identify individuals with “suspected MCI” or “suspected dementia.” In this study, we identified between 71 and 622 persons with suspected dementia and between 128 and 1653 persons with suspected mild cognitive impairment (depending on specific criteria over the course of 22 months. Assessment tools that can inexpensively and easily identify individuals with higher than average risk for cognitive impairment can facilitate recruitment for large-scale clinical trials for dementia treatments.

  15. Teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching in student-centred medical curricula: the impact of context and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Johanna C G; van Luijk, Scheltus J; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Scheele, Fedde

    2016-09-21

    Gibbs and Coffey (2004) have reported that teaching practices are influenced by teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching. In our previous research we found significant differences between teachers' conceptions in two medical schools with student-centred education. Medical school was the most important predictor, next to discipline, gender and teaching experience. Our research questions for the current study are (1) which specific elements of medical school explain the effect of medical school on teachers' conceptions of learning and teaching? How? and (2) which contextual and personal characteristics are related to conceptions of learning and teaching? How? Individual interviews were conducted with 13 teachers of the undergraduate curricula in two medical schools. Previously their conceptions of learning and teaching were assessed with the COLT questionnaire. We investigated the meanings they attached to context and personal characteristics, in relation to their conceptions of learning and teaching. We used a template analysis. Large individual differences existed between teachers. Characteristics mentioned at the medical school and curriculum level were 'curriculum tradition', 'support by educational department' and 'management and finances'. Other contextual characteristics were 'leadership style' at all levels but especially of department chairs, 'affordances and support', 'support and relatedness', and 'students' characteristics'. Personal characteristics were 'agency', 'experience with PBL (as a student or a teacher)','personal development', 'motivation and work engagement'and 'high content expertise'. Several context and personal characteristics associated with teachers' conceptions were identified, enabling a broader view on faculty development with attention for these characteristics, next to teaching skills.

  16. Personality characteristics of emigrants and re-emigrants with depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Петрівна Венгер

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Migration is considered as one of the factors that affect the mental health of the population. The accumulation of psychological and social problems provoke personal transformation reaction and exclusion personality, and considering emigration as a factor that provoke manifestation or exacerbation of endogenous mental diseases. Given the paucity and inconsistency of scientific data on the characteristics of psycho-emotional disorders, and personality characteristics of immigrants, and the almost complete lack of information about re-emigrants, the aim of our work was to study the mechanisms of psychosocial adaptation (de-adaptation re-emigrants and immigrants, as well as developing programs of social, psychological, psychotherapeutic and mental health support workers.Methods. We used a standardized method of investigating the person (SMIP for realization of tasks.Result. Results suggest the presence in examined patients of patocharacterological features of hypothymic (disthymic type. Significant differences were found in terms of fixed scales SMIP test most pronounced in the group of psychogenic depression, the least - organic. In general, immigrants are inherent traits of anxiety and emotional breadth, re-emigrants - schizoidness and apathy.Conclusions. Identified patterns should be considered when developing therapeutic, rehabilitative and preventive measures

  17. The role of disease characteristics in the ethical debate on personal genome testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunnik Eline M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Companies are currently marketing personal genome tests directly-to-consumer that provide genetic susceptibility testing for a range of multifactorial diseases simultaneously. As these tests comprise multiple risk analyses for multiple diseases, they may be difficult to evaluate. Insight into morally relevant differences between diseases will assist researchers, healthcare professionals, policy-makers and other stakeholders in the ethical evaluation of personal genome tests. Discussion In this paper, we identify and discuss four disease characteristics - severity, actionability, age of onset, and the somatic/psychiatric nature of disease - and show how these lead to specific ethical issues. By way of illustration, we apply this framework to genetic susceptibility testing for three diseases: type 2 diabetes, age-related macular degeneration and clinical depression. For these three diseases, we point out the ethical issues that are relevant to the question whether it is morally justifiable to offer genetic susceptibility testing to adults or to children or minors, and on what conditions. Summary We conclude that the ethical evaluation of personal genome tests is challenging, for the ethical issues differ with the diseases tested for. An understanding of the ethical significance of disease characteristics will improve the ethical, legal and societal debate on personal genome testing.

  18. The role of disease characteristics in the ethical debate on personal genome testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnik, Eline M; Schermer, Maartje Hn; Janssens, A Cecile J W

    2012-01-19

    Companies are currently marketing personal genome tests directly-to-consumer that provide genetic susceptibility testing for a range of multifactorial diseases simultaneously. As these tests comprise multiple risk analyses for multiple diseases, they may be difficult to evaluate. Insight into morally relevant differences between diseases will assist researchers, healthcare professionals, policy-makers and other stakeholders in the ethical evaluation of personal genome tests. In this paper, we identify and discuss four disease characteristics--severity, actionability, age of onset, and the somatic/psychiatric nature of disease--and show how these lead to specific ethical issues. By way of illustration, we apply this framework to genetic susceptibility testing for three diseases: type 2 diabetes, age-related macular degeneration and clinical depression. For these three diseases, we point out the ethical issues that are relevant to the question whether it is morally justifiable to offer genetic susceptibility testing to adults or to children or minors, and on what conditions. We conclude that the ethical evaluation of personal genome tests is challenging, for the ethical issues differ with the diseases tested for. An understanding of the ethical significance of disease characteristics will improve the ethical, legal and societal debate on personal genome testing.

  19. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  20. Professional Group Development Trainers’ Personality Characteristics and Affective Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eRapp Ricciardi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Development of Groups and Leaders (UGL, provided by the Swedish National Defence College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1 to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2 to investigate differences in personal characteristics.Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153 and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA, high affective (high PA, high NA, low affective (high PA, low NA, and self-destructive (low PA, high NA,Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70% than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%. UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR=2.22, p < .05 and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR=1.43, p <.001. UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfilment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfilment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuos training in awareness after

  1. ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS AND PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    SÜLEYMAN DÜNDAR

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze problem solving skills of university students according to their personal characteristics. We try to find out if there is a difference in problem solving skills considering sex, class and personality harmony characteristics. Personal data form, Problem Solving Scale and Hacettepe Personality Scale are used as measurement tools. The results of the study indicate that there is no difference between male and female students in problem solving skills. Problem s...

  2. The Associations Between Personality Characteristics and Absenteeism : A Cross-Sectional Study in Workers With and Without Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasveld, Moniek C.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Anema, Johannes R.; van Mechelen, Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Purpose Although numerous studies have identified risk factors for sickness absence, few studies have addressed the role of personality characteristics in absenteeism. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of the Big 5 personality characteristics (neuroticism, extraversion, openness,

  3. [Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; León, Elsa; Dongo, Mario; Munayco, César V

    2015-10-01

    Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program "Vida Digna" and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. MATERIALS ANDE METHODS: We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program. We did a descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic variables and we also determined the frequency of health conditions. Furthermore, we determined the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment through a logistic regression model. The older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program were mostly single men, with a primary education or no education. The study subjects had a high frequency of chronic and mental diseases. 50% of them had certain level of functional impairment and roughly 70% had a certain level of cognitive impairment. The probability of functional dependency increased by age, and it was higher in women than in men. This probability increased according to the level of cognitive impairment. This study shows that older homeless persons are a vulnerable population not only because they live outdoors but also because they a have also for the high prevalence of chronic and mental diseases. These diseases prevent the homeless persons from living by themselves special care to overcome their situations.

  4. Identifying the Dominant Personality Profiles in Medical Students: Implications for Their Well-Being and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Diann S; Leung, Janni; Hong, Barry A; Cloninger, Kevin M; Cloninger, C Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of stress, depression, and burn-out in medical students. Medical students differ widely in personality traits, self-perceptions, and values that may have an impact on their well-being. This study aimed to investigate variability in their personality profiles in relation to their potential for well-being and resilience. Participants were 808 medical students from The University of Queensland. An online questionnaire collected socio-demographics and the Temperament and Character Inventory to assess personality traits. Latent profile analyses identified students' trait profiles. Two distinct personality profiles were identified. Profile 1 ("Resilient") characterized 60% of the sample and was distinguished by low Harm Avoidance combined with very high Persistence, Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness compared to Profile 2 ("Conscientious"). Both Profiles had average levels of Reward Dependence and Novelty Seeking and low levels of Self-Transcendence. Profiles did not differ by age, gender, or country of birth, but rural background students were more likely to have Profile 1. While both Profiles indicate mature and healthy personalities, the combination of traits in Profile 1 is more strongly indicative of well-being and resilience. Finding two distinct profiles of personality highlights the importance of considering combinations of traits and how they may interact with medical students' potential for well-being. Although both profiles of students show healthy personalities, many may lack the resilience to maintain well-being over years of medical training. Programs that develop character and personality self-awareness would enhance their well-being and prepare them to promote the health of their patients.

  5. Personality traits correlate with characteristics of music-induced movement

    OpenAIRE

    Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2009-01-01

    Individual factors such as personality are essential for understanding musical experiences and engagement with music. Personality has been shown to be related to musical preferences and experiences, but little is known about how it affects music-related movement. The current study examined whether personality traits were related to the way in which people moved spontaneously to music. Twenty young adults (7 males, and 13 females, mean age 24.0 years) were asked to move spontaneously to a 12 b...

  6. Can Self-Declared Personal Values Be Used to Identify Those with Family Medicine Career Aspirations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Renee A.; Eva, Kevin W.; Reiter, Harold I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Self-declaration of personal values has been suggested as a means of identifying students with greater predilection for future primary care careers. While statistically significant differences have been demonstrated, absolute differences between those interested in primary care and those interested in specialist careers tend to be small.…

  7. Performance of Student Software Development Teams: The Influence of Personality and Identifying as Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance norms…

  8. Social Networking Privacy Control: Exploring University Variables Related to Young Adults' Sharing of Personally Identifiable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Melisa S.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the Internet, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook, create opportunities for individuals to share private and identifiable information with a closed or open community. Internet crime has been on the rise and research has shown that criminals are using individuals' personal information pulled from social…

  9. Characteristics of persons with repeat syphilis - Idaho, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ahmed M; Bartschi, Jared; Carter, Kris K

    2018-03-14

    During 2011-2015 in Idaho, 14 (7%) of 193 persons with early syphilis had repeat syphilis. Persons with repeat infections were more likely to have had secondary or early latent syphilis (P = 0.037) and be infected with HIV (P < 0.001) compared with those having one infection.

  10. The relationship between personal characteristics, communication, and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Arabshahi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, staff job satisfaction were evaluated according to their personality differences by assessing five personality factors, based on NEO-FFI scoring and those components, which are directly associated with job satisfaction. In this regard, three data collection tools including communication satisfaction questionnaires, job descriptions index and five personality trait questionnaire were used. Based on the findings there was a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and personality traits (r = 0.97, and job satisfaction was depended on communication satisfaction. This research showed that communication satisfaction and job satisfaction could be predicted based on the five personality traits, which are nervousness, extraversion, empiricism, responsibility, and compatibility with others.

  11. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Butler

    Full Text Available Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243, the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits. Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57. Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  12. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  13. Comparative Survey of Mental Disorders and Personality Characteristics in Persons With Drug Dependent and Non Drug Dependent in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaleiha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The influence of genetic, biological, psychological, social and cultural factors on drug dependency and high rate comorbidity of this phenomenon with psychiatric disorders for example anxiety, depression and characteristics and personality disorders is emphasized. The aim of this study was the comparative investigation of mental disorders and personality traits in persons with drug dependent and non drug dependent in Hamadan city in 2001-2003 .Materials & Methods: Present research was a descriptive comparison and subjects were 100 drug dependent persons and 100 non drug dependent individuals .Case group was chosen through available sampling among persons who call on psychiatrist and control group was chosen through randomly simple sampling from general population. Measurement and diagnostic tools includes questionnaire for examining demographic characteristics, designed by researchers and MMPI, SCL90-R tests and DSM IV criteria diagnostic and also T test that was used for analyzing data.Results: Between two groups in clinical and validity scales of MMPI test expect for hypochondriasis and hysteria and scales of SCL 90-R test expect somatization and interpersonal sensitivity differences were statistically significant (P<0.05.Conclusion: We can conclude that persons with drug dependent display more signs of psychopathology and mental disorders in comparison with non drug dependent people and Major depressive disorder and personality disorder were frequent among drug dependent groups. Depression and personal disorders were frequent in non drug dependent persons too. Our results support the results of previous studies.

  14. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Emily E.; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behaviour...

  15. Personal Network Characteristics as Predictors of Change in Obesity Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2018-05-17

    The potential for peers to influence obesity risk behavior increases in adolescence, yet there are knowledge gaps of how behaviors are modified in response to peers over time. This study examined how personal friendship network characteristics were associated with obesity-related behaviors from late childhood to early adolescence. Two waves of friendship, physical activity, screen time, and dietary recall data were collected from 11- to 13-year-old students (99% retention) in Australia (n = 308) over a five- to eight-month period. Regression models identified friendship network characteristics that predicted later health behaviors which varied by gender and behavior type, such as the number of friends positively associated with physical activity intensity (males) and screen time (females). The need for considering context to influence behavior change is discussed. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  16. Predicting criminals' personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohebbi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding criminals' personality characteristics could engender appropriate solutions for preventing crimes and treating criminals and the aim of the current work is to predict criminals' (robbers, swindlers and smugglers personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime. The research falls under the applied category in terms of goal while in terms of nature it is among surveydescriptive researches. The sample under investigation includes 480 people who were selected by way of classified random sampling method in a systematic form from among the population of criminals in the Central Prison, province of Kermanshah. The tool used in this paper is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI (short form of 71 questions. The results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI indicated that prevalence of anti-social personalitycharacteristics and mental weakness among robbers; depression, anti-social personality and schizophrenia among swindlers as well as anti-social traits, mental weakness and schizophrenia among smugglers are seen significantly. Also, the results of the variance analysis demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the (MMPI clinical scales among three groups of criminals (robbers, swindlers and smugglers on D scales (depression, Pd (Psychopathy deviation, Pt (Anxiety and psychosis, Sc (Schizophrenia and Ma (Hypomania (p<%5. Research findings revealed that criminals enjoy lower level of normal and positive personality dimensions. To sum up, we can infer that all personality characteristics exist in the population of criminals and therapy experts need to pay attention to all sorts of personalities for treating criminals affected with personality disorder.

  17. Research about reactor operator's personability characteristics and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan [Tsinghua Univ., Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    To predict and evaluate the reactor operator's performance by personality characteristics is an important part of reactor operator safety assessment. Using related psychological theory combined with the Chinese operator's fact and considering the effect of environmental factors to personality analysis, paper does the research about the about the relationships between reactor operator's performance and personality characteristics, and offers the reference for operator's selection, using and performance in the future. (author)

  18. Age Differences in the Variance of Personality Characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mottus, R.; Allik, J.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kööts-Ausmees, L.; Realo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2016), s. 4-11 ISSN 0890-2070 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : variance * individual differences * personality * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.707, year: 2016

  19. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Shen, Li-xiao; Yan, Chong-huai; Hu, Howard; Yang, Fang; Wang, Lu; Kotha, Sudha Rani; Zhang, Li-na; Liao, Xiang-peng; Zhang, Jun; Ouyang, Feng-xiu; Zhang, Jin-song; Shen, Xiao-ming

    2012-12-22

    Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young's Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p 100 RMB (all p-values internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting. This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound different psychological symptoms associated with AIA. Spending excessive time online is not in itself a defining symptom of AIA. More attention is needed on adolescent excessive weekend internet-use in prevention of potential internet addicts.

  20. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. Methods In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Results Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8% were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p p 100 RMB (all p-values p Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound different psychological symptoms associated with AIA. Spending excessive time online is not in itself a defining symptom of AIA. More attention is needed on adolescent excessive weekend internet-use in prevention of potential internet addicts.

  1. Associations Between Personality Disorder Characteristics, Psychological Symptoms, and Sexual Functioning in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogl, Andrea; Pelzer, Britt; Radder, Veerle; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the etiology of sexual dysfunctions in women has been approached from different angles. In clinical practice and in previous studies, it has been observed that women with sexual problems experience anxiety problems and express more rigid and perfectionistic personality traits than women without these problems. To investigate whether personality disorder characteristics according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and psychological symptoms are associated with sexual problems in women. 188 women 18 to 25 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires measuring sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index), personality disorder characteristics (Assessment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Questionnaire), and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The main outcome measure used was sexual functioning assessed by self-report. Results, using analysis of variance, indicated that women with sexual problems report significantly more cluster A (specifically schizoid) and C (specifically avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder characteristics than women without sexual problems. Furthermore, using multiple regression analyses, higher cluster A (specifically schizoid) and lower cluster B (specifically borderline and antisocial) personality disorder characteristics indicated lower levels of sexual functioning. Psychological symptoms partly mediated the effect of cluster A personality disorder characteristics on sexual functioning. The results of this study indicate that clinical practice should extend its scope by focusing more on improving adaptive personality characteristics, such as extraversion and individualism seen in cluster B personality characteristics, and decreasing the perfectionistic, introvert, and self-doubting characteristics seen in cluster C personality characteristics

  2. Effects of nurses' personality traits and their environmental characteristics on their workplace learning and nursing competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Masako; Sato, Yoko

    2018-04-01

    A good fit between an individual's personality traits and job characteristics motivates employees, and thus enhances their work behavior. However, how nurses' personality traits and their environmental characteristics relate to nurses' engagement in workplace learning, which improves their competence, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate how nurses' personality traits, environmental characteristics, and workplace learning were related to nursing competence. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Questionnaires were distributed to 1167 Japanese registered nurses. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between nurses' personality traits, the environmental characteristics, the nurses' engagement in workplace learning, and their competence. A total of 315 nurses returned questionnaires (i.e., a return rate of 27.0%). The results showed that both the personality traits (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience) and environmental characteristics (autonomy at work and feedback given) were related to workplace learning and self-rated nursing competence. The results also showed that the relationship between extraversion (active, adventurous and ambitious dispositions of an individual) and self-rated nursing competence was moderated by environmental characteristics, and partially mediated by workplace learning. Positive personality traits, such as extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience could enhance workplace learning and nursing competence. Moreover, environmental characteristics that allow nurses to express their personality traits have the potential to improve their learning and competence further. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  3. Identifying relationships between the professional culture of pharmacy, pharmacists' personality traits, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meagen; Tsao, Nicole W; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Marra, Carlo A

    2016-01-01

    Legislative changes are affording pharmacists the opportunity to provide more advanced pharmacy services. However, many pharmacists have not yet been able to provide these services sustainably. Research from implementation science suggests that before sustained change in pharmacy can be achieved an improved understanding of pharmacy context, through the professional culture of pharmacy and pharmacists' personality traits, is required. The primary objective of this study was to investigate possible relationships between cultural factors, and personality traits, and the uptake of advanced practice opportunities by pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada. The study design was a cross-sectional survey of registered, and practicing, pharmacists from one Canadian province. The survey gauged respondents' characteristics, practice setting, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services, and contained the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP), a measure of professional culture, as well as the Big Five Inventory (BFI), a measure of personality traits. A total of 945 completed survey instruments were returned. The majority of respondents were female (61%), the average age of respondents was 42 years (SD: 12), and the average number of years in practice was 19 (SD: 12). A significant positive relationship was identified for respondents perceiving greater value in the OCP factors competitiveness and innovation and providing a higher number of all advanced services. A positive relationship was observed for respondents scoring higher on the BFI traits extraversion and the immunizations provided, and agreeableness and openness and medication reviews completed. This is the first work to identify statistically significant relationships between the OCP and BFI, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services. As such, this work serves as a starting place from which to develop more detailed insight into how the professional culture of pharmacy and pharmacists personality traits may

  4. IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT AGE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS PROFESSIONAL PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdeyeva Irina Olegovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.

  5. Born entrepreneurs? : Adolescents’ personality characteristics and entrepreneurship in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Viinikainen, Jutta; Heineck, Guido; Böckerman, Petri; Hintsanen, Mirka; Raitakari, Olli; Pehkonen, Jaakko

    2017-01-01

    Is there an entrepreneurial personality, and does it appear early in life? We provide a new answer to this important question by examining traits related to Type A behavior (Aggression, Leadership, Responsibility, and Eagerness-Energy) measured during adolescence and their relationship to entrepreneurship propensity in adulthood. The results indicate that the early-life Leadership dimension is significantly associated with a higher likelihood of 1) becoming an entrepreneur and 2) being more s...

  6. Death and Lulz: Understanding the personality characteristics of RIP trolls

    OpenAIRE

    Seigfried-Spellar, Kathryn C.; Chowdhury, Siddharth S.

    2017-01-01

    Trolling on the Internet is a form of deviant behavior that borderlines cyberharassment. A specific type of trolling behavior involving individuals posting rude/harassing comments on online memorial pages is known as RIP or memorial page trolling. This study compared the personality traits of self-reported RIP trolls to other trolls who did not engage in RIP trolling (non-RIP trolls); 30 respondents were classified as RIP trolls and 119 respondents as non-RIP trolls. Results indicated RIP tro...

  7. Personal characteristics of students entering higher medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimova O.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the structure of personal features of students decided to devote their life to medical profession, their personal readiness for a profession of a doctor. 241 students going to enter the Saratov Medical University in 2013 serve as an object of research. Methods of research included psychology tests on a self-assessment of a mental state, ability to empathy, a motivation orientation. Result. It was revealed that the majority of respondents low level of uneasiness, low level of frustration, the average level of aggression, the average level of a rigidity, and also high rates on an empathy scale. The types of the personality in relation to work are emotive and intuitive. Prevalence of motive of achievement of success or motive of avoiding of failures directly depends on specifics of a situation. Conclusion. Students possess qualities which are necessary in professional activity for doctors, namely high resistance to stress, absence of fear before difficulties, low level of rigidity, high level of empathy, the average level of aggression. Students are motivated on success, in situations when they are fully confident.

  8. Performance of student software development teams: the influence of personality and identifying as team members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance norms should substantially influence the team's performance. This paper explores the influence of both these perspectives in university software engineering project teams. Eighty students worked to complete a piece of software in small project teams during 2007 or 2008. To reduce limitations in statistical analysis, Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed to extrapolate from the results of the original sample to a larger simulated sample (2043 cases, within 319 teams). The results emphasise the importance of taking into account personality (particularly conscientiousness), and both team identification and the team's norm of performance, in order to cultivate higher levels of performance in student software engineering project teams.

  9. Pathological jealousy: romantic relationship characteristics, emotional and personality aspects, and social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andrea Lorenada; Sophia, Eglacy C; Sanches, Cíntia; Tavares, Hermano; Zilberman, Monica L

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study was to identify romantic relationship characteristics, emotional and personality aspects and social adjustment in subjects with pathological jealousy (PJ) and to compare them to control group. The participants, 32 individuals with PJ and 31 healthy volunteers completed measures of jealousy intensity, attachment type, love and relationship styles, personality, impulsivity, aggressiveness and social adjustment. Socio-demographic profiles were also obtained. Participants with PJ were significantly older than the control group, but no other important socio-demographic differences were observed. Participants with PJ were significantly more jealous and were predominately categorized with anxious-ambivalent attachment type, and Mania love style. They presented with elevated novelty seeking and harm avoidance, low self-directedness and cooperativeness, high levels of impulsivity and trait anxiety, and poor social adjustment. Multivariate analysis showed that jealousy intensity and trait anxiety were the variables that best distinguished participants with PJ from the control group. This study was limited by the cross-sectional design and relatively small sample size. PJ presents a particular pattern of attachment, love style, and personality structure, and deserves further attention as a specific potential disorder of the romantic bonding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Saeid; Biemans, Harm J A; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, Thomas; Chizari, Mohammad; Mulder, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if the model of EI applies in a developing country, namely Iran. We also set out to identify the most relevant factors for EI within this developing country context. Do distal predictors of EI including personality factors (i.e. need for achievement, risk taking and locus of control) and contextual factors (i.e. perceived barriers and support) significantly relate to EI via proximal predictors including motivational factors (i.e. attitudes towards entrepreneurship and perceived behavioural control [PBC])? Data were collected on 331 students from 7 public universities. The findings support the TPB for EI in Iran. All three motivational factors related to EI, but PBC showed the strongest association, which is different than in developed country contexts. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed. All three personality characteristics indirectly related to EI via the proximal attitudes towards entrepreneurship and PBC. Perceived contextual support and barriers indirectly related to EI via proximal PBC while perceived barriers also directly related to EI. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Identifying the relevant dependencies of the neural network response on characteristics of the input space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    This talk presents an approach to identify those characteristics of the neural network inputs that are most relevant for the response and therefore provides essential information to determine the systematic uncertainties.

  12. The influence of personal characteristics on the resilience of operating room nurses: a predictor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2009-07-01

    Resilience in the workplace has been described as a means of facilitating adaptation in stressful environments, and therefore has application in nursing contexts. However, little research has examined how personal characteristics such as age, nursing experience and education contribute to resilience in clinical environments such as the operating room (OR). First to identify the level of resilience, and second, investigate whether age, experience and education contribute to resilience in an Australian sample of OR nurses. A predictive survey design was used. A random sample of 1430 nurses who were members of the Australian College of Operating Room Nurses association were surveyed. The survey included the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and demographic questions. A standard regression model tested the hypothesis that age, years of OR experience and education contributed to resilience in OR nurses. A total of 735 (51.4%) completed, usable surveys were returned. Pearson's correlations demonstrated modest but statistically significant associations between age (presilience. In the multiple regression model, only years of OR experience predicted resilience (presilience. In OR nurses, resilience appears to be predicted by other attributes and is not necessarily dependent on an individual's personal characteristics. Thus, recruitment to the OR should not be based on the conventional notion that an older nursing workforce will have greater longevity and hence be more stable. If younger, less experienced nurses are adequately supported, they may thrive in the OR environment.

  13. Using a personality inventory to identify risk of distress and burnout among early stage medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bughi, Stephanie A; Lie, Desiree A; Zia, Stephanie K; Rosenthal, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Distress and burnout are common among medical students and negatively impact students' physical, mental, and emotional health. Personality inventories such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), used in medical education, may have a role in identifying burnout risk early. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among 185 1st year medical students with the MBTI, the general well-being schedule (GWB), and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Descriptive statistics and one-way MANOVAs were used to identify the prevalence and differences in MBTI preferences and distress/burnout risk. Response rate was 185/185 (100%). Distress (GWB) was reported by 84/185 (45.4%). High scores on exhaustion were reported by 118/182 (64.8%), cynicism by 76/182 (41.8%), and decreased professional efficacy by 38/182 (20.9%) for the three dimensions of the MBI-SS. Only 21/182 (11.5%) of respondents had high scores on all three dimensions of burnout. Students with MBTI preferences for extraversion reported greater positive well-being (P burnout are prevalent early in medical training. The significant difference between extraversion and introversion in relation to distress and burnout deserves further study. Use of a personality inventory may help identify students at risk of burnout and allow appropriate early stress management.

  14. The nature of the relationships between personality and cognitive characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we investigated the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and nonverbal intelligence assessed with Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices. The sample included a total of 290 people: 59 monozygotic (MZ and 86 dizygotic (DZ, 58 same-sex and 28 opposite-sex twin pairs aged 14 to 20 years (mean age = 15.84, SD = 1.05. The phenotypic correlations between the traits and intelligence scores were non-significant, except for Openness. This relationship was largely explained by shared environmental influences (65%.

  15. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    A method for active control over the interaction between the free convection flow around occupant‘s body and locally applied airflow from front on the velocity field at the breathing zone of a seated person was studied. A workplace equipped with personalised ventilation (PV) generating flow from......) was installed below the table board, above the thighs of the manikin, and was used to exhaust the air of the free convection flow coming from the lower body parts of the manikin. The velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry consisting of a dual cavity laser and two CCD...

  16. Normal personality characteristics in schizophrenia: a review of the literature involving the FFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinzeo, Thomas J; Docherty, Nancy M

    2007-05-01

    Schizophrenia is generally viewed as a disruption of normal functioning because of an underlying core illness. A number of theorists have speculated that this core illness may unilaterally disrupt normal personality functioning. However, recent data suggests that the relationship may be more complex and reciprocal than previously conceptualized. Furthermore, basic personality characteristics appear to be associated with numerous clinical phenomena. This article reviews the empirical literature pertaining to normal personality characteristics [structured around the five-factor model (FFM) of personality] in individuals with schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that certain personality characteristics may be uniquely related to the etiology of psychosis, as well as symptom severity, occupational functioning, cigarette smoking, substance use and violent behavior, social isolation, and suicidality in patients with schizophrenia. The implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  17. USE OF PORTABLE GAMMA SPECTROMETERS FOR IDENTIFYING PERSONS EXPOSED IN A NUCLEAR CRITICALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K. G. [Y-12 National Security Complex; Gose, B. T. [Y-12 National Security Complex; Bogard, James S [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    At Y-12 triage-style assessments are used to identify persons potentially exposed to high doses from criticality accident radiations using portable instruments by assessing the presence of activated sodium atoms in a person's blood. Historically, simple hand-held Geiger-Mueller (G-M) probes were used for these purposes although it was recognized that, since these instruments contain no information on incident photon energy, it was impossible to differentiate between photons emitted by contamination on the potentially exposed worker from activation of sodium in the person s blood. This works examines the use of a portable gamma spectrometer for assessing blood sodium activation. Irradiations of a representative phantom were performed using two neutron source configurations (unmoderated and polyethylene-moderated 252Cf) and measurements were made using the spectrometer and a G-M detector following irradiation. Detection limits in terms of personnel neutron dose are given for two neutron fields representing metaland solution criticality spectra. Both Geiger-Mueller and spectrometer results indicate a low minimum detectable neutron dose indicating that both instrument are useful as an emergency response instrument. The spectrometer has the added benefit of discriminating between surface contamination and blood sodium activation.

  18. USE OF PORTABLE GAMMA SPECTROMETERS FOR IDENTIFYING PERSONS EXPOSED IN A NUCLEAR CRITICALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veinot, K.G.; Gose, B.T.; Bogard, James S.

    2009-01-01

    At Y-12 triage-style assessments are used to identify persons potentially exposed to high doses from criticality accident radiations using portable instruments by assessing the presence of activated sodium atoms in a person's blood. Historically, simple hand-held Geiger-Mueller (G-M) probes were used for these purposes although it was recognized that, since these instruments contain no information on incident photon energy, it was impossible to differentiate between photons emitted by contamination on the potentially exposed worker from activation of sodium in the persons blood. This works examines the use of a portable gamma spectrometer for assessing blood sodium activation. Irradiations of a representative phantom were performed using two neutron source configurations (unmoderated and polyethylene-moderated 252Cf) and measurements were made using the spectrometer and a G-M detector following irradiation. Detection limits in terms of personnel neutron dose are given for two neutron fields representing metal and solution criticality spectra. Both Geiger-Mueller and spectrometer results indicate a low minimum detectable neutron dose indicating that both instrument are useful as an emergency response instrument. The spectrometer has the added benefit of discriminating between surface contamination and blood sodium activation.

  19. Identifying subtypes among offenders with antisocial personality disorder: a cluster-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poythress, Norman G; Edens, John F; Skeem, Jennifer L; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Douglas, Kevin S; Frick, Paul J; Patrick, Christopher J; Epstein, Monica; Wang, Tao

    2010-05-01

    The question of whether antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are largely similar or fundamentally different constructs remains unresolved. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), many of the personality features of psychopathy are cast as associated features of ASPD, although the DSM-IV offers no guidance as to how, or the extent to which, these features relate to ASPD. In a sample of 691 offenders who met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD, we used model-based clustering to identify subgroups of individuals with relatively homogeneous profiles on measures of associated features (psychopathic personality traits) and other constructs with potential etiological significance for subtypes of ASPD. Two emergent groups displayed profiles that conformed broadly to theoretical descriptions of primary psychopathy and Karpman's (1941) variant of secondary psychopathy. As expected, a third group (nonpsychopathic ASPD) lacked substantial associated features. A fourth group exhibited elevated psychopathic features as well as a highly fearful temperament, a profile not clearly predicted by extant models. Planned comparisons revealed theoretically informative differences between primary and secondary groups in multiple domains, including self-report measures, passive avoidance learning, clinical ratings, and official records. Our results inform ongoing debates about the overlap between psychopathy and ASPD and raise questions about the wisdom of placing most individuals who habitually violate social norms and laws into a single diagnostic category.

  20. Explaining the relationship between insecure attachment and partner abuse: the role of personality characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, N.M.L.; Leenaars, E.P.E.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have found that male batterers are more often insecurely attached as compared with nonbatterers. However, it is still not clear how insecure attachment is related to domestic violence. Many studies compared batterers and nonbatterers regarding pathological personality characteristics that

  1. Cultural diversity and urban innovativeness: Personal and business characteristics of urban migrant entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahin, M.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietdijk, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article studies the driving forces for successful migrant entrepreneurship in Amsterdam. Three categories of migrants are investigated: Moroccans, Surinamese and Turks. Particular attention is paid to their personal and business characteristics. An extensive field survey was undertaken to

  2. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  3. Identifying Careless Responding With the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Validity Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, David K; Church, Abere Sawaqdeh; O'Connell, Debra; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2018-01-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) includes validity scales that assess Deviant Responding (DR), Virtuous Responding, and Inconsistent Responding. We examined the utility of these scales for identifying careless responding using data from two online studies that examined correlates of psychopathy in college students (Sample 1: N = 583; Sample 2: N = 454). Compared with those below the cut scores, those above the cut on the DR scale yielded consistently lower validity coefficients when PPI-R scores were correlated with corresponding scales from the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. The other three PPI-R validity scales yielded weaker and less consistent results. Participants who completed the studies in an inordinately brief amount of time scored significantly higher on the DR and Virtuous Responding scales than other participants. Based on the findings from the current studies, researchers collecting PPI-R data online should consider identifying and perhaps screening out respondents with elevated scores on the DR scale.

  4. Are they all the same? : norwegian police officers' personality characteristics and tactics of conflict resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Solveig; Strype, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This is the final text version of the article, it may contain minor differences from the publisher's pdf version. The issue of whether police officers possess certain personality characteristics that make them unique has been the subject of an extensive line of research. Several researchers have found evidence of a 'police personality', while other researchers have failed to detect personality differences between the police and the public. Making the picture even more complex, some researc...

  5. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists: Research Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, de, van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone-actors based on an analysis of 120 cases from across Europe. The Research Note focuses on the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists.[1] First of all, it presents th...

  6. Personality characteristics and sexual functioning of 188 cross-dressing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G R; Wise, T N; Costa, P T; Herbst, J H; Fagan, P J; Schmidt, C W

    1996-05-01

    The literature on cross-dressing men has been primarily limited to self-identified patients at psychiatric clinics who are in distress. To understand the personality trait characteristics and sexual functioning of nonpatient cross-dressers, 188 non-treatment-seeking male cross-dressers completed the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI). Respondents were classified as transvestites (TV; N = 83), transgenderists (TG; N = 61), or transsexuals (TS; N = 44) based on self-report and the nature of their cross-gender activities (e.g., use of female hormones, desire for sex reassignment, and amount of time spent in female role). These diagnostic groups did not differ on the five broad personality domains of the NEO-PI, but TS men scored higher than TV and TG men on the Aesthetics facet scale of Openness to Experience (O). In terms of the DSFI scales, TS men reported lower sexual drive than TV and TG men, and TS and TG men exhibited greater psychiatric symptoms and feminine gender role, and poorer body image than TV men. Upon exclusion of a group of 49 respondents who previously sought treatment for psychological problems, no significant differences emerged among the three diagnostic groups on the NEO-PI domain and facet scales. Consideration of the DSFI scales showed that TS men experienced less sexual drive, more psychiatric symptoms, and a greater feminine gender role than TV or TG men. This study suggests that cross-dressers not seen for clinical reasons are virtually indistinguishable from non-cross-dressing men using a measure of personality traits, a sexual functioning inventory, and measures of psychological distress. These results emphasize the importance of using clinical significance criteria as required by DSM-IV guidelines before diagnosing men who cross-dress with an axis I disorder.

  7. Personal Characteristics of Teachers, Situational Variables and Deliberations in Planning Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Lya

    This study reveals possible relationships among teachers' personality traits, situational variables, and deliberation characteristics in planning instruction. Dogmatism and locus of control perceptions were the personality traits studied, and the situations compared student teachers with elementary and secondary school teachers. Both groups were…

  8. Graduates' personality characteristics and labor market entry an empirical study among dutch economics graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semeijn, J; Boone, C; van der Velden, R; van Witteloostuijn, A; van Velden, R.K.W.

    In this study, we explore the value of personality characteristics in explaining success in labor market entry with a sample of graduates in economics from Maastricht University (the Netherlands). Specifically, the paper addresses the following twofold research question: does personality explain

  9. Effectiveness Related to Personality and Demographic Characteristics of Secondary School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.; Weslander, Darrell L.

    1986-01-01

    Studied 123 secondary school counselors and found significant correlations among tested personality characteristics and supervisor-rated job performance. Counselors rated as effective by supervisors expressed higher job satisfaction, tested higher in tolerance for ambiguity and in self-esteem, and had more congruent personality-environment Holland…

  10. Association between compliance and personality characteristics in adolescent boys with primary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Khaitovych

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychological factors influence the morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases to the same extent as demographic and clinical factors, and the effectiveness of treatment is significantly associated with the patients' adherence. Male gender is associated with poor blood pressure control. Aim. To identify the personality characteristics that determine compliance in adolescent boys with primary arterial hypertension. Materials and methods. 30 boys between 13 and 17 years old (average age 14.6 ± 1.1 years with primary arterial hypertension were examined. The compliance was evaluated using Girerd Questionnaire, type D (distress type personality - using the DS-14 test, personality features - using the Cattell's 16 Personality Factors Test (16PF. Statistical processing of the study results was conducted using dispersion, correlation and factor analysis (main components method with the help of “Statistica” software for Windows 8.0. Results. In 3.7% of adolescents, high compliance was noted, in 37.0% - moderate level, and in 59.3% - low. The type D personality was found in 20.0% of the examined boys. Patients with type D personality had a significantly lower (p<0.05 compliance (4.67 ± 0.63 versus 2.55 ± 0.36 points. There was found a significant direct correlation between the degree of compliance reduction and the scores on “social oppression” according to the DS-14 test (r = 0.43; p<0.01 and inverse correlation - with the value of factor N (straightforwardness-diplomacy of the 16PF (r = -0.43; p<0.05. There were found 3 main factors that explain almost 50% of the relationships of personality characteristics of boys with primary arterial hypertension. Factor 1 (distressing ability was related to the degree of compliance reduction (0.60, scales “negative excitability” (0.52 and “social oppression” (0.66 of the DS-14 test. This factor was also correlated with such personality features as anxiety (0

  11. Speeding by young novice drivers: What can personal characteristics and psychosocial theory add to our understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Hyde, Melissa K; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Young novice drivers continue to be overrepresented in fatalities and injuries arising from crashes even with the introduction of countermeasures such as graduated driver licensing (GDL). Enhancing countermeasures requires a better understanding of the variables influencing risky driving. One of the most common risky behaviours performed by drivers of all ages is speeding, which is particularly risky for young novice drivers who, due to their driving inexperience, have difficulty in identifying and responding appropriately to road hazards. Psychosocial theory can improve our understanding of contributors to speeding, thereby informing countermeasure development and evaluation. This paper reports an application of Akers' social learning theory (SLT), augmented by Gerrard and Gibbons' prototype/willingness model (PWM), in addition to personal characteristics of age, gender, car ownership, and psychological traits/states of anxiety, depression, sensation seeking propensity and reward sensitivity, to examine the influences on self-reported speeding of young novice drivers with a Provisional (intermediate) licence in Queensland, Australia. Young drivers (n=378) recruited in 2010 for longitudinal research completed two surveys containing the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale, and reported their attitudes and behaviours as pre-Licence/Learner (Survey 1) and Provisional (Survey 2) drivers and their sociodemographic characteristics. An Akers' measurement model was created. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that (1) personal characteristics (PC) explained 20.3%; (2) the combination of PC and SLT explained 41.1%; (3) the combination of PC, SLT and PWM explained 53.7% of variance in self-reported speeding. Whilst there appeared to be considerable shared variance, the significant predictors in the final model included gender, car ownership, reward sensitivity, depression, personal attitudes, and Learner speeding. These results highlight the capacity for

  12. Measurement of nonclinical personality characteristics of women with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, T; Wiederman, M W

    1996-10-01

    Past research on personality and eating disorders has most often emphasized personality psychopathology and personality disorders. We further investigated nonclinical personality characteristics among women with anorexia nervosa (n = 35) or bulimia nervosa (n = 45) using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen, 1982, 1985). The MPQ measures several personality traits that have been shown to consist of a substantial genetic component (Tellegen et al., 1988). In logistic regression analyses, women with anorexia nervosa evidenced greater degrees of control (vs. impulsivity) and general constraint, and a lower degree of absorption in sensory experiences relative to those with bulimia nervosa. Relative to the normative population (Tellegen, 1982), our sample evidenced very low scores on Well-being, Social Closeness, and Positive Affectivity and high scores on Stress Reaction, Alienation, and Negative Affectivity. Our results emphasize the importance of considering nonclinical personality features and temperament, and varying methods of assessment, in the understanding of predisposing factors for eating disorders.

