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Sample records for identifies major factors

  1. RNAseq Analyses Identify Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Inflammation as a Major Abnormality in ALS Spinal Cord.

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    David G Brohawn

    Full Text Available ALS is a rapidly progressive, devastating neurodegenerative illness of adults that produces disabling weakness and spasticity arising from death of lower and upper motor neurons. No meaningful therapies exist to slow ALS progression, and molecular insights into pathogenesis and progression are sorely needed. In that context, we used high-depth, next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq, Illumina to define gene network abnormalities in RNA samples depleted of rRNA and isolated from cervical spinal cord sections of 7 ALS and 8 CTL samples. We aligned >50 million 2X150 bp paired-end sequences/sample to the hg19 human genome and applied three different algorithms (Cuffdiff2, DEseq2, EdgeR for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEG's. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA identified inflammatory processes as significantly elevated in our ALS samples, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF found to be a major pathway regulator (IPA and TNFα-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2 as a major network "hub" gene (WGCNA. Using the oPOSSUM algorithm, we analyzed transcription factors (TF controlling expression of the nine DEG/hub genes in the ALS samples and identified TF's involved in inflammation (NFkB, REL, NFkB1 and macrophage function (NR1H2::RXRA heterodimer. Transient expression in human iPSC-derived motor neurons of TNFAIP2 (also a DEG identified by all three algorithms reduced cell viability and induced caspase 3/7 activation. Using high-density RNAseq, multiple algorithms for DEG identification, and an unsupervised gene co-expression network approach, we identified significant elevation of inflammatory processes in ALS spinal cord with TNF as a major regulatory molecule. Overexpression of the DEG TNFAIP2 in human motor neurons, the population most vulnerable to die in ALS, increased cell death and caspase 3/7 activation. We propose that therapies targeted to reduce inflammatory TNFα signaling may be

  2. Cre/lox Studies Identify Resident Macrophages as the Major Source of Circulating Coagulation Factor XIII-A.

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    Beckers, Cora M L; Simpson, Kingsley R; Griffin, Kathryn J; Brown, Jane M; Cheah, Lih T; Smith, Kerrie A; Vacher, Jean; Cordell, Paul A; Kearney, Mark T; Grant, Peter J; Pease, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    To establish the cellular source of plasma factor (F)XIII-A. A novel mouse floxed for the F13a1 gene, FXIII-A flox/flox (Flox), was crossed with myeloid- and platelet-cre-expressing mice, and cellular FXIII-A mRNA expression and plasma and platelet FXIII-A levels were measured. The platelet factor 4-cre.Flox cross abolished platelet FXIII-A and reduced plasma FXIII-A to 23±3% ( P cre on plasma FXIII-A was exerted outside of the megakaryocyte lineage because plasma FXIII-A was not reduced in the Mpl -/- mouse, despite marked thrombocytopenia. In support of this, platelet factor 4-cre depleted FXIII-A mRNA in brain, aorta, and heart of floxed mice, where FXIII-A pos cells were identified as macrophages as they costained with CD163. In the integrin αM-cre.Flox and the double copy lysozyme 2-cre.cre.Flox crosses, plasma FXIII-A was reduced to, respectively, 75±5% ( P =0.003) and 30±7% ( P <0.001), with no change in FXIII-A content per platelet, further consistent with a macrophage origin of plasma FXIII-A. The change in plasma FXIII-A levels across the various mouse genotypes mirrored the change in FXIII-A mRNA expression in aorta. Bone marrow transplantation of FXIII-A +/+ bone marrow into FXIII-A -/- mice both restored plasma FXIII-A to normal levels and replaced aortic and cardiac FXIII-A mRNA, while its transplantation into FXIII-A +/+ mice did not increase plasma FXIII-A levels, suggesting that a limited population of niches exists that support FXIII-A-releasing cells. This work suggests that resident macrophages maintain plasma FXIII-A and exclude the platelet lineage as a major contributor. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Factor analysis in the Genetics of Asthma International Network family study identifies five major quantitative asthma phenotypes

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    Pillai, S. G.; Tang, Y.; van den Oord, E.; Klotsman, M.; Barnes, K.; Carlsen, K.; Gerritsen, J.; Lenney, W.; Silverman, M.; Sly, P.; Sundy, J.; Tsanakas, J.; von Berg, A.; Whyte, M.; Ortega, H. G.; Anderson, W. H.; Helms, P. J.

    Background Asthma is a clinically heterogeneous disease caused by a complex interaction between genetic susceptibility and diverse environmental factors. In common with other complex diseases the lack of a standardized scheme to evaluate the phenotypic variability poses challenges in identifying the

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies HLA 8.1 ancestral haplotype alleles as major genetic risk factors for myositis phenotypes.

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    Miller, F W; Chen, W; O'Hanlon, T P; Cooper, R G; Vencovsky, J; Rider, L G; Danko, K; Wedderburn, L R; Lundberg, I E; Pachman, L M; Reed, A M; Ytterberg, S R; Padyukov, L; Selva-O'Callaghan, A; Radstake, T R; Isenberg, D A; Chinoy, H; Ollier, W E R; Scheet, P; Peng, B; Lee, A; Byun, J; Lamb, J A; Gregersen, P K; Amos, C I

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune muscle diseases (myositis) comprise a group of complex phenotypes influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify genetic risk factors in patients of European ancestry, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the major myositis phenotypes in a total of 1710 cases, which included 705 adult dermatomyositis, 473 juvenile dermatomyositis, 532 polymyositis and 202 adult dermatomyositis, juvenile dermatomyositis or polymyositis patients with anti-histidyl-tRNA synthetase (anti-Jo-1) autoantibodies, and compared them with 4724 controls. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms showing strong associations (Pmyositis phenotypes together, as well as for the four clinical and autoantibody phenotypes studied separately. Imputation and regression analyses found that alleles comprising the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) 8.1 ancestral haplotype (AH8.1) defined essentially all the genetic risk in the phenotypes studied. Although the HLA DRB1*03:01 allele showed slightly stronger associations with adult and juvenile dermatomyositis, and HLA B*08:01 with polymyositis and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody-positive myositis, multiple alleles of AH8.1 were required for the full risk effects. Our findings establish that alleles of the AH8.1 comprise the primary genetic risk factors associated with the major myositis phenotypes in geographically diverse Caucasian populations.

  5. Objectives and Design of BLEEDS: A Cohort Study to Identify New Risk Factors and Predictors for Major Bleeding during Treatment with Vitamin K Antagonists.

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    van Rein, Nienke; Lijfering, Willem M; Bos, Mettine H A; Herruer, Martien H; Vermaas, Helga W; van der Meer, Felix J M; Reitsma, Pieter H

    2016-01-01

    Risk scores for patients who are at high risk for major bleeding complications during treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) do not perform that well. BLEEDS was initiated to search for new biomarkers that predict bleeding in these patients. To describe the outline and objectives of BLEEDS and to examine whether the study population is generalizable to other VKA treated populations. A cohort was created consisting of all patients starting VKA treatment at three Dutch anticoagulation clinics between January-2012 and July-2014. We stored leftover plasma and DNA following analysis of the INR. Of 16,706 eligible patients, 16,570 (99%) were included in BLEEDS and plasma was stored from 13,779 patients (83%). Patients had a mean age of 70 years (SD 14), 8713 were male (53%). The most common VKA indications were atrial fibrillation (10,876 patients, 66%) and venous thrombosis (3920 patients, 24%). 326 Major bleeds occurred during 17,613 years of follow-up (incidence rate 1.85/100 person years, 95%CI 1.66-2.06). The risk for major bleeding was highest in the initial three months of VKA treatment and increased when the international normalized ratio increased. These results and characteristics are in concordance with results from other VKA treated populations. BLEEDS is generalizable to other VKA treated populations and will permit innovative and unbiased research of biomarkers that may predict major bleeding during VKA treatment.

  6. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

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    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  7. A tripartite approach identifies the major sunflower seed albumins.

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    Jayasena, Achala S; Franke, Bastian; Rosengren, Johan; Mylne, Joshua S

    2016-03-01

    We have used a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches to identify the napin-type albumin genes in sunflower and define their contributions to the seed albumin pool. Seed protein content is determined by the expression of what are typically large gene families. A major class of seed storage proteins is the napin-type, water soluble albumins. In this work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the napin-type albumin content of the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by analyzing a draft genome, a transcriptome and performing a proteomic analysis of the seed albumin fraction. We show that although sunflower contains at least 26 genes for napin-type albumins, only 15 of these are present at the mRNA level. We found protein evidence for 11 of these but the albumin content of mature seeds is dominated by the encoded products of just three genes. So despite high genetic redundancy for albumins, only a small sub-set of this gene family contributes to total seed albumin content. The three genes identified as producing the majority of sunflower seed albumin are potential future candidates for manipulation through genetics and breeding.

  8. Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovden, J.; Rausand, M.; Sergeev, G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today's Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier exclamation point

  9. Identifying the important factors in simulation models with many factors

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    Bettonvil, B.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Simulation models may have many parameters and input variables (together called factors), while only a few factors are really important (parsimony principle). For such models this paper presents an effective and efficient screening technique to identify and estimate those important factors. The

  10. Identifying motivational factors within a multinational company

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    Daniela Bradutanu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the main motivational factors within a multinational company. The first objective is to identify work functions, formulated on Abraham Maslow’s pyramid, following the identification of the key characteristics that motivate an employee at the work place and last, but not least, the type of motivation that employees focus, intrinsic or extrinsic. The research method targeted a questionnaire based survey, including various company employees and an interview with the manager. The results confirmed that in Romania, employees put great emphasis on extrinsic motivation, a certain income and job security being primary. These results have implications for managers that in order to effectively motivate staff, first, must know their needs and expectations. To identify the main needs and motivational factors we had as a starting point Maslow's pyramid.

  11. BENCHMARKING - PRACTICAL TOOLS IDENTIFY KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

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    Olga Ju. Malinina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a practical example of the application of benchmarking techniques. The object of study selected fashion store Company «HLB & M Hennes & Mauritz», located in the shopping center «Gallery», Krasnodar. Hennes & Mauritz. The purpose of this article is to identify the best ways to develop a fashionable brand clothing store Hennes & Mauritz on the basis of benchmarking techniques. On the basis of conducted market research is a comparative analysis of the data from different perspectives. The result of the author’s study is a generalization of the ndings, the development of the key success factors that will allow to plan a successful trading activities in the future, based on the best experience of competitors.

  12. Identifying the factors underlying discontinuation of triptans.

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    Wells, Rebecca E; Markowitz, Shira Y; Baron, Eric P; Hentz, Joseph G; Kalidas, Kavita; Mathew, Paul G; Halker, Rashmi; Dodick, David W; Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-02-01

    To identify factors associated with triptan discontinuation among migraine patients. It is unclear why many migraine patients who are prescribed triptans discontinue this treatment. This study investigated correlates of triptan discontinuation with a focus on potentially modifiable factors to improve compliance. This multicenter cross-sectional survey (n = 276) was performed at US tertiary care headache clinics. Headache fellows who were members of the American Headache Society Headache Fellows Research Consortium recruited episodic and chronic migraine patients who were current triptan users (use within prior 3 months and for ≥1 year) or past triptan users (no use within 6 months; prior use within 2 years). Univariate analyses were first completed to compare current triptan users to past users for: migraine characteristics, other migraine treatments, triptan education, triptan efficacy, triptan side effects, type of prescribing provider, Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) scores and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores. Then, a multivariable logistic regression model was selected from all possible combinations of predictor variables to determine the factors that best correlated with triptan discontinuation. Compared with those still using triptans (n = 207), those who had discontinued use (n = 69) had higher rates of medication overuse (30 vs. 18%, P = .04) and were more likely to have ever used opioids for migraine treatment (57 vs. 38%, P = .006) as well as higher MIDAS (mean 63 vs. 37, P = .001) and BDI scores (mean 10.4 vs. 7.4, P = .009). Compared with discontinued users, current triptan users were more likely to have had their triptan prescribed by a specialist (neurologist, headache specialist, or pain specialist) (74 vs. 54%, P = .002) and were more likely to report headache resolution (53 vs. 14%, P  24 (2.6, [1.5, 4.6]), BDI >4 (2.5, [1.4, 4.5]), and a history of ever using opioids for migraine therapy (2.2, [1

  13. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

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    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  14. Identifying Major Dietary Patterns Among the Elderly in Tehran Health Homes

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    Abdollahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies on diet have primarily focused on individual nutrients or foods. Recently, the analysis of dietary patterns has emerged as a possible approach for examining food consumption. A literature review revealed no studies of dietary patterns in elderly Iranians. Objectives Our objective was to identify the major dietary intake patterns among the elderly in the health homes located in Zone 5 of Tehran city, Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study (descriptive, 368 elderly people (≥ 60 years old were randomly selected. Their usual dietary intake during the past year was assessed using a 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Major food patterns were derived using factor analysis after the classification of food items into 26 groups. Results Four major dietary patterns were identified in the studied population: 1 healthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of vegetables, tomato and tomato sauce, vegetable oil, olive, and fruits; 2 unhealthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of red meat, fast food, snacks, sugar, honey and jam, soft drinks, and high-fat dairy products; 3. traditional pattern characterized by intake of whole grains, hydrogenated oil and animal fat, beans, salt, and pickles; and 4 protein-rich pattern, characterized by intake of chicken and poultry, fish, grains, and organ meats. These four major dietary patterns explained 16.3%, 7.5%, 6.7%, and 5.7% of the total variance, respectively. Conclusions Four major dietary patterns were identified in the present studied population that can be used to provide tangible dietary advice for the elderly.

  15. BRAVO identifies critical success factors for logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokke, C.J.T.M.; Donselaar, van K.H.; Allessie, M.

    1997-01-01

    Good operational performance depends on knowing which operational factors are critical to success. Bravo, a research project involving 150 transport and distribution companies in The Netherlands, has developed a tool now being adopted nationally by all companies in the sector to find opportunities

  16. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  17. Identifiable risk factors in hepatitis b and c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, F.U.; Pervez, A.; Rafiq, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both hepatitis B and C are common infections affecting masses and are leading causes of Chronic Liver Disease in Pakistan as well as worldwide. In majority of cases both viral diseases spread by factors that are preventable. The present study is conducted to determine the identifiable risk factors in patients admitted with Chronic Hepatitis B and C. Methods: An observational study was carried out for a period of 6 months. All age groups and both sexes were included. The patients were interviewed and the identifiable risk factors were looked for. The standard methods for detection of Hepatitis B and C were used. Results: One-hundred and ten patients were studied from January to July 2009. Sixty-five patients had Hepatitis C, 35 had Hepatitis B, and 10 had both Hepatitis B and C. Ninety-three patients had a history of injections and transfusions etc., and 38 had surgical scars. Tattoos were present in 42 patients and nose and/or ear piercing marks were present in 28 patients. The number of risk factors increased in co-infection. Conclusion: There is a role of unhygienic health delivery practices, lack of awareness and resources for standard screening protocol for spread of Hepatitis B and C. (author)

  18. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

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    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  19. Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Naomi R; Ripke, Stephan; Mattheisen, Manuel; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Byrne, Enda M; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Adams, Mark J; Agerbo, Esben; Air, Tracy M; Andlauer, Till M F; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Beekman, Aartjan F T; Bigdeli, Tim B; Binder, Elisabeth B; Blackwood, Douglas R H; Bryois, Julien; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas; Cai, Na; Castelao, Enrique; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Coleman, Jonathan I R; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Craddock, Nick; Crawford, Gregory E; Crowley, Cheynna A; Dashti, Hassan S; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J; Degenhardt, Franziska; Derks, Eske M; Direk, Nese; Dolan, Conor V; Dunn, Erin C; Eley, Thalia C; Eriksson, Nicholas; Escott-Price, Valentina; Kiadeh, Farnush Hassan Farhadi; Finucane, Hilary K; Forstner, Andreas J; Frank, Josef; Gaspar, Héléna A; Gill, Michael; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Goes, Fernando S; Gordon, Scott D; Grove, Jakob; Hall, Lynsey S; Hannon, Eilis; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Hansen, Thomas F; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B; Hoffmann, Per; Homuth, Georg; Horn, Carsten; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hougaard, David M; Hu, Ming; Hyde, Craig L; Ising, Marcus; Jansen, Rick; Jin, Fulai; Jorgenson, Eric; Knowles, James A; Kohane, Isaac S; Kraft, Julia; Kretzschmar, Warren W; Krogh, Jesper; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lane, Jacqueline M; Li, Yihan; Li, Yun; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Leina; MacIntyre, Donald J; MacKinnon, Dean F; Maier, Robert M; Maier, Wolfgang; Marchini, Jonathan; Mbarek, Hamdi; McGrath, Patrick; McGuffin, Peter; Medland, Sarah E; Mehta, Divya; Middeldorp, Christel M; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Milani, Lili; Mill, Jonathan; Mondimore, Francis M; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostafavi, Sara; Mullins, Niamh; Nauck, Matthias; Ng, Bernard; Nivard, Michel G; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Reilly, Paul F; Oskarsson, Hogni; Owen, Michael J; Painter, Jodie N; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz; Peterson, Roseann E; Pettersson, Erik; Peyrot, Wouter J; Pistis, Giorgio; Posthuma, Danielle; Purcell, Shaun M; Quiroz, Jorge A; Qvist, Per; Rice, John P; Riley, Brien P; Rivera, Margarita; Saeed Mirza, Saira; Saxena, Richa; Schoevers, Robert; Schulte, Eva C; Shen, Ling; Shi, Jianxin; Shyn, Stanley I; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Sinnamon, Grant B C; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Daniel J; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockmeier, Craig A; Streit, Fabian; Strohmaier, Jana; Tansey, Katherine E; Teismann, Henning; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Wesley; Thomson, Pippa A; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Tian, Chao; Traylor, Matthew; Treutlein, Jens; Trubetskoy, Vassily; Uitterlinden, André G; Umbricht, Daniel; Van der Auwera, Sandra; van Hemert, Albert M; Viktorin, Alexander; Visscher, Peter M; Wang, Yunpeng; Webb, Bradley T; Weinsheimer, Shantel Marie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witt, Stephanie H; Wu, Yang; Xi, Hualin S; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Futao; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Berger, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cichon, Sven; Dannlowski, Udo; de Geus, E C J; DePaulo, J Raymond; Domenici, Enrico; Domschke, Katharina; Esko, Tõnu; Grabe, Hans J; Hamilton, Steven P; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kloiber, Stefan; Lewis, Glyn; Li, Qingqin S; Lucae, Susanne; Madden, Pamela F A; Magnusson, Patrik K; Martin, Nicholas G; McIntosh, Andrew M; Metspalu, Andres; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nordentoft, Merete; Nöthen, Markus M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Paciga, Sara A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perlis, Roy H; Porteous, David J; Potash, James B; Preisig, Martin; Rietschel, Marcella; Schaefer, Catherine; Schulze, Thomas G; Smoller, Jordan W; Stefansson, Kari; Tiemeier, Henning; Uher, Rudolf; Völzke, Henry; Weissman, Myrna M; Werge, Thomas; Winslow, Ashley R; Lewis, Cathryn M; Levinson, Douglas F; Breen, Gerome; Børglum, Anders D; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2018-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.

  20. Identifying risk factors for victimization among male prisoners in Taiwan.

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    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Huang, Yung-Shun

    2014-02-01

    This study identified risk factors for prison victimization in Taiwan with an application of Western literature and assessed the extent of its applicability in an Eastern context. The sample was drawn from four male prisons located in Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan; a total of 1,181 valid surveys were collected. The results generally support the major findings of the extant Western studies. Crowding, however, was not significantly associated with the risk of victimization in any of the statistical models, which might be related to the different experiences and living conditions in the free community between Taiwanese and American inmates. This study generated clear policy implications, which may reduce prison victimization and engender a greater sense of well-being in the prison environment.

  1. Obesity as a Major Risk Factor for Cancer

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    Giovanni De Pergola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of cancer cases caused by being obese is estimated to be 20% with the increased risk of malignancies being influenced by diet, weight change, and body fat distribution together with physical activity. Reports from the International Agency for Research into Cancer and the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF have shown that the strongest evidence exists for an association of obesity with the following cancer types: endometrial, esophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal, whereas the less common malignancies are leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, malignant melanoma, and thyroid tumours. To be able to develop novel methods in prevention and treatment, we first must understand the underlying processes which link cancer to obesity. Four main systems have been identified as potential producers of cancer in obesity: insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, sex steroids, and adipokines. Various novel candidate mechanisms have been proposed: chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, crosstalk between tumour cells and surrounding adipocytes, migrating adipose stromal cells, obesity-induced hypoxia, shared genetic susceptibility, and the functional defeat of immune function. Herein, we review the major pathogenic links between obesity and susceptibility to cancer.

  2. Perioperative factors associated with pressure ulcer development after major surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Postoperative pressure ulcers are important indicators of perioperative care quality, and are serious and expensive complications during critical care. This study aimed to identify perioperative risk factors for postoperative pressure ulcers. Methods This retrospective case-control study evaluated 2,498 patients who underwent major surgery. Forty-three patients developed postoperative pressure ulcers and were matched to 86 control patients based on age, sex, surgery, and comorbidities. Results The pressure ulcer group had lower baseline hemoglobin and albumin levels, compared to the control group. The pressure ulcer group also had higher values for lactate levels, blood loss, and number of packed red blood cell (pRBC) units. Univariate analysis revealed that pressure ulcer development was associated with preoperative hemoglobin levels, albumin levels, lactate levels, intraoperative blood loss, number of pRBC units, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Braden scale score, postoperative ventilator care, and patient restraint. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only preoperative low albumin levels (odds ratio [OR]: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.05–0.82; P pressure ulcer development. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the predictive power of the logistic regression model, and the area under the curve was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79–0.97; P pressure ulcer development after surgery. PMID:29441175

  3. Identifying Factors for Worker Motivation in Zambia's Rural Health Facilities.

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    Cross, Samuel S; Baernholdt, Dr Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Within Zambia there is a shortage of health workers in rural areas. This study aims to identify motivating factors for retaining rural health workers. Sixty rural health workers completed surveys and 46 were interviewed. They rated the importance of six motivating factors and discussed these and other factors in interviews. An interview was conducted with a Government Human Resources Manager (HR Manager) to elicit contextual information. All six factors were identified as being very important motivators, as were two additional factors. Additional career training was identified by many as the most important factor. Comparison of results and the HR Manager interview revealed that workers lacked knowledge about opportunities and that the HR manager was aware of barriers to career development. The Zambian government might better motivate and retain rural health workers by offering them any combination of identified factors, and by addressing the barriers to career development.

  4. Risk Factors to Growth Retardation in Major Thalassemia

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    Riva Uda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patients with major thalassemia. Inclusion criteria’s were age under 14 years old, had no chronic diseases like tuberculosis, cerebral palsy with complete medical records. Risk factors were the timing of diagnosis, initial and dose of deferoxamine, volume of transfused blood, mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level, family income, and age. Antropometric measurement indices were used to assess the growth which expressed in Z score. Growth evaluated based on height/age (H/A and growth retardation if H/A <-2 SD. Risk factors for growth retardation were analyzed separately using chi-square test and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Then they were analyzed simultaneously with logistic regression method. Subjects consisted of 152 patients with major thalassemia. Seventy three thalassemia patients were stunted. Analysis showed that age (OR: 5.42, 95% CI:2.32–12.65, p <0.001, dosage of deferoxamine (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.29–12.41, p: 0.016, and family income (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06–5.06, p: 0.036 were risks factors for growth retardation. Conclusion, risk factors for growth retardation in major thalassemia are age, dosage of deferoxamine, and family income.

  5. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  6. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.Y. Yau (Joanne W.); S.L. Rogers (Sophie); Y. Kawasaki; E.L. Lamoureux (Ecosse); J.W. Kowalski (Jonathan); T. Bek (Toke); S.-J. Chen (Shih-Jen); J.M. Dekker (Jacqueline); A.E. Fletcher (Astrid E.); J. Grauslund (Jakob); R.C.G. Haffner; U. Hamman (Ute); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); T. Kayama (Takamasa); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); S. Krishnaiah (Sannapaneni); K. Mayurasakorn (Korapat); J.P. O'Hare (Joseph); T. Orchard; M. Porta; M. Rema (Mohan); M.S. Roy (Monique); T. Sharma (Tarun); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); H. Taylor (Hugh); J.M. Tielsch (James); D. Varma (Dhiraj); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin); N. Wang (Ningli); S. West (Sheila); L. Zu (Liang); M. Yasuda (Maya); X. Zhang (Xinzhi); P. Mitchell (Paul); T.Y. Wong (Tien Yin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies

  7. Identifying influential factors on integrated marketing planning using information technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hamdi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to identify important factors influencing integrated marketing planning using information technology. The proposed study designs a questionnaire for measuring integrated marketing planning, which consists of three categories of structural factors, behavioral factors and background factors. There are 40 questions associated with the proposed study in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for structural factors, behavioral factors and background factors as 0.89, 0.86 and 0.83, respectively. Using some statistical test, the study has confirmed the effects of three factors on integrated marketing. In addition, the implementation of Freedman test has revealed that structural factors were the most important factor followed by background factors and behavioral factors.

  8. Risk factors for major antenatal depression among low-income African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Sabrina; Salihu, Hamisu M; Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Jeffers, Dee; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Mishkit, Vanessa R

    2009-11-01

    Data on risk factors for major antenatal depression among African American women are scant. In this study, we seek to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major antenatal depression among low-income African American women receiving prenatal services through the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start (CHHS). Women were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff of > or =13 as positive for risk of major antenatal depression. In total, 546 African American women were included in the analysis. We used logistic regression to identify risk factors for major antenatal depression. The prevalence of depressive symptomatology consistent with major antenatal depression was 25%. Maternal age was identified as the main risk factor for major antenatal depression. The association between maternal age and risk for major antenatal depression was biphasic, with a linear trend component lasting until age 30, at which point the slope changed markedly tracing a more pronounced likelihood for major depression with advancing age. Women aged > or =30 were about 5 times as likely to suffer from symptoms of major antenatal depression as teen mothers (OR = 4.62, 95% CI 2.23-9.95). The risk for major antenatal depression increases about 5-fold among low-income African American women from age 30 as compared to teen mothers. The results are consistent with the weathering effect resulting from years of cumulative stress burden due to socioeconomic marginalization and discrimination. Older African American mothers may benefit from routine antenatal depression screening for early diagnosis and intervention.

  9. Identifying patients with therapy-resistant depression by using factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, K; Liest, V; Lunde, M

    2010-01-01

    with transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields (T-PEMF)], in which the relative effect as percentage of improvement during the treatment period was analysed. RESULTS: We identified 2 major factors, the first of which was a general factor. The second was a dual factor consisting of a depression subscale comprising...

  10. Identifying factors affecting destination choice of medical tourists: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical tourism”, has emerged as a new source of competitive advantage all over the world. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect destination choice of medical tourists. Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases ...

  11. Can subsyndromal manifestations of major depression be identified in children at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, M; Fitzgerald, M; Lin, K; Carrellas, N; Woodworth, H; Biederman, J

    2017-02-01

    Children of parents with major depression are at significantly increased risk for developing major depression themselves; however, not all children at genetic risk will develop major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the utility of subsyndromal scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Anxiety/Depression scale in identifying children at the highest risk for pediatric MDD from among the pool of children of parents with MDD or bipolar disorder. The sample was derived from two previously conducted longitudinal case-control family studies of psychiatrically and pediatrically referred youth and their families. For this study, probands were stratified based on the presence or absence of a parental mood disorder. Subsyndromal scores on the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale significantly separated the children at high risk for pediatric MDD from those at low risk in a variety of functional areas, including social and academic functioning. Additionally, children at genetic risk without elevated CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale scores were largely indistinguishable from controls. These results suggest that the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale can help identify children at highest risk for pediatric MDD. If implemented clinically, this scale would cost-effectively screen children and identify those most in need of early intervention resources to impede the progression of depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Risk Factors as Major Determinants of Resilience: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kimhi, Shaul; Lahad, Mooli; Leykin, Dmitry; Goroshit, Marina

    2018-03-16

    The present study was conducted in the context of current concerns about replication in psychological research. It claims that risk factors should be regarded as an integral part of the definition of individual resilience, which should be defined in terms of the balance between individual strength or protective factors, and individual vulnerability or risk factors (IND-SVR). Five independent samples, including 3457 Israeli participants, were employed to determine the effects of resilience promoting and resilience suppressing variables on the IND-SVR index of resilience, and on its two components: recovery from adversity, and distress symptoms. Five path analyses were employed for determining the role of distress symptoms as a measure of psychological resilience, as compared to other indices of this resilience. Results indicated the major role of risk factors (distress symptoms) as an integral component of resilience. This role was generally replicated in the five investigated samples. Risk factors are legitimate, valid, and useful parts of the definition of psychological resilience. Resilience research has shifted away from studying individual risk factors to investigating the process through which individuals overcome the hardships they experience. The present data seem to suggest that this shift should be reexamined.

  13. Major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherding, J.D.; Sebastian, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study whose objective was to determine the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction from the perspective of the tradesmen employed at the sites. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire survey and group interview sessions, predominantly with workmen, at six nuclear power plant construction projects. Craftsmen were chosen as the major data base because of their awareness of how their time would actually be spent on the project. Topics considered include the factors influencing craft productivity, material availability, redoing work, crew interfacing, overcrowded work areas, instruction time, inspection delays, craft turnover, craft absenteeism, foreman changes, foreman incompetence, engineering design lead time, comprehensive scheduling of the design function, the responsibility of the utility, value engineering, plant standardization, the effective utilization of the planning and scheduling system, and the labor-management committee

  14. Galleria mellonella model identifies highly virulent strains among all major molecular types of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the number of cases due to C. gattii is increasing, affecting mainly immunocompetent hosts. C. gattii is divided into four major molecular types, VGI to VGIV, which differ in their host range, epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. Besides studies on the Vancouver Island outbreak strains, which showed that the subtype VGIIa is highly virulent compared to the subtype VGIIb, little is known about the virulence of the other major molecular types. To elucidate the virulence potential of the major molecular types of C. gattii, Galleria mellonella larvae were inoculated with ten globally selected strains per molecular type. Survival rates were recorded and known virulence factors were studied. One VGII, one VGIII and one VGIV strain were more virulent (p 0.05, 21 (five VGI, five VGII, four VGIII and seven VGIV were less virulent (p <0.05 while one strain of each molecular type were avirulent. Cell and capsule size of all strains increased markedly during larvae infection (p <0.001. No differences in growth rate at 37°C were observed. Melanin synthesis was directly related with the level of virulence: more virulent strains produced more melanin than less virulent strains (p <0.05. The results indicate that all C. gattii major molecular types exhibit a range of virulence, with some strains having the potential to be more virulent. The study highlights the necessity to further investigate the genetic background of more and less virulent strains in order to recognize critical features, other than the known virulence factors (capsule, melanin and growth at mammalian body temperature, that maybe crucial for the development and progression of cryptococcosis.

  15. A general method for identifying major hybrid male sterility genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L W; Singh, R S

    1995-10-01

    The genes responsible for hybrid male sterility in species crosses are usually identified by introgressing chromosome segments, monitored by visible markers, between closely related species by continuous backcrosses. This commonly used method, however, suffers from two problems. First, it relies on the availability of markers to monitor the introgressed regions and so the portion of the genome examined is limited to the marked regions. Secondly, the introgressed regions are usually large and it is impossible to tell if the effects of the introgressed regions are the result of single (or few) major genes or many minor genes (polygenes). Here we introduce a simple and general method for identifying putative major hybrid male sterility genes which is free of these problems. In this method, the actual hybrid male sterility genes (rather than markers), or tightly linked gene complexes with large effects, are selectively introgressed from one species into the background of another species by repeated backcrosses. This is performed by selectively backcrossing heterozygous (for hybrid male sterility gene or genes) females producing fertile and sterile sons in roughly equal proportions to males of either parental species. As no marker gene is required for this procedure, this method can be used with any species pairs that produce unisexual sterility. With the application of this method, a small X chromosome region of Drosophila mauritiana which produces complete hybrid male sterility (aspermic testes) in the background of D. simulans was identified. Recombination analysis reveals that this region contains a second major hybrid male sterility gene linked to the forked locus located at either 62.7 +/- 0.66 map units or at the centromere region of the X chromosome of D. mauritiana.

  16. Risk factors for and perinatal outcomes of major depression during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räisänen, Sari; Lehto, Soili M; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2014-01-01

    was substantial to modest for small-for-gestational age newborn (care associated with major depression, whereas SES made only a minor contribution. CONCLUSIONS: Physician-diagnosed major depression......OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for and the consequences (several adverse perinatal outcomes) of physician-diagnosed major depression during pregnancy treated in specialised healthcare. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were gathered from Finnish health registers...... for 1996-2010. PARTICIPANTS: All singleton births (n=511,938) for 2002-2010 in Finland. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, risk factors and consequences of major depression during pregnancy. RESULTS: Among 511,938 women, 0.8% experienced major depression during pregnancy, of which 46.9% had a history...

  17. Identifying factors affecting about outsourcing in paraclinical services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Outsourcing refers to the transfer of services or functions to an outsider supplier, which controls them through a contract or cooperative. The main problem of senior managers in health organizations is determining the services which should be outsourced. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect ...

  18. Identifying risk factors that contribute to acute mountain sickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a questionnaire-based study conducted in London and at Everest Base Camp, in which 116 lowlanders were invited to participate and fill in a questionnaire to identify potential risk factors in their history that may have contributed to development of or protection against AMS. Results. A total of 89 lowlanders ...

  19. Identifying predictors, moderators, and mediators of antidepressant response in major depressive disorder: neuroimaging approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Chase, Henry W; Sheline, Yvette I; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R C; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes.

  20. Identifying Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L.; Chase, Henry W.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R.C.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. Method In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. Results The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Conclusions Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:25640931

  1. Identifying influential factors of business process performance using dependency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, Branimir; Leitner, Philipp; Rosenberg, Florian; Dustdar, Schahram; Leymann, Frank

    2011-02-01

    We present a comprehensive framework for identifying influential factors of business process performance. In particular, our approach combines monitoring of process events and Quality of Service (QoS) measurements with dependency analysis to effectively identify influential factors. The framework uses data mining techniques to construct tree structures to represent dependencies of a key performance indicator (KPI) on process and QoS metrics. These dependency trees allow business analysts to determine how process KPIs depend on lower-level process metrics and QoS characteristics of the IT infrastructure. The structure of the dependencies enables a drill-down analysis of single factors of influence to gain a deeper knowledge why certain KPI targets are not met.

  2. Recombinant factor VIIa treatment for asymptomatic factor VII deficient patients going through major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livnat, Tami; Shenkman, Boris; Spectre, Galia; Tamarin, Ilia; Dardik, Rima; Israeli, Amnon; Rivkind, Avraham; Shabtai, Moshe; Marinowitz, Uri; Salomon, Ophira

    2012-07-01

    Factor VII deficiency is the most common among the rare autosomal recessive coagulation disorders worldwide. In factor VII deficient patients, the severity and clinical manifestations cannot be reliably determined by factor VII levels. Severe bleeding tends to occur in individuals with factor VII activity levels of 2% or less of normal. Patients with 2-10% factor VII vary between asymptomatic to severe life threatening haemorrhages behaviour. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is the most common replacement therapy for congenital factor VII deficiency. However, unlike haemophilia patients for whom treatment protocols are straight forward, in asymptomatic factor VII deficiency patients it is still debatable. In this study, we demonstrate that a single and very low dose of recombinant factor VIIa enabled asymptomatic patients with factor VII deficiency to go through major surgery safely. This suggestion was also supported by thrombin generation, as well as by thromboelastometry.

  3. Conditional analysis identifies three novel major histocompatibility complex loci associated with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jo; Spain, Sarah L; Capon, Francesca; Hayday, Adrian; Nestle, Frank O; Clop, Alex; Barker, Jonathan N; Weale, Michael E; Trembath, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disorder. A number of genetic loci have been shown to confer risk for psoriasis. Collectively, these offer an integrated model for the inherited basis for susceptibility to psoriasis that combines altered skin barrier function together with the dysregulation of innate immune pathogen sensing and adap-tive immunity. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) harbours the psoriasis susceptibility region which exhibits the largest effect size, driven in part by variation contained on the HLA-Cw*0602 allele. However, the resolution of the number and genomic location of potential independent risk loci are hampered by extensive linkage disequilibrium across the region. We leveraged the power of large psoriasis case and control data sets and the statistical approach of conditional analysis to identify potential further association signals distributed across the MHC. In addition to the major loci at HLA-C (P = 2.20 × 10(-236)), we observed and replicated four additional independent signals for disease association, three of which are novel. We detected evidence for association at SNPs rs2507971 (P = 6.73 × 10(-14)), rs9260313 (P = 7.93 × 10(-09)), rs66609536 (P = 3.54 × 10(-07)) and rs380924 (P = 6.24 × 10(-06)), located within the class I region of the MHC, with each observation replicated in an independent sample (P ≤ 0.01). The previously identified locus is close to MICA, the other three lie near MICB, HLA-A and HCG9 (a non-coding RNA gene). The identification of disease associations with both MICA and MICB is particularly intriguing, since each encodes an MHC class I-related protein with potent immunological function.

  4. Lung cancer and risk factors: how to identify phenotypic markers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement-Duchene, Christelle

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death in the world. Most lung cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage (IIIB and IV), with a poor prognosis. The main risk factors are well known like active smoking, and occupational exposure (asbestos), but 10 a 20% occur in never smokers. In this population, various studies have been conducted in order to identify possible risk factors, and although many have been identified, none seem to explain more than a small percentage of the cases. According to the histological types, adenocarcinoma is now the more frequent type, and its association with the main risk factors (tobacco exposure, asbestos exposure) is still studied. The tumoral location is associated with the exposure to the risk factors. Finally, the survival seems to be different between gender, and between smokers, and never smokers. All these characteristics are perhaps associated with different pathways of carcinogenesis. In this context, we have analyzed a cohort of 1493 patients with lung cancer in order to identify phenotypic markers, and to understand the mechanisms of the lung carcinogenesis. (author) [fr

  5. Extended exome sequencing identifies BACH2 as a novel major risk locus for Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, D; Bianchi, M; Landegren, N; Nordin, J; Dalin, F; Mathioudaki, A; Eriksson, G N; Hultin-Rosenberg, L; Dahlqvist, J; Zetterqvist, H; Karlsson, Å; Hallgren, Å; Farias, F H G; Murén, E; Ahlgren, K M; Lobell, A; Andersson, G; Tandre, K; Dahlqvist, S R; Söderkvist, P; Rönnblom, L; Hulting, A-L; Wahlberg, J; Ekwall, O; Dahlqvist, P; Meadows, J R S; Bensing, S; Lindblad-Toh, K; Kämpe, O; Pielberg, G R

    2016-12-01

    Autoimmune disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Addison's disease, the adrenal glands are targeted by destructive autoimmunity. Despite being the most common cause of primary adrenal failure, little is known about its aetiology. To understand the genetic background of Addison's disease, we utilized the extensively characterized patients of the Swedish Addison Registry. We developed an extended exome capture array comprising a selected set of 1853 genes and their potential regulatory elements, for the purpose of sequencing 479 patients with Addison's disease and 1394 controls. We identified BACH2 (rs62408233-A, OR = 2.01 (1.71-2.37), P = 1.66 × 10 -15 , MAF 0.46/0.29 in cases/controls) as a novel gene associated with Addison's disease development. We also confirmed the previously known associations with the HLA complex. Whilst BACH2 has been previously reported to associate with organ-specific autoimmune diseases co-inherited with Addison's disease, we have identified BACH2 as a major risk locus in Addison's disease, independent of concomitant autoimmune diseases. Our results may enable future research towards preventive disease treatment. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. Enriched pathways for major depressive disorder identified from a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Feng; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2012-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has caused a substantial burden of disease worldwide with moderate heritability. Despite efforts through conducting numerous association studies and now, genome-wide association (GWA) studies, the success of identifying susceptibility loci for MDD has been limited, which is partially attributed to the complex nature of depression pathogenesis. A pathway-based analytic strategy to investigate the joint effects of various genes within specific biological pathways has emerged as a powerful tool for complex traits. The present study aimed to identify enriched pathways for depression using a GWA dataset for MDD. For each gene, we estimated its gene-wise p value using combined and minimum p value, separately. Canonical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and BioCarta were used. We employed four pathway-based analytic approaches (gene set enrichment analysis, hypergeometric test, sum-square statistic, sum-statistic). We adjusted for multiple testing using Benjamini & Hochberg's method to report significant pathways. We found 17 significantly enriched pathways for depression, which presented low-to-intermediate crosstalk. The top four pathways were long-term depression (p⩽1×10-5), calcium signalling (p⩽6×10-5), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (p⩽1.6×10-4) and cell adhesion molecules (p⩽2.2×10-4). In conclusion, our comprehensive pathway analyses identified promising pathways for depression that are related to neurotransmitter and neuronal systems, immune system and inflammatory response, which may be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression. We demonstrated that pathway enrichment analysis is promising to facilitate our understanding of complex traits through a deeper interpretation of GWA data. Application of this comprehensive analytic strategy in upcoming GWA data for depression could validate the findings reported in this study.

  7. Integrated genomic and gene expression profiling identifies two major genomic circuits in urothelial carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lindgren

    Full Text Available Similar to other malignancies, urothelial carcinoma (UC is characterized by specific recurrent chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations. However, the interconnection between specific genomic alterations, and how patterns of chromosomal alterations adhere to different molecular subgroups of UC, is less clear. We applied tiling resolution array CGH to 146 cases of UC and identified a number of regions harboring recurrent focal genomic amplifications and deletions. Several potential oncogenes were included in the amplified regions, including known oncogenes like E2F3, CCND1, and CCNE1, as well as new candidate genes, such as SETDB1 (1q21, and BCL2L1 (20q11. We next combined genome profiling with global gene expression, gene mutation, and protein expression data and identified two major genomic circuits operating in urothelial carcinoma. The first circuit was characterized by FGFR3 alterations, overexpression of CCND1, and 9q and CDKN2A deletions. The second circuit was defined by E3F3 amplifications and RB1 deletions, as well as gains of 5p, deletions at PTEN and 2q36, 16q, 20q, and elevated CDKN2A levels. TP53/MDM2 alterations were common for advanced tumors within the two circuits. Our data also suggest a possible RAS/RAF circuit. The tumors with worst prognosis showed a gene expression profile that indicated a keratinized phenotype. Taken together, our integrative approach revealed at least two separate networks of genomic alterations linked to the molecular diversity seen in UC, and that these circuits may reflect distinct pathways of tumor development.

  8. Beyond BLASTing: Tertiary and Quaternary Structure Analysis Helps Identify Major Vault Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and then quaternary structure (docking) of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein (MVP) that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. We used the iterative threading assembly refinement server (I-TASSER) to predict whether putative MVP sequences identified by BLASTp and PSI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool are structurally similar to the experimentally determined rodent MVP tertiary structures. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat (Rattus norvegicus) vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults. These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. As the negative control, I-TASSER did not predict an MVP-like structure from a randomized rat MVP sequence, even when constrained to the rat MVP crystal structure (PDB:2ZUO), thus further validating the method. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of 300 residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via

  9. Major epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, Bashiru; Bahaman, Abdul Rani; Bejo, Siti Khairani; Zakaria, Zunita; Mutalib, Abdul Rahim; Bande, Faruku

    2018-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a diverse pathogenic leptospira species and serovars. The disease is transmitted directly following contact with infected urine and other body fluids or indirectly after contact with water or soil contaminated with infected urine. While a wide range of domestic and wild animals are known to be reservoirs of the disease, occupation, international travel and recreation are beginning to assume a center stage in the transmission of the disease. The objective of this study is to review available literatures to determine the extent to which these aforementioned risk factors aid the transmission, increase incidence and outbreak of leptospirosis in Malaysia. The review was conducted based on prevalence, incidence, and outbreak cases of leptospirosis among human and susceptible animals predisposed to several of the risk factors identified in Malaysia. Literature searchers and reviews were conducted based on articles published in citation index journals, Malaysian ministry of health reports, periodicals as well as reliable newspapers articles and online media platforms. In each case, the newspapers and online media reports were supported by press briefings by officials of the ministry of health and other agencies responsible. The disease is endemic in Malaysia, and this was attributed to the large number of reservoir animals, suitable humid and moist environment for proliferation as well as abundant forest resources. Over 30 different serovars have been detected in Malaysia in different domestic and wild animal species. This, in addition to the frequency of flooding which has increased in recent years, and has helped increase the risk of human exposure. Occupation, recreation, flooding and rodent population were all identified as an important source and cause of the disease within the study population. There is an urgent need for the government and other stakeholders to intensify efforts to control the spread of the disease

  10. Identify and rank key factors influencing the adoption of cloud computing for a healthy Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shukuhy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing as a new technology with Internet infrastructure and new approaches can be significant benefits in providing medical services electronically. Aplying this technology in E-Health requires consideration of various factors. The main objective of this study is to identify and rank the factors influencing the adoption of e-health cloud. Based on the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE framework and Human-Organization-Technology fit (HOT-fit model, 16 sub-factors were identified in four major factors. With survey of 60 experts, academics and experts in health information technology and with the help of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process had ranked these sub-factors and factors. In the literature, considering newness this study, no internal or external study, have not alluded these number of criteria. The results show that when deciding to adopt cloud computing in E-Health, respectively, must be considered technological, human, organizational and environmental factors.

  11. Identifying important motivational factors for professionals in Greek hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Paleologou, Victoria; Niakas, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify important motivational factors according to the views of health-care professionals in Greek hospitals and particularly to determine if these might differ in the public and private sectors. Methods A previously developed -and validated- instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) was used. Three categories of health care professionals, doctors (N = 354), nurses (N = 581) and office workers (N = 418), working in public and private hospitals, participated and motivation was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The range of reported motivational factors was mixed and Maslow's conclusions that lower level motivational factors must be met before ascending to the next level were not confirmed. The highest ranked motivator for the entire sample, and by professional subgroup, was achievements (P motivators were similar, and only one significant difference was observed, namely between doctors and nurses in respect to co-workers (P motivated by all factors significantly more than their public-hospital counterparts. Conclusion The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care workers. This study showed that intrinsic factors are particularly important and should become a target for effective employee motivation. PMID:19754968

  12. Identifying key hospital service quality factors in online health communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain; Kim, Minki

    2015-04-07

    The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. We defined social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea's two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is 78% on average. Extraction and

  13. IDENTIFYING MOTIVATION FACTOR INVOLVEMENT OF SARAWAK MALAY WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masyantie Mohamad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak multilayered cake among Sarawak product signature famous among the local as well as international tourist visiting Sarawak. In fact, Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurs have become very necessary players in the entrepreneurial field specifically in this cottage industries from the early introduction of this business, they have facing various problem in this businesses. Thus, this research aims to build an understanding of motivational factor that encourage Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurial experiences especially in multilayered cake businesses. Using qualitative methods, this research aims to identify the entrepreneurial motivations factors; with regards to start-up motivation by Sarawak Malay women. The finding shows that the motivations that influence Malay women within Kuching, Sarawak areas to start and grow their business are involve self-driven and context driven that motivate them involve in multilayered cakes businesses.

  14. Identifying the customer satisfaction factors in furniture market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – the purpose of this research is to identify the influential factors on customer satisfaction in the Iranian furniture market in order to get acquainted with the fundamental items for planning future sales programs with the purposes of extolling competitive advantages. Design/methodology/approach – A commixture of 6 items and 31 factors were educed from interviewing with 20 experts in furniture designing and manufacturing industry. The collected data from customer need indexes in previous research were also used. Findings – results showed that such factors as economic factors weighting 0.32, product specifications weighting 0.21 and credibility weighting 0.19 were the most important indexes and price weighting 0.195, fame weighting 0.131, quality, durability and resistance weighting 0.116, paying conditions weighting 0.095, designing and decorating in virtual softwares before ordering weighting 0.074, updatedness weighting 0.064 and interaction approach with the weight of 0.42 were the most considerable influential sub-indexes on the satisfaction of the Iranian furniture market customers. Research limitations/implications – by the enhancement of competition throughout the world markets and the inevitable presence of Iran in it, the market activists’ concentration should shift towards paying comprehensive attention to desires and needs of furniture market customers. Practical implications – some important issues on planning suitable manufacturing and marketing programs in furniture market are introduce so that the activists be aware of considering the growing knowledge and awareness of end-users which increases the pressure on the manufacturer side. There are also some solutions in terms of internal and external organizational factors with regard to the complex nature of competitive environment in furniture market. Originality/value – the paper provides an examination of effective factors on customer satisfaction with a

  15. Whole genome population genetics analysis of Sudanese goats identifies regions harboring genes associated with major traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatalla, Siham A; Arends, Danny; Reissmann, Monika; Said Ahmed, Ammar; Wimmers, Klaus; Reyer, Henry; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2017-10-23

    Sudan is endowed with a variety of indigenous goat breeds which are used for meat and milk production and which are well adapted to the local environment. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity and relationship within and between the four main Sudanese breeds of Nubian, Desert, Taggar and Nilotic goats. Using the 50 K SNP chip, 24 animals of each breed were genotyped. More than 96% of high quality SNPs were polymorphic with an average minor allele frequency of 0.3. In all breeds, no significant difference between observed (0.4) and expected (0.4) heterozygosity was found and the inbreeding coefficients (F IS ) did not differ from zero. F st coefficients for the genetic distance between breeds also did not significantly deviate from zero. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance revealed that 93% of the total variance in the examined population can be explained by differences among individuals, while only 7% result from differences between the breeds. These findings provide evidence for high genetic diversity and little inbreeding within breeds on one hand, and low diversity between breeds on the other hand. Further examinations using Nei's genetic distance and STRUCTURE analysis clustered Taggar goats distinct from the other breeds. In a principal component (PC) analysis, PC1 could separate Taggar, Nilotic and a mix of Nubian and Desert goats into three groups. The SNPs that contributed strongly to PC1 showed high F st values in Taggar goat versus the other goat breeds. PCA allowed us to identify target genomic regions which contain genes known to influence growth, development, bone formation and the immune system. The information on the genetic variability and diversity in this study confirmed that Taggar goat is genetically different from the other goat breeds in Sudan. The SNPs identified by the first principal components show high F st values in Taggar goat and allowed to identify candidate genes which can be used in the

  16. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Anna Tiihonen; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods: Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at S...

  17. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  18. Reboot: Revisiting Factors Influencing Female Selection of the CIS Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Darin; Corley, Ken

    2017-01-01

    A concern among many universities, this study reflects and continues research on the changing attitude and intent of selecting a Computer Information Systems major. Focusing on the gender gap for selection of major for women in this field, studies indicate instrumental beliefs and subjective norms can influence behavior and indicate how selection…

  19. Assessing vulnerability to drought: identifying underlying factors across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquijo, Julia; Gonzalez Tánago, Itziar; Ballesteros, Mario; De Stefano, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    Drought is considered one of the most severe and damaging natural hazards in terms of people and sectors affected and associated losses. Drought is a normal and recurrent climatic phenomenon that occurs worldwide, although its spatial and temporal characteristics vary significantly among climates. In the case of Europe, in the last thirty years, the region has suffered several drought events that have caused estimated economic damages over a €100 billion and have affected almost 20% of its territory and population. In recent years, there has been a growing awareness among experts and authorities of the need to shift from a reactive crisis approach to a drought risk management approach, as well as of the importance of designing and implementing policies, strategies and plans at country and river basin levels to deal with drought. The identification of whom and what is vulnerable to drought is a central aspect of drought risk mitigation and planning and several authors agree that societal vulnerability often determines drought risk more than the actual precipitation shortfalls. The final aim of a drought vulnerability assessment is to identify the underlying sources of drought impact, in order to develop policy options that help to enhance coping capacity and therefore to prevent drought impact. This study identifies and maps factors underlying vulnerability to drought across Europe. The identification of factors influencing vulnerability starts from the analysis of past drought impacts in four European socioeconomic sectors. This analysis, along with an extensive literature review, led to the selection of vulnerability factors that are both relevant and adequate for the European context. Adopting the IPCC model, vulnerability factors were grouped to describe exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The aggregation of these components has resulted in the mapping of vulnerability to drought across Europe at NUTS02 level. Final results have been compared with

  20. Identifying Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Maintenance operations incidents submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) between 1986-1992 were systematically analyzed in order to identify issues relevant to human factors and crew coordination. This exploratory analysis involved 95 ASRS reports which represented a wide range of maintenance incidents. The reports were coded and analyzed according to the type of error (e.g, wrong part, procedural error, non-procedural error), contributing factors (e.g., individual, within-team, cross-team, procedure, tools), result of the error (e.g., aircraft damage or not) as well as the operational impact (e.g., aircraft flown to destination, air return, delay at gate). The main findings indicate that procedural errors were most common (48.4%) and that individual and team actions contributed to the errors in more than 50% of the cases. As for operational results, most errors were either corrected after landing at the destination (51.6%) or required the flight crew to stop enroute (29.5%). Interactions among these variables are also discussed. This analysis is a first step toward developing a taxonomy of crew coordination problems in maintenance. By understanding what variables are important and how they are interrelated, we may develop intervention strategies that are better tailored to the human factor issues involved.

  1. Tissue plasminogen activator; identifying major barriers related to intravenous injection in ischemic acute cerebral infraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to previous publications, in patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction, thrombolytic therapy using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA necessitates precise documentation of symptoms' onset. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers related to the IV-tPA injection in such patients. Materials and Methods: Between the year 2014-2015, patients with definitive diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction (n = 180 who attended the neurology ward located at the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital were studied. To investigate barriers related to door to IV-tPA needle time, personal reasons, and criteria for inclusion or exclusion of patients, three questionnaire forms were designed based on the Food and Drug Administration-approved indications or contraindications. Results: The mean age of males versus females was 60 versus 77.5 years (ranged 23–93 vs. 29–70 years, respectively. Out of total population, only 10.7% transferred to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms. Regarding to eligibility for IV-tPA, 68.9% of total population have had criteria for such treatment. Concerning to both items such as transferring to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms and eligibility for IV-tPA, only 6.6% of total population met the criteria for such management. There was ignorance or inattention to symptoms in 75% of population studied. There was a mean of 195.92 ± 6.65 min (182.8–209.04 min for door to IV-tPA needle time. Conclusion: Despite the international guidelines for IV-tPA injection within 3–4.5 h of ischemic stroke symptoms' onset, the results of this study revealed that falling time due to ignorance of symptoms, literacy, and living alone might need further attention. As a result, to decrease death and disability, educational programs related to the symptoms' onset by consultant neurologist in Isfahan/Iran seem to be advantageous.

  2. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we spend more time in front of computers, video games, TV, and other electronic pastimes, we have fewer ... no other risk factors. Overweight and obesity also increase the risks for diabetes, high blood pressure, high ...