  13. Characteristics of multiprocessing MCNP5 on small personal computer clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S M; Mc Conn, R J Jr; Pagh, R T; Schweppe, J E; Siciliano, E R

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility and efficiency of performing MCNP5 calculations with a small, heterogeneous computing cluster built from Microsoft ( R) Windows TM personal computers (PC) are explored. The performance increases that may be expected with such clusters are estimated for cases that typify general radiation-shielding calculations. Our results show that the speed increase from additional slave PCs is nearly linear up to 10 processors. Guidance is given as to the specific advantages of changing various parameters present in the system. Implementing load balancing, and reducing the overhead from the MCNP rendezvous mechanism add to heterogeneous cluster efficiency. Hyper-threading technology and matching the total number of slave processes to the total number of logical processors also yield modest speed increases in the range below 7 processors. Because of the ease of acquisition of heterogeneous desktop computers, and the peak in efficiency at the level of a few physical processors, a strong case is made for the use of small clusters as a tool for producing MCNP5 calculations rapidly, and detailed instructions for constructing such clusters are provided

  14. Personal characteristics of effective managers in organizational cultures of different types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova L.N.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s Russian enterprises have been experiencing difficulties in transitioning to the market-innovative model of development. In the context of the current variability of management paradigms, we had an opportunity to study the internal and external regulators of organizational changes that are typical for a transitioning economy. Organizational culture (ОС was studied as an external factor, while the personal traits of middle managers were viewed as internal factors because these managers are the agents for values and for behavior models, from corporate directives to “front-desk’ personnel. The goal of this theoretical and empirical study was to determine the personality traits of middle managers who were deemed effective by top management in companies transitioning to the market-innovative model of development in the context of different types of OCs. During the preliminary stage, we conducted a comparative analysis of the requirements for the personal traits of middle managers who are working in stable conditions as well as in conditions of transfer to the market-innovative model of development, and we selected the relevant methods of empirical research. During the first stage of the empirical part of our research we defined a group of four enterprises with OCs of different types, identified their effective mid-level managers based on expert evaluations by the top leadership, and formed test groups. During the second stage we studied the personal characteristics of these managers. We determined that the personality traits of managers deemed effective by their leaders form integral complexes, which in turn correlate in a certain way with the type of ОС of an enterprise. We identified four models of an effective manager: Mentor, Dictator, Innovator, and Businessman; these managers have varying degrees of work productivity, value priorities in the development of ОС, personal self-concepts, organizational leadership skills

  15. A Study of the Relationship Between Personality Characteristics and Ethical Sensitivity in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Functional Preferences. and Descriptions of the Sixteen Personality Tvyes ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ...AD-A258 421lE li(( I U~~l E l iIi - -H AFIT/GCNMLSMI92S-9 A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND ETHICAL SENSITIVITY IN...Codes Avail and/or Dist Speot8.i AFIT/GCM/LSM/92S-9 A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND ETHICAL SENSITIVITY IN BUSINESS

  16. Operational Characteristics of Four Commercially Available Personal Cooling Vests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lee, Hank C.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide chest cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests, and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 11 male and 10 female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.21 C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a URI Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' rectal and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (Pcooling and recovery periods. These results show that all vest configurations elicit a similar thermal response in both male and female subject groups. However, subject population variance was rather large and may have masked differences between the vests. One vest may prove more effective than another for a given individual, and experience is the only means of determining this.

  17. Personal and Environmental Characteristics Predicting Burnout Among Certified Athletic Trainers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Michelle L; Meyer, Barbara B; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2009-01-01

    Context: Recent research in the health care professions has shown that specific personal and environmental characteristics can predict burnout, which is a negative coping strategy related to stressful situations. Burnout has been shown to result in physiologic (eg, headaches, difficulty sleeping, poor appetite), psychological (eg, increased negative self-talk, depression, difficulty in interpersonal relationships), and behavioral (eg, diminished care, increased absenteeism, attrition) symptoms. Objective: To examine the relationship between selected personal and environmental characteristics and burnout among certified athletic trainers (ATs). Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: A demographic survey that was designed for this study and the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 206 ATs employed at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions as clinical ATs volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed personal and environmental characteristics of ATs with the demographic survey and measured burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between specific personal and environmental characteristics and each of the 3 subscales of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment). Results: Most ATs we surveyed experienced low to average levels of burnout. Personal characteristics predicted 45.5% of the variance in emotional exhaustion (P teachers. The results also support the Cognitive-Affective Model of Athletic Burnout proposed by Smith. Finally, these results indicate new areas of concentration for burnout research and professional practice. PMID:19180220

  18. Personal networks in Saudi Arabia : The role of ascribed and achieved characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tubergen, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271429534; Ali Al-Modaf, Obaid; Almosaed, Nora F.; Said Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Ben

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how ascribed characteristics (gender and nationality) and achieved characteristics (SES) are related to the extensity and occupational resources of personal networks in Saudi Arabia. Using large-scale survey data from Jeddah, results show that networks of women are smaller and

  19. Personal, place, and time characteristics of offshore accidents in five oil companies operating in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahardjo; Sudjoko; Sebayang

    1991-01-01

    This study is to determine personal, place and time characteristics of offshore accidents during the year of 1987, 1988 and 1989 of five oil companies operating in Indonesia. Age, length of service, employment status, job characteristics, work cycles, work schedules, marital status, citizenship, disability, anatomy and nature of accident

  20. Relationship between patient characteristics and treatment allocation for patients with personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Janine G; Andrea, Helene; van den Eijnden, Ellen; Meerman, Anke M M A; Thunnissen, Moniek M; Hamers, Elisabeth F M; Huson, Nelleke; Ziegler, Uli; Stijnen, Theo; Busschbach, Jan J V; Timman, Reinier; Verheul, Roel

    2011-10-01

    Within a large multi-center study in patients with personality disorders, we investigated the relationship between patient characteristics and treatment allocation. Personality pathology, symptom distress, treatment history, motivational factors, and sociodemographics were measured at intake in 923 patients, who subsequently enrolled in short-term or long-term outpatient, day hospital, or inpatient psychotherapy for personality pathology. Logistic regressions were used to examine the predictors of allocation decisions. We found a moderate relationship (R(2) = 0.36) between patient characteristics and treatment setting, and a weak relationship (R(2) = 0.18) between patient characteristics and treatment duration. The most prominent predictors for setting were: symptom distress, cluster C personality pathology, level of identity integration, treatment history, motivation, and parental responsibility. For duration the most prominent predictor was age. We conclude from this study that, in addition to pathology and motivation factors, sociodemographics and treatment history are related to treatment allocation in clinical practice.

  1. THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ATHLETES IN COACH-ATHLETE RELATIONSHIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülya Aşçı, F; Kelecek, Selen; AltintaŞ, Atahan

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between athletes' personality characteristics and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 84 female (M age = 20.6 yr., SD = 2.8) and 129 male (M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 3.3) elite youth athletes competing at least for 7 yr. participated in this study. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (short version) and the Quality of Relationships Inventory were administered to all participants. Stepwise multiple regression analysis assessed which of the five personality factors predicted scores for the different subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory (Depth, Support, and Conflict). Results indicated that depth of relationship was not predicted by personality factors. On the other hand, neuroticism and extraversion were significant predictors of support dimension of relationship. Analysis indicated that conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of conflict. In conclusion, athletes' personality characteristics may be important in determining the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

  2. STEM-based science learning implementation to identify student’s personal intelligences profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiguna, B. J. P. K.; Suwarma, I. R.; Liliawati, W.

    2018-05-01

    Science and technology are rapidly developing needs to be balanced with the human resources that have the qualified ability. Not only cognitive ability, but also have the soft skills that support 21st century skills. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education is a solution to improve the quality of learning and prepare students may be able to trained 21st century skills. This study aims to analyse the implementation of STEM-based science learning on Newton’s law of motion by identifying the personal intelligences profile junior high school students. The method used in this research is pre experiment with the design of the study one group pre-test post-test. Samples in this study were 26 junior high school students taken using Convenience Sampling. Students personal intelligences profile after learning STEM-based science uses two instruments, self-assessment and peer assessment. Intrapersonal intelligence profile based self-assessment and peer assessment are respectively 69.38; and 64.08. As for interpersonal intelligence for self-assessment instrument is 73 and the peer assessment is 60.23.

  3. Development of a TL personal dosimeter identifiable PA exposure, and comparison with commercial TL dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.W.; Kim, H.K.; Lee, J.K.; Kim, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    A single-dosimeter worn on the anterior surface of the body of a worker was found to significantly underestimate the effective dose to the worker when the radiation comes from the back. Several researchers suggested that this sort of underestimation can be corrected to a certain extent by using an extra dosimeter on the back. However, use of multiple dosimeters also has disadvantages such as complication in control or incurrence of extra cost. Instead of the common multi-dosimeter approach, in this study, a single dosimeter introducing asymmetric filters which enabled to identify PA exposure was designed, and its dose evaluation algorithm for AP-PA mixed radiation fields was established. A prototype TL personal dosimeter was designed and constructed. The Monte Carlo simulations were utilized in the design process and verified by experiments. The dosimeter and algorithm were applicable to photon radiation having an effective energy beyond 100 keV in AP-PA mixed radiation fields. A simplified performance test based on ANSI N13.11 showed satisfactory results. Considering that the requirements of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) with regard to the dosimeter on angular dependency is reinforced, the dosimeter and the dose evaluation algorithm developed in this study provides a useful approach in practical personal dosimetry against inhomogeneous high energy radiation fields. (author)

  4. Identifying injuries and motor vehicle collision characteristics that together are suggestive of diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Donald A; McGwin, Gerald; Metzger, Jesse; Windham, Samuel T; Doss, Marilyn; Rue, Loring W

    2002-12-01

    Diaphragmatic rupture (DR) remains a diagnostic challenge because of the lack of an accurate test demonstrating the injury. Our purpose was to identify motor vehicle collision (MVC) characteristics and patient injuries that collectively could identify the presence of a DR. The National Automotive Sampling System was used to identify occupants involved in MVCs from 1995 to 1999 who sustained abdominal (Abbreviated Injury Scale score >or= 2) and/or thoracic injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale score >or= 2). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to quantify the association between patient injuries, vehicle collision characteristics, and DR. Sensitivity and specificity were also calculated to determine the ability of organ injury and MVC characteristics to correctly classify patients with and without DR. Overall, occupants sustaining a DR had a significantly higher delta-V (DeltaV) (49.8 kilometers per hour [kph] vs. 33.8 kph, por= 30 cm or DeltaV >or= 40 kph with specific organ injuries generated a sensitivity for indicating the likelihood of diaphragm injury ranging from 68% to 89%. Patients with any of the following characteristics had a sensitivity for detecting DR of 91%: splenic injury, pelvic fracture, DeltaV >or= 40 kph, or occupant compartment intrusion from any direction >or= 30 cm. Specific MVC characteristics combined with patient injuries have been identified that are highly suggestive of DR. For this subpopulation, additional invasive procedures including exploratory laparotomy, laparoscopy, or thoracoscopy may be warranted to exclude DR.

  5. Personal and Professional Characteristics of Music Educators: One Size Does Not Fit All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Mary Lynn; van Mersbergen, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of voice disorders among various educator groups is well known, and voice disorders among music educators are higher than the general classroom educators. Music educators vary with respect to behavioral and personality factors, personal characteristics, type of music taught, job-specific environment, and governmental professional expectations. This study aims to identify risk factors for voice disorders in a heterogeneous population of music educators. An online survey was conducted with 213 respondents. Survey questions addressed demographics, level of education, years of music teaching experience, specialty training, primary teaching assignments and instrument, vocal health behaviors, and diagnoses of voice disorders. Summary statistics and group comparisons are reported. Those whose primary instrument was voice reported a greater frequency of voice disorders. Female and older music educators also had a higher prevalence of voice disorders. Music educators are a heterogeneous group of individuals who require more careful consideration in the prevention and treatment of occupational voice problems. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Personal Goals of Patients With Long Term Condition: A Service Design Thinking Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunji; Gammon, Deede

    2017-01-01

    Care for patients with long term conditions is often characterized as fragmented and ineffective, and fails to engage the resources of patients and their families in the care process. Information and communication technology can potentially help bridge the gap between patients' lives and resources and services provided by professionals. However, there is little attention on how to identify and incorporate the patients' individual needs, values, preferences and care goals into the digitally driven care settings. We conducted a case study with healthcare professionals and patients participated applying a service design thinking approach. The participants could elaborate some personal goals of patients with long term condition which can potentially be incorporated in digitally driven care plans using examples from their own experiences.

  7. Identifying Mother-Child Interaction Styles Using a Person-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; O'Brien, Marion; Grimm, Kevin J; Leerkes, Esther M

    2014-05-01

    Parent-child conflict in the context of a supportive relationship has been discussed as a potentially constructive interaction pattern; the current study is the first to test this using a holistic analytic approach. Interaction styles, defined as mother-child conflict in the context of maternal sensitivity, were identified and described with demographic and stress-related characteristics of families. Longitudinal associations were tested between interaction styles and children's later social competence. Participants included 814 partnered mothers with a first-grade child. Latent profile analysis identified agreeable , dynamic , and disconnected interaction styles. Mothers' intimacy with a partner, depressive symptoms, and authoritarian childrearing beliefs, along with children's later conflict with a best friend and externalizing problems, were associated with group membership. Notably, the dynamic style, characterized by high sensitivity and high conflict, included families who experienced psychological and relational stressors. Findings are discussed with regard to how family stressors shape parent-child interaction patterns.

  8. How physicians identify with predetermined personalities and links to perceived performance and wellness outcomes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Jane B; Wallace, Jean E

    2014-11-29

    Certain personalities are ascribed to physicians. This research aims to measure the extent to which physicians identify with three predetermined personalities (workaholic, Type A and control freak) and to explore links to perceptions of professional performance, and wellness outcomes. This is a cross-sectional study using a mail-out questionnaire sent to all practicing physicians (2957 eligible, 1178 responses, 40% response rate) in a geographical health region within a western Canadian province. Survey items were used to assess the extent to which participants felt they are somewhat of a workaholic, Type A and/or control freak, and if they believed that having these personalities makes one a better doctor. Participants' wellness outcomes were also measured. Zero-order correlations were used to determine the relationships between physicians identifying with a personality and feeling it makes one a better doctor. T-tests were used to compare measures of physician wellness for those who identified with the personality versus those who did not. 53% of participants identified with the workaholic personality, 62% with the Type A, and 36% with the control freak. Identifying with any one of the personalities was correlated with feeling it makes one a better physician. There were statistically significant differences in several wellness outcomes comparing participants who identified with the personalities versus those who did not. These included higher levels of emotional exhaustion (workaholic, Type A and control freak), higher levels of anxiety (Type A and control freak) and higher levels of depression, poorer mental health and lower levels of job satisfaction (control freak). Participants who identified with the workaholic personality versus those who did not reported higher levels of job satisfaction, rewarding patient experiences and career commitment. Most participants identified with at least one of the three personalities. The beliefs of some participants that

  9. Pilot evaluation of the Computer-Based Assessment for Sampling Personal Characteristics test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipper, Edward S; Mazer, Laura M; Merrell, Sylvia Bereknyei; Lin, Dana T; Lau, James N; Melcher, Marc L

    2017-07-01

    High attrition rates hint at deficiencies in the resident selection process. The evaluation of personal characteristics representative of success is difficult. Here, we evaluate a novel tool for assessing personal characteristics. To evaluate feasibility, we used an anonymous voluntary survey questionnaire offered to study participants before and after contact with the CASPer test. To evaluate the CASPer test as a predictor of success, we compared CASPer test assessments of personal characteristics versus traditional faculty assessment of personal characteristics with applicant rank list position. All applicants (n = 77) attending an in-person interview for general surgery residency, and all faculty interviewers (n = 34) who reviewed these applications were invited to participate. Among applicants, 84.4% of respondents (65 of 77) reported that a requirement to complete the CASPer test would have no bearing or would make them more likely to apply to the program (mean = 3.30, standard deviation = 0.96). Among the faculty, 62.5% respondents (10 of 16) reported that the same condition would have no bearing or would make applicants more likely to apply to the program (mean = 3.19, standard deviation = 1.33). The Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients for the relationships between traditional faculty assessment of personal characteristics and applicant rank list position, and novel CASPer assessment of personal characteristics and applicant rank list position, were -0.45 (P = 0.033) and -0.41 (P = 0.055), respectively. The CASPer test may be feasibly implemented as component of the resident selection process, with the potential to predict applicant rank list position and improve the general surgery resident selection process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Desired Characteristics for MSW Students and Social Work Employees: Cognitive versus Personal Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, Michael M. O.; Johnson, Jennifer D.; Walton, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the best students and hiring the best social workers are important professional responsibilities. Findings from this exploratory study identify personal attributes that are significant in enabling MSW students and social work employees to succeed. Social work educators and agency administrators generally agree that personal attributes…

  11. Psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress / well-being: the mediating role of personal goal facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Violani, Cristiano; Lazzari, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of personal goal facilitation through work (PGFW), defined as perceptions of the extent to which one's job facilitates the attainment of one's personal goals, in the association between psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress and job-related well-being. Questionnaire data from 217 nurses (84% female, with a mean age of 42.7 years, SD=7.2) were analyzed. Participants completed the following measures: the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Workplace Goal Facilitation Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (short version). A cross-sectional study design was applied. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that unfavorable psychosocial job characteristics (high demands, low control, and low social support) were associated with lower PGFW. Furthermore, personal goal facilitation through work explained significant additional variance (from 2 to 11%) in psychological distress (somatic complaints and emotional exhaustion) and job-related well-being (personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and work engagement), controlling for demographic indicators and psychosocial job characteristics. Finally, the results provided support for the mediating effects of PGFW between all psychosocial job characteristics and all outcomes, except in the case of depersonalization. This study suggests that hindered personal goal facilitation may be a mechanism through which psychosocial job characteristics have a negative impact on employees' well-being.

  12. 40 CFR 261.10 - Criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste. 261.10 Section 261.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... solid waste through their knowledge of their waste. (b) [Reserved] ...

  13. Identifying the Family, Job, and Workplace Characteristics of Employees Who Use Work-Family Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secret, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Employs a contextual effects perspective to identify family, job, and workplace characteristics associated with the use of work-family benefits of 527 employees in 83 businesses. Determined that particular family problems predict female employee use of paid leave and mental health benefits. Summarizes that workplace size, sector, and culture are…

  14. Buyer-focused operations as a supply chain strategy : Identifying the influence of business characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, T; van Donk, DP

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - Buyer-focused operations aim at a high level of supply chain alignment by singling out resources for one buyer in order to serve this buyer optimally. The purpose of this paper is to identify what business characteristics make suppliers choose buyer-focused operations as a supply chain

  15. Characteristics of Reticent and Disruptive Children As Identified by the Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, James R.

    The Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory was employed to identify the psychometric characteristics of reticent and disruptive children. The BCCI utilizes self-competency judgments, peer nominations, vocational interests and teacher adjectival ratings in an effort to measure the various expectations which interact in the elementary classroom. A…

  16. Characteristics of Self-Harm Behaviour among Identified Self-Harming Youth in Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenville, Jeffrey; Goodman, Deborah; Macpherson, Alison K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe deliberate self-harming (DSH) characteristics in a child-welfare population identified as having threatened or completed self-harm. Secondary data from 621 serious occurrence reports (SOR) that documented 2004-2007 DSH incidents and DSH threats with 252 Canadian youth in care (Y-INC) of the Children's…

  17. Identifying usability issues for personalization during formative evaluations: a comparisons of three methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velsen, Lex Stefan; van der Geest, Thea; Klaassen, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    A personalized system is one that generates unique output for each individual. As a result, personalization has transformed the interaction between the user and the system, and specific new usability issues have arisen. Methods used for evaluating personalized systems should be able to reveal the

  18. Identifying Trajectories of Borderline Personality Features in Adolescence: Antecedent and Interactive Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    To examine trajectories of adolescent borderline personality (BP) features in a normative-risk cohort (n = 566) of Canadian children assessed at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 and childhood predictors of trajectory group membership assessed at ages 8, 10, 11, and 12. Data were drawn from the McMaster Teen Study, an on-going study examining relations among bullying, mental health, and academic achievement. Participants and their parents completed a battery of mental health and peer relations questionnaires at each wave of the study. Academic competence was assessed at age 8 (Grade 3). Latent class growth analysis, analysis of variance, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Three distinct BP features trajectory groups were identified: elevated or rising, intermediate or stable, and low or stable. Parent- and child-reported mental health symptoms, peer relations risk factors, and intra-individual risk factors were significant predictors of elevated or rising and intermediate or stable trajectory groups. Child-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and somatization symptoms uniquely predicted elevated or rising trajectory group membership, whereas parent-reported anxiety and child-reported ADHD symptoms uniquely predicted intermediate or stable trajectory group membership. Child-reported somatization symptoms was the only predictor to differentiate the intermediate or stable and elevated or rising trajectory groups (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.28). Associations between child-reported reactive temperament and elevated BP features trajectory group membership were 10.23 times higher among children who were bullied, supporting a diathesis-stress pathway in the development of BP features for these youth. Findings demonstrate the heterogeneous course of BP features in early adolescence and shed light on the potential prodromal course of later borderline personality disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. How to identify the person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev D.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current version of the resolution of the RF Supreme Court Plenum of June 10, 2010 N 12, clarifying the provisions of the law on liability for crimes committed by a person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy (Part 4 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, is criticized. Evaluative character of the considered aggravating circumstance doesn’t allow to develop clear criteria for identifying the leaders of the criminal environment. Basing on the theory provisions and court practice, the authors suggest three criteria. The first criterion is specific actions including: establishment and leadership of the criminal association (criminal organization; coordinating criminal acts; creating sustainable links between different organized groups acting independently; dividing spheres of criminal influence, sharing criminal income and other criminal activities, indicating person’s authority and leadership in a particular area or in a particular sphere of activity. The second is having money, valuables and other property obtained by criminal means, without the person’s direct participation in their acquisition; transferring money, valuables and other property to that person systematically, without legal grounds (unjust enrichment; spending that money, valuables and other property to carry out criminal activities (crimes themselves and conditions of their commission. The third is international criminal ties manifested in committing one of the crimes under Part 1 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, if this crime is transnational in nature; ties with extremist and (or terrorist organizations, as well as corruption ties. The court may use one or several of these criteria.

  20. Identifying Latent Trajectories of Personality Disorder Symptom Change: Growth Mixture Modeling in the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Michael N.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous reports have documented mean-level declines in personality disorder (PD) symptoms over time, little is known about whether personality pathology sometimes emerges among nonsymptomatic adults, or whether rates of change differ qualitatively among symptomatic persons. Our study sought to characterize heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of PD symptoms with the goal of testing for and describing latent trajectories. Participants were 250 young adults selected into two groups using a PD screening measure: those who met diagnostic criteria for a DSM-III-R PD (PPD, n = 129), and those with few PD symptoms (NoPD, n = 121). PD symptoms were assessed three times over a four-year study using semistructured interviews. Total PD symptom counts and symptoms of each DSM-III-R PD were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. In the NoPD group, latent trajectories were characterized by stable, minor symptoms; the rapid or gradual remission of subclinical symptoms; or the emergence of symptoms of Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Paranoid PD. In the PPD group, three latent trajectories were evident: rapid symptom remission, slow symptom decline, or a relative absence of symptoms. Rapid remission of PD symptoms was associated with fewer comorbid disorders, lower negative emotionality, and greater positive emotionality and constraint, whereas emergent personality dysfunction was associated with comorbid PD symptoms and lower positive emotionality. In most cases, symptom change for one PD was associated with concomitant changes in other PDs, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. These results indicate that the longitudinal course of PD symptoms is heterogeneous, with distinct trajectories evident for both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic individuals. The prognosis of PD symptoms may be informed by an assessment of personality and comorbid psychopathology. PMID:23231459

  1. How do intake clinicians use patient characteristics to select treatment for patients with personality disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Janine; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Visbach, Geny; Ziegler, Uli; Gerritsen, Ad; Van Rossum, Bert; Rijnierse, Piet; Timman, Reinier; Verheul, Roel

    2008-11-01

    Treatment selection in clinical practice is a poorly understood, often largely implicit decision process, perhaps especially for patients with personality disorders. This study, therefore, investigated how intake clinicians use information about patient characteristics to select psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with personality disorder. A structured interview with a forced-choice format was administered to 27 experienced intake clinicians working in five specialist mental health care institutes in the Netherlands. Substantial consensus was evident among intake clinicians. The results revealed that none of the presented patient characteristics were deemed relevant for the selection of the suitable treatment setting. The appropriate duration and intensity are selected using severity or personal strength variables. The theoretical orientation is selected using personal strength variables.

  2. A new neuro-fuzzy training algorithm for identifying dynamic characteristics of smart dampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Sy Dzung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm, named establishing neuro-fuzzy system (ENFS), to identify dynamic characteristics of smart dampers such as magnetorheological (MR) and electrorheological (ER) dampers. In the ENFS, data clustering is performed based on the proposed algorithm named partitioning data space (PDS). Firstly, the PDS builds data clusters in joint input–output data space with appropriate constraints. The role of these constraints is to create reasonable data distribution in clusters. The ENFS then uses these clusters to perform the following tasks. Firstly, the fuzzy sets expressing characteristics of data clusters are established. The structure of the fuzzy sets is adjusted to be suitable for features of the data set. Secondly, an appropriate structure of neuro-fuzzy (NF) expressed by an optimal number of labeled data clusters and the fuzzy-set groups is determined. After the ENFS is introduced, its effectiveness is evaluated by a prediction-error-comparative work between the proposed method and some other methods in identifying numerical data sets such as ‘daily data of stock A’, or in identifying a function. The ENFS is then applied to identify damping force characteristics of the smart dampers. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the ENFS in identifying the damping forces of the smart dampers, the prediction errors are presented by comparing with experimental results. (paper)

  3. A new neuro-fuzzy training algorithm for identifying dynamic characteristics of smart dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzung Nguyen, Sy; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2012-08-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm, named establishing neuro-fuzzy system (ENFS), to identify dynamic characteristics of smart dampers such as magnetorheological (MR) and electrorheological (ER) dampers. In the ENFS, data clustering is performed based on the proposed algorithm named partitioning data space (PDS). Firstly, the PDS builds data clusters in joint input-output data space with appropriate constraints. The role of these constraints is to create reasonable data distribution in clusters. The ENFS then uses these clusters to perform the following tasks. Firstly, the fuzzy sets expressing characteristics of data clusters are established. The structure of the fuzzy sets is adjusted to be suitable for features of the data set. Secondly, an appropriate structure of neuro-fuzzy (NF) expressed by an optimal number of labeled data clusters and the fuzzy-set groups is determined. After the ENFS is introduced, its effectiveness is evaluated by a prediction-error-comparative work between the proposed method and some other methods in identifying numerical data sets such as ‘daily data of stock A’, or in identifying a function. The ENFS is then applied to identify damping force characteristics of the smart dampers. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the ENFS in identifying the damping forces of the smart dampers, the prediction errors are presented by comparing with experimental results.

  4. Attitudinal Factors and Personal Characteristics Influence Support for Shellfish Aquaculture in Rhode Island (US) Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Tracey M; Jin, Di

    2018-05-01

    This study explores public interests associated with shellfish aquaculture development in coastal waters of Rhode Island (US). Specifically, we examine (1) the levels of public support for (or opposition to) shellfish aquaculture development and (2) factors driving the levels of support, using survey data and ordinal logistic regressions. Results of the analysis identify several key attitudinal factors affecting individual's support for shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island (RI). The level of support is positively associated with attitudes related to shellfish aquaculture's benefits to the local economy and its role as a nutritional food option, and negatively influenced by attitudes related to aquaculture farms' effects on aesthetic quality and their interference with other uses. Findings highlight that support for (or opposition to) aquaculture in RI is driven more by attitudes associated with social impacts than by those associated with environmental impacts. The level of support is also affected by personal characteristics related to an individual's participation in recreational activities. For instance, bicycle riders tend to be supportive of shellfish aquaculture while respondents who participate in sailing and birding are less supportive. By identifying the broader public's interests in shellfish aquaculture, findings from this study and others like it can be used to address public concerns, incorporate public perceptions and attitudes into permitting decisions, and develop outreach targeted at specific stakeholder groups.

  5. Demographic, behavioral, and psychometric characteristics of persons denied unescorted access on the basis of psychological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the demographic, behavioral, and psychometric characteristics of persons who were denied unescorted access authorization for protected areas and vital islands of nuclear power plants, in accordance with the relevant proposed rule of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Demographic characteristics examined include age, sex, occupation, education, marital status, and number of children. Behavioral characteristics examined include substance use/abuse/treatment and instances of antisocial behavior. Psychometric characteristics examined include elevations on basic MMPI clinical scales, elevations on special indices of psychosis and substance abuse, and endorsement of so-called critical items

  6. Differential Responses to Food Price Changes by Personal Characteristic: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter; Waterlander, Wilma E; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Fiscal interventions to improve population diet have been recommended for consideration by many organisations including the World Health Organisation and the United Nations and policies such as sugar-sweetened beverage taxes have been implemented at national and sub-national levels. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the differential impact of fiscal interventions on population sub-groups and this remains a barrier to implementation. To examine how personal characteristics (such as socioeconomic status, sex, impulsivity, and income) moderate changes in purchases of targeted foods in response to food and beverage price changes in experimental settings. Systematic review. Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit and PsycInfo), reference lists of previous reviews, and additional data from study authors. We included randomised controlled trials where food and beverage prices were manipulated and reported differential effects of the intervention on participant sub-groups defined according to personal characteristics. Where possible, we extracted data to enable the calculation of price elasticities for the target foods by personal characteristic. 8 studies were included in the review. Across studies, the difference in price elasticity varied from 0.02 to 2.43 between groups within the same study. 11 out of the total of 18 comparisons of own-price elasticity estimates by personal characteristic differed by more than 0.2 between groups. Income related factors were the most commonly considered and there was an indication that own-price elasticity estimates do vary by income but the direction of this effect was not clear. Experimental studies provide an opportunity to examine the differential effects of fiscal measures to improve population diets. Patterns in price sensitivity by personal characteristics are complex. General conclusions pertaining to the effects of personal characteristics on price sensitivity are not supported by the

  7. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Individualizing characteristics of footprints in Malaysian Malays for person identification from a forensic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nataraja Moorthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the valuable physical evidence that a suspect leaves unintentionally at a crime scene is likely to include footprints. Physical evidence needs to be utilized to express individual characteristics. Very keen analysis of footprints can provide useful information to establish personal identity and ease the crime investigation. The present study aims to analyze and describe the individual characteristics of footprints of Malaysian Malays from a forensic perspective in a sample of 400 adult Malay participants consisting of 200 males and 200 females. The footprints were collected using an inkless shoe print kit (Carolina, USA. Various features of the toes, humps in the toe line, phalange marks, flatfoot condition, pits, cracks, corns, etc., were investigated. The frequency of these characteristics was recorded. The frequency of the fibularis-type foot is the highest, followed by the tibialis-type, the intermediate-type and the midularis-type is found to have the least frequency in both the sexes. This sequence is found to be different from the sequence observed in the north Indian population. Two humps have been found most often in male footprints followed by three humps and zero hump is found to be the least frequent. While in female footprints, three humps have been found, most often followed by two humps and zero hump is found to be the least frequent. Other identifying features are also highlighted using illustrations. This trait shows bilateral variation. The morphological length of toes and some other features in this study are found to be different from footprints of Indian Tamils, North Indian Gujjars and the Thai population.

  9. Who Got All of My Personal Data? Enabling Users to Monitor the Proliferation of Shared Personally Identifiable Information

    OpenAIRE

    Labitzke , Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Part 4: Privacy and Transparency in the Age of Cloud Computing; International audience; The risk involved when users publish information, which becomes available to an unintentional broad audience via online social networks is evident. It is especially difficult for users of social networks to determine who will get the information before it is shared. Moreover, it is impossible to monitor data flows or to control the access to personal data after sharing the information. In contrast to enter...

  10. Personal characteristics and experiences of long-term allied health professionals in rural and northern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, Candice M; Hardy, Cindy L; MacLeod, Martha L P

    2009-01-01

    Health sciences programs are being designed to attract students who are likely to stay and practice in rural and northern Canada. Consequently, student recruitment and screening are increasingly including assessment of suitability for rural practice. Although retention factors among rural physicians and nurses have been investigated, little is known about factors that contribute to the retention of other healthcare professionals who work in rural areas. The primary objective of this project was to identify the personal characteristics and experiences of allied health professionals who have worked long term in northern British Columbia (BC), Canada. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach. Six speech language pathologists, four psychologists, four occupational therapists, eight social workers, and four physiotherapists practicing long term in northern BC were recruited, using a convenience sample and the snowball technique, to participate in semi-structured telephone interviews. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis identified the motivations for their decision to begin or stay working in northern communities, the reasons for choosing rural or northern education and key themes concerning personal characteristics and experiences. A process of member checking and an external audit validated the analysis and findings. There were two major themes for choosing rural and northern education. For some, selection of rural or northern training was based on accessibility to health education programs; all participants who chose rural and northern education had already decided that they were going to practice rurally. Generally, participants identified past positive experiences and rural background as influencing their practice location decision. Participants named the community's need for healthcare professionals, career advancement opportunities, welcoming employers, peer support, as well as promises of continuing

  11. Characteristics of self-identified sexual addicts in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Wéry, Aline; Vogelaere, Kim; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Poudat, François-Xavier; Caillon, Julie; Lever, Delphine; Billieux, Joël; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Research on sexual addiction flourished during the last decade, promoted by the development of an increased number of online sexual activities. Despite the accumulation of studies, however, evidence collected in clinical samples of treatment-seeking people remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics (socio-demographics, sexual habits, and comorbidities) of self-identified "sexual addicts." Methods The sample was composed of 72 patients who con...

  12. Identifying Robust Co-Occurrence Patterns in Personal Care Product Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personal care products (PCPs) are used for beautification and personal hygiene, and because they are applied to the skin, hair, and mouth, they provide an efficient delivery vehicle for chemicals into our bodies. Although efforts have been made to enumerate the chemicals in indiv...

  13. Measuring Teacher Dispositions: Identifying Workplace Personality Traits Most Relevant to Teaching Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuankun; Pagnani, Alexander; Thomas, Matt; Abellan-Pagnani, Luisa; Brown, Terrell; Buchanan, Dawna Lisa

    2017-01-01

    What personality traits represent dispositions most relevant to teaching professionals? Could an instrument reflecting work personality traits for a wide variety of professions provide a valid assessment of dispositions for teacher candidates? This study analyzed the internal structure of a state mandated dispositions assessment that was adapted…

  14. 76 FR 27377 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... 13572 of April 29, 2011, ``Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in... 29, 2011, ``Blocking Property of Certain Persons with Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria... Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-06). In the Order, the President expanded the scope of the...

  15. A robust estimate of the number and characteristics of persons released from prison in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Alex; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the number and characteristics of adults released from prison in Australia. We calculated ratios, stratified by age, sex and Indigenous status, by comparing the number of persons released from prison in New South Wales (NSW), with the number in NSW prisons on 30 June of the corresponding year. These stratified ratios were applied to Australia-wide prison data to estimate the number and characteristics of persons released annually. We estimated that in 2013, 38,576 persons were released from prison in Australia - 25.3% more than the daily prison population. Young people, Indigenous people and women were over-represented among those released. We estimated that 3.69 Indigenous women aged 18-24 were released annually for each equivalent person in prison; and 2.75 non-Indigenous women aged 18-24 were released annually for each equivalent person in prison. The annual 'flow' through Australia's prisons is well in excess of the daily number, but information on those moving through prison systems is not yet publicly available. The characteristics of those released from prison differ meaningfully from those of people in prison. Routine, national reporting of prison separations is critical to informing upscaling and targeting of Throughcare services for this profoundly vulnerable population. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  17. Bulimia and Binge Eating in College Women: A Comparison of Personality and Behavioral Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.

    1984-01-01

    Assessed several behavioral and personality characteristics that have been implicated in studying the onset of bulimia in female college students (N=80) classified into bulimia, binge eating, and control groups. Results indicated that bulimics and binge eaters differed significantly on all but a few variables. (LLL)

  18. Causal attributions, real life-events and personality characteristics : a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANDERMAN, R

    1986-01-01

    The learned-helplessness model has been given much attention recently. In this article some issues are briefly reviewed, the main purpose of this study was, however, to determine the relationship between causal attributions and personality characteristics, symptoms and feelings of well-being.

  19. The Profiles of Creative Potential and Personality Characteristics of Adult Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Young; Min, Jiyeon

    2016-01-01

    Using 5 divergent thinking indices of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, this study examined the creative profiles of 236 adult professionals and relationships between their creative characteristics and personality types. All these adults were in their middle or late stage of professional development in…

  20. Job Satisfaction of People with Intellectual Disability: Associations with Job Characteristics and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment…

  1. Personality Characteristics and Level of Performance of Male County Extension Agents in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Dasharathrai Navnitrai

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected personality characteristics and attitudes of male extension agents in Wisconsin, and their level of job performance. The relationships between selected background factors and the level of agent's job performance were also studied. Subjects were 79 male county agents…

  2. Supervisors' Performance Ratings Correlated with Selected Personal Characteristics of Attendants in a Mental Retardation Developmental Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Joseph; And Others

    A research study investigated the relationship between personal characteristics and selected demographic data of 75 attendants in a mental retardation developmental center and the assessment by 24 administrators of the attendants' job performance. Instruments used included a 20-item Direct Care Performance Scale and the Demographic Data Scale,…

  3. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; de Boer, M.R.; Samoocha, D.; Kreuk, I.M.; Pouwer, F.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in body

  4. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS : THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    BackgroundWe investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course.MethodsLongitudinal data in a large

  5. Personality Characteristics and Self-Concept of Preservice Teachers Related to Their Pupil Control Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Glennelle; And Others

    1982-01-01

    In a study of teacher trainees' personality characteristics related to pupil control, humanistically oriented educators tended to be emotionally stable, expedient, positive, imaginative, venturesome, relaxed and had high self-concepts. Authoritarian educators were more affected by feelings, conscientious, sober, practical, shy, reserved, tense and…

  6. Characteristics of People Providing Family Placements to Adult Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Roy; McConaghie, Jayne; Roberts, Paul; King, Diana

    2005-01-01

    The success of family placement schemes depends largely on the recruitment of suitable people who are willing to offer placements in their own home yet little research has been undertaken of their characteristics and the reasons for their involvement. Thirty providers of family based placements to adult persons with intellectual disabilities were…

  7. Bulimics with and without Prior Anorexia Nervosa: A Comparison of Personality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.

    A controversial issue in the literature on eating disorders is whether or not bulimia is a disorder distinct from anorexia nervosa. To compare the personality and behavioral characteristics of bulimic women with and without prior anorexia nervosa, 14 female college students (mean age 19.6 years, 86 percent white) were divided into two groups…

  8. Parent and child personality characteristics as predictors of negative discipline and externalizing problem behaviour in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H

    Negative discipline has been linked to childhood externalizing behaviour However, relatively little attention has been given to the potential effect of individual personality characteristics of children and parents. Using the Five Factor Model, we examined the extent to which parents' and children's

  9. Benefits of personality characteristics and self-efficacy in the perceived academic achievement of medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guntern, Sabine; Korpershoek, Hanke; van der Werf, Greetje

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the joint impact of personality characteristics and self‐efficacy on the perceived academic achievement of medical students on top of their prior high school performance. The sample consisted of medical students in their pre‐clinical years. The students’ grade point average

  10. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists : Research Findings and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of

  11. CAPs-IDD: Characteristics of Assessment Instruments for Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, E. L.; Nader, I. W.; Brehmer-Rinderer, B.; Koller, I.; Weber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessment of psychiatric disorders in persons with an intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) can be performed with a variety of greatly differing instruments. This makes the choice of an instrument best suited for the intended purpose challenging. In this study, we developed a comprehensive set of characteristics for the evaluation…

  12. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppes, Lando L J; de Boer, Michiel R; Samoocha, David

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in bod...

  13. Identifying individuals with antisocial personality disorder using resting-state FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tang

    Full Text Available Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD is closely connected to criminal behavior. A better understanding of functional connectivity in the brains of ASPD patients will help to explain abnormal behavioral syndromes and to perform objective diagnoses of ASPD. In this study we designed an exploratory data-driven classifier based on machine learning to investigate changes in functional connectivity in the brains of patients with ASPD using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data in 32 subjects with ASPD and 35 controls. The results showed that the classifier achieved satisfactory performance (86.57% accuracy, 77.14% sensitivity and 96.88% specificity and could extract stabile information regarding functional connectivity that could be used to discriminate ASPD individuals from normal controls. More importantly, we found that the greatest change in the ASPD subjects was uncoupling between the default mode network and the attention network. Moreover, the precuneus, superior parietal gyrus and cerebellum exhibited high discriminative power in classification. A voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed and showed that the gray matter volumes in the parietal lobule and white matter volumes in the precuneus were abnormal in ASPD compared to controls. To our knowledge, this study was the first to use resting-state fMRI to identify abnormal functional connectivity in ASPD patients. These results not only demonstrated good performance of the proposed classifier, which can be used to improve the diagnosis of ASPD, but also elucidate the pathological mechanism of ASPD from a resting-state functional integration viewpoint.

  14. Personal and lifestyle characteristics predictive of the consumption of fast foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Philip; Wilson, Carlene; Dunn, Kirsten; Brindal, Emily; Wittert, Gary

    2007-12-01

    To identify key predictors of fast-food consumption from a range of demographic, attitudinal, personality and lifestyle variables. We analysed data from a nationwide survey (n = 20 527) conducted in Australia by Nielsen Media Research. Items assessing frequency of fast-food consumption at (1) eat in and (2) take away were regressed onto 12 demographic, seven media consumption, and 23 psychological and lifestyle variables, the latter derived from factor analysis of responses to 107 attitudinal and behavioural items. Stepwise multiple regression analyses explained 29.6% of the variance for frequency of take-away and 9.6% of the variance for frequency of eat-in consumption of fast foods. Predictors of more frequent consumption of fast food at take away (and, to a lesser extent, eat in) included lower age - especially under 45 years, relative indifference to health consequences of behaviour, greater household income, more exposure to advertising, greater receptiveness to advertising, lesser allocation of time for eating, and greater allocation of time to home entertainment. There were no effects for occupational status or education level. The effects for age suggest that fast-food take-away consumption is associated with a general cultural shift in eating practices; individual differences in attitudinal and lifestyle characteristics constitute additional, cumulative, predictive factors. The role of advertising and the reasons for the lesser explanatory value of the eat-in models are important targets for further research.

  15. Relationship Between Changes in Workplace Bullying Status and the Reporting of Personality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Høgh, Annie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Willert, Morten Vejs; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Mors, Ole; Mikkelsen, Eva Gemzøe; Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether a shift in work-related bullying status, from being non-bullied to being bullied or vice versa, was associated with changes in reporting of personality characteristics. Data on bullying and personality (neuroticism, extraversion, and sense of coherence) were collected in three waves approximately 2 years apart (N = 4947). Using a within-subjects design, personality change scores that followed altered bullying status were evaluated with one-sample t tests. Sensitivity analyses targeted depressive symptoms. Shifts from non-bullied to frequently bullied were associated with increased neuroticism or decreased sense of coherence manageability scores. Shifts from bullied to non-bullied were associated with decreasing neuroticism and increasing extraversion scores, or increasing sense of coherence meaningfulness and comprehensibility scores. Excluding depressive cases had minor effects. Bullying seems to some extent to affect personality scale scores, which thus seem sensitive to environmental and social circumstances.

  16. Particle swarm optimization using multi-information characteristics of all personal-best information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Tian, Na; Wang, Yan; Ji, Zhicheng

    2016-01-01

    Convergence stagnation is the chief difficulty to solve hard optimization problems for most particle swarm optimization variants. To address this issue, a novel particle swarm optimization using multi-information characteristics of all personal-best information is developed in our research. In the modified algorithm, two positions are defined by personal-best positions and an improved cognition term with three positions of all personal-best information is used in velocity update equation to enhance the search capability. This strategy could make particles fly to a better direction by discovering useful information from all the personal-best positions. The validity of the proposed algorithm is assessed on twenty benchmark problems including unimodal, multimodal, rotated and shifted functions, and the results are compared with that obtained by some published variants of particle swarm optimization in the literature. Computational results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm finds several global optimum and high-quality solutions in most case with a fast convergence speed.

  17. The Role of Personal Characteristics and School Characteristics in Explaining Teacher Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Flores, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that teacher job satisfaction declined in Spain over the last decade. Also, it is significantly lower in secondary education than in previous educational levels. In this paper we identify variables that contribute to the explanation of teacher job satisfaction in secondary education. We use the Spanish sample (192 schools and 3339 teachers) participating in the 2013 edition of TALIS (Teaching and Learning International Study), sponsored by the OECD (Organisation for Econom...

  18. Correlation Among the Army Combat Identifier, Personality Type, and Career Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garren, Laura J

    2005-01-01

    Retaining quality officers in today's volunteer Army is critical. Personality should be considered during the selection process to assist in placing officers in a career branch suited to their character...

  19. Identifying the role of different personality traits on the relationship between stress and food choice

    OpenAIRE

    Trew, Marissa

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that high levels of stress correlate with higher consumption of high- fat and high-sugar snack-type foods, particularly amongst women. However, it has been observed that not all individuals are vulnerable to this pattern of ‘stress-related’ eating. Both stress and dietary habits have been strongly correlated with specific personality traits but previous research has neglected to observe whether personality traits significantly affect correlations between perceived stress and ty...

  20. How identity crisis, relative deprivation, personal characteristics, and empathy contribute to the engagement of Western individuals in Islamist terrorist behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khouwaga Yusoufzai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing sense of insecurity in the Western world due to home-grown Islamist terrorism prompts further research on the topic. Based on previous literature, the current paper attempts to determine whether factors can be identified which contribute to Western individuals joining Islamic extremist organizations and engaging in terrorist behavior in the West. Four factors are discussed: While extensive scientific literature supports the view that identity crises and relative deprivation play a crucial role in turning Western individuals to terrorism, evidence on the role of personal characteristics and empathy, on the other hand, is still too scarce to allow any clear scientific judgment.

  1. Effect of Friction-Induced Nonlinearity on OMA-Identified Dynamic Characteristics of Offshore Platform Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Tobias; Orfanos, Antonios; Katsanos, Evangelos

    The identification of the modal characteristics of engineering systems under operational conditions is commonly conducted with the use of the Operational Modal Analysis (OMA), being a class of useful tools employed within various fields of structural, mechanical as well as marine and naval...... engineering. The current OMA methods have been advanced on the basis of two fundamental, though, restrictive assumptions: (i) linearity and (ii) stationarity. Nevertheless, there are several applications that are inherently related to various nonlinear mechanisms, which, in turn, violate the two cornerstones...... of OMA and hence, question its robustness and efficiency. Along these lines, the current study addresses the effect of friction-induced nonlinearity on OMA-identified dynamic characteristics of an experimental set up consisting of a pair of reduced scale offshore platform models that are connected...

  2. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G F M; Giltay, Erik J; van Hemert, Albert M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course. Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants with baseline depressive and/or anxiety disorders (n = 1,474, 18-65 years) were collected in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. At baseline, childhood maltreatment was assessed with a semistructured interview. Personality trait questionnaires (Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Five Factor Inventory, Mastery scale, and Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity), recent stressful life events (List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire), and psychosocial variables were administered. The Life Chart Interview was used to determine the time to remission of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. At baseline, 846 participants (57.4%) reported any childhood maltreatment. Childhood maltreatment had a negative impact on psychosocial functioning and was predictive of more unfavorable personality characteristics and cognitive reactivity styles (P Childhood maltreatment was a significant predictor of lower likelihood of remission of depressive and/or anxiety disorders (HR = 0.94, P childhood maltreatment and 4-year remission of depressive and anxiety disorders. Certain personality characteristics are key players in the mechanism linking childhood maltreatment to an adverse illness course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Early interventions--reducing neuroticism and hopelessness, and enhancing extraversion and locus of control--might contribute to a better prognosis in a "high-risk" group of depressive and anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Coping Strategies in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study aimed to investigate personality traits and coping strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who were admitted to Sina hospital compared with healthy individuals. Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare personality characteristics and coping strategies between patients with MS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods The study sample included 55 patients with MS and 57 matched healthy control individuals. The data were gathered via a demographic form, the ways of coping questionnaire, and the NEO five-factor inventory. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. Results No significant differences in personality characteristics were observed between patients and healthy controls (all P > 0.05. Only the coping strategy subscale of Distancing was significant between patients and healthy controls (P 0.05. Only the Neuroticism personality trait and the Distancing coping strategy were predictive of group membership (i.e., healthy or patient. Conclusions Our study suggests that the personality traits of patients with MS and healthy individuals are not significantly different. Patients with MS are likely to use the same coping strategies as healthy individuals, except in the subscale of Distancing.

  4. The associations between personality characteristics and absenteeism: a cross-sectional study in workers with and without depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasveld, Moniek C; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Anema, Johannes R; van Mechelen, Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2013-09-01

    Although numerous studies have identified risk factors for sickness absence, few studies have addressed the role of personality characteristics in absenteeism. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of the Big 5 personality characteristics (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness) and locus of control with absenteeism, taking the presence of depressive and anxiety disorders into account. Cross-sectional data from the baseline measurement of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were examined. NESDA includes persons with current or remitted depressive and anxiety disorders and healthy controls, of which 1883 working participants were selected. Personality characteristics were included as predictor variables, short-term (0-2 weeks) and long-term (>2 weeks) absenteeism as outcome measure. The presence of depressive and anxiety disorders was considered as modifying covariate. In healthy workers, high neuroticism, external locus of control, low extraversion, low agreeableness and low conscientiousness were associated with short-term absenteeism. In addition, high neuroticism, low extraversion and low openness were related to long-term absenteeism in healthy workers. In workers with psychopathology, similar associations were found for persons with this profile (high neuroticism, external locus of control, low extraversion and low conscientiousness) with long-term absenteeism, but no associations of these characteristics were found with short-term absenteeism. Personality characteristics were significantly associated with work absenteeism in both workers with and without anxiety or depression. Interventions aimed at preventing sickness absence may focus on reducing neuroticism and strengthening extraversion, conscientiousness and locus of control.

  5. Personality Assessment Inventory scale characteristics and factor structure in the assessment of alcohol dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, J A

    1995-02-01

    Individual scale characteristics and the inventory structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) were examined by conducting internal consistency and factor analyses of item and scale score data from a large group (N = 301) of alcohol-dependent patients. Alpha coefficients, mean inter-item correlations, and corrected item-total scale correlations for the sample paralleled values reported by Morey for a large clinical sample. Minor differences in the scale factor structure of the inventory from Morey's clinical sample were found. Overall, the findings support the use of the PAI in the assessment of personality and psychopathology of alcohol-dependent patients.

  6. Deep learning for constructing microblog behavior representation to identify social media user’s personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of information technology, the Internet has gradually become a part of everyday life. People would like to communicate with friends to share their opinions on social networks. The diverse behavior on socials networks is an ideal reflection of users’ personality traits. Existing behavior analysis methods for personality prediction mostly extract behavior attributes with heuristic analysis. Although they work fairly well, they are hard to extend and maintain. In this paper, we utilize a deep learning algorithm to build a feature learning model for personality prediction, which could perform an unsupervised extraction of the Linguistic Representation Feature Vector (LRFV activity without supervision from text actively published on the Sina microblog. Compared with other feature extractsion methods, LRFV, as an abstract representation of microblog content, could describe a user’s semantic information more objectively and comprehensively. In the experiments, the personality prediction model is built using a linear regression algorithm, and different attributes obtained through different feature extraction methods are taken as input of the prediction model, respectively. The results show that LRFV performs better in microblog behavior descriptions, and improves the performance of the personality prediction model.

  7. Can empathy, other personality attributes, and level of positive social influence in medical school identify potential leaders in medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Michalec, Barret; Veloski, J Jon; Tykocinski, Mark L

    2015-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that medical students recognized by peers as the most positive social influencers would score (1) high on measures of engaging personality attributes that are conducive to relationship building (empathy, sociability, activity, self-esteem), and (2) low on disengaging personality attributes that are detrimental to interpersonal relationships (loneliness, neuroticism, aggression-hostility, impulsive sensation seeking). The study included 666 Jefferson Medical College students who graduated in 2011-2013. Students used a peer nomination instrument to identify classmates who had a positive influence on their professional and personal development. At matriculation, these students had completed a survey that included the Jefferson Scale of Empathy and Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire short form and abridged versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scale. In multivariate analyses of variance, the method of contrasted groups was used to compare the personality attributes of students nominated most frequently by their peers as positive influencers (top influencers [top 25% in their class distribution], n = 176) with those of students nominated least frequently (bottom influencers [bottom 25%], n = 171). The top influencers scored significantly higher on empathy, sociability, and activity and significantly lower on loneliness compared with the bottom influencers. However, the effect size estimates of the differences were moderate at best. The research hypotheses were partially confirmed. Positive social influencers appear to possess personality attributes conducive to relationship building, which is an important feature of effective leadership. The findings have implications for identifying and training potential leaders in medicine.

  8. Using Social Media Activity to Identify Personality Characteristics of Navy Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    1]. The list of social media platforms is constantly growing. The most commonly used platforms are YouTube , Facebook, Google+, and Twitter; others...such as anxiety, anger, depression , self- consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability • Openness to Experience, described with terms such as fantasy

  9. Identifying the characteristic of SundaParahiyangan landscape for a model of sustainable agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, M. Z.; Nurhayati, H. S. A.; Mugnisjah, W. Q.

    2017-10-01

    This study was an explorative study of the various forms of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of Sundanese people in the context of sustainable agriculture. The qualitative method was used to identify SundaParahiyangan landscape by using Rapid Participatory Rural Appraisal throughsemi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field survey. The Landscape Characteristic Assessment and Community Sustainability Assessment were used to analyze the characteristic of landscape to achieve the sustainable agricultural landscape criteria proposed by US Department of Agriculture. The results revealed that the SundaParahiyangan agricultural landscape has a unique characteristic as a result of the long-term adaptation of agricultural society to theirlandscape through a learning process for generations. In general, this character was reflected in the typical of Sundanese’s agroecosystems such as forest garden, mixed garden, paddy field, and home garden. In addition, concept of kabuyutan is one of the TEKs related to understanding and utilization of landscape has been adapted on revitalizing the role of landscape surrounding the agroecosystem as the buffer zone by calculating and designating protected areas. To support the sustainability of production area, integrated practices of agroforestry with low-external-input and sustainable agriculture (LEISA) system can be applied in utilizing and managing agricultural resources.

  10. Psychosocial work characteristics of personal care and service occupations: a process for developing meaningful measures for a multiethnic workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Annekatrin; Heaney, Catherine A; Fujishiro, Kaori; Gong, Fang; Baron, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Despite their rapid increase in number, workers in personal care and service occupations are underrepresented in research on psychosocial work characteristics and occupational health. Some of the research challenges stem from the high proportion of immigrants in these occupations. Language barriers, low literacy, and cultural differences as well as their nontraditional work setting (i.e., providing service for one person in his/her home) make generic questionnaire measures inadequate for capturing salient aspects of personal care and service work. This study presents strategies for (1) identifying psychosocial work characteristics of home care workers that may affect their occupational safety and health and (2) creating survey measures that overcome barriers posed by language, low literacy, and cultural differences. We pursued these aims in four phases: (Phase 1) Six focus groups to identify the psychosocial work characteristics affecting the home care workers' occupational safety and health; (Phase 2) Selection of questionnaire items (i.e., questions or statements to assess the target construct) and first round of cognitive interviews (n = 30) to refine the items in an iterative process; (Phase 3) Item revision and second round of cognitive interviews (n = 11); (Phase 4) Quantitative pilot test to ensure the scales' reliability and validity across three language groups (English, Spanish, and Chinese; total n = 404). Analysis of the data from each phase informed the nature of subsequent phases. This iterative process ensured that survey measures not only met the reliability and validity criteria across groups, but were also meaningful to home care workers. This complex process is necessary when conducting research with nontraditional and multilingual worker populations.

  11. The use of deconvolution techniques to identify the fundamental mixing characteristics of urban drainage structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovin, V R; Guymer, I; Chappell, M J; Hattersley, J G

    2010-01-01

    Mixing and dispersion processes affect the timing and concentration of contaminants transported within urban drainage systems. Hence, methods of characterising the mixing effects of specific hydraulic structures are of interest to drainage network modellers. Previous research, focusing on surcharged manholes, utilised the first-order Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) and Aggregated Dead Zone (ADZ) models to characterise dispersion. However, although systematic variations in travel time as a function of discharge and surcharge depth have been identified, the first order ADE and ADZ models do not provide particularly good fits to observed manhole data, which means that the derived parameter values are not independent of the upstream temporal concentration profile. An alternative, more robust, approach utilises the system's Cumulative Residence Time Distribution (CRTD), and the solute transport characteristics of a surcharged manhole have been shown to be characterised by just two dimensionless CRTDs, one for pre- and the other for post-threshold surcharge depths. Although CRTDs corresponding to instantaneous upstream injections can easily be generated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, the identification of CRTD characteristics from non-instantaneous and noisy laboratory data sets has been hampered by practical difficulties. This paper shows how a deconvolution approach derived from systems theory may be applied to identify the CRTDs associated with urban drainage structures.

  12. Elements of person knowledge: Episodic recollection helps us to identify people but not to recognize their faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I

    2016-12-01

    Faces automatically draw attention, allowing rapid assessments of personality and likely behaviour. How we respond to people is, however, highly dependent on whether we know who they are. According to face processing models person knowledge comes from an extended neural system that includes structures linked to episodic memory. Here we use scalp recorded brain signals to demonstrate the specific role of episodic memory processes during face processing. In two experiments we recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) while participants made identify, familiar or unknown responses to famous faces. ERPs revealed neural signals previously associated with episodic recollection for identify but not familiar faces. These findings provide novel evidence suggesting that recollection is central to face processing, providing one source of person knowledge that can be used to moderate the initial impressions gleaned from the core neural system that supports face recognition. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying Risk Factors for the Prediction of Hospital Readmission among Older Persons with Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Renee Annette

    Older persons (55 years and older) with cardiovascular disease are at increased risk for hospital readmission when compared to other subgroups of our population. This issue presents an economic problem, a concern for the quality and type of care provided, and an urgent need to implement innovative strategies designed to reduce the rising cost of…

  14. Personality Profiles Identify Depressive Symptoms over Ten Years? A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Josefsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between temperament and character inventory (TCI profiles and depressive symptoms. Personality profiles are useful, because personality traits may have different effects on depressive symptoms when combined with different combinations of other traits. Participants were from the population-based Young Finns study with repeated measurements in 1997, 2001, and 2007 (=1402 to 1902. TCI was administered in 1997 and mild depressive symptoms (modified Beck’s depression inventory, BDI were reported in 1997, 2001, and 2007. BDI-II was also administered in 2007. We found that high harm avoidance and low self-directedness related strongly to depressive symptoms. In addition, sensitive (NHR and fanatical people (ScT were especially vulnerable to depressive symptoms. high novelty seeking and reward dependence increased depressive symptoms when harm avoidance was high. These associations were very similar in cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Personality profiles help in understanding the complex associations between depressive symptoms and personality.

  15. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  16. Relationship Between Changes in Workplace Bullying Status and the Reporting of Personality Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Høgh, Annie; Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a shift in work-related bullying status, from being non-bullied to being bullied or vice versa, was associated with changes in reporting of personality characteristics. Methods: Data on bullying and personality (neuroticism, extraversion, and sense of coherence) were...... collected in three waves approximately 2 years apart (N1/44947). Using a within-subjects design, personality change scores that followed altered bullying status were evaluated with one-sample t tests. Sensitivity analyses targeted depressive symptoms. Results: Shifts from non-bullied to frequently bullied...... were associated with increased neuroticism or decreased sense of coherence manageability scores. Shifts from bullied to non-bullied were associated with decreasing neuroticism and increasing extraversion scores, or increasing sense of coherence meaningfulness and comprehensibility scores. Excluding...

  17. Personality characteristics of patients with psychosis – perception of self and others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Perception of Self and Other People Questionnaire has been used for assessment of differences between psychotic and other psychiatric patients (including healthy persons according to the theory of disturbances of self and object representations. Results show that the questionnaire, which has been constructed on the basis of Kernberg's criteria for identity diffusion, has two dimensions: the first describes perception of self and primarily separates patients with (borderline personality disorders from the healthy controls. The second one describes quality of relationships and characterises patients with psychosis, mostly schizophrenics, which have more schizoid characteristics than other patients and healthy persons. The major weakness of the study lies in the fact that usage of self-assessment inventories in psychiatry is limited because of the very nature of psychiatric illnesses.

  18. Personality and language characteristics in parents from multiple-incidence autism families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piven, J; Palmer, P; Landa, R; Santangelo, S; Jacobi, D; Childress, D

    1997-07-25

    Several studies have suggested that the genetic liability for autism may be expressed in non-autistic relatives of autistic probands, in behavioral characteristics that are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. We employ a variety of direct assessment approaches to examine both personality and language in parents ascertained through having two autistic children (multiple-incidence autism parents) and parents of Down syndrome probands. Multiple-incidence autism parents had higher rates of particular personality characteristics (rigidity, aloofness, hypersensitivity to criticism, and anxiousness), speech and pragmatic language deficits, and more limited friendships than parents in the comparison group. The implications of these findings for future genetic studies of autism are discussed.

  19. Identifying play characteristics of pre-school children with developmental coordination disorder via parental questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Waissman, Pola; Diamond, Gary W

    2017-06-01

    Motor coordination deficits that characterize children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affect their quality of participation. The aim of the current study was to identify play characteristics of young children with DCD, compared to those of children with typical development in three dimensions: activity and participation, environmental factors and children's impairments. Sixty-four children, aged four to six years, participated. Thirty were diagnosed as having DCD; the remaining 34 children were age, gender and socioeconomic level matched controls with typical development. The children were evaluated by the M-ABC. In addition, their parents completed a demographic questionnaire, the Children's Activity Scale for Parents (CHAS-P), the Children's Leisure Assessment Scale for preschoolers (CLASS-Pre), and My Child's Play Questionnaire (MCP). Children with DCD performed significantly poorer in each of the four play activity and participation domains: variety, frequency, sociability, and preference (CLASS-Pre). Furthermore, their environmental characteristics were significantly different (MCP). They displayed significantly inferior performance (impairments) in interpersonal interaction and executive functioning during play, in comparison to controls (MCP). Moreover, the children's motor and executive control as reflected in their daily function as well as their activities of daily living (ADL) performance level, contributed to the prediction of their global play participation. The results indicate that the use of both the CLASS-Pre and the MCP questionnaires enables the identification of unique play characteristics of pre-school children with DCD via parents' reports. A better insight into these characteristics may contribute to theoretical knowledge and clinical practice to improve the children's daily participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č.

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism. PMID:28197113

  1. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism.

  2. Personality characteristics of women before and after recovery from an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L; Strober, Michael; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura; Johnson, Craig; Devlin, Bernie; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Kaplan, Allan S; Woodside, D Blake; Crow, Scott; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Keel, Pamela K; Berrettini, Wade H; Plotnicov, Katherine; Pollice, Christine; Lilenfeld, Lisa R; Kaye, Walter H

    2004-11-01

    Previous studies of personality characteristics in women with eating disorders primarily have focused on women who are acutely ill. This study compares personality characteristics among women who are ill with eating disorders, recovered from eating disorders, and those without eating or other Axis I disorder pathology. Female participants were assessed for personality characteristics using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): 122 with anorexia nervosa (AN; 77 ill, 45 recovered), 279 with bulimia nervosa (BN; 194 ill, 85 recovered), 267 with lifetime histories of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa (AN + BN; 194 ill, 73 recovered), 63 with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; 31 ill, 32 recovered), and 507 without eating or Axis I disorder pathology. Women ill with all types of eating disorders exhibited several TCI score differences from control women, particularly in the areas of novelty-seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Interestingly, women recovered from eating disorders reported higher levels of harm avoidance and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness scores than did normal control women. Women with eating disorders in both the ill and recovered state show higher levels of harm avoidance and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness scores than normal control women. Although findings suggest that disturbances may be trait-related and contribute to the disorders' pathogenesis, additional research with more representative community controls, rather than our pre-screened, normal controls, is needed to confirm these impressions.

  3. Demographic and Personal Characteristics of Male and Female Chairs in Academic Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Marley; Pederson, Aderonke; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Despite the strong representation of female psychiatrists in residency and early-career positions, the number of female faculty sharply decreases in tenured or executive leadership positions. Why there exists a marked change in representation at the level of senior leadership within academic psychiatry is unclear. The authors investigated the causative factors contributing to this observation and gathered information about the personal characteristics of women in executive leadership roles. The authors surveyed psychiatry chairs at academic institutions. They identified all female chairs and randomly selected a group of male chairs to serve as a control group. The survey assessed perceived barriers, strengths, and weaknesses and differences in demographics and leadership styles between female and male chairs. Ten percent of psychiatry chairs were female. Male chairs were more likely than female chairs to head large departments (p = 0.02, confidence interval (CI) -17.1-69.1) and had a higher H-index (p = 0.001, CI 6.6-37.2). Female chairs were more likely than male chairs to perceive barriers in their career development (p = 0.01, CI 0.7-2.2), citing little or no mentorship (p = 0.04), gender discrimination (p = 0.0001), and family obligations (p = 0.001) more often. Academic institutions must incorporate programs to decrease barriers and work to achieve equitable representation of women in upper-level leadership positions. Moreover, academic medicine must evolve to cultivate a family-friendly environment that successfully supports both genders.

  4. ?When ?Bad? is ?Good??: Identifying Personal Communication and Sentiment in Drug-Related Tweets

    OpenAIRE

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Chen, Lu; Lamy, Francois R; Carlson, Robert G; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Background To harness the full potential of social media for epidemiological surveillance of drug abuse trends, the field needs a greater level of automation in processing and analyzing social media content. Objectives The objective of the study is to describe the development of supervised machine-learning techniques for the eDrugTrends platform to automatically classify tweets by type/source of communication (personal, official/media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) expre...

  5. Constraint based modeling of metabolism allows finding metabolic cancer hallmarks and identifying personalized therapeutic windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordel, Sergio

    2018-04-13

    In order to choose optimal personalized anticancer treatments, transcriptomic data should be analyzed within the frame of biological networks. The best known human biological network (in terms of the interactions between its different components) is metabolism. Cancer cells have been known to have specific metabolic features for a long time and currently there is a growing interest in characterizing new cancer specific metabolic hallmarks. In this article it is presented a method to find personalized therapeutic windows using RNA-seq data and Genome Scale Metabolic Models. This method is implemented in the python library, pyTARG. Our predictions showed that the most anticancer selective (affecting 27 out of 34 considered cancer cell lines and only 1 out of 6 healthy mesenchymal stem cell lines) single metabolic reactions are those involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Excluding cholesterol biosynthesis, all the considered cell lines can be selectively affected by targeting different combinations (from 1 to 5 reactions) of only 18 metabolic reactions, which suggests that a small subset of drugs or siRNAs combined in patient specific manners could be at the core of metabolism based personalized treatments.

  6. Internet Addiction Disorder: Personality characteristics and risk of pathological overuse in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munno, Donato; Cappellin, Flora; Saroldi, Marta; Bechon, Elisa; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Passera, Roberto; Zullo, Giuseppina

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have investigated Internet Addiction (IA) in adolescents in relation to personality characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine whether personality differences exist between adolescents with problematic/pathological Internet use and those with normal Internet use. Our hypothesis was that certain psychopathological personality traits may predispose to the development of maladaptive Internet use. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) were administered to a sample of 224 high school students. Analysis of IAT scores showed that 24.6% of the students had problematic Internet use and 1.6% had IA. Comparison of the MMPI-A scores between subjects with normal Internet use and those with problematic or pathological use based on the IAT score showed that some subscales, including schizophrenia and bizarre mentation, were strongly associated with problematic/pathological Internet use. Also, male sex, attending a vocational school, and unhappy childhood were found to be risk factors for IA. Certain psychological dimensions regarding mood and the psychotic area, as well as low self-esteem, family, school and conduct problems could represent risk factors. Taken together, our data suggest a personality profile, with problems at various levels in subjects with problematic or pathological Internet use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Identifying persistent and characteristic features in firearm tool marks on cartridge cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Daniel; Soons, Johannes; Thompson, Robert; Song, John

    2017-12-01

    Recent concerns about subjectivity in forensic firearm identification have motivated the development of algorithms to compare firearm tool marks that are imparted on ammunition and to generate quantitative measures of similarity. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that identifies impressed tool marks on a cartridge case that are both consistent between firings and contribute strongly to a surface similarity metric. The result is a representation of the tool mark topography that emphasizes both significant and persistent features across firings. This characteristic surface map is useful for understanding the variability and persistence of the tool marks created by a firearm and can provide improved discrimination between the comparison scores of samples fired from the same firearm and the scores of samples fired from different firearms. The algorithm also provides a convenient method for visualizing areas of similarity that may be useful in providing quantitative support for visual comparisons by trained examiners.

  8. Correlation Analysis of Personality Characteristics of Children with TIC Disorder with Family Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; WANG Liqun; MA Chunxia; MA Lixian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality characteristics of children with tic disorders and their relationship with family factors.Methods Sixty cases of children with tic disorders diagnosed in our hospital were selected as the case group and 65 cases of normal children were selected as the control group.The children of two groups were assessed using Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ),Family Environment Scale (FES-CV) and general situation questionnaire of family (GSQ),respectively.The scores of EPQ personality characteristics,FES-CV and GSQ scores were compared for the children in the two groups.The Person correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between personality scores of children in case group and family environment factors.Results The general situation questionnaire results showed that there was significant statistically difference in parenting style,parental education level and family types of the children between case group and control group (P < 0.05);EPQ results showed that the neuroticism and psychoticism scores of children in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P< 0.05) and the lying degree scores in the control group were significantly higher than those in the case group (P< 0.05);FES-CV results showed that the family cohesion scores of the case group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05),and the family conflict scores in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05).The Person correlation analysis results indicated that the psychoticism score was negatively correlated with the score of family cohesion (P<0.05),and positively correlated with family conflict (P<0.05),while the neuroticism score was positively correlated with family conflict score (P<0.05).Conclusion The children with tic disorders have significant personality deviation compared to the normal children,and the personality deviation degree is

  9. Usefulness of a single item in a mail survey to identify persons with possible dementia: a new strategy for finding high-risk elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Kathleen K; Maslow, Katie; Perrin, Nancy A; Crooks, Valerie; DellaPenna, Richard; Kuang, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of elderly persons who responded positively to a question about "severe memory problems" on a mailed health questionnaire yet were missed by the existing health risk algorithm to identify vulnerable elderly persons. A total of 324,471 respondents aged 65 and older completed a primary care health status questionnaire that gathered clinical information to quickly identify members with functional impairment, multiple chronic diseases, and higher medical care needs. The respondents were part of a large, integrated, not-for-profit managed care organization that implemented a model of care for elders using a uniform risk identification method across eight regions. Respondents with severe memory problems were compared to general respondents by morbidity, geriatric syndromes, functional impairments, service utilization, sensory impairments, sociodemographic characteristics, and activities of daily living. Of the respondents, 13,902 persons (4.3%) reported severe memory problems; the existing health risk algorithm missed 47.1% of these. When severe memory problems were included in the risk algorithm, identification increased from 11% to 13%, and risk prevalence by age groups ranged from 4.4% to 40.5%; one third had severe memory problems, a finding that was fairly consistent within age groups (28.4% to 36.5%). A question about severe memory problems should be incorporated into population risk-identification techniques. While false-negative rates are unknown, the false-positive rate of a self-report mail survey appears to be minimal. Persons reporting severe memory problems clearly have multiple comorbidities, higher prevalence of geriatric syndromes, and greater functional and sensory impairments.

  10. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Personality Characteristics in Migrainous Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Reza Sabahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organization reports described migraine as one of the 4 most disabling chronic medical disorders. A day with migraine is as disabling as a day with quadriplegia, schizophrenia, or dementia in who is view 87% of people with migraine has some degree of disability. Migraine headaches are associated with psychological factors and personality characteristics. This study compares the personality characteristics of migraine patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and without ADHD. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients with migraine were evaluated in this cross sectional study with simple sampling method. All participants were assessed with semi structured clinical interview, adult ADHD self-report scale (ASRS and Millone clinical multiaxial inventory questionnaire. The migraine patients were divided into two groups, with and without ADHD. The correlation of variables was tested by χ2 test and t-test with 0.05 significance with the use of software SPSS-20. Results: Our participants were 80% female, 56% married and 36.2% with at least graduation from high school. Patients with migraine and ADHD were younger and their first headache experience had occurred in lower age compared with non-ADHD patients (p<0.05. In current study, we showed that there is a significant correlation between ADHD and depressive and independent personality traits and dysthymic clinical syndrome in migraine patients (p<0.05. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that personality characteristics in migraine patients may be affected by some other mental disorders such as ADHD. These findings might be helpful in early treatment and prevention of dysfunctioning in patients with migraine.

  11. Personality, Executive Control, and Neurobiological Characteristics Associated with Different Forms of Risky Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Brown

    Full Text Available Road crashes represent a huge burden on global health. Some drivers are prone to repeated episodes of risky driving (RD and are over-represented in crashes and related morbidity. However, their characteristics are heterogeneous, hampering development of targeted intervention strategies. This study hypothesized that distinct personality, cognitive, and neurobiological processes are associated with the type of RD behaviours these drivers predominantly engage in.Four age-matched groups of adult (19-39 years males were recruited: 1 driving while impaired recidivists (DWI, n = 36; 2 non-alcohol reckless drivers (SPEED, n = 28; 3 drivers with a mixed RD profile (MIXED, n = 27; and 4 low-risk control drivers (CTL, n = 47. Their sociodemographic, criminal history, driving behaviour (by questionnaire and simulation performance, personality (Big Five traits, impulsivity, reward sensitivity, cognitive (disinhibition, decision making, behavioural risk taking, and neurobiological (cortisol stress response characteristics were gathered and contrasted.Compared to controls, group SPEED showed greater sensation seeking, disinhibition, disadvantageous decision making, and risk taking. Group MIXED exhibited more substance misuse, and antisocial, sensation seeking and reward sensitive personality features. Group DWI showed greater disinhibition and more severe alcohol misuse, and compared to the other RD groups, the lowest level of risk taking when sober. All RD groups exhibited less cortisol increase in response to stress compared to controls.Each RD group exhibited a distinct personality and cognitive profile, which was consistent with stimulation seeking in group SPEED, fearlessness in group MIXED, and poor behavioural regulation associated with alcohol in group DWI. As these group differences were uniformly accompanied by blunted cortisol stress responses, they may reflect the disparate behavioural consequences of dysregulation of the stress system. In sum, RD

  12. What should we be selecting for? A systematic approach for determining which personal characteristics to assess for during admissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlon Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admission committees are responsible for creating fair, defensible, reliable, and valid processes that assess those attributes considered important for professional success. There is evidence for the continuing use of academic ability as a selection criterion for health professional schools; however, there is little evidence for the reliability and validity of measures currently in place to assess personal characteristics. The Ontario Veterinary College (OVC initiated a review of its admissions criteria in order to implement an evidence-based method to determine which characteristics veterinary stakeholders consider important to assess for admission. Methods Eleven characteristics were identified by the OVC Admissions Committee and a survey was sent to all licensed veterinarians in Ontario (n=4,068, OVC students (n=450, and OVC faculty, interns and residents (n=192. A paired comparison method was used to identify the relative rank order of the characteristics, and multivariate analysis of variance with post hoc analyses was used to determine between group differences in the returned survey data. Results Surveys were returned from 1,312 participants (27.86% response rate; female 59.70%. The relative rank of the characteristics was reasonably consistent among participant groups, with ethical behaviour, sound judgment, communication, and critical and creative thinking being ranked as the top four. However, the importance of certain characteristics like communication and empathy were perceived differently by groups. For instance, females scored communication (F(1, 1289 = 20.24, p d = .26 and empathy (F(1, 1289 = 55.41, p d = 0.42 significantly higher than males, while males scored knowledge of profession (F(1, 1289 = 12.81, p d = 0.20, leadership (F(1, 1289 = 10.28, p = .001, d = 0.18, and sound judgment (F(1, 1289 = 13.56, p d = 0.21 significantly higher than females. Conclusions The data from the paired comparison method

  13. Premorbid Personality Characteristics in Alzheimer’s Disease: An Exploratory Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malinchoc

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Linking data from a case–control study of Alzheimer’s disease with data from a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI outpatient study, we identified 13 Alzheimer's disease cases and 16 controls for case–control comparison. The mean time between personality testing and onset of Alzheimer's disease (or corresponding age for controls was 13 years in cases and 14 years in controls. Alzheimer's disease cases, but not the controls, had scores significantly greater than the normative reference on MMPI scales measuring Social Introversion (p = 0.05, and Pessimism (p = 0.01. When compared to controls, Alzheimer's disease cases had significantly greater scores on the Social Introversion scale (p = 0.03. Despite the small sample size and some design limitations of this exploratory study, our findings may suggest that subjects who score higher on these personality scales have a greater risk of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. A Research on the Inclinations of Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurship Personality Characteristics of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan YÜKSEL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship can be defined as a capability that realizes the opportunities created by environment paradigms and that transforms these opportunities into projects, and that live these projects and transfer all these as well as produce richness. In this process, there are a great many characteristics for successful entrepreneurs. In addition, the spirit of entrepreneurship can be available as a genetic code, families, jobs, environments as well as education which can be regarded as a significant component for the development of entrepreneurship spirit. In this study, the main objective is to analyze the relationship between entrepreneurship personality characteristics and entrepreneurship inclinations of the students in the department of Business Management. Therefore, a questionnaire was conducted on the students in the department of Business Management to test the hypothesis revealed. As a result of the study, it was determined that innovation, sensitivity, and opportunism are the pioneers of the entrepreneurship characteristics for the students while struggling against stress is the least level of characteristic for entrepreneurship. At the same time, in the study, the relationship was found out between entrepreneurship characteristics and gender, and also between participants’ family occupations and their entrepreneurship characteristics.

  15. Identifying protein complex by integrating characteristic of core-attachment into dynamic PPI network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjun Shen

    Full Text Available How to identify protein complex is an important and challenging task in proteomics. It would make great contribution to our knowledge of molecular mechanism in cell life activities. However, the inherent organization and dynamic characteristic of cell system have rarely been incorporated into the existing algorithms for detecting protein complexes because of the limitation of protein-protein interaction (PPI data produced by high throughput techniques. The availability of time course gene expression profile enables us to uncover the dynamics of molecular networks and improve the detection of protein complexes. In order to achieve this goal, this paper proposes a novel algorithm DCA (Dynamic Core-Attachment. It detects protein-complex core comprising of continually expressed and highly connected proteins in dynamic PPI network, and then the protein complex is formed by including the attachments with high adhesion into the core. The integration of core-attachment feature into the dynamic PPI network is responsible for the superiority of our algorithm. DCA has been applied on two different yeast dynamic PPI networks and the experimental results show that it performs significantly better than the state-of-the-art techniques in terms of prediction accuracy, hF-measure and statistical significance in biology. In addition, the identified complexes with strong biological significance provide potential candidate complexes for biologists to validate.

  16. Bridging Social Circles: Need for Cognition, Prejudicial Judgments, and Personal Social Network Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru L. Curşeu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Various factors pertaining to the social context (availability of plausible social contacts as well as personality traits influence the emergence of social ties that ultimately compose one’s personal social network. We build on a situational selection model to argue that personality traits influence the cognitive processing of social cues that in turn influences the preference for particular social ties. More specifically, we use a cross-lagged design to test a mediation model explaining the effects of need for cognition (NFC on egocentric network characteristics. We used the data available in the LISS panel, in which a probabilistic sample of Dutch participants were asked to fill in surveys annually. We tested our model on data collected in three successive years and our results show that people scoring high in NFC tend to revolve in information-rich egocentric networks, characterized by high demographic diversity, high interpersonal dissimilarity, and high average education. The results also show that the effect of NFC on social network characteristics is mediated by non-prejudicial judgments.

  17. Using the SAPAS to identify risk for personality disorders among psychiatric outpatients in India: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Simeon; Podder, Priyanka; Ram, Jai Ranjan; Barnicot, Kirsten; Sen, Piyal

    2018-02-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are common among psychiatric outpatients and are associated with increased morbidity and worse treatment outcomes. Epidemiological research conducted among this population in Asian countries is limited, reflecting a significant gap in the current literature. One barrier to this research is the lack of appropriate screening tools. The current research assessed the feasibility of using the SAPAS (Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale) screening tool to identify individuals at high risk of PD in an Indian psychiatric outpatient population and provides an initial estimate of PD prevalence by using a validated diagnostic interview, the ICD-10 International Personality Disorder Examination. The findings suggest that whilst use of the SAPAS was feasible, acceptable to patients and led to clinically useful findings, when using the recommended cut-off score of 4, the SAPAS largely overdiagnoses the risk for PD in psychiatric outpatients in India (positive predictive value = 26.3%). The estimated prevalence of personality disorder in the sample was 11.1%, based on administering the International Personality Disorder Examination diagnostic interview to high-risk patients scoring 4 and above on the SAPAS, which is higher than previous estimates for this population and still likely to be an underestimation. Future studies should translate the measure into Bengali and evaluate its sensitivity and specificity at different cut-off points in order to optimize its use in Indian populations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [The correlation between personality characteristics and burnout syndrome in emergency ambulance workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmueller, A; Zavgorodnii, I; Zavgorodnia, N; Kapustnik, W; Boeckelmann, I

    The work in Emergency Medical Ambulance Service is one of the professions, which is accompanied by high psychological and emotional stress. The aim was to determine the risk of professional burnout syndrome of Emergency Medical Ambulance Service staff and the relationship between burnout syndrome and personality. Ninety-seven doctors (57 women and 40 men, aged 37.0±12.21) of Emergency Medical Ambulance Service were interviewed using the MBI-GS questionnaire and the Freiburg personality questionnaire (FPI). Correlation and regression analysis were used. Nine (11.5%) of respondents had a risk of burnout syndrome and 28 (35.9%) had some symptoms. In the group, aged 45 years and older, the risk of burnout syndrome was not identified. The staff of Emergency Medical Ambulance Service is characterized by stable personality features. It is necessary to identify the prevalence of burnout syndrome and also to identity the causes for its prevention and development of measures on the increase of personal stress resilience.