  3. Aesthetic Surgical Procedures in Men: Major Complications and Associated Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos; Winocour, Julian; Yeslev, Max; Gupta, Varun; Asokan, Ishan; Roostaeian, Jason; Grotting, James C; Higdon, K Kye

    2018-03-14

    The number of men undergoing cosmetic surgery is increasing in North America. To determine the incidence and risk factors of major complications in males undergoing cosmetic surgery, compare the complication profiles between men and women, and identify specific procedures that are associated with higher risk of complications in males. A prospective cohort of patients undergoing cosmetic surgery between 2008 and 2013 was identified from the CosmetAssure database. Gender specific procedures were excluded. Primary outcome was occurrence of a major complication in males requiring emergency room visit, hospital admission, or reoperation within 30 days of the index operation. Univariate and multivariate analysis evaluated potential risk factors for major complications including age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, diabetes, type of surgical facility, type of procedure, and combined procedures. Of the 129,007 patients, 54,927 underwent gender nonspecific procedures, of which 5801 (10.6%) were males. Women showed a higher mean age (46.4 ± 14.1 vs 45.2 ± 16.7 years, P procedures (RR 3.47), and combined procedures (RR 2.56). Aesthetic surgery in men is safe with low major complication rates. Modifiable predictors of complications included BMI and combined procedures.

  4. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... significantly affecting the environment. (a) General guidelines. The phrase, “major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment,” as used in this part, shall be construed with a...

  5. Female STEM majors wanted: The impact of certain factors on choice of a college major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Walter Michael

    Although females have made significant strides in educational achievements and substantial inroads into academic majors, such as business and medicine, they have made considerably less progress in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. This translates into a smaller number of female graduates prepared to work in the science career fields and results in American industry looking to other countries for its educated workforce. A mixed-methods research design was used to explore and understand the lived experiences and perceptions of faculty members and working STEM professionals in Northern and Central Virginia. Results indicated that although females are attaining STEM degrees and entering STEM fields in record numbers, obstacles such as a challenging STEM curriculum, bias, feelings of insecurity, lack of female role models, and inadequate preparation for the STEM workforce could impede the progress females have made. This research makes recommendations to the academic community and industry which may be used as retention and recruitment strategies for females considering a career in STEM. The ultimate goal is to significantly increase the number of highly skilled female graduates entering STEM fields, leading the U.S. to regain its previous position atop the world in technological innovation and leadership.

  6. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, I., E-mail: ivy@ecko.uran.ru [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Sophy Kovalevskoy, 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Vasilyev, A.; Malinovsky, G. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Sophy Kovalevskoy, 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bossew, P. [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Berlin (Germany); Žunić, Z.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Onischenko, A.; Zhukovsky, M. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Sophy Kovalevskoy, 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed. - Highlights: • Influence of lithosphere and anthroposphere on variance of indoor radon is found. • Level-by-level analysis reduces GSD by a factor of 1.9. • Worldwide GSD is underestimated.

  7. Incidence and Risk Factors for Major Hematomas in Aesthetic Surgery: Analysis of 129,007 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos; Winocour, Julian; Gupta, Varun; Ganesh Kumar, Nishant; Sarosiek, Konrad; Wormer, Blair; Tokin, Christopher; Grotting, James C; Higdon, K Kye

    2017-10-16

    Postoperative hematomas are one of the most frequent complications following aesthetic surgery. Identifying risk factors for hematoma has been limited by underpowered studies from single institution experiences. To examine the incidence and identify independent risk factors for postoperative hematomas following cosmetic surgery utilizing a prospective, multicenter database. A prospectively enrolled cohort of patients who underwent aesthetic surgery between 2008 and 2013 was identified from the CosmetAssure database. Primary outcome was occurrence of major hematomas requiring emergency room visit, hospital admission, or reoperation within 30 days of the index operation. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify potential risk factors for hematomas including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, diabetes, type of surgical facility, procedure by body region, and combined procedures. Of 129,007 patients, 1180 (0.91%) had a major hematoma. Mean age (42.0 ± 13.0 years vs 40.9 ± 13.9 years, P hematomas. Males suffered more hematomas than females (1.4% vs 0.9%, P Hematoma rates were higher in patients undergoing combined procedures compared to single procedures (1.1% vs 0.8%, P hematoma included age (Relative Risk [RR] 1.01), male gender (RR 1.98), the procedure being performed in a hospital setting rather than an office-based setting (RR 1.68), combined procedures (RR 1.35), and breast procedures rather than the body/extremity and face procedures (RR 1.81). Major hematoma is the most common complication following aesthetic surgery. Male patients and those undergoing breast or combined procedures have a significantly higher risk of developing hematomas. 2. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  9. Human factors: A major issue in plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widrig, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Humans play a significant role in the effects of aging on safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. These human issues may be more important than the issues of materials and component degradation with age. Human actions can accelerate or decelerate physical aging of a plant. And an aging plant can have a significant negative impact on staff quality and performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide some insights into the nature of these human factors issues and their relationship to plant aging. An early awareness of these issues facilitates timely action to at least mitigate these problems before they become insurmountable

  10. Human factors: a major issue in plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widrig, R.D.

    1985-07-01

    Human factors issues will be of great significance in the safe and reliable operation of aging nuclear power plants, and they may be more important than materials/component-type issues. Human actions can accelerate or decelerate te physical aging process. And an aging plant can have significant negative implications on staff performance and actions. Some examples include difficulties in attracting and retaining good managers, financial decisions based on a short and uncertain remaining plant life, difficulties in replacing retiring staff, increased maintenance complexity, and increased burden on training. These problems can be dealt with more effectively by early recognition and a well conceived mitigation effort

  11. Sex similarities and differences in risk factors for recurrence of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, Hanna M; Aggen, Steven H; Gardner, Charles O; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2017-11-27

    Major depression (MD) occurs about twice as often in women as in men, but it is unclear whether sex differences subsist after disease onset. This study aims to elucidate potential sex differences in rates and risk factors for MD recurrence, in order to improve prediction of course of illness and understanding of its underlying mechanisms. We used prospective data from a general population sample (n = 653) that experienced a recent episode of MD. A diverse set of potential risk factors for recurrence of MD was analyzed using Cox models subject to elastic net regularization for males and females separately. Accuracy of the prediction models was tested in same-sex and opposite-sex test data. Additionally, interactions between sex and each of the risk factors were investigated to identify potential sex differences. Recurrence rates and the impact of most risk factors were similar for men and women. For both sexes, prediction models were highly multifactorial including risk factors such as comorbid anxiety, early traumas, and family history. Some subtle sex differences were detected: for men, prediction models included more risk factors concerning characteristics of the depressive episode and family history of MD and generalized anxiety, whereas for women, models included more risk factors concerning early and recent adverse life events and socioeconomic problems. No prominent sex differences in risk factors for recurrence of MD were found, potentially indicating similar disease maintaining mechanisms for both sexes. Course of MD is a multifactorial phenomenon for both males and females.

  12. Gene expression meta-analysis identifies metastatic pathways and transcription factors in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, Mads; Tan, Qihua; Kruse, Torben A

    2008-01-01

    Metastasis is believed to progress in several steps including different pathways but the determination and understanding of these mechanisms is still fragmentary. Microarray analysis of gene expression patterns in breast tumors has been used to predict outcome in recent studies. Besides classification of outcome, these global expression patterns may reflect biological mechanisms involved in metastasis of breast cancer. Our purpose has been to investigate pathways and transcription factors involved in metastasis by use of gene expression data sets. We have analyzed 8 publicly available gene expression data sets. A global approach, 'gene set enrichment analysis' as well as an approach focusing on a subset of significantly differently regulated genes, GenMAPP, has been applied to rank pathway gene sets according to differential regulation in metastasizing tumors compared to non-metastasizing tumors. Meta-analysis has been used to determine overrepresentation of pathways and transcription factors targets, concordant deregulated in metastasizing breast tumors, in several data sets. The major findings are up-regulation of cell cycle pathways and a metabolic shift towards glucose metabolism reflected in several pathways in metastasizing tumors. Growth factor pathways seem to play dual roles; EGF and PDGF pathways are decreased, while VEGF and sex-hormone pathways are increased in tumors that metastasize. Furthermore, migration, proteasome, immune system, angiogenesis, DNA repair and several signal transduction pathways are associated to metastasis. Finally several transcription factors e.g. E2F, NFY, and YY1 are identified as being involved in metastasis. By pathway meta-analysis many biological mechanisms beyond major characteristics such as proliferation are identified. Transcription factor analysis identifies a number of key factors that support central pathways. Several previously proposed treatment targets are identified and several new pathways that may

  13. A study on the major influencing factors in decision-making in abnormal radiological situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, B. W.; Kim, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the task of the technical advisers within the off-site emergency response organization in nuclear accident. They shall be collected and evaluated all influencing factors relevant in decision-making process. The major influencing objective factors are the results of radiological and economic consequence assessments. However, it is associated with uncertainties in predictions dependent of the phase of the accident. Important other factors emerge from subjective arguments between technical advisers in decision-making process. By theirs different opinions, the decision maker who is lack of experience and knowledge has a much more difficult to make and implement the emergency actions. Therefore, the practically considerations in a concrete emergency situation are timely implemented the emergency actions result from already existing plans. The actual process of decision-making consists in identifying in a iterative process implementing individual actions or a set of combined action

  14. Effects of Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings Identified in Midlatitude Mesospheric Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sox, L.; Wickwar, V. B.; Fish, C. S.; Herron, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions. However, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The very dense 11-year data set, collected between 1993-2004, with the Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) at the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU), has been carefully examined for such anomalies. The temperatures derived from these data extend over the mesosphere, from 45 to 90 km. During this period extensive data were acquired during seven major SSW events. In this work we aim to determine the characteristics of the midlatitude mesospheric temperatures during these seven major SSWs. To do this, comparisons were made between the temperature profiles on individual nights before, during, and after the SSW events and the corresponding derived climatological temperature profiles (31-day by 11-year average) for those nights. A consistent disturbance pattern was observed in the mesospheric temperatures during these SSWs. A distinct shift from the nominal winter temperature pattern to a pattern more characteristic of summer temperatures was seen in the midlatitude mesosphere close to when the zonal winds in the polar stratosphere (at 10 hPa, 60° N) reversed from eastward to westward. This shift lasted for several days. This change in pattern included coolings in the upper mesosphere, comparable to those seen in the polar regions, and warmings in the lower mesosphere.

  15. Hypertriglyceridemia: a too long unfairly neglected major cardiovascular risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Klempfner, Robert; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2014-12-04

    The existence of an independent association between elevated triglyceride (TG) levels, cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality has been largely controversial. The main difficulty in isolating the effect of hypertriglyceridemia on CV risk is the fact that elevated triglyceride levels are commonly associated with concomitant changes in high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and other lipoproteins. As a result of this problem and in disregard of the real biological role of TG, its significance as a plausible therapeutic target was unfoundedly underestimated for many years. However, taking epidemiological data together, both moderate and severe hypertriglyceridaemia are associated with a substantially increased long term total mortality and CV risk. Plasma TG levels partially reflect the concentration of the triglyceride-carrying lipoproteins (TRL): very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), chylomicrons and their remnants. Furthermore, hypertriglyceridemia commonly leads to reduction in HDL and increase in atherogenic small dense LDL levels. TG may also stimulate atherogenesis by mechanisms, such excessive free fatty acids (FFA) release, production of proinflammatory cytokines, fibrinogen, coagulation factors and impairment of fibrinolysis. Genetic studies strongly support hypertriglyceridemia and high concentrations of TRL as causal risk factors for CV disease. The most common forms of hypertriglyceridemia are related to overweight and sedentary life style, which in turn lead to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intensive lifestyle therapy is the main initial treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Statins are a cornerstone of the modern lipids-modifying therapy. If the primary goal is to lower TG levels, fibrates (bezafibrate and fenofibrate for monotherapy, and in combination with statin; gemfibrozil only for monotherapy) could be the preferable drugs. Also ezetimibe has mild positive effects in lowering TG

  16. Shakespearean tragedies dynamics: identifying a generic structure in Shakespeare's four major tragedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma; Mrotzek, Maximilian

    2012-10-01

    Many interpretations of Shakespearean tragedy have been conducted, mostly following the principles of interpretation in literary study. In our paper, four tragedies by William Shakespeare - Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth - were analysed systemically to find out whether they inhabit a common structure. Using the plot structure as the basis for our analysis, we identified the most important system elements, their connections, and interactive behaviour using causal loop diagrams (CLDs). Our results revealed that all four tragedies basically conform to Senge's archetypal structure 'shifting the burden', adding the action of the heroine or villain and the characters' boundaries of perception. The results suggest that, even though characters and settings vary highly, these tragedies have similar structures and archetypal solutions exist to overcome the problem. Furthermore, we propose that CLDs and systems archetypes are a reasonable hermeneutic tool to analyse not only Shakespearean tragedies but also other literary works.

  17. Factors associated with presenteeism among employed Australian adults reporting lifetime major depression with 12-month symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Fiona; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Sanderson, Kristy

    2011-12-01

    Employees experiencing depression can take a sickness absence or continue working ('presenteeism'). However, little is known about the factors associated with these behaviors within this population. This study aimed to determine the relative importance of socio-demographic, financial, work and health-related factors associated with presenteeism. The 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing provided data from employed individuals reporting lifetime major depression with 12-month symptoms (N=320). Survey adjusted multivariable logistic regression assessed classification of 12-month, depression-related presenteeism on the basis of socio-demographic, financial, work and health factors. Acceptable classification of cases was 70% or greater. Classification of cases based on socio-demographic factors, age, sex and marital status, was reasonable (62%). Adding work factors (work hours and occupation type) produced a 1% increase in successfully classified cases (63%). Health factors further increased correctly classified cases (67%). Marital status, housing tenure and co-morbid mental disorders were important indicators of presenteeism behavior. Work-related variables were restricted to available measures. Potentially important psychosocial work environment factors were unavailable. Cross-sectional data precluded causal inference. Using available factors, model discrimination did not reach an acceptable level i.e. 70% of presenteeism cases successfully classified. This highlighted the contribution of unmeasured factors to presenteeism behavior. Future research should explore the relative importance of psychosocial work environment and personality factors such as work demands, effort/reward imbalance and conscientiousness. The identified associations between socio-demographic, financial and health factors on work attendance behaviors could inform disease management guidelines for employers via recognition of employees at risk of presenteeism. Copyright

  18. A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-10-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001-2002); Wave 2 (2004-2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-3.83) and dependent personality disorder (AOR=4.43; 95% CI 1.93-10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior.

  19. Identifying Sociological Factors for the Success of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, C. A.; Tarter, D.; Coleman, A.

    Astrosociology factors relevant to success of future space exploration may best be identified through studies of sociological circumstances of past successful explorations, such as the Apollo-Lunar Missions. These studies benefit from access to primary records of the past programs. The Archives and Special Collections Division of the Salmon Library at the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH) houses large collections of material from the early periods of the space age. The Huntsville campus of the University of Alabama System had its birth in the mid-1950s at the time when the von Braun rocket team was relocated from Texas to Huntsville. The University, the City of Huntsville and the US Government rocket organizations developed in parallel over subsequent years. As a result, the University has a significant space heritage and focus. This is true not only for the engineering and science disciplines, but also for the social sciences. The life of the University spans the period when Huntsville government and industrial organizations were responsible for producing the rocket vehicles to first take mankind to the Moon. That endeavor was surely as significant sociologically as technologically. In the 1980s, Donald E. Tarter, conducted a series of video interviews with some leading members of the original von Braun team. Although the interviews ranged over many engineering subjects, they also recorded personal features of people involved in the Apollo lunar exploration program and the interactions between these people. Such knowledge was of course an objective. These interviews are now in the collections of the UAH Library Archives, along with extensive documentation from the same period. Under sponsorship of the Archives and the NASA-Marshall Retiree Association, the interview series was restarted in 2006 to obtain comparable oral-history interviews with more than fifty US born members of the rocket team from the 1960s. Again these video interviews are rich with

  20. Transcriptome association analysis identifies miR-375 as a major determinant of variable acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Freytsis, Marina; Court, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    Acetaminophen is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in many countries including the United States. Hepatic glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A subfamily enzymes is the major route of acetaminophen elimination. Reduced glucuronidation may predispose some individuals to acetaminophen-induced ALF, but mechanisms underlying reduced glucuronidation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may reduce UGT1A activity by direct effects on the UGT1A 3'-UTR shared by all UGT1A enzyme transcripts, or by indirect effects on transcription factors regulating UGT1A expression. We performed an unbiased miRNA whole transcriptome association analysis using a bank of human livers with known acetaminophen glucuronidation activities. Of 754 miRNAs evaluated, 9 miRNAs were identified that were significantly overexpressed (p2-fold) in livers with low acetaminophen glucuronidation activities compared with those with high activities. miR-375 showed the highest difference (>10-fold), and was chosen for further mechanistic validation. We demonstrated using in silico analysis and luciferase reporter assays that miR-375 has a unique functional binding site in the 3'-UTR of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene. Furthermore overexpression of miR-375 in LS180 cells demonstrated significant repression of endogenous AhR protein (by 40%) and mRNA (by 10%), as well as enzyme activity and/or mRNA of AhR regulated enzymes including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and CYP1A2, without affecting UGT2B7, which is not regulated by AhR. Thus miR-375 is identified as a novel repressor of UGT1A-mediated hepatic acetaminophen glucuronidation through reduced AhR expression, which could predispose some individuals to increased risk for acetaminophen-induced ALF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Identifying factors causing cost overrun of the construction projects ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swapnil P Wanjari

    Cost overrun in India; ANOVA; factor analysis; construction projects. 1. Introduction ... gramme Implementation in India [2], projects of public .... case if a respondent never came across of such factor. ..... The co-relation matrix for variables of cost overruns was ..... There are various problems observed due to communication.

  2. Identifying Major Transitions in the Evolution of Lithic Cutting Edge Production Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Muller

    Full Text Available The notion that the evolution of core reduction strategies involved increasing efficiency in cutting edge production is prevalent in narratives of hominin technological evolution. Yet a number of studies comparing two different knapping technologies have found no significant differences in edge production. Using digital analysis methods we present an investigation of raw material efficiency in eight core technologies broadly representative of the long-term evolution of lithic technology. These are bipolar, multiplatform, discoidal, biface, Levallois, prismatic blade, punch blade and pressure blade production. Raw material efficiency is assessed by the ratio of cutting edge length to original core mass. We also examine which flake attributes contribute to maximising raw material efficiency, as well as compare the difference between expert and intermediate knappers in terms of cutting edge produced per gram of core. We identify a gradual increase in raw material efficiency over the broad sweep of lithic technological evolution. The results indicate that the most significant transition in efficiency likely took place with the introduction of small foliate biface, Levallois and prismatic blade knapping, all introduced in the Middle Stone Age / Middle Palaeolithic among early Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. This suggests that no difference in raw material efficiency existed between these species. With prismatic blade technology securely dated to the Middle Palaeolithic, by including the more recent punch and pressure blade technology our results dispel the notion that the transition to the Upper Palaeolithic was accompanied by an increase in efficiency. However, further increases in cutting edge efficiency are evident, with pressure blades possessing the highest efficiency in this study, indicating that late/epi-Palaeolithic and Neolithic blade technologies further increased efficiency.

  3. Identifying risk factors that contribute to acute mountain sickness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is an ever-increasing burden on the health sector. With reported incidences .... schedule to reduce the likelihood of AMS. The data ... of Health and. Multidisciplinary Board on Exercise to identify individuals who.

  4. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...

  5. Identifying and ranking the factors affecting the adoption of biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Azizi; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Reza Agha Mousa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine the important factors influencing on adoption of biofuels from consumer’s perspective. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 211 randomly selected people who use green products in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.812, which is well above the acceptable level. Using principle component with Varimax rotation, the study has determined five important factors including social com...

  6. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important

  7. In or Out When Out & About?: Identifying the Professional Support Needs of LGBT Preservice Social Work & Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.; Giesler, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore how preservice social work and teacher education majors navigate field practicums (e.g., student teaching) as self-identified gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals. In-depth interviews with 26 preservice candidates, representative of two public, comprehensive…

  8. Equestrian injuries: incidence, injury patterns, and risk factors for 10 years of major traumatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Chad G; Ball, Jill E; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Mulloy, Robert H

    2007-05-01

    Horseback riding is more dangerous than motorcycle riding, skiing, football, and rugby. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and injury patterns, as well as risk factors associated with severe equestrian trauma. All patients with major equestrian injuries (injury severity score > or = 12) admitted between 1995 and 2005 were reviewed. A 46-question survey outlining potential rider, animal, and environmental risk factors was administered. Among 7941 trauma patients, 151 (2%) were injured on horseback (mean injury severity score, 20; mortality rate, 7%). Injuries included the chest (54%), head (48%), abdomen (22%), and extremities (17%). Forty-five percent required surgery. Survey results (55%) indicated that riders and horses were well trained, with a 47% recidivism rate. Only 9% of patients wore helmets, however, 64% believed the accident was preventable. Chest trauma previously has been underappreciated. This injury pattern may be a result of significant rider experience. Helmet and vest use will be targeted in future injury prevention strategies.

  9. Structural, functional and evolutionary characterization of major drought transcription factors families in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shikha; Banduni, Pooja; Mallikarjuna, Mallana G.; Rao, Atmakuri R.; Jain, Prashant A.; Dash, Prasanta K.; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean

    2018-05-01

    Drought is one of the major threats to maize production. In order to improve the production and to breed tolerant hybrids, understanding the genes and regulatory mechanisms during drought stress is important. Transcription factors (TFs) play a major role in gene regulation and many TFs have been identified in response to drought stress. In our experiment, a set of 15 major TF families comprising 1436 genes was structurally and functionally characterized using in-silico tools and a gene expression assay. All 1436 genes were mapped on 10 chromosome of maize. The functional annotation indicated the involvement of these genes in ABA signaling, ROS scavenging, photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, and sucrose metabolism. Duplication was identified as the primary force in divergence and expansion of TF families. Phylogenetic relationship was developed individually for each TF family as well as combined TF families. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the TF family of genes into TF-specific and mixed groups. Phylogenetic analysis of genes belonging to various TF families suggested that the origin of TFs occurred in the lineage of maize evolution. Gene structure analysis revealed that more number of genes were intron-rich as compared to intronless genes. Drought-responsive CRE’s such as ABREA, ABREB, DRE1 and DRECRTCOREAT have been identified. Expression and interaction analyses identified leaf-specific bZIP TF, GRMZM2G140355, as a potential contributor toward drought tolerance in maize. We also analyzed protein-protein interaction network of 269 drought-responsive genes belonging to different drought-related TFs. The information generated on structural and functional characteristics, expression and interaction of the drought-related TF families will be useful to decipher the drought tolerance mechanisms and to derive drought-tolerant genotypes in maize.

  10. Bacterial genus is a risk factor for major amputation in patients with diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Natália Anício; Cisneiros, Lígia DE Loiola; Machado, Carla Jorge; Cenedezi, Juliana Merlin; Procópio, Ricardo Jayme; Navarro, Túlio Pinho

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate whether bacterial genus is a risk factor for major amputation in patients with diabetic foot and infected ulcer. we conducted a case-control, observational study of 189 patients with infected ulcers in diabetic feet admitted to the Vascular Surgery Service of the Risoleta Tolentino Neves Hospital, from January 2007 to December 2012. The bacteriological evaluation was performed in deep tissue cultures from the lesions and amputation was considered major when performed above the foot'smiddle tarsus. the patients'mean age was 61.9±12.7 years; 122 (64.6%) were men. The cultures were positive in 86.8%, being monomicrobial in 72% of the cases. In patients with major amputation, Acinetobacter spp. (24.4%), Morganella spp. (24.4%), Proteus spp. (23.1%) and Enterococcus spp. (19.2%) were the most frequent types of bacteria. The most commonly isolated species were Acinetobacter baumannii, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. As predictors of major amputation, we identified the isolation of the generaAcinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp., serum creatinine ≥1.3mg/dl and hemoglobin creatinina ≥1,3mg/dl e de hemoglobina <11g/dl. os gêneros bacterianos Acinetobacter spp. e Klebsiella spp. identificados nas úlceras infectadas dos pacientes com pé diabético associaram-se a maior incidência de amputação maior.

  11. Using Factor Analysis to Identify Topic Preferences Within MBA Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Chrysler

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the role of a principal components factor analysis in conducting a gap analysis as to the desired characteristics of business alumni. Typically, gap analyses merely compare the emphases that should be given to areas of inquiry with perceptions of actual emphases. As a result, the focus is upon depth of coverage. A neglected area in need of investigation is the breadth of topic dimensions and their differences between the normative (should offer and the descriptive (actually offer. The implications of factor structures, as well as traditional gap analyses, are developed and discussed in the context of outcomes assessment.

  12. Identifying and ranking the factors affecting the adoption of biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Azizi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine the important factors influencing on adoption of biofuels from consumer’s perspective. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 211 randomly selected people who use green products in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.812, which is well above the acceptable level. Using principle component with Varimax rotation, the study has determined five important factors including social commitment, product usefulness, infrastructure, management approach and customer oriented, which influence the most on adaptation of biofuels.

  13. The incidence and risk factors of meningitis after major craniotomy in China: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meningitis after neurosurgery can result in severe morbidity and high mortality. Incidence varies among regions and limited data are focused on meningitis after major craniotomy. AIM: This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors and microbiological spectrum of postcraniotomy meningitis in a large clinical center of Neurosurgery in China. METHODS: Patients who underwent neurosurgeries at the Department of Neurosurgery in Huashan Hospital, the largest neurosurgery center in Asia and the Pacific, between 1st January and 31st December, 2008 were selected. Individuals with only shunts, burr holes, stereotactic surgery, transsphenoidal or spinal surgery were excluded. The complete medical records of each case were reviewed, and data on risk factors were extracted and evaluated for meningitis. RESULTS: A total of 65 meningitides were identified among 755 cases in the study, with an incidence of 8.60%. The risk of meningitis was increased by the presence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 6.27; P = 0.009, the use of external ventricular drainage (OR, 4.30; P = 0.003 and the use of lumbar drainage (OR, 17.23; P<0.001. The isolated microorganisms included Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus sp, Streptococcus intermedius and Klebsiella pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Meningitis remains an important source of morbidity and mortality after major craniotomy. Diabetic patients or those with cerebral spinal fluid shunts carry significant high risk of infection. Thus, identification of the risk factors as soon as possible will help physicians to improve patient care.

  14. The incidence and risk factors of meningitis after major craniotomy in China: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Bingyan; Yu, Shenglei; Sun, Feng; Ruan, Qiaoling; Zhang, Wenhong; Shao, Lingyun; Chen, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis after neurosurgery can result in severe morbidity and high mortality. Incidence varies among regions and limited data are focused on meningitis after major craniotomy. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors and microbiological spectrum of postcraniotomy meningitis in a large clinical center of Neurosurgery in China. Patients who underwent neurosurgeries at the Department of Neurosurgery in Huashan Hospital, the largest neurosurgery center in Asia and the Pacific, between 1st January and 31st December, 2008 were selected. Individuals with only shunts, burr holes, stereotactic surgery, transsphenoidal or spinal surgery were excluded. The complete medical records of each case were reviewed, and data on risk factors were extracted and evaluated for meningitis. A total of 65 meningitides were identified among 755 cases in the study, with an incidence of 8.60%. The risk of meningitis was increased by the presence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 6.27; P = 0.009), the use of external ventricular drainage (OR, 4.30; P = 0.003) and the use of lumbar drainage (OR, 17.23; PMeningitis remains an important source of morbidity and mortality after major craniotomy. Diabetic patients or those with cerebral spinal fluid shunts carry significant high risk of infection. Thus, identification of the risk factors as soon as possible will help physicians to improve patient care.

  15. X-factor for innovation: identifying future excellent professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we wanted to identify which type of individual is capable of achieving professional excellence. Our main question therefore read: which individual antecedents predict professional excellence? We chose to focus on personality traits and specifically on proactive personality - the

  16. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...... and excluded 61.5% of the tumors from MMR testing. This clinicopathologic index thus successfully selects MMR-defective colon cancers. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  17. Human-automation collaboration in manufacturing: identifying key implementation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambous, George; Fletcher, Sarah; Webb, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Human-automation collaboration refers to the concept of human operators and intelligent automation working together interactively within the same workspace without conventional physical separation. This concept has commanded significant attention in manufacturing because of the potential applications, such as the installation of large sub-assemblies. However, the key human factors relevant to human-automation collaboration have not yet been fully investigated. To maximise effective implement...

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for neuroticism and shows polygenic association with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Marleen H.M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppälä, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbara; Giegling, Ina; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heinonen, Kati; Henders, Anjali K.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Karlsson, Robert; Kemp, John P.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Latvala, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Magri, Chiara; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marten, Jonathan; Maschio, Andrea; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nauck, Matthias; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pettersson, Erik; Polasek, Ozren; Qian, Yong; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Pourcain, Beate St; Sutin, Angelina R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trochet, Holly; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Wouda, Jasper; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Scotland, Generation; Porteous, David; Minelli, Alessandra; Palmer, Abraham A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Metspalu, Andres; Kaprio, Jaakko; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Wilson, James F.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Bierut, Laura J.; Hettema, John M.; Grabe, Hans J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Evans, David M.; Schlessinger, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Terracciano, Antonio; McGue, Matt; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Neuroticism is a personality trait that is briefly defined by emotional instability. It is a robust genetic risk factor for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Hence, neuroticism is an important phenotype for psychiatric genetics. The Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) has created a resource for genome-wide association analyses of personality traits in over 63,000 participants (including MDD cases). Objective To identify genetic variants associated with neuroticism by performing a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results based on 1000Genomes imputation, to evaluate if common genetic variants as assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) explain variation in neuroticism by estimating SNP-based heritability, and to examine whether SNPs that predict neuroticism also predict MDD. Setting 30 cohorts with genome-wide genotype, personality and MDD data from the GPC. Participants The study included 63,661 participants from 29 discovery cohorts and 9,786 participants from a replication cohort. Participants came from Europe, the United States or Australia. Main outcome measure(s) Neuroticism scores harmonized across all cohorts by Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis, and clinically assessed MDD case-control status. Results A genome-wide significant SNP was found in the MAGI1 gene (rs35855737; P=9.26 × 10−9 in the discovery meta-analysis, and P=2.38 × 10−8 in the meta-analysis of all 30 cohorts). Common genetic variants explain 15% of the variance in neuroticism. Polygenic scores based on the meta-analysis of neuroticism in 27 of the discovery cohorts significantly predicted neuroticism in 2 independent cohorts. Importantly, polygenic scores also predicted MDD in these cohorts. Conclusions and relevance This study identifies a novel locus for neuroticism. The variant is located in a known gene that has been associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in previous studies. In addition, the study

  19. Identifying Nonprovider Factors Affecting Pediatric Emergency Medicine Provider Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Fareed; Breslin, Kristen; Mullan, Paul C; Tillett, Zachary; Chamberlain, James M

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this study was to create a multivariable model of standardized relative value units per hour by adjusting for nonprovider factors that influence efficiency. We obtained productivity data based on billing records measured in emergency relative value units for (1) both evaluation and management of visits and (2) procedures for 16 pediatric emergency medicine providers with more than 750 hours worked per year. Eligible shifts were in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department (ED) with 2 sites: a tertiary care main campus and a satellite community site. We used multivariable linear regression to adjust for the impact of shift and pediatric ED characteristics on individual-provider efficiency and then removed variables from the model with minimal effect on productivity. There were 2998 eligible shifts for the 16 providers during a 3-year period. The resulting model included 4 variables when looking at both ED sites combined. These variables include the following: (1) number of procedures billed by provider, (2) season of the year, (3) shift start time, and (4) day of week. Results were improved when we separately modeled each ED location. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, shift start time, and season explained 23% of the variation in provider efficiency at the academic ED site. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, patient arrivals per hour, and shift start time explained 45% of the variation in provider efficiency at the satellite ED site. Several nonprovider factors affect provider efficiency. These factors should be considered when designing productivity-based incentives.

  20. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tiihonen Möller

    Full Text Available Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD.Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months.Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults.Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  1. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen Möller, Anna; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months. Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults. Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  2. [Identifying clinical risk factors in recurrent idiopathic deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río Solá, M Lourdes; González Fajardo, José Antonio; Vaquero Puerta, Carlos

    2016-03-18

    Oral anticoagulant therapy for more than 6 months in patients with an episode of idiopathic thromboembolic disease is controversial. The objective was to determine predictive clinical signs that identify patients at increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A prospective study which included 306 consecutive patients with a first episode of idiopathic DVT from June 2012 to June 2014. Predictor variables of recurrent thromboembolic disease and episodes of recurrence during follow-up of the patients (28.42 months) were collected. We performed a multivariate analysis to analyze possible predictors (Pthrombus (P=.001) in males, and persistence of residual thrombus in women (P=.046). The mean recurrence-free survival was shorter in both groups. The presence of echogenic thrombus in men and the existence of residual DVT in women were 2 clinical signs associated with increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic DVT in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying factors contributing to slow growth in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Deen, J; Shurson, G C; Wang, L; Chen, C; Keisler, D H; Li, Y Z

    2016-05-01

    Pigs that grow slower than their contemporaries can cause complications for animal welfare and profitability. This study was conducted to investigate factors that may contribute to slow growth of pigs. Pigs ( = 440) farrowed by 65 sows were monitored from birth to market. Pigs were categorized as slow, average, and fast growers based on market weight adjusted to 170 d of age (slow growers were 125 kg). Blood samples were collected from 48 focal pigs at 9 and 21 wk of age and analyzed for hormone and free AA concentrations. Data were analyzed using the Mixed and Logistic procedures of SAS. Slow-growing pigs accounted for 10% of pigs marketed, average growers accounted for 49% of pigs marketed, and fast growers accounted for 41% of pigs marketed. Compared with fast growers, slow growers were lighter at birth ( ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.19 to 3.96, = 0.01). Litter size and parity of the pigs' dam were not associated with slow growth. These results suggest that low concentrations of IGF-1, insulin, leptin, and AA may contribute to or be associated with slow growth in pigs.

  4. Identifying the Relevant Factors in Newspaper Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Benavides

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora varios factores con el fin de establecer cuáles son losmás importantes en motivar a los lectores de periódicos locales a comprar,visitar tiendas y buscar información adicional acerca de los productos oservicios promovidos en los anuncios. El comportamiento durante el pro-ceso de compra es consecuencia de una compleja interacción de dimen-siones culturales, sociales, personales y psicológicas. Este proceso –el cualse produce antes de la acción– tiene implicaciones relevantes y los depar-tamentos de mercadeo deben prestar atención a ello. Una serie de hipóte-sis basadas en la forma como la publicidad atrae a los consumidores y encómo afecta la toma de decisiones al momento de la compra fueron puestasa prueba usando una encuesta que fue administrada a una muestra de 1.333personas encuestadas en Chile. También se realizó un análisis discriminan-te para averiguar por qué algunos lectores de periódicos se ven motivadosa comprar bienes o servicios, visitar una tienda o buscar más información.Los resultados muestran que el atractivo de la oferta anunciada es el factormás importante para explicar el comportamiento posterior del consumidor.

  5. Study on Major Factors Influencing University Students’ Behavior of Consumption on Online Tourism in Shijiazhuang

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Feng Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have a study of the major factors influencing university students’ behavior of consumption on online tourism in Shijiazhuang. The major factors influencing university students’ behavior of consumption on online tourism in Shijiazhuang include personal motivation, attitude, sense of security and satisfaction. The external factors include price, brand and reputation of the online tourism and tourism websites. Some suggestions for network marketing can be drawn from the feature...

  6. South Asian Ethnicity as a Risk Factor for Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events after Renal Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangala, Sai K.; Silver, Samuel A.; Wong, Steven C.W.; Huang, Michael; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M.; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives South Asians (SAs) comprise 25% of all Canadian visible minorities. SAs constitute a group at high risk for cardiovascular disease in the general population, but the risk in SA kidney transplant recipients has never been studied. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a cohort study of 864 kidney recipients transplanted from 1998 to 2007 and followed to June 2009, we identified risk factors including ethnicity associated with major cardiac events (MACEs, a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary intervention, and cardiac death) within and beyond 3 months after transplant. Kaplan-Meier methodology and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to determine risk factors for MACEs. Results There was no difference among SAs (n = 139), whites (n = 550), blacks (n = 65), or East Asians (n = 110) in baseline risk, including pre-existing cardiac disease. Post-transplant MACE rate in SAs was 4.4/100 patient-years compared with 1.31, 1.16, and 1.61/100 patient-years in whites, blacks, and East Asians, respectively (P diabetes, systolic BP, and prior cardiac disease. SAs also experienced more MACEs within 3 months after transplant compared with whites (P < 0.0001), blacks (P = 0.04), and East Asians (P = 0.006). However, graft and patient survival was similar to other groups. Conclusions SA ethnicity is an independent risk factor for post-transplant cardiac events. Further study of this high-risk group is warranted. PMID:20884776

  7. Perioperative risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after major oral cancer surgery: A retrospective analysis of 331 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jieyun; Hu, Jing; Yu, Pei; Wang, Weiwang; Hu, Xingxue; Hou, Jinsong; Fang, Silian; Liu, Xiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative pneumonia (POP) is common and results in prolonged hospital stays, higher costs, increased morbidity and mortality. However, data on the incidence and risk factors of POP after oral and maxillofacial surgery are rare. This study aims to identify perioperative risk factors for POP after major oral cancer (OC) surgery. Perioperative data and patient records of 331 consecutive subjects were analyzed in the period of April 2014 to March 2016. We individually traced each OC patient for a period to discharge from the hospital or 45 days after surgery, whichever occur later. The incidence of POP after major OC surgery with free flap construction or major OC surgery was 11.6% or 4.5%, respectively. Patient-related risk factors for POP were male sex, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and preoperative serum albumin level. Among the investigated procedure-related variables, incision grade, mandibulectomy, free flap reconstruction, tracheotomy, intraoperative blood loss, and the length of the operation were shown to be associated with the development of POP. Postoperative hospital stay was also significantly related to increased incidence of POP. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified male sex, preoperative serum albumin level, operation time and postoperative hospital stay as independent risk factors for POP. Several perioperative risk factors can be identified that are associated with POP. At-risk oral cancer patients should be subjected to intensified postoperative pulmonary care.

  8. Perioperative risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after major oral cancer surgery: A retrospective analysis of 331 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyun Xu

    Full Text Available Postoperative pneumonia (POP is common and results in prolonged hospital stays, higher costs, increased morbidity and mortality. However, data on the incidence and risk factors of POP after oral and maxillofacial surgery are rare. This study aims to identify perioperative risk factors for POP after major oral cancer (OC surgery.Perioperative data and patient records of 331 consecutive subjects were analyzed in the period of April 2014 to March 2016. We individually traced each OC patient for a period to discharge from the hospital or 45 days after surgery, whichever occur later.The incidence of POP after major OC surgery with free flap construction or major OC surgery was 11.6% or 4.5%, respectively. Patient-related risk factors for POP were male sex, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and preoperative serum albumin level. Among the investigated procedure-related variables, incision grade, mandibulectomy, free flap reconstruction, tracheotomy, intraoperative blood loss, and the length of the operation were shown to be associated with the development of POP. Postoperative hospital stay was also significantly related to increased incidence of POP. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified male sex, preoperative serum albumin level, operation time and postoperative hospital stay as independent risk factors for POP.Several perioperative risk factors can be identified that are associated with POP. At-risk oral cancer patients should be subjected to intensified postoperative pulmonary care.

  9. Dissemination of electric vehicles in urban areas: Major factors for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela; Haas, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Problems of transport become more pressing with increasing urbanisation. Although EVs (electric vehicles) are considered to contribute to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollution caused by passenger car transport, their use is still very modest. The core objective of this paper is to identify the major impact factors for the broader dissemination of EVs in urban areas. We compare and analyse cities selected in nine different countries which are active in dissemination of EVs. The most important recommendation for policy makers is that all monetary and non-monetary promotion measures implemented should depend on the environmental benignity of the electricity generation mix. From society's point of view the promotion of EVs make sense only if it is ensured that a major share of electricity they use is generated from renewables. Since the final goal is not just to increase the number of EVs but to reduce emissions, cities also have to consider other e-mobility options such as trolleybuses, metros, trams and electro buses, as well as promote walking and biking, especially for short distances. - Highlights: • Oslo is a good example in use of EVs (electric vehicles) in urban areas. • Monetary and non-monetary measures could increase the attractiveness of EVs. • Most of the policies implemented will be abolished with the increasing number of EVs. • All environmental benefits of EVs could be reached only in combination with renewable energy. • Cities have to consider also e-mobility options for public transport.

  10. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata S.; Khandelwal, Rohit; Jaishankar, Jananee; Shweta, Shweta; Nawaz, Kashif; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in stress signalling and constitute an integral part of signalling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4 model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY) and S. viridis (SvWRKY), respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins t...

  11. Exploration of Factors Affecting Success of Undergraduate Engineering Majors at a Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinoba, Egheosa P.

    Blacks are underrepresented amongst persons who earn college degrees in the United States and Black males attend and complete college at a lower rate than Black females (Toldson, Fry Brown, & Sutton, 2009). According to Toldson et al. (2009), this quandary may be attributed to Black males' apathy toward education in general, waning support and ideological challenges toward Pell Grants and affirmative action, cultural incompetency on the part of the 90% White, ethnic makeup of the U.S. teaching force, and the relatively high numbers of Black males who are held back in school. In spite of the dismal statistics regarding Black male academic achievement and matriculation, there are those Black males who do participate in postsecondary education. While many studies have highlighted reasons that Black males do not achieve success in attending and persisting through college, few have adopted the anti-deficit research framework suggested by Harper (2010), identifying reasons Black males do persist in higher education. Although science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers are identified as those most imperative to the economic competitiveness of the United States, few studies have concentrated solely on engineering majors and fewer, if any, solely on Black male engineering majors at an historically Black college and university. The aim of this study was to address an apparent gap in the literature and invoke theories for recruitment, retention, and success of Black males in engineering degree programs by employing an anti-deficit achievement framework for research of students of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Data garnered from the study included insight into participants' definitions of success, precollege experiences, factors contributing to the persistence during undergraduate study, and perceptions of attending a historically Black college and university versus a primarily White institution.

  12. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important sectors and industries responsible for emissions at a national level; however, to be useful for air transport modelling, more precise information on the locations of emission is required. This paper describes the methodology applied, and the results of work that was conducted to assign anthropogenic mercury emissions to point sources as part of geospatial mapping of the 2010 global anthropogenic mercury emissions inventory prepared by AMAP/UNEP. Major point-source emission sectors addressed in this work account for about 850 tonnes of the emissions included in the 2010 inventory. This work allocated more than 90% of these emissions to some 4600 identified point source locations, including significantly more point source locations in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America than had been identified during previous work to geospatially-distribute the 2005 global inventory. The results demonstrate the utility and the limitations of using existing, mainly public domain resources to accomplish this work. Assumptions necessary to make use of selected online resources are discussed, as are artefacts that can arise when these assumptions are applied to assign (national-sector) emissions estimates to point sources in various countries and regions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the available information, the value of this procedure over alternative methods commonly used to geo-spatially distribute emissions, such as use of 'proxy' datasets to represent emissions patterns, is illustrated. Improvements in information that would facilitate greater use of these methods in future work to assign emissions to point-sources are discussed. These include improvements to both national

  13. Andexanet Alfa for Acute Major Bleeding Associated with Factor Xa Inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Stuart J.; Milling, Truman J.; Eikelboom, John W.; Gibson, C. Michael; Curnutte, John T.; Gold, Alex; Bronson, Michele D.; Lu, Genmin; Conley, Pamela B.; Verhamme, Peter; Schmidt, Jeannot; Middeldorp, Saskia; Cohen, Alexander T.; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Albaladejo, Pierre; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; Goodman, Shelly; Leeds, Janet; Wiens, Brian L.; Siegal, Deborah M.; Zotova, Elena; Meeks, Brandi; Nakamya, Juliet; Lim, W. Ting; Crowther, Mark; Connolly, S. C.; Crowther, M.; Eikelboom, J.; Gibson, M.; Milling, T. J.; Albaladejo, P.; Cohen, A.; Lopez-Sendon, J.; Schmidt, J.; Verhamme, P.; Beyer-Westendorf, J.; Wyse, D. G.; Garcia, D.; Prins, M. [=Martin H.; Nakamya, J.; Büller, H. R.; Mahaffey, K.; Alexander, J.; Demchuk, A.; Raskob, G.; Schulman, S.; Meeks, B.; Zotova, E.; Holadyk-Gris, I.; Coppens, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Andexanet alfa (andexanet) is a recombinant modified human factor Xa decoy protein that has been shown to reverse the inhibition of factor Xa in healthy volunteers. Methods In this multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-group study, we evaluated 67 patients who had acute major

  14. Aesthetic Breast Surgery and Concomitant Procedures: Incidence and Risk Factors for Major Complications in 73,608 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Varun; Yeslev, Max; Winocour, Julian; Bamba, Ravinder; Rodriguez-Feo, Charles; Grotting, James C; Higdon, K Kye

    2017-05-01

    Major complications following aesthetic breast surgery are uncommon and thus assessment of risk factors is challenging. To determine the incidence and risk factors of major complications following aesthetic breast surgery and concomitant procedures. A prospective cohort of patients who enrolled into the CosmetAssure (Birmingham, AL) insurance program and underwent aesthetic breast surgery between 2008 and 2013 was identified. Major complications (requiring reoperation, readmission, or emergency room visit) within 30 days of surgery were recorded. Risk factors including age, smoking, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, type of surgical facility, and combined procedures were evaluated. Among women, augmentation was the most common breast procedure (n = 41,651, 58.6%) followed by augmentation-mastopexy, mastopexy, and reduction. Overall, major complications occurred in 1.46% with hematoma (0.99%) and infection (0.25%) being most common. Augmentation-mastopexy had a higher risk of complications, particularly infection (relative risk [RR] 1.74, P procedures. Age was the only significant predictor for hematomas (RR 1.01, P procedures or abdominoplasty performed alone. Among men, correction of gynecomastia was the most common breast procedure (n = 1613, 64.6%) with a complication rate of 1.80% and smoking as a risk factor (RR 2.73, P = 0.03). Incidence of major complications after breast cosmetic surgical procedures is low. Risk factors for major complications include increasing age and BMI. Combining abdominoplasty with any breast procedure increases the risk of major complications. 2. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies major loci for carcass weight on BTA14 in Hanwoo (Korean cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available This genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted to identify major loci that are significantly associated with carcass weight, and their effects, in order to provide increased understanding of the genetic architecture of carcass weight in Hanwoo. This genome-wide association study identified one major chromosome region ranging from 23 Mb to 25 Mb on chromosome 14 as being associated with carcass weight in Hanwoo. Significant Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide associations (P<1.52×10(-6 were detected for 6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP loci for carcass weight on chromosome 14. The most significant SNP was BTB-01280026 (P = 4.02×10(-11, located in the 25 Mb region on Bos taurus autosome 14 (BTA14. The other 5 significant SNPs were Hapmap27934-BTC-065223 (P = 4.04×10(-11 in 25.2 Mb, BTB-01143580 (P = 6.35×10(-11 in 24.3 Mb, Hapmap30932-BTC-011225 (P = 5.92×10(-10 in 24.8 Mb, Hapmap27112-BTC-063342 (P = 5.18×10(-9 in 25.4 Mb, and Hapmap24414-BTC-073009 (P = 7.38×10(-8 in 25.4 Mb, all on BTA 14. One SNP (BTB-01143580; P = 6.35×10(-11 lies independently from the other 5 SNPs. The 5 SNPs that lie together showed a large Linkage disequilibrium (LD block (block size of 553 kb with LD coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.89 within the block. The most significant SNPs accounted for 6.73% to 10.55% of additive genetic variance, which is quite a large proportion of the total additive genetic variance. The most significant SNP (BTB-01280026; P = 4.02×10(-11 had 16.96 kg of allele substitution effect, and the second most significant SNP (Hapmap27934-BTC-065223; P = 4.04×10(-11 had 18.06 kg of effect on carcass weight, which correspond to 44% and 47%, respectively, of the phenotypic standard deviation for carcass weight in Hanwoo cattle. Our results demonstrated that carcass weight was affected by a major Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL with a large effect and by many SNPs with small effects that are normally

  16. Optimal anthropometric measures and thresholds to identify undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in three major Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Lim, Wei-Yen; Mok-Kwee Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-10-01

    To identify optimal anthropometric measures and cutoffs to identify undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDM) in three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indians). Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 14,815 ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian participants of the Singapore National Health Surveys, which included anthropometric measures and an oral glucose tolerance test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) for the identification of UDM. BMI performed significantly worse (AUCMEN  = 0.70; AUCWOMEN  = 0.75) than abdominal measures, whereas WHTR (AUCMEN  = 0.76; AUCWOMEN  = 0.79) was among the best performing measures in both sexes and all ethnic groups. Anthropometric measures performed better in Chinese than in Asian-Indian participants for the identification of UDM. A WHTR cutoff of 0.52 appeared optimal with a sensitivity of 76% in men and 73% in women and a specificity of 63% in men and 70% in women. Although ethnic differences were observed in the performance of anthropometric measures for the identification of UDM, abdominal adiposity measures generally performed better than BMI, and WHTR performed best in all Asian ethnic groups. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Design considerations for identifying breast cancer risk factors in a population-based study in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Louise A; Awuah, Baffour; Nat Clegg-Lamptey, Joe; Wiafe-Addai, Beatrice; Ansong, Daniel; Nyarko, Kofi M; Wiafe, Seth; Yarney, Joel; Biritwum, Richard; Brotzman, Michelle; Adjei, Andrew A; Adjei, Ernest; Aitpillah, Francis; Edusei, Lawrence; Dedey, Florence; Nyante, Sarah J; Oppong, Joseph; Osei-Bonsu, Ernest; Titiloye, Nicholas; Vanderpuye, Verna; Brew Abaidoo, Emma; Arhin, Bernard; Boakye, Isaac; Frempong, Margaret; Ohene Oti, Naomi; Okyne, Victoria; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2017-06-15

    Although breast cancer is becoming more prevalent in Africa, few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken and appropriate methodologic approaches remain uncertain. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, enrolling 2,202 women with lesions suspicious for breast cancer and 2,161 population controls. Biopsy tissue for cases prior to neoadjuvant therapy (if given), blood, saliva and fecal samples were sought for study subjects. Response rates, risk factor prevalences and odds ratios for established breast cancer risk factors were calculated. A total of 54.5% of the recruited cases were diagnosed with malignancies, 36.0% with benign conditions and 9.5% with indeterminate diagnoses. Response rates to interviews were 99.2% in cases and 91.9% in controls, with the vast majority of interviewed subjects providing saliva (97.9% in cases vs. 98.8% in controls) and blood (91.8% vs. 82.5%) samples; lower proportions (58.1% vs. 46.1%) provided fecal samples. While risk factor prevalences were unique as compared to women in other countries (e.g., less education, higher parity), cancer risk factors resembled patterns identified elsewhere (elevated risks associated with higher levels of education, familial histories of breast cancer, low parity and larger body sizes). Subjects with benign conditions were younger and exhibited higher socioeconomic profiles (e.g., higher education and lower parity) than those with malignancies, suggesting selective referral influences. While further defining breast cancer risk factors in Africa, this study showed that successful population-based interdisciplinary studies of cancer in Africa are possible but require close attention to diagnostic referral biases and standardized and documented approaches for high-quality data collection, including biospecimens. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Anorexia nervosa and major depression: shared genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, T D; Bulik, C M; Neale, M; Kendler, K S

    2000-03-01

    The authors sought to derive heritability estimates for anorexia nervosa and to explore the etiology of the comorbid relationship between anorexia nervosa and major depression. They applied bivariate structural equation modeling to a broad definition of anorexia nervosa and lifetime major depression as assessed in a population-based sample of 2,163 female twins. Anorexia nervosa was estimated to have a heritability of 58% (95% confidence interval=33%-84%). The authors were unable to completely rule out a contribution of shared environment. The comorbidity between anorexia nervosa and major depression is likely due to genetic factors that influence the risk for both disorders. Although the study was limited by the small number of affected twins, the results suggest that genetic factors significantly influence the risk for anorexia nervosa and substantially contribute to the observed comorbidity between anorexia nervosa and major depression.

  19. Suicidal risk factors of recurrent major depression in Han Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhang Zhu

    Full Text Available The relationship between suicidality and major depression is complex. Socio- demography, clinical features, comorbidity, clinical symptoms, and stressful life events are important factors influencing suicide in major depression, but these are not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the associations between the above-mentioned factors and suicide ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt in 6008 Han Chinese women with recurrent major depression (MD. Patients with any suicidality had significantly more MD symptoms, a significantly greater number of stressful life events, a positive family history of MD, a greater number of episodes, a significant experience of melancholia, and earlier age of onset. Comorbidity with dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social phobia, and animal phobia was seen in suicidal patients. The present findings indicate that specific factors act to increase the likelihood of suicide in MD. Our results may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients, especially for women.

  20. Proteinuria in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease is not associated with identifiable risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Aamer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal involvement in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD is associated with signi-ficant morbidity and mortality. Proteinuria is common in patients with SCD and is a risk factor for future development of renal failure. We sought to identify risk factors, if any, associated with pro-teinuria in adult Saudi patients with SCD. We studied 67 patients with SCD followed-up at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All patients underwent 24-hour urine collection to measure creatinine clearance and to quantify proteinuria. In addition, blood was examined for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Clinical information was gathered from review of the patients′ charts. A urine protein level of more than 0.150 grams/24 hours was consi-dered abnormal. Urine protein was correlated with various clinical and laboratory parameters. Thirty-one males and 36 females were evaluated. The mean age of the cohort was 23.8 (± 7.2 years. Twenty-seven patients (40.3% had proteinuria of more than 0.150 grams/24 hours. The study group had a mean hemoglobin level of 8.5 (± 2.8 g/dL and mean fetal hemoglobin (HbF level of 14.4% (± 7.3%. Majority of the patients (61 had hemoglobin SS genotype and six patients had S-β0 thala-ssemia. None of the parameters evaluated correlated with proteinuria although there was a border-line association with older age and higher systolic blood pressure (P = 0.073 and 0.061 respec-tively. Hydroxyurea use for more than a year was not beneficial. In conclusion, our study suggests that proteinuria in adult Saudi patients is not associated with any clear identifiable risk factors.

  1. Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 Screen Identifies Host Factors Essential for Influenza Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The emergence of influenza A viruses (IAVs from zoonotic reservoirs poses a great threat to human health. As seasonal vaccines are ineffective against zoonotic strains, and newly transmitted viruses can quickly acquire drug resistance, there remains a need for host-directed therapeutics against IAVs. Here, we performed a genome-scale CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screen in human lung epithelial cells with a human isolate of an avian H5N1 strain. Several genes involved in sialic acid biosynthesis and related glycosylation pathways were highly enriched post-H5N1 selection, including SLC35A1, a sialic acid transporter essential for IAV receptor expression and thus viral entry. Importantly, we have identified capicua (CIC as a negative regulator of cell-intrinsic immunity, as loss of CIC resulted in heightened antiviral responses and restricted replication of multiple viruses. Therefore, our study demonstrates that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be utilized for the discovery of host factors critical for the replication of intracellular pathogens. : Using a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen, Han et al. demonstrate that the major hit, the sialic acid transporter SLC35A1, is an essential host factor for IAV entry. In addition, they identify the DNA-binding transcriptional repressor CIC as a negative regulator of cell-intrinsic immunity. Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9 screen, GeCKO, influenza virus, host factors, sialic acid pathway, SLC35A1, Capicua, CIC, cell-intrinsic immunity, H5N1

  2. Built Environment, Selected Risk Factors and Major Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasmore Malambo

    Full Text Available Built environment attributes have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Therefore, identifying built environment attributes that are associated with CVD risk is relevant for facilitating effective public health interventions.To conduct a systematic review of literature to examine the influence of built environmental attributes on CVD risks.Multiple database searches including Science direct, CINAHL, Masterfile Premier, EBSCO and manual scan of reference lists were conducted.Studies published in English between 2005 and April 2015 were included if they assessed one or more of the neighborhood environmental attributes in relation with any major CVD outcomes and selected risk factors among adults.Author(s, country/city, sex, age, sample size, study design, tool used to measure neighborhood environment, exposure and outcome assessments and associations were extracted from eligible studies.Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies used both cross-sectional design and Geographic Information System (GIS to assess the neighborhood environmental attributes. Neighborhood environmental attributes were significantly associated with CVD risk and CVD outcomes in the expected direction. Residential density, safety from traffic, recreation facilities, street connectivity and high walkable environment were associated with physical activity. High walkable environment, fast food restaurants, supermarket/grocery stores were associated with blood pressure, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. High density traffic, road proximity and fast food restaurants were associated with CVDs outcomes.This study confirms the relationship between neighborhood environment attributes and CVDs and risk factors. Prevention programs should account for neighborhood environmental attributes in the communities where people live.

  3. Risk factors of major noncommunicable diseases in Bahrain. The need for a surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Randah R

    2004-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases NCDs are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bahrain. The review examines the prevalence of risk factors of major NCDs from the available literature and determines the impact of the rapid socio economic changes on their burden. It further recommends ways of improving their reporting and monitoring. Smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, physical activity and nutrition are considered. The review points out that data on some of the factors is available but deficient for others. The call for the establishment of an integrated surveillance system using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach is stressed.

  4. Association between the epidermal growth factor gene and intelligence in major depression patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wen-min; Zhang, Ke-ran; Zhang, Juan; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2010-06-01

    To study the association between the epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene and intelligence in patients with major depression. Intelligence measurement using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was performed on 120 unrelated patients with major depression and 46 control subjects. Blood was collected from all subjects for extraction of genomic DNA. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EGF gene were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI- TOF-MS). Mean scores of both score lang and score task, two subtests in WAIS, differed significantly between major depression patients and controls (Pintelligence in patients with major depression. Genetic variation in the EGF gene may increase the susceptibility of major depression.

  5. A literature review to identify factors that determine policies for influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.L.; Perrier, L.; Cohen, J.M.; Paget, W.J.; Mosnier, A.; Späth, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a literature review of influenza vaccination policy, describing roles and interactions between stakeholders and the factors influencing policy-making. Methods: Major databases were searched using keywords related to influenza vaccination, decision-making and healthpolicy.

  6. Latinos in science: Identifying factors that influence the low percentage of Latino representation in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Susan Jennifer

    A mixed methods approach was used to identify factors that influence the underrepresentation of Latinos in the domain of science. The researcher investigated the role of family influences, academic preparation, and personal motivations to determine science-related career choices by Latinos. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted using information from Latinos gathered from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88) administered by the National Center for Education Statistics. For the present study, data were analyzed using participants' responses as high school seniors, college students, and post-baccalaureates. Students responded to questions on school, work, parental academic influences, personal aspirations, and self-perception. To provide more insight into the experiences of Latinos in science and support the statistical analyses, nine students majoring in science in a private, urban university located in the northeastern part of the country were interviewed. Eleven variables related to parents' academic support and students' perceptions of parental support were taken together as predictors for two separate criteria from the survey. These results identified parents' level of education and the importance of academics to parents in their teen's college choice as significant predictors in determining college major in science. When the criterion was degree in science, the significant predictor was the frequency parents contacted high school as volunteers. Student interviews supported this information, demonstrating the importance of parental support in attaining a degree in science. Academic preparation was also analyzed. Students' reasons for taking science classes in high school was a significant predictor for science major; significant predictors for science degree were the emphasis placed on objectives in math and science classes and number of courses in biology and physics. Student interviews supported this information and

  7. Burden of liver disease in Europe: epidemiology and analysis of risk factors to identify prevention policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpin, Laura; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Negro, Francesco; Corbould, Emily; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Webber, Laura; Sheron, Nick

    2018-05-16

    The burden of liver disease in Europe continues to grow. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of liver diseases and their risk factors in European countries, and identify public health interventions that could impact on these risk factors to reduce the burden of liver disease. As part of the HEPAHEALTH project, commissioned by EASL, we extracted information on historical and current prevalence and mortality from national and international literature and databases on liver disease in 35 countries in the WHO European region, as well as historical and recent prevalence data on their main determinants; alcohol consumption, obesity and hepatitis B and C virus infections. We extracted information from peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify public health interventions targeting these risk factors. The epidemiology of liver disease is diverse and countries cluster with similar pictures, although the exact composition of diseases and the trends in risk factors which drive them is varied. Prevalence and mortality data indicate that increasing cirrhosis and liver cancer may be linked to dramatic increases in harmful alcohol consumption in Northern European countries, and viral hepatitis epidemics in Eastern and Southern European countries. Countries with historically low levels of liver disease may experience an increase in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the future, given the rise of obesity across the majority of European countries. Interventions exist for curbing harmful alcohol use, reducing obesity, preventing or treating viral hepatitis, and screening for liver disease at an early stage. Liver disease in Europe is a serious issue, with increasing cirrhosis and liver cancer. The public health and hepatology communities are uniquely placed to implement measures aimed at reducing their causes: harmful alcohol consumption, child and adult obesity prevalence and chronic infection with hepatitis viruses, which will in turn reduce the burden of liver disease. The

  8. Science and the Nonscience Major: Addressing the Fear Factor in the Chemical Arena Using Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labianca, Dominick A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an approach to minimizing the "fear factor" in a chemistry course for the nonscience major, and also addresses relevant applications to other science courses, including biology, geology, and physics. The approach emphasizes forensic science and affords students the opportunity to hone their analytical skills in an…

  9. An Examination of Factors Influencing Students Selection of Business Majors Using TRA Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…

  10. Nationwide time trends and risk factors for in-hospital falls-related major injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T. S. H.; Hansen, A. H.; Sahlberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundAccidental falls during hospitalisation have a range of complications and more information is needed to improve prevention. We investigated patterns of in-hospital fall-related major injuries in the period 2000-2012 and the association between chronic conditions and in-hospital fall......-related major injuries. MethodsUsing administrative databases, patients aged 65+ years with in-hospital falls causing fractures or head injuries with need for surgery or intensive observation were identified as cases and were individually matched with five controls. Joinpoint regression was used to examine time...... trends and conditional logistic regression was used to analyse odds ratio (OR) for in-hospital falls-related major injuries according to a range of comorbidities. ResultsFour thousand seven hundred and fifty-four cases were identified from 2000 to 2012 and the most common injury was femur fracture (61...

  11. A preliminary study investigating the factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level

  12. Identifying and assessing the factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing in communication industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ghotbifar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications industry to identify most important skill gaps in digital marketing and factors affecting them; also, managers and specialists of these companies were investigated to determine the role of identified factors in reducing skills gaps. Using localized questionnaire and interviewing with ten experts who were selected by Delphi snowball method, the skill gaps in marketing and factors affecting them were identified. Also, a researcher made questionnaire with 32 questions was distributed among 226 employees to investigate the identified factors role in reducing skills gap in digital marketing. The results showed that from four identified factors, the components including operational strategic factors and environmental factors had direct and positive impact on creating skill gap in digital marketing of studied companies. The environmental factors such as social and cultural conditions, religion, technology, and economy had more proactive impact on skills gap in digital marketing. Also, the results showed that among skills gaps in digital marketing of studied companies, the skills (Principles of Communication and (Predicting Future had the highest and lowest gaps, respectively.

  13. Functional genomic analysis identifies indoxyl sulfate as a major, poorly dialyzable uremic toxin in end-stage renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jhawar

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure is characterized by progressive renal scarring and accelerated arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease despite what is considered to be adequate hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In rodents with reduced renal mass, renal scarring has been attributed to poorly filtered, small protein-bound molecules. The best studied of these is indoxyl sulfate (IS.We have attempted to establish whether there are uremic toxins that are not effectively removed by hemodialysis. We examined plasma from patients undergoing hemodialysis, employing global gene expression in normal human renal cortical cells incubated in pre- and post- dialysis plasma as a reporter system. Responses in cells incubated with pre- and post-dialysis uremic plasma (n = 10 were compared with responses elicited by plasma from control subjects (n = 5. The effects of adding IS to control plasma and of adding probenecid to uremic plasma were examined. Plasma concentrations of IS were measured by HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography.Gene expression in our reporter system revealed dysregulation of 1912 genes in cells incubated with pre-dialysis uremic plasma. In cells incubated in post-dialysis plasma, the expression of 537 of those genes returned to baseline but the majority of them (1375 remained dysregulated. IS concentration was markedly elevated in pre- and post-dialysis plasma. Addition of IS to control plasma simulated more than 80% of the effects of uremic plasma on gene expression; the addition of probenecid, an organic anion transport (OAT inhibitor, to uremic plasma reversed the changes in gene expression.These findings provide evidence that hemodialysis fails to effectively clear one or more solutes that effect gene expression, in our reporter system, from the plasma of patients with uremia. The finding that gene dysregulation was simulated by the addition of IS to control plasma and inhibited by addition of an OAT inhibitor to uremic plasma identifies IS

  14. [Identifying transcription factors involved in Arabidopsis adventious shoot regeneration by RNA-Seq technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchun; Chen, Zhao; Fan, Juan; He, Miaomiao; Han, Yuanhuai; Yang, Zhirong

    2015-04-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the major regulations in plant adventious shoot regeneration, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. In our study, the RNA-seq technology based on the IlluminaHiSeq 2000 sequencing platform was used to identify differentially expressed transcription factor (TF) encoding genes during callus formation stage and adventious shoot regeneration stage between wild type and adventious shoot formation defective mutant be1-3 and during the transition from dedifferentiation to redifferentiation stage in wildtype WS. Results show that 155 TFs were differentially expressed between be1-3 mutant and wild type during callus formation, of which 97 genes were up-regulated, and 58 genes were down-regulated; and that 68 genes were differentially expressed during redifferentiation stage, with 40 genes up-regulated and 28 genes down-regulated; whereas at the transition stage from dedifferentiation to redifferention in WS wild type explants, a total of 231 differentially expressed TF genes were identified, including 160 up-regualted genes and 71 down-regulated genes. Among these TF genes, the adventious shoot related transcription factor 1 (ART1) gene encoding a MYB-related (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog) TF, was up-regulated 3 217 folds, and was the highest up-regulated gene during be1-3 callus formation. Over expression of the ART1 gene caused defects in callus formation and shoot regeneration and inhibited seedling growth, indicating that the ART1 gene is a negative regulator of callus formation and shoot regeneration. This work not only enriches our knowledge about the transcriptional regulation mechanism of adventious shoot regeneration, but also provides valuable information on candidate TF genes associated with adventious shoot regeneration for future research.

  15. Worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma cases attributable to major risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, Aileen; Liu, Xing; La Vecchia, Carlo; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2018-05-01

    To facilitate regionally specific liver cancer prevention and control, this study estimates the fraction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases attributable to five major liver cancer risk factors by geographic region. Prevalence estimates of major HCC risk factors, including chronic infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, obesity, and diabetes, were extracted for each country from the literature, along with recent incidence and risk estimate data, to calculate regionally specific population attributable fractions. Overall, 44% of HCC cases worldwide were attributable to chronic hepatitis B infection, with the majority of cases occurring in Asia. Hepatitis C was responsible for 21% of cases. Lifestyle risk factors such as alcohol drinking and obesity were responsible for a larger percentage of cases in North America and Western, Central, and Eastern Europe. In addition, strong sex disparities were observed when looking at lifestyle risk factors, particularly tobacco smoking, in Asia and Africa. Prominent risk factors for HCC vary depending on the region. Our findings provide useful data for developing regionally specific guidelines for liver cancer prevention and control worldwide.

  16. Transcriptional Profiling of Hypoxic Neural Stem Cells Identifies Calcineurin-NFATc4 Signaling as a Major Regulator of Neural Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta; Fernández, Virginia; Monllau, Josep M.; Borrell, Víctor; Lerin, Carles; de la Iglesia, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a hypoxic microenvironment within the brain. However, the crucial transcription factors (TFs) that regulate NSC biology under physiologic hypoxia are poorly understood. Here we have performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of microarray datasets from hypoxic versus normoxic NSCs with the aim of identifying pathways and TFs that are activated under oxygen concentrations mimicking normal brain tissue microenvironment. Integration of TF target (TFT) and pathway enrichment analysis identified the calcium-regulated TF NFATc4 as a major candidate to regulate hypoxic NSC functions. Nfatc4 expression was coordinately upregulated by top hypoxia-activated TFs, while NFATc4 target genes were enriched in hypoxic NSCs. Loss-of-function analyses further revealed that the calcineurin-NFATc4 signaling axis acts as a major regulator of NSC self-renewal and proliferation in vitro and in vivo by promoting the expression of TFs, including Id2, that contribute to the maintenance of the NSC state. PMID:26235896

  17. Utility of the PHQ-9 to identify major depressive disorder in adult patients in Spanish primary care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Navarro, Roger; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Medrano, Leonardo Adrián; Schmitz, Florian; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Paloma; Abellán-Maeso, Carmen; Font-Payeras, Maria Antonia; Hermosilla-Pasamar, Ana María

    2017-08-09

    The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Spanish primary care (PC) centres is high. However, MDD is frequently underdiagnosed and consequently only some patients receive the appropriate treatment. The present study aims to determine the utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to identify MDD in a subset of PC patients participating in the large PsicAP study. A total of 178 patients completed the full PHQ test, including the depression module (PHQ-9). Also, a Spanish version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was implemented by clinical psychologists that were blinded to the PHQ-9 results. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 as a screening tool as compared to the SCID-I as a reference standard. The psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 for a cut-off value of 10 points were as follows: sensitivity, 0.95; specificity, 0.67. Using a cut-off of 12 points, the values were: sensitivity, 0.84; specificity, 0.78. Finally, using the diagnostic algorithm for depression (DSM-IV criteria), the sensitivity was 0.88 and the specificity 0.80. As a screening instrument, the PHQ-9 performed better with a cut-off value of 12 versus the standard cut-off of 10. However, the best psychometric properties were obtained with the DSM-IV diagnostic algorithm for depression. These findings indicate that the PHQ-9 is a highly satisfactory tool that can be used for screening MDD in the PC setting. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58437086 . Registered 20 May 2013.

  18. Association of major dietary patterns with socioeconomic factors among rural school-aged children in Bijar, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of major dietary patterns using factor analysis can provide information about health status of children by obtaining an overall picture of the person's diet. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and to identify socioeconomic factors affecting them in school age children in rural areas of Bijar, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 255 rural school age children living rural areas of Bijar were selected by simple random sampling. Dietary intakes during the past year and assessment of socioeconomic information were examined. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis and their relation to socioeconomic factors was investigated. Results: Three major dietary patterns," traditional", "modern" and "mixed", were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnic and energy intake, Age of mother (b= 0.03, CI=0.00_0.05 was positively associated and age of father (b= -0.03, CI=-0.05_-0.01, laboring Job for father (b= -0.24, CI=-0.44_-0.03 and higher education of parents (b= -0.20, CI=-0.35_-0.05 were negatively associated with traditional dietary pattern. In addition, higher education of parents (b= 0.27, CI=0.11_0.44 was positively associated and age of mother (b= -0.03, CI=-0.06_0.00 was negatively associated with mixed dietary pattern. Conclusion: Some socio-economic variables such as maternal age, parental education, parental occupation and economic conditions can have effect on major dietary patterns among rural children.

  19. Psychosocial work factors, major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders: results from the French national SIP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Marie; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2013-04-25

    Anxiety and depression are prevalent mental disorders in working populations. The risk factors of these disorders are not completely well known. Developing knowledge on occupational risk factors for mental disorders appears crucial. This study investigates the association between various classical and emergent psychosocial work factors and major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders in the French working population. The study was based on a national random sample of 3765 men and 3944 women of the French working population (SIP 2006 survey). Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) were measured using a standardised diagnostic interview (MINI). Occupational factors included psychosocial work factors as well as biomechanical, physical, and chemical exposures. Adjustment variables included age, occupation, marital status, social support, and life events. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis. Low decision latitude, overcommitment, and emotional demands were found to be risk factors for both MDD-GAD among both genders. Other risk factors were observed: high psychological demands, low reward, ethical conflict, and job insecurity, but differences were found according to gender and outcome. Significant interaction terms were observed suggesting that low decision latitude, high psychological demands, and job insecurity had stronger effects on mental disorders for men than for women. Given the cross-sectional study design, no causal conclusion could be drawn. This study showed significant associations between classical and emergent psychosocial work factors and MDD-GAD. Preventive actions targeting various psychosocial work factors, including emergent factors, may help to reduce mental disorders at the workplace. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identify and Classify Critical Success Factor of Agile Software Development Methodology Using Mind Map

    OpenAIRE

    Tasneem Abd El Hameed; Mahmoud Abd EL Latif; Sherif Kholief

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the right method, right personnel and right practices, and applying them adequately, determine the success of software development. In this paper, a qualitative study is carried out among the critical factors of success from previous studies. The factors of success match with their relative principles to illustrate the most valuable factor for agile approach success, this paper also prove that the twelve principles poorly identified for few factors resulting from qualitative and qua...

  1. Factor V G1691A (Leiden is a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawhida Y. Abdel Ghaffar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Budd-Chiari syndrome is a multifactorial disease in which several prothrombotic disorders may predispose patients to the development of thrombosis at this uncommon location (hepatic veins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of inherited thrombophilia in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients.Materials and Methods: The study included 47 Budd-Chiari syndrome patients (20 children and 27 adults. Genotyping of Factor V G1691A (Leiden, prothrombin G20210A (PT, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were performed using real-time PCR and fluorescence melting curve detection analysis.Results: Factor V Leiden was observed in 29 patients (61.7%. It is the only factor that caused Budd-Chiari syndrome in 18 of the patients and in 5 of the patients with inferior vena cava involvement. Myeloproliferative disease was noted in 12 (25.5% patients, antiphospholipid syndrome in 5 (10.6%, and Behcet’s disease in 3 (6.4%. Interestingly, 3 of the children with Budd-Chiari syndrome had lipid storage disease.Conclusion: Factor V Leiden was a major etiological factor in Egyptian Budd-Chiari syndrome patients, which may have been related to the high frequency of this mutation in the study region. Factor V Leiden was also a strong thrombophilic factor and the leading cause of inferior vena cava thrombosis in these patients. Lipid storage disease should be included as a risk factor for Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  2. A Multi-Breed Genome-Wide Association Analysis for Canine Hypothyroidism Identifies a Shared Major Risk Locus on CFA12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bianchi

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a complex clinical condition found in both humans and dogs, thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In this study we present a multi-breed analysis of predisposing genetic risk factors for hypothyroidism in dogs using three high-risk breeds--the Gordon Setter, Hovawart and the Rhodesian Ridgeback. Using a genome-wide association approach and meta-analysis, we identified a major hypothyroidism risk locus shared by these breeds on chromosome 12 (p = 2.1x10(-11. Further characterisation of the candidate region revealed a shared ~167 kb risk haplotype (4,915,018-5,081,823 bp, tagged by two SNPs in almost complete linkage disequilibrium. This breed-shared risk haplotype includes three genes (LHFPL5, SRPK1 and SLC26A8 and does not extend to the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA class II gene cluster located in the vicinity. These three genes have not been identified as candidate genes for hypothyroid disease previously, but have functions that could potentially contribute to the development of the disease. Our results implicate the potential involvement of novel genes and pathways for the development of canine hypothyroidism, raising new possibilities for screening, breeding programmes and treatments in dogs. This study may also contribute to our understanding of the genetic etiology of human hypothyroid disease, which is one of the most common endocrine disorders in humans.

  3. Factors related to suicide attempts among individuals with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwatananun W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chidchanok Ruengorn1,2, Kittipong Sanichwankul3, Wirat Niwatananun2, Suwat Mahatnirunkul3, Wanida Pumpaisalchai3, Jayanton Patumanond11Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: Major depressive disorder (MDD is the leading cause of suicidal behaviors. Risk related to suicide attempts among individuals with MDD remains uninvestigated in upper northern Thailand, where the completed suicide rate is the highest in the nation.Objective: To examine risk related to suicide attempts among individuals with MDD.Methods: Individuals diagnosed with MDD using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10, codes F32.x and F33.x, seeking care at Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital between October 2006 and May 2009 were eligible. All individuals with MDD admitted due to suicide attempts were defined as cases (n = 186, and four controls per case were selected from those who did not attempt suicide on the same day or within a week of case selection (n = 914. Their medical charts were reviewed for sociodemographic and clinical factors influencing suicide attempts using multivariable logistic regression analysis.Results: Factors related to suicide attempts were stressful life events (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–4.24, alcohol use (adjusted OR, 2.08; 95% CI: 1.29–3.34, intermittent or poor psychiatric medications adherence (adjusted OR, 2.25; 95% CI: 1.44–3.51, up to two previous suicide attempts (adjusted OR, 3.64; 95% CI: 2.32–5.71, more than two previous suicide attempts (adjusted OR, 11.47; 95% CI: 5.73–22.95, and prescribed antipsychotics (adjusted OR, 3.84; 95% CI: 2.48–5.95. Risk factors that were inversely related to suicide attempts were increasing years of MDD treatment; one to

  4. Identifying the Barriers upon Development of Virtual Education in Engineering Majors (Case Study: The University of Isfahan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoonezhad, Sepideh; Nili, Mohammadreza; Esfahani, Ahmadreza Nasr

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating barriers upon development of virtual education in engineering majors at the University of Isfahan. The study has applied a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) and its population consists all of the department members of the technical and engineering majors at the University of Isfahan including 125…

  5. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhtar Hussain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight. Methods: Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (<55 and ≥55 years from a national survey in Indonesia. Age- and sex-specific relative risks for CHD and stroke associated with each of the five risk factors were derived from prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region. Results: Hypertension was the leading vascular risk factor, explaining 20%–25% of all CHD and 36%–42% of all strokes in both sexes and approximately one-third of all CHD and half of all strokes across younger and older age groups alike. Smoking in men explained a substantial proportion of vascular events (25% of CHD and 17% of strokes. However, given that these risk factors are likely to be strongly correlated, these population attributable risk proportions are likely to be overestimates and require verification from future studies that are able to take into account correlation between risk factors. Conclusions: Implementation of effective population-based prevention strategies aimed at reducing levels of major cardiovascular risk factors, especially blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking prevalence among men, could reduce the growing burden of CVD in the Indonesian population.

  6. Epidemiology, major risk factors and genetic predisposition for breast cancer in the Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaukat, Uzma; Ismail, Muhammad; Mehmood, Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Occurrence of breast cancer is related to genetic as well as cultural, environmental and life-style factors. Variations in diversity of these factors among different ethnic groups and geographical areas emphasize the immense need for studies in all racial-ethnic populations. The incidence of breast cancer in Pakistan is highest in Asians after Jews in Israel and 2.5 times higher than that in neighboring countries like Iran and India, accounting for 34.6% of female cancers. The Pakistani population is deficient in information regarding breast cancer etiology and epidemiology, but efforts done so far had suggested consanguinity as a major risk factor for frequent mutations leading to breast cancer and has also shed light on genetic origins in different ethnic groups within Pakistan. World-wide research efforts on different ethnicities have enhanced our understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer but despite these discoveries, 75% of the familial risk of breast cancer remains unexplained, highlighting the fact that the majority of breast cancer susceptibility genes remain unidentified. For this purpose Pakistani population provides a strong genetic pool to elucidate the genetic etiology of breast cancer because of cousin marriages. In this review, we describe the known breast cancer predisposition factors found in the local Pakistani population and the epidemiological research work done to emphasize the importance of exploring factors/variants contributing to breast cance, in order to prevent, cure and decrease its incidence in our country.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promoter methylation and cortical thickness in recurrent major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Won, Eunsoo; Kang, June; Chang, Hun Soo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Hyun; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the association between cortical thickness and methylation of BDNF promoters as well as serum BDNF levels in MDD. The participants consisted of 65 patients with recurrent MDD and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methylation of BDNF promoters and cortical thickness were compared between the gr...

  8. An All-Recombinant Protein-Based Culture System Specifically Identifies Hematopoietic Stem Cell Maintenance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Ieyasu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are considered one of the most promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of various blood disorders. However, due to difficulties in establishing stable maintenance and expansion of HSCs in vitro, their insufficient supply is a major constraint to transplantation studies. To solve these problems we have developed a fully defined, all-recombinant protein-based culture system. Through this system, we have identified hemopexin (HPX and interleukin-1α as responsible for HSC maintenance in vitro. Subsequent molecular analysis revealed that HPX reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species levels within cultured HSCs. Furthermore, bone marrow immunostaining and 3D immunohistochemistry revealed that HPX is expressed in non-myelinating Schwann cells, known HSC niche constituents. These results highlight the utility of this fully defined all-recombinant protein-based culture system for reproducible in vitro HSC culture and its potential to contribute to the identification of factors responsible for in vitro maintenance, expansion, and differentiation of stem cell populations.

  9. Identifying Risk Factors of Boot Procurement: A Case Study of Stadium Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jefferies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Private sector input into the procurement of public works and services is continuing to increase. This has partly arisen out of a requirement for infrastructure development to be undertaken at a rate that maintains and allows growth. This has become a major challange for the construction industry that cannot be met by government alone. The emergence of Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT schemes as a response to this challange provides a means for developing the infrastructure of a country without directly impacting on the governments budgetary constraints. The concepts of BOOT are without doubt extremely complex arrangements, which bring to the construction sector risks not experienced previously. Many of the infrastructure partnerships between public and private sector in the pastare yet to provide evidence of successful completion, since few of the concession periods have expired. This paper provides an identified list of risk factors to a case study of Stadium Australia. The most significant risk associated with Stadium Australia include the bidding process, the high level of public scrutiny, post-Olympic Games facility revenue and the complicated nature of the consortium structure.  

  10. Identifying Risk Factors of Boot Procurement: A Case Study of Stadium Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jefferies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Private sector input into the procurement of public works and services is continuing to increase. This has partly arisen out of a requirement for infrastructure development to be undertaken at a rate that maintains and allows growth. This has become a major challange for the construction industry that cannot be met by government alone. The emergence of Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT schemes as a response to this challange provides a means for developing the infrastructure of a country without directly impacting on the governments budgetary constraints. The concepts of BOOT are without doubt extremely complex arrangements, which bring to the construction sector risks not experienced previously. Many of the infrastructure partnerships between public and private sector in the pastare yet to provide evidence of successful completion, since few of the concession periods have expired. This paper provides an identified list of risk factors to a case study of Stadium Australia. The most significant risk associated with Stadium Australia include the bidding process, the high level of public scrutiny, post-Olympic Games facility revenue and the complicated nature of the consortium structure.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Adam; Oh, Hyunjung; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Martinowich, Keri; Lewis, David A; Sibille, Etienne

    2012-11-01

    The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex is implicated in the pathology and treatment response of major depressive disorder. Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reduced markers for GABA function, including in the amygdala, are reported in major depression, but their contribution to subgenual anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction is not known. Using polymerase chain reaction, we first assessed the degree to which BDNF controls mRNA expression (defined as BDNF dependency) of 15 genes relating to GABA and neuropeptide functions in the cingulate cortex of mice with reduced BDNF function (BDNF-heterozygous [Bdnf(+/-)] mice and BDNF exon-IV knockout [Bdnf(KIV)] mice). Gene expression was then quantified in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex of 51 postmortem subjects with major depressive disorder and comparison subjects (total subjects, N=102; 49% were women) and compared with previous amygdala results. Based on the results in Bdnf(+/-) and Bdnf(KIV) mice, genes were sorted into high, intermediate, and no BDNF dependency sets. In postmortem human subjects with major depression, BDNF receptor (TRKB) expression, but not BDNF, was reduced. Postmortem depressed subjects exhibited down-regulation in genes with high and intermediate BDNF dependency, including markers of dendritic targeting interneurons (SST, NPY, and CORT) and a GABA synthesizing enzyme (GAD2). Changes extended to BDNF-independent genes (PVALB and GAD1). Changes were greater in men (potentially because of low baseline expression in women), displayed notable differences from prior amygdala results, and were not explained by demographic or clinical factors other than sex. These parallel human/mouse analyses provide direct (low TRKB) and indirect (low expression of BDNF-dependent genes) evidence in support of decreased BDNF signaling in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in individuals with major depressive disorder, implicate dendritic targeting GABA neurons and GABA synthesis

  12. Cognitive complexity of the medical record is a risk factor for major adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, David; Connell, Michael; Dillis, Shay; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Gore, Rebecca; Heagerty, Elaina; Jenkins, Kathy; Ma, Lin; Maurer, Amy; Stephenson, Jessica; Schwartz, Margot

    2014-01-01

    Patients in tertiary care hospitals are more complex than in the past, but the implications of this are poorly understood as "patient complexity" has been difficult to quantify. We developed a tool, the Complexity Ruler, to quantify the amount of data (as bits) in the patient’s medical record. We designated the amount of data in the medical record as the cognitive complexity of the medical record (CCMR). We hypothesized that CCMR is a useful surrogate for true patient complexity and that higher CCMR correlates with risk of major adverse events. The Complexity Ruler was validated by comparing the measured CCMR with physician rankings of patient complexity on specific inpatient services. It was tested in a case-control model of all patients with major adverse events at a tertiary care pediatric hospital from 2005 to 2006. The main outcome measure was an externally reported major adverse event. We measured CCMR for 24 hours before the event, and we estimated lifetime CCMR. Above empirically derived cutoffs, 24-hour and lifetime CCMR were risk factors for major adverse events (odds ratios, 5.3 and 6.5, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, CCMR alone was essentially as predictive of risk as a model that started with 30-plus clinical factors. CCMR correlates with physician assessment of complexity and risk of adverse events. We hypothesize that increased CCMR increases the risk of physician cognitive overload. An automated version of the Complexity Ruler could allow identification of at-risk patients in real time.

  13. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  14. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, A.L.; Ribeiro, A.C.O.; Duarte, J.P.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  15. The Promise of Virtual Teams: Identifying Key Factors in Effectiveness and Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…

  16. Risk factors for atherosclerosis - can they be used to identify the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors are often used in preventive care programmes to identify the patient at particular risk for developing atherosclerosis. Risk factors for atherosclerosis have also been shown to be linked to the presence of the disease at a given time, a fact that may be helpful when screening for additional atherosclerotic disease in ...

  17. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies a single major locus contributing to survival into old age; the APOE locus revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deelen, Joris; Beekman, Marian; Uh, Hae-Won

    2011-01-01

    By studying the loci which contribute to human longevity, we aim to identify mechanisms that contribute to healthy aging. To identify such loci, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) comparing 403 unrelated nonagenarians from long-living families included in the Leiden Longevity Stu...

  19. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts.

  20. Plant Abiotic Stress Proteomics: The Major Factors Determining Alterations in Cellular Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O.; Prášil, Ilja T.; Renaut, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS: Major environmental and genetic factors determining stress-related protein abundance are discussed.Major aspects of protein biological function including protein isoforms and PTMs, cellular localization and protein interactions are discussed.Functional diversity of protein isoforms and PTMs is discussed. Abiotic stresses reveal profound impacts on plant proteomes including alterations in protein relative abundance, cellular localization, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein interactions with other protein partners, and, finally, protein biological functions. The main aim of the present review is to discuss the major factors determining stress-related protein accumulation and their final biological functions. A dynamics of stress response including stress acclimation to altered ambient conditions and recovery after the stress treatment is discussed. The results of proteomic studies aimed at a comparison of stress response in plant genotypes differing in stress adaptability reveal constitutively enhanced levels of several stress-related proteins (protective proteins, chaperones, ROS scavenging- and detoxification-related enzymes) in the tolerant genotypes with respect to the susceptible ones. Tolerant genotypes can efficiently adjust energy metabolism to enhanced needs during stress acclimation. Stress tolerance vs. stress susceptibility are relative terms which can reflect different stress-coping strategies depending on the given stress treatment. The role of differential protein isoforms and PTMs with respect to their biological functions in different physiological constraints (cellular compartments and interacting partners) is discussed. The importance of protein functional studies following high-throughput proteome analyses is presented in a broader context of plant biology. In summary, the manuscript tries to provide an overview of the major factors which have to be considered when interpreting data from proteomic

  1. Patient and carer identified factors which contribute to safety incidents in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea L; Giles, Sally J; Fuller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Julie K; Walker, Christine; Dunbar, James A

    2015-09-01

    Patients can have an important role in reducing harm in primary-care settings. Learning from patient experience and feedback could improve patient safety. Evidence that captures patients' views of the various contributory factors to creating safe primary care is largely absent. The aim of this study was to address this evidence gap. Four focus groups and eight semistructured interviews were conducted with 34 patients and carers from south-east Australia. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of primary care. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and specific factors that contribute to safety incidents were identified in the analysis using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework (YCFF). Other factors emerging from the data were also ascertained and added to the analytical framework. Thirteen factors that contribute to safety incidents in primary care were ascertained. Five unique factors for the primary-care setting were discovered in conjunction with eight factors present in the YCFF from hospital settings. The five unique primary care contributing factors to safety incidents represented a range of levels within the primary-care system from local working conditions to the upstream organisational level and the external policy context. The 13 factors included communication, access, patient factors, external policy context, dignity and respect, primary-secondary interface, continuity of care, task performance, task characteristics, time in the consultation, safety culture, team factors and the physical environment. Patient and carer feedback of this type could help primary-care professionals better understand and identify potential safety concerns and make appropriate service improvements. The comprehensive range of factors identified provides the groundwork for developing tools that systematically capture the multiple contributory factors to patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  2. Proteomic analysis identifies mitochondrial metabolic enzymes as major discriminators between different stages of the failing human myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Wiggers, Henrik; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM).......Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM)....

  3. Professionalism: the major factor influencing job satisfaction among Korean and Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J-I; Lou, F; Han, S S; Cao, F; Kim, W O; Li, P

    2009-09-01

    The nursing shortage has become an internationally important issue. Nurses' professionalism and job satisfaction have been recognized as strong factors influencing their turnover. As international interchanges in nursing education are growing between Korea and China, understanding the commonalities and differences in factors associated with job satisfaction is critical to improving nurses' job retention. To compare the factors influencing job satisfaction among Korean and Chinese nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. The participants were comprised of 693 nurses at three general hospitals in Jinan, People's Republic of China and 593 nurses at two general hospitals in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire was designed to measure the nurses' professionalism and job satisfaction. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to job satisfaction. Professionalism was the common factor influencing job satisfaction in Korean and Chinese nurses. Professionalism was positively related to job satisfaction in both groups. Additional factors associated with job satisfaction were demographics and job characteristics such as age, job position and department of work, which were significant only in Korean nurses. Professionalism was the most important factor influencing job satisfaction in both Korean and Chinese nurses. Enhancing nursing professionalism is recommended as a common strategy to improve nurses' job retention across different healthcare systems.

  4. Deep sequencing of Salmonella RNA associated with heterologous Hfq proteins in vivo reveals small RNAs as a major target class and identifies RNA processing phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittka, Alexandra; Sharma, Cynthia M; Rolle, Katarzyna; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial Sm-like protein, Hfq, is a key factor for the stability and function of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in Escherichia coli. Homologues of this protein have been predicted in many distantly related organisms yet their functional conservation as sRNA-binding proteins has not entirely been clear. To address this, we expressed in Salmonella the Hfq proteins of two eubacteria (Neisseria meningitides, Aquifex aeolicus) and an archaeon (Methanocaldococcus jannaschii), and analyzed the associated RNA by deep sequencing. This in vivo approach identified endogenous Salmonella sRNAs as a major target of the foreign Hfq proteins. New Salmonella sRNA species were also identified, and some of these accumulated specifically in the presence of a foreign Hfq protein. In addition, we observed specific RNA processing defects, e.g., suppression of precursor processing of SraH sRNA by Methanocaldococcus Hfq, or aberrant accumulation of extracytoplasmic target mRNAs of the Salmonella GcvB, MicA or RybB sRNAs. Taken together, our study provides evidence of a conserved inherent sRNA-binding property of Hfq, which may facilitate the lateral transmission of regulatory sRNAs among distantly related species. It also suggests that the expression of heterologous RNA-binding proteins combined with deep sequencing analysis of RNA ligands can be used as a molecular tool to dissect individual steps of RNA metabolism in vivo.

  5. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Minsam; Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong; Lee, Uichin; Jang, Young Jae

    2016-01-01

    Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers' online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans' interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users.

  6. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsam Ko

    Full Text Available Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers' online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans' interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users.

  7. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong

    2016-01-01

    Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers’ online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans’ interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users. PMID:26849568

  8. Advanced placement math and science courses: Influential factors and predictors for success in college STEM majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Cynthia Colon

    President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country. Although research studies offer several contributing factors that point to a higher attrition rate of women in STEM than their male counterparts, no study has investigated the role that high school advanced placement (AP) math and science courses play in preparing students for the challenges of college STEM courses. The purpose of this study was to discover which AP math and science courses and/or influential factors could encourage more students, particularly females, to consider pursuing STEM fields in college. Further, this study examined which, if any, AP math or science courses positively contribute to a student's overall preparation for college STEM courses. This retrospective study combined quantitative and qualitative research methods. The survey sample consisted of 881 UCLA female and male students pursuing STEM majors. Qualitative data was gathered from four single-gender student focus groups, two female groups (15 females) and two male groups (16 males). This study examined which AP math and science courses students took in high school, who or what influenced them to take those courses, and which particular courses influenced student's choice of STEM major and/or best prepared her/him for the challenges of STEM courses. Findings reveal that while AP math and science course-taking patterns are similar of female and male STEM students, a significant gender-gap remains in five of the eleven AP courses. Students report four main influences on their choice of AP courses; self, desire for math/science major, higher grade point average or class rank, and college admissions. Further, three AP math and science courses were

  9. A multi-factor GIS method to identify optimal geographic locations for electric vehicle (EV) charging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqin; Iman, Kory

    2018-05-01

    Fuel-based transportation is one of the major contributors to poor air quality in the United States. Electric Vehicle (EV) is potentially the cleanest transportation technology to our environment. This research developed a spatial suitability model to identify optimal geographic locations for installing EV charging stations for travelling public. The model takes into account a variety of positive and negative factors to identify prime locations for installing EV charging stations in Wasatch Front, Utah, where automobile emission causes severe air pollution due to atmospheric inversion condition near the valley floor. A walkable factor grid was created to store index scores from input factor layers to determine prime locations. 27 input factors including land use, demographics, employment centers etc. were analyzed. Each factor layer was analyzed to produce a summary statistic table to determine the site suitability. Potential locations that exhibit high EV charging usage were identified and scored. A hot spot map was created to demonstrate high, moderate, and low suitability areas for installing EV charging stations. A spatially well distributed EV charging system was then developed, aiming to reduce "range anxiety" from traveling public. This spatial methodology addresses the complex problem of locating and establishing a robust EV charging station infrastructure for decision makers to build a clean transportation infrastructure, and eventually improve environment pollution.

  10. Iron regulation of the major virulence factors in the AIDS-associated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Jung

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload is known to exacerbate many infectious diseases, and conversely, iron withholding is an important defense strategy for mammalian hosts. Iron is a critical cue for Cryptococcus neoformans because the fungus senses iron to regulate elaboration of the polysaccharide capsule that is the major virulence factor during infection. Excess iron exacerbates experimental cryptococcosis and the prevalence of this disease in Sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with nutritional and genetic aspects of iron loading in the background of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. We demonstrate that the iron-responsive transcription factor Cir1 in Cr. neoformans controls the regulon of genes for iron acquisition such that cir1 mutants are "blind" to changes in external iron levels. Cir1 also controls the known major virulence factors of the pathogen including the capsule, the formation of the anti-oxidant melanin in the cell wall, and the ability to grow at host body temperature. Thus, the fungus is remarkably tuned to perceive iron as part of the disease process, as confirmed by the avirulence of the cir1 mutant; this characteristic of the pathogen may provide opportunities for antifungal treatment.

  11. Using exploratory regression to identify optimal driving factors for cellular automaton modeling of land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongjiu; Tong, Xiaohua

    2017-09-22

    Defining transition rules is an important issue in cellular automaton (CA)-based land use modeling because these models incorporate highly correlated driving factors. Multicollinearity among correlated driving factors may produce negative effects that must be eliminated from the modeling. Using exploratory regression under pre-defined criteria, we identified all possible combinations of factors from the candidate factors affecting land use change. Three combinations that incorporate five driving factors meeting pre-defined criteria were assessed. With the selected combinations of factors, three logistic regression-based CA models were built to simulate dynamic land use change in Shanghai, China, from 2000 to 2015. For comparative purposes, a CA model with all candidate factors was also applied to simulate the land use change. Simulations using three CA models with multicollinearity eliminated performed better (with accuracy improvements about 3.6%) than the model incorporating all candidate factors. Our results showed that not all candidate factors are necessary for accurate CA modeling and the simulations were not sensitive to changes in statistically non-significant driving factors. We conclude that exploratory regression is an effective method to search for the optimal combinations of driving factors, leading to better land use change models that are devoid of multicollinearity. We suggest identification of dominant factors and elimination of multicollinearity before building land change models, making it possible to simulate more realistic outcomes.

  12. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on neurotrophic factors in patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally K. da Silva

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To correlate neurotrophic factors – brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, and beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF – and severity of depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, participants were selected by convenience and received 16 sessions of CBT. The outcomes of interest were severity of depressive symptoms and changes in neurotrophic factor levels after CBT. The differences between variables before and after treatment (deltas were analyzed. Results: Patients had significant changes in symptom severity after treatment. No significant associations were found between Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II scores and any independent variable. No correlations were observed between BDNF or GDNF levels and BDI scores before or after treatment, although there was a trend toward significant differences in beta-NGF levels. Conclusion: BDNF, beta-NGF, and GDNF were not influenced by the effects of CBT on depressive symptoms.

  13. Association of ABO blood groups and major ischaemic heart disease risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutf-Ullah, L.; Akhtar, B.; Noor-Us-Saba; Hanif, A.; Khan, B.Z.; Bukhshi, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    To study the association of ABO blood groups with major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. Setting: Department of Cardiology, Mayo hospital, Lahore over a period of two years from January 2008 to December 2009. Study Design: Analytic comparative study. Subjects and Methods: The study group included 907 patients of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The distribution of ABO blood groups in IHD patients was compared for presence or absence of major IHD risk factors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. ANOVA and Chi-square tests for significance were used. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: In this study, the following pattern of ABO blood groups was observed in IHD patients : blood group A 251 (27.67%); blood group B 329 (36.27%); blood group O 235 (25.91%); blood group AB 92 (10.14%). We found no relation-ship of ABO blood groups with age (p-value = 0.234), gender (p-value = 0.093), hypertension (p-value = 0.230), diabetes mellitus (p-value = 0.801), family history of IHD (p-value = 0.277), transverse ear lobe crease (p-value = 0.231), total cholesterol (p-value = 0.797), triglycerides (p-value = 0.351), low density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.078), high density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.114). Similarly no relationship was found of smoking, weight, height and body mass index with ABO blood groups, p-values 0.428, 0.528, 0.908 and 0.455 respectively. Conclusion: There is no association of ABO blood groups and major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. (author)

  14. Countermeasure development for Rift Valley fever: deletion, modification or targeting of major virulence factor NSs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoradova, Olga; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease characterized by a high rate of abortion in ruminants, and febrile illness, hemorrhagic fever, retinitis and encephalitis in humans. RVF is caused by the RVF virus (RVFV), belonging to the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae . RVFV encodes a major virulence factor, NSs , which is dispensable for viral replication, yet required for evasion of host innate immune responses. RVFV NSs inhibits host gene upregulation at the transcriptional level, while promoting viral translation in the cytoplasm. In this article, we summarize the virology and pathology of RVF, and countermeasure development for RVF, with emphasis on NSs function and applications.

  15. "Nudges" to Prevent Behavioral Risk Factors Associated With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodend, Ashleigh; Schölmerich, Vera; Denktaş, Semiha

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder-colloquially called "depression"-is a primary global cause of disability. Current preventive interventions, such as problem-solving therapy, are effective but also expensive. "Nudges" are easy and cheap interventions for altering behavior. We have explored how nudging can reduce three behavioral risk factors of depression: low levels of physical activity, inappropriate coping mechanisms, and inadequate maintenance of social ties. These nudges use cognitive biases associated with these behavioral risks, such as valuing the present more than the future, following the herd or the norm, making different choices in light of equivalent conditions, and deciding on the basis of salience or attachment to status quo.

  16. Patching the Leaky STEM Pipeline: Identifying Institutional Factors That Influence a STEM Qualified Female Undergraduate s Choice of Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlock, Ashley J.

    Despite increased female participation in the workforce and females earning more undergraduate degrees than men over the past decade, women are still awarded fewer undergraduate degrees than men and hold less than 25% of jobs in the areas of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM (Beede, et al., 2011). Research shows that females may be leaking from the STEM pipeline because they are not choosing to attend institutions that fulfill their interdisciplinary and non-academic interests or have learning environments that are supportive of their needs. The purpose of this quantitative, cross-sectional survey study, conducted at one non-research intensive university, was to identify institutional factors most pertinent to the decision to attend a non-research intensive university by a "STEM qualified" female undergraduate student. 23 of 45 factors were reported as positively influencing their decision regardless of major. The top six factors for both groups were: average class size, campus environment, a visit to campus, university population size, and major/department offered. The seven factors ranked statistically significantly different between STEM and non-STEM majors were undergraduate research opportunities, faculty reputation, graduate/professional school admission, academic support/tutoring, graduate program available, intramural sports, and off-campus housing. Only two of 17 factors negatively influenced STEM majors who were accepted to a research intensive university: the research intensive university's size and average class sizes were undesirable compared to their current institution. STEM qualified females weighed the importance of non-academic factors as high, or higher, than critical academic factors. STEM qualified females are also choosing to attend the non-research intensive university for a variety of reasons and not simply because another institution did not offer certain academic factors. Future studies should expanded to include other non

  17. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  18. An in-depth characterization of the major psoriasis susceptibility locus identifies candidate susceptibility alleles within an HLA-C enhancer element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Clop

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder that is inherited as a complex genetic trait. Although genome-wide association scans (GWAS have identified 36 disease susceptibility regions, more than 50% of the genetic variance can be attributed to a single Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC locus, known as PSORS1. Genetic studies indicate that HLA-C is the strongest PSORS1 candidate gene, since markers tagging HLA-Cw*0602 consistently generate the most significant association signals in GWAS. However, it is unclear whether HLA-Cw*0602 is itself the causal PSORS1 allele, especially as the role of SNPs that may affect its expression has not been investigated. Here, we have undertaken an in-depth molecular characterization of the PSORS1 interval, with a view to identifying regulatory variants that may contribute to disease susceptibility. By analysing high-density SNP data, we refined PSORS1 to a 179 kb region encompassing HLA-C and the neighbouring HCG27 pseudogene. We compared multiple MHC sequences spanning this refined locus and identified 144 candidate susceptibility variants, which are unique to chromosomes bearing HLA-Cw*0602. In parallel, we investigated the epigenetic profile of the critical PSORS1 interval and uncovered three enhancer elements likely to be active in T lymphocytes. Finally we showed that nine candidate susceptibility SNPs map within a HLA-C enhancer and that three of these variants co-localise with binding sites for immune-related transcription factors. These data indicate that SNPs affecting HLA-Cw*0602 expression are likely to contribute to psoriasis susceptibility and highlight the importance of integrating multiple experimental approaches in the investigation of complex genomic regions such as the MHC.

  19. DNA methylation profiles of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene as a potent diagnostic biomarker in major depression.

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    Manabu Fuchikami

    Full Text Available Major depression, because of its recurring and life-threatening nature, is one of the top 10 diseases for global disease burden. Major depression is still diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms in patients. The search for specific biological markers is of great importance to advance the method of diagnosis for depression. We examined the methylation profile of 2 CpG islands (I and IV at the promoters of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, which is well known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. We analyzed genomic DNA from peripheral blood of 20 Japanese patients with major depression and 18 healthy controls to identify an appropriate epigenetic biomarker to aid in the establishment of an objective system for the diagnosis of depression. Methylation rates at each CpG unit was measured using a MassArray® system (SEQUENOM, and 2-dimensional hierarchical clustering analyses were undertaken to determine the validity of these methylation profiles as a diagnostic biomarker. Analyses of the dendrogram from methylation profiles of CpG I, but not IV, demonstrated that classification of healthy controls and patients at the first branch completely matched the clinical diagnosis. Despite the small number of subjects, our results indicate that classification based on the DNA methylation profiles of CpG I of the BDNF gene may be a valuable diagnostic biomarker for major depression.

  20. Identifying depression severity risk factors in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan T; Wilson, Catherine S; Heinemann, Allen W; Lazowski, Linda E; Fann, Jesse R; Bombardier, Charles H

    2014-02-01

    Examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, health-, and injury-related characteristics, and substance misuse across multiple levels of depression severity. 204 persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) volunteered as part of screening efforts for a randomized controlled trial of venlafaxine extended release for major depressive disorder (MDD). Instruments included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression scale, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Substance Abuse in Vocational Rehabilitation-Screener (SAVR-S), which contains 3 subscales: drug misuse, alcohol misuse, and a subtle items scale. Each of the SAVR-S subscales contributes to an overall substance use disorder (SUD) outcome. Three proportional odds models were specified, varying the substance misuse measure included in each model. 44% individuals had no depression symptoms, 31% had mild symptoms, 16% had moderate symptoms, 6% had moderately severe symptoms, and 3% had severe depression symptoms. Alcohol misuse, as indicated by the AUDIT and the SAVR-S drug misuse subscale scores were significant predictors of depression symptom severity. The SAVR-S substance use disorder (SUD) screening outcome was the most predictive variable. Level of education was only significantly predictive of depression severity in the model using the AUDIT alcohol misuse indicator. Likely SUD as measured by the SAVR-S was most predictive of depression symptom severity in this sample of persons with traumatic SCI. Drug and alcohol screening are important for identifying individuals at risk for depression, but screening for both may be optimal. Further research is needed on risk and protective factors for depression, including psychosocial characteristics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Betel nut usage is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Asadullah; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-12-27

    The objective of our study was to assess betel nut usage as one of the major risk factors associated with coronary artery disease. This case control study consisted of 300 controls and 300 cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants to assess consumption of betel nut and confounding variables. A respondent was considered a regular consumer of betel nut if he/she consumed one or more pieces of betel nut every day for a period of greater than 6 months. About 8 in 10 betel nut chewers developed coronary artery disease. After adjusting for diabetes and hypertension, the odds ratio analysis depicted 7.72 times greater likelihood for coronary artery disease in patients who chewed betel nut for more than 10 years. Our study concludes that betel nut chewing is a significant risk factor leading to the development of coronary artery disease.

  2. [Major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhuo; Hou, Chunlin; Zheng, Xianyou; Xu, Zhen; Wang, Wanhong; Lin, Haodong

    2008-08-01

    To study major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders for the product design and clinical application of the device. One ferrite permanent magnet with thickness and diameter of 3 mm and 10 mm, respectively, and three NdFeB permanent magnets with the thickness of 3 mm and diameter of 10, 15 and 20 mm, respectively, were used. The effects of thickness of the abdominal wall as well as the position and type of permanent magnets on the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders were measured in vitro simulated test, when the abdominal wall was set to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 cm, respectively, and the position of permanent magnets was 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 cm, respectively. The effect of the geomagnetic field on the device was measured under the condition that the thickness of the simulated abdominal wall was set to 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm, respectively, and the position of permanent magnets was 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 cm, respectively. The value showed in the warning unit was positively correlated with the position of the ferrite permanent magnet only when the thickness of the simulated abdominal wall was 2 cm (r=0.632, P NdFeB permanent magnets was significant (r > 0.622, P NdFeB permanent magnets, but weakened with the increasing thickness of the simulated abdominal wall. The effect of the geomagnetic field was correlated with the exposition of the body, the position of the permanent magnet and the thickness of the abdominal wall. The major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladder include the magnetism and location of the permanent magnet, the thickness of the abdominal wall and the geomagnetic field. These factors are correlated with and affect each other. Reasonable allocation of these factors may optimize the device.

  3. Identifying risk factors for first-episode neck pain: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rebecca; Wiest, Colin; Clark, Kelly; Cook, Chad; Horn, Maggie

    2018-02-01

    Neck pain affects 15.1% of the United States' general population every 3 months, and ranks fourth in global disability. Because of the tendency for neck pain to become a chronic issue, it is important to identify risk factors that could encourage prevention and early diagnosis. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify risk factors for a first episode of neck pain. Three databases were searched with key words such as "neck pain" and "first incidence." Risk factors from the resulting articles were reported as either a physical or psychosocial risk factor and ranked by the strength of their odds/risk/hazard ratio: empowering leadership, high perceived social climate, leisure physical activity, and cervical extensor endurance. Most risk factors found for neck pain were related to psychosocial characteristics, rather than physical characteristics. A number of these risk factors were mediating factors, suggesting that a prevention-based program may be useful in modifying the existence of the risk factors before the occurrence of neck pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for postoperative delirium in patients undergoing major head and neck cancer surgery: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Wang, Gangpu; Liu, Shengwen; Zhou, Shanghui; Lian, Ying; Zhang, Chenping; Yang, Wenjun

    2017-06-01

    Postoperative delirium is common after extensive surgery. This study aimed to collate and synthesize published literature on risk factors for delirium in patients with head and neck cancer surgery. Three databases were searched (MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library) between January 1987 and July 2016. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) was adopted to evaluate the study quality. Pooled odds ratios or mean differences for individual risk factors were estimated using the Mantel-Haenszel and inverse-variance methods. They provided a total of 1940 patients (286 with delirium and 1654 without), and predominantly included patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery. The incidence of postoperative delirium ranged from 11.50% to 36.11%. Ten statistically significant risk factors were identified in pooled analysis. Old age, age >70 years, male sex, duration of surgery, history of hypertension, blood transfusions, tracheotomy, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status grade at least III, flap reconstruction and neck dissection were more likely to sustain delirium after head and neck cancer surgery. Delirium is common in patients undergoing major head neck cancer surgery. Several risk factors were consistently associated with postoperative delirium. These factors help to highlight patients at risk of developing delirium and are suitable for preventive action. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. No Major Host Genetic Risk Factor Contributed to A(H1N12009 Influenza Severity.

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    Koldo Garcia-Etxebarria

    Full Text Available While most patients affected by the influenza A(H1N1 pandemic experienced mild symptoms, a small fraction required hospitalization, often without concomitant factors that could explain such a severe course. We hypothesize that host genetic factors could contribute to aggravate the disease. To test this hypothesis, we compared the allele frequencies of 547,296 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between 49 severe and 107 mild confirmed influenza A cases, as well as against a general population sample of 549 individuals. When comparing severe vs. mild influenza A cases, only one SNP was close to the conventional p = 5×10-8. This SNP, rs28454025, sits in an intron of the GSK233 gene, which is involved in a neural development, but seems not to have any connections with immunological or inflammatory functions. Indirectly, a previous association reported with CD55 was replicated. Although sample sizes are low, we show that the statistical power in our design was sufficient to detect highly-penetrant, quasi-Mendelian genetic factors. Hence, and assuming that rs28454025 is likely to be a false positive, no major genetic factor was detected that could explain poor influenza A course.