  19. Using Prayer as an Intervention with Clients Who Are Substance Abusing and Addicted and Who Self-Identify Personal Faith in God and Prayer as Recovery Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Watts, Richard E.; Guerra, Norma S.; Hsieh, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how the authors use prayer with clients who self-identify their personal faith in God and who have used prayer as a helpful recovery agent or who believe prayer would be helpful to their personal recovery.

  20. "When 'Bad' is 'Good'": Identifying Personal Communication and Sentiment in Drug-Related Tweets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Chen, Lu; Lamy, Francois R; Carlson, Robert G; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit

    2016-10-24

    To harness the full potential of social media for epidemiological surveillance of drug abuse trends, the field needs a greater level of automation in processing and analyzing social media content. The objective of the study is to describe the development of supervised machine-learning techniques for the eDrugTrends platform to automatically classify tweets by type/source of communication (personal, official/media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) expressed in cannabis- and synthetic cannabinoid-related tweets. Tweets were collected using Twitter streaming Application Programming Interface and filtered through the eDrugTrends platform using keywords related to cannabis, marijuana edibles, marijuana concentrates, and synthetic cannabinoids. After creating coding rules and assessing intercoder reliability, a manually labeled data set (N=4000) was developed by coding several batches of randomly selected subsets of tweets extracted from the pool of 15,623,869 collected by eDrugTrends (May-November 2015). Out of 4000 tweets, 25% (1000/4000) were used to build source classifiers and 75% (3000/4000) were used for sentiment classifiers. Logistic Regression (LR), Naive Bayes (NB), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were used to train the classifiers. Source classification (n=1000) tested Approach 1 that used short URLs, and Approach 2 where URLs were expanded and included into the bag-of-words analysis. For sentiment classification, Approach 1 used all tweets, regardless of their source/type (n=3000), while Approach 2 applied sentiment classification to personal communication tweets only (2633/3000, 88%). Multiclass and binary classification tasks were examined, and machine-learning sentiment classifier performance was compared with Valence Aware Dictionary for sEntiment Reasoning (VADER), a lexicon and rule-based method. The performance of each classifier was assessed using 5-fold cross validation that calculated average F-scores. One-tailed t test was

  1. Internet Addiction Based on Personality Characteristics of High School Students in Kerman, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Bibi Eshrat; Abedini, Yasamin; Kheradmand, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background The new phenomenon of Internet addiction among teenagers and young adults is one of the modern addictions in industrial and post-industrial societies. The purpose of this research was to predict the Internet addiction based on the personality characteristics of high school students in Kerman. Methods This research was a descriptive correlational study. The statistical population included 538 male and female students in the second grade of high school in Kerman during 2010. The subjects were randomly selected by multistage clustering. Data was collected by two questionnaires including the five-factor Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Internet dependency questionnaire. The data was analyzed using ANOVA test and multivariable regression analysis. Findings The findings showed a significant relationship between the personality trait of emotional stability and academic fields, i.e. students with higher emotional stability experience less negative emotions when confronting with problems. Therefore, it is less likely for them to alleviate the negative emotions by the extreme and obsessed usage of the Internet. In addition, it appears that the students with high extroversion scores prefer social, face to face interactions with other people to interaction with the virtual world. Conversely, more introvert students avoid interactions with other people due to their shyness. Thus, they communicate with the virtual world more. Conclusion Three personality traits of loyalty, emotional stability, and extroversion are the most significant predictors of Internet addiction in high school students. PMID:24494121

  2. Internet addiction based on personality characteristics of high school students in kerman, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Bibi Eshrat; Abedini, Yasamin; Kheradmand, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The new phenomenon of Internet addiction among teenagers and young adults is one of the modern addictions in industrial and post-industrial societies. The purpose of this research was to predict the Internet addiction based on the personality characteristics of high school students in Kerman. This research was a descriptive correlational study. The statistical population included 538 male and female students in the second grade of high school in Kerman during 2010. The subjects were randomly selected by multistage clustering. Data was collected by two questionnaires including the five-factor Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Internet dependency questionnaire. The data was analyzed using ANOVA test and multivariable regression analysis. The findings showed a significant relationship between the personality trait of emotional stability and academic fields, i.e. students with higher emotional stability experience less negative emotions when confronting with problems. Therefore, it is less likely for them to alleviate the negative emotions by the extreme and obsessed usage of the Internet. In addition, it appears that the students with high extroversion scores prefer social, face to face interactions with other people to interaction with the virtual world. Conversely, more introvert students avoid interactions with other people due to their shyness. Thus, they communicate with the virtual world more. Three personality traits of loyalty, emotional stability, and extroversion are the most significant predictors of Internet addiction in high school students.

  3. Job Satisfaction of People With Intellectual Disability: Associations With Job Characteristics and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment support workers, using structured questionnaires adapted from well-established instruments. Job resources and age were positively associated with job satisfaction. Job demands and personality showed no significant direct associations with job satisfaction. Moderation analyses showed that for people with ID with high conscientiousness, enhanced job demands were associated with reduced job satisfaction, which was not the case for those with low conscientiousness. This study emphasizes the importance of job design.

  4. Identifying a Computer Forensics Expert: A Study to Measure the Characteristics of Forensic Computer Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Carlton

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The usage of digital evidence from electronic devices has been rapidly expanding within litigation, and along with this increased usage, the reliance upon forensic computer examiners to acquire, analyze, and report upon this evidence is also rapidly growing. This growing demand for forensic computer examiners raises questions concerning the selection of individuals qualified to perform this work. While courts have mechanisms for qualifying witnesses that provide testimony based on scientific data, such as digital data, the qualifying criteria covers a wide variety of characteristics including, education, experience, training, professional certifications, or other special skills. In this study, we compare task performance responses from forensic computer examiners with an expert review panel and measure the relationship with the characteristics of the examiners to their quality responses. The results of this analysis provide insight into identifying forensic computer examiners that provide high-quality responses. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. The personal and workplace characteristics of uninsured expatriate males in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamis, Abdulwahab; Cosgrove, Peter; Mohamed, Gamal; Hassan, Amir

    2017-01-19

    A major concern by the health decision makers in Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) countries is the burden of financing healthcare. While other GCC countries have been examining different options, Saudi Arabia has endeavoured to reform its private healthcare system and control expatriate access to government resources through the provision of Compulsory Employment-Based Health Insurance (CEBHI). The objective of this research was to investigate, in a natural setting, the characteristics of uninsured expatriates based on their personal and workplace characteristics. Using a cross-sectional survey, data were collected from a sample of 4,575 male expatriate employees using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize all variables, and the dependent variable was tabulated by access to health insurance and tested using Chi-square. Logistic analysis was performed, guided by the conceptual model. Of survey respondents, 30% were either uninsured or not yet enrolled in a health insurance scheme, 79.4% of these uninsured expatriates did not have valid reasons for being uninsured, with Iqama renewal accounting for 20.6% of the uninsured. The study found both personal and workplace characteristics were important factors influencing health insurance status. Compared with single expatriates, married expatriates (accompanied by their families) are 30% less likely to be uninsured. Moreover, workers occupying technical jobs requiring high school level of education or above were two-thirds more likely to be insured compared to unskilled workers. With regard to firm size, respondents employed in large companies (more than 50 employees) are more likely to be insured compared to those employed in small companies (less than ten employees). In relation to business type, the study found that compared to workers from the agricultural sector, industrial/manufacturing, construction and trading sectors, workers were, respectively, 76%, 85

  6. Capturing conflict experiences : Five methods for identifying intra-personal concern conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozkaramanli, D.; Ozcan Vieira, E.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts from the proposition that concern conflicts can be powerful starting points for user-centered design processes. Our focus is on the challenge to identify conflicting concerns that are both inspiring and relevant in the context of use, or in the user’s general context of life.

  7. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2018-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in prospective research. The study included Rare Patient Voice panel participants. The web-based survey included the Reserve-Building Measure with one-week re-test, measures of quality of life (QOL) and well-being (PROMIS General Health; NeuroQOL Cognitive Function and Positive Affect & Well-Being short-forms; Ryff Environmental Mastery subscale); and the Big Five Inventory-10 personality measure. Classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses investigated psychometric characteristics of the Reserve-Building Measure. This North American sample (n = 592) included both patients and caregivers [mean age = 44, SD 19)]. Psychometric analyses revealed distinct subscales measuring current reserve-building activities (Active in the World, Games, Outdoors, Creative, Religious/Spiritual, Exercise, Inner Life, Shopping/Cooking, Passive Media Consumption,), past reserve-building activities (Childhood Activities, Achievement), and reserve-related person-factors (Perseverance, Current and Past Social Support, and Work Value). Test-retest stability (n = 101) was moderately high for 11 of 15 subscales (ICC range 0.78-0.99); four were below 0.59 indicating a need for further refinement. IRT analyses supported the item functioning of all subscales. Correlational analyses suggest the measure's subscales tap distinct constructs (range r = 0.11-0.46) which are not redundant with QOL, well-being, or personality (range r = 0.11-0.48). The Reserve-Building Measure provides a measure of activities and person-factors related to reserve that may potentially be useful in prospective research.

  8. The characteristics of decision making, potential to take risks, and personality of college students with Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsiao, Sigmund; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yang, Ming-Jen; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2010-01-30

    This study aimed to identify risk factors involved in Internet addiction. A total of 216 college students (132 males and 84 females) were given the following: (a) the diagnostic interview for Internet addiction, (b) the Iowa gambling test for decision-making deficits, (c) the Balloon Analog Risk Test (BART) to assess risk-taking tendencies, and (d) the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) for personality characteristics. The results revealed the following: (a) 49% of males and 17% of females were addicted, (b) the addicted students tended to select more advantageous cards in the last 40 cards of the Iowa test, indicating better decision making, (c) no difference was found for the BART, indicating that addicted subjects were not more likely to engage in risk-taking behaviors and (d) TPQ scores showed lower reward dependence (RD) and higher novelty seeking (NS) for the addicts. Their higher performance on the Iowa gambling test differentiates the Internet addiction group from the substance use and pathologic gambling groups that have been shown to be deficient in decision making on the Iowa test. Thus, students that fit these characteristics should be closely monitored to prevent Internet addiction.

  9. Rorschach Evaluation of Personality and Emotional Characteristics in Adolescents With Migraine Versus Epilepsy and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Balottin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature examining primary headache, including migraine, in adolescents, has pointed out the key role played by a wide range of psychiatric disorders in reducing the patients’ quality of life. Moreover, pioneering studies showed that preexisting personality characteristics, specific emotion regulation styles and psychological-psychiatric difficulties are likely to increase the risk of the onset, maintenance, and outcome of headache. Still personality issues in migraine have been poorly studied, in particular in children and adolescents. This study aims, therefore, to investigate the specific characteristics of personality, and in particular emotion regulation and coping strategies, in adolescent with migraine, comparing them with age-matched patients with idiopathic epilepsy and healthy adolescents. 52 adolescents (age: 11–17 were assessed using a multi-method test battery, which included a self-report questionnaire (the youth self-report, a proxy-report (child behavior checklist along with a projective personality test, the Rorschach Test, administered and scored according to the Exner comprehensive system. The results showed specific personality characteristics in adolescents with migraine, revealing a marked difficulty in modulating and regulating affections through thoughts and reflections, resorting instead to impulsive acts and maladaptive coping strategies, thus revealing a vague and immature perception of reality. Differently from adolescents belonging to the general population, but similarly to patients with epilepsy, adolescents with migraine perceive a high situational stress, probably related to the condition of suffering from chronic disease. They have, therefore, a lower self-consideration and self-esteem along with a poorer insight regarding themselves as well as the relations with others. In line with previous findings, these preliminary results suggest the need for further research on ample samples, using also

  10. Rorschach Evaluation of Personality and Emotional Characteristics in Adolescents With Migraine Versus Epilepsy and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balottin, Laura; Mannarini, Stefania; Candeloro, Daniela; Mita, Alda; Chiappedi, Matteo; Balottin, Umberto

    2018-01-01

    The literature examining primary headache, including migraine, in adolescents, has pointed out the key role played by a wide range of psychiatric disorders in reducing the patients' quality of life. Moreover, pioneering studies showed that preexisting personality characteristics, specific emotion regulation styles and psychological-psychiatric difficulties are likely to increase the risk of the onset, maintenance, and outcome of headache. Still personality issues in migraine have been poorly studied, in particular in children and adolescents. This study aims, therefore, to investigate the specific characteristics of personality, and in particular emotion regulation and coping strategies, in adolescent with migraine, comparing them with age-matched patients with idiopathic epilepsy and healthy adolescents. 52 adolescents (age: 11-17) were assessed using a multi-method test battery, which included a self-report questionnaire (the youth self-report), a proxy-report (child behavior checklist) along with a projective personality test, the Rorschach Test, administered and scored according to the Exner comprehensive system. The results showed specific personality characteristics in adolescents with migraine, revealing a marked difficulty in modulating and regulating affections through thoughts and reflections, resorting instead to impulsive acts and maladaptive coping strategies, thus revealing a vague and immature perception of reality. Differently from adolescents belonging to the general population, but similarly to patients with epilepsy, adolescents with migraine perceive a high situational stress, probably related to the condition of suffering from chronic disease. They have, therefore, a lower self-consideration and self-esteem along with a poorer insight regarding themselves as well as the relations with others. In line with previous findings, these preliminary results suggest the need for further research on ample samples, using also standardized projective test

  11. Do clinicians receive adequate training to identify trafficked persons? A scoping review of NHS Foundation Trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles Dr; Mahay, Arun; Stuckler, David; Steele, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    We investigate whether physicians in secondary care in the English NHS receive adequate training to recognise and appropriately refer for services those persons suspected to be victims of human trafficking. Freedom of Information requests were sent to the 105 England's NHS Trusts delivering acute care in England. NHS Trusts providing secondary care in England. English NHS Trusts. We requested data about the training provided on human trafficking to clinicians, including the nature, delivery, and format of any education, and any planned training. A total of 89.5% of the 105 Trusts responded. Of these Trusts, 69% provide education to physicians on human trafficking, and a further 6% provide training but did not specify who received it. The majority of Trusts providing training did so within wider safeguarding provision (91%). Only one trust reported that it provides stand-alone training on trafficking to all its staff, including physicians. Within training offered by Trusts, 54% observed best practice providing training on the clinical indicators of trafficking, while 16% referenced the National Referral Mechanism. Amongst those not providing training, 39% of Trusts report provision is in development. Our results find that 25% of NHS Foundation Trusts appear to lack training for physicians around human trafficking. It is also of concern that of the Trusts who currently do not provide training, only 39% are developing training or planning to do so. There is an urgent need to review and update the scope of available training and bring it into alignment with current legislation.

  12. Identifying with fictive characters: structural brain correlates of the personality trait 'fantasy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-11-01

    The perception of oneself as absorbed in the thoughts, feelings and happenings of a fictive character (e.g. in a novel or film) as if the character's experiences were one's own is referred to as identification. We investigated whether individual variation in the personality trait of identification is associated with individual variation in the structure of specific brain regions, using surface and volume-based morphometry. The hypothesized regions of interest were selected on the basis of their functional role in subserving the cognitive processing domains considered important for identification (i.e. mental imagery, empathy, theory of mind and merging) and for the immersive experience called 'presence'. Controlling for age, sex, whole-brain volume and other traits, identification covaried significantly with the left hippocampal volume, cortical thickness in the right anterior insula and the left dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and with gray matter volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that trait identification is associated with structural variation in specific brain regions. The findings are discussed in relation to the potential functional contribution of these regions to identification. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Companionship in labour: Do the personality characteristics of labour supporters influence their effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chalmers

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has revealed beneficial post-partum, psychosocial effects on the mother following labour which was accompanied by supportive companions. Whether these effects are obtained as a result of having companionship during labour or because of specific personality characteristics of the companions provided is important and is explored in this paper. Although findings revealed few differences in adjustment between women who were supported by different companions, some variability in the post-partum state anxiety and depression scores were noted which suggest that selection of an appropriate supporter is an important aspect of such programmes.

  14. SENSE-MAKING TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Abakumova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study looks into psychotechnics used in education and contributing to initiating logic among students, their personal growth and characterizes psychological features of “sense-deducting”. Here you will find a review of the sense-making techniques considering as one of the categories of psychotechnics. The described techniques are based on the human psychology, they improve the quality of instruction, create a favorable and unique system of values, take into account the individual characteristics of all types of education, and influence the sense-making process development among children. Sense-making techniques are stated in the author’s classification and extended by practical methods. The study of psychological features of influence of sense-making techniques on the personality of a student lets us see new patterns in personal, subjective and “meta-subjective” results of acquiring of the school program via transformation and development of value/logic consciousness of a child. The work emphasizes that the use of sense-making techniques is effective in the educational and after-school activities of the educational organization. The achieved results make it possible to understand, to substantiate the naturalness and relevance of the sense-technical approach according to personal and academic indicators of students. In the process of competent and correct use of the semantic techniques, we see the possibility of conveying the best, productive and quality pedagogical experience, as well as the perspective of innovative developments in the psychological and pedagogical sciences. For children and adolescents, information, thanks to sense-techniques, starts to be personal in nature, knowledge is objectified, learning activity becomes an individual need.

  15. The Study of Main and Interactive Effects of Attachment Dimension and Basic Personality Characteristics in Borderline Traits

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    Ali Mohammadzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are models of the development of personality disorders which include individual differences in attachment relationships as causal factors contributed in explanation of these phenomena. The dimensional view of personality disorders represents these conditions as extreme variants of normal personality continua. This study investigated main and interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted in expo fact context. Randomly selected 603 participants (134 male  469 female from Tabriz Payam-e-Noor, Tarbait Moallem of Azarbaijan and Sarab Payam-e-Noor university students took part in this research. Participants answered to Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, Short form (EPQ-RS and Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance method.Results: Results indicate main effects of attachment styles and personality traits, so, individual with ambivalent insecure attachment experience more intensity of borderline traits than individual with avoidant insecure and secure attachments. Individual with high psychoticim and neuroticism traits experience more intensity of borderline characteristics than individual with extraversion personality traits. Also, there are no interactional effects of attachment styles and personality traits in relation to borderline characteristics. Conclusion: These findings reiterate contribution of childhood risk factors in developing borderline personality disorder, especially in children with emotionally vulnerability.

  16. Socioemotional characteristics of elementary school children identified as exhibiting social leadership qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2009-03-01

    Elementary school teachers identified characteristics in 4 major socioemotional domains associated with children's social leadership: self-perception, social anxiety, attachment orientation with peers, and interpersonal goals and skills in close friendships. Participants were 260 4th- and 5th-grade students (126 boys, 134 girls) from 10 classes in a school in northern Israel. Social leadership skills were associated with positive self-perceptions in various domains, low social anxiety, secure orientation to peers, higher levels of relationship-maintenance goal, lower levels of revenge goal in close friendships, and-unexpectedly-lower levels of accommodation as a strategy to solve conflicts with a friend. Positive self-concept and attachment security were indirectly associated with leadership qualities through their significant association with prosocial orientation skills. The authors discuss these findings as reflecting an internalization of positive model of self and positive model of others in children who exhibit social leadership qualities. The authors also discuss implications of these qualities for school and class ecology, as well as the importance of culture.

  17. Characteristics of self-identified sexual addicts in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéry, Aline; Vogelaere, Kim; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Poudat, François-Xavier; Caillon, Julie; Lever, Delphine; Billieux, Joël; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Research on sexual addiction flourished during the last decade, promoted by the development of an increased number of online sexual activities. Despite the accumulation of studies, however, evidence collected in clinical samples of treatment-seeking people remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics (socio-demographics, sexual habits, and comorbidities) of self-identified "sexual addicts." Methods The sample was composed of 72 patients who consulted an outpatient treatment center regarding their sexual behaviors. Data were collected through a combination of structured interviewing and self-report measures. Results Most patients were males (94.4%) aged 20-76 years (mean 40.3 ± 10.9). Endorsement of sexual addiction diagnosis varied from 56.9% to 95.8% depending on the criteria used. The sexual behaviors reported to have the highest degree of functional impairment were having multiple sexual partners (56%), having unprotected sexual intercourse (51.9%), and using cybersex (43.6%). Ninety percent of patients endorsed a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis, and 60.6% presented at least one paraphilia. Conclusions Results showed highly different profiles in terms of sexual preferences and behaviors, as well as comorbidities involved. These findings highlight the need to develop tailored psychotherapeutic interventions by taking into account the complexity and heterogeneity of the disorder.

  18. New land disposal restrictions on contaminated soil and debris, and newly identified toxicity characteristic organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortune, William B.; Schumann, Jean C.; Fallon, William E.; Badden, Janet W.; Smith, Edward H.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) program to radioactive mixed wastes (RMW) has been clarified through U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) rulemakings and notices. However, a number of waste management concerns involving RMW and RMW-contaminated soil and debris continue to exist with respect to achieving compliance with LDR provisions and treatment standards. Consequently, DOE has become increasingly proactive in its participation in the LDR rulemaking process and in the identification of LDR compliance issues associated with its RMW inventories. Both data and recommendations from across the DOE complex were collected and transmitted to EPA in response to proposed requirements that would implement LDR for contaminated soil and debris, and certain newly identified toxicity characteristic (TC) organics. Much of this information focused on concerns related to the application of proposed regulatory approaches to RMW streams. Highlights from the information included in these DOE responses are presented. (author)

  19. Identifying indicators of harmful and problem gambling in a Canadian sample through receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Avila Murati, Daniela; Bagby, R Michael

    2014-03-01

    Many gamblers would prefer to reduce gambling on their own rather than to adopt an abstinence approach within the context of a gambling treatment program. Yet responsible gambling guidelines lack quantifiable markers to guide gamblers in wagering safely. To address these issues, the current investigation implemented receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify behavioral indicators of harmful and problem gambling. Gambling involvement was assessed in 503 participants (275 psychiatric outpatients and 228 community gamblers) with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Overall gambling frequency, duration, and expenditure were able to distinguish harmful and problematic gambling at a moderate level. Indicators of harmful gambling were generated for engagement in specific gambling activities: frequency of tickets and casino; duration of bingo, casino, and investments; and expenditures on bingo, casino, sports betting, games of skill, and investments. Indicators of problem gambling were similarly produced for frequency of tickets and casino, and expenditures on bingo, casino, games of skill, and investments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall gambling frequency uniquely predicted the presence of harmful and problem gambling. Furthermore, frequency indicators for tickets and casino uniquely predicted the presence of both harmful and problem gambling. Together, these findings contribute to the development of an empirically based method enabling the minimization of harmful or problem gambling through self-control rather than abstinence.

  20. Personality, work characteristics, and employee well-being: a longitudinal analysis of additive and moderating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houkes, Inge; Janssen, Peter P M; de Jonge, Jan; Bakker, Arnold B

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal influence of personality (measured by the characteristics growth need strength, negative affectivity [NA], and upward striving) on 3 psychological outcomes (intrinsic work motivation, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention), using a pattern of specific relationships between work characteristics and these outcomes as a framework. The study hypotheses were tested in a multioccupational sample consisting of bank employees and teachers, using a 2-wave panel design with a 1-year time interval and structural equation modeling. NA had a cross-lagged direct and additive relationship with emotional exhaustion and also moderated the relationship between Time 1 workload and Time 2 emotional exhaustion. The authors concluded that NA may have multiple effects on emotional exhaustion that persist over time.

  1. Personal contextual characteristics and cognitions: predicting child abuse potential and disciplinary style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-02-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.

  2. TO DETERMINE THE PERSONALITY TRAITS, CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN BIPOLAR DISORDER PATIENTS WITH COMORBID ALCOHOL USE DISORDERS

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    Ahalya Thinaharan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and substance use disorder is common. It is difficult to treat bipolar disorder patients with comorbid alcohol use disorder since the disease course is more severe and they have greater difficulties in cognitive functions than those without alcohol use. Whether alcohol negatively affects specific cognitive functions or the deficits are more diffuse in nature is unclear. Alcoholic bipolar patients present with high scores in openness to experience and neuroticism personality traits. Personality to an extent mediates the co-occurrence of substance use in bipolar disorder. Thus, identifying these personality traits in bipolar or substance use disorder patients, will help us to prevent the co-occurrence of the second disorder. The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics, personality traits and cognitive functions of patients with bipolar and comorbid alcohol use disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS A sample of 100 patients, 50 with bipolar and alcohol use disorder (cases and 50 with bipolar disorder (controls attending tertiary care hospital outpatient department at Chennai was selected. Alcohol status was assessed using AUDIT (alcohol use disorder identification test and SADQ (severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire. Personality was assessed using NEO-five factor inventory. Cognition was assessed using frontal lobe assessment battery, Stroop test, DSST (digit symbol substitution test and verbal N back test. RESULTS The cases group had more number of hospitalisations and mixed episodes than control group. They also performed poorer on frontal lobe assessment battery, Stroop test and digit symbol substitution test. Duration of alcohol use was associated positively with total number of hospitalisations and number of episodes. The cases group scored significantly higher on the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. CONCLUSION The study confirmed the higher

  3. Do clinicians receive adequate training to identify trafficked persons? A scoping review of NHS Foundation Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahay, Arun; Stuckler, David; Steele, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Objective We investigate whether physicians in secondary care in the English NHS receive adequate training to recognise and appropriately refer for services those persons suspected to be victims of human trafficking. Design Freedom of Information requests were sent to the 105 England’s NHS Trusts delivering acute care in England. Setting NHS Trusts providing secondary care in England. Participants English NHS Trusts. Main outcome measures We requested data about the training provided on human trafficking to clinicians, including the nature, delivery, and format of any education, and any planned training. Results A total of 89.5% of the 105 Trusts responded. Of these Trusts, 69% provide education to physicians on human trafficking, and a further 6% provide training but did not specify who received it. The majority of Trusts providing training did so within wider safeguarding provision (91%). Only one trust reported that it provides stand-alone training on trafficking to all its staff, including physicians. Within training offered by Trusts, 54% observed best practice providing training on the clinical indicators of trafficking, while 16% referenced the National Referral Mechanism. Amongst those not providing training, 39% of Trusts report provision is in development. Conclusions Our results find that 25% of NHS Foundation Trusts appear to lack training for physicians around human trafficking. It is also of concern that of the Trusts who currently do not provide training, only 39% are developing training or planning to do so. There is an urgent need to review and update the scope of available training and bring it into alignment with current legislation. PMID:28904806

  4. Assessing the Effects of Personal Characteristics and Context on U.S. House Speakers’ Leadership Styles, 1789-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Owens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on congressional leadership has been dominated in recent decades by contextual interpretations that see leaders’ behavior as best explained by the environment in which they seek to exercise leadership—particularly, the preference homogeneity and size of their party caucus. The role of agency is thus discounted, and leaders’ personal characteristics and leadership styles are underplayed. Focusing specifically on the speakers of the U.S. House of Representatives from the first to the 110th Congress, we construct measures of each speaker’s commitment to comity and leadership assertiveness. We find the scores reliable and then test the extent to which a speaker’s style is the product of both political context and personal characteristics. Regression estimates on speakers’ personal assertiveness scores provide robust support for a context-plus-personal characteristics explanation, whereas estimates of their comity scores show that speakers’ personal backgrounds trump context.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome identified by a stepwise approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiromasa Inoue,1 Takahide Nagase,2 Satoshi Morita,3 Atsushi Yoshida,4 Tatsunori Jinnai,4 Masakazu Ichinose5 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3Department of Biomedical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, 4Medical Department, AstraZeneca K.K., Osaka, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan Background and objective: There is increasing recognition of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS, which shares some features of both asthma and COPD; however, the prevalence and characteristics of ACOS are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ACOS among patients with COPD and its characteristics using a stepwise approach as stated in the recent report of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD. Methods: This multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study enrolled outpatients who were receiving medical treatment for COPD. Clinical data, including spirometry results, were retrieved from medical records. For symptom assessment, patients were asked to complete the Clinical COPD questionnaire and the modified British Medical Research Council questionnaire. Results: Of the 1,008 patients analyzed, 167 (16.6% had syndromic features of ACOS. Of the total number of patients, 93 and 42 (9.2% and 4.2% also had a predefined clinical variability of ≥12%/≥200 mL and ≥12%/≥400 mL in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, respectively, and therefore were identified as having ACOS. Conversely, the number of patients who had either syndromic or spirometric feature of ACOS was 595 (59.0%, ≥12%/≥200 mL FEV1 clinical variability, and 328 patients (32.5%, ≥12%/≥400 m

  6. The synergic role of sociotechnical and personal characteristics on work injuries in mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P S; Maiti, J

    2008-05-01

    Occupational injuries in mines are attributed to many factors. In this study, an attempt was made to identify the various factors related to work injuries in mines and to estimate their effects on work injuries to mine workers. An accident path model was developed to estimate the pattern and strength of relationships amongst the personal and sociotechnical variables in accident/injury occurrences. The input data for the model were the correlation matrix of 18 variables, which were collected from the case study mines. The case study results showed that there are sequential interactions amongst the sociotechnical and personal factors leading to accidents/injuries in mines. Amongst the latent endogenous constructs, job dissatisfaction and safe work behaviour show a significant positive and negative direct relationship with work injury, respectively. However, the construct safety environment has a significant negative indirect relationship with work injury. The safety environment is negatively affected by work hazards and positively affected by social support. The safety environment also shows a significant negative relationship with job stress and job dissatisfaction. However, negative personality has no significant direct or indirect effect on work injury, but it has a significant negative relationship with safe work behaviour. The endogenous construct negative personality is positively influenced by job stress and negatively influenced by social support.

  7. Correction to: CASPer, an online pre-interview screen for personal/professional characteristics: prediction of national licensure scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Kelly L; Reiter, Harold I; Kreuger, Sharyn; Norman, Geoffrey R

    2017-12-01

    In re-examining the paper "CASPer, an online pre-interview screen for personal/professional characteristics: prediction of national licensure scores" published in AHSE (22(2), 327-336), we recognized two errors of interpretation.

  8. Characteristics of carbonyl compounds in public vehicles of Beijing city: Concentrations, sources, and personal exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds (carbonyls) including concentrations, major sources, and personal exposure were investigated for 29 vehicles including taxi, bus and subway in Beijing. It was found that the taxis (Xiali, TA) and buses (Huanghe, BA) fueled by gasoline with longer service years had the higher indoor carbonyl levels (178±42.7 and 188±31.6 μg m -3) while subways energized by electricity without exhaust and the jingwa buses (BB) driven in the suburb had the lower levels with total concentrations of 98.5±26.3 and 92.1±20.3 μg m -3, respectively. Outdoor carbonyls of taxi cars and buses were nearly at the same level with their total concentrations varying from 80 to 110 μg m -3. The level of outdoor subways carbonyls was equal with the ambient air levels. Exhaust leakage, indoor material emissions, photochemical formation, and infiltration of outdoor air were considered to be the major sources to in-vehicle carbonyls. Personal exposures and cancer risk to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were calculated for professional bus and taxi drivers, respectively. Taxi drivers had the highest cancer risk with personal exposure to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde of 212 and 243 μg day -1, respectively. The public concern should pay considerable attention to professional drivers' health.

  9. Consumption Values, Personal Characteristics and Behavioral Intentions in Mobile Shopping Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujipun Assarut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Past literature has indicated that consumption value is an important factor in consumer decision making on whether to adopt online shopping. However, most studies have focused only on a single product or service type and, therefore, generalization of the results has been limited. Moreover, previous studies of the indirect effects of personal characteristics on the adoption of online shopping have emphasized solely the importance of utilitarian values. None have investigated the indirect effects of consumption values that include both utilitarian and hedonic aspects. This study examines the relationships between consumption values, personal characteristics and behavioral intentions in the adoption of mobile shopping from the perspectives of different product and service types. The results reveal convenience, security and emotional values as the common values which consumers of fashion goods and accommodations consider when deciding whether to purchase via a mobile device. Apart from the most common values, travelers also consider conditional and epistemic values when assessing whether to reserve accommodation using a mobile device. Moreover, innovativeness and self-efficacy were both shown to exert significant indirect effects, via consumption values, on consumers’ intentions to adopt mobile shopping. Managerial implications and suggestions are further discussed.

  10. [Psychological distress and personality characteristics among individuals with primary exercise dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Jenni; Clementi, Cecilia; Grandi, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess both psychological distress and personality characteristics associat with primary exercise dependence. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adult habitual physical exercisers. A total of 79 participants voluntarily completed a package of self-report questionnaires including the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ), the Eating Disorder Inventory II (EDI-2), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Attitude Toward Self scale (ATS), Muscle Dysmorphia Questionnaire (MDQ), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Significant differences were found in the EDQ exercise for weight control subscale with regard to gender, as well as in the EDI-2 total score and 5 of its subscales, with higher scores for females compared to males. Participants reporting primary exercise dependence (n=32) were more likely to present with disordered eating patterns than controls (n=47). They also showed higher levels of harm avoidance and persistence on the TCI, as well as lower self-directness. Furthermore, primary exercise dependents scored higher on the ATS dysmorphophobia subscale, as well as on the MDQ total score and the anxiety and hostility subscales of the SQ compared to controls. These findings highlight the importance of performing a clinical assessment of psychological symptoms and personality characteristics that might be associated with primary exercise dependence.

  11. Personality characteristics and psychological distress associated with primary exercise dependence: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Silvana; Clementi, Cecilia; Guidi, Jenny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Tossani, Eliana

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this study was to assess personality characteristics and psychological distress associated with primary exercise dependence (ExeDepI) in a mixed gender sample. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adult habitual physical exercisers. A total of 79 participants voluntarily completed a package of self-report questionnaires including the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ), the Eating Disorder Inventory II (EDI-2), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Attitude Toward Self scale (ATS), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Significant differences were found on the EDQ exercise for weight control subscale with regard to gender, as well as on the EDI-2 total score and five of its subscales, with higher scores for females compared to males. Participants reporting primary exercise dependence (N=32) were more likely to present with disordered eating patterns than controls (N=47). They also showed higher levels of harm avoidance and persistence on the TCI, but lower self-directness and less mature character. Furthermore, ExeDepI group scored higher on the ATS dysmorphophobia subscale, as well as on the anxiety and hostility subscales of the SQ compared to the control group. These findings provide support to the idea that primary exercise dependence can be considered as a clinical syndrome associated with certain personality characteristics and psychological symptoms that might be accurately assessed in clinical settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining infobuttons and semantic web rules for identifying patterns and delivering highly-personalized education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Nathan C; Long, Jie; Tao, Cui

    2013-01-01

    Infobuttons have been established to be an effective resource for addressing information needs at the point of care, as evidenced by recent research and their inclusion in government-based electronic health record incentive programs in the United States. Yet their utility has been limited to wide success for only a specific set of domains (lab data, medication orders, and problem lists) and only for discrete, singular concepts that are already documented in the electronic medical record. In this manuscript, we present an effort to broaden their utility by connecting a semantic web-based phenotyping engine with an infobutton framework in order to identify and address broader issues in patient data, derived from multiple data sources. We have tested these patterns by defining and testing semantic definitions of pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We intend to carry forward relevant information to the infobutton framework to present timely, relevant education resources to patients and providers.

  13. Personality characteristics and their connection with learning efficiency of deaf and partially deaf pupils in mainstream primary and secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with personality characteristics and their connection with learning efficiency of deaf and partially deaf pupils and students in mainstream primary and secondary school. The theoretical part defines learning efficiency and focuses on the most significant factors of learning efficiency, including also personality characteristics of an individual. This thesis represents the idea of inclusion and its advantages and disadvantages and suggests to what extent it is present in our ...

  14. Personality characteristics of children in an orphanage as criteria for the developing of proactive attitude and successful social integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larin A.N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a personality characteristics study of orphans and children left without parental care growing up in an orphanage. It is assumed that examined personality characteristics have an effect on the socialization and integration processes after graduating from the orphanage. The paper gives a comparative analysis of personality characteristics in 18 boys and 14 girls aged from 12 to 17 years in orphanages, as well as finds out the personality characteristics undermining the developing of child’s proactive attitude. The study used a children's version of "Individual typological questionnaire" by L.N. Sobchik and Cattell 14 PF method of multivariate personality study. Statistical significance of the results is due to Mann–Whitney U test and Student t-test for nonrandom access. Cattell 14PF study shows that boys and girls in the test groups have personality differences (p≤0.05. A pattern of the results may indicate a general trend of personal characteristics negatively affecting the success of adaptation after graduating from the orphanage.

  15. Air pollution and mortality: Effect modification by personal characteristics and specific cause of death in a case-only study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Hong; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Pun, Vivian C.; Wang, Xiaorong; Yu, Ignatius T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. Less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to air pollution. We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the potential effect modification by personal characteristics and specific causes of death. Individual information of 402,184 deaths of non-external causes and daily mean concentrations of air pollution were collected from 2001 to 2011. For a 10 μg/m 3 increase of pollution concentration, people aged ≥∇65 years (compared with younger ages) had a 0.9–1.8% additional increase in mortality related to PM, NO 2 , and SO 2 . People dying from cardiorespiratory diseases (compared with other non-external causes) had a 1.6–2.3% additional increase in PM and NO 2 related mortality. Other subgroups that were particularly susceptible were females and those economically inactive. Lower socioeconomic status and causes of cardiorespiratory diseases would increase the likelihood of death associated with air pollution. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the effect modification. • We identified the subpopulations particularly vulnerable to air pollution related death. • Elderly, female and those economically inactive would increase the risk of air pollution. • Specific causes of cardiorespiratory death showed vulnerability to air pollution. - We conducted a case-only study to identify several personal characteristics and specific cardiorespiratory causes that vulnerable to air pollution related mortality

  16. The relation of depression, anxiety and stress with personal characteristics of nurses in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Khodadadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current industrialized world and ever advancing technology has changed human life by a significant increase in the level of stress and anxiety. Nurses are among those professionals who experience an overwhelming level of stress, anxiety and depression due to work overload and subsequent burnout. The nature of nursing profession for a vulnerable human character increases the possibility of emotional setbacks. Hence, this study was designed to explore and identify the prevalence of anxiety, stress and depression among the Iranian nurses and investigate how these variables relate to personal characteristics and influence the quality of patient care. Using a correlational descriptive design and random cluster method, 242 nurses who worked at different hospital wards in Tabriz, Iran were assessed for anxiety, stress and depression, while their personal characteristics were identified. Data were collected by using a standard questionnaire for stress, anxiety and depression (DASS-21 and later analyzed by SPSS (ver.17.Results showed that Iranian nurses suffered from a moderate level of anxiety, stress and depression and gender influenced these variable rates (p<0.05. Hospital ward type had a relation with stress level (p<0.05, being interested in nursing had an inverse relation to anxiety, stress and depression (p<0.05, while the education level positively related to depression rate among nurses (p<0.05. Type of work at different shifts influenced stress (p<0.05 and marital status reduced depression among nurses (p<0.05. Prevalence of stress and anxiety among the Iranian nurses were at a significant level with susceptibility to experience psychological disorders and provide lower quality of patient care. Findings of this study can alarm the Iranian authorities in healthcare systems to adopt a new policy and improve the current state of health for nurses and patients.

  17. Burnout in officers of the prison service units. The role of personality and selected professional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sygit-Kowalkowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The researchers involved in the studies of burnout indicate its 3 sources: the structure of the personality, the specificity of interpersonal relationships, and the organizational factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout and personality characteristics of prison officers, as well as to determine predictors of burnout in this occupational group. Material and Methods: The study was conducted among prison officers, who were divided into 2 groups, the officers working in direct contact with prisoners (group I and those employed in the prison administration (group II. The study used 2 tools: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI and Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ. Results: Analysis of personality traits in the study group showed high severity traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. However, the best results were obtained in terms of extraversion and the lowest in the range of conscientiousness. The level of burnout in both groups was found to be within the upper limit of the average results, without statistically significant differences between the groups. The results showed that people working in direct contact with prisoners experience greater disappointments and psychophysical exhaustion at work. The analyses showed that the level of exhaustion and disappointment of the employees surveyed increases with increasing seniority. It was also shown that the level of neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness is the predictor of effectiveness. Conclusions: The level of burnout in the study group falls within the upper limit of the average results. Personality traits are an important determinant for the development of symptoms of burnout in the penitentiary officers, and their role changes over the years of continuous prison service. The position at work diversifies the degree of experiencing symptoms of burnout. Med Pr 2017;68(1:85–94

  18. [Burnout in officers of the prison service units. The role of personality and selected professional characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ewa; Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Herkt, Martyna; Ossowski, Roman

    2017-02-28

    The researchers involved in the studies of burnout indicate its 3 sources: the structure of the personality, the specificity of interpersonal relationships, and the organizational factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout and personality characteristics of prison officers, as well as to determine predictors of burnout in this occupational group. The study was conducted among prison officers, who were divided into 2 groups, the officers working in direct contact with prisoners (group I) and those employed in the prison administration (group II). The study used 2 tools: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ). Analysis of personality traits in the study group showed high severity traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. However, the best results were obtained in terms of extraversion and the lowest in the range of conscientiousness. The level of burnout in both groups was found to be within the upper limit of the average results, without statistically significant differences between the groups. The results showed that people working in direct contact with prisoners experience greater disappointments and psychophysical exhaustion at work. The analyses showed that the level of exhaustion and disappointment of the employees surveyed increases with increasing seniority. It was also shown that the level of neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness is the predictor of effectiveness. The level of burnout in the study group falls within the upper limit of the average results. Personality traits are an important determinant for the development of symptoms of burnout in the penitentiary officers, and their role changes over the years of continuous prison service. The position at work diversifies the degree of experiencing symptoms of burnout. Med Pr 2017;68(1):85-94. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Personality disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Sørensen, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study, patients with personality disorders (N = 388) treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark were allocated to two different kinds of treatment: a standardized treatment package with a preset number of treatment...... characteristics associated with clinicians' allocation of patients to the two different personality disorder services. METHODS: Patient characteristics across eight domains were collected in order to study whether there were systematic differences between patients allocated to the two different treatments....... Patient characteristics included measures of symptom severity, personality pathology, trauma and socio-demographic characteristics. Significance testing and binary regression analysis were applied to identify important predictors. RESULTS: Patient characteristics on fifteen variables differed...