  6. The Impact of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors on Major Salivary Gland Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Lucia S; Megwalu, Uchechukwu C

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors on survival in patients with major salivary gland malignancies. Population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer database. The study cohort consisted of 10,735 men and women ages 20 and older who were diagnosed with major salivary gland carcinoma from 1973 to 2009. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the overall and disease-specific survival was higher for women than for men (P impact on overall survival. Male sex (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.49), increasing age, and single status (HR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.19-1.39) had poor prognostic impact on disease-specific survival. For patients with salivary gland malignancies, there is a survival benefit for younger patients, female patients, and married patients. This highlights the significance of demographic factors on survival outcomes for patients with salivary gland malignancies and highlights areas for further research on health disparities. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  7. Assessment of Factors that Influence the Recruitment of Majors from Introductory Geology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoisch, T. D.; Bowie, J. I.

    2009-12-01

    In order to guide the formulation of strategies for recruiting undergraduates taking introductory geology courses into the geology program at Northern Arizona University, we surveyed 783 students in introductory geology classes and 23 geology majors in their junior and senior years. Our introductory courses (GLG100, Introduction to Geology; GLG101, Physical Geology; and GLG112, Geologic Disasters) typically enroll ~600 students each semester. The majority of students in these classes are non-majors who take them in order to satisfy a university general education requirement (called “Liberal Studies requirements” at NAU). A large proportion of these students are freshmen (51%) and sophomores (30%), and many have not yet decided on a major or are uncertain about the major they have chosen. Our analysis shows that ~7% of students in the introductory classes are possible candidates for recruitment. Although a small percentage, it represents a large number of individuals, in fact more than could be accommodated were they all to decide to major in geology. Influential factors that weigh in favor of majoring in geology include good employability, good salary potential, and opportunities for working outdoors, field work, observing nature, travel, and environmentally friendly employment. In addition, students view a career as a geologist as potentially the most fulfilling of the different science occupations (biologist, chemist, geologist, environmental scientist, physicist) and among the more environmentally friendly. However, students perceive geology to be the least difficult of the sciences, and geology occupations to be low-paying and low in prestige relative to the other sciences. These negative perceptions could be countered by providing data to introductory students showing the starting salaries of geologists in comparison to other science occupations, and by communicating the rigorous nature of the more advanced classes in the geology degree program. A

  8. An exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.

  9. [An analysis of influencing factors for brucellosis in major occupational groups in Bayannur, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, M Z; Yang, Y H; Chen, Z T; Zhao, P; He, L L

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of brucella infection in major occupational groups in Bayannur, China, and to analyze the risk factors for brucellosis. Methods: From January to March, 2015, a questionnaire survey and the serological testing were performed to investigate the current status of brucella infection in 649 workers in 13 slaughter and breeding plants in 7 counties in Bayannur, China. The items in the questionnaire survey included general information, related occupational information, living habits, medical history, and awareness of related knowledge. Results: A total of 112 workers (17.26%) had brucella infection. Brucella infection was associated with sex, age, years of exposure to hazardous substances, job, educational background, usage of protective equipment, the presence or absence of a wound at the exposure site, and whether to smoke during the work clearance ( P work ( OR =1.812) , >5 years of exposure to hazardous substances ( OR =1.363) , improper use or nonuse of protective equipment ( OR =1.957) , smoke during work ( OR =2.027) , and the presence of a woundat the exposure site ( OR = 1.231) ; the protective factors for brucellosis were high school and college education and above ( OR =0.521) and high rate of awareness of brucella-related knowledge ( OR =0.648) . Conclusion: The brucella infection rate is high in the major occupational groups in Bayannur, China. The main influencing factors for brucellosis are job, years of exposure to hazardous substances, usage of protective equipment, whether to smoke during work, and the presence or absence of a wound at the exposure site.

  10. Organisational Issues for E-Learning: Critical Success Factors as Identified by HE Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Maggie; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a research project that identified organisational critical success factors (CSFs) for e-learning implementation in higher education (HE). These CSFs can be used as a theoretical foundation upon which to base decision-making and strategic thinking about e-learning. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  11. Using exploratory factor analysis of FFQ data to identify dietary patterns among Yup'ik people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, Tove K; Austin, Melissa A; Hopkins, Scarlett; Philip, Jacques; O'Brien, Diane; Thummel, Kenneth; Boyer, Bert B

    2014-03-01

    An FFQ developed by the Center for Alaska Native Health Research for studies in Yup'ik people includes market foods and subsistence foods such as moose, seal, waterfowl and salmon that may be related to disease risk. Because the FFQ contains >100 food items, we sought to characterize dietary patterns more simply for use in ongoing pharmacogenomics studies. Exploratory factor analysis was used to derive a small number of 'factors' that explain a substantial amount of the variation in the Yup'ik diet. We estimated factor scores and measured associations with demographic characteristics and biomarkers. South-west Alaska, USA. Yup'ik people (n 358) aged ≥18 years. We identified three factors that each accounted for ≥10 % of the common variance: the first characterized by 'processed foods' (e.g. salty snacks, sweetened cereals); the second by 'fruits and vegetables' (e.g. fresh citrus, potato salad); and the third by 'subsistence foods' (seal or walrus soup, non-oily fish). Participants from coastal communities had higher values for the 'subsistence' factor, whereas participants from inland communities had higher values for the 'fruits and vegetables' factor. A biomarker of marine intake, δ 15N, was correlated with the 'subsistence' factor, whereas a biomarker of corn- and sugarcane-based market food intake, δ 13C, was correlated with 'processed foods'. The exploratory factor analysis identified three factors that appeared to reflect dietary patterns among Yup'ik based on associations with participant characteristics and biomarkers. These factors will be useful for chronic disease studies in this population.

  12. Robust Nonnegative Matrix Factorization via Joint Graph Laplacian and Discriminative Information for Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential expression plays an important role in cancer diagnosis and classification. In recent years, many methods have been used to identify differentially expressed genes. However, the recognition rate and reliability of gene selection still need to be improved. In this paper, a novel constrained method named robust nonnegative matrix factorization via joint graph Laplacian and discriminative information (GLD-RNMF is proposed for identifying differentially expressed genes, in which manifold learning and the discriminative label information are incorporated into the traditional nonnegative matrix factorization model to train the objective matrix. Specifically, L2,1-norm minimization is enforced on both the error function and the regularization term which is robust to outliers and noise in gene data. Furthermore, the multiplicative update rules and the details of convergence proof are shown for the new model. The experimental results on two publicly available cancer datasets demonstrate that GLD-RNMF is an effective method for identifying differentially expressed genes.

  13. Identifying the necessary and sufficient number of risk factors for predicting academic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Robert; Hunt, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Identifying the point at which individuals become at risk for academic failure (grade point average [GPA] academic success or failure. This study focused on 12 school-related factors. Using a thorough 5-step process, we identified which unique risk factors place one at risk for academic failure. Academic engagement, academic expectations, academic self-efficacy, homework completion, school relevance, school safety, teacher relationships (positive relationship), grade retention, school mobility, and school misbehaviors (negative relationship) were uniquely related to GPA even after controlling for all relevant covariates. Next, a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine a cutoff point for determining how many risk factors predict academic failure (GPA academic failure, which provides a way for early identification of individuals who are at risk. Further implications of these findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of major risk factors related to depression among medical students of NRS medical college.

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    Mukhopadhyay Prianka, Sain Sonali, Mandal Nirmal Kumar, Saha Tushar Kanti , Dey Indira, Chattopadhyay Amitava

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Medical students experience depression, burnout, and mental illness at a higher rate than general population. A better understanding of related risk factors can help target appropriate support services for them. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of depression and identify its risk factors among undergraduate students in a medical College in Kolkata, India. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study using a two stage, stratified cluster sampling technique was used to select a sample of 289 students. Data were collected using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire based on Becks Depression Inventory II. Results: The mean score of students on depression scale was 10.47±10.39. 22.5 % of students tested positive for some form of depression while 6.2% had severe to extreme depression. The risk factors of depressive symptoms identified were older age, lower family income, students who did not choose admission in MBBS course on their own, had addictions, felt negatively about results, faced difficulty with study course and had relationship issues. Students with relationship issues in their personal lives were 3.7 times more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms than without them. Students who faced difficulty coping with study course were 2.18 times more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms than without them. Conclusion: Academic performance alone doesn’t influence the mental health of students, rather factors like older age, socioeconomic status, role in choice of medical career, negative perception of academic performance, difficulty with study course and relationship issues are also important.

  15. Incidence, prognostic factors and impact of postoperative delirium after major vascular surgery: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Sarah Joy; Blyth, Fiona M; Naganathan, Vasi

    2017-10-01

    Although postoperative delirium is a common complication and increases patient care needs, little is known about the predictors and outcomes of delirium in patients having vascular surgery. This review aimed to determine the incidence, prognostic factors and impact of postoperative delirium in vascular surgical patients. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published between January 2000 and January 2016 on delirium after vascular surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of delirium. Secondary outcomes were contributing prognostic factors and impact of delirium. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed using the QUIPS tool for systematic reviews of prognostic studies, and MOOSE guidelines for reviews of observational studies. Quantitative analyses of extracted data were conducted using meta-analysis where possible to determine incidence of delirium and prognostic factors. A qualitative review of outcomes was performed. Fifteen articles were eligible for inclusion. Delirium incidence ranged between 5% and 39%. Meta-analysis found that patients with delirium were older than those without delirium (OR 3.6, pdelirium included increased age (OR 1.04, pdelirium. Data were limited on the impact of procedure complexity, endovascular compared to open surgery or type of anaesthetic. Postoperative delirium occurs frequently, resulting in major morbidity for vascular patients. Improved quality of prognostic studies may identify modifiable peri-operative factors to improve quality of care for vascular surgical patients.

  16. A method to identify dependencies between organizational factors using statistical independence test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Chung, C.H.; Kim, C.; Jae, M.; Jung, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on organizational factors in nuclear power plants have been made especially in recent years, most of which have assumed organizational factors to be independent. However, since organizational factors characterize the organization in terms of safety and efficiency etc. and there would be some factors that have close relations between them. Therefore, from whatever point of view, if we want to identify the characteristics of an organization, the dependence relationships should be considered to get an accurate result. In this study the organization of a reference nuclear power plant in Korea was analyzed for the trip cases of that plant using 20 organizational factors that Jacobs and Haber had suggested: 1) coordination of work, 2) formalization, 3) organizational knowledge, 4) roles and responsibilities, 5) external communication, 6) inter-department communications, 7) intra-departmental communications, 8) organizational culture, 9) ownership, 10) safety culture, 11) time urgency, 12) centralization, 13) goal prioritization, 14) organizational learning, 15) problem identification, 16) resource allocation, 17) performance evaluation, 18) personnel selection, 19) technical knowledge, and 20) training. By utilizing the results of the analysis, a method to identify the dependence relationships between organizational factors is presented. The statistical independence test for the analysis result of the trip cases is adopted to reveal dependencies. This method is geared to the needs to utilize many kinds of data that has been obtained as the operating years of nuclear power plants increase, and more reliable dependence relations may be obtained by using these abundant data

  17. Identifying Key Drivers of Return Reversal with Dynamical Bayesian Factor Graph.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhao

    Full Text Available In the stock market, return reversal occurs when investors sell overbought stocks and buy oversold stocks, reversing the stocks' price trends. In this paper, we develop a new method to identify key drivers of return reversal by incorporating a comprehensive set of factors derived from different economic theories into one unified dynamical Bayesian factor graph. We then use the model to depict factor relationships and their dynamics, from which we make some interesting discoveries about the mechanism behind return reversals. Through extensive experiments on the US stock market, we conclude that among the various factors, the liquidity factors consistently emerge as key drivers of return reversal, which is in support of the theory of liquidity effect. Specifically, we find that stocks with high turnover rates or high Amihud illiquidity measures have a greater probability of experiencing return reversals. Apart from the consistent drivers, we find other drivers of return reversal that generally change from year to year, and they serve as important characteristics for evaluating the trends of stock returns. Besides, we also identify some seldom discussed yet enlightening inter-factor relationships, one of which shows that stocks in Finance and Insurance industry are more likely to have high Amihud illiquidity measures in comparison with those in other industries. These conclusions are robust for return reversals under different thresholds.

  18. Identify the Important Decision Factors of Online Shopping Adoption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailatul HIJRAH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify factors encouraging a consumer to engage in online shopping activities. The expected contribution of this study is for online entrepreneurs, in order to develop the most suitable business strategy, so that it will be clearly identified and sorted out which factors are the most important and the main motivation of Indonesian consumers to shop via online by using responses from respondents who usually shop online and offline in 3 cities in Indonesia, Jakarta, Surabaya and Samarinda. The research instruments were developed by conducting FGDs on relevant groups, either academics, online shopping activists, suppliers and courier businessmen in Jakarta, Surabaya and Samarinda Cities in effort to extract any information that encourages consumers to online shopping. After conducting FGD, the researcher produced 48 items proposed for factor analysis and after extracted to form eleven constructs, some items were removed because they had less loading factors. The eleven constructs or dimensions are trust, risk, consumer factors, website factors, price, service quality, convenience, subjective norm, product guarantee, variety of products and lifestyle. The implications of this study provide valuable insights about consumer decisions to online shopping or not online shopping.

  19. Identifying the Prognosis Factors in Death after Liver Transplantation via Adaptive LASSO in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Raeisi Shahraki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of liver transplantation as a routine therapy in liver diseases, the effective factors on its outcomes are still controversial. This study attempted to identify the most effective factors on death after liver transplantation. For this purpose, modified least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO, called Adaptive LASSO, was utilized. One of the best advantages of this method is considering high number of factors. Therefore, in a historical cohort study from 2008 to 2013, the clinical findings of 680 patients undergoing liver transplant surgery were considered. Ridge and Adaptive LASSO regression methods were then implemented to identify the most effective factors on death. To compare the performance of these two models, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used. According to the results, 12 factors in Ridge regression and 9 ones in Adaptive LASSO regression were significant. The area under the ROC curve (AUC of Adaptive LASSO was equal to 89% (95% CI: 86%–91%, which was significantly greater than Ridge regression (64%, 95% CI: 61%–68% (p<0.001. As a conclusion, the significant factors and the performance criteria revealed the superiority of Adaptive LASSO method as a penalized model versus traditional regression model in the present study.

  20. Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Five Major Classes of Potentially Therapeutic Enzymes Secreted by Lucilia sericata Medical Maggots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Zdeněk; Vogel, Heiko; Lehmann, Rüdiger; Rupp, Oliver; Goesmann, Alexander; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Lucilia sericata larvae are used as an alternative treatment for recalcitrant and chronic wounds. Their excretions/secretions contain molecules that facilitate tissue debridement, disinfect, or accelerate wound healing and have therefore been recognized as a potential source of novel therapeutic compounds. Among the substances present in excretions/secretions various peptidase activities promoting the wound healing processes have been detected but the peptidases responsible for these activities remain mostly unidentified. To explore these enzymes we applied next generation sequencing to analyze the transcriptomes of different maggot tissues (salivary glands, gut, and crop) associated with the production of excretions/secretions and/or with digestion as well as the rest of the larval body. As a result we obtained more than 123.8 million paired-end reads, which were assembled de novo using Trinity and Oases assemblers, yielding 41,421 contigs with an N50 contig length of 2.22 kb and a total length of 67.79 Mb. BLASTp analysis against the MEROPS database identified 1729 contigs in 577 clusters encoding five peptidase classes (serine, cysteine, aspartic, threonine, and metallopeptidases), which were assigned to 26 clans, 48 families, and 185 peptidase species. The individual enzymes were differentially expressed among maggot tissues and included peptidase activities related to the therapeutic effects of maggot excretions/secretions.

  1. Career Outcomes of STEM and Non-STEM College Graduates: Persistence in Majored-Field and Influential Factors in Career Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonghong Jade

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of college graduates, this study examines student transition from college to their chosen career paths and identifies factors influencing college graduates' choosing an occupation related to ones' undergraduate major. Within the context of expanded econometric framework a wide range…

  2. False Alarms and Overmonitoring: Major Factors in Alarm Fatigue Among Labor Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey

    2018-06-08

    Nurses can be exposed to hundreds of alarms during their shift, contributing to alarm fatigue. The purposes were to explore similarities and differences in perceptions of clinical alarms by labor nurses caring for generally healthy women compared with perceptions of adult intensive care unit (ICU) and neonatal ICU nurses caring for critically ill patients and to seek nurses' suggestions for potential improvements. Nurses were asked via focus groups about the utility of clinical alarms from medical devices. There was consensus that false alarms and too many devices generating alarms contributed to alarm fatigue, and most alarms lacked clinical relevance. Nurses identified certain types of alarms that they responded to immediately, but the vast majority of the alarms did not contribute to their clinical assessment or planned nursing care. Monitoring only those patients who need it and only those physiologic values that are warranted, based on patient condition, may decrease alarm burden.

  3. Factors affecting fledgling output of great tits, Parus major, in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, S.; Alvarez, E.; Barba, E.

    2016-07-01

    Fledgling production has often been used as an estimator of avian reproductive success, and it is conditioned by factors affecting offspring development and/or survival during the nesting period. We aimed to determine which predictors influenced fledgling output among a set of basic breeding parameters and local temperature data collected over 25 years in a Mediterranean great tit, Parus major, population, using an information–theoretic approach for model selection. Of the studied variables, the number of hatchlings per nest was the single–most important predictor influencing fledgling production, with larger broods eventually yielding more fledglings, although mass prior to fledging may have been compromised. This result suggests an overall good adjustment between brood size and resource availability in the studied population. (Author)

  4. Phobic, panic, and major depressive disorders and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, O J; Nestadt, G; Samuels, J F; Costa, P T; Howard, W T; Eaton, W W

    2001-03-01

    This study investigated five-factor model personality traits in anxiety (simple phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder) and major depressive disorders in a population-based sample. In the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-up Study, psychiatrists administered the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry to 333 adult subjects who also completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. All of the disorders except simple phobia were associated with high neuroticism. Social phobia and agoraphobia were associated with low extraversion. In addition, lower-order facets of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with certain disorders (i.e., low positive emotions in panic disorder; low trust and compliance in certain phobias; and low competence, achievement striving, and self-discipline in several disorders). This study emphasizes the utility of lower-order personality assessments and underscores the need for further research on personality/psychopathology etiologic relationships.

  5. Factors affecting the income from major crops in rice-wheat ecological zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Naseer, M.Z.; Hassan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector of our economy. About twenty-two percent of national income and 44.8 percent of total employment is generated by this sector. About 66 percent of country's population is living in rural areas and is directly or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood. It also supplies raw materials to industry. The rice-wheat zone of Punjab covers 1.1 million hectare, 72% of wheat is grown in rotation with rice. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of different factors on the productivity and ultimately on income from of major crops (wheat, rice and sugar-cane) in rice-wheat ecological zone. The results show that for wheat crop, land preparation, use of fertilizer and chemicals, for Sugarcane crop, area under cultivation, fertilizer and chemical costs and for rice crop, applications of chemicals, irrigation and land holding were the main determinants of productivity and crop income. (author)

  6. Factors affecting fledgling output of great tits, Parus major, in the long term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fledgling production has often been used as an estimator of avian reproductive success, and it is conditioned by factors affecting offspring development and/or survival during the nesting period. We aimed to determine which predictors influenced fledgling output among a set of basic breeding parameters and local temperature data collected over 25 years in a Mediterranean great tit, Parus major, population, using an information–theoretic approach for model selection. Of the studied variables, the number of hatchlings per nest was the single–most important predictor influencing fledgling production, with larger broods eventually yielding more fledglings, although mass prior to fledging may have been compromised. This result suggests an overall good adjustment between brood size and resource availability in the studied population.

  7. “Nudges” to Prevent Behavioral Risk Factors Associated With Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölmerich, Vera; Denktaş, Semiha

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder—colloquially called “depression”—is a primary global cause of disability. Current preventive interventions, such as problem-solving therapy, are effective but also expensive. “Nudges” are easy and cheap interventions for altering behavior. We have explored how nudging can reduce three behavioral risk factors of depression: low levels of physical activity, inappropriate coping mechanisms, and inadequate maintenance of social ties. These nudges use cognitive biases associated with these behavioral risks, such as valuing the present more than the future, following the herd or the norm, making different choices in light of equivalent conditions, and deciding on the basis of salience or attachment to status quo. PMID:26378823

  8. Survival Analysis and its Associated Factors of Beta Thalassemia Major in Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zamani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There currently is a lack of knowledge about the long-term survival of patients with beta thalassemia (BT, particularly in regions with low incidence of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the survival rate of the patients with BT major and the factors associated with the survival time. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed in Hamadan province, located in the west of Iran. The study included patients that referred to the provincial hospitals during 16 year period from 1997 to 2013. The follow up of each subject was calculated from the date of birth to the date of death. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from patients’ medical records using a checklist. Statistical analysis included the Kaplan-Meier method to analyze survivals, log-rank to compare curves between groups, and Cox regression for multivariate prognostic analysis. Results: A total of 133 patients with BT major were enrolled, 54.9% of whom were male and 66.2% were urban. The 10-, 20- and 30-year survival rate for all patients were 98.3%, 88.4% and 80.5%, respectively. Based on hazard ratio (HR, we found that accompanied diseases (P=0.01, blood type (P=0.03 and residency status (P=0.01 were significant predictors for the survival time of patients. Conclusion: The survival rate of BT patients has improved. Future researches such as prospective designs are required for the estimation of survival rate and to find other prognostic factors, which have reliable sources of data.

  9. Identifying and ranking the factors affecting entrepreneurial marketing to facilitate exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Habibzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are believed the most important components of today’s businesses and they can boost the growth of economy. This paper presents an empirical investigation to identify and rank important factors influencing on entrepreneurial marketing to facilitate exports of SMEs. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 387 randomly selected entrepreneurs who act as managers of some SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.873, which is well above the acceptable level. Using principle component analysis, the study has determined four factors including competitive intelligence, competitive advantage, external factors and internal factors to facilitate the export of SMEs.

  10. Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; de Vries, Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne

    2017-01-01

    and supply factors together. The aim was to provide an overview of this highly interdisciplinary research, to describe how these linkages are being made and to identify which factors significantly influence dependent variables such as levels of use, activities or health and well-being benefits. Commonly used......Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical...... characteristics of the ecosystem. We conducted a review of publications dealing with demand or social factors such as user needs, preferences and values as well as spatially explicit supply or physical factors such as amount of green space, (bio)diversity, recreational infrastructure, etc. and linking demand...

  11. Local acceptance of wind energy: Factors of success identified in French and German case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobert, Arthur; Laborgne, Pia; Mimler, Solveig

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify and analyse factors that are important for winning acceptance of wind-energy parks on the local level. The developers of wind-energy parks need to know how to manage 'social acceptance' at the different stages of planning, realisation and operation. Five case studies in France and Germany focused on factors of success in developing a wind-energy project on a given site and illuminated how policy frameworks influence local acceptance. Our hypothesis is that these factors fall into two categories: institutional conditions, such as economic incentives and regulations; and site-specific conditions (territorial factors), such as the local economy, the local geography, local actors, and the actual on-site planning process (project management)

  12. Meat consumption is a major risk factor for hepatitis E virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Slot

    Full Text Available The incidence of autochthonous hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV gt3 infections in Western Europe is high. Although pigs are a major reservoir of the virus, the exact sources and transmission route(s of HEV gt3 to humans remain unclear.To determine the role of meat consumption at a population level, the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was compared between Dutch blood donors with a vegetarian lifestyle and donors who consume meat on a daily basis.The age-weighted anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence among donors not eating meat was significantly lower than among meat-eating donors (12.4% vs 20.5%, p = 0.002. For both groups the prevalence strongly increased with age and the difference in prevalence was apparent for all age groups.Compared with meat-eating donors, the incidence of HEV infection is significantly lower among donors not eating meat, indicating that meat consumption is a major risk factor for HEV infection.

  13. Identifying context factors explaining physician's low performance in communication assessment: an explorative study in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essers, Geurt; van Dulmen, Sandra; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees; Kramer, Anneke

    2011-12-13

    Communication is a key competence for health care professionals. Analysis of registrar and GP communication performance in daily practice, however, suggests a suboptimal application of communication skills. The influence of context factors could reveal why communication performance levels, on average, do not appear adequate. The context of daily practice may require different skills or specific ways of handling these skills, whereas communication skills are mostly treated as generic. So far no empirical analysis of the context has been made. Our aim was to identify context factors that could be related to GP communication. A purposive sample of real-life videotaped GP consultations was analyzed (N = 17). As a frame of reference we chose the MAAS-Global, a widely used assessment instrument for medical communication. By inductive reasoning, we analyzed the GP behaviour in the consultation leading to poor item scores on the MAAS-Global. In these cases we looked for the presence of an intervening context factor, and how this might explain the actual GP communication behaviour. We reached saturation after having viewed 17 consultations. We identified 19 context factors that could potentially explain the deviation from generic recommendations on communication skills. These context factors can be categorized into doctor-related, patient-related, and consultation-related factors. Several context factors seem to influence doctor-patient communication, requiring the GP to apply communication skills differently from recommendations on communication. From this study we conclude that there is a need to explicitly account for context factors in the assessment of GP (and GP registrar) communication performance. The next step is to validate our findings.

  14. Sensitized mutagenesis screen in Factor V Leiden mice identifies thrombosis suppressor loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Randal J; Tomberg, Kärt; Siebert, Amy E; Zhu, Guojing; Winn, Mary E; Dobies, Sarah L; Manning, Sara L; Brake, Marisa A; Cleuren, Audrey C; Hobbs, Linzi M; Mishack, Lena M; Johnston, Alexander J; Kotnik, Emilee; Siemieniak, David R; Xu, Jishu; Li, Jun Z; Saunders, Thomas L; Ginsburg, David

    2017-09-05

    Factor V Leiden ( F5 L ) is a common genetic risk factor for venous thromboembolism in humans. We conducted a sensitized N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen for dominant thrombosuppressor genes based on perinatal lethal thrombosis in mice homozygous for F5 L ( F5 L/L ) and haploinsufficient for tissue factor pathway inhibitor ( Tfpi +/- ). F8 deficiency enhanced the survival of F5 L/L Tfpi +/- mice, demonstrating that F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality is genetically suppressible. ENU-mutagenized F5 L/L males and F5 L/+ Tfpi +/- females were crossed to generate 6,729 progeny, with 98 F5 L/L Tfpi +/- offspring surviving until weaning. Sixteen lines, referred to as "modifier of Factor 5 Leiden ( MF5L1-16 )," exhibited transmission of a putative thrombosuppressor to subsequent generations. Linkage analysis in MF5L6 identified a chromosome 3 locus containing the tissue factor gene ( F3 ). Although no ENU-induced F3 mutation was identified, haploinsufficiency for F3 ( F3 +/- ) suppressed F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality. Whole-exome sequencing in MF5L12 identified an Actr2 gene point mutation (p.R258G) as the sole candidate. Inheritance of this variant is associated with suppression of F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality ( P = 1.7 × 10 -6 ), suggesting that Actr2 p.R258G is thrombosuppressive. CRISPR/Cas9 experiments to generate an independent Actr2 knockin/knockout demonstrated that Actr2 haploinsufficiency is lethal, supporting a hypomorphic or gain-of-function mechanism of action for Actr2 p.R258G Our findings identify F8 and the Tfpi/F3 axis as key regulators in determining thrombosis balance in the setting of F5 L and also suggest a role for Actr2 in this process.

  15. Major risk factors for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the young are modifiable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Joseph P; Viscoli, Catherine M; Brott, Thomas; Kernan, Walter N; Brass, Lawrence M; Feldmann, Edward; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Wilterdink, Janet Lee; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2003-06-01

    To identify risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage, we designed a case-control study of men and women 18 to 49 years of age (the Hemorrhagic Stroke Project [HSP]). This report focuses on SAH. Patients were recruited from 44 hospitals in the United States. Cases with SAH must have had a ruptured aneurysm documented by angiography or surgery. Two controls, identified by random digit dialing and matched to each patient for age, sex, race, and telephone exchange, were sought for each case subject. Between 1994 and 1999, 425 patients with SAH were enrolled in HSP, and 312 cases met the criteria for aneurysmal SAH. The present analyses also included 618 matched controls. Of the 312 cases, 66% were current cigarette smokers compared with 30% of controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 2.67 to 5.21). Cocaine use within the previous 3-day period was reported by 3% of cases and no controls (bivariate exact OR, 24.97; 95% exact CI, 3.95 to infinity; adjusted estimate not calculable). Other independent risk factors in the multivariable model included hypertension (adjusted OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.29), low body mass index (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.35), primary family history of hemorrhagic stroke (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.73 to 8.46), caffeine in pharmaceutical products (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.19 to 5.20), lower educational achievement (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.44 to 3.87), and nicotine in pharmaceutical products (adjusted estimate not calculable). Aneurysmal SAH may be largely a preventable disease among the young and middle-aged because several prevalent risk factors can be modified by medication (eg, hypertension) or behavioral change (eg, cigarette smoking, cocaine use). The association of caffeine and nicotine in pharmaceutical products and aneurysmal SAH warrants further study.

  16. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors - systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use - among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005). Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age.

  17. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodi Christiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. Design: We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors – systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, body mass index (BMI, and tobacco use – among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Results: Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005. Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Conclusions: Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age.

  18. Genome-wide analysis in UK Biobank identifies four loci associated with mood instability and genetic correlation with major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joey; Strawbridge, Rona J; Bailey, Mark E S; Graham, Nicholas; Ferguson, Amy; Lyall, Donald M; Cullen, Breda; Pidgeon, Laura M; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P; O'Donovan, Michael; Escott-Price, Valentina; Smith, Daniel J

    2017-11-30

    Mood instability is a core clinical feature of affective and psychotic disorders. In keeping with the Research Domain Criteria approach, it may be a useful construct for identifying biology that cuts across psychiatric categories. We aimed to investigate the biological validity of a simple measure of mood instability and evaluate its genetic relationship with several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mood instability in 53,525 cases and 60,443 controls from UK Biobank, identifying four independently associated loci (on chromosomes 8, 9, 14 and 18), and a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimate of ~8%. We found a strong genetic correlation between mood instability and MDD (r g  = 0.60, SE = 0.07, p = 8.95 × 10 -17 ) and a small but significant genetic correlation with both schizophrenia (r g  = 0.11, SE = 0.04, p = 0.01) and anxiety disorders (r g  = 0.28, SE = 0.14, p = 0.04), although no genetic correlation with BD, ADHD or PTSD was observed. Several genes at the associated loci may have a role in mood instability, including the DCC netrin 1 receptor (DCC) gene, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B subunit beta (eIF2B2), placental growth factor (PGF) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D (PTPRD). Strengths of this study include the very large sample size, but our measure of mood instability may be limited by the use of a single question. Overall, this work suggests a polygenic basis for mood instability. This simple measure can be obtained in very large samples; our findings suggest that doing so may offer the opportunity to illuminate the fundamental biology of mood regulation.

  19. Identifying main factors of capacity fading in lithium ion cells using orthogonal design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Wang, Caijuan; Zhang, Yakun; Li, Zhe; Song, Yang; Jin, Ting; Ma, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of seven principal factors on the aging behavior of lithium ion cells is studied. • Orthogonal design of experiments is used to reduce the experiment units. • Capacity fades linearly during the initial 10% capacity fading period. • Statistical methods are used to compare the significance of each principal factor. • A multi-factor statistical model is developed to predict the aging rate of cells. - Abstract: The aging rate under cycling conditions for lithium-ion cells is affected by many factors. Seven principal factors are systematically examined using orthogonal design of experiments, and statistical analysis was used to identify the order of principal factors in terms of strength in causing capacity fade. These seven principal factors are: the charge and discharge currents (i_1, i_2) during the constant current regime, the charge and discharge cut-off voltages (V_1, V_2) and the corresponding durations (t_1, t_2) during the constant voltage regime, and the ambient temperature (T). An orthogonal array with 18 test units was selected for the experiments. The test results show that (1) during the initial 10% capacity fading period, the capacity faded linearly with Wh-throughput for all the test conditions; (2) after the initial period, certain cycling conditions exacerbated aging rates, while the others remain the same. The statistical results show that: (1) except for t_1, the other six principal factors significantly affect the aging rate; (2) the strength of the principal factors was ranked as: i_1 > V_1 > T > t_2 > V_2 > i_2 > t_1. Finally, a multi-factor statistical aging model is developed to predict the aging rate, and the accuracy of the model is validated.

  20. Gender-specific suicide risk factors: a case-control study of individuals with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalca, Ioana Mioara; McGirr, Alexander; Renaud, Johanne; Turecki, Gustavo

    2013-12-01

    Available information on risk for suicide completion in females is limited and often extrapolated from studies conducted in males. However, the validity of extending to females risk factors identified among male suicide cases is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical and behavioral risk factors for suicide among female depressed patients and compare them to similar factors among male depressed patients. We identified 201 suicide completers (160 male and 41 female) who died during an episode of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cases were compared to 127 living patients with MDD (88 male and 39 female). All subjects were characterized for Axis I and II diagnoses using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders according to the DSM-IV, as well as behavioral and temperament dimensions using proxy-based interviews. The primary outcome was measures of impulsive and impulsive-aggressive behaviors. Compared to controls, male, but not female suicide cases had higher levels of impulsive aggression (P suicide cases from controls. However, nonimpulsive aggression and impulsive aggression were correlated constructs in males (r = 0.297; P suicide, such as alcohol and substance dependence, cluster B disorders, and elevated hostility and aggression, were replicated in the pooled-sex analyses, and, though not statistically significant in discriminating between suicide cases and controls by gender, maintained strong group differences. Males and females share many risk factors for suicide in MDD, yet alcohol dependence is much more specific though less sensitive among depressed females. Nonimpulsive aggression is part of a diathesis for suicide in females, which is distinct from the well-characterized impulsive aggression that is consistently reported in a portion of male suicide cases. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Major controlling factors and predictions for cadmium transfer from the soil into spinach plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenfei; Ding, Qiong; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Jumei; Chen, Shibao; Ma, Yibing

    2013-07-01

    Predicting the mobility, bioavailability and transfer of cadmium (Cd) in the soil-plant system is of great importance with regards to food safety and environmental management. In this study, the transfer characteristics of Cd (exogenous salts) from a wide range of Chinese soils to spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) were investigated. The major controlling factors and prediction equations for Cd transfer in the soil-plant system were also investigated. The results showed that plant Cd concentration was positively correlated with soil Cd concentration. The maximum transfer factor (ratio of the Cd concentration in the plant to that in the soil) was found in acid soils. The extended Freundlich-type function was able to describe the Cd transfer from soil to spinach plants. Combining soil total Cd, pH and organic carbon (OC) content in the prediction equation greatly improved the correlation performance compared with predictions based on total Cd only. A slight protection effect of OC on Cd uptake was observed at low soil Cd concentrations. The results are a useful tool that can be used to predict Cd transfer from soil to plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Forkhead box O transcription factors as possible mediators in the development of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Quirion, Rémi; Little, Peter J; Cheng, Yufang; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo; Xu, Jiangping; Zheng, Wenhua

    2015-12-01

    Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors play important roles in cellular physiology and biology. Recent findings indicate that FoxOs are also involved in the development of major depressive disorder. Alterations in the upstream molecules of FoxOs, such as brain derived neurotrophic factor or protein kinase B, have been linked to depression. Antidepressants, such as imipramine and venlafaxine, modify the FoxOs phosphorylation. Furthermore, FoxOs could be regulated by serotonin and norepinephrine receptor signaling as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, all of which are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. FoxOs also regulate neuronal morphology, synaptogenesis and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which are viewed as candidate mechanisms for the etiology of depression. In this review, we emphasize the possible roles of FoxOs during the development of depression and make some strategic recommendations for future research. We propose that FoxOs and its signaling pathways may constitute potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Smoking and Pregnancy — A Review on the First Major Environmental Risk Factor of the Unborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Mund

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cigarettes throughout pregnancy is one of the single most important avoidable causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes and it represents the first major environmental risk of the unborn. If compared with other risk factors in the perinatal period, exposure to tobacco smoke is considered to be amongst the most harmful and it is associated with high rates of long and short term morbidity and mortality for mother and child. A variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes are linked with cigarette consumption before and during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal cigarette smoke disturbs the equilibrium among the oxidant and antioxidant system, has negative impact on the genetic and cellular level of both mother and fetus and causes a large quantity of diseases in the unborn child. These smoking-induced damages for the unborn offspring manifest themselves at various times in life and for most only a very limited range of causal treatment exists. Education, support and assistance are of high importance to decrease maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, as there are few other avoidable factors which influence a child’s health that profoundly throughout its life. It is imperative that smoking control should be seen as a public health priority.

  4. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa. In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.

  5. Analysis of major risk factors affecting those working in the agrarian sector (based on a sociological survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekoten, Olena M; Dereziuk, Anatolii V; Ihnaschuk, Olena V; Holovchanska, Svitlana E

    Issues related to labour potential, its state and problems have consistently been a focus of attention for the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Its respective analysis shows that labour potential problems remain unresolved in many countries of the world. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), adverse working conditions are among major factors of occupational disease development in Europe and the reason for disabilities of economically active population during 2.5% of their lifetime. The aim of the present study is to identify and analyse major risk factors, which have a bearing on people working in agriculture in the course of exercising their occupation, with account of forms of ownership of agricultural enterprises. Carried out was a cross-sectional study involving a sociological survey of 412 respondents - those working in agriculture - who made up the primary group and the control group. The study revealed 21 risk factors, 9 of which were work-related. A modified elementary cybernetic model of studying impact efficiency was developed with the view of carrying out a structural analysis of the sample group and choosing relevant methodological approaches. It has been established that harmful factors related to working environment and one's lifestyle are decisive in the agrarian sector, particularly for workers of privately owned businesses. For one out of three respondents harmful working conditions manifested themselves as industrial noise (31.7±3.4), vibration (29.0±2.1) trunk bending and constrained working posture (36.6±3.4). The vast majority of agricultural workers (91.6±2.5) admitted they could not afford proper rest during their annual leave; male respondents abused alcohol (70.6±3.0) and smoking (41.4±2.0 per 100 workers). The research established the structure of risk factors, which is sequentially represented by the following groups: behavioral (smoking, drinking of alcohol, rest during annual leave, physical culture), working

  6. Association between depression and anxiety symptoms and major atherosclerosis risk factors in patients with chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vural, M.; Satiroglu, Oe.; Goeksel, I.; Akbas, B.; Karabay, Oe.

    2007-01-01

    Psychological variables, such as depression and anxiety, are known as independent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), suggesting the interaction of psychological and physiological factors in the development of CAD. In the present study, we analyzed the possible association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and major atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with chest pain warranting coronary angiography. The patients without CAD (n=159) and those with CAD (n=155) were evaluated for the severity of depression and anxiety by the symptom scales; high scores indicate severe symptoms. Age, male/female ratio, prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), and depression level were significantly higher in the CAD group. Among a total of 314 patients with chest pain, the mean depression score was higher in patients with DM (16.01±8.12 vs 13.01±9.6, p=0.01) and those with hypercholesterolemia (15.43±9.61 vs 12.53±9.61, p=0.02). The mean anxiety score was also higher in patients with DM (20.81±12.85 vs 16.51±12.09, p=0.008), hypercholesterolemia (20.67±13.11 vs 15.29±11.36, p=0.002), or hypertension (20.74±12.94 vs 14.1±10.8, p=0.001). Thus, DM and hypercholesterolemia are associated with depression and anxiety, while hypertension is only related to anxiety. In contrast, smoking and family history of atherosclerosis are not related to depression and anxiety scores. These results suggest depression and anxiety symptoms may contribute to the development and progression of CAD, especially in patients with DM or hypercholesterolemia. (author)

  7. [Incidence and risk factors of venous thromboembolism in major spinal surgery with no chemical or mechanical prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Tomba, F; Gormaz-Talavera, I; Menéndez-Quintanilla, I E; Moriel-Durán, J; García de Quevedo-Puerta, D; Villanueva-Pareja, F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism in spine surgery with no chemical and mechanical prophylaxis, and to determine the specific risk factors for this complication. A historical cohort was analysed. All patients subjected to major spinal surgery, between January 2010 and September 2014, were included. No chemical or mechanical prophylaxis was administered in any patient. Active mobilisation of lower limbs was indicated immediately after surgery, and early ambulation started in the first 24-48 hours after surgery. Clinically symptomatic cases were confirmed by Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs or chest CT angiography. A sample of 1092 cases was studied. Thromboembolic events were observed in 6 cases (.54%); 3 cases (.27%) with deep venous thrombosis and 3 cases (.27%) with pulmonary thromboembolism. A lethal case was identified (.09%). There were no cases of major bleeding or epidural haematoma. The following risk factors were identified: a multilevel fusion at more than 4 levels, surgeries longer than 130 minutes, patients older than 70 years of age, hypertension, and degenerative scoliosis. There is little scientific evidence on the prevention of thromboembolic events in spinal surgery. In addition to the disparity of prophylactic methods indicated by different specialists, it is important to weigh the risk-benefit of intra- and post-operative bleeding, and even the appearance of an epidural haematoma. Prophylaxis should be assessed in elderly patients over 70 years old, who are subjected to surgeries longer than 130 minutes, when 4 or more levels are involved. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Resident Workflow and Psychiatric Emergency Consultation: Identifying Factors for Quality Improvement in a Training Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Thomas; Wiener, Zev; Seroussi, Ariel; Tang, Lingqi; O'Hora, Jennifer; Cheung, Erick

    2017-06-01

    Quality improvement to optimize workflow has the potential to mitigate resident burnout and enhance patient care. This study applied mixed methods to identify factors that enhance or impede workflow for residents performing emergency psychiatric consultations. The study population consisted of all psychiatry program residents (55 eligible, 42 participating) at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles. The authors developed a survey through iterative piloting, surveyed all residents, and then conducted a focus group. The survey included elements hypothesized to enhance or impede workflow, and measures pertaining to self-rated efficiency and stress. Distributional and bivariate analyses were performed. Survey findings were clarified in focus group discussion. This study identified several factors subjectively associated with enhanced or impeded workflow, including difficulty with documentation, the value of personal organization systems, and struggles to communicate with patients' families. Implications for resident education are discussed.

  9. Use of model plant hosts to identify Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahme, Laurence G.; Tan, Man-Wah; Le, Long; Wong, Sandy M.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    1997-01-01

    We used plants as an in vivo pathogenesis model for the identification of virulence factors of the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nine of nine TnphoA mutant derivatives of P. aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14 that were identified in a plant leaf assay for less pathogenic mutants also exhibited significantly reduced pathogenicity in a burned mouse pathogenicity model, suggesting that P. aeruginosa utilizes common strategies to infect both hosts. Seven of these nine mutants contain TnphoA insertions in previously unknown genes. These results demonstrate that an alternative nonvertebrate host of a human bacterial pathogen can be used in an in vivo high throughput screen to identify novel bacterial virulence factors involved in mammalian pathogenesis. PMID:9371831

  10. STUDY OF IDENTIFYING AND PRIORITIZING THE AFFECTING FACTORS ON BANK BRAND CUSTOMER LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Aliyari; Yosef Beygzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Today, customer loyalty is the key to business success. By increased customers’ loyalty, market share and profitability level of enterprises will rise. Market perception along with planning and adopting appropriate strategies for making customers loyal and enhancing their rate of loyalty leads to long-term benefits for the enterprises. Given the importance of the issue, the goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the factors affecting loyalty to a banking brand from perspective of K...

  11. Identifying and assessing the factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing in communication industry companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghotbifar, Fereshteh; Marjani, Mohammad Reza; Ramazani, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications indust...

  12. Transcription factor expression uniquely identifies most postembryonic neuronal lineages in the Drosophila thoracic central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacin, Haluk; Zhu, Yi; Wilson, Beth A; Skeath, James B

    2014-03-01

    Most neurons of the adult Drosophila ventral nerve cord arise from a burst of neurogenesis during the third larval instar stage. Most of this growth occurs in thoracic neuromeres, which contain 25 individually identifiable postembryonic neuronal lineages. Initially, each lineage consists of two hemilineages--'A' (Notch(On)) and 'B' (Notch(Off))--that exhibit distinct axonal trajectories or fates. No reliable method presently exists to identify these lineages or hemilineages unambiguously other than labor-intensive lineage-tracing methods. By combining mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker (MARCM) analysis with gene expression studies, we constructed a gene expression map that enables the rapid, unambiguous identification of 23 of the 25 postembryonic lineages based on the expression of 15 transcription factors. Pilot genetic studies reveal that these transcription factors regulate the specification and differentiation of postembryonic neurons: for example, Nkx6 is necessary and sufficient to direct axonal pathway selection in lineage 3. The gene expression map thus provides a descriptive foundation for the genetic and molecular dissection of adult-specific neurogenesis and identifies many transcription factors that are likely to regulate the development and differentiation of discrete subsets of postembryonic neurons.

  13. Identifying Critical Factors in the Eco-Efficiency of Remanufacturing Based on the Fuzzy DEMATEL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing can bring considerable economic and environmental benefits such as cost saving, conservation of energy and resources, and reduction of emissions. With the increasing awareness of sustainable manufacturing, remanufacturing gradually becomes the research priority. Most studies concentrate on the analysis of influencing factors, or the evaluation of the economic and environmental performance in remanufacturing, while little effort has been devoted to investigating the critical factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing. Considering the current development of the remanufacturing industry in China, this paper proposes a set of factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing and then utilizes a fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL method to establish relation matrixes reflecting the interdependent relationships among these factors. Finally, the contributions of each factor to eco-efficiency and mutual influence values among them are obtained, and critical factors in eco-efficiency of remanufacturing are identified. The results of the present work can provide theoretical supports for the government to make appropriate policies to improve the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing.

  14. Novel Application of Statistical Methods to Identify New Urinary Incontinence Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilus O. Ogunyemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal data for studying urinary incontinence (UI risk factors are rare. Data from one study, the hallmark Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA, have been analyzed in the past; however, repeated measures analyses that are crucial for analyzing longitudinal data have not been applied. We tested a novel application of statistical methods to identify UI risk factors in older women. MESA data were collected at baseline and yearly from a sample of 1955 men and women in the community. Only women responding to the 762 baseline and 559 follow-up questions at one year in each respective survey were examined. To test their utility in mining large data sets, and as a preliminary step to creating a predictive index for developing UI, logistic regression, generalized estimating equations (GEEs, and proportional hazard regression (PHREG methods were used on the existing MESA data. The GEE and PHREG combination identified 15 significant risk factors associated with developing UI out of which six of them, namely, urinary frequency, urgency, any urine loss, urine loss after emptying, subject’s anticipation, and doctor’s proactivity, are found most highly significant by both methods. These six factors are potential candidates for constructing a future UI predictive index.

  15. Application of positive matrix factorization to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil of Dalian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Degao; Tian Fulin; Yang Meng; Liu Chenlin; Li Yifan

    2009-01-01

    Soil derived sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Dalian, China were investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Three factors were separated based on PMF for the statistical investigation of the datasets both in summer and winter. These factors were dominated by the pattern of single sources or groups of similar sources, showing seasonal and regional variations. The main sources of PAHs in Dalian soil in summer were the emissions from coal combustion average (46%), diesel engine (30%), and gasoline engine (24%). In winter, the main sources were the emissions from coal-fired boiler (72%), traffic average (20%), and gasoline engine (8%). These factors with strong seasonality indicated that coal combustion in winter and traffic exhaust in summer dominated the sources of PAHs in soil. These results suggested that PMF model was a proper approach to identify the sources of PAHs in soil. - PMF model is a proper approach to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil based on the PAH profiles measured in the field and those published in the literature.

  16. Factor Analysis of Therapist-Identified Treatment Targets in Community-Based Children's Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Allison R; Okado, Izumi; Orimoto, Trina E; Mueller, Charles W

    2018-01-01

    The present study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to identify underlying latent factors affecting variation in community therapists' endorsement of treatment targets. As part of a statewide practice management program, therapist completed monthly reports of treatment targets (up to 10 per month) for a sample of youth (n = 790) receiving intensive in-home therapy. Nearly 75 % of youth were diagnosed with multiple co-occurring disorders. Five factors emerged: Disinhibition, Societal Rules Evasion, Social Engagement Deficits, Emotional Distress, and Management of Biodevelopmental Outcomes. Using logistic regression, primary diagnosis predicted therapist selection of Disinhibition and Emotional Distress targets. Client age predicted endorsement of Societal Rules Evasion targets. Practice-to-research implications are discussed.

  17. Zinc finger transcription factors displaced SREBP proteins as the major Sterol regulators during Saccharomycotina evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Maguire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In most eukaryotes, including the majority of fungi, expression of sterol biosynthesis genes is regulated by Sterol-Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs, which are basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators. However, in yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans sterol synthesis is instead regulated by Upc2, an unrelated transcription factor with a Gal4-type zinc finger. The SREBPs in S. cerevisiae (Hms1 and C. albicans (Cph2 have lost a domain, are not major regulators of sterol synthesis, and instead regulate filamentous growth. We report here that rewiring of the sterol regulon, with Upc2 taking over from SREBP, likely occurred in the common ancestor of all Saccharomycotina. Yarrowia lipolytica, a deep-branching species, is the only genome known to contain intact and full-length orthologs of both SREBP (Sre1 and Upc2. Deleting YlUPC2, but not YlSRE1, confers susceptibility to azole drugs. Sterol levels are significantly reduced in the YlUPC2 deletion. RNA-seq analysis shows that hypoxic regulation of sterol synthesis genes in Y. lipolytica is predominantly mediated by Upc2. However, YlSre1 still retains a role in hypoxic regulation; growth of Y. lipolytica in hypoxic conditions is reduced in a Ylupc2 deletion and is abolished in a Ylsre1/Ylupc2 double deletion, and YlSre1 regulates sterol gene expression during hypoxia adaptation. We show that YlSRE1, and to a lesser extent YlUPC2, are required for switching from yeast to filamentous growth in hypoxia. Sre1 appears to have an ancestral role in the regulation of filamentation, which became decoupled from its role in sterol gene regulation by the arrival of Upc2 in the Saccharomycotina.

  18. Zinc Finger Transcription Factors Displaced SREBP Proteins as the Major Sterol Regulators during Saccharomycotina Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sarah L.; Wang, Can; Holland, Linda M.; Brunel, François; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Zavrel, Martin; White, Theodore C.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, including the majority of fungi, expression of sterol biosynthesis genes is regulated by Sterol-Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs), which are basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators. However, in yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans sterol synthesis is instead regulated by Upc2, an unrelated transcription factor with a Gal4-type zinc finger. The SREBPs in S. cerevisiae (Hms1) and C. albicans (Cph2) have lost a domain, are not major regulators of sterol synthesis, and instead regulate filamentous growth. We report here that rewiring of the sterol regulon, with Upc2 taking over from SREBP, likely occurred in the common ancestor of all Saccharomycotina. Yarrowia lipolytica, a deep-branching species, is the only genome known to contain intact and full-length orthologs of both SREBP (Sre1) and Upc2. Deleting YlUPC2, but not YlSRE1, confers susceptibility to azole drugs. Sterol levels are significantly reduced in the YlUPC2 deletion. RNA-seq analysis shows that hypoxic regulation of sterol synthesis genes in Y. lipolytica is predominantly mediated by Upc2. However, YlSre1 still retains a role in hypoxic regulation; growth of Y. lipolytica in hypoxic conditions is reduced in a Ylupc2 deletion and is abolished in a Ylsre1/Ylupc2 double deletion, and YlSre1 regulates sterol gene expression during hypoxia adaptation. We show that YlSRE1, and to a lesser extent YlUPC2, are required for switching from yeast to filamentous growth in hypoxia. Sre1 appears to have an ancestral role in the regulation of filamentation, which became decoupled from its role in sterol gene regulation by the arrival of Upc2 in the Saccharomycotina. PMID:24453983

  19. The major factors of influence on the socio-psychological climate in the team of health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezhnovets T.A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to identify the major factors that can positively or negatively effect the state of the socio-psychological climate in the medical team of healthcare institutions. The psychological study of the social-psychologic climate of 152 health care workers of two hospitals of Kherson region (N 1, n=80; N 2, n=72 was conducted. It is established that the level of self-esteem of climate in the institution №1 was significantly lower than in institution N 2 (р<0,007. Moreover, these two institutions differed significantly by experience of joint work of health workers (р<0.05 and length of service of the head physicians. Health care workers with less joint work experience have been working in the institution N 1, and it was headed by the head physician with less leading experience. By the opinion of health workers of both institutions, such factors as "interesting and meaningful work", "attentive head", "relations with colleagues", have the most positive impact on the state of climate the most negative influence — "unsatisfactory management style", "tensions in the team", "lack of financial motivation", "poor working conditions". Each team has its own combination of factors that positively or negatively affect the state of the climate. It is established, that depending on the work experience of the head physician and the work experience of joint work of employees, the main factors that affect the climate in the team are "attentive manager" and "relationships with colleagues". The more work experience of the leader, the more it will affect the state of the climate in the team. The less experience of joint work of employees, the more "relationship with colleagues" will affect its condition. Evaluation of the state of socio-psychological climate and its factors by the personnel may be the indicator of efficiency of personnel management in the health care institution.

  20. A combined structural dynamics approach identifies a putative switch in factor VIIa employed by tissue factor to initiate blood coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole H; Rand, Kasper D; Østergaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) requires tissue factor (TF) to attain full catalytic competency and to initiate blood coagulation. In this study, the mechanism by which TF allosterically activates FVIIa is investigated by a structural dynamics approach that combines molecular dynamics (MD......) simulations and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HX) mass spectrometry on free and TF-bound FVIIa. The differences in conformational dynamics from MD simulations are shown to be confined to regions of FVIIa observed to undergo structural stabilization as judged by HX experiments, especially implicating activation...... in the presence of TF or an active-site inhibitor. Based on MD simulations, a key switch of the TF-induced structural changes is identified as the interacting pair Leu305{163} and Phe374{225} in FVIIa, whose mutual conformations are guided by the presence of TF and observed to be closely linked to the structural...

  1. Interacting factors driving a major loss of large trees with cavities in a forest ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available Large trees with cavities provide critical ecological functions in forests worldwide, including vital nesting and denning resources for many species. However, many ecosystems are experiencing increasingly rapid loss of large trees or a failure to recruit new large trees or both. We quantify this problem in a globally iconic ecosystem in southeastern Australia--forests dominated by the world's tallest angiosperms, Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans. Tree, stand and landscape-level factors influencing the death and collapse of large living cavity trees and the decay and collapse of dead trees with cavities are documented using a suite of long-term datasets gathered between 1983 and 2011. The historical rate of tree mortality on unburned sites between 1997 and 2011 was >14% with a mortality spike in the driest period (2006-2009. Following a major wildfire in 2009, 79% of large living trees with cavities died and 57-100% of large dead trees were destroyed on burned sites. Repeated measurements between 1997 and 2011 revealed no recruitment of any new large trees with cavities on any of our unburned or burned sites. Transition probability matrices of large trees with cavities through increasingly decayed condition states projects a severe shortage of large trees with cavities by 2039 that will continue until at least 2067. This large cavity tree crisis in Mountain Ash forests is a product of: (1 the prolonged time required (>120 years for initiation of cavities; and (2 repeated past wildfires and widespread logging operations. These latter factors have resulted in all landscapes being dominated by stands ≤72 years and just 1.16% of forest being unburned and unlogged. We discuss how the features that make Mountain Ash forests vulnerable to a decline in large tree abundance are shared with many forest types worldwide.

  2. Interacting Factors Driving a Major Loss of Large Trees with Cavities in a Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Blanchard, Wade; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Banks, Sam; Likens, Gene E.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Laurance, William F.; Stein, John A. R.; Gibbons, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Large trees with cavities provide critical ecological functions in forests worldwide, including vital nesting and denning resources for many species. However, many ecosystems are experiencing increasingly rapid loss of large trees or a failure to recruit new large trees or both. We quantify this problem in a globally iconic ecosystem in southeastern Australia – forests dominated by the world's tallest angiosperms, Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans). Tree, stand and landscape-level factors influencing the death and collapse of large living cavity trees and the decay and collapse of dead trees with cavities are documented using a suite of long-term datasets gathered between 1983 and 2011. The historical rate of tree mortality on unburned sites between 1997 and 2011 was >14% with a mortality spike in the driest period (2006–2009). Following a major wildfire in 2009, 79% of large living trees with cavities died and 57–100% of large dead trees were destroyed on burned sites. Repeated measurements between 1997 and 2011 revealed no recruitment of any new large trees with cavities on any of our unburned or burned sites. Transition probability matrices of large trees with cavities through increasingly decayed condition states projects a severe shortage of large trees with cavities by 2039 that will continue until at least 2067. This large cavity tree crisis in Mountain Ash forests is a product of: (1) the prolonged time required (>120 years) for initiation of cavities; and (2) repeated past wildfires and widespread logging operations. These latter factors have resulted in all landscapes being dominated by stands ≤72 years and just 1.16% of forest being unburned and unlogged. We discuss how the features that make Mountain Ash forests vulnerable to a decline in large tree abundance are shared with many forest types worldwide. PMID:23071486

  3. Interacting factors driving a major loss of large trees with cavities in a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Blanchard, Wade; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Banks, Sam; Likens, Gene E; Franklin, Jerry F; Laurance, William F; Stein, John A R; Gibbons, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Large trees with cavities provide critical ecological functions in forests worldwide, including vital nesting and denning resources for many species. However, many ecosystems are experiencing increasingly rapid loss of large trees or a failure to recruit new large trees or both. We quantify this problem in a globally iconic ecosystem in southeastern Australia--forests dominated by the world's tallest angiosperms, Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans). Tree, stand and landscape-level factors influencing the death and collapse of large living cavity trees and the decay and collapse of dead trees with cavities are documented using a suite of long-term datasets gathered between 1983 and 2011. The historical rate of tree mortality on unburned sites between 1997 and 2011 was >14% with a mortality spike in the driest period (2006-2009). Following a major wildfire in 2009, 79% of large living trees with cavities died and 57-100% of large dead trees were destroyed on burned sites. Repeated measurements between 1997 and 2011 revealed no recruitment of any new large trees with cavities on any of our unburned or burned sites. Transition probability matrices of large trees with cavities through increasingly decayed condition states projects a severe shortage of large trees with cavities by 2039 that will continue until at least 2067. This large cavity tree crisis in Mountain Ash forests is a product of: (1) the prolonged time required (>120 years) for initiation of cavities; and (2) repeated past wildfires and widespread logging operations. These latter factors have resulted in all landscapes being dominated by stands ≤72 years and just 1.16% of forest being unburned and unlogged. We discuss how the features that make Mountain Ash forests vulnerable to a decline in large tree abundance are shared with many forest types worldwide.

  4. Prevalence of HIV in pregnant women identified with a risk factor at a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ghazala; Abbas, Shazra

    2009-01-01

    HIV is an epidemic quite unlike any other, combining the problems of a lifelong medical disease with immense social, psychological, economic and public health consequences. Since we are living in a global village where human interactions has become fast and frequent, diseases like HIV are no more alien to us. HIV/AIDS in Pakistan is slowly gaining recognition as a public health issue of great importance. Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women identified with a high risk factor/behaviour at a tertiary care hospital. It is a Descriptive study. All pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinic were assessed via a pre-designed 'Risk assessment questionnaire'. Women identified with a risk factor were offered HIV Rapid screening test (Capillus HIV1/2). Positive (reactive) results on screening test were confirmed with ELISA. During the study period (March 2007-May 2008), out of 5263 antenatal bookings 785 (14%) women were identified with a risk factor. HIV screening test was done in 779 (99%), and 6 women refused testing. Three women (0.3%) were found positive (reactive) on screening. Two out of 3 women were confirmed positive (0.2%) on ELISA. Husbands of both women were tested and one found positive (migrant from Dubai). Second women had history of blood transfusion. Her husband was HIV negative. During the study period, in addition to 2 pregnant women diagnosed as HIV positive through ANC risk screening, 6 confirmed HIV positive women, found pregnant were referred from 'HIV Treatment Centre', Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) to Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centre for obstetric care. Spouses of 5 out of 6 had history of working abroad and extramarital sexual relationships. All positive (8) women were referred to PPTCT centre for further management. A simple 'Risk Assessment Questionnaire' can help us in identifying women who need HIV screening. Sexual transmission still remains the

  5. Identifying the critical factors of green supply chain management: Environmental benefits in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Ubaidullah; Ali, Yousaf; Petrillo, Antonella; De Felice, Fabio

    2018-05-30

    Pakistan is a developing country characterized by a growing industrialization, which is the major cause of environmental pollution in the country. To control the significant increase in pollution a green incentive has started, aiming to moderate the adverse effects of environmental pollution. Thus, Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) plays an important role in influencing the total environment impact of any organizations. This study considers ten Pakistani industries that have implemented GSCM practices. The Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory technique (DEMATEL) is used to find influential factors in selecting GSCM criteria. The results show that organizational involvement is the most important dimension useful to implement GSCM practices. In addition, commitment from senior managers, ISO 14000 certification of suppliers and recycle of waste heat are considered significant factors. The paper also signifies the casual relationship among the dimensions and the factors in the form of diagraphs. The main management implication of the paper is to help decision makers to focus on the critical dimensions/factors in order to implement the GSCM practices more effectively in Pakistan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Muscle and bone health as a risk factor of fall among the elderly. An approach to identify high-risk fallers by risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Reiko; Kozaki, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Toba, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    Fall-induced hip fracture is one of the major causes rendering the elderly to be in a low ADL or bed-ridden status. Fall is not only the cause for fractures, but it lowers elderly peoples'ADL. History of fall, age, decline of motor function, orthostatic hypotension, balance deficit, dementia, drug and environmental factors were raised as possible risk factor for falls. We created a fall predicting score which consist of 21 risk factors and a history of falls. We found that the score is useful to identify high-risk fallers. It would be necessary to identify high-risk fallers early and give an appropriate individual approach.

  7. Identifying risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 subtype) in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Leo; Gilbert, Marius; Wu, Jianmei; Czarnecki, Christina; Hidayat, Muhammad; Xiao, Xiangming

    2011-10-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N1, was first officially reported in Indonesia in 2004. Since then the disease has spread and is now endemic in large parts of the country. This study investigated the statistical relationship between a set of risk factors and the presence or absence of HPAI in Indonesia during 2006 and 2007. HPAI was evaluated through participatory disease surveillance (PDS) in backyard village chickens (the study population), and risk factors included descriptors of people and poultry distribution (separating chickens, ducks and production sectors), poultry movement patterns and agro-ecological conditions. The study showed that the risk factors "elevation", "human population density" and "rice cropping" were significant in accounting for the spatial variation of the PDS-defined HPAI cases. These findings were consistent with earlier studies in Thailand and Vietnam. In addition "commercial poultry population", and two indicators of market locations and transport; "human settlements" and "road length", were identified as significant risk factors in the models. In contrast to several previous studies carried out in Southeast Asia, domestic backyard ducks were not found to be a significant risk factor in Indonesia. The study used surrogate estimates of market locations and marketing chains and further work should focus on the actual location of the live bird markets, and on the flow of live poultry and poultry products between them, so that patterns of possible transmission, and regions of particular risk could be better inferred. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: Identifying information sources and risk factor awareness among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Nagano

    Full Text Available Raising awareness on a disorder is important for its prevention and for promoting public health. However, for sports injuries like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury no studies have investigated the awareness on risk factors for injury and possible preventative measures in the general population. The sources of information among the population are also unclear. The purpose of the present study was to identify these aspects of public awareness about the ACL injury.A questionnaire was randomly distributed among the general population registered with a web based questionnaire supplier, to recruit 900 participants who were aware about the ACL injury. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Question 1 asked them about their sources of information regarding the ACL injury; Question 2 asked them about the risk factors for ACL injury. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the information sources that provide a good understanding of the risk factors.The leading source of information for ACL injury was television (57.0%. However, the results of logistic regression analysis revealed that television was not an effective medium to create awareness about the risk factors, among the general population. Instead "Lecture by a coach", "Classroom session on Health", and "Newspaper" were significantly more effective in creating a good awareness of the risk factors (p < 0.001.

  9. Failure to unmask pseudonormal diastolic function by a valsalva maneuver: tricuspid insufficiency is a major factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Liu, Dan; Niemann, Markus; Hatle, Liv; Herrmann, Sebastian; Voelker, Wolfram; Ertl, Georg; Bijnens, Bart; Weidemann, Frank

    2011-11-01

    For the clinical assessment of patients with dyspnea, the inversion of the early (E) and late (A) transmitral flow during Valsalva maneuver (VM) frequently helps to distinguish pseudonormal from normal filling pattern. However, in an important number of patients, VM fails to reveal the change from dominant early mitral flow velocity toward larger late velocity. From December 2009 to October 2010, we selected consecutive patients with abnormal filling with (n=25) and without E/A inversion (n=25) during VM. Transmitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary Doppler traces were recorded and the degree of insufficiency was estimated. After evaluating all standard echocardiographic morphological, functional, and flow-related parameters, it became evident that the failure to unmask the pseudonormal filling pattern by VM was related to the degree of the tricuspid insufficiency (TI). TI was graded as mild in 24 of 25 patients in the group with E/A inversion during VM, whereas TI was graded as moderate to severe in 24 of the 25 patients with pseudonormal diastolic function without E/A inversion during VM. Our data suggest that TI is a major factor to prevent E/A inversion during a VM in patients with pseudonormal diastolic function. This probably is due to a decrease in TI resulting in an increase in forward flow rather than the expected decrease during the VM. Thus, whenever a pseudonormal diastolic filling pattern is suspected, the use of a VM is not an informative discriminator in the presence of moderate or severe TI.

  10. [Major nutrition-related risk factors of ischemic heart disease: dyslipoproteinemia, obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, G

    1999-07-11

    Of the major risk factors of coronary heart disease dyslipoproteinemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are nutrition related and can be considered of metabolic origin. Dyslipoproteinemia affects 2/3 of the adult population. The risk of coronary heart disease can be decreased 2-5 fold by lowering hypercholesterinemia; atherosclerosis in the coronaries may regress and total mortality may decrease. Atherogenic dyslipidemia (i.e. hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL cholesterol levels, elevated concentrations of small dense LDL) increases the risk as part of the metabolic syndrome. Obesity is already highly prevalent, and it is affecting ever growing proportions of the adult population. Abdominal obesity furthermore predisposes patients to complications. No effective therapy is available for obesity. 3/4 of hypertensive patients are obese and more than half of them have insulin resistance. By decreasing blood pressure, the risk of stroke decreases by about 40%, that of coronary heart disease by 14-30%. Slimming cures are the most important non-pharmacological way of treating hypertension. 5% of the population has diabetes mellitus, and a further 5% has impaired glucose tolerance. Type 2 diabetes predisposes patients to macrovascular complications. The risk of coronary heart disease can be decreased by controlling diabetes by e.g. metformin.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promoter methylation and cortical thickness in recurrent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Won, Eunsoo; Kang, June; Chang, Hun Soo; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Hyun; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2016-02-15

    Recent studies have reported that methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the association between cortical thickness and methylation of BDNF promoters as well as serum BDNF levels in MDD. The participants consisted of 65 patients with recurrent MDD and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methylation of BDNF promoters and cortical thickness were compared between the groups. The right medial orbitofrontal, right lingual, right lateral occipital, left lateral orbitofrontal, left pars triangularis, and left lingual cortices were thinner in patients with MDD than in healthy controls. Among the MDD group, right pericalcarine, right medical orbitofrontal, right rostral middle frontal, right postcentral, right inferior temporal, right cuneus, right precuneus, left frontal pole, left superior frontal, left superior temporal, left rostral middle frontal and left lingual cortices had inverse correlations with methylation of BDNF promoters. Higher levels of BDNF promoter methylation may be closely associated with the reduced cortical thickness among patients with MDD. Serum BDNF levels were significantly lower in MDD, and showed an inverse relationship with BDNF methylation only in healthy controls. Particularly the prefrontal and occipital cortices seem to indicate key regions in which BDNF methylation has a significant effect on structure.

  12. Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factors of {sup 99}Tc for Korean Major Upland Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Keum, Dong Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Reserach Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    In order to investigate the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) of {sup 99}Tc for Korean major upland crops (soybean, radish and Chinese cabbage), pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse. Soils were collected from four upland fields (two for soybean and two for radish and Chinese cabbage) around Gyeongju radioactive-waste disposal site. Three to four weeks before sowing, dried soils were mixed with a {sup 99}Tc solution and the mixtures were put into pots and irrigated. TF values were expressed as the ratios of the {sup 99}Tc concentrations in plants (Bq kg{sup -1}-dry or fresh) to those in soils (Bq kg{sup -1}-dry). There was no great difference in the TF value between soils. The TF values for soybean seeds were extremely lower than those for the straws, indicating a very low mobility of {sup 99}Tc to seeds. As representative TF values of{sup 99}Tc,1.8 X 10{sup -1}, 1.2 X 10{sup 1}, 3.2 X 10{sup 2} and 1.3 X 10{sup 2} (for dry plants), arithmetic means for two soils, were proposed for soybean seeds, radish roots, radish leaves and Chinese cabbage leaves, respectively. In the case of the vegetables, proposals for fresh plants were also made. The proposed values are not sufficiently representative so successive updates are needed.

  13. Serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in patients with major depression disorder and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Carolina David; de Mello Ferreira, Sharon; Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Bittencourt, Guilherme; de Oliveira, Jacqueline Flores; Lopez Molina, Mariane; Jansen, Karen; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; Rizzato Lara, Diogo; Portela, Luiz Valmor; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important member of the neurotrophins group and their involvement in the pathophysiology of major depression disorder (MDD) and suicide risk (SR) has been recently suggested. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in NGF serum levels in individuals with MDD and with or without risk of suicide, in subjects from a young population-based sample. This is a paired cross-sectional study nested in a population-based study. Individuals were rated for MDD and SR by a diagnostic interview--Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). The total population of the sample was comprised of 141 subjects distributed in three groups: 47 healthy controls, 47 subjects with current depressive episode without SR (MDD) and 47 subjects with current depressive episode and with SR (MDD + SR). NGF serum levels were significantly reduced in the MDD and MDD + SR groups when compared with controls (p ≤ 0.001). However, there were no differences in NGF levels between the MDD and MDD + SR groups (p = 1.000). These results suggest that reduced NGF serum levels can be a possible biomarker of MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary patterns as identified by factor analysis and colorectal cancer among middle-aged Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Andrew; Rastogi, Tanuja; Wirfält, Elisabet; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Reedy, Jill; Subar, Amy F; Kipnis, Victor; Mouw, Traci; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Leitzmann, Michael; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Although diet has long been suspected as an etiological factor for colorectal cancer, studies of single foods and nutrients have provided inconsistent results. We used factor analysis methods to study associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in middle-aged Americans. Diet was assessed among 293,615 men and 198,767 women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Principal components factor analysis identified 3 primary dietary patterns: a fruit and vegetables, a diet foods, and a red meat and potatoes pattern. State cancer registries identified 2151 incident cases of colorectal cancer in men and 959 in women between 1995 and 2000. Men with high scores on the fruit and vegetable pattern were at decreased risk [relative risk (RR) for quintile (Q) 5 versus Q1: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.93; P for trend = 0.004]. Both men and women had a similar risk reduction with high scores on the diet food factor: men (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.94; P for trend = 0.001) and women (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.07; P for trend = 0.06). High scores on the red meat factor were associated with increased risk: men (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.35; P for trend = 0.14) and women (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.83; P for trend = 0.0002). These results suggest that dietary patterns characterized by a low frequency of meat and potato consumption and frequent consumption of fruit and vegetables and fat-reduced foods are consistent with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer.

  15. Application of Geomorphologic Factors for Identifying Soil Loss in Vulnerable Regions of the Cameron Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahhoong Kok

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to propose a methodology for identifying vulnerable regions in the Cameron Highlands that are susceptible to soil loss, based on runoff aggregation structure and the energy expenditure pattern of the natural river basin, within the framework of power law distribution. To this end, three geomorphologic factors, namely shear stress and stream power, as well as the drainage area of every point in the basin of interest, have been extracted using GIS, and then their complementary cumulative distributions are graphically analyzed by fitting them to power law distribution, with the purpose of identifying the sensitive points within the basin that are susceptible to soil loss with respect to scaling regimes of shear stress and stream power. It is observed that the range of vulnerable regions by the scaling regime of shear stress is much narrower than by the scaling regime of stream power. This result seems to suggest that shear stress is a scale-dependent factor, which does not follow power law distribution and does not adequately reflect the energy expenditure pattern of a river basin. Therefore, stream power is preferred as a more reasonable factor for the evaluation of soil loss. The methodology proposed in this study can be validated by visualizing the path of soil loss, which is generated from the hillslope process (characterized by the local slope to the valley through a fluvial process (characterized by the drainage area as well as the local slope.

  16. Using a Delphi Method to Identify Human Factors Contributing to Nursing Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Cheryl; Brewer, Melanie; Wieck, K Lynn

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify human factors associated with nursing errors. Using a Delphi technique, this study used feedback from a panel of nurse experts (n = 25) on an initial qualitative survey questionnaire followed by summarizing the results with feedback and confirmation. Synthesized factors regarding causes of errors were incorporated into a quantitative Likert-type scale, and the original expert panel participants were queried a second time to validate responses. The list identified 24 items as most common causes of nursing errors, including swamping and errors made by others that nurses are expected to recognize and fix. The responses provided a consensus top 10 errors list based on means with heavy workload and fatigue at the top of the list. The use of the Delphi survey established consensus and developed a platform upon which future study of nursing errors can evolve as a link to future solutions. This list of human factors in nursing errors should serve to stimulate dialogue among nurses about how to prevent errors and improve outcomes. Human and system failures have been the subject of an abundance of research, yet nursing errors continue to occur. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Use of clinical risk factors to identify postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, J H; Hutchinson, A P; Hunt, L P; McCloskey, E V; Stone, M D; Martin, J C; Thompson, P W; Palferman, T G; Bhalla, A K

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have been unable to identify risk factors for prevalent vertebral fractures (VF), which are suitable for use in selection strategies intended to target high-risk sub-groups for diagnostic assessment. However, these studies generally consisted of large epidemiology surveys based on questionnaires and were only able to evaluate a limited number of risk factors. Here, we investigated whether a stronger relationship exists with prevalent VF when conventional risk factors are combined with additional information obtained from detailed one-to-one assessment. Women aged 65-75 registered at four geographically distinct GP practices were invited to participate (n=1,518), of whom 540 attended for assessment as follows: a questionnaire asking about risk factors for osteoporosis such as height loss compared to age 25 and history of non-vertebral fracture (NVF), the get-up-and-go test, Margolis back pain score, measurement of wall-tragus and rib-pelvis distances, and BMD as measured by the distal forearm BMD. A lateral thoraco-lumbar spine X-ray was obtained, which was subsequently scored for the presence of significant vertebral deformities. Of the 509 subjects who underwent spinal radiographs, 37 (7.3%) were found to have one or more VF. Following logistic regression analysis, the four most predictive clinical risk factors for prevalent VF were: height loss (P=0.006), past NVF (P=0.004), history of back pain (P=0.075) and age (P=0.05). BMD was also significantly associated with prevalent VF (P=0.002), but its inclusion did not affect associations with other variables. Factors elicited from detailed one-to-one assessment were not related to the risk of one or more prevalent VFs. The area under ROC curves derived from these regressions, which suggested that models for prevalent VF had modest predictive accuracy, were as follows: 0.68 (BMD), 0.74 (four clinical risk factors above) and 0.78 (clinical risk factors + BMD). Analyses were repeated in relation to the

  18. Identifying the factors that affect the job satisfaction of early career Notre Dame graduate physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacopanos, Eleni; Edgar, Susan

    2016-11-01

    Objective Previous studies have highlighted the short career intentions and high attrition rates of physiotherapists from the profession. The aim of the present study was to examine the job satisfaction and attrition rates of early career physiotherapists graduating from one Western Australian university. Methods A self-administered online survey was conducted of 157 Notre Dame physiotherapy graduates (2006-2012), incorporating a job satisfaction rating scale. Results Results showed that lowered job satisfaction was related to working in the cardiorespiratory area of physiotherapy and working in multiple jobs since graduation. The majority of graduates did not predict a long-term career in physiotherapy, highlighting a lack of career progression and limited scope of practice as influential factors. Conclusions Job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists varies across different clinical areas of practice related to several factors, including challenge and flexibility. New roles in the profession, including extended scope roles, may impact on the future job satisfaction of physiotherapists. Further studies are needed to explore the effect of these roles on workforce trends, including attrition rates. What is known about the topic? Physiotherapists predict careers of 10 years or less on entry into the profession. No previous studies have explored the individual factors influencing job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists across different clinical settings. What does this paper add? This study highlights specific factors influencing the job satisfaction of early career physiotherapists, including clinical area of practice. Physiotherapists working in the cardiorespiratory area were less satisfied, as were physiotherapists undertaking multiple positions since graduation. What are the implications for practitioners? This study informs employers and workforce planners on the factors affecting job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists. In addition

  19. Pilot Critical Incident Reports as a Means to Identify Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Cardoza, Colleen; Null, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    It has been estimated that aviation accidents are typically preceded by numerous minor incidents arising from the same causal factors that ultimately produced the accident. Accident databases provide in-depth information on a relatively small number of occurrences, however incident databases have the potential to provide insights into the human factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) operations based on a larger volume of less-detailed reports. Currently, there is a lack of incident data dealing with the human factors of unmanned aircraft systems. An exploratory study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of collecting voluntary critical incident reports from RPAS pilots. Twenty-three experienced RPAS pilots volunteered to participate in focus groups in which they described critical incidents from their own experience. Participants were asked to recall (1) incidents that revealed a system flaw, or (2) highlighted a case where the human operator contributed to system resilience or mission success. Participants were asked to only report incidents that could be included in a public document. During each focus group session, a note taker produced a de-identified written record of the incident narratives. At the end of the session, participants reviewed each written incident report, and made edits and corrections as necessary. The incidents were later analyzed to identify contributing factors, with a focus on design issues that either hindered or assisted the pilot during the events. A total of 90 incidents were reported. Human factor issues included the impact of reduced sensory cues, traffic separation in the absence of an out-the-window view, control latencies, vigilance during monotonous and ultra-long endurance flights, control station design considerations, transfer of control between control stations, the management of lost link procedures, and decision-making during emergencies. Pilots participated willingly and enthusiastically in the study

  20. Osteoporosis among Fallers without Concomitant Fracture Identified in an Emergency Department: Frequencies and Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Hesse, Ulrik; Houe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    aged 50-80 years sustaining a low-energy fall without fracture were identified from an ED (n = 199). Patients answered a questionnaire on risk factors and underwent osteodensitometry. Data was compared to a group of patients routinely referred to osteodensitometry from general practice (n = 201......). Results. Among the 199 included fallers, 41 (21%) had osteoporosis. Among these, 35 (85%) reported either previous fracture or reduced body height (>3¿cm). These two risk factors were more frequent among fallers with osteoporosis compared to fallers with normal bone mineral density or osteopenia (previous...... if the patient has a prior fracture or declined body height. Since fallers generally have higher fracture risk, the ED might serve as an additional entrance to osteodensitometry compared to referral from primary care....

  1. Identifying sources of atmospheric fine particles in Havana City using Positive Matrix Factorization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnera, I.; Perez, G.; Ramos, M.; Guibert, R.; Aldape, F.; Flores M, J.; Martinez, M.; Molina, E.; Fernandez, A.

    2011-01-01

    In previous study a set of samples of fine and coarse airborne particulate matter collected in a urban area of Havana City were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The concentrations of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently determined in both particle sizes. The analytical database provided by PIXE was statistically analyzed in order to determine the local pollution sources. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) technique was applied to fine particle data in order to identify possible pollution sources. These sources were further verified by enrichment factor (EF) calculation. A general discussion about these results is presented in this work. (Author)

  2. Association study of a brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism and short-term antidepressant response in major depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Cheng Huang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Eugene Lin1,7, Po See Chen2,6,7, Lung-Cheng Huang3,4, Sen-Yen Hsu51Vita Genomics, Inc., Wugu Shiang, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital and College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun-Lin Branch, Taiwan; 4Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan, Taiwan; 6Department of Psychiatry, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Dou-liou Branch, Yunlin, Taiwan; 7These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs can be used in clinical association studies to determine the contribution of genes to drug efficacy. A common SNP in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, a methionine (Met substitution for valine (Val at codon 66 (Val66Met, is a candidate SNP for influencing antidepressant treatment outcome. In this study, our goal was to determine the relationship between the Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene and the rapid antidepressant response to venlafaxine in a Taiwanese population with MDD. Overall, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was found not to be associated with short-term venlafaxine treatment outcome. However, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism showed a trend to be associated with rapid venlafaxine treatment response in female patients. Future research with independent replication in large sample sizes is needed to confirm the role of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism identified in this study.Keywords: antidepressant response, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, major depressive disorder, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, single nucleotide polymorphisms

  3. Identifying practice-related factors for high-volume prescribers of antibiotics in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    practice-related factors driving high antibiotic prescribing rates. Results: We included 98% of general practices in Denmark (n = 1962) and identified a 10% group of high prescribers who accounted for 15% of total antibiotic prescriptions and 18% of critically important antibiotic prescriptions. Once case...... prescriptions issued over the phone compared with all antibiotic prescriptions; and a high number of consultations per 1000 patients. We also found that a low number of consultations per 1000 patients was associated with a reduced likelihood of being a high prescriber of antibiotics. Conclusions: An apparent...

  4. Genome-wide strategies identify downstream target genes of chick connective tissue-associated transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgeur, Mickael; Martens, Marvin; Leonte, Georgeta; Nassari, Sonya; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Börno, Stefan T; Timmermann, Bernd; Hecht, Jochen; Duprez, Delphine; Stricker, Sigmar

    2018-03-29

    Connective tissues support organs and play crucial roles in development, homeostasis and fibrosis, yet our understanding of their formation is still limited. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of connective tissue specification, we selected five zinc-finger transcription factors - OSR1, OSR2, EGR1, KLF2 and KLF4 - based on their expression patterns and/or known involvement in connective tissue subtype differentiation. RNA-seq and ChIP-seq profiling of chick limb micromass cultures revealed a set of common genes regulated by all five transcription factors, which we describe as a connective tissue core expression set. This common core was enriched with genes associated with axon guidance and myofibroblast signature, including fibrosis-related genes. In addition, each transcription factor regulated a specific set of signalling molecules and extracellular matrix components. This suggests a concept whereby local molecular niches can be created by the expression of specific transcription factors impinging on the specification of local microenvironments. The regulatory network established here identifies common and distinct molecular signatures of limb connective tissue subtypes, provides novel insight into the signalling pathways governing connective tissue specification, and serves as a resource for connective tissue development. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. The use of human factors methods to identify and mitigate safety issues in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Alvita J.; Islam, Mohammad K.; Rosewall, Tara; Jaffray, David A.; Easty, Anthony C.; Cafazzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: New radiation therapy technologies can enhance the quality of treatment and reduce error. However, the treatment process has become more complex, and radiation dose is not always delivered as intended. Using human factors methods, a radiotherapy treatment delivery process was evaluated, and a redesign was undertaken to determine the effect on system safety. Material and methods: An ethnographic field study and workflow analysis was conducted to identify human factors issues of the treatment delivery process. To address specific issues, components of the user interface were redesigned through a user-centered approach. Sixteen radiation therapy students were then used to experimentally evaluate the redesigned system through a usability test to determine the effectiveness in mitigating use errors. Results: According to findings from the usability test, the redesigned system successfully reduced the error rates of two common errors (p < .04 and p < .01). It also improved the mean task completion time by 5.5% (p < .02) and achieved a higher level of user satisfaction. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated the importance and benefits of applying human factors methods in the design of radiation therapy systems. Many other opportunities still exist to improve patient safety in this area using human factors methods.

  6. Identifying and prioritizing different factors influencing the success of advertisement during the economic depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Rashidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the financial crisis of 2007, many businesses and banks faced unexpected circumstances and declared bankruptcy. Market mortgage crisis and the collapse of the economic system in United States created a substantial amount of damage in world economy. Within a few years, the economic downturn was transferred to developing countries such as Iran. The recession has created conditions for Iranian companies that have led them to focus more on the subject of advertising since this is the primary tool of communication and business customers business. Success and failure of many organizations and companies depend on their advertisement planning. In this study, the factors contributing to the success and effectiveness of advertising during the recession time are identified. This survey has been accomplished on investigating an Iranian dairy firm named “Kalle”. Using a questionnaire in Likert scale, the study determines the effects of various factors of advertisement on sales improvement in this firm using Pearson correlation ratio and rank them based on Freedman test. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93. According to the results, factors that contribute to the success of advertising during a recession include: Responsiveness to customers’ needs, advertising tools, content factors, the amount of money spent and availability.

  7. Identifying and prioritizing the factors effective in customer satisfaction using the TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Forougozar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Customer satisfaction has been suggested as one of the interesting and challenging issues of management in the new millennium. In addition, oral and dental health and the quality of the services the health centers delivered to the patients directly affect the customer satisfaction. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify, investigate, and rank the factors affecting the customer satisfaction in the department of dentistry of Shiraz Farhangiyan health center. Method: The present descriptive study was conducted on the specialists and patients of the department of dentistry of Shiraz Farhangiyan health center. The validity of the questionnaire utilized in the study was confirmed by expert professors and its reliability was approved using the Cronbach’s alpha formula. Finally, the study data were analyzed in SPSS statistical software (v. 16, using inferential statistics. Results: All the hypotheses were confirmed by the results of the statistical analyses and quality, services, and expenditures revealed to affect the customer satisfaction in the department of dentistry of Shiraz Farhangiyan health center. Moreover, these factors were ranked using the TOPSIS method and the results showed quality and expenditures as the most and the least effective factors in customer satisfaction, respectively. Conclusion: Since restoring and arranging the organization based on the customer needs is among the main priorities of designing an organization, managers are suggested to take measures for organizational reformation based on the customers’ priorities. Of course, conducting such programs is of utmost importance in health and treatment environments, leading to provision of better services and facilitation of learning, education, and research. Thus, identifying the effective factors in customer satisfaction and ranking them are highly important.

  8. A structured elicitation method to identify key direct risk factors for the management of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high level of uncertainty inherent in natural resource management requires planners to apply comprehensive risk analyses, often in situations where there are few resources. In this paper, we demonstrate a broadly applicable, novel and structured elicitation approach to identify important direct risk factors. This new approach combines expert calibration and fuzzy based mathematics to capture and aggregate subjective expert estimates of the likelihood that a set of direct risk factors will cause management failure. A specific case study is used to demonstrate the approach; however, the described methods are widely applicable in risk analysis. For the case study, the management target was to retain all species that characterise a set of natural biological elements. The analysis was bounded by the spatial distribution of the biological elements under consideration and a 20-year time frame. Fourteen biological elements were expected to be at risk. Eleven important direct risk factors were identified that related to surrounding land use practices, climate change, problem species (e.g., feral predators, fire and hydrological change. In terms of their overall influence, the two most important risk factors were salinisation and a lack of water which together pose a considerable threat to the survival of nine biological elements. The described approach successfully overcame two concerns arising from previous risk analysis work: (1 the lack of an intuitive, yet comprehensive scoring method enabling the detection and clarification of expert agreement and associated levels of uncertainty; and (2 the ease with which results can be interpreted and communicated while preserving a rich level of detail essential for informed decision making.

  9. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the B3 superfamily of transcription factors in Brassicaceae and major crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred Y; Weselake, Randall J

    2013-05-01

    The plant-specific B3 superfamily of transcription factors has diverse functions in plant growth and development. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 92, 187, 58, 90, 81, 55, and 77 B3 transcription factor genes in the sequenced genome of Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean (Ricinus communis), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. The B3 superfamily has substantially expanded during the evolution in eudicots particularly in Brassicaceae, as compared to monocots in the analysis. We observed domain duplication in some of these B3 proteins, forming more complex domain architectures than currently understood. We found that the length of B3 domains exhibits a large variation, which may affect their exact number of α-helices and β-sheets in the core structure of B3 domains, and possibly have functional implications. Analysis of the public microarray data indicated that most of the B3 gene pairs encoding Arabidopsis-rice orthologs are preferentially expressed in different tissues, suggesting their different roles in these two species. Using ESTs in crops, we identified many B3 genes preferentially expressed in reproductive tissues. In a sequence-based quantitative trait loci analysis in rice and maize, we have found many B3 genes associated with traits such as grain yield, seed weight and number, and protein content. Our results provide a framework for future studies into the function of B3 genes in different phases of plant development, especially the ones related to traits in major crops.

  10. Identifying Contextual and Emotional Factors to Explore Weight Disparities between Obese Black and White Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NiCole R. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Obese black women enrolled in weight loss interventions experience 50% less weight reduction than obese white women. This suggests that current weight loss strategies may increase health disparities. Objective We evaluated the feasibility of identifying daily contextual factors that may influence obesity. Methods In-home interviews with 16 obese (body mass index ≥ 30 black and white urban poor women were performed. For 14 days, ecological momentary assessment (EMA was used to capture emotion and social interactions every other day, and day reconstruction method surveys were used the following day to reconstruct the context of the prior day's EMA. Results Factors included percentage of participants without weight scales (43.8% or fitness equipment (68.8% in the home and exposed to food at work (55.6%. The most frequently reported location, activity, and emotion were home (19.4 ± 8.53, working (7.1 ± 8.80, and happy (6.9 ± 10.03, respectively. Conclusion Identifying individual contexts may lead to valuable insights about obesogenic behaviors and new interventions to improve weight management.

  11. Testing job typologies and identifying at-risk subpopulations using factor mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Anita C; Igic, Ivana; Meier, Laurenz L; Semmer, Norbert K; Schaubroeck, John M; Brunner, Beatrice; Elfering, Achim

    2017-10-01

    Research in occupational health psychology has tended to focus on the effects of single job characteristics or various job characteristics combined into 1 factor. However, such a variable-centered approach does not account for the clustering of job attributes among groups of employees. We addressed this issue by using a person-centered approach to (a) investigate the occurrence of different empirical constellations of perceived job stressors and resources and (b) validate the meaningfulness of profiles by analyzing their association with employee well-being and performance. We applied factor mixture modeling to identify profiles in 4 large samples consisting of employees in Switzerland (Studies 1 and 2) and the United States (Studies 3 and 4). We identified 2 profiles that spanned the 4 samples, with 1 reflecting a combination of relatively low stressors and high resources (P1) and the other relatively high stressors and low resources (P3). The profiles differed mainly in terms of their organizational and social aspects. Employees in P1 reported significantly higher mean levels of job satisfaction, performance, and general health, and lower means in exhaustion compared with P3. Additional analyses showed differential relationships between job attributes and outcomes depending on profile membership. These findings may benefit organizational interventions as they show that perceived work stressors and resources more strongly influence satisfaction and well-being in particular profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. An international survey to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of research studies most likely to change orthopaedic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, P; de Sa, D; Evaniew, N; Farrokhyar, F; Bhandari, M; Ghert, M

    2016-04-01

    Evidence -based medicine (EBM) is designed to inform clinical decision-making within all medical specialties, including orthopaedic surgery. We recently published a pilot survey of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) membership and demonstrated that the adoption of EBM principles is variable among Canadian orthopaedic surgeons. The objective of this study was to conduct a broader international survey of orthopaedic surgeons to identify characteristics of research studies perceived as being most influential in informing clinical decision-making. A 29-question electronic survey was distributed to the readership of an established orthopaedic journal with international readership. The survey aimed to analyse the influence of both extrinsic (journal quality, investigator profiles, etc.) and intrinsic characteristics (study design, sample size, etc.) of research studies in relation to their influence on practice patterns. A total of 353 surgeons completed the survey. Surgeons achieved consensus on the 'importance' of three key designs on their practices: randomised controlled trials (94%), meta-analyses (75%) and systematic reviews (66%). The vast majority of respondents support the use of current evidence over historical clinical training; however subjective factors such as journal reputation (72%) and investigator profile (68%) continue to influence clinical decision-making strongly. Although intrinsic factors such as study design and sample size have some influence on clinical decision-making, surgeon respondents are equally influenced by extrinsic factors such as investigator reputation and perceived journal quality.Cite this article: Dr M. Ghert. An international survey to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of research studies most likely to change orthopaedic practice. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:130-136. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000578. © 2016 Ghert et al.

  13. Identifying factors associated with the discharge of male State patients from Weskoppies Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan G. Prinsloo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Designated psychiatric facilities are responsible for the care, treatment and reintegration of State patients. The necessary long-term care places a considerable strain on health-care resources. Resource use should be optimised while managing the risks that patients pose to themselves and the community. Identifying unique factors associated with earlier discharge may decrease the length of stay. Factors associated with protracted inpatient care without discharge could identify patients who require early and urgent intervention. Aim: We identify socio-economic, demographic, psychiatric and charge-related factors associated with the discharge of male State patients. Methods: We reviewed the files of discharged and admitted forensic State patients at Weskoppies Psychiatric Hospital. Data were captured in an electronic recording sheet. The association between factors and the outcome measure (discharged vs. admitted was determined using chi-squared tests and Fischer’s exact tests. Results: Discharged State patients were associated with being a primary caregiver (p = 0.031 having good insight into illness (p = 0.025 or offence (p = 0.005 and having had multiple successful leaves of absences. A lack of substance abuse during admission (p = 0.027, an absence of a diagnosis of substance use disorder (p = 0.013 and the absence of verbal and physical aggression (p = 0.002 and p = 0.016 were associated with being discharged. Prolonged total length of stay (9–12 years, p = 0.031 and prolonged length of stay in open wards (6–9 years, p = 0.000 were associated with being discharged. A history of previous offences (p = 0.022, a diagnosis of substance use disorder (p = 0.023, recent substance abuse (p = 0.018 and a history of physical aggression since admission (p = 0.017 were associated with continued admission. Conclusion: Discharge of State patients is associated with an absence of substance abuse, lack of aggression

  14. Using a Systematic Approach to Identifying Organizational Factors in Root Cause Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallogly, Kay Wilde

    2011-01-01

    This presentation set the scene for the second discussion session. In her presentation, the author observed that: - Investigators do not see the connection between the analysis tools available and the identification of HOF. Most investigators use the tools in a cursory manner and so do not derive the full benefits of the tools. Some tools are used for presentation purposes as opposed to being used for analytical purposes e.g. event and causal factors charts. In some cases, the report will indicate that specific analytical tools were used in the investigation but the analysis is not in the body of the report. - Some investigators are documenting HOF causes but do not recognize them as such. This indicates a lack of understanding of HOF. - Others investigators focus on technical issues because of their own comfort level. - The culture of the Organisation will affect the depth of the investigation and therefore the use of the analytical tools to pursue HOF issues. - The author contends that if analysis tools are applied systematically to gather factually based data, then HOF issues can be identified. The use of factual information (without judgement and subjectivity) is important to maintain the credibility of the investigation especially when HOF issues are identified. - Systematic use of tools assists in better communication of the issues to foster greater understanding and acceptance by senior management. - Barrier Analysis, Change Analysis, and TWIN (Task Demands, Work Environment, Individual Capabilities, and Human Nature) all offer the opportunity to identify HOF issues if the analyst pursues this line of investigation. It was illustrated that many elements of the TWIN Error Precursors are themselves Organisational in nature. - The TWIN model applied to the Anatomy of an Event will help to distinguish those which are Organisational issues (Latent Organisational Weaknesses, Error Precursors and Flawed Defences) and those which are human factors (Active Errors

  15. Identifying the bleeding trauma patient: predictive factors for massive transfusion in an Australasian trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeremy Ming; Hitos, Kerry; Fletcher, John P

    2013-09-01

    Military and civilian data would suggest that hemostatic resuscitation results in improved outcomes for exsanguinating patients. However, identification of those patients who are at risk of significant hemorrhage is not clearly defined. We attempted to identify factors that would predict the need for massive transfusion (MT) in an Australasian trauma population, by comparing those trauma patients who did receive massive transfusion with those who did not. Between 1985 and 2010, 1,686 trauma patients receiving at least 1 U of packed red blood cells were identified from our prospectively maintained trauma registry. Demographic, physiologic, laboratory, injury, and outcome variables were reviewed. Univariate analysis determined significant factors between those who received MT and those who did not. A predictive multivariate logistic regression model with backward conditional stepwise elimination was used for MT risk. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS PASW. MT patients had a higher pulse rate, lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, lower systolic blood pressure, lower hemoglobin level, higher Injury Severity Score (ISS), higher international normalized ratio (INR), and longer stay. Initial logistic regression identified base deficit (BD), INR, and hemoperitoneum at laparotomy as independent predictive variables. After assigning cutoff points of BD being greater than 5 and an INR of 1.5 or greater, a further model was created. A BD greater than 5 and either INR of 1.5 or greater or hemoperitoneum was associated with 51 times increase in MT risk (odds ratio, 51.6; 95% confidence interval, 24.9-95.8). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the model was 0.859. From this study, a combination of BD, INR, and hemoperitoneum has demonstrated good predictability for MT. This tool may assist in the determination of those patients who might benefit from hemostatic resuscitation. Prognostic study, level III.

  16. Tombusvirus-yeast interactions identify conserved cell-intrinsic viral restriction factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna eSasvari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To combat viral infections, plants possess innate and adaptive immune pathways, such as RNA silencing, R gene and recessive gene-mediated resistance mechanisms. However, it is likely that additional cell-intrinsic restriction factors (CIRF are also involved in limiting plant virus replication. This review discusses novel CIRFs with antiviral functions, many of them RNA-binding proteins or affecting the RNA binding activities of viral replication proteins. The CIRFs against tombusviruses have been identified in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is developed as an advanced model organism. Grouping of the identified CIRFs based on their known cellular functions and subcellular localization in yeast reveals that TBSV replication is limited by a wide variety of host gene functions. Yeast proteins with the highest connectivity in the network map include the well-characterized Xrn1p 5’-3’ exoribonuclease, Act1p actin protein and Cse4p centromere protein. The protein network map also reveals an important interplay between the pro-viral Hsp70 cellular chaperone and the antiviral co-chaperones, and possibly key roles for the ribosomal or ribosome-associated factors. We discuss the antiviral functions of selected CIRFs, such as the RNA binding nucleolin, ribonucleases, WW-domain proteins, single- and multi-domain cyclophilins, TPR-domain co-chaperones and cellular ion pumps. These restriction factors frequently target the RNA-binding region in the viral replication proteins, thus interfering with the recruitment of the viral RNA for replication and the assembly of the membrane-bound viral replicase. Although many of the characterized CIRFs act directly against TBSV, we propose that the TPR-domain co-chaperones function as guardians of the cellular Hsp70 chaperone system, which is subverted efficiently by TBSV for viral replicase assembly in the absence of the TPR-domain co-chaperones.

  17. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kammann, Ulrike [Thünen-Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Hudjetz, Sebastian [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Cofalla, Catrina [Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BFG), Department G3: Biochemistry, Ecotoxicology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Schüttrumpf, Holger [Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Preuss, Thomas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt- Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); and others

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A PBTK model for trout was coupled with a sediment equilibrium partitioning model. • The influence of physical exercise on pollutant uptake was studies using the model. • Physical exercise during flood events can increase the level of biliary metabolites. • Cardiac output and effective respiratory volume were identified as relevant factors. • These confounding factors need to be considered also for bioconcentration studies. - Abstract: As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24 °C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios.

  18. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Kammann, Ulrike; Hudjetz, Sebastian; Cofalla, Catrina; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Preuss, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A PBTK model for trout was coupled with a sediment equilibrium partitioning model. • The influence of physical exercise on pollutant uptake was studies using the model. • Physical exercise during flood events can increase the level of biliary metabolites. • Cardiac output and effective respiratory volume were identified as relevant factors. • These confounding factors need to be considered also for bioconcentration studies. - Abstract: As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24 °C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios

  19. Identifying risk factors associated with smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Hermosilla

    Full Text Available Sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients have a high risk of transmission and are of great epidemiological and infection control significance. Little is known about the smear-positive populations in high TB burden regions, such as Kazakhstan. The objective of this study is to characterize the smear-positive population in Kazakhstan and identify associated modifiable risk factors.Data on incident TB cases' (identified between April 2012 and March 2014 socio-demographic, risk behavior, and comorbidity characteristics were collected in four regions of Kazakhstan through structured survey and medical record review. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with smear positivity.Of the total sample, 193 (34.3% of the 562 study participants tested smear-positive. In the final adjusted multivariable logistic regression model, sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI:1.3-3.1, p < 0.01, incarceration (aOR = 3.6, 95% CI:1.2-11.1, p = 0.03, alcohol dependence (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.2-5.7, p = 0.02, diabetes (aOR = 5.0, 95% CI:2.4-10.7, p < 0.01, and physician access (aOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.3-5.5p < 0.01 were associated with smear-positivity.Incarceration, alcohol dependence, diabetes, and physician access are associated with smear positivity among incident TB cases in Kazakhstan. To stem the TB epidemic, screening, treatment and prevention policies should address these factors.

  20. Research into Factors Contributing to Discipline Use and Disproportionality in Major Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcloughlin, Caven S.; Noltemeyer, Amity L.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to other school typologies, major urban high poverty schools more frequently use exclusionary discipline and apply these techniques disproportionately to African American students. We explored school demographic variables predicting these two outcomes using data from 440 major urban, high poverty schools. Results suggest a different set…

  1. Major stressful life events and other risk factors for first admission with mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether first admission with mania is associated with the occurrence of death in the family or with major stressful life events and to explore whether the associations change with age. METHODS: Case register study with linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Research ...... disorder. The susceptibility to major life stressors of inducing mania does not seem to change throughout life....

  2. Factors Associated with Asian American Students' Choice of STEM Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowinger, Robert; Song, Hyun-a

    2017-01-01

    This study explored Asian American students' likelihood of selecting STEM over liberal arts or business college majors using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Student-level variables were the strongest predictors of college major, followed by parent-level variables, and background variables. Academic achievement and interest were the…

  3. Identifying the environmental factors that effect within canopy BVOC loss using a multilevel canopy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W. S.; Fuentes, J. D.; Lerdau, M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will provide research findings to evaluate the hypothesis that the loss of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) within plant canopies is dynamic and depends on factors such as plant canopy architecture (height and leaf area distribution), atmospheric turbulence, concentration of oxidants (OH, O3, NO3), and the reactivity of BVOC species. Results will be presented from a new one dimensional, multilevel canopy model that couples algorithms for canopy microclimate, leaf physiology, BVOC emission, turbulent transport, and atmospheric chemistry to investigate the relative importance of factors that impact BVOC loss within a forest canopy. Model sensitivity tests will be presented and discussed to identify factors driving canopy loss. Results show isoprene and monoterpene canopy losses as high as 9 and 18%, respectively, for tall canopies during the daytime. We hypothesize that canopy height and wind speed (i.e. canopy residence time) may be the most important in dictating within-canopy loss. This work will reduce the error in bottom-up flux estimates of BVOCs and ultimately improve parameterizations of BVOC sources in air quality models by accounting for within canopy processes.

  4. Genome-wide screen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa In Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies new virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat eZrieq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human opportunistic pathogen that causes mortality in cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. While many virulence factors of this pathogen have already been identified, several remain to be discovered. In this respect we set an unprecedented genome-wide screen of a P. aeruginosa expression library based on a yeast growth phenotype. 51 candidates were selected in a three-round screening process. The robustness of the screen was validated by the selection of three well known secreted proteins including one demonstrated virulence factor, the protease LepA. Further in silico sorting of the 51 candidates highlighted three potential new Pseudomonas effector candidates (Pec. By testing the cytotoxicity of wild type P. aeruginosa vs pec mutants towards macrophages and the virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans model, we demonstrated that the three selected Pecs are novel virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. Additional cellular localization experiments in the host revealed specific localization for Pec1 and Pec2 that could inform about their respective functions.

  5. Use of a twin dataset to identify AMD-related visual patterns controlled by genetic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwénolé; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Russell, Stephen R.

    2010-03-01

    The mapping of genotype to the phenotype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in a near future. In this study, we focused on the first step to discover this mapping: we identified visual patterns related to AMD which seem to be controlled by genetic factors, without explicitly relating them to the genes. For this purpose, we used a dataset of eye fundus photographs from 74 twin pairs, either monozygotic twins, who have the same genotype, or dizygotic twins, whose genes responsible for AMD are less likely to be identical. If we are able to differentiate monozygotic twins from dizygotic twins, based on a given visual pattern, then this pattern is likely to be controlled by genetic factors. The main visible consequence of AMD is the apparition of drusen between the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. We developed two automated drusen detectors based on the wavelet transform: a shape-based detector for hard drusen, and a texture- and color- based detector for soft drusen. Forty visual features were evaluated at the location of the automatically detected drusen. These features characterize the texture, the shape, the color, the spatial distribution, or the amount of drusen. A distance measure between twin pairs was defined for each visual feature; a smaller distance should be measured between monozygotic twins for visual features controlled by genetic factors. The predictions of several visual features (75.7% accuracy) are comparable or better than the predictions of human experts.

  6. Identifying factors associated with perceived success in the transition from hospital to home after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalder, Emily; Fleming, Jennifer; Foster, Michele; Cornwell, Petrea; Shields, Cassandra; Khan, Asad

    2012-01-01

    : To identify the factors associated with perceived success of the transition from hospital to home after traumatic brain injury (TBI). : Prospective longitudinal cohort design with data collection at discharge and 1, 3, and 6 months postdischarge. : A total of 127 individuals with TBI discharged to the community and 83 significant others. : An analog scale (0-100) of perceived success of the transition from hospital to home rated by individuals and significant others; Sentinel Events Questionnaire; EuroQol Group Quality-of-Life measure visual analog scale; Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale; Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-4; short form of the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales; Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors; and Caregiver Strain Index. : Greater perceived success of transition for individuals with a TBI was associated with higher levels of health-related quality of life, level of community integration, and more severe injury. Among survivors, sentinel events such as returning to work and independent community access and changing living situation were associated with greater perceived success; financial strain and difficulty accessing therapy services were associated with less success. Among significant others, lower ratings of transition success were associated with higher significant other stress levels as well as lower levels of community integration and changes in the living situation of the individual with TBI. : A combination of sentinel events and personal and environmental factors influences the perceptions of individuals and their families regarding the success of the transition from hospital to home.

  7. Impact of identifying factors which trigger bothersome tinnitus on the treatment outcome in tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molini, Egisto; Faralli, Mario; Calzolaro, Lucia; Ricci, Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain any differences in the effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy in relation to the presence or absence of a known negative reinforcement responsible for the tinnitus-related pathology. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2008, we recruited 294 subjects suffering from incapacitating tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. The patients underwent tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) according to the methods described by Jastreboff and Hazell [Tinnitus Retraining Therapy: Implementing the Neurophysiological Model. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp 121-133]. We clinically assessed the presence or absence of known phenomena of associative learning, regarding the presence of adverse events temporally correlated with tinnitus and the treatment outcome. The separate analysis of the 2 subgroups shows a statistically significant difference in the improvement rate between the group with a known triggering factor and the group without a triggering factor, with a preponderance of the former with a 91% improvement rate versus approximately 56% for the latter. In our study, the inability to identify factors triggering bothersome tinnitus negatively affected the treatment outcome in TRT. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Perioperative bleeding and blood transfusion are major risk factors for venous thromboembolism following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alexander W; Helm, Melissa C; Kindel, Tammy; Higgins, Rana; Lak, Kathleen; Helmen, Zachary M; Gould, Jon C

    2018-05-01

    Morbidly obese patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) after bariatric surgery. Perioperative chemoprophylaxis is used routinely with bariatric surgery to decrease the risk of VTE. When bleeding occurs, routine chemoprophylaxis is often withheld due to concerns about inciting another bleeding event. We sought to evaluate the relationship between perioperative bleeding and postoperative VTE in bariatric surgery. The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) dataset between 2012 and 2014 was queried to identify patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Gastric bypass (n = 28,145), sleeve gastrectomy (n = 30,080), bariatric revision (n = 324), and biliopancreatic diversion procedures (n = 492) were included. Univariate and multivariate regressions were used to determine perioperative factors predictive of postoperative VTE within 30 days in patients who experience a bleeding complication necessitating transfusion. The rate of bleeding necessitating transfusion was 1.3%. Bleeding was significantly more likely to occur in gastric bypass compared to sleeve gastrectomy (1.6 vs. 1.0%) (p surgeries, increased age, length of stay, operative time, and comorbidities including hypertension, dyspnea with moderate exertion, partially dependent functional status, bleeding disorder, transfusion prior to surgery, ASA class III/IV, and metabolic syndrome increased the perioperative bleeding risk (p Bariatric surgery patients who receive postoperative blood transfusion are at a significantly increased risk for VTE. The etiology of VTE in those who are transfused is likely multifactorial and possibly related to withholding chemoprophylaxis and the potential of a hypercoagulable state induced by the transfusion. In those who bleed, consideration should be given to reinitiating chemoprophylaxis when safe, extending treatment after discharge, and screening ultrasound.

  9. Random T-DNA mutagenesis identifies a Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase gene as a virulence factor of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) was used to identify potential virulence factors in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Screening AMT transformants identified two mutants showing significantly reduced virulence. The mutants showed similar growth rate, colony morphology, and sclerotial and oxalate ...

  10. Factors influencing psychological, social and health outcomes after major burn injuries in adults: cohort study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druery, Martha; Newcombe, Peter A; Cameron, Cate M; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2017-06-17

    The goal of burn care is that 'the quality of the outcome must be worth the pain of survival'. More research is needed to understand how best to deliver care for patients with burns to achieve this aim. Loss of independence, function as well as loss of income for patients with burns and carers cause a significant burden at both individual and societal levels. Much is being done to advance knowledge in the clinical care field; however, there has been a paucity of research exploring psychosocial outcomes. This paper describes the study background and methods, as implemented in an Australian cohort study of psychosocial outcomes after major burn injuries. In this inception cohort study, a target sample of 230 participants, aged 18 years or over, admitted to a single statewide burns centre with a burn injury are identified by hospital staff for inclusion. Baseline survey data are collected either in person or by telephone within 28 days of the injury and participants then followed up with telephone interviews at 3, 6 and 12 months postburn. Injury and burns treatment information is collected from medical records. Social support is measured as a predictor variable using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Outcome data are collected via standardised measures in the domains of Quality of Life (SF-12, EQ-5D, BSHS-B), depression (PHQ-9), post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C, PAS), community integration (CIQ-R) and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (EQ-5D). Additional survey questions measure life satisfaction, return to work and public services utilisation at 12 months postinjury. Data analysis methods will include analysis of variance, Pearson correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Hospital-based and University of Queensland Human Research Ethics Committees have approved the protocol. Results from the study will be disseminated at national and international conferences, in peer-reviewed journals and in a doctoral thesis. Australia New

  11. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehanathan eMuthamilarasan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs are major players in stress signalling and constitute an integral part of signalling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4 model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY and S. viridis (SvWRKY, respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analysed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY, followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY. Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signalling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signalling.