  20. Identifying Characteristics of a "Good School" in the British and Saudi Arabian Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Saeed Musaid H.; Hammersley-Fletcher, Linda; Bright, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at establishing whether primary schools in the Saudi education system conform to the characteristics of what are referred to as "good schools" in the British education system. The findings established through this study show that only 43.75% of primary schools in Saudi conform to the characteristics of what are referred…

  1. The unique contributions of perceiver and target characteristics in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehman, Eric; Sutherland, Clare A M; Flake, Jessica K; Slepian, Michael L

    2017-10-01

    Models of person perception have long asserted that our impressions of others are guided by characteristics of both the target and perceiver. However, research has not yet quantified to what extent perceivers and targets contribute to different impressions. This quantification is theoretically critical, as it addresses how much an impression arises from "our minds" versus "others' faces." Here, we apply cross-classified random effects models to address this fundamental question in social cognition, using approximately 700,000 ratings of faces. With this approach, we demonstrate that (a) different trait impressions have unique causal processes, meaning that some impressions are largely informed by perceiver-level characteristics whereas others are driven more by physical target-level characteristics; (b) modeling of perceiver- and target-variance in impressions informs fundamental models of social perception; (c) Perceiver × Target interactions explain a substantial portion of variance in impressions; (d) greater emotional intensity in stimuli decreases the influence of the perceiver; and (e) more variable, naturalistic stimuli increases variation across perceivers. Important overarching patterns emerged. Broadly, traits and dimensions representing inferences of character (e.g., dominance) are driven more by perceiver characteristics than those representing appearance-based appraisals (e.g., youthful-attractiveness). Moreover, inferences made of more ambiguous traits (e.g., creative) or displays (e.g., faces with less extreme emotions, less-controlled stimuli) are similarly driven more by perceiver than target characteristics. Together, results highlight the large role that perceiver and target variability play in trait impressions, and develop a new topography of trait impressions that considers the source of the impression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder According to the Crime Types

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    Hasan KARADAG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the relation between the crimes committed, and the childhood behavioral problems, current clinical characteristics and anger levels of patients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD. One hundred and fifty-three patients with ASPD were enrolled. The diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV criteria. DSM-IV conduct disorder criteria and life history inventory was used to assess childhood characteristics. The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS was used to assess experience, expression, and control of anger. The main differences between crime groups were as follows: A head trauma history was more frequent in ASPD patients who had a crime history of physical assault. Loss of a parent in childhood was more frequent in individuals who committed burglary. Divorce or separation of the parents in childhood was more frequent in those who committed murder. The usage of weapons in fight during childhood was significantly higher in those who committed murder and aggravated assault. According to STAS scores, the anger control scores were significantly lower in those who committed murder. Childhood and behavioral characteristics of ASPD patients is not homogenous. There is a need for further studies to demonstrate these differences and make a new classification for ASPD. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 13-21

  3. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoaki Sugiura

    Full Text Available People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases.

  4. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases.

  5. Personality characteristics and quality of life in patients treated for Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonino, Nicoletta; Bonnini, Stefano; Fallo, Francesco; Boscaro, Marco; Fava, Giovanni A

    2006-03-01

    Psychological distress does not always disappear upon proper endocrine treatment of Cushing's syndrome, and quality of life may still be compromised. Little is known on the personality correlates that may be involved. The aim of this study was to provide a controlled assessment of personality characteristics and quality of life in patients successfully treated for Cushing's syndrome. A single-centred, controlled, prospective study. Twenty-four consecutive outpatients who were in remission upon proper treatment of Cushing's syndrome for at least 1 year and no more than 3 years (20 with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease and four with a cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma; 5 M/19 F; mean age 34.5, SD = 10.6; range 18-57 years) were compared with 24 healthy control subjects matched for sociodemographic variables. Both patients and controls were administered two self-rating scales: (a) tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ), a 100-item inventory that yields three scales: novelty seeking, harm avoidance and reward dependence. (b) symptom rating test (SRT), a 46-item scale for assessing psychological distress and quality of life with six subscales (anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, anger-hostility, cognitive symptoms, psychotic symptoms). There were no significant differences in personality dimensions, as measured by the TPQ, between patients and controls. The results did not change when the four patients with an adrenal adenoma were excluded and only the 20 with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease were considered. As to the SRT scale, patients with Cushing's syndrome displayed significantly higher scores in anxiety (P= 0.046), depression (P= 0.013), and psychotic symptoms (P= 0.006), with a generalized compromised quality of life (P= 0.02). Again, no differences were found in evaluating the 20 patients with Cushing's disease separately. Even though personality traits other than those explored here may be involved, the results seem to exclude the

  6. Criminological characteristics of a cattle-stealer’s personality: by the materials of Kazakhstan Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talgat A. Khanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the essential forensically significant features that characterize individuals who are engaged in cattlestealing to formulate recommendations for their detection. Methods dialectical approach to social phenomena cognition was used. The theoretical and methodological bases are general provisions of the epistemology of science general and legal psychology. Specific sociological research methods were used in the form of studying the criminal cases and surveying the respondents. Results the paper identifies and systematizes the essential features characterizing the persons involved in cattlestealing. Among them a relatively stable relapse committing group crimes antisocial lifestyle pronounced male type of crimes. This in turn allows to propose the general and specific versions to predict the location of the offender and the stolen cattle. Scientific novelty the article proposed the use of prognostic information to identify the likely cattlestealer. The importance of the complete information about the manner the place the subject and the object of the crime is highlighted in order to formulate the typical investigative situation. Practical significance the results obtained during research allow to increase the efficiency of planning and use of tactics when carrying out investigative actions directed on establishment of persons specializing in cattlestealing.

  7. An investigation on the effects of personal characteristics on word of mouth advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinali Aziziha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to measure the effect of personal characteristics including neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness and agreeableness on word of mouth advertisement. The population of this survey includes all people who use mobile phone in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scape and distributes it among 400 randomly selected people who use mobile devices. Using Spearman correlation test, the study confirms the positive of effects of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience on word of mouth advertisement and the negative impact of agreeableness on word of mouth advertisement. However, the study does not find any meaningful relationship between conscientiousness and word of mouth advertisement.

  8. 罪犯人格特征研究%Characteristic of Criminal Personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳红; 李满林; 陈贵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the personality characteristics and the positive rate of personality disorders among criminals . Methods PDQ-4+( personality diagnostic questionnaire -4+) was administrated to 378 criminals for screening personality disorder . Results The mean of PDQ-4+total score and the subscales of different type of personality disorder were higher than those of universi -ty sample and normal sample in China (t=2.62~22.59,P<0.01).The results of percentile showed that the scores of all criminals were higher at the points of 90%and 95%than cut-off scores of PDQ-4+.There existed age differences in antisocial ,narcissistic,passive-attack,histrionic personality disorder (F=5.67,4.03,2.63,4.98,2.49;P<0.05),and there existed significant criminals profession differences in antisocial,borderline,histrionic,narcissistic,avoidant,dependent and passive-attack personality disorder(F=11.77,3.09, 2.87,3.33,3.49,3.86,3.87;P<0.05).The score of PDQ-4 +and some different types of personality disorder also existed signifi-cant difference in gender.(t=2.17~7.23,P<0.05).Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the personality of criminal cenld be di -vided into three different types .Conclusion The positive rate of personality disorders among criminals is higher and the criminal person -ality is influenced by many factors .And the three classification personality model is a effective classification model based on the personal -ity disorders data .%目的:用人格诊断问卷( PDQ-4+)调查罪犯群体人格障碍阳性率,探讨罪犯人群人格的特殊性。方法以PDQ-4+问卷为工具,按照整群随机抽样的原则调查罪犯群体378人。结果罪犯人群样本的PDQ-4+总分及各项分量表均分都显著高于大学生人群和普通人群,差异均有统计学意义(t=2.62~22.59,P<0.01或P<0.001);各分量表得分的百分位显示在P90、P95位的得分普遍高出原量表划界分;方差

  9. Anti-social personality characteristics and psychotic symptoms: Two pathways associated with offending in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; Barendregt, Marko; Van Beveren, Nico M; De Beurs, Edwin; Van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2015-07-01

    Several research groups have shown that people with schizophrenia who offend do not form a homogenous group. A three-group model claimed by Hodgins proposes distinguishing between people who start offending before the onset of psychosis (early starters), after psychosis onset but at age 34 years or under (late starters) and after psychosis onset but at age 35 years or older (late first offenders). This study aimed to test the hypotheses (1) that the personality of early starters and non-psychotic offenders would be similar, but different from either late-starter group; (2) that the late-starter groups would be more likely to have positive psychotic symptoms than non-criminal patients with schizophrenia; and (3) that symptom types would differentiate the psychotic groups. A retrospective file study was conducted on cases of 97 early starters, 100 late starters and 26 late first offenders all drawn from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology (NIFP) archives 1993-2008, 115 non-psychotic offenders from 2005-2008 NIFP archives and 129 patients with schizophrenia and no criminal history from one general service in Rotterdam. Early starters closely resembled the non-psychotic offenders in their premorbid anti-social personality characteristics. The two late-onset offending psychosis groups were more likely to have persecutory and/or grandiose delusions than non-offenders with psychosis, but so were the early starters. In a first study to compare subgroups of offenders with psychosis directly with non-psychotic offenders and non-offenders with psychosis, we found such additional support for a distinction between early and late starters with psychosis that different treatment strategies would seem indicated, focusing on personality and substance misuse for the former but psychotic symptoms for all. It remains to be seen whether the higher rate of alcohol misuse amongst late first offenders is a fundamental distinction or a function of age

  10. Influence of Emotional States on the Functioning of Perceptual Sphere and Characteristics of the Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakova Irina Vadimovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the psychological interplay between the formation of perceptual skills and personal qualities. The purpose of the study was to determine the characteristics of this relationship during playback of a given sample in different emotional states. It is hypothesized that there is a connection between such personal qualities as a spontaneous aggressiveness, depression, irritability, emotional lability and peculiarities of functioning of sensory-perceptual sphere during playback of a given sample. 55 students of the Smolensk State University took part in the study. The instrumentation consisted of FPI techniques, ITO, R. Plutchik and measurement precision motor skills in different emotional states of the subject. In the experimental part of the work the special research tool specifically created for the given aim was used; it measured errors when playing a sample of the right and left hand of the subject which then was correlated with the results of the survey recipients. Comparative mapping of indicators of pressure on the levers of the meter in different hands clarified their specific contribution to skill formation and its strong correlation with psychological features of a person. The authors made conclusion that the change of emotional state transforms the perception of the sample; in a state of emotional arousal the errors of the right hand when playing the sample increase more rapidly than the errors of the left hand compared with similar work in the state that recipients assessed as normal working conditions; changes in emotional state affect the fidelity of a given sample; examinees do not fully appreciated errors in reproducing the set of standards.

  11. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick De Pelsmacker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer screening activation: Health awareness, Need for Cognition, Affect Intensity, Breast cancer knowledge, Topic involvement, and the Perceived breast cancer risk. We test the effect of these factors on four activation variables: intention of future information seeking, forwarding the message to a friend, talking to a doctor, and actual breast cancer screening attendance. Additionally, we try to unravel the process by means of which the antecedents (the six personal characteristics lead to activation. To that end, we test the mediating role of perceived breast cancer threat, perceived efficacy of screening, and the evoked breast cancer anxiety as mediators in this process. The data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 700 Flemish (Belgium women who were invited to the free-of-charge breast cancer population screening. Screening attendance of this sample was provided by the government agency in charge of the organisation of the screening. Health awareness, affects intensity, topic involvement, and perceived risk have the strongest influence on activation. Breast cancer anxiety and perceived breast cancer threat have a substantial mediation effect on these effects. Efficacy perceptions are less important in the activation process. Increased health awareness and a higher level of perceived risk lead to less participation in the free of charge population based breast screening program. Implications for theory and practice are offered. The limitation

  12. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Lewi, Martine; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2017-01-01

    In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer screening activation: Health awareness, Need for Cognition, Affect Intensity, Breast cancer knowledge, Topic involvement, and the Perceived breast cancer risk. We test the effect of these factors on four activation variables: intention of future information seeking, forwarding the message to a friend, talking to a doctor, and actual breast cancer screening attendance. Additionally, we try to unravel the process by means of which the antecedents (the six personal characteristics) lead to activation. To that end, we test the mediating role of perceived breast cancer threat, perceived efficacy of screening, and the evoked breast cancer anxiety as mediators in this process. The data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 700 Flemish (Belgium) women who were invited to the free-of-charge breast cancer population screening. Screening attendance of this sample was provided by the government agency in charge of the organisation of the screening. Health awareness, affects intensity, topic involvement, and perceived risk have the strongest influence on activation. Breast cancer anxiety and perceived breast cancer threat have a substantial mediation effect on these effects. Efficacy perceptions are less important in the activation process. Increased health awareness and a higher level of perceived risk lead to less participation in the free of charge population based breast screening program. Implications for theory and practice are offered. The limitation of the study is

  13. Which Users Should Be the Focus of Mobile Personal Health Records? Analysis of User Characteristics Influencing Usage of a Tethered Mobile Personal Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guna; Park, Joong Yeol; Shin, Soo-Yong; Hwang, Jong Su; Ryu, Hyeon Jeong; Lee, Jae Ho; Bates, David W

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the usage pattern of a hospital-tethered mobile personal health records (m-PHRs) application named My Chart in My Hand (MCMH) and to identify user characteristics that influence m-PHR usage. Access logs to MCMH and its menus were collected for a total of 18 months, from August 2011 to January 2013. Usage patterns between users without a patient identification number (ID) and users with a patient ID were compared. Users with a patient ID were divided into light and heavy user groups by the median number of monthly access. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess MCMH usage pattern by characteristics of MCMH user with a patient ID. The total number of MCMH logins was 105,603, and the median number of accesses was 15 times. Users (n = 7,096) mostly accessed the "My Chart" menu, but "OPD [outpatient department] Service Support" and "Health Management" menus were also frequently used. Patients with chronic diseases, experience of hospital visits including emergency room and OPD, and age group of 0-19 years were more frequently found among users with a patient ID (n = 2,186) (p < 0.001). A similar trend was found in the heavy user group (n = 1,123). Submenus of laboratory result, online appointment, and medication lists that were accessed mostly by users with a patient ID were associated with OPD visit and chronic diseases. This study showed that focuses on patients with chronic disease and more hospital visits and empowerment functions in a tethered m-PHR would be helpful to pursue the extensive use.

  14. Newly identified psychiatric illness in one general practice: 12-month outcome and the influence of patients' personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A F; Anderson, A J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Relatively little is known about the natural history and outcome of psychological problems in patients who present to general practitioners. Only a small proportion of such patients are seen by specialists. Clinical experience suggests that patient personality is one of the factors influencing outcome in patients diagnosed as having psychiatric illness. AIM. This study set out to examine prospectively the progress and 12-month outcome of patients with newly identified psychiatric illness, and the association of patients' personality with outcome. METHOD. One hundred and seventy one patients with clinically significant psychiatric illness attending one practice in a Scottish new town were followed up prospectively (96 presented with psychological symptoms and 75 with somatic symptoms), and were compared with a group of 127 patients with chronic physical illness. Patients were assessed in terms of psychiatric state, social problems and personality using both computer-based and pencil and paper tests in addition to clinical assessments at each consultation during the follow-up year and structured interview one year after recruitment. RESULTS. Most of the improvement in psychiatric state scores on the 28-item general health questionnaire occurred in the first six months of the illness. Of the 171 patients with psychiatric illness 34% improved quickly and remained well, 54% had an intermittent course but had improved at 12-month follow up while 12% pursued a chronic course without improvement. The mean number of consultations in the follow-up year was 8.4 for patients presenting with psychological symptoms, 7.2 for those presenting with somatic symptoms and 6.6 for patients with chronic physical illness. The Eysenck N score proved a strong predictor of the outcome of new psychiatric illness. CONCLUSION. Only one in three patients with newly identified psychiatric illness improved quickly and and remained well, reflecting the importance of continuing care of

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF RECREATIVE SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING ON MUSIC AND INTELLECTUAL FACTORS AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Kocić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized swimming is way of acivitie connected with music. Emotional character in it could be very efficiency mean of childs` and youth` sport-recreative activities. The research was lead on 60 girls 7-15 years old, elementary schools pupils in Niš, members „Sirene“ Niš synchronized swimming clyb. Music abilities research was obtained using Seashore test for basic music abilities. For testing input procesors, perceptive reason, it was used IT-1 test. For testing efficiency parallel prosecor it was used S-1 test. For testing serial procesors, symbolic reason, it was used AL-4 test sinonime-atimime. For testing personal characteristics it was used instruments for testing dimensions of functional konnative regulatione mechanisms model. It was used bases statistics for every researcg area (music abilities, intellectual abilities, konnative characteristics and criteria variable; to estimate influence each predictor variable on criteria variable, it was used regression analysis. Results showed statistic efficiency in music and konnative factors. Synchronized swimming activities influence on growing spontaneous, independence developing, tense releases, and it is exellent area for emotional health and society desirable behaveour norm. These activities are reached by music, which in melodie and rithm diversity, gives complete enjoyment, and psychosisical relax and refreshment.

  16. Personal and socio-psychological characteristics of women of reproductive age, operated on for symptomatic endometriod desease, at the stage of pregnancy planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Chuieva-Pavlovska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometrioid disease occurs in every tenth woman of reproductive age and often leads not only to physical discomfort, but also frustrates them psychosocially, reduces professional, psychosocial and reproductive adaptation in general. The aim: to reveal the personal and psychosocial characteristics of women at the stage of pregnancy planning, operated on for symptomatic endometriosis, in connection with the task of optimizing the management and improvement of pregnancy outcomes. Material and methods. Under observation, there were 123 women operated on for symptomatic endometriosis, 125 somatically and gynecologically conditionally healthy fertile women. All the women were going to plan a pregnancy. The diagnosis of endometriosis in all cases was identified histologically. The psychosocial and personal characteristics of these women at the stage of pregnancy planning were studied. Conclusions.  The peculiarities of the personal and psychosocial characteristics of women at the stage of pregnancy planning, operated on for symptomatic endometriosis, are unfavorable child-parent relations, destructive relationships with their own mother, complicated course of pregnancy in the mother, high personal anxiety, impaired sex and age identification in women, inadequate (infantile, disadaptive forms of responding to stressful situations, emotional instability.

  17. A Comparison of Educational Statistics and Data Mining Approaches to Identify Characteristics That Impact Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. Dee; Soh, Leen-Kiat; Samal, Ashok; Kupzyk, Kevin; Nugent, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    Learning objects (LOs) are important online resources for both learners and instructors and usage for LOs is growing. Automatic LO tracking collects large amounts of metadata about individual students as well as data aggregated across courses, learning objects, and other demographic characteristics (e.g. gender). The challenge becomes identifying…

  18. Physician personal characteristics influencing long-term treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strokova E.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the peculiarities of a doctor personality, affecting long-term therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Materials and methods: To determine the type of temperament, the presence and intensity of the syndrome of emotional burnout and capacity for empathy therapists and cardiologists were asked to fill in a number of questionnaires. Each doctor had a group of patients contacting by telephone for a year after the discharge from the hospital. During the telephone contact, the patients were asked about the continuation of their therapy recommended in the hospital, the regularity of therapy, the frequency of absence, and the assessment of a physician by the patients. Results: 35 questionnaires were suitable for interpretation. Through one year after the discharge from the hospital it was able to contact with 147 patients, 18.4% (27 of patients completely stopped the treatment by recommended drugs. Positive assessment of physicians was associated with the continuation of the therapy by recommended drugs and regularity of drug taking (p=0,03. Patients assessed physicians positively more often in cases of low level of emotional state, high level of depersonalization (cynicism and the reduction of personal accomplishment (feeling of professional inefficiency in a doctor. Conclusion: Assessment of physicians by patients is reliably and significantly influenced by continuation of long-term therapy and regularity of drug taking.

  19. Moving Beyond Drinking to Have a Good Time: a Person-Centered Approach to Identifying Reason Typologies in Legal-Aged College Student Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H; Cooper, Brittany R; Beckmeyer, Jonathon; Bumpus, Matthew F; Hill, Laura G; Agley, Jon

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use, reasons for use, and consequences of use continue to be a major concern in college student populations. This is especially true for students of legal drinking age who may experience different reasons for and greater negative consequences of alcohol use than students under 21 years old. Although multiple studies have used person-centered approaches to understand motivations for and ultimately prevent alcohol use, few have identified multiple typologies of reasons for alcohol use. The current study used latent class analysis to identify homogeneous subtypes of reasons for alcohol use and how classification was associated with alcohol-related consequences in college students aged 21 years old and older (N = 2300) from the 2013 Indiana College Substance Use Survey. Four profiles of reasons for alcohol use emerged across males and females: social drinkers, feel good drinkers, relaxed escaping drinkers, and emotion coping drinkers. Although the likelihood of consequences differed across gender, the emotion coping drinkers were more likely to experience all negative consequences, suggesting that it was a high-risk class. In general, this pattern of risk continued with the feel good drinkers and female relaxed escaping drinkers. These results can help optimize college substance use prevention and intervention efforts to (1) identify and understand characteristics of high- and low-risk student drinkers and (2) tailor the content of interventions to those specific profiles resulting in more effective approaches to reducing alcohol use.

  20. Vocations as a source of identity: reciprocal relations between Big Five personality traits and RIASEC characteristics over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Bart; De Fruyt, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Although work is a core part of life, the direction of influence from personality to work has typically been conceived as only unidirectional. The present study aims to contribute to the literature by considering reciprocal relations between personality and occupational characteristics, drawing on current perspectives from personality psychology (i.e., the social investment principle) and using a well-established framework to conceptualize career development (i.e., Holland's RIASEC theory). For this purpose, a longitudinal cohort of college alumni (N = 266) was tracked across a substantial and significant period in their professional career. Big Five personality traits and RIASEC occupational characteristics were assessed at the career start and 15 years later when their careers had unfolded. A combination of observed and latent variable analyses were used to disentangle the longitudinal and reciprocal relations between traits and occupational characteristics. Our results indicate that personality shapes and is shaped by our vocational experiences, suggesting that work can be a source of identity. The implications for theory and research on personality in the industrial and organizational literature are discussed alongside a number of practical implications for organizational and counseling settings.

  1. [Influence of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Zhao, Ping; Chen, Li-Jun; Qin, Hui-Qing; Shi, Wang-Hong; Guo, Wei; Zhen, Ying

    2012-03-01

    To explore the effects of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. From August 2009 to April 2010, 231 patients (obtained 217 effective responses) with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia were recruited. Among the patients, there were 123 males and 94 females, with an average age of (38.00 +/- 5.67) years (ranged from 15 to 66 years). Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used to test social support and psychological characteristic and compared the difference of psychological, personality traits and norm, then analyzed the effect of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic. Two hundred and seventeen (93.9%) patients completed the questionnaire. Compared with normal 16PF scores, there were significant differences in factor scores of intelligence, stability, excitability, perseverance,social boldness, vigilance, sophistication, experimental, independence and tonicity (P characteristic between patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and norms. Improving social support level and optimizing personality traits can improve psychological profile of these patients.

  2. Observational study identifies non-attendance characteristics in two hospital outpatient clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blæhr, Emely; Søgaard, Rikke; Kristensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-attended hospital appointments are receiving increasing attention in times when rapid access and efficient service delivery at public hospitals are on the agenda. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of non-attendance in a Danish outpatient setting and its...... association with user-level and provider-level characteristics. METHODS: The study was based on appointments scheduled from June 2013 to March 2015 at an orthopaedic and a radiologic outpatient clinic. Data on outcomes of cancellation on the part of the user or the provider, and non-attendance without giving...

  3. Identifying Students' Characteristic Learning Behaviors in an Intelligent Tutoring System Fostering Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Francois; Azevedo, Roger; Kinnebrew, John S.; Biswas, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Identification of student learning behaviors, especially those that characterize or distinguish students, can yield important insights for the design of adaptation and feedback mechanisms in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS). In this paper, we analyze trace data to identify distinguishing patterns of behavior in a study of 51 college students…

  4. Characteristics of vibrator use by gay and bisexually identified men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Michael; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Dodge, Brian; Novak, David S

    2010-10-01

    Recent reports indicate that vibrator use during solo and partnered sexual activities is common among heterosexual men and women in the United States. However, little research has comprehensively assessed vibrator use among gay and bisexually identified men. This study sought to document the extent to which gay and bisexually identified men report using vibrators, the sexual and relational situations within which they use them, and how men use vibrators on their own and their partners' bodies. Data were collected from 25,294 gay and bisexually identified men from 50 U.S. states and from the District of Columbia via an internet-based survey. Measures included sociodemographics, health-related indicators, sexual behaviors, and those related to recent and past use of vibrators during solo and partnered sexual interactions with other men. Approximately half (49.8%) of gay and bisexually identified men reported having used vibrators. Most men who had used a vibrator in the past reported use during masturbation (86.2%). When used during partnered interactions, vibrators were incorporated into foreplay (65.9%) and intercourse (59.4%). Men reported frequent insertion of vibrators into the anus or rectum when using them during masturbation (87.3%), which was also common during partnered interactions (∼60%), but varied slightly for casual and relationship sex partners. For both masturbation and partnered interactions, men overwhelmingly endorsed the extent to which vibrator use contributed to sexual arousal, orgasm, and pleasure. Vibrator use during both solo and partnered sexual acts was common among the gay and bisexually identified men in this sample and was described by men as adding to the quality of their sexual experiences. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Characteristic odor of Osmoderma eremita identified as a male-released pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Mattias C; Hedin, Jonas; Svensson, Glenn P; Tolasch, Till; Francke, Wittko

    2003-03-01

    Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli) is an endangered scarab beetle living in hollow trees. It has mainly been known for its characteristic odor, typically described as a fruity, peachlike or plumlike aroma. The odor emanating from a single beetle can sometimes be perceived from a distance of several meters. In this paper, we show that the characteristic odor from O. eremita is caused by the compound (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone, released in large quantities mainly or exclusively by male beetles. Antennae from male and female beetles responded in a similar way to (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone in electroantennographic recordings. Field trapping experiments showed that (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone is a pheromone attracting female beetles. Lactones similar to (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone are frequently used as female-released sex pheromones by phytophagous scarabs. This is, however, the first evidence of a lactone used as a male-produced pheromone in scarab beetles. We propose that the strong signal from males is a sexually selected trait used to compete for females and matings. The signal could work within trees but also act as a guide to tree hollows, which are an essential resource for O. eremita. Males may, thus, attract females dispersing from their natal tree by advertising a suitable habitat. This signal could also be exploited by other males searching for tree hollows or for females, which would explain the catch of several males in our traps.

  6. The Analysis of The Phenomenon of Silence in Organizational Investigated in the Context of Personal Characteristics: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Uçar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to reveal personal characteristics of employees (depending on psychological and demographic that affect their openly speech and these characteristics in what way effect the silence behavior of employees. In the study was designed as a qualitative research, data were obtained semi structured interviews and focus group techniques. The research sample is consists of fourtyone participants have assignmen at different levels in different organizational structure. The result of research show that in addition to personal characteristics reveal struggle for life style of individuals like “locus of control”, “self-esteem” some demographic characteristics of the individuals like gender, education effect their decisions they have given direction to remain silent.

  7. [The types of matrimonial relations and personal characteristics of married couples in the families of men suffering from alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnova, T M

    2007-02-01

    The family of patient suffering from alcoholism was investigated form the standpoints of systemic analysis, that allowed revealing the leading personal characteristics of married couples. The men suffering from alcoholism are characterized by weak will, inclination to dependence, disregard of behavioral social norms, increased excitability and tendency to frustration in combination with high level of aggressiveness against the background of decreased masculine and prevailing feminine characteristics. Co-dependent wives of men suffering from alcoholism are characterized by predominance, observance of social norms, pronounced autoagression and orientation to masculine characteristics against the background of high indices of both femininity and masculinity. Such combination of married couples' personal characteristics forms the basis for development of dysfunctional relations in a family of man suffering from alcoholism. The families where husband and wife had no alcohol dependence, with harmonic functional relations served as the control group.

  8. Identifying Sociodemographic Characteristics Associated With Burden Among Caregivers of the Urban Homebound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Wajnberg MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited research has explored whether the burden associated with caring for homebound patients varies across racial groups or by relationship status. We examined these variations for this vulnerable population. Patients self-identified informal caregivers and caregiver burden/depression were assessed using the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression scale (CES-D. Forty-nine informal caregivers completed the interview. Mean age was 58 ( SD = 14, 78% were female, 37% Black, 35% Hispanic, and 46% had completed high school. Over 60% of caregivers had moderate or severe caregiver burden and 30% had significant depression. White caregivers had greater burden than Black and Hispanic caregivers ( p = .02. Mean caregiver burden was higher among spouse/partner caregivers, versus those who identified as children or other family or friends ( p = .004. Additional research is needed to better understand the experience of racial and ethnic minorities and spouses in providing informal care to homebound adults.

  9. Identifying the Entrepreneurship Characteristics of the Oil Palm Community Plantation Farmers in the Riau Area

    OpenAIRE

    Brilliant Asmit; Deddy P. Koesrindartoto

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm is an essential and strategic commodity in the Riau area because of its considerable role in supporting the peoples’ economy, especially for plantation farmers. Oil palm plantation activities have brought economic impacts to society there, both for the people who are directly involved with the plantations and for their surrounding communities. This regional advantage is a facility for farmers to be able to develop their farms as plantations. The aims of this research are to identify ...

  10. Clinical Characteristics of Exacerbation-Prone Adult Asthmatics Identified by Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ae; Shin, Seung Woo; Park, Jong Sook; Uh, Soo Taek; Chang, Hun Soo; Bae, Da Jeong; Cho, You Sook; Park, Hae Sim; Yoon, Ho Joo; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2017-11-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by various types of airway inflammation and obstruction. Therefore, it is classified into several subphenotypes, such as early-onset atopic, obese non-eosinophilic, benign, and eosinophilic asthma, using cluster analysis. A number of asthmatics frequently experience exacerbation over a long-term follow-up period, but the exacerbation-prone subphenotype has rarely been evaluated by cluster analysis. This prompted us to identify clusters reflecting asthma exacerbation. A uniform cluster analysis method was applied to 259 adult asthmatics who were regularly followed-up for over 1 year using 12 variables, selected on the basis of their contribution to asthma phenotypes. After clustering, clinical profiles and exacerbation rates during follow-up were compared among the clusters. Four subphenotypes were identified: cluster 1 was comprised of patients with early-onset atopic asthma with preserved lung function, cluster 2 late-onset non-atopic asthma with impaired lung function, cluster 3 early-onset atopic asthma with severely impaired lung function, and cluster 4 late-onset non-atopic asthma with well-preserved lung function. The patients in clusters 2 and 3 were identified as exacerbation-prone asthmatics, showing a higher risk of asthma exacerbation. Two different phenotypes of exacerbation-prone asthma were identified among Korean asthmatics using cluster analysis; both were characterized by impaired lung function, but the age at asthma onset and atopic status were different between the two. Copyright © 2017 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  11. Characteristics of autobiographical memories and prospective imagery across a spectrum of hypomanic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Brittany; Moulds, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of a strong causal relationship between mental imagery and emotion has informed psychological conceptualisations of disordered positive mood states (i.e., mania). Holmes et al.'s cognitive model of bipolar disorder asserts a prominent role for intrusive and affect-laden positive imagery of the past and the future in the amplification and maintenance of positive mood and associated manic behaviours. The aims of the current study were two-fold: (1) to test aspects of this model in a non-clinical population sampled for hypomanic personality traits and (2) to examine the phenomenological characteristics of positive autobiographical memories and imagery of the future. Undergraduate students (N = 80) completed a battery of self-report questionnaires and rated their positive and negative memories and images of the future on a number of dimensions. We found significant positive correlations between hypomanic tendencies and the (1) everyday experience and use of mental imagery, (2) experience of intrusive mental imagery of future events, (3) emotional intensity and sensory detail of positive but not negative autobiographical memories. Results are discussed in the context of their theoretical and clinical implications, and directions for future research are considered.

  12. Comparison of Attachment Styles and Personality Characteristics in Mothers of Normal and ADHD Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Ghalamzan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study has done with the purpose of comparing secure attachment styles and personality characteristics in normal boy student mothers and ADHD students mothers in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: The present study has done with ex-Post facto method. Two groups of mothers (30 normal students mothers and 30 ADHD students mothers, were selected using cluster sampling method for normal group and simple sampling method for ADHD group. Participants completed the attachment styles of Hazan and Shaver, NEO five-factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, and conners questionnaire. Data was analyzed using multi variance analysis (MANOVA. Results: The results of this study showed that significant differences were evident between normal group and ADHD group in ambivalent insecure and secure (p<0.01; also the results showed that there was a meaningful difference among the neuroticism and conscientiousness in these 2 groups. Conclusion: The results were indicating that in comparison with normal group mothers the ADHD student mothers were more endangered with insecure attachment. It was also important to mention that the ambivalent insecure attachment style was more in the groups with ADHD. The results were also indicating that neuroticism was more in the group with ADHD, and conscientiousness was more the normal group.

  13. High schoolers masturbatory practices: their relationship to sexual intercourse and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Rosenthal, D A; Reichler, H

    1996-10-01

    This study examined the self-reported masturbatory experiences of high schooler and the relationships between masturbation and sexual intercourse and personal characteristics of these young people. A total of 436 suburban Australian adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age participated. Boys were more likely to report ever having masturbated (58.5%, versus 42.7%) and to have done so more frequently than girls (38.2% versus 8.7% reporting masturbating three or more times a week). While there was no significant sex difference in the age of initiation of masturbation there was some evidence that girls began masturbation earlier than boys. Whether sexual intercourse replaced or supplemented masturbation as a sexual practice could not be resolved, but there was evidence that masturbation was positively correlated with sexual self esteem. Young people whose parents provided a more open environment for the discussion of sexuality were more likely to report having masturbated, although the environment had a complex relationship with masturbatory practices as did young people's self rated physical maturity compared to their peers. A range of social and contextual factors must be explored to understand more fully this important component of young people's sexual experience.

  14. The Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted And Non-Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction: The goal of this study was to compare the personality characteristics and problem solving styles of addicted and non-addicted men. Method: This study is a causal comparative design survey. In this study 180 addicted men was selected through convenience sampling method from addicted men that refered to addiction treatment centers of Rasht city and matched in gender, age, education and job with 180 non addicted men and then two groups compared with each other. All participants completed the NEO-FFI-R and problem solving styles questionnaires. The gathered data were analyzed through SPSS software. Findings: The results showed that an addicted man in comparison with non-addicted men was upper in neuroticism and lower in agreeableness, extraversion and consciousness dimensions. Also there was no difference in openness dimension between two groups. Conclusion: The finding of present study suggests that educating efficient problem solving styles to people to cope with life stressful events could restrain and prevent addiction and other psychosocial disorders.

  15. Sorption and biodegradation characteristics of the selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products onto tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, Mahsa; Hu, Jiangyong; Tran, Ngoc Han; Ong, Say Leong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the sorption and biodegradation characteristics of five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), including acetaminophen (ACT), carbamazepine (CBZ), crotamiton (CTMT), diethyltoluamide (DEET) and salicylic acid (SA), were studied in laboratory-batch experiments. Sorption kinetics experimental data showed that sorption systems under this study were more appropriately described by the pseudo second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient (R2)>0.98. Sorption equilibrium data of almost all target compounds onto soil could be better described by the Freundlich sorption isotherm model. The adsorption results showed higher soil affinity for SA, following by ACT. Results also indicated a slight effect of pH on PPCP adsorption with lower pH causing lower adsorption of compounds onto the soil except for SA at pH 12. Moreover, adsorption of PPCPs onto the soil was influenced by natural organic matter (NOM) since the higher amount of NOM caused lower adsorption to the soil. Biodegradation studies of selected PPCPs by indigenous microbial community present in soil appeared that the removal rates of ACT, SA and DEET increased with time while no effect had been observed for the rest. This study suggests that the CBZ and CTMT can be considered as suitable chemical sewage indicators based on their low sorption affinity and high resistance to biodegradation.

  16. Identifying the hazard characteristics of powder byproducts generated from semiconductor fabrication processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Min; An, Hee-Chul; Kim, Kwan-Sick

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing processes generate powder particles as byproducts which potentially could affect workers' health. The chemical composition, size, shape, and crystal structure of these powder particles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The powders generated in diffusion and chemical mechanical polishing processes were amorphous silica. The particles in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and etch processes were TiO(2) and Al(2)O(3), and Al(2)O(3) particles, respectively. As for metallization, WO(3), TiO(2), and Al(2)O(3) particles were generated from equipment used for tungsten and barrier metal (TiN) operations. In photolithography, the size and shape of the powder particles showed 1-10 μm and were of spherical shape. In addition, the powders generated from high-current and medium-current processes for ion implantation included arsenic (As), whereas the high-energy process did not include As. For all samples collected using a personal air sampler during preventive maintenance of process equipment, the mass concentrations of total airborne particles were particles less than 10 μm in diameter) using direct-reading aerosol monitor by area sampling were between 0.00 and 0.02 μg/m(3). Although the exposure concentration of airborne particles during preventive maintenance is extremely low, it is necessary to make continuous improvements to the process and work environment, because the influence of chronic low-level exposure cannot be excluded.

  17. Shifting the Focus to Student Learning: Characteristics of Effective Teaching Practice As Identified by Experienced Pre-service Faculty Advisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Maynes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cochrane-Smith and Power identify trends in teacher education programs with some relating to heightened teacher accountability for students’ learning. In this paper we provide a model that identifies characteristics believed to be critical elements related to a teacher’s conceptual focus shifting from an emphasis on their teaching to their students’ learning and we have grounded these characteristics in current educational research. Through focus group inquiry, we have identified those teacher characteristics thought to account for effective teaching practice. These characteristics include: a professional growth perspective, passion and enthusiasm for the  content, pedagogical content knowledge, a rich instructional repertoire of strategies, awareness of assessment for, as, and of learning, ability to read the body language  of the learner, caring classroom management strategies, and instructional efforts (e.g., social justice. Our research data provide a conceptual framework for further study.

  18. Fingerprints of zones in boreholes. An approach to identify the characteristics of structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straeng, Thomas; Waenstedt, Stefan; Tiren, Sven (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The classification of geophysical borehole data in order to identify and characterize structures, which intercepts the borehole, is an important part of 3D modelling of the structural pattern of the bedrock. The objective of this study is to test a statistical approach, cluster analysis, on site data in order to see if it is possible to classify complex data set, geological and geophysical borehole data, in order to identify borehole intersects with increased brittle deformation, i.e. brittle deformation zones. The base data used in the study have been provided and delivered by SKB and consist of borehole logging data from the cored borehole KFM03A. The statistical method chosen for this study, cluster analysis using K-means method, groups data into a pre-defined number of clusters with the goal to minimize the variance of data within the group and to maximize the variance between the clusters. The idea is that data can and should be grouped into two categories, two clusters -corresponding to homogeneous bedrock (matrix) in one cluster and open fractures in the other cluster. The analysis also includes a repetition of the cluster analysis, with a stepwise refined data set to see whether strongly accentuated features could be identified. The results show that the use of K-mean Cluster analysis will present clusters that could represent the spatial distribution of bedrock matrix and the location of fractures respectively down the borehole. The results were compared with fracture frequency data (from core mapping) and also with the geological Single Hole Interpretation of KFM03A performed by SKB. The fracture zones identified in the Single Hole Interpretation process are all indicated in the cluster analysis results. The cluster analysis revealed eight additional possible zones. A majority of these are smaller than 5 metres (section width in the borehole) but they are still pronounced in the analysis. Based on the geophysical data, these sections should be taken into

  19. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Brita; Riley, Carley; Herrin, Jeph; Spatz, Erica S; Arora, Anita; Kell, Kenneth P; Welsh, John; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2018-01-01

    Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being. We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents. We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black); social and economic (child poverty, education level [divorced); clinical care (% eligible women obtaining mammography, preventable hospital stays per 100,000, number of federally qualified health centers); and physical environment (% commuting by bicycle and by public transit). Twelve factors across social and economic, clinical care, and physical environmental county-level factors explained the majority of variation in resident well-being.