  12. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata S; Khandelwal, Rohit; Jaishankar, Jananee; Shweta, Shweta; Nawaz, Kashif; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in stress signaling and constitute an integral part of signaling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY) and S. viridis (SvWRKY), respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analyzed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II, and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY), followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY) and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY). Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe) based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity) and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate) suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signaling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signaling.

  13. Global analysis of WRKY transcription factor superfamily in Setaria identifies potential candidates involved in abiotic stress signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata S.; Khandelwal, Rohit; Jaishankar, Jananee; Shweta, Shweta; Nawaz, Kashif; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in stress signaling and constitute an integral part of signaling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY) and S. viridis (SvWRKY), respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analyzed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II, and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY), followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY) and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY). Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe) based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity) and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate) suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signaling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signaling. PMID:26635818

  14. Identifying work ability promoting factors for home care aides and assistant nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Agneta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In workplace health promotion, all potential resources needs to be taken into consideration, not only factors relating to the absence of injury and the physical health of the workers, but also psychological aspects. A dynamic balance between the resources of the individual employees and the demands of work is an important prerequisite. In the home care services, there is a noticeable trend towards increased psychosocial strain on employees at work. There are a high frequency of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and a low prevalence of sustainable work ability. The aim of this research was to identify factors promoting work ability and self-efficacy in care aides and assistant nurses within home care services. Methods This study is based on cross-sectional data collected in a municipality in northern Sweden. Care aides (n = 58 and assistant nurses (n = 79 replied to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 46%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of several independent variables on self-efficacy (model 1 and work ability (model 2 for care aides and assistant nurses separately. Results Perceptions of personal safety, self-efficacy and musculoskeletal wellbeing contributed to work ability for assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.36, p 2adj of 0.29, p = 0.001. Self-efficacy was associated with the safety climate and the physical demands of the job in both professions (R2adj of 0.24, p = 0.003 for care aides, and also by sex and age for the assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.31, p Conclusions The intermediate factors contributed differently to work ability in the two professions. Self-efficacy, personal safety and musculoskeletal wellbeing were important for the assistant nurses, while the work ability of the care aides was associated with the safety climate, but also with the non-changeable factors age and seniority. All these factors are important to acknowledge in

  15. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Genetic Risk Factors for Stroke in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Cara L; Keene, Keith L; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Meschia, James F; Chen, Wei-Min; Nalls, Mike; Bis, Joshua C; Kittner, Steven J; Rich, Stephen S; Tajuddin, Salman; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K; Langefeld, Carl D; Gottesman, Rebecca; Mosley, Thomas H; Shahar, Eyal; Woo, Daniel; Yaffe, Kristine; Liu, Yongmei; Sale, Michèle M; Dichgans, Martin; Malik, Rainer; Longstreth, W T; Mitchell, Braxton D; Psaty, Bruce M; Kooperberg, Charles; Reiner, Alexander; Worrall, Bradford B; Fornage, Myriam

    2015-08-01

    The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of stroke have focused on European-ancestry populations; however, none has been conducted in African Americans, despite the disproportionately high burden of stroke in this population. The Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke (COMPASS) was established to identify stroke susceptibility loci in minority populations. Using METAL, we conducted meta-analyses of GWAS in 14 746 African Americans (1365 ischemic and 1592 total stroke cases) from COMPASS, and tested genetic variants with Pstroke genetic studies in European-ancestry populations. We also evaluated stroke loci previously identified in European-ancestry populations. The 15q21.3 locus linked with lipid levels and hypertension was associated with total stroke (rs4471613; P=3.9×10(-8)) in African Americans. Nominal associations (Pstroke were observed for 18 variants in or near genes implicated in cell cycle/mRNA presplicing (PTPRG, CDC5L), platelet function (HPS4), blood-brain barrier permeability (CLDN17), immune response (ELTD1, WDFY4, and IL1F10-IL1RN), and histone modification (HDAC9). Two of these loci achieved nominal significance in METASTROKE: 5q35.2 (P=0.03), and 1p31.1 (P=0.018). Four of 7 previously reported ischemic stroke loci (PITX2, HDAC9, CDKN2A/CDKN2B, and ZFHX3) were nominally associated (Pstroke in COMPASS. We identified a novel genetic variant associated with total stroke in African Americans and found that ischemic stroke loci identified in European-ancestry populations may also be relevant for African Americans. Our findings support investigation of diverse populations to identify and characterize genetic risk factors, and the importance of shared genetic risk across populations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Identifying the challenging factors in the transition from colleges of engineering to employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad

    2012-03-01

    The transition from university to a career in engineering is a challenging process. This study examined the perceptions of engineering graduates regarding the difficulties they encountered in their transition from the university to the workplace. Lebanese practising engineers (n=217), living around the world, were surveyed to identify their current employment situations and their attitudes toward their academic preparation. Factor analysis revealed three main challenges facing engineering graduates: communication; responsibility; self-confidence. Seventeen interviews were conducted to gather information on ways to facilitate this transition. Comments reflected the need for better collaboration between engineering schools and engineering firms. The results will provide insight for engineering colleges, faculty members and administrators into the challenges faced by graduates and their aspirations for a smoother transition into employment.

  17. Usability of geographic information -- factors identified from qualitative analysis of task-focused user interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    Understanding user needs for geographic information and the factors which influence the usability of such information in diverse user contexts is an essential part of user centred development of information products. There is relatively little existing research focused on the design and usability of information products in general. This paper presents a research approach based on semi structured interviews with people working with geographic information on a day to day basis, to establish a reference base of qualitative data on user needs for geographic information with respect to context of use. From this reference data nine key categories of geographic information usability are identified and discussed in the context of limited existing research concerned with geographic information usability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying Risk Factors for Elder Falls in Geriatric Rehabilitation in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Heyman, Neomi; Ben Israel, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    To identify risk factors for elder falls in a geriatric rehabilitation center in Israel. Retrospective chart review study. Four hundred and twelve medical records of inpatients in geriatric rehabilitation were retrospectively analyzed to compare between elders who sustained falls and those who did not. Of elders hospitalized during this year, 14% sustained falls. Fallers included a high proportion of males, with little comorbidity, not obese, and cardiovascular patients. Falls occurred frequently during patients' first week at the facility, mostly during the daytime. The falls occurred frequently in patients' rooms, and a common scenario was a fall during transition. The research findings single out patients who are allegedly at a lower risk of falls than more complex patients. Caregivers in geriatric rehabilitation settings should pay attention to patients who are allegedly at a lower risk of falls than more complex patients, and to cardiovascular patients in particular. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  19. Allele frequencies of variants in ultra conserved elements identify selective pressure on transcription factor binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomas Silla

    Full Text Available Ultra-conserved genes or elements (UCGs/UCEs in the human genome are extreme examples of conservation. We characterized natural variations in 2884 UCEs and UCGs in two distinct populations; Singaporean Chinese (n = 280 and Italian (n = 501 by using a pooled sample, targeted capture, sequencing approach. We identify, with high confidence, in these regions the abundance of rare SNVs (MAF5% are more often found in relatively less-conserved nucleotides within UCEs, compared to rare variants. Moreover, prevalent variants are less likely to overlap transcription factor binding site. Using SNPfold we found no significant influence of RNA secondary structure on UCE conservation. All together, these results suggest UCEs are not under selective pressure as a stretch of DNA but are under differential evolutionary pressure on the single nucleotide level.

  20. Allele frequencies of variants in ultra conserved elements identify selective pressure on transcription factor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Toomas; Kepp, Katrin; Tai, E Shyong; Goh, Liang; Davila, Sonia; Catela Ivkovic, Tina; Calin, George A; Voorhoeve, P Mathijs

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-conserved genes or elements (UCGs/UCEs) in the human genome are extreme examples of conservation. We characterized natural variations in 2884 UCEs and UCGs in two distinct populations; Singaporean Chinese (n = 280) and Italian (n = 501) by using a pooled sample, targeted capture, sequencing approach. We identify, with high confidence, in these regions the abundance of rare SNVs (MAFpower for association studies. By combining our data with 1000 Genome Project data, we show in three independent datasets that prevalent UCE variants (MAF>5%) are more often found in relatively less-conserved nucleotides within UCEs, compared to rare variants. Moreover, prevalent variants are less likely to overlap transcription factor binding site. Using SNPfold we found no significant influence of RNA secondary structure on UCE conservation. All together, these results suggest UCEs are not under selective pressure as a stretch of DNA but are under differential evolutionary pressure on the single nucleotide level.

  1. Identifying Predictive Factors for Incident Reports in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnahal, Shereef M., E-mail: selnaha1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Blackford, Amanda [Department of Oncology Biostatistics, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Smith, Koren; Souranis, Annette N.; Briner, Valerie; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Wright, Jean L.; Terezakis, Stephanie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To describe radiation therapy cases during which voluntary incident reporting occurred; and identify patient- or treatment-specific factors that place patients at higher risk for incidents. Methods and Materials: We used our institution's incident learning system to build a database of patients with incident reports filed between January 2011 and December 2013. Patient- and treatment-specific data were reviewed for all patients with reported incidents, which were classified by step in the process and root cause. A control group of patients without events was generated for comparison. Summary statistics, likelihood ratios, and mixed-effect logistic regression models were used for group comparisons. Results: The incident and control groups comprised 794 and 499 patients, respectively. Common root causes included documentation errors (26.5%), communication (22.5%), technical treatment planning (37.5%), and technical treatment delivery (13.5%). Incidents were more frequently reported in minors (age <18 years) than in adult patients (37.7% vs 0.4%, P<.001). Patients with head and neck (16% vs 8%, P<.001) and breast (20% vs 15%, P=.03) primaries more frequently had incidents, whereas brain (18% vs 24%, P=.008) primaries were less frequent. Larger tumors (17% vs 10% had T4 lesions, P=.02), and cases on protocol (9% vs 5%, P=.005) or with intensity modulated radiation therapy/image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (52% vs 43%, P=.001) were more likely to have incidents. Conclusions: We found several treatment- and patient-specific variables associated with incidents. These factors should be considered by treatment teams at the time of peer review to identify patients at higher risk. Larger datasets are required to recommend changes in care process standards, to minimize safety risks.

  2. Readily Identifiable Risk Factors of Nursing Home Residents' Oral Hygiene: Dementia, Hospice, and Length of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Austin, Sophie; Cohen, Lauren; Reed, David; Poole, Patricia; Ward, Kimberly; Sloane, Philip D

    2017-11-01

    The poor oral hygiene of nursing home (NH) residents is a matter of increasing concern, especially because of its relationship with pneumonia and other health events. Because details and related risk factors in this area are scant and providers need to be able to easily identify those residents at most risk, this study comprehensively examined the plaque, gingival, and denture status of NH residents, as well as readily available correlates of those indicators of oral hygiene, including items from the Minimum Data Set (MDS). Oral hygiene assessment and chart abstract conducted on a cross-section of NH residents. NHs in North Carolina (N = 14). NH residents (N = 506). Descriptive data from the MDS and assessments using three standardized measures: the Plaque Index for Long-Term Care (PI-LTC), the Gingival Index for Long-Term Care (GI-LTC), and the Denture Plaque Index (DPI). Oral hygiene scores averaged 1.7 (of 3) for the PI-LTC, 1.5 (of 4) for the GI-LTC, and 2.2 (of 4) for the DPI. Factors most strongly associated with poor oral hygiene scores included having dementia, being on hospice care, and longer stay. MDS ratings of gingivitis differed significantly from oral hygiene assessments. The findings identify resident subgroups at especially high risk of poor oral health who can be targeted in quality improvement efforts related to oral hygiene; they also indicate need to improve the accuracy of how MDS items are completed. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Identifying Predictive Factors for Incident Reports in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnahal, Shereef M.; Blackford, Amanda; Smith, Koren; Souranis, Annette N.; Briner, Valerie; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Wright, Jean L.; Terezakis, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe radiation therapy cases during which voluntary incident reporting occurred; and identify patient- or treatment-specific factors that place patients at higher risk for incidents. Methods and Materials: We used our institution's incident learning system to build a database of patients with incident reports filed between January 2011 and December 2013. Patient- and treatment-specific data were reviewed for all patients with reported incidents, which were classified by step in the process and root cause. A control group of patients without events was generated for comparison. Summary statistics, likelihood ratios, and mixed-effect logistic regression models were used for group comparisons. Results: The incident and control groups comprised 794 and 499 patients, respectively. Common root causes included documentation errors (26.5%), communication (22.5%), technical treatment planning (37.5%), and technical treatment delivery (13.5%). Incidents were more frequently reported in minors (age <18 years) than in adult patients (37.7% vs 0.4%, P<.001). Patients with head and neck (16% vs 8%, P<.001) and breast (20% vs 15%, P=.03) primaries more frequently had incidents, whereas brain (18% vs 24%, P=.008) primaries were less frequent. Larger tumors (17% vs 10% had T4 lesions, P=.02), and cases on protocol (9% vs 5%, P=.005) or with intensity modulated radiation therapy/image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (52% vs 43%, P=.001) were more likely to have incidents. Conclusions: We found several treatment- and patient-specific variables associated with incidents. These factors should be considered by treatment teams at the time of peer review to identify patients at higher risk. Larger datasets are required to recommend changes in care process standards, to minimize safety risks.

  4. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  5. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Johanna M; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  6. A retrospective analysis to identify the factors affecting infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyeon-Young; Lee, Hanna; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2015-12-01

    This study compares the performance of the logistic regression and decision tree analysis methods for assessing the risk factors for infection in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The subjects were 732 cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy at K university hospital in Seoul, Korea. The data were collected between March 2011 and February 2013 and were processed for descriptive analysis, logistic regression and decision tree analysis using the IBM SPSS Statistics 19 and Modeler 15.1 programs. The most common risk factors for infection in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy were identified as alkylating agents, vinca alkaloid and underlying diabetes mellitus. The logistic regression explained 66.7% of the variation in the data in terms of sensitivity and 88.9% in terms of specificity. The decision tree analysis accounted for 55.0% of the variation in the data in terms of sensitivity and 89.0% in terms of specificity. As for the overall classification accuracy, the logistic regression explained 88.0% and the decision tree analysis explained 87.2%. The logistic regression analysis showed a higher degree of sensitivity and classification accuracy. Therefore, logistic regression analysis is concluded to be the more effective and useful method for establishing an infection prediction model for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A model for genetic and epigenetic regulatory networks identifies rare pathways for transcription factor induced pluripotency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyomov, Maxim; Meissner, Alex; Chakraborty, Arup

    2010-03-01

    Most cells in an organism have the same DNA. Yet, different cell types express different proteins and carry out different functions. This is because of epigenetic differences; i.e., DNA in different cell types is packaged distinctly, making it hard to express certain genes while facilitating the expression of others. During development, upon receipt of appropriate cues, pluripotent embryonic stem cells differentiate into diverse cell types that make up the organism (e.g., a human). There has long been an effort to make this process go backward -- i.e., reprogram a differentiated cell (e.g., a skin cell) to pluripotent status. Recently, this has been achieved by transfecting certain transcription factors into differentiated cells. This method does not use embryonic material and promises the development of patient-specific regenerative medicine, but it is inefficient. The mechanisms that make reprogramming rare, or even possible, are poorly understood. We have developed the first computational model of transcription factor-induced reprogramming. Results obtained from the model are consistent with diverse observations, and identify the rare pathways that allow reprogramming to occur. If validated, our model could be further developed to design optimal strategies for reprogramming and shed light on basic questions in biology.

  8. Proteomic analysis of polyribosomes identifies splicing factors as potential regulators of translation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviner, Ranen; Hofmann, Sarah; Elman, Tamar; Shenoy, Anjana; Geiger, Tamar; Elkon, Ran; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Elroy-Stein, Orna

    2017-06-02

    Precise regulation of mRNA translation is critical for proper cell division, but little is known about the factors that mediate it. To identify mRNA-binding proteins that regulate translation during mitosis, we analyzed the composition of polysomes from interphase and mitotic cells using unbiased quantitative mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We found that mitotic polysomes are enriched with a subset of proteins involved in RNA processing, including alternative splicing and RNA export. To demonstrate that these may indeed be regulators of translation, we focused on heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP C) as a test case and confirmed that it is recruited to elongating ribosomes during mitosis. Then, using a combination of pulsed SILAC, metabolic labeling and ribosome profiling, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP C affects both global and transcript-specific translation rates and found that hnRNP C is specifically important for translation of mRNAs that encode ribosomal proteins and translation factors. Taken together, our results demonstrate how proteomic analysis of polysomes can provide insight into translation regulation under various cellular conditions of interest and suggest that hnRNP C facilitates production of translation machinery components during mitosis to provide daughter cells with the ability to efficiently synthesize proteins as they enter G1 phase. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Genome-wide RNAi Screening to Identify Host Factors That Modulate Oncolytic Virus Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Kristina J; Mahoney, Douglas J; Baird, Stephen D; Lefebvre, Charles A; Stojdl, David F

    2018-04-03

    High-throughput genome-wide RNAi (RNA interference) screening technology has been widely used for discovering host factors that impact virus replication. Here we present the application of this technology to uncovering host targets that specifically modulate the replication of Maraba virus, an oncolytic rhabdovirus, and vaccinia virus with the goal of enhancing therapy. While the protocol has been tested for use with oncolytic Maraba virus and oncolytic vaccinia virus, this approach is applicable to other oncolytic viruses and can also be utilized for identifying host targets that modulate virus replication in mammalian cells in general. This protocol describes the development and validation of an assay for high-throughput RNAi screening in mammalian cells, the key considerations and preparation steps important for conducting a primary high-throughput RNAi screen, and a step-by-step guide for conducting a primary high-throughput RNAi screen; in addition, it broadly outlines the methods for conducting secondary screen validation and tertiary validation studies. The benefit of high-throughput RNAi screening is that it allows one to catalogue, in an extensive and unbiased fashion, host factors that modulate any aspect of virus replication for which one can develop an in vitro assay such as infectivity, burst size, and cytotoxicity. It has the power to uncover biotherapeutic targets unforeseen based on current knowledge.

  10. Identifying Factors Associated with Risk Assessment Competencies of Public Health Emergency Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiejing; Ren, Jiaojiao; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Ning, Ning; Ding, Ding

    2017-06-04

    This study aimed to better understand the current situation of risk assessment and identify the factors associated with competence of emergency responders in public health risk assessment. The participants were selected by a multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling method in Heilongjiang Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The questionnaires that measured their perceptions on risk assessment competences were administered through the face-to-face survey. A final sample of 1889 staff was obtained. Of this sample, 78.6% of respondents rated their own risk assessment competences as "relatively low", contrasting with 21.4% rated as "relatively high". Most of the respondents (62.7%) did not participate in any risk assessment work. Only 13.7% and 42.7% of respondents reported participating in risk assessment training and were familiar with risk assessment tools. There existed statistical significance between risk assessment-related characteristics of respondents and their self-rated competences scores. Financial support from the government and administrative attention were regarded as the important factors contributing to risk assessment competences of CDC responders. Higher attention should be given to risk assessment training and enhancing the availability of surveillance data. Continuous efforts should be made to remove the financial and technical obstacles to improve the competences of risk assessment for public health emergency responders.

  11. An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlenga, Francis Howard

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

  12. In Vivo Functional Selection Identifies Cardiotrophin-1 as a Cardiac Engraftment Factor for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Francesca; Ruozi, Giulia; Falcione, Antonella; Doimo, Sara; Dal Ferro, Matteo; Lesizza, Pierluigi; Zentilin, Lorena; Banks, Lawrence; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2017-10-17

    Transplantation of cells into the infarcted heart has significant potential to improve myocardial recovery; however, low efficacy of cell engraftment still limits therapeutic benefit. Here, we describe a method for the unbiased, in vivo selection of cytokines that improve mesenchymal stromal cell engraftment into the heart both in normal conditions and after myocardial infarction. An arrayed library of 80 secreted factors, including most of the currently known interleukins and chemokines, were individually cloned into adeno-associated viral vectors. Pools from this library were then used for the batch transduction of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells ex vivo, followed by intramyocardial cell administration in normal and infarcted mice. Three weeks after injection, vector genomes were recovered from the few persisting cells and identified by sequencing DNA barcodes uniquely labeling each of the tested cytokines. The most effective molecule identified by this competitive engraftment screening was cardiotrophin-1, a member of the interleukin-6 family. Intracardiac injection of mesenchymal stromal cells transiently preconditioned with cardiotrophin-1 preserved cardiac function and reduced infarct size, parallel to the persistence of the transplanted cells in the healing hearts for at least 2 months after injection. Engraftment of cardiotrophin-1-treated mesenchymal stromal cells was consequent to signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-mediated activation of the focal adhesion kinase and its associated focal adhesion complex and the consequent acquisition of adhesive properties by the cells. These results support the feasibility of selecting molecules in vivo for their functional properties with adeno-associated viral vector libraries and identify cardiotrophin-1 as a powerful cytokine promoting cell engraftment and thus improving cell therapy of the infarcted myocardium. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. The Usage of Association Rule Mining to Identify Influencing Factors on Deafness After Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Azimeh Danesh; Safdari, Reza; Gahfarokhi, Hamid Habibi; Tahmasebian, Shahram

    2015-12-01

    Providing complete and high quality health care services has very important role to enable people to understand the factors related to personal and social health and to make decision regarding choice of suitable healthy behaviors in order to achieve healthy life. For this reason, demographic and clinical data of person are collecting, this huge volume of data can be known as a valuable resource for analyzing, exploring and discovering valuable information and communication. This study using forum rules techniques in the data mining has tried to identify the affecting factors on hearing loss after birth in Iran. The survey is kind of data oriented study. The population of the study is contained questionnaires in several provinces of the country. First, all data of questionnaire was implemented in the form of information table in Software SQL Server and followed by Data Entry using written software of C # .Net, then algorithm Association in SQL Server Data Tools software and Clementine software was implemented to determine the rules and hidden patterns in the gathered data. Two factors of number of deaf brothers and the degree of consanguinity of the parents have a significant impact on severity of deafness of individuals. Also, when the severity of hearing loss is greater than or equal to moderately severe hearing loss, people use hearing aids and Men are also less interested in the use of hearing aids. In fact, it can be said that in families with consanguineous marriage of parents that are from first degree (girl/boy cousins) and 2(nd) degree relatives (girl/boy cousins) and especially from first degree, the number of people with severe hearing loss or deafness are more and in the use of hearing aids, gender of the patient is more important than the severity of the hearing loss.

  14. Case control study to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandeel Amr M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Egypt is crucial to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Methods We conducted a case–control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two infectious disease hospitals in Cairo and Alexandria. Case-patients were defined as: any patient with symptoms of acute hepatitis; lab tested positive for HCV antibodies and negative for HBsAg, HBc IgM, HAV IgM; and 7-fold increase in the upper limit of transaminase levels. Controls were selected from patients’ visitors with negative viral hepatitis markers. Subjects were interviewed about previous exposures within six months, including community-acquired and health-care associated practices. Results Case-patients were more likely than controls to have received injection with a reused syringe (OR=23.1, CI 4.7-153, to have been in prison (OR=21.5, CI 2.5-479.6, to have received IV fluids in a hospital (OR=13.8, CI 5.3-37.2, to have been an IV drug user (OR=12.1, CI 4.6-33.1, to have had minimal surgical procedures (OR=9.7, CI 4.2-22.4, to have received IV fluid as an outpatient (OR=8, CI 4–16.2, or to have been admitted to hospital (OR=7.9, CI 4.2-15 within the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that unsafe health facility practices are the main risk factors associated with transmission of HCV infection in Egypt. Conclusion In Egypt, focusing acute HCV prevention measures on health-care settings would have a beneficial impact.

  15. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Sharma, Monica; Chaudhury, Ashok; Tuli, Rakesh; Roy, Joy

    2014-01-16

    The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study

  16. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  17. In vivo transcriptional profiling of Listeria monocytogenes and mutagenesis identify new virulence factors involved in infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Camejo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a human intracellular pathogen able to colonize host tissues after ingestion of contaminated food, causing severe invasive infections. In order to gain a better understanding of the nature of host-pathogen interactions, we studied the L. monocytogenes genome expression during mouse infection. In the spleen of infected mice, approximately 20% of the Listeria genome is differentially expressed, essentially through gene activation, as compared to exponential growth in rich broth medium. Data presented here show that, during infection, Listeria is in an active multiplication phase, as revealed by the high expression of genes involved in replication, cell division and multiplication. In vivo bacterial growth requires increased expression of genes involved in adaptation of the bacterial metabolism and stress responses, in particular to oxidative stress. Listeria interaction with its host induces cell wall metabolism and surface expression of virulence factors. During infection, L. monocytogenes also activates subversion mechanisms of host defenses, including resistance to cationic peptides, peptidoglycan modifications and release of muramyl peptides. We show that the in vivo differential expression of the Listeria genome is coordinated by a complex regulatory network, with a central role for the PrfA-SigB interplay. In particular, L. monocytogenes up regulates in vivo the two major virulence regulators, PrfA and VirR, and their downstream effectors. Mutagenesis of in vivo induced genes allowed the identification of novel L. monocytogenes virulence factors, including an LPXTG surface protein, suggesting a role for S-layer glycoproteins and for cadmium efflux system in Listeria virulence.

  18. Gender in the Geosciences: Factors Supporting the Recruitment and Retention of Women in the Undergraduate Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, E. M.; Sexton, J. M.; Pugh, K.; Bergstrom, C.; Parmley, R.; Phillips, M.

    2014-12-01

    The proportion of women earning undergraduate geoscience degrees has remained about 40% for over a decade. Little research has investigated why women select and persist in a geoscience major. This study addresses why students major in the geosciences and why some programs are more successful at recruiting and retaining female students. We collected interview and survey data from faculty and students at six public US universities. Four sites had a low proportion of female degree recipients ( 48%). 408 students (64% female) completed surveys. Interviews were conducted with 49 faculty members and 151 students. Survey data analysis showed that interest/identity and transformative experiences were significant predictors of students' decision to major in geoscience. Institutional barriers and supports were significant predictors of confidence in the major while connection to instructor predicted students' intent to major. Analysis of pre- and post-course surveys show that students with a greater connection to instructors and students whose instructors expressed more passion for the content also reported higher levels of transformative experiences. This effect was especially pronounced for women and was a significant predictor of persistence in the major. Qualitative data show differences in departmental practices and climate between low and high female graduation sites. High sites used many student-centered approaches to teaching, had extensive opportunities for and a high number of undergraduate students involved in research, and had many opportunities for faculty-student interaction outside of class. Low sites had few of these practices. Qualitative data also showed differences in the gendered equity climate between high and low sites. High sites had more positive gender equity climates and low sites had more negative gender equity climates. At this time, we do not fully understand the causal relationships among all of these findings and higher female graduation rates

  19. Major stressful life events and other risk factors for first admission with mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L.V.; Agerbo, E.; Mortensen, P.B.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether first admission with mania is associated with the occurrence of death in the family or with major stressful life events and to explore whether the associations change with age. METHODS: Case register study with linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Research...... was found on the association between life events and the first admission with mania, totally, or for men or women, separately regarding ageing. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of death in the family and the experience of major life events are associated with increased risk of first admission with bipolar...

  20. Identification of major factors in Australian primary care pharmacists' practice environment that have a bearing on the implementation of professional models of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John K; Hussainy, Safeera Y; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J

    2017-08-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe an environmental framework for pharmacists in primary care in Australia and determine the major factors within that environment that have the greatest bearing on their capacity to implement patient-focused models of professional practice. Methods A draft framework for pharmacists' practice was developed by allocating structures, systems and related factors known to the researchers or identified from the literature as existing within pharmacists' internal, operational and external environments to one of five domains: Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental or Political [STEEP]. Focus groups of pharmacists used an adapted nominal group technique to assess the draft and add factors where necessary. Where applicable, factors were consolidated into groups to establish a revised framework. The three major factors or groups in each domain were identified. The results were compared with the enabling factors described in the profession's vision statement. Results Seventy-eight individual factors were ultimately identified, with 86% able to be grouped. The three dominant groups in each of the five domains that had a bearing on the implementation of professional models of practice were as follows: (1) Social: the education of pharmacists, their beliefs and the capacity of the pharmacist workforce; (2) Technological: current and future practice models, technology and workplace structures; (3) Economic: funding of services, the viability of practice and operation of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme; (4) Environmental: attitudes and expectations of stakeholders, including consumers, health system reform and external competition; and (5) Political: regulation of practice, representation of the profession and policies affecting practice. Conclusions The three dominant groups of factors in each of the five STEEP environmental domains, which have a bearing on pharmacists' capacity to implement patient-focused models of

  1. Chinese Registry of rheumatoid arthritis (CREDIT): II. prevalence and risk factors of major comorbidities in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shangyi; Li, Mengtao; Fang, Yongfei; Li, Qin; Liu, Ju; Duan, Xinwang; Liu, Yi; Wu, Rui; Shi, Xiaofei; Wang, Yongfu; Jiang, Zhenyu; Wang, Yanhong; Yu, Chen; Wang, Qian; Tian, Xinping; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis patients are at higher risk of developing comorbidities. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of major comorbidities in Chinese rheumatoid arthritis patients. We also aimed to identify factors associated with these comorbidities. Baseline demographic, clinical characteristics and comorbidity data from RA patients enrolled in the Chinese Registry of rhEumatoiD arthrITis (CREDIT) from Nov 2016 to August 2017 were presented and compared with those from five other registries across the world. Possible factors related to three major comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, fragility fracture and malignancy) were identified using multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 13,210 RA patients were included (80.6% female, mean age 52.9 years and median RA duration 4.0 years). Baseline prevalence rates of major comorbidities were calculated: CVD, 2.2% (95% CI 2.0-2.5%); fragility fracture, 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-1.9%); malignancy, 0.6% (95% CI 0.5-0.7%); overall major comorbidities, 4.2% (95% CI 3.9-4.6%). Advanced age was associated with all comorbidities. Male gender and disease duration were positively related to CVD. Female sex and longer disease duration were potential risk factors for fragility fractures. Ever use of methotrexate (MTX) was negatively related to baseline comorbidities. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis in China have similar prevalence of comorbidities with other Asian countries. Advanced age and long disease duration are possible risk factors for comorbidities. On the contrary, MTX may protect RA patients from several major comorbidities, supporting its central role in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Assessing Factors That Influence the Recruitment of Majors from Introductory Geology Classes at Northern Arizona University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoisch, Thomas D.; Bowie, James I.

    2010-01-01

    In order to guide the formulation of strategies for recruiting undergraduates into the geology program at Northern Arizona University, we surveyed 783 students in introductory geology classes and 23 geology majors in their junior and senior years. Our analysis shows that ~7% of students in the introductory classes are possible candidates for…

  3. Meat consumption is a major risk factor for hepatitis E virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Molier, Michel; van den Hurk, Katja; Prinsze, Femmeke; Hogema, Boris M.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of autochthonous hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV gt3) infections in Western Europe is high. Although pigs are a major reservoir of the virus, the exact sources and transmission route(s) of HEV gt3 to humans remain unclear. To determine the role of meat consumption at a population

  4. Therapist Factors in Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almlov, J.; Carlbring, P.; Berger, T.; Cuijpers, P.; Andersson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be an effective method for treating major depression, but it often works best when therapist support is provided in the form of e-mail support or telephone calls. The authors investigated whether there were any intraclass correlations within

  5. Advanced Placement Math and Science Courses: Influential Factors and Predictors for Success in College STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Cynthia Colon

    2010-01-01

    President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country.…

  6. Risk factors for suicide completion in major depression: a case-control study of impulsive and aggressive behaviors in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, A; Lesage, A D; Alda, M; Rouleau, G; Dumont, M; Chawky, N; Roy, M; Mann, J J; Benkelfat, C; Turecki, Gustavo

    2005-11-01

    Major depression is a major risk factor for suicide. However, not all individuals with major depression commit suicide. Impulsive and aggressive behaviors have been proposed as risk factors for suicide, but it remains unclear whether their effect on the risk of suicide is at least partly explained by axis I disorders commonly associated with suicide, such as major depression. With a case-control design, a comparison of the level of impulsive and aggressive behaviors and the prevalence of associated psychopathology was carried out with control for the presence of primary psychopathology. One hundred and four male suicide completers who died during an episode of major depression and 74 living depressed male comparison subjects were investigated with proxy-based interviews by using structured diagnostic instruments and personality trait assessments. The authors found that current (6-month prevalence) alcohol abuse/dependence, current drug abuse/dependence, and cluster B personality disorders increased the risk of suicide in individuals with major depression. Also, higher levels of impulsivity and aggression were associated with suicide. An analysis by age showed that these risk factors were more specific to younger suicide victims (ages 18-40). A multivariate analysis indicated that current alcohol abuse/dependence and cluster B personality disorder were two independent predictors of suicide. Impulsive-aggressive personality disorders and alcohol abuse/dependence were two independent predictors of suicide in major depression, and impulsive and aggressive behaviors seem to underlie these risk factors. A developmental hypothesis of suicidal behavior, with impulsive and aggressive behaviors as the starting point, is discussed.

  7. Transfer students in STEM majors at a Midwestern University: Academic and social involvement factors that influence student success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos

    There is soon-to-be a shortage of qualified U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As a result, many science-related jobs are being filled by technically-skilled foreign workers. If the U.S wants to maintain its global economic leadership, then it must ensure a continuous growth of highly-trained individuals in STEM disciplines. Therefore, American institutions of higher education, including community colleges, must identify potential factors that contribute to the lack of interest in STEM majors, as well as the low rate of success of students who enter STEM majors but struggle to finish their degrees. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of community college transfer students who are pursuing bachelor degrees in STEM majors at Iowa State University (ISU). What were their transfer experiences and what influenced their academic success in STEM. Participants were encouraged to share their transfer experiences while at the community college as well as their experiences on the ISU campus. They were also asked about their level of academic involvement, their relationships with faculty, and their participation in peer group activities prior to and after transferring. The research design included both quantitative and qualitative components, which provided an in-depth look at the experiences of STEM non-engineering and engineering students. Quantitative data include students' background characteristics, demographic information, and college activities at the community college and ISU. Qualitative data were used to illuminate students' overall transfer experience and their successful journey in STEM fields. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed a better understanding of the strategies students put into practice once they transfer from a community college to a four-year institution in pursuit of a STEM bachelor's degree. The results of this study suggest that there is an association among the

  8. Identifying factors to improve oral cancer screening uptake: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Vida Zohoori

    Full Text Available To engage with high risk groups to identify knowledge and awareness of oral cancer signs and symptoms and the factors likely to contribute to improved screening uptake.Focus group discussions were undertaken with 18 males; 40+ years of age; smokers and/or drinkers (15+ cigarettes per day and/or 15+ units of alcohol per week, irregular dental attenders living in economically deprived areas of Teesside.There was a striking reported lack of knowledge and awareness of oral cancer and its signs and symptoms among the participants. When oral/mouth cancer leaflets produced by Cancer Research UK were presented to the participants, they claimed that they would seek help on noticing such a condition. There was a preference to seek help from their general practitioner rather than their dentist due to perceptions that a dentist is 'inaccessible' on a physical and psychological level, costly, a 'tooth specialist' not a 'mouth specialist', and also not able to prescribe medication and make referrals to specialists. Interestingly, none of the 18 participants who were offered a free oral cancer examination at a dental practice took up this offer.The uptake of oral cancer screening may be improved by increasing knowledge of the existence and signs and symptoms of oral cancer. Other factors that may increase uptake are increased awareness of the role of dentists in diagnosing oral cancer, promotion of oral cancer screening by health professionals during routine health checks, and the use of a "health" screening setting as opposed to a "dental" setting for such checks.

  9. Using focus groups to identify factors affecting healthy weight maintenance in college men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer R; White, Adrienne A; Greaney, Mary L

    2009-06-01

    Healthful eating and physical activity are important for healthy weight maintenance. The hypothesis for this study was that college-aged men would perceive factors affecting eating and physical activity as both contributing to and inhibiting healthy weight maintenance. The overall objective was to explore how men view weight maintenance in the context of these aspects. Subjects (n = 47, mean age = 20.3 +/- 1.7 years) completed an online survey, including the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Three face-to-face and 3 online synchronous groups were conducted using a 15-question discussion guide to identify weight maintenance issues around eating, physical activity, and body perceptions. Weight satisfaction decreased with increase in both dietary restraint and disinhibition. Number of attempts to lose weight was positively associated with BMI (r [44] = .465, P = .01) and dietary restraint (r [44] = .515, P = .01). Findings from both focus group formats were similar. Motivators (sports performance/fitness, self-esteem, attractiveness, long-term health) were similar for eating healthfully and being physically active; however, more motivators to be physically active than to eat healthfully emerged. Enablers for eating healthfully included liking the taste, availability of healthful foods, using food rules to guide intake, having a habit of healthful eating, and internal drive/will. Barriers to healthful eating included fat in dairy foods, fruit and vegetable taste, and quick spoilage. Barriers to being physically active included lack of time/time management, obligations, being lazy, and girlfriends. Results may be used to inform future obesity prevention interventions.

  10. Identifying Trajectories of Borderline Personality Features in Adolescence: Antecedent and Interactive Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    To examine trajectories of adolescent borderline personality (BP) features in a normative-risk cohort (n = 566) of Canadian children assessed at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 and childhood predictors of trajectory group membership assessed at ages 8, 10, 11, and 12. Data were drawn from the McMaster Teen Study, an on-going study examining relations among bullying, mental health, and academic achievement. Participants and their parents completed a battery of mental health and peer relations questionnaires at each wave of the study. Academic competence was assessed at age 8 (Grade 3). Latent class growth analysis, analysis of variance, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Three distinct BP features trajectory groups were identified: elevated or rising, intermediate or stable, and low or stable. Parent- and child-reported mental health symptoms, peer relations risk factors, and intra-individual risk factors were significant predictors of elevated or rising and intermediate or stable trajectory groups. Child-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and somatization symptoms uniquely predicted elevated or rising trajectory group membership, whereas parent-reported anxiety and child-reported ADHD symptoms uniquely predicted intermediate or stable trajectory group membership. Child-reported somatization symptoms was the only predictor to differentiate the intermediate or stable and elevated or rising trajectory groups (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.28). Associations between child-reported reactive temperament and elevated BP features trajectory group membership were 10.23 times higher among children who were bullied, supporting a diathesis-stress pathway in the development of BP features for these youth. Findings demonstrate the heterogeneous course of BP features in early adolescence and shed light on the potential prodromal course of later borderline personality disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Factors in Outcomes of Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy for Chronic vs. Nonchronic Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUBORSKY, LESTER; DIGUER, LOUIS; CACCIOLA, JOHN; BARBER, JACQUES P.; MORAS, KARLA; SCHMIDT, KELLY; DERUBEIS, ROBERT J.

    1996-01-01

    The benefits, and variables influencing the benefits, of short-term dynamic psychotherapy for chronic major depression versus nonchronic major depression were examined for 49 patients. The two diagnostic groups started at the same level on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) and benefited similarly. The bases for the benefits were examined by linear models explaining 35% of termination BDI variance and 47% of termination GAF scores. By far the largest contributor to outcome was initial GAF, followed by presence of more than one comorbid Axis I diagnosis. Initial level of depression on the BDI was not a significant predictor of termination BDI. The chronic/ nonchronic distinction accounted for less than 1% of explained variance, and little was added by personality disorder, age, or gender. PMID:22700274

  12. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in dysthymia: a comparative study with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Omer; Deveci, Artuner; Taskin, Oryal E; Taneli, Fatma; Esen-Danaci, Aysen

    2007-06-30

    In this present work, it is aimed to demonstrate BDNF serum concentrations in patients with dysthymia and to compare them with BDNF serum concentrations in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy subjects. The study was carried out in Celal Bayar University Hospital, Manisa, Turkey. Seventeen patients with dysthymia, 24 patients with major depressive disorder and 26 subjects without any psychiatric diagnosis and any psychiatric treatment were included in the study. The severity of depression was assessed with 17-item HAM-D. All subjects were asked to give their written consent. Blood samples were collected at baseline. Serum BDNF was kept at -70 degrees C before testing, and assayed with an ELISA Kit (Promega; Madison, WI, USA), after dilution with the Block and Sample solution provided with the kit. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance. The BDNF serum concentrations of the dysthymia group (mean=28.9+/-9.2 ng/ml) were significantly higher than that of the major depressive disorder group (21.2+/-11.3 ng/ml) (p=0.002), and it was not different from the level of the control group (31.4+/-8.8 ng/ml). BDNF serum concentrations and HAM-D score did not have any significant correlation in the dysthymia and major depression groups (r=-0.276, p=0.086). The low level of BDNF in patients with dysthymic disorder seems to point out that BDNF changes in mood disorders are state-dependent and vary according to the severity of depressive episodes.

  13. Increasing age is a major risk factor for susceptibility to heat stress during physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Ryan; Poirier, Martin P; Louie, Jeffrey C; Sigal, Ronald J; Boulay, Pierre; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the extent to which age, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fat can independently determine whole-body heat loss (WBHL) in 87 otherwise healthy adults. We show that increasing age is a major predictor for decreasing WBHL in otherwise healthy adults (aged 20-70 years), accounting for 40% of the variation in the largest study to date. While greater body fat also had a minor detrimental impact on WBHL, there was no significant role for cardiorespiratory fitness.

  14. Major factors contributing to the construction waste generation in building projects of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Tareq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic growth and improvement of the construction industry witnessed by most countries, there has become a crucial need for employing modern possibilities in the construction sector to build taller, longer and deeper structures. However, one aspect that heads forward with the same intensity is the generation of 100 million tons of construction waste every year. This generation has occurred due to several factors with different levels of importance. Hence, this study reveals 15 factors influencing construction waste generation and categorizes them into 3 groups, (materials management on site, (materials handling, transportation and storage and (site management and practices. A questionnaire survey of 100 respondents was distributed among different engineers to assess the construction waste factors. Results showed that damage of materials on site, double handling of materials and incompetent contractor’s technical staff were the most significant factors of each category with Relative Importance Indexes (RII of 0.866, 0.844 and 0.83, respectively. These findings will help the practitioners to reduce construction waste quantities in sites and improve waste management performance factors to control the construction waste problems.

  15. Identifying environmental risk factors and mapping the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.; Davis, J. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human West Nile virus (WNV) first arrived in the USA in 1999 and has since then spread across the country. Today, the highest incidence rates are found in the state of South Dakota. The disease occurrence depends on the complex interaction between the mosquito vector, the bird host and the dead-end human host. Understanding the spatial domain of this interaction and being able to identify disease transmission hotspots is crucial for effective disease prevention and mosquito control. In this study we use geospatial environmental information to understand what drives the spatial distribution of cases of human West Nile virus in South Dakota and to map relative infection risk across the state. To map the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota, we used geocoded human case data from the years 2004-2016. Satellite data from the Landsat ETM+ and MODIS for the years 2003 to 2016 were used to characterize environmental patterns. From these datasets we calculated indices, such as the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized differenced water index (NDWI). In addition, datasets such as the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), National Wetland inventory (NWI), National Elevation Dataset (NED) and Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) were utilized. Environmental variables were summarized for a buffer zone around the case and control points. We used a boosted regression tree model to identify the most important variables describing the risk of WNV infection. We generated a risk map by applying this model across the entire state. We found that the highest relative risk is present in the James River valley in northeastern South Dakota. Factors that were identified as influencing the transmission risk include inter-annual variability of vegetation cover, water availability and temperature. Land covers such as grasslands, low developed areas and wetlands were also found to be good predictors for human

  16. Identifying the Risk Factors for Typhoid Fever among the Residents of Rural Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, N.; Bashir, F.; Abbasi, S.; Tahir, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: During August 2015, unusually high typhoid fever cases were reported from rural Islamabad at Federal General Hospital (FGH), Islamabad. Objectives: To determine the risk factors for typhoid fever outbreak and recommend preventive measures. Study design, settings and duration: Outbreak investigation study conducted in Union Councils 19 and 22 of rural Islamabad in the catchment area for Federal General Hospital, from 7 th July-30 th August 2015. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was used to identify risk factors of typhoid fever. A case was defined as any resident of the rural Islamabad within the mauza Chatta Bakhtawar and Terlai Kalan presenting with high grade fever (>101 F) with one of the following signs/symptoms; headache, abdominal pain and vomiting with positive typhidot test from 7 th July-30 th August 2015. Two age and sex matched controls for each case was selected from the neighborhood. Epi Info 7 was used for analysis. Results: Total of 50 cases and 100 controls were enrolled. Among cases 30 (61 percent) were females and 20 (39 percent) males with M;F ratio of 1:1.5. Mean age was 23.0 years (9.9 +- SD). The most affected age group was 15-25 years (AR 0.19 percent, n=21). Only one case died (CFR 2percent). Use of untreated public water after rains (OR 3.7 CI 1.6-9.7 p< 0.0002), reconstruction areas and bursting/leaking of water pipes (OR 4.017 CI 1.6-9.7 p < 0.001) and presence of confirmed typhoid cases at home/close contacts (OR 5.7 CI 2.019-16.18 p < 0.0003) were the significant risk factors found associated with the disease. Whereas using well/private bore (OR 0.29 CI 0.329-0.653 p < 0.001) and hand washing practices (OR 0.7 CI 0.297-1.9 < 0.5) had a protective effect. Multivariate analysis showed that use of untreated public water (OR: 3.34, CI: 1.52-7.29, p < 0.002), bursting/leaking pipes (OR 2.86, CI 0.96-8.48, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with typhoid disease. Conclusion: Contamination of drinking water with sewage

  17. To identify the factors affecting the risk of recurrent febrile seizures in saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, M.M.; Ahmed, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the risk factors of recurrent febrile seizures (FS) in Saudi children in a Northern Province of Hail in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: Descriptive prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Pediatric department, King Khalid Hospital Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 01 October 2010 to 30 September 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 132 children (age ranges from 03 months to 60 months) were included in the study, while they were admitted with the diagnosis of FS during the study period, in the Pediatric department of the King Khalid University Hospital, Hail. A predesigned study proforma was utilized for data collection. All the children included in the study were followed for a period of 01 year after discharge from the pediatric ward for any recurrence of FS. Results: During the study period 132 children were admitted for FS, the mean age of children in our sample was 16 months. There was a preponderance of male children. Among the causes of fever, mostly 63(47.73%) had symptoms of viral prodrome. Recurrent febrile seizure was found in 46 (34.85%) children. There was a statistically significant association between low temperature at onset of seizure and recurrent FS in 65.22% cases p-value= 0.001). Similarly, the association of duration of fever (= 6 hour) prior to onset of FS and recurrence was found to be significant in 56.52% (p-value= 0.001). Moreover it was found that lower age <12 months at onset of first FS and complex FS had a statistically significant association with its recurrence in 65.22% and 69.57% cases respectively p-value= 0.01 and 0.001). Non significant factors were sex and family history. Conclusion: FS is a common paediatric problem predominantly seen in males. Almost one third of these children are at risk for recurrence in later dates. The risk factors for these recurrences are modest rise in body temperature at the onset of seizure, younger age at presentation, onset of seizure within 6 hours of fever and

  18. Identifying factors influencing contraceptive use in Bangladesh: evidence from BDHS 2014 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M B; Khan, M H R; Ababneh, F; Shaw, J E H

    2018-01-30

    Birth control is the conscious control of the birth rate by methods which temporarily prevent conception by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, and implantation. High contraceptive prevalence rate is always expected for controlling births for those countries that are experiencing high population growth rate. The factors that influence contraceptive prevalence are also important to know for policy implication purposes in Bangladesh. This study aims to explore the socio-economic, demographic and others key factors that influence the use of contraception in Bangladesh. The contraception data are extracted from the 2014 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) data which were collected by using a two stage stratified random sampling technique that is a source of nested variability. The nested sources of variability must be incorporated in the model using random effects in order to model the actual parameter effects on contraceptive prevalence. A mixed effect logistic regression model has been implemented for the binary contraceptive data, where parameters are estimated through generalized estimating equation by assuming exchangeable correlation structure to explore and identify the factors that truly affect the use of contraception in Bangladesh. The prevalence of contraception use by currently married 15-49 years aged women or their husbands is 62.4%. Our study finds that administrative division, place of residence, religion, number of household members, woman's age, occupation, body mass index, breastfeeding practice, husband's education, wish for children, living status with wife, sexual activity in past year, women amenorrheic status, abstaining status, number of children born in last five years and total children ever died were significantly associated with contraception use in Bangladesh. The odds of women experiencing the outcome of interest are not independent due to the nested structure of the data. As a result, a mixed

  19. Being Smart is not Enough: the role of psychlogical factors in study success of ethnic minority and ethnic majority students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeuwisse (Marieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the past decade(s), many studies have been conducted on the differences in study success between ethnic minority students and ethnic majority students to identify explanations for the less successful academic careers of ethnic minority students. This dissertation aimed to explain the

  20. Major parameters affecting the calculation of equilibrium factor using SSNTD-measured track densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Elmagd, M.; Mansy, M.; Eissa, H.M.; El-Fiki, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The equilibrium factor F between radon and its daughters as a function of the track density ratio D/D 0 between bare and in can track detectors is solved graphically and gave more accurate solution than that solved mathematically elsewhere. The advantages of the graphical solution come from its simplicity and does not need any tedious mathematical formula or a computer program. The simplicity of this solution makes us study many parameters that affect the equilibrium factor determination such as the detector type, the diffusion chamber dimensions, the membrane specifications and the behavior of α-emitters around the detector. The results show that the equilibrium factor as a function of D/D 0 takes different form according to the facility used. The range of this study covers two widely used detectors (CR-39 and LR-115) equipped in two widely used diffusion chambers (small and medium chambers)

  1. Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cools, Nathalie; Vesterdal, Lars; De Vos, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The C:N ratio is considered as an indicator of nitrate leaching in response to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the C:N ratio is influenced by a multitude of other site-related factors. This study aimed to unravel the factors determining C:N ratios of forest floor, mineral soil...... mineral soil layers it was the humus type. Deposition and climatic variables were of minor importance at the European scale. Further analysis for eight main forest tree species individually, showed that the influence of environmental variables on C:N ratios was tree species dependent. For Aleppo pine...... and peat top soils in more than 4000 plots of the ICP Forests large-scale monitoring network. The first objective was to quantify forest floor, mineral and peat soil C:N ratios across European forests. Secondly we determined the main factors explaining this C:N ratio using a boosted regression tree...

  2. Surgery and Anesthesia Exposure Is Not a Risk Factor for Cognitive Impairment After Major Noncardiac Surgery and Critical Illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, Christopher G; Patel, Mayur B; Jackson, James C; Girard, Timothy D; Geevarghese, Sunil K; Norman, Brett C; Thompson, Jennifer L; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Brummel, Nathan E; May, Addison K; Elstad, Mark R; Wasserstein, Mitzi L; Goodman, Richard B; Moons, Karel G; Dittus, Robert S; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P; MIND-ICU, BRAIN-ICU investigators

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether surgery and anesthesia exposure is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment after major noncardiac surgery associated with critical illness. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative cognitive impairment is a prevalent individual

  3. An Investigation of School-Level Factors Associated with Science Performance for Minority and Majority Francophone Students in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, Debra; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Lyons-Thomas, Juliette; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2014-01-01

    Minority Francophone students in predominantly English-speaking Canadian provinces tend to perform lower on large-scale assessments of achievement than their Anglophone peers and majority Francophone students in Quebec. This study is the first to apply multilevel modeling methods to examine the extent to which school-level factors may be…

  4. Leishmania major Infection Activates NF-κB and Interferon Regulatory Factors 1 and 8 in Human Dendritic Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Asha; Donovan, Michael J.; Tripathi, Vinita; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo; McDowell, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    The salient feature of dendritic cells (DC) is the initiation of appropriate adaptive immune responses by discriminating between pathogens. Using a prototypic model of intracellular infection, we previously showed that Leishmania major parasites prime human DC for efficient interleukin-12 (IL-12) secretion. L. major infection is associated with self-limiting cutaneous disease and powerful immunity. In stark contrast, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania donovani, does not prime human DC for IL-12 production. Here, we report that DC priming by L. major infection results in the early activation of NF-κB transcription factors and the up-regulation and nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and IRF-8. The inhibition of NF-κB activation by the pretreatment of DC with caffeic acid phenethyl ester blocks L. major-induced IRF-1 and IRF-8 activation and IL-12 expression. We further demonstrate that IRF-1 and IRF-8 obtained from L. major-infected human DC specifically bind to their consensus binding sites on the IL-12p35 promoter, indicating that L. major infection either directly stimulates a signaling cascade or induces an autocrine pathway that activates IRF-1 and IRF-8, ultimately resulting in IL-12 transcription. PMID:18316378

  5. Factors identified with higher levels of career satisfaction of physicians in Andalusia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nicolás Peña-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The satisfaction of physicians is a world-wide issue linked with the quality of health services; their satisfaction needs to be studied from a multi-dimensional perspective, considering lower- and higher-order needs. The objectives of this study were to: i measure the career satisfaction of physicians; ii identify differences in the dimensions of career satisfaction; and iii test factors that affect higher- and lower-order needs of satisfaction among physicians working in Andalusian hospitals (Spain. Forty-one percent of 299 eligible physicians participated in a study conducted in six selected hospitals. Physicians reported higher professional, inherent, and performance satisfaction than personal satisfaction. Foreign physicians reported higher levels of personal and performance satisfaction than local physicians, and those who received non-monetary incentives had higher professional and performance satisfaction. In conclusion, physicians in the selected Andalusian hospitals reported low levels of personal satisfaction. Non-monetary incentives were more relevant to influence their career satisfaction. Further investigations are recommended to study differences in the career satisfaction between foreign and local physicians.

  6. Conceptual and Operational Considerations in Identifying Socioenvironmental Factors Associated with Disability among Community-Dwelling Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Philibert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is conceived as a person–context interaction. Physical and social environments are identified as intervention targets for improving social participation and independence. In comparison to the body of research on place and health, relatively few reports have been published on residential environments and disability in the health sciences literature. We reviewed studies evaluating the socioenvironmental correlates of disability. Searches were conducted in Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1997 and 2014. We found many environmental factors to be associated with disability, particularly area-level socioeconomic status and rurality. However, diversity in conceptual and methodological approaches to such research yields a limited basis for comparing studies. Conceptual inconsistencies in operational measures of disability and conceptual disagreement between studies potentially affect understanding of socioenvironmental influences. Similarly, greater precision in socioenvironmental measures and in study designs are likely to improve inference. Consistent and generalisable support for socioenvironmental influences on disability in the general adult population is scarce.

  7. Using sensitivity analysis to identify key factors for the propagation of a plant epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Loup; Bruchou, Claude; Dallot, Sylvie; Pleydell, David R J; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the key factors underlying the spread of a disease is an essential but challenging prerequisite to design management strategies. To tackle this issue, we propose an approach based on sensitivity analyses of a spatiotemporal stochastic model simulating the spread of a plant epidemic. This work is motivated by the spread of sharka, caused by plum pox virus , in a real landscape. We first carried out a broad-range sensitivity analysis, ignoring any prior information on six epidemiological parameters, to assess their intrinsic influence on model behaviour. A second analysis benefited from the available knowledge on sharka epidemiology and was thus restricted to more realistic values. The broad-range analysis revealed that the mean duration of the latent period is the most influential parameter of the model, whereas the sharka-specific analysis uncovered the strong impact of the connectivity of the first infected orchard. In addition to demonstrating the interest of sensitivity analyses for a stochastic model, this study highlights the impact of variation ranges of target parameters on the outcome of a sensitivity analysis. With regard to sharka management, our results suggest that sharka surveillance may benefit from paying closer attention to highly connected patches whose infection could trigger serious epidemics.