  20. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Roy

    Full Text Available Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being.We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents.We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black; social and economic (child poverty, education level [

  1. User-identified gel characteristics: a qualitative exploration of perceived product efficacy of topical vaginal microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Underhill, Kristen; van den Berg, Jacob J; Vargas, Sara; Rosen, Rochelle K; Katz, David F

    2014-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that certain vaginal gel products--microbicides containing antiretroviral drugs--may reduce HIV infection risk among women. But for vaginal gels to avert HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), at-risk women must be willing to use them as directed. These products must therefore be "acceptable" to women and an important component of acceptability is users' perception that the product will work to prevent infection. We sought to understand how women's perceptions of vaginal gel properties may shape their understanding of product efficacy for HIV and STI prevention. Sixteen women completed two in-depth qualitative interviews (k = 32) to identify the range and types of sensory perceptions they experienced when using two vaginal gels. We identified emergent themes and linkages between users' sensory perceptions and their beliefs about product efficacy. Users' predictions about product efficacy for preventing infection corresponded to measurable physical properties, including gel volume, location in the vagina, coating behavior, sensation of the gel in the vagina, leakage, and gel changes during coital acts. Although the women described similar sensory experiences (e.g., gel leaked from the vagina), they interpreted these experiences to have varying implications for product efficacy (e.g., leakage was predicted to increase or decrease efficacy). To improve microbicide acceptability, gel developers should investigate and deliberately incorporate properties that influence users' perceptions of efficacy. When a microbicide is approved for use, providers should educate users to anticipate and understand their sensory experiences; improving users' experience can maximize adherence and product effectiveness.

  2. Characteristics of cholinoreceptors on identified TAN neurons of the ground snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, I I; Losev, N A

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of cholinoreceptors located on neurons TAN1, TAN2, and TAN3 of the ground snail Achatina fulica were studied by incubation of the central ganglia in a bath with cholinotropic preparations during intracellular recording of background neuron spike activity. Acetylcholine, nicotine, the selective n-cholinoreceptor agonist suberyldicholine, and the selective n-cholinoreceptor agonist 5-methylfurmethide concentration-dependently inhibited background spike activity to the level of complete blockade at concentrations of 500 microM. The m-cholinoblocker metamizil (500 microM) completely prevented the inhibitory activity of concentrations of 5-methylfurmethide of up to 500 microM. The central n-cholinoblocker etherophen (500 microM) completely blocked the inhibitory activity of 500 microM suberyldicholine. However, metamizil and etherophen added separately only partially decreased the inhibitory effects of acetylcholine but could not completely block the effect of acetylcholine. At the same time, mixtures of metamizil and etherophen (500 microM each) completely blocked the inhibition of background spike activity induced by acetylcholine. These results show that both classes of cholinoreceptors act on TAN neurons in the same direction.

  3. The Real maccoyii: Identifying Tuna Sushi with DNA Barcodes – Contrasting Characteristic Attributes and Genetic Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jacob H.; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of DNA barcodes for the identification of described species is one of the least controversial and most promising applications of barcoding. There is no consensus, however, as to what constitutes an appropriate identification standard and most barcoding efforts simply attempt to pair a query sequence with reference sequences and deem identification successful if it falls within the bounds of some pre-established cutoffs using genetic distance. Since the Renaissance, however, most biological classification schemes have relied on the use of diagnostic characters to identify and place species. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we developed a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I character-based key for the identification of all tuna species of the genus Thunnus, and compared its performance with distance-based measures for identification of 68 samples of tuna sushi purchased from 31 restaurants in Manhattan (New York City) and Denver, Colorado. Both the character-based key and GenBank BLAST successfully identified 100% of the tuna samples, while the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) as well as genetic distance thresholds, and neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree building performed poorly in terms of species identification. A piece of tuna sushi has the potential to be an endangered species, a fraud, or a health hazard. All three of these cases were uncovered in this study. Nineteen restaurant establishments were unable to clarify or misrepresented what species they sold. Five out of nine samples sold as a variant of “white tuna” were not albacore (T. alalunga), but escolar (Lepidocybium flavorunneum), a gempylid species banned for sale in Italy and Japan due to health concerns. Nineteen samples were northern bluefin tuna (T. thynnus) or the critically endangered southern bluefin tuna (T. maccoyii), though nine restaurants that sold these species did not state these species on their menus. Conclusions/Significance The Convention on International Trade

  4. Noise annoys: effects of noise on breeding great tits depend on personality but not on noise characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naguib, M.; Van Oers, K.; Braakhuis, A.; Griffioen, M.; De Goede, P.; Waas, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise can have serious implications for animals, especially when they communicate acoustically. Yet, the impacts of noise may depend not only on noise characteristics but also on an individual's coping style or personality. We tested whether noise is more disturbing if it masks

  5. Do Participants Differ in Their Cognitive Abilities, Task Motivation, or Personality Characteristics as a Function of Time of Participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Matthew K.; Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments tested the conventional wisdom in experimental psychology that participants who complete laboratory tasks systematically differ in their cognitive abilities, motivational levels, and personality characteristics as a function of the time at which they participate during an academic term. Across 4 experiments with over 2,900…

  6. ADHD-200 Global Competition: Diagnosing ADHD using personal characteristic data can outperform resting state fMRI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R G Brown

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging-based diagnostics could potentially assist clinicians to make more accurate diagnoses resulting in faster, more effective treatment. We participated in the 2011 ADHD-200 Global Competition which involved analyzing a large dataset of 973 participants including ADHD patients and healthy controls. Each participant's data included a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scan as well as personal characteristic and diagnostic data. The goal was to learn a machine learning classifier that used a participant's resting state fMRI scan to diagnose (classify that individual into one of three categories: healthy control, ADHD combined type, or ADHD inattentive type. We used participants' personal characteristic data (site of data collection, age, gender, handedness, performance IQ, verbal IQ, and full scale IQ, without any fMRI data, as input to a logistic classifier to generate diagnostic predictions. Surprisingly, this approach achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy (62.52% as well as the highest score (124 of 195 of any of the 21 teams participating in the competition. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for differences in age, gender, and other personal characteristics in imaging diagnostics research. We discuss further implications of these results for fMRI-based diagnosis as well as fMRI-based clinical research. We also document our tests with a variety of imaging-based diagnostic methods, none of which performed as well as the logistic classifier using only personal characteristic data.

  7. The Relationship of Some Personality and Individual Characteristics with an Individual's Commitment to an Ideal Vision for Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Ryan

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among specified personality and individual characteristics of university students with their level of commitment to a measurable, results-focused statement of an ideal vision. Discusses locus of control, generativity, self-efficacy, values, and risk taking in the use of an ideal vision for strategic planning, needs…

  8. Learner Characteristic Based Learning Effort Curve Mode: The Core Mechanism on Developing Personalized Adaptive E-Learning Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop the core mechanism for realizing the development of personalized adaptive e-learning platform, which is based on the previous learning effort curve research and takes into account the learner characteristics of learning style and self-efficacy. 125 university students from Taiwan are classified into 16 groups according…

  9. Resident Advisor General Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, Personality Dimensions, and Internal Belief Characteristics as Predictors of Rated Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Max B.; Stemler, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Resident Advisors (RAs) have a significant hand in helping students adjust and thrive in college life. Given the importance of selecting high-performing RAs, this study sought to examine how well various measures of intelligence (e.g., general, emotional) in addition to personality and additional "internal belief" characteristics predict…

  10. The Impact of Personal and Program Characteristics on the Placement of School Leadership Preparation Program Graduates in School Leader Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Edward J.; Hollingworth, Liz; An, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of personal and program characteristics on the placement of graduates of principal preparation programs in assistant principal, principal, and school leadership positions. Research Design: This study relies on Texas principal production data from 1993 through 2007 matched to employment…

  11. Characteristics of Effective Simulation (Preclinical) Teachers as Identified by Dental Students: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen; Mucciolo, Thomas W; Jahangiri, Leila

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this qualitative research study was to identify and categorize criteria for simulation teacher quality preferences as reported by dental students. Second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry in 2015 were given a two-question, open-ended survey asking what qualities they liked most and least in a simulation or preclinical teacher. Responses were collected until data saturation was reached. Key words in the responses were identified and coded based on similar relationships and then were grouped into defined categories. A total of 168 respondents out of the target group of 363 students (46.3%) provided 1,062 written comments. Three core themes-character, competence, and communication-emerged from 16 defined categories, which were validated using references from the educational literature. The theme of character encompassed eight of the defined categories (motivation, available, caring, patience, professionalism, empathy, fairness, and happiness) and accounted for 50% of the total student responses. The theme of competence comprised five categories (expertise, knowledgeable, efficient, skillful, and effective) and represented 34% of all responses. The communication theme covered the remaining three categories (feedback, approachable, and interpersonal communication) and contained 17% of the responses. Positive and negative comments in the category of motivation accounted for 11.2% of all student responses. Expertise was the next highest category with 9.3% of the responses, followed closely by 9.1% in the category of available. Among these students, the top five attributes of simulation teachers were motivation, expertise, available, caring, and feedback. While the study did not attempt to correlate these findings with improved student performance, the results can be used in the development of assessment tools for faculty and targeted faculty development programs.

  12. The contribution of personality and workplace characteristics in predicting turnover intention among sexual assault nurse examiners: a path analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kathleen C; Strunk, Kamden K

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how personality characteristics, sense of organizational empowerment, and job satisfaction combine to predict turnover intention among a population of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs). Data were collected from 161 SANEs from 23 SANE organizations across the central and west United States through standardized tools and a demographic questionnaire. Both personality, namely agreeableness and workplace characteristics, particularly perceived empowerment and job satisfaction, combine to predict intention to leave the job of these sampled SANEs. One particularly curious finding was the positive prediction of agreeableness on turnover intention - that is, more agreeable people would be more likely to leave their jobs as SANEs. Professionals can gain insight from the path analysis results that show the need to address both personal and organizational factors in mitigating turnover intention among SANEs. This appears to be particularly true in providing a sense of empowerment and opportunity within the organization. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  13. Identifying the performance characteristics of a winning outcome in elite mixed martial arts competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Robertson, Sam; Haff, G Gregory; Beckman, Emma M; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-03-01

    To determine those performance indicators that have the greatest influence on classifying outcome at the elite level of mixed martial arts (MMA). A secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of decision tree analysis in explaining the characteristics of victory when compared to alternate statistical methods. Cross-sectional observational. Eleven raw performance indicators from male Ultimate Fighting Championship bouts (n=234) from July 2014 to December 2014 were screened for analysis. Each raw performance indicator was also converted to a rate-dependent measure to be scaled to fight duration. Further, three additional performance indicators were calculated from the dataset and included in the analysis. Cohen's d effect sizes were employed to determine the magnitude of the differences between Wins and Losses, while decision tree (chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID)) and discriminant function analyses (DFA) were used to classify outcome (Win and Loss). Effect size comparisons revealed differences between Wins and Losses across a number of performance indicators. Decision tree (raw: 71.8%; rate-scaled: 76.3%) and DFA (raw: 71.4%; rate-scaled 71.2%) achieved similar classification accuracies. Grappling and accuracy performance indicators were the most influential in explaining outcome. The decision tree models also revealed multiple combinations of performance indicators leading to victory. The decision tree analyses suggest that grappling activity and technique accuracy are of particular importance in achieving victory in elite-level MMA competition. The DFA results supported the importance of these performance indicators. Decision tree induction represents an intuitive and slightly more accurate approach to explaining bout outcome in this sport when compared to DFA. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Big Five personality characteristics are associated with depression subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorevaar, A M L; Hegeman, J M; Lamers, F; Dhondt, A D F; van der Mast, R C; Stek, M L; Comijs, H C

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the associations of personality characteristics with both subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression in older adults. Three hundred and seventy-eight depressed older adults participated in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons. Personality characteristics were assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression were determined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between personality and atypical, melancholic, and unspecified subtypes of major depression. Linear regression analyses examined the associations between personality and the IDS mood, somatic, and motivation symptom dimensions. The analyses were adjusted for confounders and additionally adjusted for depression severity. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness were associated with specified (atypical or melancholic) major depression compared with unspecified major depression in the bivariate analyses but lost their significance after adjustments for functional limitations and severity of depression. Neuroticism was positively associated with the IDS mood and motivation symptom dimensions, also in the adjusted models. Further, Extraversion and Agreeableness were negatively associated with the IDS mood symptom dimension, and Extraversion and Conscientiousness were negatively associated with the IDS motivation symptom dimension. None was associated with the IDS somatic symptom dimension. This study demonstrated the association of personality characteristics with mood and motivational symptoms of late-life depression. The lacking ability of personality to differentiate between melancholic and atypical depression seems to be largely explained by severity of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Tradeoffs of Using Administrative Claims and Medical Records to Identify the Use of Personalized Medicine for Patients with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Su-Ying; Phillips, Kathryn A.; Wang, Grace; Keohane, Carol; Armstrong, Joanne; Morris, William M.; Haas, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Administrative claims and medical records are important data sources to examine healthcare utilization and outcomes. Little is known about identifying personalized medicine technologies in these sources. Objectives To describe agreement, sensitivity, and specificity of administrative claims compared to medical records for two pairs of targeted tests and treatments for breast cancer. Research Design Retrospective analysis of medical records linked to administrative claims from a large health plan. We examined whether agreement varied by factors that facilitate tracking in claims (coding and cost) and that enhance medical record completeness (records from multiple providers). Subjects Women (35 – 65 years) with incident breast cancer diagnosed in 2006–2007 (n=775). Measures Use of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and gene expression profiling (GEP) testing, trastuzumab and adjuvant chemotherapy in claims and medical records. Results Agreement between claims and records was substantial for GEP, trastuzumab, and chemotherapy, and lowest for HER2 tests. GEP, an expensive test with unique billing codes, had higher agreement (91.6% vs. 75.2%), sensitivity (94.9% vs. 76.7%), and specificity (90.1% vs. 29.2%) than HER2, a test without unique billing codes. Trastuzumab, a treatment with unique billing codes, had slightly higher agreement (95.1% vs. 90%) and sensitivity (98.1% vs. 87.9%) than adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions Higher agreement and specificity were associated with services that had unique billing codes and high cost. Administrative claims may be sufficient for examining services with unique billing codes. Medical records provide better data for identifying tests lacking specific codes and for research requiring detailed clinical information. PMID:21422962

  16. Vulnerability- and Diversity-Aware Anonymization of Personally Identifiable Information for Improving User Privacy and Utility of Publishing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Abdul; Ullah, Farman; Lee, Sungchang

    2017-01-01

    Personally identifiable information (PII) affects individual privacy because PII combinations may yield unique identifications in published data. User PII such as age, race, gender, and zip code contain private information that may assist an adversary in determining the user to whom such information relates. Each item of user PII reveals identity differently, and some types of PII are highly identity vulnerable. More vulnerable types of PII enable unique identification more easily, and their presence in published data increases privacy risks. Existing privacy models treat all types of PII equally from an identity revelation point of view, and they mainly focus on hiding user PII in a crowd of other users. Ignoring the identity vulnerability of each type of PII during anonymization is not an effective method of protecting user privacy in a fine-grained manner. This paper proposes a new anonymization scheme that considers the identity vulnerability of PII to effectively protect user privacy. Data generalization is performed adaptively based on the identity vulnerability of PII as well as diversity to anonymize data. This adaptive generalization effectively enables anonymous data, which protects user identity and private information disclosures while maximizing the utility of data for performing analyses and building classification models. Additionally, the proposed scheme has low computational overheads. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the scheme and verify the aforementioned claims. PMID:28481298

  17. Vulnerability- and Diversity-Aware Anonymization of Personally Identifiable Information for Improving User Privacy and Utility of Publishing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Personally identifiable information (PII affects individual privacy because PII combinations may yield unique identifications in published data. User PII such as age, race, gender, and zip code contain private information that may assist an adversary in determining the user to whom such information relates. Each item of user PII reveals identity differently, and some types of PII are highly identity vulnerable. More vulnerable types of PII enable unique identification more easily, and their presence in published data increases privacy risks. Existing privacy models treat all types of PII equally from an identity revelation point of view, and they mainly focus on hiding user PII in a crowd of other users. Ignoring the identity vulnerability of each type of PII during anonymization is not an effective method of protecting user privacy in a fine-grained manner. This paper proposes a new anonymization scheme that considers the identity vulnerability of PII to effectively protect user privacy. Data generalization is performed adaptively based on the identity vulnerability of PII as well as diversity to anonymize data. This adaptive generalization effectively enables anonymous data, which protects user identity and private information disclosures while maximizing the utility of data for performing analyses and building classification models. Additionally, the proposed scheme has low computational overheads. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the scheme and verify the aforementioned claims.

  18. Organisational and environmental characteristics of residential aged care units providing highly person-centred care: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Sandman, Per-Olof; Zingmark, Karin; Edvardsson, David

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have empirically investigated factors that define residential aged care units that are perceived as being highly person-centred. The purpose of this study was to explore factors characterising residential aged care units perceived as being highly person-centred, with a focus on organisational and environmental variables, as well as residents' and staff' characteristics. A cross-sectional design was used. Residents ( n  = 1460) and staff ( n  = 1213) data from 151 residential care units were collected, as well as data relating to characteristics of the organisation and environment, and data measuring degree of person-centred care. Participating staff provided self-reported data and conducted proxy ratings on residents . Descriptive and comparative statistics, independent samples t-test, Chi 2 test, Eta Squared and Phi coefficient were used to analyse data. Highly person-centred residential aged care units were characterized by having a shared philosophy of care, a satisfactory leadership, interdisciplinary collaboration and social support from colleagues and leaders, a dementia-friendly physical environment, staff having time to spend with residents, and a smaller unit size. Residential aged care units with higher levels of person-centred care had a higher proportion of staff with continuing education in dementia care, and a higher proportion of staff receiving regular supervision, compared to units with lower levels of person-centred care. It is important to target organisational and environmental factors, such as a shared philosophy of care, staff use of time, the physical environment, interdisciplinary support, and support from leaders and colleagues, to improve person-centred care in residential care units. Managers and leaders seeking to facilitate person-centred care in daily practice need to consider their own role in supporting, encouraging, and supervising staff.

  19. Relationship between individual and family characteristics and psychosocial factors in persons with familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Meghan; Hong, Fangxin; Lawrence, Janette; Blonquist, Traci; Syngal, Sapna

    2018-03-23

    Describe relationships between self-reported personal demographics or familial characteristics and psychosocial outcomes (Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Global Health, Impact of Event Scale-Revised [pancreatic cancer risk-related distress], cancer risk perception, and cancer worry) in participants with inherited or familial pancreatic cancer risk. A multisite cross sectional survey of adults with elevated pancreatic cancer risk based on family history. All variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. To assess univariate associations, t test and chi-square/Fisher's exact test were used, and backward model selection was used in multivariable analysis. Respondents (N = 132) reported moderate to high frequency of cancer worry and 59.3% perceived a 50% or more perceived lifetime risk for pancreatic cancer, which far exceeds objective risk estimates. Cancer worry was associated with female gender (P = .03) and pancreatic cancer risk specific distress (P = .05). Higher-risk perception was associated with having a high school education or less (P = .001), higher distress (P = .02), and cancer worry (P = .008) and family cancer death experience (P = .02). Higher distress was associated with experience as a caregiver to a seriously ill family member in the past 5 years (P = .006). Individuals with inherited or familial pancreatic cancer risk experience cancer worry, distress, and have increased risk perception, particularly in the period following caring for a loved one with cancer. Routine evaluation of distress in this setting, as well as the development of supportive care resources, will help support patients living with risk for pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Personal characteristics relating to radium loss over a decade or more in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Jansen, A.; Kotek, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Personal habits and biological characteristics of 42 female Illinois radium workers first employed during the 1920s were analyzed in relationship to radium loss in late adult life. The 42 women met the criteria that they first were examined between 1957 and 1969 and are no longer employed, have had two or more radium body-burden measurements by gamma spectroscopy, 10-year minimum interval exists between initial and final measurements, and exhibit a RaC body burden in 1970 or later of ≥.137 kBQ. High radium body burdens are associated with decreased rates of radium elimination, as previously described. However, the most powerful predictor was coffee/tea consumption, increased consumption being associated with increased rates of radium elimination and explaining ∼35% of the variance. The effect persisted after deletion of smokers and subjects with x-ray evidence of bone damage. Weight/height ratios were positively associated with radium excretion. Individuals smoking cigarettes throughout the study period had significantly low rates of elimination of radium, similar to subjects with x-ray evidence of significant radiation-induced bone damage. Both smokers and subjects with x-ray evidence of radiation damage to bone had low weight/height ratios, suggesting that biological promoters of radiation damage to bone may exist. Rates of radium elimination were significantly associated with (linear) bone density, demonstrating that rates of loss of radium cannot be assumed to be independent of adult or postmenopausal bone density losses. Number of children and age of menopause did not have demonstrable effects on radium elimination. 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Personal characteristics relating to radium loss over a decade or more in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Kotek, T.J.; Jansen, A.

    1987-01-01

    Personal habits and biological characteristics of 42 female Illinois radium workers first employed during the 1920s were analyzed in relationship to radium loss in late adult life. The 42 women met the following criteria: (1) first examined between 1957 and 1969, and no longer employed; (2) two or more radium body-burden measurements by gamma spectroscopy; (3) 10-year minimum interval between initial and final measurements; and (4) a RaC body burden in 1970 or later of ≥0.137 kBq. High radium body burdens were significantly associated with decreased rates of radium elimination; however, the most powerful predictor was coffee/tea consumption (p<.005), increased consumption being associated with increased rates of radium elimination and explaining ∼35% of the variance. The effect persisted after deletion of smokers and subjects with X-ray evidence of bone damage. Weight/height ratios were positively associated with radium excretion (p<.025). Smokers throughout the study period had significantly low rates of elimination of radium, similar to subjects with X-ray evidence of significant radiation-induced bone damage. Both smokers and subjects with X-ray evidence of radiation damage to bone had low weight/height ratios, suggesting that biological promoters of radiation damage to bone may exist. Rates of radium elimination were significantly associated with bone density, demonstrating that rates of loss of radium cannot be assumed to be independent of adult or postmenopausal bone density losses. Parity and age of menopause did not demonstrably affect radium elimination. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  2. Equity in interviews: do personal characteristics impact on admission interview scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Andrew B; Homer, Matthew; Miller, Amy

    2010-11-01

    Research indicates that some social groups are disadvantaged by medical school selection systems. The stage(s) of a selection process at which this occurs is unknown, but at interview, when applicant and interviewer are face-to-face, there is potential for social bias to occur. We performed a detailed audit of the interview process for a single-entry year to a large UK medical school. Our audit included investigating the personal characteristics of both interviewees and interviewers to find out whether any of these factors, including the degree of social matching between individual pairs of interviewees and interviewers, influenced the interview scores awarded. A total of 320 interviewers interviewed 734 applicants, providing complete data for 2007 interviewer-interviewee interactions. The reliability of the interview process was estimated using generalisability theory at 0.82-0.87. For both interviewers and interviewees, gender, ethnic background, socio-economic group and type of school attended had no influence on the interview scores awarded or achieved. Staff and student interviewer marks did not differ significantly. Although numbers in each group of staff interviewers were too small for formal statistical analysis, there were no obvious differences in marks awarded between different medical specialties or between interviewers with varying amounts of interviewing experience. Our data provide reassurance that the interview does not seem to be the stage of selection at which some social groups are disadvantaged. These results support the continued involvement of senior medical students in the interview process. Despite the lack of evidence that an interview is useful for predicting future academic or clinical success, most medical schools continue to use interviews as a fundamental component of their selection process. Our study has shown that at least this arguably misplaced reliance upon interviewing is not introducing further social bias into the selection

  3. Airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around a thermal manikin - Impact of specific personal and indoor environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Tham, Kwok Wai; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    , and ventilation flow considerably affected airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around the thermal manikin. Under the specific set of conditions studied, the most favorable airflow patterns in preventing the feet pollution from reaching the breathing zone was transverse flow from the front......This study presents a summary of experimental measurements on the airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around a non-breathing thermal manikin. The two objectives are: (1) to examine the extent to which personal (body posture, clothing insulation, table positioning) and environmental...... factors (room air temperature and ventilation flow) affect the airflow characteristic (velocity and temperature) around the thermal manikin and (2) to examine the pollution distribution within the convective boundary layer (CBL) around a thermal manikin and personal exposure to two types of airborne...

  4. Analysis of General Personality Characteristics of High School Students Who Take and Do not Take Vocational Music Training according to Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Yağışan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authorities claim that music training helps children and young people gain insight and actualize themselves and it contributes to their self-expression, self-confidence and socialization process. As known, music education that children and adolescences get varies for several reasons, and particularly the aims, the ways, and the intensity of courses differ according to the school types. From this context, the students of the high schools of fine arts getting vocational musical training and the students of general high schools not getting the vocational training were investigated by means of a general personality inventory, and a research was conducted to examine whether or not music education supports the personality development of the high school students. In the study, 140 students attending the last grade of high schools of fine arts, 140 students attending last grade of general high schools with total amount of 280 were randomly selected. The students were administered a 168 item personality inventory to determine their characteristics of ‘social, personal and general adaptation’ levels. Following findings were obtained as a result of the survey: When the total scales “general adaptation”, “social adaptation” and “personal adaptation” levels, including the sub-scales of ‘family affairs, social affairs, social norms, anti-social tendencies’, ‘self-actualization, emotional decisiveness, neurotic tendencies and psychotic symptoms’, were examined, the scores of students who get vocational music training were found significantly higher than the students who do not get it. The results of the study show that music training supports the personality development of adolescences positively.

  5. The roles of users personal characteristics and organisational support in the attitude towards using ERP systems in a Spanish public hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Rodriguez, Tomas; Bartual-Sopena, Lourdes

    Enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems enable central and integrative control over all processes throughout an organisation by ensuring one data entry point and the use of a common database. T his paper analyses the attitude of healthcare personnel towards the use of an ERP system in a Spanish public hospital, identifying influencing factors. This research is based on a regression analysis of latent variables using the optimisation technique of partial least squares. We propose a research model including possible relationships among different constructs using the technology acceptance model. Our results show that the personal characteristics of potential users are key factors in explaining attitude towards using ERP systems.

  6. The subjective well-being of a person as a prism of personal and socio-psychological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perelygina E.B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuropsychology is a science with its own specific concepts, terms, and methods of analysis of disturbances in psychological development. One of the essential concepts of neuropsychological methodology, according to A.R. Luria, is that of a neuropsychological syndrome, which takes into account both the functional organization of the brain and the behavioral system. However, this concept isn’t mentioned in the majority of his publications, and thus is not well known by neuropsychologists. There is no clear understanding of this concept within the works of modern neuropsychologists. This omission has a strong influence on the way analysis and interpretation of developmental difficulties is carried out today. Objective. The objective of this study is to present an example of the successful application of qualitative syndromic analysis to the case of a Mexican preschool child with developmental problems and learning disabilities. Design. The clinical analysis was applied to the case of a 6 year old girl with learning disabilities, whose difficulties had been attributed primarily to a low level of general brain activation. Results. The authors assert that the advantages of A.R. Luria’s syndromic approach to clinical cases of difficulties in development and learning disabilities, are that it opens up the potential for finding the general causes on different levels: neuronal maturation, brain mechanisms, activity and personality. Conclusion. The authors conclude that the topic of syndromic analysis in child neuropsychology requires further scientific discussion. The necessity for revising levels of analysis of clinical cases should be taken in account.

  7. Web-Based Language Learning Perception and Personality Characteristics of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Meisam; Gharibeh, Sajjad Gharibeh

    2016-01-01

    The significance of learners' personality in language learning/teaching contexts has often been cited in literature but few studies have scrutinized the role it can play in technology-oriented language classes. In modern language teaching/learning contexts, personality differences are important and should be taken into account. This study…

  8. Drug Abuse Patterns, Personality Characteristics, and Relationships with Sex, Race, and Sensation Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined interrelationships among sex, race, drug-use patterns, and personality variables in chronic users of illicit drugs. Blacks were characterized by lower levels of sensation seeking, less psychopathology, use of fewer drug categories, and later drug use than Whites. Use and personality patterns among women differed little from men.…

  9. Do Dispositional Characteristics Influence Reading? Examining the Impact of Personality on Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, S. Kathleen; McCreery, Michael P.; Loe, Scott A.; Jones, W. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates specific relationships between personality traits and general academic performance. In addition, research studies have demonstrated relationships among personality and variables related to reading fluency (i.e. speed, accuracy, automaticity, and prosody). However, little investigation has examined specific links…

  10. Offender Characteristics in Lethal Violence with Special Reference to Antisocial and Autistic Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the relationships between personality traits, lifetime psychosocial functioning, and crime scene behavior. Thirty-five male offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden (1996-2001) and assigned a main diagnosis of either antisocial personality disorder (APD) or autism spectrum disorder…

  11. Self-perceived personality characteristics in seasonal affective disorder and their implications for severity of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke H; Ozenne, Brice

    2018-01-01

    The personality traits Neuroticism and Extraversion may be involved in the development of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). However, the impact of personality traits on SAD severity and whether such self-reported traits fluctuate with season is unknown. We investigated the association between...... Neuroticism, as acquired in a symptom-free phase and depression severity in individuals with SAD and seasonal changes in personality traits in individuals with SAD compared to healthy controls. Twenty-nine individuals diagnosed with SAD and thirty demographically matched controls completed the NEO Personality...... Inventory-Revised and the Major Depression Inventory twice: in summer when individuals with SAD were symptom-free, and in winter when they experienced SAD symptoms. In summer, the groups scored similarly on their personality traits, and the controls did not score any different in winter compared to summer...

  12. Identifying Early Childhood Personality Dimensions Using the California Child Q-Set and Prospective Associations With Behavioral and Psychosocial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Schalet, Benjamin D; Hicks, Brian M; Zucker, Robert A

    2013-08-01

    The present study used an empirical, "bottom-up" approach to delineate the structure of the California Child Q-Set (CCQ), a comprehensive set of personality descriptors, in a sample of 373 preschool-aged children. This approach yielded two broad trait dimensions, Adaptive Socialization (emotional stability, compliance, intelligence) and Anxious Inhibition (emotional/behavioral introversion). Results demonstrate the value of using empirical derivation to investigate the structure of personality in young children, speak to the importance of early-evident personality traits for adaptive development, and are consistent with a growing body of evidence indicating that personality structure in young children is similar, but not identical to, that in adults, suggesting a model of broad personality dimensions in childhood that evolve into narrower traits in adulthood.

  13. The personalized reminder information and social management system (PRISM) trial: rationale, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; A Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N

    2015-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date, there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues, we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65-98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accounting choices in Brazil: identifying the characteristics of publicly traded companies that opted to maintain versus derecognise deferred assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Drago Lorencini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issuance of Brazilian Law 11.638/2007 is a critical step in the convergence of the Brazilian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAPs towards International Financial Reporting Standards. After the law was implemented and later modified by Provisional Executive Order 449/2008 (converted into Law 11.941/2009, certain accounting choices were allowed during the transition period. The Brazilian GAAPs allowed for restructuring costs and costs related to opening a new facility to be recognised as assets. As a transitional provision, companies were allowed to choose between maintaining or eliminating these values. In this paper, we attempted to identify which company characteristics were associated with this accounting choice. The final sample consisted of Brazilian companies listed on the BM & FBOVESPA, and a logistic regression identified two characteristics. Participation in one of the three different corporate governance levels of the BM & FBOVESPA was associated with the choice to derecognise the deferred assets, while companies decided to maintain the deferred asset if it was relatively large. The empirical evidence reported here contributes to the literature by explaining the manner in which a set of firm characteristics is related to a firm's accounting choices.

  15. 在押男性罪犯人格障碍倾向调查%Investigation on personality characteristics of male offenders with personality disorder in one prison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晔; 张绮; 陆慧; 王建明

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the status and distribution of personality disorder among imprisoned male criminals,and to lay foundation in improving the quality of psychological correction.Method:In March 2016,2229 male prisoners in 12 different prisons were recruited and the personality diagnostic questionnaire (PDQ-4) was administered.Results:17.9% of the subjects showed personality disorder.Among them,paranoid,antisocial and obsessive personality disorder ranked the highest.Demographic characteristics,family situation,and the cause of crimes were associated with different subtypes.Conclusion:Male criminals have higher risks for personality disorder than ordinary people.It is necessary to strengthen screening procedure and set up appropriate interventions for focus groups.%目的:探讨监狱在押男性罪犯人格障碍倾向及分布特点. 方法:对某监狱12个监区的2 229名在押男性罪犯采用人格诊断问卷(PDQ-4)进行调查和分析. 结果:调查对象人格障碍倾向阳性检出率17.9%,人格障碍各亚型阳性率最高的是强迫型(36.0%)、反社会型(35.1%)和偏执型(26.7%);人口学特征、家庭情况、案由等与不同亚型阳性检出率有关. 结论:在押男性罪犯的人格障碍倾向较严重,强迫型、反社会型及偏执型多见;有必要加强早期筛查并对重点人群采取相应的干预措施.

  16. The Study of Personality Traits and Demographic Characteristics of Prisoners with Psychopathic Personality Disorder in Comparison with Ordinary Prisoners in Sample of Tehran Prisoners, Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ghaderi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Most conducted research about psychopathy has been done among Western countries' prisoners and it has remained unclear whether these findings are applicable in other contexts. The aim of this is to survey personality traits and demographic characteristics of prisoners with psychopathic personality disorder in comparison with ordinary prisoners in sample of Tehran prisoners.

     

    Methods: This study was done based on descriptive method. 202 prisoners were selected among Ray City prisoners in Tehran and the applied method was sample available. All prisoners completed Hare (PCL-SV psychopathic personality disorder checklist and five personality traits Questionnaire, McCare and Costa (Neo-FFI. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation, Regression, and T student for independent groups.

     

    Results: The prevalence of psychopathy disorder among prisoners of this group was reported 10.89. Statistical analysis by Pearson correlation test, regression analysis and T student independent groups, represent a significant positive relationship between Psychopaty and extraversion (p=1% and a significant negative relationship between openness and Psychopaty (p=5%, agreeableness and conscientiousness (p=1%, respectively. No relationship was found between psychopathy, and neurosis. Furthermore, results indicated that, in comparison with non-psychopathic prisoners, psychopathic prisoners were more neurosis and extraversion, however, they showed low level of openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness.

     

    Conclusion: According to the findings, psychopathic disorder and five personality traits are related. Therefore, futher studies in the field of examined variables can provide more information.

  17. Eating disorders during the adolescence: personality characteristics associated with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas Iglesias, Belén; Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Laporta Herrero, Isabel; Santed Germán, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-24

    Previous studies provide relevant information about the relationship between personality and eating disorders (ED). The involvement of personality factors in the etiology and maintenance of ED indicates the need of emphasizing the study of the adolescent's personality when diagnosed of ED. The aims of this study were to analyze the adolescent's personality profiles that differ significantly in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), and to explore the most common profiles and their associations with those subtypes of eating disorders (ED). A total of 104 patients with AN and BN were studied by means of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). The personality profiles that differ significantly in both AN and BN were submissive, egotistic, unruly, forceful, conforming, oppositional, self-demeaning and borderline. The most frequent profiles in AN were conforming (33.33%), egotistic (22.72%) and dramatizing (18.18%) while in the case of BN those profiles were unruly (18.42%), submissive (18.42%) and borderline (15.78%). We did not find any associations between the diagnostic subgroup (AN, BN) and the fact of having personality profiles that could become dysfunctional. Bearing in mind these results, it may be concluded that there are relevant differences between personality profiles associated with AN and BN during adolescence, so tailoring therapeutic interventions for this specific population would be important.

  18. Personal and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Choice of Active Transport Modes versus Car Use for Different Trip Purposes of Trips up to 7.5 Kilometers in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, C.E.; Wendel-Vos, W.; van Kempen, E.; Panis, L.; Maas, J.; Stipdonk, H.; Moerman, M.; den Hertog, F.; Staatsen, B.; van Wesemael, P.; Schuit, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:This explorative study examines personal and neighbourhood characteristics associated with short-distance trips made by car, bicycle or walking in order to identify target groups for future interventions.Methods:Data were derived from 'Mobility Research Netherlands (2004-2009; MON)', a

  19. Identifying preferred format and source of exercise information in persons with multiple sclerosis that can be delivered by health-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel M; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing recognition of the benefits of exercise in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet the MS population does not engage in sufficient amounts of exercise to accrue health benefits. There has been little qualitative inquiry to establish the preferred format and source for receiving exercise information from health-care providers among persons with MS. We sought to identify the desired and preferred format and source of exercise information for persons with MS that can be delivered through health-care providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild or moderate disability and participated in a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, (i) approach for receiving exercise promotion and (ii) ideal person for promoting exercise. Persons with MS want to receive exercise information through in-person consultations with health-care providers, print media and electronic media. Persons with MS want to receive exercise promotion from health-care providers with expertise in MS (ie neurologists) and with expertise in exercise (eg physical therapists). These data support the importance of understanding how to provide exercise information to persons with MS and identifying that health-care providers including neurologists and physical therapists should be involved in exercise promotion. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Deep Learning Identifies High-z Galaxies in a Central Blue Nugget Phase in a Characteristic Mass Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Primack, J. R.; Dekel, A.; Koo, D. C.; Lapiner, S.; Ceverino, D.; Simons, R. C.; Snyder, G. F.; Bernardi, M.; Chen, Z.; Domínguez-Sánchez, H.; Lee, C. T.; Margalef-Bentabol, B.; Tuccillo, D.

    2018-05-01

    We use machine learning to identify in color images of high-redshift galaxies an astrophysical phenomenon predicted by cosmological simulations. This phenomenon, called the blue nugget (BN) phase, is the compact star-forming phase in the central regions of many growing galaxies that follows an earlier phase of gas compaction and is followed by a central quenching phase. We train a convolutional neural network (CNN) with mock “observed” images of simulated galaxies at three phases of evolution— pre-BN, BN, and post-BN—and demonstrate that the CNN successfully retrieves the three phases in other simulated galaxies. We show that BNs are identified by the CNN within a time window of ∼0.15 Hubble times. When the trained CNN is applied to observed galaxies from the CANDELS survey at z = 1–3, it successfully identifies galaxies at the three phases. We find that the observed BNs are preferentially found in galaxies at a characteristic stellar mass range, 109.2–10.3 M ⊙ at all redshifts. This is consistent with the characteristic galaxy mass for BNs as detected in the simulations and is meaningful because it is revealed in the observations when the direct information concerning the total galaxy luminosity has been eliminated from the training set. This technique can be applied to the classification of other astrophysical phenomena for improved comparison of theory and observations in the era of large imaging surveys and cosmological simulations.

  1. Czech teachers’ attitudes toward typical characteristics of intellectually gifted learners with dyslexia and the issue of identifying and educating them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Portešová

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented study deals with the issue of basic school teachers’ attitudestowards selected behavioral and cognitive characteristics of intellectually gifted lear-ners with dyslexia and the issue of identifying and educating these learners. Researchis being conducted at the time as a Greek-Czech intercultural study. However, in thepresented contribution only Czech research data are analyzed and interpreted. In theresearch, we used Attitudes Toward Giftedness/Learning disability – Dyslexia Scale byGreek authors Gari, Panagiota, Nikolopoulou (2006. This method was administeredto 158 teachers from all over the Czech Republic. Based on statistical analysis, thepresented empirical examination reached some important conclusions. It became clearthat Czech teachers are good at identifying characteristics related to manifestations ofa “gifted learner” and a “learner with a learning disability”. Moreover, they are able toidentify also the so-called duality in learning abilities, i.e. the simultaneousness of abi-lity and handicap in the learning process manifested in a particular cognitive domain.However, they identify this duality especially within Czech language. The most proble-matic appears to be the accepting of the existence of this typical characteristic of thegiven population of learners in other academic subjects, for example in mathematics.It is here in particular where teachers tend to expect nothing but exceptional perfor-mance, without a possibility of partial failure (they derive it from giftedness. It seemsthat due to the refusal of the existence of duality in learning ability intervening in allacademic subjects, it can lead to a wrong identification of this minority group of thegifted. Nevertheless, this fact must be confirmed in further empiric research.

  2. Personality characteristics in surgery seeking and non-surgery seeking obese individuals compared to non-obese controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Hjordt, Liv V; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    It is currently unknown what makes some obese individuals opt for bariatric surgery whereas others choose not to. The aim of this study was to examine whether personality characteristics differed between obese individuals signed up for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (N=30) and obese individuals...... groups did not differ in terms of personality. The Neuroticism domain and possibly the Extraversion domain may therefore be worthwhile to consider in future studies investigating the outcome of bariatric surgery....... not seeking RYGB (N=30) compared to non-obese controls (N=30). All participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. The obese RYGB group displayed higher levels of Neuroticism and borderline lower levels of Extraversion compared to the obese non-RYGB and the non-obese group, while the two latter...

  3. Analysis of personality characteristics of intellectually gifted students, causing difficulties in their process of preschool and school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermakov S.S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Talented and intellectually gifted students often have difficulties in emotional and personal spheres in their learning process at school. Social maladjustment, emotional instability, increased anxiety and a number of other problems in the development of the personal sphere are common to students with a conventional development of intellectual abilities, but in the case of gifted students they are more frequent and intensive. If these problems are ignored by school teachers, psychologists and parents of gifted students, they can lead to a decrease in the ability of these children and even to a certain delay in the development of their academic abilities. The article provides an overview of contemporary foreign works aimed at identification and analysis of personal problems in gifted students. It describes different types of gifted students, their psychological characteristics that must be considered in the process of organizing their schooling with the aim of support to and development of their learning skills.