  8. Preparedness for physiotherapy in private practice: Novices identify key factors in an interpretive description study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robyn; McElroy, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    Physiotherapists in Australia deliver services to a diverse range of clients, across many settings, however little research exists examining graduate preparedness for practice, even in the populous field of private practice. To explore novice physiotherapist perspectives on preparedness for work in private practice. The qualitative approach of interpretive description was used to guide in-depth interviews with 8 novice physiotherapists from 3 universities working in 5 private practices in Melbourne. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Four main themes influencing graduate preparedness for work in private practice were identified: 1) non-curricular experiences (e.g. sports training) 2) elective curricular: practicum experiences; 3) curricular: attainment of skills specific to private practice; and 4) the private practice setting: supportive colleagues. This combination of non-curricular, curricular, and practice setting factors offered the necessary scaffolding for the graduates to report feeling prepared for work in private practice. Non-curricular activities, radiological instruction, clinical placements, building supportive colleague relations and professional development in private practice are recommended as potential means of building preparedness in novice therapists. Findings have implications for physiotherapy students, educators and private practice clinics looking to recruit new graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying the factors governing attitude towards the e-Agriservice among dairy farmers in Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Kisan Wadkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT projects have a great potential to revolutionise the information delivery system by bridging the gap between farmers and extension personnel. aAQUA (Almost All Questions Answered portal was launched by the Developmental Informatics Laboratory (DIL at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Mumbai, Maharashtra, India in 2003 as an information providing system to deliver technology options and tailored information for the problems and queries raised by Indian dairy farmers. To measure the effectiveness of this service the attitudinal dimensions of the users of aAQUA e-Agriservice were investigated using a 22 item scale. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 dairy farmers from which data were collected and subjected to factor analysis to identify the underlying constructs in this research. From the attitude items, four components were extracted and named as the pessimistic, utility, technical and efficacy perspective, which influenced the development of varied level of attitudinal inclination towards the e-Agriservice. These components explained 64.40 per cent of variation in the attitude of the users towards the aAQUA e-Agriservice. This study provides a framework for technically efficient service provision that might help to reduce the pessimistic attitude of target population to adopt e-Agriservice in their farming system. The results should also be helpful for researchers, academics, ICT based service providers and policy makers to consider these perspectives while planning and implementing ICT projects.

  10. Pharmacy patronage: identifying key factors in the decision making process using the determinant attribute approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franic, Duska M; Haddock, Sarah M; Tucker, Leslie Tootle; Wooten, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    To use the determinant attribute approach, a research method commonly used in marketing to identify the wants of various consumer groups, to evaluate consumer pharmacy choice when having a prescription order filled in different pharmacy settings. Cross sectional. Community independent, grocery store, community chain, and discount store pharmacies in Georgia between April 2005 and April 2006. Convenience sample of adult pharmacy consumers (n = 175). Survey measuring consumer preferences on 26 attributes encompassing general pharmacy site features (16 items), pharmacist characteristics (5 items), and pharmacy staff characteristics (5 items). 26 potential determinant attributes for pharmacy selection. 175 consumers were surveyed at community independent (n = 81), grocery store (n = 44), community chain (n = 27), or discount store (n = 23) pharmacy settings. The attributes of pharmacists and staff at all four pharmacy settings were shown to affect pharmacy patronage motives, although consumers frequenting non-community independent pharmacies were also motivated by secondary convenience factors, e.g., hours of operation, and prescription coverage. Most consumers do not perceive pharmacies as merely prescription-distribution centers that vary only by convenience. Prescriptions are not just another economic good. Pharmacy personnel influence pharmacy selection; therefore, optimal staff selection and training is likely the greatest asset and most important investment for ensuring pharmacy success.

  11. Experimental infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae identify key factors involved in host-colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Baranowski

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i the development of a specific antibody response and (ii dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma, with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.

  12. Modelling categorical data to identify factors influencing concern for the natural environment in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein; Lakhan, V Chris; Yazdani, Mahmoud; Ahmad, Sajid R

    2011-10-01

    Loglinear modelling techniques were used to identify the interactions and interrelationships underlying categorical environmental concern data collected from 9062 respondents in Iran. After fitting various loglinear models to the data, the most parsimonious model highlighted that a combination of interacting factors, namely educational attainment, age, gender, and residential location were responsible for influencing personal concern for the environment. Although high educational attainment had a close correspondence with high concern for the environment the loglinear results, when visualized with a geographical information system, demonstrated wide spatial variations in educational attainment and concern for the environment. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents were not highly educated, and were therefore not highly concerned for the environment. The finding that both rural and urban male and female respondents in the 15-24 years age category, with 10-12 years of education, had the strongest interaction with personal concern for the environment could be beneficial for policy planners to utilize education as the primary instrument to enhance environmental governance and prospects for sustainable development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying factors associated with regular physical activity in leisure time among Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Gaston; Anderson, Donna; Lambert, Léo-Daniel; Desharnais, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors explaining regular physical activity among Canadian adolescents. A cohort study conducted over a period of 2 years. A French-language high school located near Québec City. A cohort of 740 students (352 girls; 388 boys) aged 13.3 +/- 1.0 years at baseline. Psychosocial, life context, profile, and sociodemographic variables were assessed at baseline and 1 and 2 years after baseline. Exercising almost every day during leisure time at each measurement time was the dependent variable. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis indicated that exercising almost every day was significantly associated with a high intention to exercise (odds ratio [OR]: 8.33, confidence interval [CI] 95%: 5.26, 13.18), being satisfied with the activity practiced (OR: 2.07, CI 95%: 1.27, 3.38), perceived descriptive norm (OR: 1.82, CI 95%: 1.41, 2.35), being a boy (OR: 1.83, CI 95%: 1.37, 2.46), practicing "competitive" activities (OR: 1.80, CI 95%: 1.37, 2.36), eating a healthy breakfast (OR: 1.68, CI 95%: 1.09, 2.60), and normative beliefs (OR: 1.48, CI 95%: 1.14, 1.90). Specific GEE analysis for gender indicated slight but significant differences. This study provides evidence for the need to design interventions that are gender specific and that focus on increasing intention to exercise regularly.

  14. Epidermal growth factor gene is a newly identified candidate gene for gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Cao, Chunwei; Jia, Zhaotong; Liu, Shiguo; Liu, Zhen; Xin, Ruosai; Wang, Can; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 4q25 has been identified as a genomic region associated with gout. However, the associations of gout with the genes in this region have not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed two-stage analysis to determine whether variations in candidate genes in the 4q25 region are associated with gout in a male Chinese Han population. We first evaluated 96 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight inflammatory/immune pathway- or glucose/lipid metabolism-related genes in the 4q25 region in 480 male gout patients and 480 controls. The SNP rs12504538, located in the elongation of very-long-chain-fatty-acid-like family member 6 gene (Elovl6), was found to be associated with gout susceptibility (Padjusted = 0.00595). In the second stage of analysis, we performed fine mapping analysis of 93 tag SNPs in Elovl6 and in the epidermal growth factor gene (EGF) and its flanking regions in 1017 male patients gout and 1897 healthy male controls. We observed a significant association between the T allele of EGF rs2298999 and gout (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.67–0.88, Padjusted = 6.42 × 10−3). These results provide the first evidence for an association between the EGF rs2298999 C/T polymorphism and gout. Our findings should be validated in additional populations. PMID:27506295

  15. Epidermal growth factor gene is a newly identified candidate gene for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Cao, Chunwei; Jia, Zhaotong; Liu, Shiguo; Liu, Zhen; Xin, Ruosai; Wang, Can; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Changgui

    2016-08-10

    Chromosome 4q25 has been identified as a genomic region associated with gout. However, the associations of gout with the genes in this region have not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed two-stage analysis to determine whether variations in candidate genes in the 4q25 region are associated with gout in a male Chinese Han population. We first evaluated 96 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight inflammatory/immune pathway- or glucose/lipid metabolism-related genes in the 4q25 region in 480 male gout patients and 480 controls. The SNP rs12504538, located in the elongation of very-long-chain-fatty-acid-like family member 6 gene (Elovl6), was found to be associated with gout susceptibility (Padjusted = 0.00595). In the second stage of analysis, we performed fine mapping analysis of 93 tag SNPs in Elovl6 and in the epidermal growth factor gene (EGF) and its flanking regions in 1017 male patients gout and 1897 healthy male controls. We observed a significant association between the T allele of EGF rs2298999 and gout (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.88, Padjusted = 6.42 × 10(-3)). These results provide the first evidence for an association between the EGF rs2298999 C/T polymorphism and gout. Our findings should be validated in additional populations.

  16. Identifying Associations Between Brain Imaging Phenotypes and Genetic Factors via A Novel Structured SCCA Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Zhang, Tuo; Liu, Kefei; Yan, Jingwen; Yao, Xiaohui; Risacher, Shannon L; Saykin, Andrew J; Han, Junwei; Guo, Lei; Shen, Li

    2017-06-01

    Brain imaging genetics attracts more and more attention since it can reveal associations between genetic factors and the structures or functions of human brain. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) is a powerful bi-multivariate association identification technique in imaging genetics. There have been many SCCA methods which could capture different types of structured imaging genetic relationships. These methods either use the group lasso to recover the group structure, or employ the graph/network guided fused lasso to find out the network structure. However, the group lasso methods have limitation in generalization because of the incomplete or unavailable prior knowledge in real world. The graph/network guided methods are sensitive to the sign of the sample correlation which may be incorrectly estimated. We introduce a new SCCA model using a novel graph guided pairwise group lasso penalty, and propose an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method has a strong upper bound for the grouping effect for both positively and negatively correlated variables. We show that our method performs better than or equally to two state-of-the-art SCCA methods on both synthetic and real neuroimaging genetics data. In particular, our method identifies stronger canonical correlations and captures better canonical loading profiles, showing its promise for revealing biologically meaningful imaging genetic associations.

  17. Drought is a major yield loss factor for rainfed East African highland banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.; Asten-Fermont, van A.M.; Taulya, G.

    2011-01-01

    Although drought stress has been identified among the production constraints of East African highland bananas (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome), no quantitative data were available to support this assumption. This study uses data from three on-station fertilizer trials (5–6 cycles) in Central and Southwest

  18. PUPIL-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS--MAJOR FACTORS IN DEVELOPING LANGUAGE ARTS IN SLOW LEARNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRINDIVILLE, SISTER FRANCIS DE SALES

    TEACHERS INCREASE THEIR STUDENTS' DISCOURAGEMENT AND CONFUSION BY IGNORING THEIR PERSONAL GROWTH AND BY NOT RELATING SCHOOL SITUATIONS TO LIFE PROBLEMS. FOR SLOW LEARNERS, THIS MAY LEAD TO FAILURE, FRUSTRATION, AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS. IF THE TEACHER IS TO HELP SLOW LEARNERS, HE MUST BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THEM, KNOW WHAT THEY EXPECT FROM EDUCATION,…

  19. Age, gender and hypertension as major risk factors in development of subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Rahimić Ćatić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intima-media thickness (IMT measurement of the common carotid artery (CCA is considered as useful indicator of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors is important to prevent stroke and heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate which risk factors are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common carotidartery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT.Methods: A total of 74 subjects were randomly selected in this cross – sectional study. Information on the patient’s medical history and laboratory fi ndings were obtained from their clinical records. Risk factors relevant to this study were age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ultrasound scanning of carotid arteries was performed with a 7,5 MHz linear array transducer (GE Voluson730 pro. The highest value of six common carotid artery measurements was taken as the fi nal IMT. Increased CCA-IMT was defi ned when it was > 1 mm.Results: Our data demonstrated higher CCA-IMT values in male patients compared with female patients. Increased CCA-IMT was the most closely related to age (PConclusion: Age, gender and hypertension are the most important risk factors in development of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis among high-risk populations is important in order to prevent stroke and heart diseases, which are leading causes of death worldwide.

  20. Examining Recruitment and Retention Factors for Minority STEM Majors through a Stereotype Threat Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Prior research regarding minorities in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields indicated that the factors of peer support and participation in STEM-related activities contributed positively to minority students' recruitment and retention in these fields. Utilizing stereotype threat as a conceptual framework, this…

  1. Risk factors identified for owner-reported feline obesity at around one year of age: Dry diet and indoor lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Browne, William; Casey, Rachel; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Murray, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. Previous studies investigating risk factors for feline obesity have been cross-sectional, where reverse causality cannot be ruled out. This study is the first to use prospective data from a large scale longitudinal study of pet cats ('Bristol Cats') to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity at around one year of age. Data analysed were collected via three owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged 2-4 months, 6.5-7 months and 12.5-13 months) completed between May 2010 and August 2013. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age 12.5-13 months, using the 5-point system, were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 4-5) and not overweight (BCS 1-3) and used as the dependent variable. Cat breed, neuter status, outdoor access, type of diet, frequency of wet and dry food fed and frequency of treats fed were analysed as potential risk factors. Of the 966 cats for which data were available, 7.0% were reported by their owners to be overweight/obese at 12.5-13 months of age. Descriptive data on type of diet fed at different cat ages suggest that a dry diet is the most popular choice for UK domestic cats. Significant potential explanatory variables from univariable logistic regression models were included in multivariable logistic regression models built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering of data due to multi-cat households these were extended to two-level random intercept models. Models were compared using Wald test p- values. Clustering had no impact on the analysis. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified two risk factors that were independently associated with an increased risk of feline obesity developing at 12.5-13 months of age: restricted or no outdoor access and feeding dry food as the only or major (>50%) type of food in the diet at age 12

  2. Transcriptome analysis of Neisseria meningitidis in human whole blood and mutagenesis studies identify virulence factors involved in blood survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Echenique-Rivera

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During infection Neisseria meningitidis (Nm encounters multiple environments within the host, which makes rapid adaptation a crucial factor for meningococcal survival. Despite the importance of invasion into the bloodstream in the meningococcal disease process, little is known about how Nm adapts to permit survival and growth in blood. To address this, we performed a time-course transcriptome analysis using an ex vivo model of human whole blood infection. We observed that Nm alters the expression of ≈30% of ORFs of the genome and major dynamic changes were observed in the expression of transcriptional regulators, transport and binding proteins, energy metabolism, and surface-exposed virulence factors. In particular, we found that the gene encoding the regulator Fur, as well as all genes encoding iron uptake systems, were significantly up-regulated. Analysis of regulated genes encoding for surface-exposed proteins involved in Nm pathogenesis allowed us to better understand mechanisms used to circumvent host defenses. During blood infection, Nm activates genes encoding for the factor H binding proteins, fHbp and NspA, genes encoding for detoxifying enzymes such as SodC, Kat and AniA, as well as several less characterized surface-exposed proteins that might have a role in blood survival. Through mutagenesis studies of a subset of up-regulated genes we were able to identify new proteins important for survival in human blood and also to identify additional roles of previously known virulence factors in aiding survival in blood. Nm mutant strains lacking the genes encoding the hypothetical protein NMB1483 and the surface-exposed proteins NalP, Mip and NspA, the Fur regulator, the transferrin binding protein TbpB, and the L-lactate permease LctP were sensitive to killing by human blood. This increased knowledge of how Nm responds to adaptation in blood could also be helpful to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to control the devastating

  3. Isolation of cDNA encoding a newly identified major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen: intracellular targeting to the amyloplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M B; Hough, T; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Smith, P M; Taylor, P; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D; McCluskey, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major allergenic protein from rye-grass pollen, tentatively designated Lol pIb of 31kDa and with pI 9.0. A cDNA clone encoding Lol pIb has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Lol pIb is located mainly in the starch granules. This is a distinct allergen from Lol pI, which is located in the cytosol. Lol pIb is synthesized in pollen as a pre-allergen with a transit peptide targeting the allergen to amyloplasts. Epitope mapping of the fusion protein localized the IgE binding determinant in the C-terminal domain. Images PMID:1671715

  4. Is hypertension a major independent risk factor for retinopathy in type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Deckert, T

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension is an established risk factor for retinopathy. Whether it is an independent risk factor or acts only by association with nephropathy is not known. Therefore, we studied 273 Type 1 diabetic patients. They were divided into four groups. Group 1 (n = 55) were normotensive...... and normoalbuminuric, group 2 (n = 51) had hypertension but were normoalbuminuric, group 3 (n = 33) had nephropathy but were normotensive, and group 4 (n = 134) had nephropathy and hypertension. Hypertensive patients with normoalbuminuria (blood pressure 146 +/- 19 (+/-SD)/87 +/- 12 mmHg) had the same prevalence...... of retinopathy as normoalbuminuric normotensive patients (123 +/- 12/75 +/- 5 mmHg). Hypertensive nephropathic patients (blood pressure 147 +/- 18/87 +/- 8 mmHg) had more retinopathy than hypertensive normoalbuminuric patients despite similar blood pressure (normal retina/advanced retinopathy: 3%/73% vs 46...

  5. Travel style is a major risk factor for diarrhoea in India: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, V M; Jaeger, V K; Held, L; Hatz, C; Bühler, S

    2015-07-01

    Although some studies suggested specific foods/beverages as risk factors for travellers' diarrhoea (TD), details of transmission remain unclear. We assessed the influence of travel style (luxury/middle-class versus backpacking) on TD risk. TD attack rates were compared in a prospective study among travellers to India at the University of Zurich's Travel Clinic. Information on consumption of foods/beverages was collected. Seventy-one luxury/middle-class travellers and 21 backpackers completed the study; overall 37% suffered from TD (62% backpackers, 30% luxury/middle-class travellers, OR 4.43, p 0.022). Travel style rather than the consumption of specific foods/beverages appears to be a risk factor for TD development. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Age, gender and hypertension as major risk factors in development of subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Rahimić Ćatić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intima-media thickness (IMT measurement of the common carotid artery (CCA is considered as useful indicator of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors is important to prevent stroke and heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate which risk factors are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common carotidartery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT.Methods: A total of 74 subjects were randomly selected in this cross – sectional study. Information on the patient’s medical history and laboratory fi ndings were obtained from their clinical records. Risk factors relevant to this study were age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ultrasound scanning of carotid arteries was performed with a 7,5 MHz linear array transducer (GE Voluson730 pro. The highest value of six common carotid artery measurements was taken as the fi nal IMT. Increased CCA-IMT was defi ned when it was > 1 mm.Results: Our data demonstrated higher CCA-IMT values in male patients compared with female patients. Increased CCA-IMT was the most closely related to age (P<0.001, followed by systolic blood pressure (P=0.001, diastolic blood pressure (P=0.003 and glucose blood level (P=0.048.Conclusion: Age, gender and hypertension are the most important risk factors in development of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis among high-risk populations is important in order to prevent stroke and heart diseases, which are leading causes of death worldwide.

  7. Identifying Metrics before and after Readmission following Head and Neck Surgery and Factors Affecting Readmission Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puram, Sidharth V; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2018-05-01

    Objectives Determine nationally representative readmission rates after head and neck cancer (HNCA) surgery and factors associated with readmission. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of admissions database. Methods The 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database was analyzed for HNCA surgery admissions and subsequent readmission within 30 days. The readmission rate, length of stay (LOS), disposition, mortality rate, and total charges were determined. Diagnoses and procedures upon readmission were quantified. Factors that were associated with readmission were determined. Results In total, 132,755 HNCA surgery inpatient admissions (mean age, 57.3 years; 52.2% male) were analyzed. Nationally representative metrics for HNCA surgery were mean LOS (4.4 ± 0.1 days), disposition (home without services, 80.5%; home health care, 10.9%; and skilled facility, 6.6%), mortality rate (1.0% ± 0.1%), and total charges ($53,106 ± $1167). The readmission rate was 7.7% ± 0.2% (mean readmission postoperative days, 17.1 ± 0.1), with readmission LOS (5.6 ± 0.1 days), mortality rate (3.7% ± 0.3%), and total charges ($49,425 ± $1548). The most common diagnoses at readmission included surgical complications (15.5%), mental health and substance abuse (13.1%), hypertension (12.8%), septicemia/infection (12.1%), gastrointestinal disease (11.3%), nutritional/metabolic disorders (10.1%), electrolyte abnormalities (8.5%), and esophageal disorders (8.1%). In multivariate analyses, male sex, increasing All Patients Refined Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG) severity score, and initial LOS were associated with readmission (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.11 [1.04-1.20], 1.94 [1.77-2.12], and 1.34 [1.22-1.48], respectively), whereas age and discharge location were not ( P = .361 and .482). Conclusion HNCA surgery readmission is associated with significant increases in services/skilled care on discharge, mortality, and additional total health care cost. This national analysis identifies

  8. Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with

  9. Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Bipolar Disorder: Identifying Demographic and Clinical Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Megan; Goldstein, Tina; Rooks, Brian; Merranko, John; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Ryan, Neal; Goldstein, Benjamin; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey; Keller, Martin; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to document rates of sexual activity among youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BD) and to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with first sexual activity and sexual risk behavior during follow-up. The sample was drawn from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study of 413 youth 7 to 17 years at baseline who met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorder according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children. Psychiatric symptoms during follow-up were assessed using the Adolescent Longitudinal Interview Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE). Sexual behavior and level of sexual risk (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, and/or partners with known sexually transmitted infections) were assessed by trained evaluators using the ALIFE Psychosocial Functioning Scale. Analyses were conducted in relation to first sexual behavior during follow-up and then to subsequent sexual behaviors (mean 9.7 years, standard deviation 3.2). Sexually active COBY youth (n = 292 of 413; 71%) were more likely females, using substances, and not living with both parents. Consistent with findings among healthy youth, earlier first sexual activity in the sample was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status, female sex, comorbid disruptive behavior disorder, and substance use. As with healthy youth, sexual risk behavior during follow-up was significantly associated with non-Caucasian race, low socioeconomic status, substance use, and history of sexual abuse. Of those COBY youth who were sexually active, 11% reported sexual assault or abuse, 36% reported becoming pregnant (or the significant other becoming pregnant), and 15% reported having at least 1 abortion (or the significant other having an abortion) during follow-up. Hypomanic symptoms during follow-up were temporally associated with the greatest risk for sexual risk behavior. Demographic and clinical factors could help identify youth with bipolar spectrum

  10. Identifying Factors Influencing the Establishment of a Health System Reform Plan in Iran's Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasul Fani khiavi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, health views have found a wider perspective in which non-medical expectations are particularly catered to. The health system reform plan seeks to improve society's health, decrease treatment costs, and increase patient satisfaction. This study investigated factors affecting the successful establishment of a health system reform plan. A mixed qualitative – quantitative approach was applied to conduct to explore influential factors associated with the establishment of a health system reform plan in Iran's public hospitals. The health systems and approaches to improving them in other countries have been studied. A Likert-based five-point questionnaire was the measurement instrument, and its content validity based on content validity ratio (CVR was 0.87. The construct validity, calculated using the factorial analysis and Kaiser Mayer Olkin (KMO techniques, was 0.964, which is a high level and suggests a correlation between the scale items. To complete the questionnaire, 185 experts, specialists, and executives of Iran’s health reform plan were selected using the Purposive Stratified Non Random Sampling and snowball methods. The data was then analyzed using exploratory factorial analysis and SPSS and LISREL software applications. The results of this research imply the existence of a pattern with a significant and direct relationship between the identified independent variables and the dependent variable of the establishment of a health system reform plan. The most important indices of establishing a health system reform plan, in the order of priority, were political support; suitable proportion and coverage of services presented in the society; management of resources; existence of necessary infrastructures; commitment of senior managers; constant planning, monitoring, and evaluation; and presentation of feedback to the plan's executives, intrasector/extrasector cooperation, and the plan’s guiding committee. Considering the

  11. THE EXPANSION OF FDI FLOWS – A MAJOR FACTOR OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is the process whereby geographical distance becomes a less important factor in establishing and developing cross-border economic, political and socio-cultural relations; therefore production networks and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI flows represent the main factors that play a key role in the process of getting international and worldwide spreading. Globalization phenomenon involves a process of deepening and widening of interdependence relations between different economic entities and spheres and takes into account international trade relations, the cross-border movement of international production factors, but mostly the expansion of FDI flows, having significant positive effects on the welfare of nations or geographical areas. The impact of the global economic crisis on FDI flows is a heterogeneous one, as the effects of the depression came to light in many different ways, depending on the level of development, the geographical area or the economic field. The overall fall in global FDI flows during the crisis was accompanied by a significant shift in the traditional pattern of FDI: emerging countries well-endowed with natural resources were becoming a growing source of FDI for developed countries, due to internationalization strategies carried out by their multinational companies (MNCs. Based on recent forecasts, UNCTAD specialists estimate that global FDI will recover to its pre-crisis level in 2011, rising to $1.4-1.6 trillion, approaching its 2007 peak in 2013. However, the business environment remains volatile and MNCs are cautious rather than optimistic regarding their investment plans.

  12. A review of major factors influencing plant responses to recreation impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Fred R.

    1986-09-01

    This article reviews some of the more important factors found to influence the susceptibility of plants to trampling impacts associated with recreational use of natural areas. A three-way interaction mediates plant responses to impacts: plant x environment x stress level(s). Plant responses vary in part according to the genetic constitution of the plant, life and growth form, the adaptive flexibility of the plant, and anatomical differences inherent to growth habit and morphology. Other factors that influence plant sensitivities to impacts are the habitat environments in which plants grow, since a number of conditions such as moisture excesses or deficiencies, nitrogen or oxygen starvation, late frosts, etc., cause physiological injury and may increase plant sensitivity to impacts. Among the environmental factors that may increase or lessen plant sensitivities to impacts are soil moisture levels, canopy density, elevation, aspect, microclimate, soil drainage, texture, fertility and productivity. Seasonal influences also bear consideration since environmental changes and phonological and physiological events are mediated by time of year. Stresses are caused by both direct and indirect forms of impact and vary according to season of use, frequency and amount of use, and the type of activity. These interactions are further complicated by evidence that inter- and intraspecific competition, antagonism, and commensalism may influence differences in the sensitivity of plant communities to impacts.

  13. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a major unrecognized cardiovascular risk factor in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Carolyn J; Tangchitnob, Edward P; Lepor, Norman E

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is estimated to be nearly 10% among reproductive-age women. PCOS may represent the largest underappreciated segment of the female population at risk of cardiovascular disease. Clinicians providing care to women of childbearing age must recognize the presenting clues, including irregular menses, hirsutism, alopecia, hyperandrogenemia, and obesity. The pathophysiology of PCOS is complex, involving the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, ovarian theca cell hyperplasia, hyperinsulinemia, and a multitude of other cytokine- and adipocyte-driven factors. Cardiac risk factors associated with PCOS have public health implications and should drive early screening and intervention measures. There are no consensus guidelines regarding screening for cardiovascular disease in patients with PCOS. Fasting lipid profiles and glucose examinations should be performed regularly. Carotid intimal medial thickness examinations should begin at age 30 years, and coronary calcium screening should begin at age 45 years. Treatment of the associated cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, should be incorporated into the routine PCOS patient wellness care program.

  14. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  15. Identifying functional transcription factor binding sites in yeast by considering their positional preference in the promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jou Lai

    Full Text Available Transcription factor binding site (TFBS identification plays an important role in deciphering gene regulatory codes. With comprehensive knowledge of TFBSs, one can understand molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. In the recent decades, various computational approaches have been proposed to predict TFBSs in the genome. The TFBS dataset of a TF generated by each algorithm is a ranked list of predicted TFBSs of that TF, where top ranked TFBSs are statistically significant ones. However, whether these statistically significant TFBSs are functional (i.e. biologically relevant is still unknown. Here we develop a post-processor, called the functional propensity calculator (FPC, to assign a functional propensity to each TFBS in the existing computationally predicted TFBS datasets. It is known that functional TFBSs reveal strong positional preference towards the transcriptional start site (TSS. This motivates us to take TFBS position relative to the TSS as the key idea in building our FPC. Based on our calculated functional propensities, the TFBSs of a TF in the original TFBS dataset could be reordered, where top ranked TFBSs are now the ones with high functional propensities. To validate the biological significance of our results, we perform three published statistical tests to assess the enrichment of Gene Ontology (GO terms, the enrichment of physical protein-protein interactions, and the tendency of being co-expressed. The top ranked TFBSs in our reordered TFBS dataset outperform the top ranked TFBSs in the original TFBS dataset, justifying the effectiveness of our post-processor in extracting functional TFBSs from the original TFBS dataset. More importantly, assigning functional propensities to putative TFBSs enables biologists to easily identify which TFBSs in the promoter of interest are likely to be biologically relevant and are good candidates to do further detailed experimental investigation. The FPC is implemented as a web tool at http://santiago.ee.ncku.edu.tw/FPC/.

  16. Major factors in critical equipment reliability - Auxiliary systems; The development of an auxiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsthoffer, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the author details the development of an actual auxiliary system in order to fully understand the function of each major component and how it contributes to the total operation and reliability of the system. Only after the function of an auxiliary system is thoroughly understood, can one proceed to discuss specifications, design audits, testing, operation and preventive maintenance. The application selected will be to develop a pressurized lubrication and steam turbine control oil system for the critical equipment unit. This example was selected since many readers will be familiar with this type and because it provides a good foundation towards understanding fluid sealing systems. In the exercise that follow, he will define the system requirements and determine the system parameters. This information will then be used for component sizing

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors are major determinants of thrombotic risk in patients with the lupus anticoagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Florian; Gebhart, Johanna; Rand, Jacob H; Koder, Silvia; Quehenberger, Peter; Pengo, Vittorio; Ay, Cihan; Pabinger, Ingrid

    2017-03-10

    Patients with the lupus anticoagulant (LA) are at an increased risk of thrombotic events, which in turn increase the risk of death. Understanding the determinants of thrombotic risk in patients with LA may pave the way towards targeted thromboprophylaxis. In the Vienna Lupus Anticoagulant and Thrombosis Study (LATS), we systematically evaluate risk factors for thrombotic events in patients with LA. We followed 150 patients (mean age: 41.3 years, female gender: n = 122 (81.3%), history of thrombosis or pregnancy complications: n = 111 (74.0%)), who tested repeatedly positive for LA until development of thrombosis, death, or censoring. The primary endpoint was a composite of arterial or venous thrombotic events (TEs). During a median follow-up of 9.5 years (range: 12 days-13.6 years) and 1076 person-years, 32 TEs occurred (arterial: n = 16, venous: n = 16; cumulative 10-year TE incidence: 24.3%). A prolonged lupus-sensitive activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT-LA) (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.07--5.02), diabetes (adjusted SHR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.42-13.57), and active smoking (adjusted SHR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.14-5.02) emerged as independent risk factors of both arterial and venous thrombotic risk. A risk model that includes a prolonged lupus-sensitive aPTT, smoking, and diabetes enabled stratification of LA patients into subgroups with a low, intermediate, and high risk of thrombosis (5-year TE risk of 9.7% (n = 77), 30.9% (n = 51), and 56.8% (n = 22). Long-term thrombotic risk in patients with LA is clustered within subjects harboring typical cardiovascular risk factors in addition to a prolonged lupus-sensitive aPTT, whereas patients with none of these risk factors represent a large subgroup with a low risk of thrombosis.

  18. Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B Y; Choi, J W; Park, K C; Youn, S W

    2013-02-01

    Enlarged facial pores have been esthetic problems and have become a matter of cosmetic concern. Several factors are supposed to be related to the enlargement of facial pores, although scientific evaluations were not performed yet. To assess the correlation between facial pores and possible relating factors such as age, gender, sebum secretion, skin elasticity, and the presence of acne, using objective bioengineering instruments. Sixty volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, participated in this study. Various parameters of facial pores were assessed using the Robo Skin Analyzer. The facial sebum secretion and skin elasticity were measured using the Sebumeter and the Cutometer, respectively. These data were compared and correlated to examine the possible relationship between facial pores and age, sebum secretion and skin elasticity, according to gender and the presence of acne. Male gender and the existence of acne were correlated with higher number of facial pores. Sebum secretion levels showed positive correlation with facial pores. The R7 parameter of skin elasticity was negatively correlated with facial pores, suggesting increased facial pores with decreased skin elasticity. However, the age and the severity of acne did not show a definite relationship with facial pores. Male, increased sebum and decreased skin elasticity were mostly correlated with facial pore development. Further studies on population with various demographic profiles and more severe acne may be helpful to elucidate the potential effect of aging and acne severity on facial pores. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Persistent hyperparathyroidism is a major risk factor for fractures in the five years after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, P; Caillard, S; Javier, R M; Braun, L; Heibel, F; Borni-Duval, C; Muller, C; Olagne, J; Moulin, B

    2013-10-01

    The risk of fractures after kidney transplantation is high. Hyperparathyroidism frequently persists after successful kidney transplantation and contributes to bone loss, but its impact on fracture has not been demonstrated. This longitudinal study was designed to evaluate hyperparathyroidism and its associations with mineral disorders and fractures in the 5 posttransplant years. We retrospectively analyzed 143 consecutive patients who underwent kidney transplantation between August 2004 and April 2006. The biochemical parameters were determined at transplantation and at 3, 12 and 60 months posttransplantation, and fractures were recorded. The median intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 334 ng/L (interquartile 151-642) at the time of transplantation and 123 ng/L (interquartile 75-224) at 3 months. Thirty fractures occurred in 22 patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for PTH at 3 months (area under the ROC curve = 0.711, p = 0.002) showed that a good threshold for predicting fractures was 130 ng/L (sensitivity = 81%, specificity = 57%). In a multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for fracture were PTH >130 ng/L at 3 months (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 7.5, 95% CI 2.18-25.50), and pretransplant osteopenia (AHR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.07-7.26). In summary, this study demonstrates for the first time that persistent hyperparathyroidism is an independent risk factor for fractures after kidney transplantation. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Factors Influencing Clinical Performance of Baccalaureate Nursing Majors: A Retrospective Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sandra; Fox, Amanda; Coyer, Fiona Maree

    2018-06-01

    Transition of nursing student to new graduate depends on successful completion of clinical work placement during an undergraduate course. Supporting students during the clinical placement is imperative. This study examined associations between grade point average, domestic or international status, course entry qualification, and single or dual nursing degree to successful completion of clinical placement. A retrospective audit of 665 students in a baccalaureate nursing program was conducted to examine factors influencing clinical performance of baccalaureate nursing students. A significant association between entry qualification, lower grade point average, international status, and receipt of a constructive note was found: χ 2 = 8.678, df = 3, p = .034, t(3.862), df = 663, p ⩽ .001, and Fisher's exact test = 8.581, df = 1, p = .003, respectively. Understanding factors that affect clinical performance may help early identification of students at risk and allow for supportive intervention during placement and subsequent program completion. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(6):333-338.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Endogenous Murine BST-2/Tetherin Is Not a Major Restriction Factor of Influenza A Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Londrigan

    Full Text Available BST-2 (tetherin, CD317, HM1.24 restricts virus growth by tethering enveloped viruses to the cell surface. The role of BST-2 during influenza A virus infection (IAV is controversial. Here, we assessed the capacity of endogenous BST-2 to restrict IAV in primary murine cells. IAV infection increased BST-2 surface expression by primary macrophages, but not alveolar epithelial cells (AEC. BST-2-deficient AEC and macrophages displayed no difference in susceptibility to IAV infection relative to wild type cells. Furthermore, BST-2 played little role in infectious IAV release from either AEC or macrophages. To examine BST-2 during IAV infection in vivo, we infected BST-2-deficient mice. No difference in weight loss or in viral loads in the lungs and/or nasal tissues were detected between BST-2-deficient and wild type animals. This study rules out a major role for endogenous BST-2 in modulating IAV in the mouse model of infection.

  2. Rubber elongation factor (REF, a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Berthelot

    Full Text Available REF (Hevb1 and SRPP (Hevb3 are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  3. Identifying Critical Factors Influencing the Rents of Public Rental Housing Delivery by PPPs: The Case of Nanjing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The occupancy rate of Public Rental Housing (PRH in China is relatively low due to the unreasonable rents. At the same time, the development of PRH using Public Private Partnerships (PPPs increases the complexity of the rents. Therefore, the critical factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs should be identified. Based on the comprehensive literature, this article identified a conceptual model for the factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs in China, composed of 14 factors grouped in three factor packages, and discussed the relationships among three factor packages. A survey based on Nanjing was conducted to assess the relative significance of 14 factors. According to the results, six critical factors were identified: construction costs, household income, floor area and structure, transportation, market rents in the same district and public facilities. In addition, the proposed conceptual model had a good fit. The results also supported two hypothetical relationships among three factor packages: (1 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of profits of private sectors; and (2 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of level of the characteristics of PRH units. For future research, six critical factors and the relationships among three factor packages can be used to determine the reasonable rents for PRH delivery by PPPs in China.

  4. Identifying the Best-Fitting Factor Structure of the Experience of Close Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Niclasen, Janni

    2015-01-01

    . The present study used a Danish sample with the purpose of addressing limitations in previous studies, such as the lack of diversity in cultural back- ground, restricted sample characteristics, and poorly fitting structure models. Participants consisted of 253 parents of children between the ages of 7 and 12...... years, 53% being moth- ers. The parents completed the paper version of the questionnaire. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were carried out to determine whether theoretically and empirically established models including one and two factors would also provide adequate fits in a Danish sample. A previous...... study using the original ECR suggested that Scandinavian samples may best be described using a five-factor solution. Our results indicated that the one- and two-factor models of the ECR-R did not fit the data well. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a five- factor model. Our study provides evidence...

  5. Factors Controlling Nitrogen Loadings in Major River Basins Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Galloway, J. N.; Golden, H. E.; Moore, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.; Harvey, J. W.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Scott, D.; Clune, J.

    2017-12-01

    Inputs of reactive nitrogen (all N species except for N2) have been increasing worldwide, largely due to human activities associated with food production and energy consumption via the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Despite the obvious essential benefits of a plentiful supply of food and energy, the adverse consequences associated with the accumulation of N in the environment are large. Most of the N created by human activities is released to the environment, often with unintended negative consequences. The greater the inputs of N to the landscape, the greater the potential for negative effects - caused by greenhouse gas production, ground level ozone, acid deposition, and N overload; which in turn can contribute to climate change, degradation of soils and vegetation, acidification of surface waters, coastal eutrophication, hypoxia, habitat loss, and loss of stratospheric ozone. Here we present a contemporary inventory of reactive N inputs to major water regions in the United States, and discuss accounting methods for quantifying N sources and transport. Furthermore, we quantify loadings of N from terrestrial headwaters downstream to coastal estuaries and embayments. N delivery to downstream waters is influenced by nutrient sources as well as coupled hydrological and biogeochemical processes occurring along the river corridor (e.g., travel time distributions, denitrification, and storage) that scale with stream size and are affected by impoundments such as lakes and reservoirs. This underscores the need to account for the nonlinear interactions of aquatic transport processes with watershed nutrient sources, as well as cumulative effects, in developing efficient nutrient reduction strategies. Our work is useful as a benchmark of the current N situation against which future progress can be assessed in varying water regions of the country; amidst changing N inputs, policies, and management strategies. Our results stem from the EPA Integrated Nitrogen

  6. Integrated network analysis identifies fight-club nodes as a class of hubs encompassing key putative switch genes that induce major transcriptome reprogramming during grapevine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-12-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named "fight-club hubs" characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named "switch genes" was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Attitude of Healthcare Professionals: A Major Limiting Factor in Organ Donation from Brain-Dead Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kosieradzki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public attitude toward deceased donor organ recovery in Poland is quite positive, with only 15% opposing to donation of their own organs, yet actual donation rate is only 16/pmp. Moreover, donation rate varies greatly (from 5 to 28 pmp in different regions of the country. To identify the barriers of organ donation, we surveyed 587 physicians involved in brain death diagnosis from regions with low (LDR and high donation rates (HDR. Physicians from LDR were twice more reluctant to start diagnostic procedure when clinical signs of brain death were present (14% versus 5.5% physicians from HDR who would not diagnose death, resp.. Twenty-five percent of LDR physicians (as opposed to 12% of physicians from HDR would either continue with intensive therapy or confirm brain death and limit to the so-called minimal therapy. Only 32% of LDR physicians would proceed with brain death diagnosis regardless of organ donation, compared to 67% in HDR. When donation was not an option, mechanical ventilation would be continued more often in LDR regions (43% versus 26.7%; P<0.01. In conclusion, low donation activity seems to be mostly due to medical staff attitude.

  8. Release of Polyphenols Is the Major Factor Influencing the Bioconversion of Rice Straw to Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we found that p-coumaric acid (p-CA), ferulic acid (FA), and condensed tannins were released from rice straw during saccharification. The presence of polyphenols prolonged the lag phase and lowered the productivity of lactic acid. p-CA was identified as a key inhibitor. Tannins had a lower inhibitory effect than p-CA; FA had little inhibitory effect. Acid, alkaline, and ball milling pretreatments elicited different levels of polyphenol release from rice straw. Due to the different levels of polyphenol release in the pretreatment step, the enzymatic hydrolysates contained different concentrations of polyphenols. Compared with fermentation with a synthetic medium, fermentation with the hydrolysates of ball-milled rice straw provided much lower productivity and yield of lactic acid due to the presence of polyphenols. Removal of these compounds played an important role in lactic acid fermentation. When rice straw was alkaline pretreated, the hydrolysates contained few phenolic compounds, resulting in high productivity and yield of lactic acid (1.8 g/L/h and 26.7 g/100 g straw), which were comparable to those in a synthetic medium. This indicates that there is a correlation between removal of phenolic compounds and efficiency in lactic acid fermentation.

  9. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  10. SORL1 rare variants: a major risk factor for familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, G; Charbonnier, C; Wallon, D; Quenez, O; Bellenguez, C; Grenier-Boley, B; Rousseau, S; Richard, A-C; Rovelet-Lecrux, A; Le Guennec, K; Bacq, D; Garnier, J-G; Olaso, R; Boland, A; Meyer, V; Deleuze, J-F; Amouyel, P; Munter, H M; Bourque, G; Lathrop, M; Frebourg, T; Redon, R; Letenneur, L; Dartigues, J-F; Génin, E; Lambert, J-C; Hannequin, D; Campion, D

    2016-06-01

    The SORL1 protein plays a protective role against the secretion of the amyloid β peptide, a key event in the pathogeny of Alzheimer's disease. We assessed the impact of SORL1 rare variants in early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) in a case-control setting. We conducted a whole exome analysis among 484 French EOAD patients and 498 ethnically matched controls. After collapsing rare variants (minor allele frequency ≤1%), we detected an enrichment of disruptive and predicted damaging missense SORL1 variants in cases (odds radio (OR)=5.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)=(2.02-14.99), P=7.49.10(-5)). This enrichment was even stronger when restricting the analysis to the 205 cases with a positive family history (OR=8.86, 95% CI=(3.35-27.31), P=3.82.10(-7)). We conclude that predicted damaging rare SORL1 variants are a strong risk factor for EOAD and that the association signal is mainly driven by cases with positive family history.

  11. Infectious bursal disease: seroprevalence and associated risk factors in major poultry rearing areas of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenbreie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas; Kebede, Fekadu; Lynch, Stacey E; Negussie, Haileleul

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in eight districts of Ethiopia with the objectives of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of infectious bursal disease (IBD). From the total of 2,597 chicken serum samples examined using ELISA, 83.1 % were found positive. The highest seroprevalence was found at Mekele (90.3 %) while the lowest was recorded at Gondar district (69.8 %). These differences among the study areas were statistically significant (p 0.05). The seroprevalence of the disease was found high in young (≤ 8 weeks) age group (86.6 %) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in adults (>8 weeks) (72 %). This is also statistically significant (p < 0.05) between young and adult age groups. The prevalence of IBD in different production system indicated that higher seroprevalence was recorded in intensive production system (85.9 %) while the lowest was recorded in extensive production system (81.6 %). This difference is also statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  12. Identifying and Ranking the Factors Affecting Virtuousness in Yazd University-Affiliated Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Shekari

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The results of ranking the factors of organizational virtuous showed that for moving toward virtuousness, the factors of ethical Culture, vision and Care for Community should be improvedby promoting ethics (Providing ethical standards for employee’s and manager’s behavior, Corporate Philanthropy, considering virtues in mission and vision etc. in mentioned hospitals.

  13. An empirical study on identifying critical success factors on chaos management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Chaos management is one of the most necessary efforts on managing business units. Many organizations fail to cope with undesirable circumstances, which may happen without any prior notice and as a result, they may face with significant financial losses. In this paper, we present an empirical study to determine critical success factors, which could help handle any possible chaos in organizations. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a set of travel agencies located in Tehran, Iran. Chronbach alpha is calculated as 0.821, which is well above the minimum desirable level. In addition, we have also performed factor analysis, which yields a KMO value of 0.576 with the level of significance of 0.000. The results indicate that there are six important factors including effective management strategy, internal environmental factors, creative and innovative attitudes, external environmental factors and top level management thoughts.

  14. Identifying the most critical project complexity factors using Delphi method: the Iranian construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Mozaffari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Complexity is one of the most important issues influencing success of any construction project and there are literally different studies devoted to detect important factors increasing complexity of projects. During the past few years, there have been growing interests in developing mass construction projects in Iran. The proposed study of this paper uses Delphi technique to find out about important factors as barriers of construction projects in Iran. The results show that among 47 project complexity factors, 19 factors are more important than others are. The study groups different factors into seven categories including environmental, organizational, objectives, tasks, stakeholders, technological, information systems and determines the relative importance of each. In each group, many other sub group activities are determined and they are carefully investigated. The study provides some detailed suggestions on each category to reduce the complexity of construction project.

  15. Exploratory study of the major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, S.J.; Borcherding, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The data for this study were collected at six nuclear power plant construction sites spread throughout the United States. The geographical distribution included two projects from the Midwest and one site from each the Deep South, North Central, Southwest, and Northeast regions of the nation. The range for stage of completion varied from between approximately four and seventy-seven percent. Two of the projects were utilizing boiling water reactors (BWR) while the balance of the sites made use of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems. All of the installations had generating capacities approximately equal to 1200 megawatts per unit. The primary objective of the study was to provide a comprehensive investigation of the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity by means of a sampling comprised of five hundred seventy-six union and open shop carpenters, electricians, and pipefitters. The overall average amount of time lost due to delays obtaining materials and tools, overcrowded working conditions, interferences between crews, postponements relating to quality control inspections, and waiting for and/or receiving instructions was estimated by the tradesmen to be 24.12 manhours per individual on a weekly basis. Thus, a minimum of 60.3% of each tradesman's time is lost due to one of the aforementioned predicaments. Conversely, this figure accounts for a maximum possible level of direct work activity equal to 39.7% and is not inclusive of any personal breaks or late starts/early quits. The combined mean duration that was speculated for rework activities at all six sites totaled 5.77 manhours per craftsman per week. The summation of these two estimates yields a value of 29.89 manhours showing that only slightly more than twenty-five percent of each worker's time is allocated to productive endeavors for activities being engaged in for the first time

  16. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  17. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Cheol Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although major depressive disorder (MDD has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation, functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version. Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.

  18. Occupational factors and subsequent major depressive and generalized anxiety disorders in the prospective French national SIP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Malard, Lucile; Chastang, Jean-François

    2015-02-28

    The literature has been extensive on the associations between psychosocial work factors and mental health. Nevertheless, the studies using prospective design, various concepts and more than one measurement point in time for these factors and diagnostic interview to assess mental disorders remain seldom in the literature. This study is an attempt to fill the gap in this topic. The study was based on a national representative sample of 4717 workers of the French working population (SIP survey), interviewed in 2006 and reinterviewed again in 2010 and free of mental disorders at baseline. Psychosocial work factors, measured in both 2006 and 2010, included: psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, reward, emotional demands, role conflict, ethical conflict, tensions with the public, job insecurity and work-life imbalance. Other occupational factors related to working time/hours and physical work environment were also studied. Major depressive (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) were measured using a standardised diagnostic interview (MINI). Covariates were age, occupation, marital status, having a child under 3 y, social support outside work and stressful life events. Multivariate analyses were performed using weighted logistic regression models. Using models taking all occupational factors into account simultaneously, low reward and job insecurity predicted MDD. Psychological demands, low reward, emotional demands and job insecurity were predictive of GAD. The more frequent the exposure to job insecurity, the higher the risk of MDD and GAD, and the more frequent the exposure to psychological demands and low reward, the higher the risk of GAD. No effect was observed for repeated exposure to occupational factors. Classical and emergent psychosocial work factors were predictive factors of depression and anxiety with dose-response associations in terms of frequency of exposure. More attention may be needed on emergent psychosocial work factors and

  19. Entering University Studies: Identifying Enabling Factors for a Successful Transition from School to University

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, Venicia

    2017-01-01

    The South African higher education sector is faced with high attrition and low retention rates. Studies conducted by the Council on Higher Education in South Africa have found that 50% of black students who access university study drop out, and the majority of dropouts occurred in the first year of study. While these studies revealed what the…

  20. Challenges to Academic Integrity: Identifying the Factors Associated with the Cheating Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Richard A.; Banzhoff, Caitlin A.; Martino, Abigail M.; Savasta, Katelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether seeing other students cheat in examinations and/or knowing students who routinely cheat in examinations associates with other students' cheating behaviour and on their intentions to cheat in the future. We also examined whether cheating in minor and/or major examinations associates with students' intentions to cheat in…

  1. Long-Term Military Contingency Operations: Identifying the Factors Affecting Budgeting in Annual or Supplemental Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Amanda B

    2006-01-01

    .... The results show that planning, timing, accountability, visibility, politics and policy, stakeholder influence, military objectives, and fear of change are the most important factors. These findings can help stakeholders shape funding strategy.

  2. Identifying context factors explaining physician's low performance in communication assessment: an explorative study in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, G.; Dulmen, S. van; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C. van der; Kramer, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Communication is a key competence for health care professionals. Analysis of registrar and GP communication performance in daily practice, however, suggests a suboptimal application of communication skills. The influence of context factors could reveal why communication performance

  3. Identifying context factors explaining physician's low performance in communication assessment: an explorative study in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, G.T.J.M.; Dulmen, A.M. van; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Kramer, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Communication is a key competence for health care professionals. Analysis of registrar and GP communication performance in daily practice, however, suggests a suboptimal application of communication skills. The influence of context factors could reveal why communication

  4. Using association rule mining to identify risk factors for early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivančević, Vladimir; Tušek, Ivan; Tušek, Jasmina; Knežević, Marko; Elheshk, Salaheddin; Luković, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a potentially severe disease affecting children all over the world. The available findings are mostly based on a logistic regression model, but data mining, in particular association rule mining, could be used to extract more information from the same data set. ECC data was collected in a cross-sectional analytical study of the 10% sample of preschool children in the South Bačka area (Vojvodina, Serbia). Association rules were extracted from the data by association rule mining. Risk factors were extracted from the highly ranked association rules. Discovered dominant risk factors include male gender, frequent breastfeeding (with other risk factors), high birth order, language, and low body weight at birth. Low health awareness of parents was significantly associated to ECC only in male children. The discovered risk factors are mostly confirmed by the literature, which corroborates the value of the methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors for atherosclerosis - can they be used to identify the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... fasting serum triglyceride levels (P < 0,04). Grouping these factors together ... brain infarct, coronary artery disease and intermittent claudica- tion. ... subjected to arm ergometer exercise ECG testing on a Wurburg ergometer.

  6. A unique virulence factor for proliferation and dwarfism in plants identified from a phytopathogenic bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshi, Ayaka; Oshima, Kenro; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Ishii, Yoshiko; Ozeki, Johji; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Komatsu, Ken; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important themes in agricultural science is the identification of virulence factors involved in plant disease. Here, we show that a single virulence factor, tengu-su inducer (TENGU), induces witches' broom and dwarfism and is a small secreted protein of the plant-pathogenic bacterium, phytoplasma. When tengu was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, these plants showed symptoms of witches' broom and dwarfism, which are typical of phytoplasma infection. Transgenic Arabidop...

  7. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of trace and major elements in rice plant (Oryza Sativa) at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedevi, K.R.; Rajaram, S.; Thulasi Brindha, J.; Venkataraman, S.; Hegde, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of trace and major elements in rice plant (Oryza Sativa) which is the staple diet of the public at Kalpakkam. The transfer factor from soil to various parts of plant was also studied. Trace and major elements such as Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb , Sr, K, Ca and Mg were selected based on their role in nutrition and also to study the behaviour of their radioactive counterparts. Among the trace elements Fe concentration was observed to be maximum in soil, the mean value of which was 18394 mg/kg dry wt. Cadmium concentration was observed to be minimum with the mean value of 2 mg/kg dry wt. The maximum and minimum concentration observed in the rice grain were due to Zn and Cd and the values were found to be 9 and 0.044 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. In the stem and leaves part the maximum and minimum concentration was due to Fe and Cd and the values were found to be 26.8 and 0.12 mg/kg dry wt. Similarly in the root part Fe and Cd concentrations were found to be maximum and minimum, respectively. Among the different parts of the rice plant, trace elements concentration in root was maximum and in stem and leaves major elements concentration was maximum. Transfer factor from soil to plant parts was computed. In general, the transfer factor was maximum in root, followed by stem and leaves and grain for trace elements. The transfer factor computed for whole rice plant was maximum for Zn and minimum for Sr which is a significant observation from radiological point of view. (author)

  8. Security as the Key Factor in Contemporary Tourism: Specificities Identified Through the Analysis of Responders’ Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Penić, Josipa; Kurečić, Petar

    2017-01-01

    The paper represents a product of mentor- graduate student cooperation, developed at the graduate study of Business Economics, major Tourism. Following the latest threatening events and having in mind those yet to come, we can conclude that no country can benefit from the tourism industry if at the same time does not develop its security system as an integral part of the standard tourist offer. Analyzing the trends in contemporary tourism, the safety and security issues became the decisive fa...

  9. Identifying the Critical Factors Affecting Safety Program Performance for Construction Projects within Pakistan Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Ahmed Memon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that the construction industry one of the most hazardous industries with its high rates of fatalities and injuries and high financial losses incurred through work related accident. To reduce or overcome the safety issues on construction sites, different safety programs are introduced by construction firms. A questionnaire survey study was conducted to highlight the influence of the Construction Safety Factors on safety program implementation. The input from the questionnaire survey was analyzed by using AIM (Average Index Method and rank correlation test was conducted between different groups of respondents to measure the association between different groups of respondent. The finding of this study highlighted that management support is the critical factor for implementing the safety program on projects. From statistical test, it is concluded that all respondent groups were strongly in the favor of management support factor as CSF (Critical Success Factor. The findings of this study were validated on selected case studies. Results of the case studies will help to know the effect of the factors on implementing safety programs during the execution stage.

  10. Identifying and prioritizing industry-level competitiveness factors: evidence from pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabaninejad, Hosein; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Rashidian, Arash; Baratimarnani, Ahmad; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2014-04-03

    Pharmaceutical industry is knowledge-intensive and highly globalized, in both developed and developing countries. On the other hand, if companies want to survive, they should be able to compete well in both domestic and international markets. The main purpose of this paper is therefore to develop and prioritize key factors affecting companies' competitiveness in pharmaceutical industry. Based on an extensive literature review, a valid and reliable questionnaire was designed, which was later filled up by participants from the industry. To prioritize the key factors, we used the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The results revealed that human capital and macro-level policies were two key factors placed at the highest rank in respect of their effects on the competitiveness considering the industry-level in pharmaceutical area. This study provides fundamental evidence for policymakers and managers in pharma context to enable them formulating better polices to be proactively competitive and responsive to the markets' needs.