  4. Elements of person knowledge: Episodic recollection helps us to identify people but not to recognize their faces

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Faces automatically draw attention, allowing rapid assessments of personality and likely behaviour. How we respond to people is, however, highly dependent on whether we know who they are. According to face processing models person knowledge comes from an extended neural system that includes structures linked to episodic memory. Here we use scalp recorded brain signals to demonstrate the specific role of episodic memory processes during face processing. In two experiments we recorded Event-Rel...

  5. Impact of Personal Characteristics and Technical Factors on Quantification of Sodium 18F-Fluoride Uptake in Human Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Thomassen, Anders; de Jong, Pim A

    2015-01-01

    Sodium (18)F-fluoride ((18)F-NaF) PET/CT imaging is a promising imaging technique for assessment of atherosclerosis, but is hampered by a lack of validated quantification protocols. Both personal characteristics and technical factors can affect quantification of arterial (18)F-NaF uptake....... This study investigated if blood activity, renal function, injected dose, circulating time, and PET/CT system affect quantification of arterial (18)F-NaF uptake. METHODS: Eighty-nine healthy subjects were prospectively examined by (18)F-NaF PET/CT imaging. Arterial (18)F-NaF uptake was quantified...... assessed the effect of personal characteristics and technical factors on quantification of arterial (18)F-NaF uptake. RESULTS: NaFmax and TBRmax/mean were dependent on blood activity (β = .34 to .44, P

  6. A social work study to investigate the relationships between women’s personal characteristics and employment status

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Basity; Mohammad Reza Iravani; Zahra Ghassabi; Faezeh Taghipour; Hajar Jannesari

    2013-01-01

    Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measur...

  7. The Characteristics of Personal Order Sets in a Computerized Physician Order Entry System at a Community Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sean M.; Davis, Daniel C.

    2003-01-01

    Personal order sets (POS) have been touted as important for the success of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system1. However, POS may systematize practice variability and are difficult to centrally administer. Few studies have looked at the characteristics and use of POS in a community hospital. We examined how POS are used at the Queen’s Medical Center (QMC). POS are an important part of the success of the QMC CPOE, but have definite disadvantages.

  8. Personality Characteristics, Early Maladaptive Schema and Family Function in Couples Initiating for Divorce Versus Non-Initiating Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محسن دهقانی

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision for divorce depends on various personal and interpersonal variables. Personality characteristics and early maladaptive schema as two individual, and family function, as an interpersonal variable would play crucial role in helping people to cope with problems in life. A sample of 285 couples (147 initiator, and 138 noninitiator were recruited in the family courts, and residential districts in Tehran. They completed a battery of questionnaire including NEO (five factor personality questionnaire, short form of early maladaptive schema questionnaire (YSR, and McMaster family assessment device (FAD. Groups were matched based on age, education level, social economic status, and years of marriage. Results indicated statistical significant differences between two groups in personality characteristics (neuroticism, openness to new experiences, agreeableness and consciousness early maladaptive schemas (emotional deprivation, rejection, distrust, pessimism and emotional inhibition, and family function (problem solving, roles, and behavioral control. The result of regression logistic analysis showed that 34 to 45 percent of dependent variable predicted by these 12 independent variable. As such, it seems that there is a need to attend the factors would play a role both at primary prevention level and secondary level that psychologists and counselors could consider when providing mental health services.

  9. Sensorimotor gating characteristics of violent men with comorbid psychosis and dissocial personality disorder: Relationship with antisocial traits and psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Ottilie; Young, Susan; Greer, Ben; Arnold, Jack; Parsons, Aisling; Puzzo, Ignazio; Terracciano, Mariafatima; Das, Mrigendra; Kumari, Veena

    2017-07-06

    Evidence suggests violence amongst those with psychosis is not aetiologically homogeneous, and that a large proportion of those who engage in violent behaviour have a comorbid antisocial personality disorder. Initial investigations indicate that this subgroup has distinct historical and neuropsychological characteristics, which may indicate diverse treatment needs. This study investigated sensorimotor gating characteristics of violent men with diagnoses of both psychosis and dissocial personality disorder (DPD) (n=21) relative to violent men with psychosis alone (n=12), DPD alone (n=14) and healthy, non-violent male controls (n=27), using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm. The results indicated that, relative to the psychosis alone and healthy control groups, the comorbid group had lower PPI, especially at 60-ms prepulse-to-pulse interval. The DPD group took an intermediary position and did not differ from any group. Antisocial personality traits (factor two scores of the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised), and greater severity of childhood psychosocial deprivation (including physical and sexual abuse), were significantly correlated with poor PPI across the clinical sample. The findings suggest diverse sensorimotor gating profiles amongst subgroups of violent offenders, with comorbid psychosis and DPD showing most impairment. This is consistent with a 'double dose' of deficit explanation amongst those with both diagnoses, explained at least in part by presence of antisocial personality traits and childhood psychosocial deprivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between kinematic risky driving among parents and their teenage children: moderation by shared personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Xie, Yunlong; Klauer, Sheila G; Albert, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the driving behavior of 42 parent-teenager dyads for 18 months, under naturalistic driving conditions. At baseline participants' personality characteristics were assessed. Objective risky driving measures (kinematic risky driving) were captured by accelerometers for the duration of the study. To estimate teenage and parent correlations in kinematic risky driving, separate Poisson regression models were fit for teenagers and parents. Standardized residuals were computed for each trip for each individual. Correlations were obtained by estimating the Spearman rank correlations of the individual average residuals across teenagers and parents. The bootstrap technique was used to estimate the standard errors associated with the parent-teenager correlations. The overall correlation between teenage and parent kinematic risky driving for the 18-month study period was positive, but weak (r=0.18). When the association between parent and teenagers' risky driving was adjusted for shared personality characteristics, the correlation reduced to 0.09. Although interesting, the 95% confidence intervals on the difference between these two estimates overlapped zero. We conclude that the weak similarity in parent-teen kinematic risky driving was partly explained by shared personality characteristics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Microenvironmental characteristics important for personal exposures to aldehydes in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, J. H.; Akland, G.; Johnson, T. R.; Long, T.; Michael, L.; Cauble, L.; McCombs, M.

    Oxygenated additives in gasoline are designed to decrease the ozone-forming hydrocarbons and total air toxics, yet they can increase the emissions of aldehydes and thus increase human exposure to these toxic compounds. This paper describes a study conducted to characterize targeted aldehydes in microenvironments in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI, and to improve our understanding of the impact of the urban environment on human exposure to air toxics. Data were obtained from microenvironmental concentration measurements, integrated, 24-h personal measurements, indoor and outdoor pollutant monitors at the participants' residences, from ambient pollutant monitors at fixed-site locations in each city, and from real-time diaries and questionnaires completed by the technicians and participants. As part of this study, a model to predict personal exposures based on individual time/activity data was developed for comparison to measured concentrations. Predicted concentrations were generally within 25% of the measured concentrations. The microenvironments that people encounter daily provide for widely varying exposures to aldehydes. The activities that occur in those microenvironments can modulate the aldehyde concentrations dramatically, especially for environments such as "indoor at home." By considering personal activity, location (microenvironment), duration in the microenvironment, and a knowledge of the general concentrations of aldehydes in the various microenvironments, a simple model can do a reasonably good job of predicting the time-averaged personal exposures to aldehydes, even in the absence of monitoring data. Although concentrations of aldehydes measured indoors at the participants' homes tracked well with personal exposure, there were instances where personal exposures and indoor concentrations differed significantly. Key to the ability to predict exposure based on time/activity data is the quality and completeness of the microenvironmental

  12. Excessive physical demands in modern worklife and characteristics of work and living conditions of persons at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlqvist, Lena K; Härenstam, Annika; Leijon, Ola; Schéele, Patrik

    2003-10-01

    This study attempted to identify work and leisure-time conditions and life-style factors associated with excess metabolic levels (metabolic demands exceeding one-third of a person's aerobic capacity) at work among men and women. The study focused upon psychological, ergonomic, and physically loading factors and chemical and physical environmental conditions. Data were obtained through self-reports, interviews, workplace analyses, technical measurements, and observations. Gender-specific calculations were used in univariate analyses and in stepwise logistic regression models for excess metabolic level. Twenty-seven percent of the men and twenty-two percent of the women worked at an excess metabolic level during their workday. Awkward work postures, heavy manual materials handling, high circulatory strain, chemical exposures, noise levels, much routine work, and many obstacles to job performance characterized their work conditions. The women had low skill discretion and more often atypical workhours, while the men showed high circulatory strain during leisure-time activities. Important negative life-style factors were a high consumption of alcohol for the men and a high body mass index and no or little regular physical exercise for the women. Metabolic demands in worklife today remain high. The women who exceeded the recommended metabolic level at work in this study were characterized by low pay, poor health, and children at home, in addition to high physical load and psychosocial strain at work. These characteristics indicate a group with few possibilities to leave a hazardous job for a less physically demanding one. The men who worked at an excess metabolic level seemed to be characterized more by a life-style common in some male-dominated work cultures with monotonous work.

  13. Self-reported adherence to oral cancer therapy: relationships with symptom distress, depression, and personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry DL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Donna L Berry,1–3 Traci M Blonquist,4 Fangxin Hong,4,5 Barbara Halpenny,1 Ann H Partridge2,3 1Phyllis F Cantor Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 3Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Background: Therapeutic cancer chemotherapy is most successful when complete dosing is achieved. Because many newer therapeutic agents are oral and self-administered by the patient, adherence is a concern. The purpose of our analysis was to explore relationships between adherence, patient characteristics, and barriers to adherence.Methods: This secondary analysis utilized self-reported data from a randomized trial of self-care management conducted at two cancer centers in the US. Symptom distress was measured using the 15-item Symptom Distress Scale (SDS-15 and depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Adherence to oral medication was self-reported using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Measures were collected via Web-based, study-specific software ~8 weeks after treatment start date. Odds of low/medium adherence (score <8 were explored using univariate logistic regression. Given the number of factors and possible relationships among factors, a classification tree was built in lieu of a multivariable logistic regression model.Results: Of the eligible participants enrolled, 77 were on oral therapy and 70 had an MMAS score. Forty-nine (70% reported a high adherence score (=8. Higher odds of low/medium adherence were associated with greater symptom distress (P=0.09, more depression (P=0.05, chemotherapy vs hormonal oral medication (P=0.03, being female (P=0.02, and being randomized to the control group in the parent trial (P=0.09. Conversely, high adherence was associated with

  14. The relationship of individual psychological and individual-typological characteristics in individuals with personality disorders, committed socially dangerous acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinsky A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between individual psychological and individually-typological characteristics of patients with personality disorders who committed socially dangerous acts were studied, taking into account the severity of the organic factor and the degree of their social dangerousness. 121 males were surveyed, 70 of them were diagnosed with "organic personality disorder" and 33 - personality disorder. The types of personality disorders were diagnosed. The individual variables, the ratio of processes of system activation of behavior and its inhibition, protective styles, especially coping behaviours that constitute aggression, styles of self-regulation were analyzed. It was revealed that low settings of the system activation behavior found in the group of persons with a high degree of social dangerousness, determines the formation of individual psychological treats related to the rigidity behavior, the instability of the motives, impulsivity, negative emotionality, disinhibition. During comparison of samples of individuals with medium and high degree of social dangerousness it has been discovered that self-centeredness, as a component of self-control, high levels of affective components of aggression – anger and immature defense mechanisms significantly distinguish individuals with a high degree of public danger.

  15. Self-perceived personality characteristics in seasonal affective disorder and their implications for severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke H; Ozenne, Brice; Hageman, Ida; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Knudsen, Gitte M; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard

    2018-04-01

    The personality traits Neuroticism and Extraversion may be involved in the development of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). However, the impact of personality traits on SAD severity and whether such self-reported traits fluctuate with season is unknown. We investigated the association between Neuroticism, as acquired in a symptom-free phase and depression severity in individuals with SAD and seasonal changes in personality traits in individuals with SAD compared to healthy controls. Twenty-nine individuals diagnosed with SAD and thirty demographically matched controls completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Major Depression Inventory twice: in summer when individuals with SAD were symptom-free, and in winter when they experienced SAD symptoms. In summer, the groups scored similarly on their personality traits, and the controls did not score any different in winter compared to summer. High scores on Neuroticism in summer was associated with more severe depressive symptoms in winter in SAD individuals. In winter, individuals with SAD scored higher on Neuroticism and lower on Extraversion, both compared to controls and to their own summer scores. Our results support that Neuroticism may represent a vulnerability marker related to SAD, and during a depressive episode Neuroticism and Extraversion may be sensitive markers of SAD pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Mobbing: between personality traits and organizational-managerial characteristics of the occupational environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Platania, Chiara Anna; Di Rosa, Antonio; Alibrandi, Angela; De Luca, Annamaria; Barresi, Gaetano; Di Nola, Carmelina; Cacciola, Anna

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. The relationship between stressful events in the workplace and their effect on health is the subject of numerous studies where the phenomenon of"Mobbing" has become of increasing interest in Social Psychiatry and Occupational Medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between mobbing, occupational stress and personality structure in a group of persons who consulted the "Work Adaptation Disorders Centre" at the Institute of Occupational Medicine between December 2008 and June 2010 for mobbing-related issues. Referring to Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terrorization (LIPT), H. Ege, Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2), it has been possible to assess situations of harassment, the sources and the effects of work stress, as well as personality traits in the study group. The results showed that high levels of occupational stress and inadequate coping strategies can lead to depressive, hysterical and paranoid manifestations. Although the relationship between mobbing, occupational stress and personality traits still remains controversial, there is an association between perception of adverse behaviour and mental health, regardless of the subject's ability to cope with stressful life events. The data seem to confirm that the prevention of bullying must be implemented by the work organization and by handling interpersonal conflicts in the work context.

  17. Analyzing the topological, electrical and reliability characteristics of a power transmission system for identifying its critical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, E.; Golea, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the analysis of an electrical transmission system with the objective of identifying its most critical elements with respect to failures and attacks. The methodological approach undertaken is based on graph-theoretical (topological) network analysis. Four different perspectives of analysis are considered within the formalism of weighed networks, adding to the purely topological analysis of the system, the reliability and electrical characteristics of its components. In each phase of the analysis: i) a graph-theoretical representation is offered to highlight the structure of the most important system connections according to the particular characteristics examined (topological, reliability, electrical or electrical-reliability), ii) the classical degree index of a network node is extended to account for the different characteristics considered. The application of these concepts of analysis to an electrical transmission system of literature confirms the importance of different perspectives of analysis on such a critical infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We analyze a power system from topological, reliability and electrical perspectives. ► We rank critical components within a vulnerability assessment framework. ► We compute an extended degree to rank critical energy paths. ► We compare several analytical approaches and provide a table for choosing among them. ► We suggest network changes to increase the reliability of highly loaded energy paths.

  18. Identifying individual- and population-level characteristics that influence rates of risky alcohol consumption in regional communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Courtney; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; D'Este, Catherine; Mattick, Richard P; Gilmour, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    To examine the extent to which individual- and community- level characteristics account for differences in risky alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2,977 randomly selected individuals from 20 regional communities in NSW, Australia. Individuals drinking at harmful levels on the AUDIT and for risk of harm in the short term and long-term were identified. Multi-level modelling of the correlates of risky alcohol consumption at the individual and community level was conducted. There were differences between communities in alcohol consumption patterns. Being male, unmarried and reporting worse health were significant individual-level correlates for drinking at levels for risk of harm in the long term. The number of GPs (+) and police (-) were significant community characteristics. Being younger (≤25), unmarried, Australian born and with a larger income was associated with drinking at levels for risk of harm in the short term and harmful drinking on the AUDIT. The number of hotels and clubs was positively associated with drinking at levels for risk of harm in the short term. Rates of risky drinking vary significantly between communities and both individual and community characteristics are significantly associated with risky alcohol consumption. A combination of individual- and population-level interventions, tailored to the risk profile of individual communities, is most likely to be optimally effective. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. PRIORITY VALUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GOVERNOR’S PERSONAL BRAND (on the example of the Smolensk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н Н Розанова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary model of social development presupposes a high level of public confi-dence to state institutions, which determines the need to address categories of reputation and brand. Power as a value implies a high level of recognition, acceptance and identification (“my power”, “our power”. The article presents the results of the sociological study of the personal brand of the Smolensk Region governor (in December 2016; the author’s definition of the personal brand of the governor based on his image and representing a specific aspect of reputation, its most significant and stable features; the value characteristics of real and ideal (desired personal brand of the governor; key features that determine the strength of the brand - integrity, distinctiveness and significance. The author comes to the conclusion about the predominantly positive real personal brand of the governor of the Smolensk Region despite its low degree of uniqueness and mosaic nature, which indicates ineffective steps of the government to form a personal brand of the governor. The desired personal brand of the governor, though more pronounced than the real one, also does not possess integrity or uniqueness. The significance, or identity of the governor’s brand, in the perception of the population is high enough in terms of its content, but its ‘directions’ (positive/negative differ. The relatively high level of identity of the personal brand of the governor to some extent compensates the weakness of its distinctiveness and integrity for they are not important for the population.

  20. Within-person changes in salivary testosterone and physical characteristics of puberty predict boys' daily affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipker, Kathrin; Wrzus, Cornelia; Rauers, Antje; Boker, Steven M; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    Recent investigations highlighted the role of within-person pubertal changes for adolescents' behavior. Yet, little is known about effects on adolescents' daily affect, particularly regarding the hormonal changes underlying physical changes during puberty. In a study with 148 boys aged 10 to 20years, we tested whether within-person physical and hormonal changes over eight months predicted everyday affect fluctuations, measured with experience sampling. As expected, greater within-person changes in testosterone (but not in dehydroepiandrosterone) were associated with higher affect fluctuations in daily life. Additionally, greater physical changes predicted higher affect fluctuations for individuals in the beginning of puberty. The findings demonstrate the relevance of physical and hormonal changes in boys' affective (in)stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Virtual street-crossing performance in persons with multiple sclerosis: Feasibility and task performance characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, M E; Pilutti, L A; Crowell, J A; Kaczmarski, H; Motl, R W

    2017-01-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that commonly results in physical and cognitive dysfunction. Accordingly, MS might impact the ability to safely cross the street. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a simulated street-crossing task in persons with MS and to determine differences in street-crossing performance between persons with MS and non-MS controls. 26 participants with MS (median Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score = 3.5) and 19 controls completed 40 trials of a virtual street-crossing task. There were 2 crossing conditions (i.e., no distraction and phone conversation), and participants performed 20 trials per condition. Participants were instructed that the goal of the task was to cross the street successfully (i.e., without being hit be a vehicle). The primary outcome was task feasibility, assessed as completion and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were measures of street-crossing performance. Overall, the simulated street-crossing task was feasible (i.e., 90% completion, no adverse events) in participants with MS. Participants with MS waited longer and were less attentive to traffic before entering the street compared with controls (all P .05). A virtual street-crossing task is feasible for studying street-crossing behavior in persons with mild MS and most individuals with moderate MS. Virtual street-crossing performance is impaired in persons with MS compared to controls; however, persons with MS do not appear to be more vulnerable to a distracting condition. The virtual reality environment presents a safe and useful setting for understanding pedestrian behavior in persons with MS.

  2. The characteristics of peripheral blood leukocytes in persons working with ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zykova, I.A.; Sokolova, N.B.; Yas'kova, V.Z.

    1984-01-01

    Functional and qualitative changes of peripheral blood cellular composition were studied in persons working over a long period of time with ionizing radiation sources under the action of various factors of production upon an organism. Appression of a function and increase of T-lymphocyte chromosome damages were revealed against the background of a decrease both of enzymatic activity level and leukocyte number in persons operating for a long time (more than 10 years) with ionizing radiation sources. Discovered changes occurred under the action upon a human being not only of small doses of ionizing radiation but a whole complex of industrial factors which may initiate changes of adapted character

  3. Dose estimate for personal music players including earphone sensitivity and characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Christensen, Anders Tornvig

    2016-01-01

    Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user. In the pres......Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user...... earphone measurements published in the past. The work is on-going....

  4. Personality Characteristics, Job Stressors, and Job Satisfaction: Main and Interaction Effects on Psychological and Physical Health Conditions of Italian Schoolteachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers' psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers' self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. CASPer, an online pre-interview screen for personal/professional characteristics: prediction of national licensure scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Kelly L; Reiter, Harold I; Kreuger, Sharyn; Norman, Geoffrey R

    2017-05-01

    Typically, only a minority of applicants to health professional training are invited to interview. However, pre-interview measures of cognitive skills predict for national licensure scores (Gauer et al. in Med Educ Online 21 2016) and subsequently licensure scores predict for performance in practice (Tamblyn et al. in JAMA 288(23): 3019-3026, 2002; Tamblyn et al. in JAMA 298(9):993-1001, 2007). Assessment of personal and professional characteristics, with the same psychometric rigour of measures of cognitive abilities, are needed upstream in the selection to health profession training programs. To fill that need, Computer-based Assessment for Sampling Personal characteristics (CASPer)-an on-line, video-based screening test-was created. In this paper, we examine the correlation between CASPer and Canadian national licensure examination outcomes in 109 doctors who took CASPer at the time of selection to medical school. Specifically, CASPer scores were correlated against performance on cognitive and 'non-cognitive' subsections of both the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination (MCCQE) Parts I (end of medical school) and Part II (18 months into specialty training). Unlike most national licensure exams, MCCQE has specific subcomponents examining personal/professional qualities, providing a unique opportunity for comparison. The results demonstrated moderate predictive validity of CASPer to national licensure outcomes of personal/professional characteristics three to six years after admission to medical school. These types of disattenuated correlations (r = 0.3-0.5) are not otherwise predicted by traditional screening measures. These data support the ability of a computer-based strategy to screen applicants in a feasible, reliable test, which has now demonstrated predictive validity, lending evidence of its validation for medical school applicant selection.

  6. Personality Characteristics of the Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to biological mothers of children aged 6-13 (N=100). Found conduct disordered (CD) children (N=13) had mothers with higher MMPI antisocial, histrionic, and disturbed adjustment scores; attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H) children (N=22) had no significant association…

  7. Relations Between Big Five Personality Characteristics and Perceived Support in Adolescents' Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branje, S.J.T.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the longitudinal relations between family members' Big Five personality factors and perceived support. Members of 285 two-parent families with 2 adolescent children judged their own and other family members' Big Five factors and the support perceived from the other members

  8. Which Behavioral and Personality Characteristics Are Associated with Difficulties in Selective Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avisar, Alon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the behavioral and personality profile associated with difficulties in selective attention. Method: A group of participants with ADHD were assessed for ADHD behaviors. Adults with ADHD (n = 22) and without ADHD (n = 84) were tested on the conjunctive visual-search task for selective attention and…

  9. The role of disease characteristics in the ethical debate on personal genome testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bunnik (Eline); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Companies are currently marketing personal genome tests directly-to-consumer that provide genetic susceptibility testing for a range of multifactorial diseases simultaneously. As these tests comprise multiple risk analyses for multiple diseases, they may be difficult to

  10. A Note on Some Problems in the Testing of Personality Characteristics in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Michael; Hill, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    An examination is made of the value of using published personality tests with young blind and partially sighted children. Based on data gathered during a longitudinal investigation into the educational and psychological development of a group of 120 visually impaired learners, the authors conclude that their own selection of a test instrument…

  11. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aymamí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2 to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3 to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4 to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  12. Greek Preschool Children's Playful Behaviour: Assessment and Correlation with Personal and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2013-01-01

    All children and young people need to play. The impulse to play is innate. Yet, the pure essence of play is playfulness a notion not new, yet limitedly researched. Playfulness refers to the individual style each child has to play, which is linked to personality descriptors and attributes. The present study had a twofold aim. On the one hand, it…

  13. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 74 - Declarations of Eligibility by Persons Identified by the Office of Redress Administration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... document with your current legal name and address. For example, you might send a bank or financial... to ORA such as the signed statements of two or more people with personal knowledge of the death... address. For example, you might send a bank or financial statement or a monthly utility bill. Submit...

  14. What's Important to Me: Identifying At-Risk and Resilient Students through Narrative Writing about Personal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepney, Cesalie T.; Elias, Maurice J.; Epstein, Yakov M.

    2015-01-01

    The study explored whether aspects of elementary students' writing about their personal values could predict if students were considered more at risk or more resilient. Essays from 176 fifth-grade students (79.54% African American, 20.46% Hispanic) from a low-income, urban district in New Jersey were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word…

  15. Characteristic interpersonal behavior in dependent and avoidant personality disorder can be observed within very short interaction sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel; Sporberg, Doreen; Rehbein, Diana

    2006-08-01

    We present a behavior observation study of interpersonal behavior in 96 female subjects, who had been screened for the presence of dependent, avoidant, narcissistic and histrionic personality disorder features. Each subject took part in three short role-plays, taken from assertiveness training. Afterwards, both the subject and her role-play partner judged, how assertive the subject had been. Although observation time was very short, dependent and avoidant subjects could be easily identified from their overly submissive behavior in the role-plays. Histrionic and narcissistic subjects did not show distinctive interpersonal behavior. Contrary to a common belief, higher scores on some personality disorder (PD) scales were positively related to cross-situational variability of behavior. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for clinical diagnostics, therapy and the methodology of personality disorder research in general.

  16. Older persons' worries expressed during home care visits: exploring the content of cues and concerns identified by the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafskjold, L.; Eide, T.; Holmström, I.K.; Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Eide, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about how older persons in home care express their concerns. Emotional cues and concerns can be identified by the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES), but the method gives no insight into what causes the distress and the emotions involved. The aims

  17. Asthma characteristics and biomarkers from the Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) longitudinal profiling study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silkoff, P E; Strambu, I; Laviolette, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease and development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. The purpose of the ADEPT study was to correlate clinical features and biomarkers with molecular characteristics, by profiling asthma (NCT01274507). This re...

  18. A multi-resolution analysis of lidar-DTMs to identify geomorphic processes from characteristic topographic length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.; Stark, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Characteristic length scales are often present in topography, and they reflect the driving geomorphic processes. The wide availability of high resolution lidar Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) allows us to measure such characteristic scales, but new methods of topographic analysis are needed in order to do so. Here, we explore how transitions in probability distributions (pdfs) of topographic variables such as (log(area/slope)), defined as topoindex by Beven and Kirkby[1979], can be measured by Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) of lidar DTMs [Stark and Stark, 2001; Sangireddy et al.,2012] and used to infer dominant geomorphic processes such as non-linear diffusion and critical shear. We show this correlation between dominant geomorphic processes to characteristic length scales by comparing results from a landscape evolution model to natural landscapes. The landscape evolution model MARSSIM Howard[1994] includes components for modeling rock weathering, mass wasting by non-linear creep, detachment-limited channel erosion, and bedload sediment transport. We use MARSSIM to simulate steady state landscapes for a range of hillslope diffusivity and critical shear stresses. Using the MRA approach, we estimate modal values and inter-quartile ranges of slope, curvature, and topoindex as a function of resolution. We also construct pdfs at each resolution and identify and extract characteristic scale breaks. Following the approach of Tucker et al.,[2001], we measure the average length to channel from ridges, within the GeoNet framework developed by Passalacqua et al.,[2010] and compute pdfs for hillslope lengths at each scale defined in the MRA. We compare the hillslope diffusivity used in MARSSIM against inter-quartile ranges of topoindex and hillslope length scales, and observe power law relationships between the compared variables for simulated landscapes at steady state. We plot similar measures for natural landscapes and are able to qualitatively infer the dominant geomorphic

  19. Personality characteristics and affective status related to cognitive test performance and gender in patients with memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestberg, Susanna; Passant, Ulla; Risberg, Jarl; Elfgren, Christina

    2007-11-01

    The aims are to study personality characteristics of patients with memory complaints and to assess the presence of objective (OMI) versus subjective (SMI) memory impairment, the affective status, as well as potential gender differences. The patients were assessed by means of a neuropsychiatric examination and a neuropsychological test-battery. The Swedish version of the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used. The 57 patients (38 women, 19 men, mean age 56.9) differed from the Swedish normative group in three of the five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. This was mainly because of the scores of the female patients. Approximately half of the patients had OMI. No differences regarding personality factors or affective status were found between OMI and SMI patients. The female patients scored significantly higher than the male patients on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Neuroticism and symptoms of depression interacted with memory performance and gender. Our findings demonstrate the importance of applying an objective assessment of memory functions and a gender perspective when studying patients with memory complaints.

  20. Personality characteristics and attributes of international medical graduates in general practice training: Implications for supporting this valued Australian workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Caroline O; Eley, Diann S; Walters, Lucie; Elliott, Taryn; Cloninger, Claude Robert

    2016-10-01

    To describe the personality profiles of International Medical Graduates (IMGs) undertaking General Practice (GP) training in Australia. A better understanding of the personal characteristics of IMGs may inform their training and enhance support for their vital contribution to the Australian rural workforce. Cross-sectional self-report questionnaires. Independent variables included socio-demographics, prior training, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Resilience Scale. GP registrars (IMGs = 102; AMGs = 350) training in the Australian General Practice Training rural and general pathway and the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine independent pathway. Univariate analysis explored the differences in levels of traits between IMG and AMG registrars. Compared to the general population both groups have moderately high resilience, and well-organised characters with high Self-directedness, high Cooperativeness and low Self-transcendence, supported by temperaments which were high in Persistence and Reward Dependence. IMGs were different than AMGs in two temperament traits, Novelty Seeking and Persistence and two character traits, Self-directedness and Cooperativeness. Factors such as cultural and training backgrounds, personal and professional expectations, and adjustments necessary to assimilate to a new lifestyle and health system are likely to be responsible for differences found between groups. Understanding the personality profiles of IMGs provides opportunities for targeted training and support which may in turn impact on their retention in rural areas. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  2. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: clinical characteristics, diagnostic difficulties, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Maria C; Eisen, Jane L; Grant, Jon E; Rasmussen, Steven A

    2005-01-01

    The overlap between obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing recognition and continues to be a source of much debate. With the advent of new research methodologies, researchers have attempted to distinguish whether OCPD and OCD are two distinct phenomena that can co-occur or whether they are similar, overlapping constructs. MEDLINE was used to systematically review the OCPD and OCD literature published between 1991 and 2004. Using the more stringent DSM-IV criteria, results from OCD clinical samples suggest that the majority of individuals with OCD (75%) do not have OCPD. Similarly, results from personality disorder samples suggest that the majority of individuals with OCPD (80%) do not have OCD. While there is evidence that OCD and OCPD are linked, the literature does not support either one as a necessary or sufficient component of the other.

  3. Interpersonal characteristics of male criminal offenders: personality, psychopathological, and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F

    2009-03-01

    Interest in conceptualizing the interpersonal style of individuals who engage in serious antisocial behavior has increased in recent years. This study examines the personality, psychopathological, and behavioral correlates of interpersonal dominance and warmth, as operationalized via scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (L. Morey, 2007), across several samples of male prison inmates (combined N = 1,062). Consistent with theory, multivariate analyses indicated that low warmth and, to a lesser extent, high dominance were associated with antisocial and paranoid traits, specifically, and externalizing-spectrum psychopathology more generally, whereas borderline traits and internalizing-spectrum psychopathology were uniquely associated with low interpersonal warmth. Among smaller subsamples of inmates followed prospectively, high dominance and, to a lesser extent, low warmth predicted general and aggressive institutional misconduct, whereas dominance uniquely predicted staff ratings of treatment noncompliance/failure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Exploring the e-cigarette e-commerce marketplace: Identifying Internet e-cigarette marketing characteristics and regulatory gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Miner, Angela; Cuomo, Raphael E

    2015-11-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) market is maturing into a billion-dollar industry. Expansion includes new channels of access not sufficiently assessed, including Internet sales of e-cigarettes. This study identifies unique e-cigarette Internet vendor characteristics, including geographic location, promotional strategies, use of social networking, presence/absence of age verification, and consumer warning representation. We performed structured Internet search engine queries and used inclusion/exclusion criteria to identify e-cigarette vendors. We then conducted content analysis of characteristics of interest. Our examination yielded 57 e-cigarette Internet vendors including 54.4% (n=31) that sold exclusively online. The vast majority of websites (96.5%, n=55) were located in the U.S. Vendors used a variety of sales promotion strategies to market e-cigarettes including 70.2% (n=40) that used more than one social network service (SNS) and 42.1% (n=24) that used more than one promotional sales strategies. Most vendors (68.4%, n=39) displayed one or more health warnings on their website, but often displayed them in smaller font or in their terms and conditions. Additionally, 35.1% (n=20) of vendors did not have any detectable age verification process. E-cigarette Internet vendors are actively engaged in various promotional activities to increase the appeal and presence of their products online. In the absence of FDA regulations specific to the Internet, the e-cigarette e-commerce marketplace is likely to grow. This digital environment poses unique challenges requiring targeted policy-making including robust online age verification, monitoring of SNS marketing, and greater scrutiny of certain forms of marketing promotional practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Born entrepreneur? Adolescents' personality characteristics and self-employment in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Viinikainen, Jutta; Heineck, Guido; Böckerman, Petri; Hintsanen, Mirka; Raitakari, Olli; Pehkonen, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Is there an entrepreneurial personality and does it appear early in life? We provide a new answer on this question by using the so-called Type A behavior traits (Aggression, Leadership, Responsibility, and Eagerness-Energy), measured in childhood and adolescence, and examining their relationship to self-employment propensity in adulthood. Using data from the Young Finns Study linked to the Finnish Longitudinal Employer-Employee Data and the Longitudinal Population Census of Statistics, our re...

  6. The Differences of Coping Mechanism in Extrovert and Introvert Personality Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMAWATI, RAHMAWATI; AGUS ARIE AFFANDIE, AGUS ARIE AFFANDIE; AULA ISNAINIME, AULA ISNAINIME

    2013-01-01

    Students have a lot of work in their daily life , the challenges and demands that must be executed . Lack of understanding of the above makes student anxiety , stress , and even withdraw dependent . This study aimed to differences in coping mechanisms with extrovert and introvert personality traits in the Academy of Health Rajekwesi Bojonegoro . This type of research using comparative designs , The Sample was student of health nursing Academy Rajekwesi Bojonegoro , its amount 79 respon...

  7. Identifying Early Childhood Personality Dimensions Using the California Child Q-Set and Prospective Associations With Behavioral and Psychosocial Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Sylia; Schalet, Benjamin D.; Hicks, Brian M.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used an empirical, “bottom-up” approach to delineate the structure of the California Child Q-Set (CCQ), a comprehensive set of personality descriptors, in a sample of 373 preschool-aged children. This approach yielded two broad trait dimensions, Adaptive Socialization (emotional stability, compliance, intelligence) and Anxious Inhibition (emotional/behavioral introversion). Results demonstrate the value of using empirical derivation to investigate the structure of personalit...

  8. Gender differences in the clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Siever, Larry J; Goodman, Marianne; McNamara, Margaret; Hazlett, Erin A; Koenigsberg, Harold W; New, Antonia S

    2015-10-30

    Gender is an important variable in the study of mental health because of the actual and perceived differences between men and women. Relatively little is known how males and females differ in their manifestations of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Demographic and clinical features of 323 participants with ASPD were assessed and recorded. Women had fewer episodes of antisocial behavior involving or not involving police, higher scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and on Emotional Abuse and Sexual Abuse subscales of the CTQ compared to men. CTQ scores positively correlated with the number of episodes of antisocial behavior involving police in men but not in women. The percentage of patients with comorbid borderline and histrionic personality disorders was higher and the percentage of participants with cocaine use disorder was lower among women compared to men. Comorbid alcohol use disorder was frequent in both groups, while a higher percentage of women had comorbid mood disorders compared to men. Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that CTQ scores, histrionic personality disorder, and antisocial behavior involving the police drive the difference between the groups. Our findings indicate that treatment of individuals with ASPD should focus on the management of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Celiac Disease: Influence of Personality Characteristics and Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gudrun; Zeiler, Michael; Berger, Gabriele; Huber, Wolf-Dietrich; Favaro, Angela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Karwautz, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Patients suffering from celiac disease (CD) have a higher risk of developing disturbed eating behaviour. In a multi-centre study, 259 female adolescents with CD and without a chronic condition were analysed regarding their eating disorder (ED) status, depression, personality, coping strategies and quality of life. Patients with CD and comorbid EDs were older and more often non-compliant with their diet and had a higher body mass index (BMI) and higher levels of depression. Differences in personality features disappear when controlling for age and depression. Higher ill-being and lower joy in life were reported by patients with CD and ED compared with patients without EDs, even when controlling for age and depression levels. No differences between patients (with CD) with and without EDs in coping strategies were found. BMI and lower self-directedness predicted ED status. Early identification of EDs in patients with CD is suggested and should include BMI and personality factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. The Mediating Role of Conscientiousness Personality Characteristic in Relationship between Attitude toward Addiction and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rezaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed at examining the mediating role of personality trait of conscientiousness in the relationship between attitudes towards addiction (which is considered to be a barrier to educational achievement and students’ academic performance. Method: As a cross sectional study lying within the range of descriptive studies, 106 students of Guilan University of medical sciences in 2010-2011 were randomly selected as the study sample and responded to the items of subscale conscientiousnessof NEO Personality Inventory and attitude measurement questionnaire toward addiction. Recent acquired total averages of students were considered as academic performance. Findings: In the first step, the academic performance regression was significant aboard tendency towards addiction. In the second step, however, with entry of conscientiousness as a mediator variable , there was observed a significant decrease in the β coefficient of attitude toward addiction and lost its significance. In other words, the mediator variable, consciousness, plays a mediating part in the relationship between tendency to addiction and educational performance. In general, these two variables could moderately explain 12% of the variance in academic performance to make the adjustment. Conclusion: Conscientious people enjoy higher achievement and lower degree often tendency toward addiction due to such factors as self-regulation, perseverance, and resistance against harmful impulses. Therefore,the personality trait of conscientiousness can counteract the detrimental effect of attitude toward addiction on academic performance through performing a protective role.

  11. BeOSL system for personal dosimetry : dosimetric characteristics and practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, E.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: BeOSL system of Dosimetric s is very easy to use, assimilate and maintain. Our dosimeter defines a milestone in the supervision of personal equivalent dose of Hp (10) and Hp (0.07) it covers the range of total energy of 16 KeV to 10 MeV. For this energy range is exceptional in its energy dependence for official personal dosimetry. The BeOSL system consists of two modules, one of them is the BeOSL reader that measures the radiation exposure using the latest technology, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The reading is extremely fast; it does not require consumables such as nitrogen or other. The detector material is beryllium oxide (Be O); this is an OSL material tissue equivalent and therefore is ideal for personal dosimetry. The BeOSL technology allows multiple readings of the dosimeter (re-read) to verify the dose or archive the dosimeter. One of the biggest advantages of BeOSL system is its modular concept allows the system to run as a manual solution or as a complete automated robotic system, which can be filled with up to 5,000 dosimeters as bulk cargo. (Author)

  12. Using Personal Water Footprints to Identify Consumer Food Choices that Influence the Conservation of Local Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    As the global demand for water and food escalates, the emphasis is on supply side factors rather than demand side factors such as consumers, whose personal water footprints are dominated (>90%) by food. Personal footprints include the water embedded in foods that are produced locally as well as those imported, raising the question of whether local shifts in people's food choices and habits could assist in addressing local water shortages. The current situation in California is interesting in that drought has affected an agriculturally productive region where a substantial portion of its food products are consumed by the state's large population. Unlike most agricultural regions where green water is the primary source of water for crops, California's arid climate demands an enormous volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports many of its food products, enough is consumed in-state so that residents making relatively minor shifts their food choices could save as much local blue water as their implementing more drastic reductions in household water use (comprising food group on both a caloric and gravimetric basis. Another change is wasting less food, which is a shared responsibility among consumers, producers and retailers; however, consumers' actions and preferences ultimately drive much of the waste. Personal water footprints suggest a role for individuals in conserving local water resources that is neither readily obvious nor a major focus of most conservation programs.

  13. Socioeconomic and gender inequalities in job dissatisfaction among Japanese civil servants: the roles of work, family and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Cable, Noriko; Chandola, Tarani; Marmot, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examines (1) whether there are employment grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction and (2) whether work, family, and personality characteristics explain grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction. The participants were 3,812 civil servants, aged 20-65, working at a local government in Japan. In both males and females, low control, low social support, work-to-family conflict, type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity were significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. In females, high demands, long work hours and being unmarried were also associated with job dissatisfaction. Among males, in comparison with the highest grade employees, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for job dissatisfaction in the lowest grade employees was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.40-2.59). The grade differences reduced to 1.08 (0.76-1.54) after adjustment for work, family and personality characteristics. Among females, similar grade differences were observed, although the differences were not statistically significant. In comparison with males, the age-adjusted OR in females for job dissatisfaction was 1.32 (1.14-1.52). This gender difference was reduced to 0.95 (0.79-1.14) following adjustment for the other factors. The majority of employees belong to low to middle grades, and female employees have increased. Reducing grade and gender differences in work and family characteristics is needed.

  14. Socioeconomic and Gender Inequalities in Job Dissatisfaction among Japanese Civil Servants: The Roles of Work, Family and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEKINE, Michikazu; TATSUSE, Takashi; CABLE, Noriko; CHANDOLA, Tarani; MARMOT, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This study examines (1) whether there are employment grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction and (2) whether work, family, and personality characteristics explain grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction. The participants were 3,812 civil servants, aged 20–65, working at a local government in Japan. In both males and females, low control, low social support, work-to-family conflict, type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity were significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. In females, high demands, long work hours and being unmarried were also associated with job dissatisfaction. Among males, in comparison with the highest grade employees, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for job dissatisfaction in the lowest grade employees was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.40–2.59). The grade differences reduced to 1.08 (0.76–1.54) after adjustment for work, family and personality characteristics. Among females, similar grade differences were observed, although the differences were not statistically significant. In comparison with males, the age-adjusted OR in females for job dissatisfaction was 1.32 (1.14–1.52). This gender difference was reduced to 0.95 (0.79–1.14) following adjustment for the other factors. The majority of employees belong to low to middle grades, and female employees have increased. Reducing grade and gender differences in work and family characteristics is needed. PMID:25055848

  15. Relationship among science teacher personality characteristics and degree of teacher classroom implementation after in-service workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechler, Phares Lochiel Coleman

    State departments of public instruction require that teachers periodically update their licenses throughout their teaching careers. Various professional development events such as in-service workshops, university offerings, and special innovative programs provide opportunities for novice and experienced teachers to grow professionally. The "Team Science" workshop was designed from models supported by research that described guidelines for successful workshop strategies. In evaluating the workshop, the question was asked "Why did not all teachers implement the ideas from the workshop in their science classrooms?" This study investigates the possible relationship between teacher personality characteristics and implementation of technology innovations. Team Science was an extensive workshop program planned to develop science teachers' expertise in using computer and video technology to teach in physical science, chemistry, and physics classrooms in rural school in North Carolina. Upon evaluating the four-year effort, it was found that the 23 participants implemented the technological strategies at various levels. At the higher end of the range of technology use, some teachers exhibited complete integration of the computers and interfacing devices into both the laboratory work and the classroom inquiry. At the lower end of the range, some teachers used the technology very little. The resulting question emerged from the data collected: Do specific teacher personality characteristics (independent variables) correlate with the degree of implementation (dependent variable) of the innovative ideas and tools used in the teacher's science classroom after the in-service workshop? To determine if there were any significant personality traits, each teacher was given five personality tests. The tests were Hunt's Conceptual Development Test, the Paragraph Completion Test; James Rest's Defining Issues Test; Simmons Personal Survey, an emotional tendency test; the Myers-Briggs Type

  16. 12-month trajectories of depressive symptoms among nurses-Contribution of personality, job characteristics, coping, and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan-Porter, Wei; Hatch, Daniel; Pendergast, Jane F; Freude, Gabriele; Rose, Uwe; Burr, Hermann; Müller, Grit; Martus, Peter; Pohrt, Anne; Potter, Guy

    2018-07-01

    Job related factors have been associated with higher risk for developing depression, but past studies lacked full consideration of individual factors such as personality and coping. We sought to evaluate associations of personality, coping, job characteristics, and burnout with 12-month trajectories of depressive symptoms among nursing workers. Cohort of nursing workers (N = 281) in a private hospital system, with baseline assessments of personality, job characteristics, and coping. Burnout and depression were measured at baseline and during monthly follow-ups. Linear mixed modeling was used to examine contributions to between- and within-individual variation in monthly depressive symptoms. Personality trait of negative affectivity accounted for 36% of between-individual variation in depressive symptoms over 12 months, while job characteristics and coping explained an additional 5% and 8% of this variation, respectively. Exhaustion dimension of burnout was associated with between-individual variation in depressive symptoms (fixed effect β coefficient 2.44, p < 0.001), but not with within-individual variation in symptoms. Disengagement dimension of burnout was not associated with between-individual variation in depressive symptoms, but contributed to within-individual variation in depressive symptoms over time (fixed effect β coefficient 0.52, p = 0.01). Participants were nursing workers within a single hospital system. Participants who were excluded due to missing baseline data were more likely of non-white race, which may also limit the generalizability of our results. We used latent variables to represent certain job and coping characteristics, which may make our results less comparable with other studies examining the role of these factors in work-associated depression. Future interventions to prevent depression in healthcare workers should consider multiple job and individual factors. Potential components include strategies to manage negative

  17. Characteristics of personal space during obstacle circumvention in physical and virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin-Lajoie, Martin; Richards, Carol L; Fung, Joyce; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2008-02-01

    It is not known how the flexible protective zone maintained around oneself during locomotion (personal space or PS; see [Gérin-Lajoie M, Richards CL, McFadyen BJ. The negotiation of stationary and moving obstructions during walking: anticipatory locomotor adaptations and preservation of personal space. Motor Control 2005;9:242-69]) is modulated with walking speed, whether both sides of the PS are symmetrical, and whether the circumvention of physical and virtual obstructions elicit the same use of such PS. Personal space was measured in ten adults as they circumvented a cylindrical obstacle that was stationary within their path. Both left and right passes were performed at natural self-selected, slow and fast walking speeds. The same circumvention task was also performed at natural speeds in an immersive virtual environment (VE) replicating the same obstruction scenario. The shape and size of PS were maintained across walking speeds, and a smaller PS was generally observed on the dominant side. The general shape and lateral bias of the PS were preserved in the VE while its size was slightly increased. The systematic behavior across walking speeds and types of environment and the lateral bias suggest that PS is used to control navigation. This study deepens our understanding of normal adaptive walking behavior and has implications for the development of better tools for the assessment and retraining of locomotor capacity in different populations, from people with walking deficits to elite athletes. Since the PS behavior was shown to be robust in the VE used for this study, the virtual reality technology is proposed as a promising platform for the development of such assessment and retraining applications.

  18. The influence of personal and trip characteristics on habitual parking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waerden, van der P.J.H.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Da Silva, A.N.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some results of a study on the influence of car drivers' characteristics on habitual parking behavior. First, the level of habitual parking behavior is determined in two ways: car drivers' regularity in choosing a parking facility and car drivers' self-reporting scores for

  19. Adoption of innovations by specialised nurses: personal, work and organisational characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, M.J.A. van der; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To gain insight in the factors that influence the adoption of professional information by specialised nurses, we studied the effects of individual, work and organisational characteristics on the extent to which continence nurses gained knowledge and made use of a book on nursing

  20. Adoption of innovation by specialized nursus: Personal, work and organisational characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, M.J.A. van der; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To gain insight in the factors that influence the adoption of professional information by specialised nurses, we studied the effects of individual, work and organisational characteristics on the extent to which continence nurses gained knowledge and made use of a book on nursing

  1. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, L.; Bulten, B.H.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses.

  2. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnen, Lotte; Bulten, Erik; Nijman, Henk

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…

  3. Informal Workplace Learning among Nurses: Organisational Learning Conditions and Personal Characteristics That Predict Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Vermeire, Eva; Cabus, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine which organisational learning conditions and individual characteristics predict the learning outcomes nurses achieve through informal learning activities. There is specific relevance for the nursing profession because of the rapidly changing healthcare systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 203 nurses…

  4. Predicting Secondary Agriculture Teachers' Job Stress from Selected Personal, Family, and Work-Related Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robert M.; Lambert, Misty D.; Lawver, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    The study sought to describe the characteristics and explain the current level of job stress among secondary agriculture teachers. The sample consisted of 370 secondary agriculture teachers. Data were collected using the Job Stress Survey (Spielberger & Vagg, 1999). From the findings it was concluded that the average secondary agriculture teacher…

  5. Work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders: The role of specific psychopathological characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, I.; Beekman, A.T.F.; De Graaf, R.; Smit, J.H.; van Dyck, R.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders affect work functioning and cause high labour costs. Aims: To examine and compare psychopathological characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders in their effect on work functioning. Method: In 1876 working participants of the Netherlands Study of

  6. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E.; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in

  7. Personality characteristics of hospice volunteers as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C W; Shuff, I M

    1995-12-01

    A sample of hospice volunteers (n = 99) was administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers & McCaulley, 1985). Frequencies of types observed were compared to population sample (n = 1,105) frequencies. Results indicated that, as a whole, hospice volunteers preferred extraversion over introversion, intuition over sensing, and feeling over thinking. Analysis of four-and two-letter preference combinations also yielded statistically significant differences. Most notably, the sensing-intuitive function appeared pivotal in determining of hospice volunteering. Suggestions are offered as to why the sensing-intuition function appeared central to hospice volunteering. Results appeared consistent with Jungian personality theory.

  8. [Suicidal and personality characteristics of women married to men with alcohol dependence and suicidal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinov, A V; Shustov, D I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the suicidal activity in men with alcohol dependence on suicidal indexes, personal-codependency and psychological specifics of their wives has been studied. It has been found that women married to suicidal men with alcohol dependence significantly more frequently demonstrate suicidal activity (a phenomenon of suicidal matrimonial comorbidity) compared to wives of "non-suicidal" men. They also reveal non-suicidal behavioral patterns more frequently and prosuicidal predictors are quite common in them. This contingent of women has high suicidal potential that needs special attention during the therapeutic work.

  9. Evaluating the drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use cognitive enhancement drugs: the influence of drug characteristics, social environment, and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Sebastian; Mehlkop, Guido; Graeff, Peter; Sauer, Carsten

    2014-02-01

    The use of cognitive enhancement (CE) by means of pharmaceutical agents has been the subject of intense debate both among scientists and in the media. This study investigates several drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use prescription drugs non-medically for augmenting brain capacity. We conducted a web-based study among 2,877 students from randomly selected disciplines at German universities. Using a factorial survey, respondents expressed their willingness to take various hypothetical CE-drugs; the drugs were described by five experimentally varied characteristics and the social environment by three varied characteristics. Personal characteristics and demographic controls were also measured. We found that 65.3% of the respondents staunchly refused to use CE-drugs. The results of a multivariate negative binomial regression indicated that respondents' willingness to use CE-drugs increased if the potential drugs promised a significant augmentation of mental capacity and a high probability of achieving this augmentation. Willingness decreased when there was a high probability of side effects and a high price. Prevalent CE-drug use among peers increased willingness, whereas a social environment that strongly disapproved of these drugs decreased it. Regarding the respondents' characteristics, pronounced academic procrastination, high cognitive test anxiety, low intrinsic motivation, low internalization of social norms against CE-drug use, and past experiences with CE-drugs increased willingness. The potential severity of side effects, social recommendations about using CE-drugs, risk preferences, and competencies had no measured effects upon willingness. These findings contribute to understanding factors that influence the willingness to use CE-drugs. They support the assumption of instrumental drug use and may contribute to the development of prevention, policy, and educational strategies.

  10. Evaluating the drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use cognitive enhancement drugs: the influence of drug characteristics, social environment, and personal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of cognitive enhancement (CE) by means of pharmaceutical agents has been the subject of intense debate both among scientists and in the media. This study investigates several drivers of and obstacles to the willingness to use prescription drugs non-medically for augmenting brain capacity. Methods We conducted a web-based study among 2,877 students from randomly selected disciplines at German universities. Using a factorial survey, respondents expressed their willingness to take various hypothetical CE-drugs; the drugs were described by five experimentally varied characteristics and the social environment by three varied characteristics. Personal characteristics and demographic controls were also measured. Results We found that 65.3% of the respondents staunchly refused to use CE-drugs. The results of a multivariate negative binomial regression indicated that respondents’ willingness to use CE-drugs increased if the potential drugs promised a significant augmentation of mental capacity and a high probability of achieving this augmentation. Willingness decreased when there was a high probability of side effects and a high price. Prevalent CE-drug use among peers increased willingness, whereas a social environment that strongly disapproved of these drugs decreased it. Regarding the respondents’ characteristics, pronounced academic procrastination, high cognitive test anxiety, low intrinsic motivation, low internalization of social norms against CE-drug use, and past experiences with CE-drugs increased willingness. The potential severity of side effects, social recommendations about using CE-drugs, risk preferences, and competencies had no measured effects upon willingness. Conclusions These findings contribute to understanding factors that influence the willingness to use CE-drugs. They support the assumption of instrumental drug use and may contribute to the development of prevention, policy, and educational strategies. PMID:24484640

  11. Older persons' worries expressed during home care visits: Exploring the content of cues and concerns identified by the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafskjold, Linda; Eide, Tom; Holmström, Inger K; Sundling, Vibeke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Eide, Hilde

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about how older persons in home care express their concerns. Emotional cues and concerns can be identified by the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES), but the method gives no insight into what causes the distress and the emotions involved. The aims of this study are to explore (1) older persons' worries and (2) the content of these expressions. An observational exploratory two-step approach was used to investigate audiotaped recordings from 38 Norwegian home care visits with older persons and nurse assistants. First, 206 cues and concerns were identified using VR-CoDES. Second, the content and context of these expressions were analysed inductively. Four main categories emerged: worries about relationships with others, worries about health care-related issues, worries about aging and bodily impairment, and life narratives and value issues, with several subcategories showing the causes of worry and emotions involved. The two-step approach provides an in-depth knowledge of older persons' worries, causes of worries, and their related emotions. The subcategories described in a language close to the experience can be useful in practice development and communication training for students and health care providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and interests for veterinary practice management: fitting personal characteristics to situational demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, Daniel R

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies of veterinary practices and services have suggested that more attention must be focused on business practices and on the skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) of veterinarians related to veterinary practice management (VPM). Responses to these concerns have been directed at the selection and education of veterinarians in veterinary school. While this position is supported in the present article, it is argued that the values and interests of persons who are likely to enter the field, as well as the nature of the experiences encountered across the career of veterinarians, will moderate the potential effectiveness of veterinary school practices and experiences regarding SKAs in VPM. The paper explores some potential implications of these moderators on the effectiveness of selection and education for increasing SKAs in VPM.

  13. The relations between personality characteristics, work environment, and the professional well-being of music therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kelly L

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the relations between professional well-being (as characterized by positive attitudes toward work and longevity as a practicing music therapist) and the following factors: age, level of education, income, attitudes regarding the workplace (e.g., perceived control, feeling valued, as well as the amount of perceived comfort and input into administrative policies), attitudes toward work as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986a), and measures of stress and stress management as measured by the Stress Profile (Nowack, 1999a). Participants included 49 music therapists who had between one to 36 years of work experience. Correlations indicated that those respondents with greatest professional longevity tended to have higher ratings on items regarding cognitive coping strategies (e.g., positive appraisal and threat minimization) and greater perception of personal achievement. These correlational results are related to psychological theories regarding occupational burnout and cognitive hardiness.

  14. Personality Characteristics Of Teachers Involved In The Delivery Of Primary Healthy Care (Sevagram Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to study the personality traits influencing the performance of 17 primary school teachers selected under ICMR project in Wardha district, to investigate feasibility and effectiveness of their involvement as primary health care workers vis-Ã -vis the 19 community health volunteers introduced by the State Government in the non-teacher villages of the project at the same time. The results indicated that both the teachers and community health volunteers preferred preventive and promotive health tasks and they showed no significant difference on the motivation and leadership orientation scale. The teachers, because of their job security and promotional avenues were satisfied with their achievements and were full of hopes and aspirations but the same was not true with the community health volunteers. This was due to their comparatively poor economic conditions and unstable sources of livelihood.

  15. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of personality characteristics in Parkinson disease patients with and without impulse control disorders and in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnikova, Katerina; Obereigneru, Radko; Kanovsky, Petr; Prasko, Jan

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to assess personality characteristics in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with and without impulse control disorders (ICD). We tested patients and controls with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales that have expected high sensitivity to apparent addictive behavior. We recorded mean disease duration and mean levodopa dose in the PD groups. Of the 46 PD patients, 13 had ICD: hypersexuality, binge eating, or dopamine dysregulation. The PD patients with ICD had a longer duration of disease (11 vs. 5 y) and were taking higher doses of levodopa (900 vs. 500 mg/d). They scored above the pathologic threshold in 4 domains of the MMPI-2 Clinical Scales and in 8 Clinical Subscales and Content Scales. The most significant abnormality was Alienation-Self and Others. ICDs in the general population have similarities to disorders of substance addiction. In PD patients, some personality profiles could play a role in development of ICDs or dopamine dysregulation syndrome. The MMPI-2 may be a useful test for PD patients in general, and for detecting ICD in particular.

  17. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-age African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method Forty-three children, grades two through five, generated a fictional and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a story-prompt task, respectively. Narratives produced in these two contexts were characterized for macrostructure, microstructure, and dialect density. Differences across narrative type and grade level were examined. Results Statistically significant differences between the two types of narratives were found for both macrostructure and microstructure but not for dialect density. There were no grade-related differences in macrostructure, microstructure, or dialect density. Conclusion The results demonstrate the complementary role of fictional and personal narratives for describing young children's narrative skills. Use of both types of narrative tasks and descriptions of both macrostructure and macrostructure may be particularly useful for characterizing the narrative abilities of young school-age African American children, for whom culture-fair methods are scarce. Further study of additional dialect groups is warranted. PMID:23633645

  18. The Association between Personal Characteristics and Educational Experiences with Academic Achievement among the Students Zanjan University of Medical Sciences

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    befrin MohammdZade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Learning Strategies includes overt and covert behaviors, which are associated with success in learning. On the other hand, training students who are able to live in environments with diverse values, rapid technological changes, and developments in the socio-cultural complex is one of the unique challenges to a university administrator. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the association of personal characteristics and educational experiences of the students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences with their academic achievements. Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on the students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences during 2014-2015 academic year. Students were selected through random stratified sampling based on gender and discipline (N=352. The research tool was the college students’ experiences questionnaire (CSEQ. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. Results: All three dimensions of college students’ experiences, including perceptions of quality of environment, quality of effort, and social integration are significant anticipators of their academic achievements respectively and predict 0.415 of achievements variances. Conclusion: Taking into account the personal characteristics and educational experiences of college students for their academic achievements in medical universities is essential. In spite of the impact of academic environments ranging from individuals and facilities for college students, improving these factors contribute to better communication between students and faculty members and.

  19. The relation characteristics of personality of managers working in Iran University of Medical Sciences with success and desirable job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Saleh Ardestani, Abbas; Kermani, Behnaz; Rezapoor, Aziz; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest the existence of an effective relationship between individuals'characteristics and important factors such as occupational and organizational performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and etc. This study was designed based on the dimensions of personality (introversion /extroversion) of managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences at three levels (executive, middle and senior) with their career success rate. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study, whose population was all managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences. To collect data, two valid and reliable questionnaires were used. The first questionnaire assessed personality characteristics of each director, and the second measured occupational success. Related tests such as Pearson correlation test and independent comparison (independent t-test) at a significance level of 0.05 were used for data analysis. Findings revealed no significant relationship between variables of introversion and extroversion and occupational success among the senior managers, (p> 0.05). However, there was a direct but incomplete relationship between introversion and extroversion, which correlated with job success among middle and executives managers. It seems that in all three levels of managers, if the managers communicated more with employees and if the subject of communication was more of executive nature, the correlation rate would increase between extroversion and introversion with job success variables. Therefore, it is suggested to give attention to organizational interaction and communication, and contingency variables such as organization condition, structure, formality and complexity.

  20. Depressive and anxiety disorders on-the-job: The importance of job characteristics for good work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, I.; de Graaf, R.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.; Smit, J.H.; van Dyck, R.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the importance of job characteristics on absence and on-the-job performance in a large group of employees with diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders. In a sample of 1522 employees (1129 persons with and 393 persons without psychopathology) participating in Netherlands Study

  1. Depressive and anxiety disorders on-the-job : The importance of job characteristics for good work functioning in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Inger; de Graaf, Ron; Smit, Johannes; van Dyck, Richard; Beekman, Aartjan; Penninx, Brenda; de Bruijn, Jeanne G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the importance of job characteristics on absence and on-the-job performance in a large group of employees with diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders. In a sample of 1522 employees (1129 persons with and 393 persons without psychopathology) participating in Netherlands Study

  2. Personal characteristics associated with resident physicians' self perceptions of preparedness to deliver cross-cultural care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lenny; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Cohen, Amy P; Betancourt, Joseph; Weissman, Joel S

    2008-12-01

    Recent reports from the Institute of Medicine emphasize patient-centered care and cross-cultural training as a means of improving the quality of medical care and eliminating racial and ethnic disparities. To determine whether, controlling for training received in medical school or during residency, resident physician socio-cultural characteristics influence self-perceived preparedness and skill in delivering cross-cultural care. National survey of resident physicians. A probability sample of residents in seven specialties in their final year of training at US academic health centers. Nine resident characteristics were analyzed. Differences in preparedness and skill were assessed using the chi(2) statistic and multivariate logistic regression. Fifty-eight percent (2047/3500) of residents responded. The most important factor associated with improved perceived skill level in performing selected tasks or services believed to be useful in treating culturally diverse patients was having received cross-cultural skills training during residency (OR range 1.71-4.22). Compared with white residents, African American physicians felt more prepared to deal with patients with distrust in the US healthcare system (OR 1.63) and with racial or ethnic minorities (OR 1.61), Latinos reported feeling more prepared to deal with new immigrants (OR 1.88) and Asians reported feeling more prepared to deal with patients with health beliefs at odds with Western medicine (1.43). Cross-cultural care skills training is associated with increased self-perceived preparedness to care for diverse patient populations providing support for the importance of such training in graduate medical education. In addition, selected resident characteristics are associated with being more or less prepared for different aspects of cross-cultural care. This underscores the need to both include medical residents from diverse backgrounds in all training programs and tailor such programs to individual resident needs in

  3. Staff's person-centredness in dementia care in relation to job characteristics and job-related well-being: a cross-sectional survey in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Bernadette M; De Jonge, Jan; Smit, Dieneke; Visser, Quirijn; Depla, Marja F I A; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2015-02-01

    To explore the role of nursing staff's person-centredness caring for people with dementia in relation to their work environment and job-related well-being. Given the development towards person-centred care and labour force issues, research has recently focused on the effect of person-centredness on nursing staff's well-being. Findings from occupational stress research suggest that employees' personal characteristics, such as person-centredness, can moderate the impact particular job characteristics have on their job-related well-being. Cross-sectional survey. A national survey was conducted among healthcare staff (n = 1147) in 136 living arrangements for people with dementia in the Netherlands (2008-2009). Hierarchical regression analyses were used. Person-centredness moderates the relationship between coworker support and three outcomes of job-related well-being and between supervisor support and two of these outcomes. For highly person-centred nursing staff, coworker support was found to have a weaker impact and supervisor support to have a stronger impact on their job-related well-being. In addition, direct effects showed that person-centredness was weakly associated with more job satisfaction, more emotional exhaustion and more strongly with more personal accomplishment. Nursing staff's person-centredness does play a modest role in relation to job characteristics and job-related well-being. Findings indicate that person-centredness is not only beneficial to residents with dementia as found earlier, but also for nursing staff themselves; specifically, in case nursing staff members feel supported by their supervisor. Since a more person-centred workforce feels more competent, further implementation of person-centred care might have a positive impact on the attractiveness of the profession. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Patients with substance use and personality disorders: a comparison of patient characteristics, treatment process, and outcomes in Swiss and U.S. substance use disorder programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggi, Franz; Giovanoli, Anna; Buri, Caroline; Moos, Bernice S; Moos, Rudolf H

    2010-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons may increase our understanding of different models of substance use treatment and help identify consistent associations between patients' characteristics, treatment conditions, and outcomes. The aim of the study was to compare matched samples of substance use disorder (SUD) patients with personality disorders (PD) in Swiss and the United States (U.S.) residential SUD treatment programs and examine the relationship of program characteristics to 1-year outcomes. A prospective, naturalistic design was used to compare 132 demographically matched Swiss and U.S. male patients drawn from a sample of 10 Swiss and 15 U.S. public treatment programs. Patients completed comparable inventories at admission, discharge, and 1-year follow-up. Compared to Swiss SUD-PD patients, U.S. SUD-PD patients had more severe substance use and psychosocial problems at admission and follow-up. More intensive treatment and a stronger emphasis on patients' involvement were related to better outcomes for both Swiss and U.S. SUD-PD patients. There may be some cross-cultural consistency in the associations between treatment characteristics and SUD-PD patients' outcomes. Treatment evaluation findings from representative programs in one country may apply elsewhere and contribute to our overall knowledge about how to improve SUD-PD patients' outcomes.

  5. Power attenuation characteristics as switch-over criterion in personal satellite mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jonathan P.

    1993-01-01

    A third generation mobile system intends to support communications in all environments (i.e., outdoors, indoors at home or office and when moving). This system will integrate services that are now available in architectures such as cellular, cordless, mobile data networks, paging, including satellite services to rural areas. One way through which service integration will be made possible is by supporting a hierarchical cellular structure based on umbrella cells, macro cells, micro and pico cells. In this type of structure, satellites are part of the giant umbrella cells allowing continuous global coverage, the other cells belong to cities, neighborhoods, and buildings respectively. This does not necessarily imply that network operation of terrestrial and satellite segments interconnect to enable roaming and spectrum sharing. However, the cell concept does imply hand-off between different cell types, which may involve change of frequency. Within this propsective, the present work uses power attenuation characteristics to determine a dynamic criterion that allows smooth transition from space to terrestrial networks. The analysis includes a hybrid channel that combines Rician, Raleigh and Log Normal fading characteristics.

  6. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications

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    Hye Min Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a personal gamma (γ spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 Ce-doped Gd–Al–Ga–garnet (Ce:GAGG crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for 133Ba at 0.356 MeV, 22Na at 0.511 MeV, 137Cs at 0.662 MeV, and 60Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery, and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm2.

  7. Impact of childhood trauma on course of panic disorder: contribution of clinical and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Venter, M; Van Den Eede, F; Pattyn, T; Wouters, K; Veltman, D J; Penninx, B W J H; Sabbe, B G

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of panic disorder and possible contributing factors. Longitudinal data of 539 participants with a current panic disorder were collected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Childhood trauma was assessed with a structured interview and clinical course after 2 years with a DSM-IV-based diagnostic interview and the Life Chart Interview. At baseline, 54.5% reported childhood trauma, but this was not predictive of persistence of panic disorder. Emotional neglect and psychological abuse were associated with higher occurrence of anxiety disorders other than panic disorder (social phobia) and with higher chronicity of general anxiety symptoms (anxiety attacks or episodes and avoidance). Baseline clinical features (duration and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms) and personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) accounted for roughly 30-60% of the total effect of childhood trauma on chronicity of anxiety symptoms and on occurrence of other anxiety disorders. After two years, childhood trauma is associated with chronicity of anxiety symptoms and occurrence of social phobia, rather than persistence of panic disorder. These relationships are partially accounted for by duration and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and neuroticism and extraversion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Socio-cognitive and personal characteristics of young offenders: a field study

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    Carmen Borrás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is characterised by a higher prevalence of risk-taking and the challenging of social norms, which appears to bear a relationship to personal abilities and social-cognitive deficits. With the aim of understanding this relationship, a comparative study was undertaken with two groups of adolescents, one belonging to the standard population and one comprising young people who have been subject to correctional measures. In order to evaluate the variables involved, use was made of the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Psychopathology in Adolescence (Q-PAD. The results obtained show that both groups display significant differences in all the variables considered in the Questionnaire, with the exception of those relating to body dissatisfaction and family conflicts. Succinctly, it emerged that the juvenile offenders had emotional and interpersonal problems and were at risk of psychological disturbance. They demonstrated uncertainty about the future, liability to substance abuse, and issues of self-esteem. These results suggest the need for prevention and intervention programmes which specifically take into account these variables.

  9. Identifying state resources and support programs on e-government websites for persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen M; Peterson, Justin D; Albert, Jon D

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional study identified resources and programs that are available nationwide on the Internet to support individuals and families with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD), with a focus on intellectual disability. This evaluation included easily identifiable information on specific resources and highlighted unique programs found in individual states that were linked from e-government websites. Researchers documented the ease of access and available information for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A number of disparities and areas for improvement were recorded for states and I/DD websites. The researchers conclude that a number of additional health and support services will be needed to address the growing needs of this vulnerable population.

  10. Identifying characteristics and outcomes that are associated with fall-related fatalities: multi-year retrospective summary of fall deaths in older adults from 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprey, Sara M; Biedrzycki, Lynda; Klenz, Kristine

    2017-12-01

    Fall-related deaths continue to be the leading cause of accidental deaths in the older adult (65+ year) population. However, many fall-related fatalities are unspecified and little is known about the fall characteristics and personal demographics at the time of the fall. Therefore, this report describes the characteristics, circumstances and injuries of falls that resulted in older adult deaths in one U.S. County and explores the variables associated with fatal injuries from falls. This is a continued retrospective analysis of 841older adults whose underlying cause of death was due to a fall over an 8-year period (2005-2012). Demographics and logistic regression of fall characteristics and injuries were analyzed. Falls that led to death most often occurred when walking in one's own home. Most of the residents in this study were community-dwellers who had previous comorbidities taking an average of six medications prior to their fall. Survival after a fall was on average 31 days. The two most common injuries after a fatal fall were hip fractures (54%), and head injuries (21%). A logistic regression identified two variables associated with hip fracture, advancing age (OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.08) and diagnosis of a prior neurological condition (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4-3.1). Variables associated with head injuries included younger age (OR = .91, 95% CI = .89-.94), male gender (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.7-3.8), prescribed anticoagulants (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.5-3.9) and negative musculoskeletal comorbidity (OR = 1.9. 95% CI = 1.1-3.0). Hip fractures and head injuries were the most common injury after a fall that led to death in older adults greater than 65 years. There are opposing risk factors for older adults who incur a hip fracture compared to a head injury. Thus, health professionals will need to individualize prevention efforts to reduce fall fatalities.

  11. The influence of team members’ personal characteristics on the effectiveness of group management and social stability of organization

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    A B Chernykh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider issues of organizational management in terms of improving its economic efficiency and interpret personnel risks as potential losses or threats to the economic activities of enterprise. The article focuses on a special group of risks associated with individual characteristics and interpersonal interaction, i. e. social activities of team members within the group. As a rule, organizations use methods of socio-psychological diagnostics at the first step of candidates’ selection to create such an organizational structure that takes into account professional and personal characteristics and competencies of candidates as well as their predisposition to a certain type of activities. The authors consider the problem of candidates’ acceptance or rejection of a certain type of corporate culture prevailing in the enterprise, and at the same time team’s acceptance or rejection of candidates with certain cultural preferences. The second application for social-psychological research techniques, important for management practices, is keeping up the team active state and increasing its effectiveness through its human potential realization. The article presents the results of the study of groups with low social status focusing on their members’ individual characteristics. The authors propose methods to work with team members and groups as a whole that can stabilize social systems and develop techniques for managing personnel risks.

  12. An in-depth analysis of personality and other participant characteristics in a Web-based course for science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyette, Todd Randall

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the role students' personality and other characteristics play in their experience and achievement in a web-based course for teachers. Participants in the study were 17 inservice teachers enrolled in Technology Tools for Science Teachers in the 2002 spring semester. "Tech Tools" is a web-based class designed to teach teachers how to use various technology such as digital cameras in the science classroom. As part of the class, students are required to attend four face-to-face sessions during the semester. Personality data was generated by the administering of three instruments: The Simmons Personal Survey, The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory. Students also completed an entrance survey at the beginning of the course. All e-mails and Instant Messages sent to the instructors and all posts to the class listserv were collected for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Additional data was collected through Instant Message interviews with ten of the students conducted at the end of the course. Results indicated that characteristics such as assertiveness, courage, sociability, self-esteem, rule consciousness, and teaching experience, were strongly correlated with students' final grades. Traits such as anxiety, tension, apprehension and Privateness strongly correlated with students' amount of communication. Qualitative results indicated that students who are open and receptive to new ideas were better able to handle the rigor of the course, while students that enjoy change appreciated the content and format of the course. Self-esteem seems to impact the opinions of students regarding their experience in Tech Tools and Social Boldness seems to impact their opinions about the value of the face-to-face sessions. Other findings included how the amount of teaching experience of the students affected their perceptions of the workload involved in Tech Tools, how the requirements of

  13. The mental health characteristics of pregnant women with depressive symptoms identified by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydsdottir, Linda B; Howard, Louise M; Olafsdottir, Halldora; Thome, Marga; Tyrfingsson, Petur; Sigurdsson, Jon F

    2014-04-01

    Few studies are available on the effectiveness of screening tools such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in pregnancy or the extent to which such tools may identify women with mental disorders other than depression. We therefore aimed to investigate the mental health characteristics of pregnant women who screen positive on the EPDS. Consecutive women receiving antenatal care in primary care clinics (from November 2006 to July 2011) were invited to complete the EPDS in week 16 of pregnancy. All women who scored above 11 (screen positive) on the EPDS and randomly selected women who scored below 12 (screen negative) were invited to participate in a psychiatric diagnostic interview. 2,411 women completed the EPDS. Two hundred thirty-three women (9.7%) were screened positive in week 16, of whom 153 (66%) agreed to a psychiatric diagnostic interview. Forty-eight women (31.4%) were diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, 20 (13.1%) with bipolar disorder, 93 (60.8%) with anxiety disorders (including 27 [17.6%] with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]), 8 (5.2%) with dysthymia, 18 (11.8%) with somatoform disorder, 3 (2%) with an eating disorder, and 7 (4.6%) with current substance abuse. Women who screened positive were significantly more likely to have psychosocial risk factors, including being unemployed (χ(2)(1) = 23.37, P ≤.001), lower educational status (χ(2)(1)= 31.68, P ≤ .001), and a history of partner violence (χ(2)(1) = 10.30, P ≤ 001), compared with the women who screened negative. Use of the EPDS early in the second trimester of pregnancy identifies a substantial number of women with potentially serious mental disorders other than depression, including bipolar disorder, OCD, and eating disorders. A comprehensive clinical assessment is therefore necessary following use of the EPDS during pregnancy to ensure that women who screen positive receive appropriate mental health management. © Copyright 2014

  14. Promoter Hypermethylation Profiling Identifies Subtypes of Head and Neck Cancer with Distinct Viral, Environmental, Genetic and Survival Characteristics.

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    Javed Hussain Choudhury

    Full Text Available Epigenetic and genetic alteration plays a major role to the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Consumption of tobacco (smoking/chewing and human papilloma virus (HPV are also associated with an increase the risk of HNSCC. Promoter hypermethylation of the tumor suppression genes is related with transcriptional inactivation and loss of gene expression. We investigated epigenetic alteration (promoter methylation of tumor-related genes/loci in tumor tissues in the context of genetic alteration, viral infection, and tobacco exposure and survival status.The study included 116 tissue samples (71 tumor and 45 normal tissues from the Northeast Indian population. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP was used to determine the methylation status of 10 tumor-related genes/loci (p16, DAPK, RASSF1, BRAC1, GSTP1, ECAD, MLH1, MINT1, MINT2 and MINT31. Polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GST (M1 & T1, XRCC1and XRCC2 genes were studied by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and multiplex-PCR respectively.Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis based on methylation pattern had identified two tumor clusters, which significantly differ by CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, tobacco, GSTM1, CYP1A1, HPV and survival status. Analyzing methylation of genes/loci individually, we have found significant higher methylation of DAPK, RASSF1, p16 and MINT31 genes (P = 0.031, 0.013, 0.031 and 0.015 respectively in HPV (+ cases compared to HPV (-. Furthermore, a CIMP-high and Cluster-1 characteristic was also associated with poor survival.Promoter methylation profiles reflecting a correlation with tobacco, HPV, survival status and genetic alteration and may act as a marker to determine subtypes and patient outcome in HNSCC.

  15. Promoter Hypermethylation Profiling Identifies Subtypes of Head and Neck Cancer with Distinct Viral, Environmental, Genetic and Survival Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Javed Hussain; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Epigenetic and genetic alteration plays a major role to the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Consumption of tobacco (smoking/chewing) and human papilloma virus (HPV) are also associated with an increase the risk of HNSCC. Promoter hypermethylation of the tumor suppression genes is related with transcriptional inactivation and loss of gene expression. We investigated epigenetic alteration (promoter methylation of tumor-related genes/loci) in tumor tissues in the context of genetic alteration, viral infection, and tobacco exposure and survival status. Methodology The study included 116 tissue samples (71 tumor and 45 normal tissues) from the Northeast Indian population. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was used to determine the methylation status of 10 tumor-related genes/loci (p16, DAPK, RASSF1, BRAC1, GSTP1, ECAD, MLH1, MINT1, MINT2 and MINT31). Polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GST (M1 & T1), XRCC1and XRCC2 genes were studied by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and multiplex-PCR respectively. Principal Findings Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis based on methylation pattern had identified two tumor clusters, which significantly differ by CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), tobacco, GSTM1, CYP1A1, HPV and survival status. Analyzing methylation of genes/loci individually, we have found significant higher methylation of DAPK, RASSF1, p16 and MINT31genes (P = 0.031, 0.013, 0.031 and 0.015 respectively) in HPV (+) cases compared to HPV (-). Furthermore, a CIMP-high and Cluster-1 characteristic was also associated with poor survival. Conclusions Promoter methylation profiles reflecting a correlation with tobacco, HPV, survival status and genetic alteration and may act as a marker to determine subtypes and patient outcome in HNSCC. PMID:26098903

  16. Student Socioeconomic Status and Gender: Impacts on School Counselors' Ratings of Student Personal Characteristics and School Counselors' Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glance, Dorea E.

    2012-01-01

    This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as…

  17. Personal characteristics associated with injecting drug use among Latinas in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines nonmedical injecting drug use (IDU among Latinas aged 12 years and older in a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Data from the 1990-1995 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse disclosed 154 Latinas with self-reported histories of IDU out of 18 335 Latinas who responded. Hypotheses about correlates of IDU were tested by using the conditional form of multiple logistic regression to compare the characteristics of these IDUs with those of 602 noninjecting Latinas matched on neighborhood of residence. In the USA, an estimated 1% of Latinas age 12 years and older have injected drugs for non-medical purposes on at least one occasion. IDU was 4.6 to 6.5 times greater for adult Latinas (18-44 years old when compared to Latinas aged either 12 through 17 years (P < 0.05 or older than 44 years. IDU was an estimated 7.1 times greater for Latinas who reported marijuana use and 5.4 times greater for Latinas who reported inhalant use when compared to Latinas not using these drugs (P < 0.01. In light of recent studies indicating that IDU is a serious public health problem for Latinas in the United States, the observed associations represent first steps in an effort to understand the Latina subgroups most affected by IDU and the underlying risk factors or causes of this behavior.

  18. Personal characteristics and participation in dance events of residents from home for the aged DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n4p295

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    Raphael Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing elderly population and an increase in the number of residents of long-stay institutions are currently observed. One of the activities that provides benefits to these individuals is dancing, but little is known about this practice in these institutions. The objective of this study was to identify factors that limit or encourage residents of these institutions to actively participate in dance events. This qualitative and exploratory study involved a group of 30 residents of a longstay institution (mean age: 72.6 ± 9.6 years and a group of 30 visitors (mean age: 68.1 ± 10.2 years, who had participated in dance events for at least one year. The personal history related to dancing was obtained by semistructured interviews. The results showed that most responders began dancing at a young age influenced by their families, attending country dances. However, changes have occurred over the years and these events have been greatly reduced at the institution. Less commitment to participate in activities and greater physical debilitation were observed in the group of residents of the long-stay institution. These subjects also reported that they make few friends during the event, receive little praise, and are most of the time only watching others dancing. It was concluded that it would be necessary to offer activities that permit more active participation, contributing to the development of the personal characteristics of the subjects, in order to promote this practice which, in turn, could produce health benefits.

  19. Introducing a multivariate model for predicting driving performance: the role of driving anger and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roidl, Ernst; Siebert, Felix Wilhelm; Oehl, Michael; Höger, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    Maladaptive driving is an important source of self-inflicted accidents and this driving style could include high speeds, speeding violations, and poor lateral control of the vehicle. The literature suggests that certain groups of drivers, such as novice drivers, males, highly motivated drivers, and those who frequently experience anger in traffic, tend to exhibit more maladaptive driving patterns compared to other drivers. Remarkably, no coherent framework is currently available to describe the relationships and distinct influences of these factors. We conducted two studies with the aim of creating a multivariate model that combines the aforementioned factors, describes their relationships, and predicts driving performance more precisely. The studies employed different techniques to elicit emotion and different tracks designed to explore the driving behaviors of participants in potentially anger-provoking situations. Study 1 induced emotions with short film clips. Study 2 confronted the participants with potentially anger-inducing traffic situations during the simulated drive. In both studies, participants who experienced high levels of anger drove faster and exhibited greater longitudinal and lateral acceleration. Furthermore, multiple linear regressions and path-models revealed that highly motivated male drivers displayed the same behavior independent of their emotional state. The results indicate that anger and specific risk characteristics lead to maladaptive changes in important driving parameters and that drivers with these specific risk factors are prone to experience more anger while driving, which further worsens their driving performance. Driver trainings and anger management courses will profit from these findings because they help to improve the validity of assessments of anger related driving behavior. © 2013.

  20. Clinical characteristics of self-mutilating behavior in Turkish male subjects with antisocial personality disorder: relationship to psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay Ates, M; Algul, Ayhan; Semiz, Umit B; Gecici, Omer; Basoglu, Cengiz; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut

    2011-05-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the characteristics of self-mutilation (SM) and examine the relationship between SM and psychopathy in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder (APD). APD diagnosis was established by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders. Subjects (N = 116) were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and a semi-structured self-mutilation questionnaire form. In males with APD, the percentages of psychopathy and SM were 48.3% (N =56) and 96.6% (N = 112), respectively. There were positive correlations between severity of psychopathy and severity, number, and frequency of SM. Considerably high rates of SM and psychopathy were found in Turkish males with APD. The features of SM were associated with comorbidity of psychopathy. These results showed the importance of exploring the self-injurious behavior and psychopathy when diagnosed with APD.