  11. Identifying Contextual Factors of Employee Satisfaction of Performance Management at a Thai State Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molraudee Saratun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Although there has been an increase in Performance Management (PM literature over the years arguing that PM perceptions are likely to be a function of PM process components and contextual factors, the actual relationship between the contextual factors and employee satisfaction of PM remains little explored.  Extending previous research, this study examines relationships between contextual factors and employees’ PM satisfaction.  Derived from the literature, these contextual factors are motivation and empowerment of employees, role conflict, role ambiguity, perceived organisational support, procedural justice and distributive justice.  Seven directional hypotheses are tested accordingly through a series of regression analyses.  This article finds that these contextual factors, with the exception of role conflict, are directly predictive of enhanced employees’ PM satisfaction at the Thai state enterprise. Keywords: Performance management, contextual factors, performance management satisfaction, public organisations, Thailand. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. Exome sequencing identifies DYNC2H1 mutations as a common cause of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Jeune syndrome) without major polydactyly, renal or retinal involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidts, Miriam; Arts, Heleen H; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Yap, Zhimin; Oud, Machteld M; Antony, Dinu; Duijkers, Lonneke; Emes, Richard D; Stalker, Jim; Yntema, Jan-Bart L; Plagnol, Vincent; Hoischen, Alexander; Gilissen, Christian; Forsythe, Elisabeth; Lausch, Ekkehart; Veltman, Joris A; Roeleveld, Nel; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Kutkowska-Kazmierczak, Anna; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Elçioğlu, Nursel; van Maarle, Merel C; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M; Devriendt, Koenraad; Smithson, Sarah F; Wellesley, Diana; Verbeek, Nienke E; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Kayserili, Hulya; Scambler, Peter J; Beales, Philip L; Knoers, Nine VAM; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M

    2013-01-01

    Background Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) is a rare, often lethal, recessively inherited chondrodysplasia characterised by shortened ribs and long bones, sometimes accompanied by polydactyly, and renal, liver and retinal disease. Mutations in intraflagellar transport (IFT) genes cause JATD, including the IFT dynein-2 motor subunit gene DYNC2H1. Genetic heterogeneity and the large DYNC2H1 gene size have hindered JATD genetic diagnosis. Aims and methods To determine the contribution to JATD we screened DYNC2H1 in 71 JATD patients JATD patients combining SNP mapping, Sanger sequencing and exome sequencing. Results and conclusions We detected 34 DYNC2H1 mutations in 29/71 (41%) patients from 19/57 families (33%), showing it as a major cause of JATD especially in Northern European patients. This included 13 early protein termination mutations (nonsense/frameshift, deletion, splice site) but no patients carried these in combination, suggesting the human phenotype is at least partly hypomorphic. In addition, 21 missense mutations were distributed across DYNC2H1 and these showed some clustering to functional domains, especially the ATP motor domain. DYNC2H1 patients largely lacked significant extra-skeletal involvement, demonstrating an important genotype–phenotype correlation in JATD. Significant variability exists in the course and severity of the thoracic phenotype, both between affected siblings with identical DYNC2H1 alleles and among individuals with different alleles, which suggests the DYNC2H1 phenotype might be subject to modifier alleles, non-genetic or epigenetic factors. Assessment of fibroblasts from patients showed accumulation of anterograde IFT proteins in the ciliary tips, confirming defects similar to patients with other retrograde IFT machinery mutations, which may be of undervalued potential for diagnostic purposes. PMID:23456818

  13. Identifying the Factors Leading to Success: How an Innovative Science Curriculum Cultivates Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    "PlantingScience" is an award-winning program recognized for its innovation and use of computer-supported scientist mentoring. Science learners work on inquiry-based experiments in their classrooms and communicate asynchronously with practicing plant scientist-mentors about the projects. The purpose of this study was to identify specific…

  14. Digital Competence at the Beginning of Upper Secondary School: Identifying Factors Explaining Digital Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ove Edvard; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, information and communication technology has been given an increasingly large importance in our society. There seems to be a consensus regarding the necessity of supporting and developing school-based digital competence. In order to sustain digital inclusion, schools need to identify digital deficiencies and digital…

  15. Identifying the Factors Affecting Science and Mathematics Achievement Using Data Mining Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiray, S. Ahmet; Gok, Bilge; Bozkir, A. Selman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the order of significance of the variables that affect science and mathematics achievement in middle school students. For this aim, the study deals with the relationship between science and math in terms of different angles using the perspectives of multiple causes-single effect and of multiple…

  16. Effects of exposure to factor concentrates containing donations from identified AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, J.; Holman, R.C.; Dixon, G.; Lawrence, D.N.; Bozeman, L.H.; Chorba, T.L.; Tregillus, L.; Evatt, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors recipients of eight lots of factors VII and IX voluntarily withdrawn from distribution because one donor was known to have subsequently developed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with a nonexposed cohort matched by age, sex, and factor use. The factor VIII recipient cohorts did not differ in prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), T-cell subset numbers, T-helper to T-suppressor ratios, or immunogloubulin levels. Exposed individuals had higher levels of immune complexes by C1q binding and staphylococcal binding assays and lower responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. However, only the staphylococcal binding assay values were outside the normal range for our laboratory. Factor IX recipient cohorts did not differ in HIV antibody prevalence or any immune tests. Although exposed and nonexposed individuals did not differ from each other in a clinically meaningful fashion at initial testing, both the exposed and nonexposed cohorts had high rats of HIV seroprevalence. Market withdrawals were clearly insufficient means of limiting the spread of HIV in hemophilic patients; however, the currently available methods of donor screening and viral inactivation of blood products will prevent continued exposed within this population

  17. Identifying Factors That Are Most Influential in Veteran Teachers Seriously Considering Leaving the Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culkin, Michaela A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the factors most influential when veteran teachers seriously consider leaving the teaching profession. Teachers in the education profession who are in the later stages of their careers hold the experience that benefits all who teach in schools. There is ample literature discussing why new teachers leave the profession, but…

  18. Testing job typologies and identifying at-risk subpopulations using factor mixture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, A. C.; Igic, Ivana; Meier, Laurenz L.; Semmer, N. K.; Schaubroeck, J.; Brunner, Beatrice; Elfering, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Research in occupational health psychology has tended to focus on the effects of single job characteristics or various job characteristics combined into 1 factor. However, such a variable-centered approach does not account for the clustering of job attributes among groups of employees. We addressed

  19. The CAREFALL Triage instrument identifying risk factors for recurrent falls in elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensbroek, van P. Boele; Dijk, van N.; Breda, van G.F.; Scheffer, A.C.; Cammen, van der T.J.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Goslings, J.C.; Rooij, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the CAREFALL Triage Instrument (CTI), a self-administered questionnaire concerning modifiable risk factors for recurrent falls in elderly patients who experienced fall. METHODS: This study in patients 65 years or older who experienced fall was performed at the accident and

  20. The CAREFALL Triage instrument identifying risk factors for recurrent falls in elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele van Hensbroek, Pieter; van Dijk, Nynke; van Breda, G. Fenna; Scheffer, Alice C.; van der Cammen, Tischa J.; Lips, Paul; Goslings, J. Carel; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate the CAREFALL Triage Instrument (CTI), a self-administered questionnaire concerning modifiable risk factors for recurrent falls in elderly patients who experienced fall. Methods: This study in patients 65 years or older who experienced fall was performed at the accident and

  1. Identifying Academic & Social Risk Factors of Baccalaureate Nursing Students Using the College Persistence Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kelly J.; Shirley, Janet A.; Kennedy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Student success in a baccalaureate nursing program is of utmost importance at a southern College of Nursing (CON).CON faculty wanted to understand better what academic/ social risk factors attributed to attrition in the first year of the nursing program. The purpose of this study was to determine academic and social risk factors…

  2. An OMERACT Initiative Toward Consensus to Identify and Characterize Candidate Contextual Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finger, Monika E; Boonen, Annelies; Woodworth, Thasia G

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The importance of contextual factors (CF) for appropriate patient-specific care is widely acknowledged. However, evidence in clinical trials on how CF influence outcomes remains sparse. The 2014 Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Handbook introduced the role of CF in outcome as...

  3. Identifying Factors That Affect Higher Educational Achievements of Jamaican Seventh-Day Adventists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-method explanatory research examined factors that influenced Jamaican Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) members to pursue higher education. It sought to investigate whether the source of the motivation is tied to the Church's general philosophy on education or to its overall programs as experienced by the membership at large. The question of…

  4. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  5. Identifying Factors Causing Variability in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes in a Polygonal Tundra Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Wainwright, H. M.; Vaughn, L. S.; Curtis, J. B.; Torn, M. S.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) flux variations in Arctic tundra environments are important to understand because of the vast amount of soil carbon stored in these regions and the potential of these regions to convert from a global carbon sink to a source under warmer conditions. Multiple factors potentially contribute to GHG flux variations observed in these environments, including snowmelt timing, growing season length, active layer thickness, water table variations, and temperature fluctuations. The objectives of this study are to investigate temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 fluxes at Barrow, AK over three successive growing seasons (2012-14) and to determine the factors influencing this variability using a novel entropy-based classification scheme. We analyzed soil, vegetation, and climate parameters as well as GHG fluxes at multiple locations within low-, flat- and high-centered polygons at Barrow, AK as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) Arctic project. Entropy results indicate that different environmental factors govern variability in GHG fluxes under different spatiotemporal settings. In particular, flat-centered polygons are more likely to become significant sources of CO2 during warm and dry years as opposed to high-centered polygons that contribute considerably to CO2 emissions during cold and wet years. In contrast, the highest CH4 emissions were always associated with low-centered polygons. Temporal variability in CO2 fluxes was primarily associated with factors affecting soil temperature and/or vegetation dynamics during early and late season periods. Temporal variability in CH4 fluxes was primarily associated with changes in vegetation cover and its covariability with primary controls such as seasonal thaw—rather than direct response to changes in soil moisture. Overall, entropy results document which factors became important under different spatiotemporal settings, thus providing clues concerning the manner in which ecosystem

  6. Identifying and Ranking the Effective Factors on Successful Implementation of Social Commerce in Iran, Using AHP Fuzzy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rahimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Social commerce has been introduced as a new approach to increase sales, number of customers and reduce marketing expenditures. This approach is a combination of business, communication between people, as well as communicative and informative technologies based on web 2.0 Its achievement originated from different factors relied on business, individuals, culture, and technology. These factors have been primarily identified on the basis of library researches and classified into six infrastructural groups including:  technical, economical and human resources, cultural, rules governing the countries, style of management, and business. Then, it identified priority of the factors by using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Innovation of this research was to extract a comprehensive list of factors and to prioritize them based on specific conditions in Iran.

  7. A unique virulence factor for proliferation and dwarfism in plants identified from a phytopathogenic bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Ayaka; Oshima, Kenro; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Ishii, Yoshiko; Ozeki, Johji; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Komatsu, Ken; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important themes in agricultural science is the identification of virulence factors involved in plant disease. Here, we show that a single virulence factor, tengu-su inducer (TENGU), induces witches' broom and dwarfism and is a small secreted protein of the plant-pathogenic bacterium, phytoplasma. When tengu was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, these plants showed symptoms of witches' broom and dwarfism, which are typical of phytoplasma infection. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing tengu exhibited similar symptoms, confirming the effects of tengu expression on plants. Although the localization of phytoplasma was restricted to the phloem, TENGU protein was detected in apical buds by immunohistochemical analysis, suggesting that TENGU was transported from the phloem to other cells. Microarray analyses showed that auxin-responsive genes were significantly down-regulated in the tengu-transgenic plants compared with GUS-transgenic control plants. These results suggest that TENGU inhibits auxin-related pathways, thereby affecting plant development. PMID:19329488

  8. Primary factors identified in sport science students' coaching philosophies : sport education and community involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Liandi van den Berg

    2014-01-01

    Youth sport coaches have a great influence on the experiences and development of children who participate in organized sport. Given this influence of coaches on children and the huge participation numbers of children in sports, coach education programmes received increasing research attention over the past 30 years. Numerous important facets of coach educational programmes have been identified, of which the first key developmental domain as indicated by the President's Council on Fitness, Spo...

  9. Differential changes in free and total insulin-like growth factor I after major, elective abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, Christian; Frystyk, Jan; Ørskov, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Major surgery is accompanied by extensive proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Proteolysis of IGFBP-3 is generally believed to increase IGF bioavailability due to a diminished affinity of the IGFBP-3 fragments for IGFs. We have investigated 18 patients...... undergoing elective ileo-anal J-pouch surgery. Patients were randomized to treatment with GH (12 IU/day; n = 9) or placebo (n = 9) from 2 days before to 7 days after operation. Free IGF-I and IGF-II were measured by ultrafiltration of serum, and IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity was determined by a [125I...

  10. IDENTIFYING ELEVEN FACTORS OF SERVICE MARKETING MIX (4PS) EFFECTIVE ON TENDENCY OF PATIENTS TOWARD PRIVATE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Etesaminia, Samira; Jafari, Mehrnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the important factors of correct management is to identify the reasons for patient tendency toward private hospitals. This study measures these factors based on service marketing mixes. Patients and methods: This study used a cross sectional descriptive methodology. The study was conducted during 6 months in 2015. The studied population included patients of private hospitals in Tehran. Random sampling was used (n = 200). Data was collected by an author-made questionnaire ...

  11. Calibration of Local Area Weather Radar-Identifying significant factors affecting the calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Niels Einar; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is an X-band weather radar developed to meet the needs of high resolution rainfall data for hydrological applications. The LAWR system and data processing methods are reviewed in the first part of this paper, while the second part of the paper focuses...... cases when the calibration is based on a factorized 3 parameter linear model instead of a single parameter linear model....

  12. Identifying driving factors for the establishment of cooperative GMO-free zones in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Consmuller, Nicola; Beckmann, Volker; Petrick, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Since the end of the quasi-moratorium on genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the European Union in 2004, the establishment of GMO-free zones has become an EU wide phenomenon. In contrast to other European countries, Germany follows the concept of cooperative GMO-free zones where neighbouring farmers contractually refrain from GMO cultivation. In this article, we address the question which underlying factors could account for the establishment of cooperative GMO-free zones in Germany. Draw...

  13. Job satisfaction of nurses and identifying factors of job satisfaction in Slovenian Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Lorber, Mateja; Skela Savič, Brigita

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the level of job satisfaction of nursing professionals in Slovenian hospitals and factors influencing job satisfaction in nursing. Methods The study included 4 hospitals selected from the hospital list comprising 26 hospitals in Slovenia. The employees of these hospitals represent 29.8% and 509 employees included in the study represent 6% of all employees in nursing in Slovenian hospitals. One structured survey questionnaire was administered to the lea...

  14. Identifying and Ranking the Factors Affecting Virtuousness in Yazd University-Affiliated Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    H Shekari; N Jalalian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Recently virtue has become a topic of serious examination among organizational researchers. In other words, organizations are moving toward virtuous organization. The purpose of this paper is determining and prioritizing the principal factors of a virtuous organization in Yazd University-Affiliated Hospitals in order to put virtues into practice. Methods: The procedure we proposed to reach the research aim consists of three steps. In the first Step, we extracted...

  15. Identifying the main Individual Factors Influencing Entrepreneurial Decision making Biases: A Qualitative Content Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kambiz Talebi; Pouria Nouri; Abdolah Ahmadi Kafeshani

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurial decisions are one of the most important functions of entrepreneurs so as to manage their ventures on a daily basis. These decisions are not fully rational and because of various factors like cognitive and personal characteristics, environmental and firm-related issues, entrepreneurial decisions are prone to biases. Decision making biases has become a favorable research topic among entrepreneurial scholars. Decision making biases are responsible for lots of entrepreneurial succ...

  16. Job satisfaction of nurses and identifying factors of job satisfaction in Slovenian Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Mateja; Skela Savič, Brigita

    2012-06-01

    To determine the level of job satisfaction of nursing professionals in Slovenian hospitals and factors influencing job satisfaction in nursing. The study included 4 hospitals selected from the hospital list comprising 26 hospitals in Slovenia. The employees of these hospitals represent 29.8% and 509 employees included in the study represent 6% of all employees in nursing in Slovenian hospitals. One structured survey questionnaire was administered to the leaders and the other to employees, both consisting 154 items evaluated on a 5 point Likert-type scale. We examined the correlation between independent variables (age, number of years of employment, behavior of leaders, personal characteristics of leaders, and managerial competencies of leaders) and the dependent variable (job satisfaction - satisfaction with the work, coworkers, management, pay, etc) by applying correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis. In addition, factor analysis was used to establish characteristic components of the variables measured. We found a medium level of job satisfaction in both leaders (3.49±0.5) and employees (3.19±0.6), however, there was a significant difference between their estimates (t=3.237; P=lt;0.001). Job satisfaction was explained by age (Plt;0.05; β=0.091), years of employment (Plt;0.05; β=0.193), personal characteristics of leaders (Plt;0.001; β=0.158), and managerial competencies of leaders (Plt;0.000; β=0.634) in 46% of cases. The factor analysis yielded four factors explaining 64% of the total job satisfaction variance. Satisfied employees play a crucial role in an organization's success, so health care organizations must be aware of the importance of employees' job satisfaction. It is recommended to monitor employees' job satisfaction levels on an annual basis.

  17. Factors associated with failure to achieve remission and with relapse after remission in patients with major depressive disorder in the PERFORM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoussi, Delphine; Touya, Maëlys; Haro, Josep Maria; Jönsson, Bengt; Knapp, Martin; Botrel, Bastien; Florea, Ioana; Loft, Henrik; Rive, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    The Prospective Epidemiological Research on Functioning Outcomes Related to Major Depressive Disorder (PERFORM) study has been initiated to better understand the course of a depressive episode and its impact on patient functioning. This analysis aimed to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with failure to achieve remission at month 2 after initiating or switching antidepressant monotherapy and with subsequent relapse at month 6 for patients in remission at month 2. This was a 2-year observational cohort study in 1,159 outpatients aged 18-65 years with major depressive disorder initiating or undergoing the first switch of antidepressant monotherapy. Factors with P 8 weeks (OR 0.51), being in psychotherapy (OR 0.51), sexual dysfunction (OR 0.62), and severity of depression (OR 0.87). Factors significantly associated with relapse at month 6 were male sex (OR 2.47), being married or living as a couple (OR 2.73), residual patient-reported cognitive symptoms at 2 months (OR 1.12 per additional unit of Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-5 score) and residual depressive symptoms at 2 months (OR 1.27 per additional unit of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score). Different factors appear to be associated with failure to achieve remission in patients with major depressive disorder and with subsequent relapse in patients who do achieve remission. Patient-reported cognitive dysfunction is an easily measurable and treatable characteristic that may be associated with an increased likelihood of relapse at 6 months in patients who have achieved remission.

  18. [Analysis of dietary pattern and diabetes mellitus influencing factors identified by classification tree model in adults of Fujian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F L; Ye, Y; Yan, Y S

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To find out the dietary patterns and explore the relationship between environmental factors (especially dietary patterns) and diabetes mellitus in the adults of Fujian. Methods: Multi-stage sampling method were used to survey residents aged ≥18 years by questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory detection in 10 disease surveillance points in Fujian. Factor analysis was used to identify the dietary patterns, while logistic regression model was applied to analyze relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes mellitus, and classification tree model was adopted to identify the influencing factors for diabetes mellitus. Results: There were four dietary patterns in the population, including meat, plant, high-quality protein, and fried food and beverages patterns. The result of logistic analysis showed that plant pattern, which has higher factor loading of fresh fruit-vegetables and cereal-tubers, was a protective factor for non-diabetes mellitus. The risk of diabetes mellitus in the population at T2 and T3 levels of factor score were 0.727 (95 %CI: 0.561-0.943) times and 0.736 (95 %CI : 0.573-0.944) times higher, respectively, than those whose factor score was in lowest quartile. Thirteen influencing factors and eleven group at high-risk for diabetes mellitus were identified by classification tree model. The influencing factors were dyslipidemia, age, family history of diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, career, sex, sedentary time, abdominal adiposity, BMI, marital status, sleep time and high-quality protein pattern. Conclusion: There is a close association between dietary patterns and diabetes mellitus. It is necessary to promote healthy and reasonable diet, strengthen the monitoring and control of blood lipids, blood pressure and body weight, and have good lifestyle for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus.

  19. Epidermal growth factor gene is a newly identified candidate gene for gout

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Han; Chunwei Cao; Zhaotong Jia; Shiguo Liu; Zhen Liu; Ruosai Xin; Can Wang; Xinde Li; Wei Ren; Xuefeng Wang; Changgui Li

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 4q25 has been identified as a genomic region associated with gout. However, the associations of gout with the genes in this region have not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed two-stage analysis to determine whether variations in candidate genes in the 4q25 region are associated with gout in a male Chinese Han population. We first evaluated 96 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight inflammatory/immune pathway- or glucose/lipid metabolism-related genes in the 4q25 re...

  20. Identifying at-risk profiles and protective factors for problem gambling: A longitudinal study across adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E

    2018-05-01

    Past studies have identified various risk and protective factors for problem gambling (PG). However, no study has examined the interplay between these factors using a combination of person-centered and variable-centered approaches embedded within a longitudinal design. The present study aimed to (a) identify distinct profiles in early adolescence based on a set of risk factors commonly associated with PG (impulsivity, depression, anxiety, drug-alcohol use, aggressiveness, and antisociality), (b) explore the difference in reported gambling problems between these profiles during midadolescence and early adulthood, and (c) identify family- and peer-related variables that could operate as protective or compensatory factors in this context. Two samples were used: (a) a population sample (N = 1,033) living in low socioeconomic-status neighborhoods and (b) a population sample (N = 3,017) representative of students attending Quebec schools. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify at-risk profiles based on individual risk factors measured at age 12 years. Negative binomial regression models were estimated to compare profiles in terms of their reported gambling problems at ages 16 and 23. Finally, family- and peer-related variables measured at age 14 were included to test their protective or compensatory role with respect to the link between at-risk profiles and gambling problems. Four profiles were identified: well-adjusted, internalizing, externalizing, and comorbid. Compared to the well-adjusted profile, the externalizing and comorbid profiles reported more gambling problems at ages 16 and 23, but the internalizing profile did not differ significantly. Various protective and compensatory factors emerged for each profile at both time points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Spatial And Temporal Patterns As Well As Major Influencing Factors Of Global And Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance Over China: 1960-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Sun, F.

    2017-12-01

    Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) on Earth is a central element of climate systems. With changes in the climate and regional development, the patterns and influencing factors of GHI, in addition to presenting global consistency, are increasingly showing regional particularities. Based on data for GHI, Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DHI) and potential impact factors (geographical position, elevation, cloud cover, water vapor, and ground atmospheric transparency related variables) from 1960 to 2014 in China, we analyzed the pattern and major influencing factors of GHI and DHI. The results showed that the major influencing factors of the GHI spatial pattern were the total cloud cover (TCC) and relative humidity (RH) in China. Dividing all of China into two regions, the major factors were the water vapor pressure (WVP) in the northern region and TCC in the southern region. And we divided the GHI and DHI data into two periods (1960-1987 and 1988-2014) due to global dimming and brightening observed in China in the late 1980's. The temporal GHI showed that 31 of 58 decreased significantly with an average decreasing rate of 95 MJ.10yr-1 during the periods of 1960-2014 and 49 of 76 stations decreased significantly with an rate of 342 MJ.10yr-1 during 1960-1987, whereas 57 of 88 stations did not change and 24 stations increased significantly with an rate of 201 MJ.10yr-1 during the period of 1988-2014. The temporal DHI showed that 40 of 61sites did not change significantly from 1960 to 1987. The major influencing factors for temporal changes of GHI in nine typical cities from 1960 to 2013 were as follows: air quality-related variables in super cities, sandstorms and wind in desert oasis cities, clouds in cities with good air quality and a low cloud amount (LCA) and annual fog days (FD) in Chengdu. Overall, we identified characteristics of GHI and DHI based on global climate change and regional urban development and found that the spatial characteristics of GHI results for

  2. Identifying Risk Factors for Late-Onset (50+) Alcohol Use Disorder and Heavy Drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and PsychInfo. Nine studies were included in the final review. Results: The search revealed that only very few studies have been conducted. Hence, the evidence is limited but suggests that stress, role/identity loss, and friends’approval of drinking are associated...... base their conclusions on a certain preconception of older adults with alcohol problems, which leads to a rowof circular arguments. The factors that have been measured seem to have changed over time. Conclusion: There has been a lack of focus on the field of late-onset AUD since the 1970s, which...

  3. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  4. No Major Host Genetic Risk Factor Contributed to A(H1N1)2009 Influenza Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Bracho, María Alma; Galán, Juan Carlos; Pumarola, Tomàs; Castilla, Jesús; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez-Dominguez, Mario; Quintela, Inés; Bonet, Núria; Garcia-Garcerà, Marc; Domínguez, Angela; González-Candelas, Fernando; Calafell, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    While most patients affected by the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic experienced mild symptoms, a small fraction required hospitalization, often without concomitant factors that could explain such a severe course. We hypothesize that host genetic factors could contribute to aggravate the disease. To test this hypothesis, we compared the allele frequencies of 547,296 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between 49 severe and 107 mild confirmed influenza A cases, as well as against a general population sample of 549 individuals. When comparing severe vs. mild influenza A cases, only one SNP was close to the conventional p = 5×10-8. This SNP, rs28454025, sits in an intron of the GSK233 gene, which is involved in a neural development, but seems not to have any connections with immunological or inflammatory functions. Indirectly, a previous association reported with CD55 was replicated. Although sample sizes are low, we show that the statistical power in our design was sufficient to detect highly-penetrant, quasi-Mendelian genetic factors. Hence, and assuming that rs28454025 is likely to be a false positive, no major genetic factor was detected that could explain poor influenza A course.

  5. Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to Effective Consideration of Human and Organisational Factors in Event Analysis and Root Cause Analysis. Workshop Proceedings, September 21-22, 2009, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear licensees must have effective processes for learning from operating experience in order to manage safety, secure continuous improvement and defend against the potential for repeat events. These processes include root cause analysis (RCA) to identify the underlying causes of events and mechanisms to learn from these analyses and to implement improvements. Correctly identifying and correcting the causes of events will allow lessons to be learned and shared with others in the industry. The treatment of Human and Organisational Factors (HOF) in RCA is of special interest to WGHOF. It is estimated that approximately 60-80% of events in the nuclear industry can be attributed to human and organisational factors. Although the importance of correctly identifying the HOF causes is understood, there is still a tendency for the analysis to focus solely on the technical issues of the event. The history of prominent events across the major hazards sector shows that HOF lessons often fail to be learned. A NEA/CSNI special experts meeting entitled 'Identification of Barriers to Analyzing and Identifying Human and Organisational Factors in Root Cause Analysis' was held at the NEA Headquarters in Paris, France on September 21-22, 2009. A total of 17 participants from 10 countries representing licensee organisations, regulators, international organisations and an independent consultant attended the meeting. The meeting was structured to allow for small group discussions during which a number of themes were explored, followed by plenary discussion. There were also four papers presented which complemented the discussion themes. As set out in the objectives of this work, the participants identified barriers to the effective treatment of HOF in RCA and recommendations to mitigate the effects of these barriers. Many of the barriers and recommendations identified relate to the RCA process in general, not specifically to the treatment of HOF in the RCA process. This is logical, for

  6. Statistical Analyses of Scatterplots to Identify Important Factors in Large-Scale Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Helton, J.C.

    1999-04-01

    The robustness of procedures for identifying patterns in scatterplots generated in Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses is investigated. These procedures are based on attempts to detect increasingly complex patterns in the scatterplots under consideration and involve the identification of (1) linear relationships with correlation coefficients, (2) monotonic relationships with rank correlation coefficients, (3) trends in central tendency as defined by means, medians and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, (4) trends in variability as defined by variances and interquartile ranges, and (5) deviations from randomness as defined by the chi-square statistic. The following two topics related to the robustness of these procedures are considered for a sequence of example analyses with a large model for two-phase fluid flow: the presence of Type I and Type II errors, and the stability of results obtained with independent Latin hypercube samples. Observations from analysis include: (1) Type I errors are unavoidable, (2) Type II errors can occur when inappropriate analysis procedures are used, (3) physical explanations should always be sought for why statistical procedures identify variables as being important, and (4) the identification of important variables tends to be stable for independent Latin hypercube samples.

  7. A macroepigenetic approach to identify factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufault Renee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of children ages 6 to 21 in the United States receiving special education services under the autism disability category increased 91% between 2005 to 2010 while the number of children receiving special education services overall declined by 5%. The demand for special education services continues to rise in disability categories associated with pervasive developmental disorders. Neurodevelopment can be adversely impacted when gene expression is altered by dietary transcription factors, such as zinc insufficiency or deficiency, or by exposure to toxic substances found in our environment, such as mercury or organophosphate pesticides. Gene expression patterns differ geographically between populations and within populations. Gene variants of paraoxonase-1 are associated with autism in North America, but not in Italy, indicating regional specificity in gene-environment interactions. In the current review, we utilize a novel macroepigenetic approach to compare variations in diet and toxic substance exposure between these two geographical populations to determine the likely factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States.

  8. IDENTIFYING FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE SATISFACTION OF STUDENTS IN E-LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent CALLI,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing interest in the application of e-learning through the enhancement of internet and computer technologies. Satisfaction has appeared as a key factor in order to develop efficient course content in line with students’ demands and expectations. Thus, a lot of research has been conducted on the concept of satisfaction in electronic environments. Satisfaction has been seen to be the most significant variable on loyalty and usage intention in marketing and information science terms, which can also be highly related to academic success. In this regard, this study set out to investigate the effects of several variables on the learning processes of 930 e-learning students in the Sakarya University distance learning program. The findings of the research indicated that factors perceived playfulness, perceived ease of use and multimedia content effectiveness had a significant effect on perceived usefulness. Furthermore, it was concluded that satisfaction was affected by perceived usefulness, perceived playfulness and multimedia content effectivenes

  9. Biomechanical approaches to identify and quantify injury mechanisms and risk factors in women's artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Hume, Patria A

    2012-09-01

    Targeted injury prevention strategies, based on biomechanical analyses, have the potential to help reduce the incidence and severity of gymnastics injuries. This review outlines the potential benefits of biomechanics research to contribute to injury prevention strategies for women's artistic gymnastics by identification of mechanisms of injury and quantification of the effects of injury risk factors. One hundred and twenty-three articles were retained for review after searching electronic databases using key words, including 'gymnastic', 'biomech*', and 'inj*', and delimiting by language and relevance to the paper aim. Impact load can be measured biomechanically by the use of instrumented equipment (e.g. beatboard), instrumentation on the gymnast (accelerometers), or by landings on force plates. We need further information on injury mechanisms and risk factors in gymnastics and practical methods of monitoring training loads. We have not yet shown, beyond a theoretical approach, how biomechanical analysis of gymnastics can help reduce injury risk through injury prevention interventions. Given the high magnitude of impact load, both acute and accumulative, coaches should monitor impact loads per training session, taking into consideration training quality and quantity such as the control of rotation and the height from which the landings are executed.

  10. Identifying Critical Success Factors for TQM and Employee Performance in Malaysian Automotive Industry: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia Dedy, Aimie; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Chin, Thoo Ai; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    TQM is a management philosophy embracing all activities through which the needs and expectations of the customer and the community and the goals of the companies are satisfied in the most efficient and cost effective way by maximizing the potential of all workers in a continuing drive for total quality improvement. TQM is very important to the company especially in automotive industry in order for them to survive in the competitive global market. The main objective of this study is to review a relationship between TQM and employee performance. Authors review updated literature on TQM study with two main targets: (a) evolution of TQM considering as a set of practice, (b) and its impacts to employee performance. Therefore, two research questions are proposed in order to review TQM constructs and employee performance measure: (a) Is the set of critical success factors associated with TQM valid as a whole? (b) What is the critical success factors should be considered to measure employee performance in automotive industry?

  11. Sequence Analysis of Hypothetical Proteins from 26695 to Identify Potential Virulence Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abu Turab Naqvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria that is responsible for gastritis in human. Its spiral flagellated body helps in locomotion and colonization in the host environment. It is capable of living in the highly acidic environment of the stomach with the help of acid adaptive genes. The genome of H. pylori 26695 strain contains 1,555 coding genes that encode 1,445 proteins. Out of these, 340 proteins are characterized as hypothetical proteins (HP. This study involves extensive analysis of the HPs using an established pipeline which comprises various bioinformatics tools and databases to find out probable functions of the HPs and identification of virulence factors. After extensive analysis of all the 340 HPs, we found that 104 HPs are showing characteristic similarities with the proteins with known functions. Thus, on the basis of such similarities, we assigned probable functions to 104 HPs with high confidence and precision. All the predicted HPs contain representative members of diverse functional classes of proteins such as enzymes, transporters, binding proteins, regulatory proteins, proteins involved in cellular processes and other proteins with miscellaneous functions. Therefore, we classified 104 HPs into aforementioned functional groups. During the virulence factors analysis of the HPs, we found 11 HPs are showing significant virulence. The identification of virulence proteins with the help their predicted functions may pave the way for drug target estimation and development of effective drug to counter the activity of that protein.

  12. A retrospective chart review to identify perinatal factors associated with food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhower Karpa, Kelly; Paul, Ian M; Leckie, J Alexander; Shung, Sharon; Carkaci-Salli, Nurgul; Vrana, Kent E; Mauger, David; Fausnight, Tracy; Poger, Jennifer

    2012-10-19

    Gut flora are important immunomodulators that may be disrupted in individuals with atopic conditions. Probiotic bacteria have been suggested as therapeutic modalities to mitigate or prevent food allergic manifestations. We wished to investigate whether perinatal factors known to disrupt gut flora increase the risk of IgE-mediated food allergies. Birth records obtained from 192 healthy children and 99 children diagnosed with food allergies were reviewed retrospectively. Data pertaining to delivery method, perinatal antibiotic exposure, neonatal nursery environment, and maternal variables were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between variables of interest and subsequent food allergy diagnosis. Retrospective investigation did not find perinatal antibiotics, NICU admission, or cesarean section to be associated with increased risk of food allergy diagnosis. However, associations between food allergy diagnosis and male gender (66 vs. 33; p=0.02) were apparent in this cohort. Additionally, increasing maternal age at delivery was significantly associated with food allergy diagnosis during childhood (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.105; p=0.005). Gut flora are potent immunomodulators, but their overall contribution to immune maturation remains to be elucidated. Additional understanding of the interplay between immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors underlying food allergy development need to be clarified before probiotic therapeutic interventions can routinely be recommended for prevention or mitigation of food allergies. Such interventions may be well-suited in male infants and in infants born to older mothers.

  13. Modifiable risk factors predicting major depressive disorder at four year follow-up: a decision tree approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J

    2009-11-22

    Relative to physical health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, little is known about risk factors that predict the prevalence of depression. The present study investigates the expected effects of a reduction of these risks over time, using the decision tree method favoured in assessing cardiovascular disease risk. The PATH through Life cohort was used for the study, comprising 2,105 20-24 year olds, 2,323 40-44 year olds and 2,177 60-64 year olds sampled from the community in the Canberra region, Australia. A decision tree methodology was used to predict the presence of major depressive disorder after four years of follow-up. The decision tree was compared with a logistic regression analysis using ROC curves. The decision tree was found to distinguish and delineate a wide range of risk profiles. Previous depressive symptoms were most highly predictive of depression after four years, however, modifiable risk factors such as substance use and employment status played significant roles in assessing the risk of depression. The decision tree was found to have better sensitivity and specificity than a logistic regression using identical predictors. The decision tree method was useful in assessing the risk of major depressive disorder over four years. Application of the model to the development of a predictive tool for tailored interventions is discussed.

  14. Modifiable risk factors predicting major depressive disorder at four year follow-up: a decision tree approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Helen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relative to physical health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, little is known about risk factors that predict the prevalence of depression. The present study investigates the expected effects of a reduction of these risks over time, using the decision tree method favoured in assessing cardiovascular disease risk. Methods The PATH through Life cohort was used for the study, comprising 2,105 20-24 year olds, 2,323 40-44 year olds and 2,177 60-64 year olds sampled from the community in the Canberra region, Australia. A decision tree methodology was used to predict the presence of major depressive disorder after four years of follow-up. The decision tree was compared with a logistic regression analysis using ROC curves. Results The decision tree was found to distinguish and delineate a wide range of risk profiles. Previous depressive symptoms were most highly predictive of depression after four years, however, modifiable risk factors such as substance use and employment status played significant roles in assessing the risk of depression. The decision tree was found to have better sensitivity and specificity than a logistic regression using identical predictors. Conclusion The decision tree method was useful in assessing the risk of major depressive disorder over four years. Application of the model to the development of a predictive tool for tailored interventions is discussed.

  15. Identifying and Quantifying Cultural Factors That Matter to the IT Workforce: An Approach Based on Automated Content Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; Debortoli, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    builds on 112,610 online reviews of Fortune 500 IT companies collected from Glassdoor, an online platform on which current and former employees can anonymously review companies and their management. We perform an automated content analysis to identify cultural factors that employees emphasize...

  16. Identifying and Prioritizing the Key Factors Influencing Customer Decision Making in Buying Organizational Software (A survey about HAMKARAN Co.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahryar Azizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of adopting information systems, specially packed software, facilitate managing the organizational process, hence, identification the factors influence customer buying decision is vital for software providers. This mixed method study tried to identify the factors affecting decision making of buying new organizational software, classify and rank them beside. In-depth interviews with 10 customers of Hamkaran system that had the potential of buying new software have been done and content analysis of these interviews revealed some factors in five categories that became the base of questionnaire design. This study is applied in view of aim, and is descriptive-survey in view of entity. Sample of 177 customers of System Group Co. have been chosen for the study. Kruskal-Wallis test and T test of normality showed all factors to be effective. Then the factors have been prioritized using Frideman test which are as follows: buyer`s internal organizational factors, product feature, factors related to sellers organization, factors related to process and selling promotion, market and environmental factors.

  17. Towards more efficient burn care: Identifying factors associated with good quality of life post-burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, V; Phillips, M; Allison, G T; Wood, F M; Ching, D; Wicaksono, D; Plowman, S; Hendrie, D; Edgar, D W

    2015-11-01

    As minor burn patients constitute the vast majority of a developed nation case-mix, streamlining care for this group can promote efficiency from a service-wide perspective. This study tested the hypothesis that a predictive nomogram model that estimates likelihood of good long-term quality of life (QoL) post-burn is a valid way to optimise patient selection and risk management when applying a streamlined model of care. A sample of 224 burn patients managed by the Burn Service of Western Australia who provided both short and long-term outcomes was used to estimate the probability of achieving a good QoL defined as 150 out of a possible 160 points on the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) at least six months from injury. A multivariate logistic regression analysis produced a predictive model provisioned as a nomogram for clinical application. A second, independent cohort of consecutive patients (n=106) was used to validate the predictive merit of the nomogram. Male gender (p=0.02), conservative management (p=0.03), upper limb burn (p=0.04) and high BSHS-B score within one month of burn (pburns were excluded due to loss to follow up. For clinicians managing comparable burn populations, the BSWA burns nomogram is an effective tool to assist the selection of patients to a streamlined care pathway with the aim of improving efficiency of service delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Some Risk Factors of Chronic Functional Constipation Identified in a Pediatric Population Sample from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Olaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an observational study over a 1-year period, including 234 children aged 4–18 years and their caregivers and a matching control group. 60.73% of the children from the study group were males. Average age for the onset of constipation was 26.39 months. The frequency of defecation was 1/4.59 days (1/1.13 days in the control group. 38.49% of the patients in the sample group had a positive family history of functional constipation. The majority of children with functional constipation come from single-parent families, are raised by relatives, or come from orphanages. Constipated subjects had their last meal of the day at later hours and consumed fast foods more frequently than the children in the control sample. We found a statistically significant difference between groups regarding obesity/overweight and constipation (χ2=104.94,  df=2,  p<0.001 and regarding physical activity and constipation (χ2=18.419;  df=3;  p<0.001. There was a positive correlation between the number of hours spent watching television/using the computer and the occurrence of the disease (F = 92.162, p<0.001, and 95% Cl. Children from broken families, with positive family history, defective dietary habits, obesity and sedentary behavior, are at higher risk to develop chronic functional constipation.

  19. Identifying niche-mediated regulatory factors of stem cell phenotypic state: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Srikanth; Del Sol, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Understanding how the cellular niche controls the stem cell phenotype is often hampered due to the complexity of variegated niche composition, its dynamics, and nonlinear stem cell-niche interactions. Here, we propose a systems biology view that considers stem cell-niche interactions as a many-body problem amenable to simplification by the concept of mean field approximation. This enables approximation of the niche effect on stem cells as a constant field that induces sustained activation/inhibition of specific stem cell signaling pathways in all stem cells within heterogeneous populations exhibiting the same phenotype (niche determinants). This view offers a new basis for the development of single cell-based computational approaches for identifying niche determinants, which has potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. © 2017 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors identified by using a high-throughput Caenorhabditis elegans-killing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, Jakob; Sifri, Costi D; Goldman, Samuel; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2005-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that is also able to kill the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We constructed a 2,950-member Tn917 transposon insertion library in S. aureus strain NCTC 8325. Twenty-one of these insertions exhibited attenuated C. elegans killing, and of these, 12 contained insertions in different genes or chromosomal locations. Ten of these 12 insertions showed attenuated killing phenotypes when transduced into two different S. aureus strains, and 5 of the 10 mutants correspond to genes that have not been previously identified in signature-tagged mutagenesis studies. These latter five mutants were tested in a murine renal abscess model, and one mutant harboring an insertion in nagD exhibited attenuated virulence. Interestingly, Tn917 was shown to have a very strong bias for insertions near the terminus of DNA replication.

  1. Previously identified patellar tendinopathy risk factors differ between elite and sub-elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Steele, J R; Munro, B J; Brown, N A T

    2015-06-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is the most common knee injury incurred in volleyball, with its prevalence in elite athletes more than three times that of their sub-elite counterparts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patellar tendinopathy risk factors differed between elite and sub-elite male volleyball players. Nine elite and nine sub-elite male volleyball players performed a lateral stop-jump block movement. Maximum vertical jump, training history, muscle extensibility and strength, three-dimensional landing kinematics (250 Hz), along with lower limb neuromuscular activation patterns (1500 Hz), and patellar tendon loading were collected during each trial. Multivariate analyses of variance (P volleyball players. Interventions designed to reduce landing frequency and improve quadriceps extensibility are recommended to reduce patellar tendinopathy prevalence in volleyball players. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Systematic Approach to Identify Candidate Transcription Factors that Control Cell Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. D’Alessio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs are expressed in each cell type, but cell identity can be induced through the activity of just a small number of core TFs. Systematic identification of these core TFs for a wide variety of cell types is currently lacking and would establish a foundation for understanding the transcriptional control of cell identity in development, disease, and cell-based therapy. Here, we describe a computational approach that generates an atlas of candidate core TFs for a broad spectrum of human cells. The potential impact of the atlas was demonstrated via cellular reprogramming efforts where candidate core TFs proved capable of converting human fibroblasts to retinal pigment epithelial-like cells. These results suggest that candidate core TFs from the atlas will prove a useful starting point for studying transcriptional control of cell identity and reprogramming in many human cell types.

  3. Metabolomics analyses identify platelet activating factors and heme breakdown products as Lassa fever biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor V Gale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever afflicts tens of thousands of people in West Africa annually. The rapid progression of patients from febrile illness to fulminant syndrome and death provides incentive for development of clinical prognostic markers that can guide case management. The small molecule profile of serum from febrile patients triaged to the Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Ward at Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone was assessed using untargeted Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Physiological dysregulation resulting from Lassa virus (LASV infection occurs at the small molecule level. Effects of LASV infection on pathways mediating blood coagulation, and lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid metabolism are manifest in changes in the levels of numerous metabolites in the circulation. Several compounds, including platelet activating factor (PAF, PAF-like molecules and products of heme breakdown emerged as candidates that may prove useful in diagnostic assays to inform better care of Lassa fever patients.

  4. Identifying risk factors for healthcare-associated infections from electronic medical record home address data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenman Marc B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residential address is a common element in patient electronic medical records. Guidelines from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention specify that residence in a nursing home, skilled nursing facility, or hospice within a year prior to a positive culture date is among the criteria for differentiating healthcare-acquired from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Residential addresses may be useful for identifying patients residing in healthcare-associated settings, but methods for categorizing residence type based on electronic medical records have not been widely documented. The aim of this study was to develop a process to assist in differentiating healthcare-associated from community-associated MRSA infections by analyzing patient addresses to determine if residence reported at the time of positive culture was associated with a healthcare facility or other institutional location. Results We identified 1,232 of the patients (8.24% of the sample with positive cultures as probable cases of healthcare-associated MRSA based on residential addresses contained in electronic medical records. Combining manual review with linking to institutional address databases improved geocoding rates from 11,870 records (79.37% to 12,549 records (83.91%. Standardization of patient home address through geocoding increased the number of matches to institutional facilities from 545 (3.64% to 1,379 (9.22%. Conclusions Linking patient home address data from electronic medical records to institutional residential databases provides useful information for epidemiologic researchers, infection control practitioners, and clinicians. This information, coupled with other clinical and laboratory data, can be used to inform differentiation of healthcare-acquired from community-acquired infections. The process presented should be extensible with little or no added data costs.

  5. Imaging-Based Screen Identifies Laminin 411 as a Physiologically Relevant Niche Factor with Importance for i-Hep Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Use of hepatocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (i-Heps is limited by their functional differences in comparison with primary cells. Extracellular niche factors likely play a critical role in bridging this gap. Using image-based characterization (high content analysis; HCA of freshly isolated hepatocytes from 17 human donors, we devised and validated an algorithm (Hepatocyte Likeness Index; HLI for comparing the hepatic properties of cells against a physiological gold standard. The HLI was then applied in a targeted screen of extracellular niche factors to identify substrates driving i-Heps closer to the standard. Laminin 411, the top hit, was validated in two additional induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines, primary tissue, and an in vitro model of α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Cumulatively, these data provide a reference method to control and screen for i-Hep differentiation, identify Laminin 411 as a key niche protein, and underscore the importance of combining substrates, soluble factors, and HCA when developing iPSC applications. : Rashid and colleagues demonstrate the utility of a high-throughput imaging platform for identification of physiologically relevant extracellular niche factors to advance i-Heps closer to their primary tissue counterparts. The extracellular matrix (ECM protein screen identified Laminin 411 as an important niche factor facilitating i-Hep-based disease modeling in vitro. Keywords: iPS hepatocytes, extracellular niche, image-based screening, disease modeling, laminin

  6. Identifying the Safety Factors over Traffic Signs in State Roads using a Panel Quantile Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarić, Željko; Xu, Xuecai; Duan, Li; Babić, Darko

    2018-06-20

    This study intended to investigate the interactions between accident rate and traffic signs in state roads located in Croatia, and accommodate the heterogeneity attributed to unobserved factors. The data from 130 state roads between 2012 and 2016 were collected from Traffic Accident Database System maintained by the Republic of Croatia Ministry of the Interior. To address the heterogeneity, a panel quantile regression model was proposed, in which quantile regression model offers a more complete view and a highly comprehensive analysis of the relationship between accident rate and traffic signs, while the panel data model accommodates the heterogeneity attributed to unobserved factors. Results revealed that (1) low visibility of material damage (MD) and death or injured (DI) increased the accident rate; (2) the number of mandatory signs and the number of warning signs were more likely to reduce the accident rate; (3)average speed limit and the number of invalid traffic signs per km exhibited a high accident rate. To our knowledge, it's the first attempt to analyze the interactions between accident consequences and traffic signs by employing a panel quantile regression model; by involving the visibility, the present study demonstrates that the low visibility causes a relatively higher risk of MD and DI; It is noteworthy that average speed limit corresponds with accident rate positively; The number of mandatory signs and the number of warning signs are more likely to reduce the accident rate; The number of invalid traffic signs per km are significant for accident rate, thus regular maintenance should be kept for a safer roadway environment.

  7. Job satisfaction of nurses and identifying factors of job satisfaction in Slovenian Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Mateja; Skela Savič, Brigita

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the level of job satisfaction of nursing professionals in Slovenian hospitals and factors influencing job satisfaction in nursing. Methods The study included 4 hospitals selected from the hospital list comprising 26 hospitals in Slovenia. The employees of these hospitals represent 29.8% and 509 employees included in the study represent 6% of all employees in nursing in Slovenian hospitals. One structured survey questionnaire was administered to the leaders and the other to employees, both consisting 154 items evaluated on a 5 point Likert-type scale. We examined the correlation between independent variables (age, number of years of employment, behavior of leaders, personal characteristics of leaders, and managerial competencies of leaders) and the dependent variable (job satisfaction – satisfaction with the work, coworkers, management, pay, etc) by applying correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis. In addition, factor analysis was used to establish characteristic components of the variables measured. Results We found a medium level of job satisfaction in both leaders (3.49 ± 0.5) and employees (3.19 ± 0.6), however, there was a significant difference between their estimates (t = 3.237; P = Job satisfaction was explained by age (P job satisfaction variance. Conclusion Satisfied employees play a crucial role in an organization’s success, so health care organizations must be aware of the importance of employees’ job satisfaction. It is recommended to monitor employees’ job satisfaction levels on an annual basis. PMID:22661140

  8. The combined effect of erythropoietin and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor on liver regeneration after major hepatectomy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frangou Matrona

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The liver presents a remarkable capacity for regeneration after hepatectomy but the exact mechanisms and mediators involved are not yet fully clarified. Erythropoietin (EPO and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF have been shown to promote liver regeneration after major hepatectomy. Aim of this experimental study is to compare the impact of exogenous administration of EPO, GM-CSF, as well as their combination on the promotion of liver regeneration after major hepatectomy. Methods Wistar rats were submitted to 70% major hepatectomy. The animals were assigned to 4 experimental groups: a control group (n = 21 that received normal saline, an EPO group (n = 21, that received EPO 500 IU/kg, a GM-CSF group (n = 21 that received 20 mcg/kg of GM-CSF and a EPO+GMCSF group (n = 21 which received a combination of the above. Seven animals of each group were killed on the 1st, 3rd and 7th postoperative day and their remnant liver was removed to evaluate liver regeneration by immunochemistry for PCNA and Ki 67. Results Our data suggest that EPO and GM-CSF increases liver regeneration following major hepatectomy when administered perioperatively. EPO has a more significant effect than GM-CSF (p Conclusion EPO, GM-CSF and their combination enhance liver regeneration after hepatectomy in rats when administered perioperatively. However their combination has a weaker effect on liver regeneration compared to EPO alone. Further investigation is needed to assess the exact mechanisms that mediate this finding.

  9. Major depressive disorder, personality disorders, and coping strategies are independent risk factors for lower quality of life in non-metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, Paul; Champagne, Anne-Laure; Huguet, Grégoire; Suzanne, Isabelle; Senon, Jean-Louis; Body, Gilles; Rusch, Emmanuel; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Mélanie; Réveillère, Christian; Camus, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to identify risk factors for lower quality of life (QOL) in non-metastatic breast cancer patients. Our study included 120 patients from the University Hospital Centers of Tours and Poitiers. This cross-sectional study was conducted 7 months after patients' breast cancer diagnosis and assessed QOL (Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 = QLQ-C30), socio-demographic characteristics, coping strategies (Brief-COPE), physiological and biological variables (e.g., initial tumor severity and types of treatment received), the existence of major depressive disorder (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), and pain severity (Questionnaire de Douleur Saint Antoine). We assessed personality disorders 3 months after diagnosis (Vragenlijst voor Kenmerken van de Persoonlijkheid questionnaire). We used multiple linear regression models to determine which factors were associated with physical, emotional, and global QOL. Lower physical QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, younger age, a more severe initial tumor stage, and the use of the behavioral disengagement coping. Lower emotional QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, the existence of a personality disorder, a more severe pain level, higher use of self-blame, and lower use of acceptance coping strategies. Lower global QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, the existence of a personality disorder, a more severe pain level, higher use of self-blame, lower use of positive reframing coping strategies, and an absence of hormone therapy. Lower QOL scores were more strongly associated with variables related to the individual's premorbid psychological characteristics and the manner in which this individual copes with the cancer (e.g., depression, personality, and coping) than to cancer-related variables (e.g., treatment types and cancer severity). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis to Identify HLA Factors Potentially Associated With Severe Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Gupta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, following dengue virus (DENV infection, is a complex and poorly understood phenomenon. In view of the clinical need of identifying patients with higher likelihood of developing this severe outcome, we undertook a comparative genome-wide association analysis of epitope variants from sequences available in the ViPR database that have been reported to be differentially related to dengue fever and DHF. Having enumerated the incriminated epitope variants, we determined the corresponding HLA alleles in the context of which DENV infection could potentially precipitate DHF. Our analysis considered the development of DHF in three different perspectives: (a as a consequence of primary DENV infection, (b following secondary DENV infection with a heterologous serotype, (c as a result of DENV infection following infection with related flaviviruses like Zika virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, etc. Subject to experimental validation, these viral and host markers would be valuable in triaging DENV-infected patients for closer supervision owing to the relatively higher risk of poor prognostic outcome and also for the judicious allocation of scarce institutional resources during large outbreaks.

  11. Identifying The Effective Factors for Cost Overrun and Time Delay in Water Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mirzai Matin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water construction projects in Iran frequently face problems which cause cost overrun and time delay, the two most common issues in construction projects in general. The objective of this survey is to identify and quantify these problems and thus help in avoiding them. This survey represents a collection of the most significant problems found in the literature, classified into 11 groups according to their source. The questionnaire form used contains 84 questions which were answered by random engineers who work in water construction projects. The Relative Importance Weight (RIW method is used to weight the importance of each one of the 84 problems. The focus of this survey is on overall top ten issues which are: bureaucracy in bidding method, inflation, economical condition of the government, not enough information gathered and surveys done before design, monthly payment difficulties, material cost changes, law changes by the government, financial difficulties, mode of financing and payment for completed work and changes made by the owner. A section for each of these issues provides additional information about them. In the full text of this survey the same weighting method is used to classify the main groups, and the results show that issues related to the groups of government, owner and consultant has the most significant impact. The last part of this survey describes the point of view of the engineers who took part in this survey and the recommendations they made.

  12. Tools to identify linear combination of prognostic factors which maximizes area under receiver operator curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Nicolae; Todor, Irina; Săplăcan, Gavril

    2014-01-01

    The linear combination of variables is an attractive method in many medical analyses targeting a score to classify patients. In the case of ROC curves the most popular problem is to identify the linear combination which maximizes area under curve (AUC). This problem is complete closed when normality assumptions are met. With no assumption of normality search algorithm are avoided because it is accepted that we have to evaluate AUC n(d) times where n is the number of distinct observation and d is the number of variables. For d = 2, using particularities of AUC formula, we described an algorithm which lowered the number of evaluations of AUC from n(2) to n(n-1) + 1. For d > 2 our proposed solution is an approximate method by considering equidistant points on the unit sphere in R(d) where we evaluate AUC. The algorithms were applied to data from our lab to predict response of treatment by a set of molecular mark