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Sample records for hypointense hepatic lesions

  1. Fully automatic detection of deep white matter T1 hypointense lesions in multiple sclerosis

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    Spies, Lothar; Tewes, Anja; Suppa, Per; Opfer, Roland; Buchert, Ralph; Winkler, Gerhard; Raji, Alaleh

    2013-12-01

    A novel method is presented for fully automatic detection of candidate white matter (WM) T1 hypointense lesions in three-dimensional high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. By definition, T1 hypointense lesions have similar intensity as gray matter (GM) and thus appear darker than surrounding normal WM in T1-weighted images. The novel method uses a standard classification algorithm to partition T1-weighted images into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As a consequence, T1 hypointense lesions are assigned an increased GM probability by the standard classification algorithm. The GM component image of a patient is then tested voxel-by-voxel against GM component images of a normative database of healthy individuals. Clusters (≥0.1 ml) of significantly increased GM density within a predefined mask of deep WM are defined as lesions. The performance of the algorithm was assessed on voxel level by a simulation study. A maximum dice similarity coefficient of 60% was found for a typical T1 lesion pattern with contrasts ranging from WM to cortical GM, indicating substantial agreement between ground truth and automatic detection. Retrospective application to 10 patients with multiple sclerosis demonstrated that 93 out of 96 T1 hypointense lesions were detected. On average 3.6 false positive T1 hypointense lesions per patient were found. The novel method is promising to support the detection of hypointense lesions in T1-weighted images which warrants further evaluation in larger patient samples.

  2. T2 hypointense rims and ring-enhancing lesions in MS.

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    Llufriu, Sara; Pujol, Teresa; Blanco, Yolanda; Hankiewicz, Karolina; Squarcia, Mattia; Berenguer, Joan; Villoslada, Pablo; Graus, Francesc; Saiz, Albert

    2010-11-01

    Hypointense rims peripherally on T2-weighted MRI (rim lesions) have been associated with gadolinium ring-enhancing lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) in pathological studies. However, little is known about their frequency, we analyzed clinical significance in a cohort of MS sufferers according to routine clinical practice. We retrospectively reviewed all available MRI scans performed on our MS patients between 2000 and 2009. A total of 580 MRI scans from 257 patients were analyzed. The presence of rim lesions and ring enhancement was assessed and counted blind. Furthermore, the correlation between both patterns, and with clinical characteristics, was evaluated. Thirty-five rim lesions were identified and 9% (24/257) of the patients showed at least one of these lesions. Forty ring-enhancing lesions were counted and 12% (29/245) of the patients who had undergone gadolinium MRI presented at least one such lesion. Thirteen lesions co-localized both patterns (40% of the rim lesions and 33% of the ring-enhancing lesions). Rim lesions and ring-enhancing lesions were observed in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (7%, 7%), relapsing-remitting (11%, 15%) and secondary progressive (13%, 9%) but none with primary progressive MS. Presence of ring-enhancing lesions was significantly associated with a shorter time to reach EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale) 4.0 and 6.0 (hazard ratio 7.6, 95% confidence interval 2.3-24.6). Rim lesions and ring-enhancing lesions are present in close to 10% of patients with MS, and frequently both lesions appear independently one to the other. The association of ring enhancement with worst prognosis needs to be confirmed in prospective studies.

  3. Pattern of T2 hypointensity associated with ring-enhancing brain lesions can help to differentiate pathology

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    Schwartz, K.M.; Erickson, B.J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Lucchinetti, C. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Ring-enhancing lesions seen on MR images can occur with a variety of etiologies. Some ring-enhancing lesions have hypointense rims peripherally on T2-weighted MR images. In this study, we examined whether T2 hypointense rims were associated with specific pathologies. A search for ring-enhancing lesions on MR images obtained from 1996 to 2004 was performed, and revealed 221 patients with MRI findings of ring enhancement. The pattern of T2 hypointensity (arc or rim) corresponding with ring enhancement was recorded. In addition, we analyzed other imaging characteristics, including signal on diffusion-weighted images, central homogeneity on T2 and multiplicity of lesions. We then reviewed clinical data on the patients to ascertain the diagnosis for each examination. The most common associated pathologies in our study were gliomas (40%), metastases (30%), abscesses (8%) and multiple sclerosis (MS; 6%). Hypointense borders on T2-weighted images were present in 67% of lesions in the form of a rim in 40% and an arc in 60%. Abscesses had the highest percentage of hypointense rims. Metastases and gliomas more commonly had arcs, and MS lesions were divided between rims and arcs. Abscesses and MS lesions were more commonly homogeneous centrally, compared to gliomas and metastases. Additionally, abscesses were more often bright on diffusion imaging than the other pathologies. As expected, abscesses and MS lesions were usually multiple, whereas metastases were typically multiple in approximately 50% of the patients; gliomas were generally solitary. Trends in T2 hypointensity may aid in distinguishing among etiologies of ring-enhancing lesions, although there is overlap between the MR appearance of these various pathologies. (orig.)

  4. MRI detection of hypointense brain lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis: T1 spin-echo vs. gradient-echo

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    Dupuy, Sheena L.; Tauhid, Shahamat; Kim, Gloria; Chu, Renxin; Tummala, Subhash [Departments of Neurology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Laboratory for Neuroimaging Research, Partners MS Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hurwitz, Shelley [Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bakshi, Rohit, E-mail: rbakshi@bwh.harvard.edu [Departments of Neurology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Laboratory for Neuroimaging Research, Partners MS Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Departments of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Compared T1SE and T1GE in detecting hypointense brain lesions in MS patients. • T1GE detected a higher cerebral lesion volume and number than T1SE. • T1SE correlated significantly with disability, while T1GE did not. • Hypointense lesions on T1SE and T1GE are not interchangeable in patients with MS. - Abstract: Objective: Compare T1 spin-echo (T1SE) and T1 gradient-echo (T1GE) sequences in detecting hypointense brain lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Background: Chronic hypointense lesions on T1SE MRI scans are a surrogate of severe demyelination and axonal loss in MS. The role of T1GE images in the detection of such lesions has not been clarified. Design/methods: In 45 patients with MS [Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score (mean ± SD) 3.5 ± 2.0; 37 relapsing-remitting (RR); 8 secondary progressive (SP)], cerebral T1SE, T1GE, and T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images were acquired on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Images were re-sampled to axial 5 mm slices before directly comparing lesion detectability using Jim (v.7, Xinapse Systems). Statistical methods included Wilcoxon signed rank tests to compare sequences and Spearman correlations to test associations. Results: Considering the entire cohort, T1GE detected a higher lesion volume (5.90 ± 6.21 vs. 4.17 ± 4.84 ml, p < 0.0001) and higher lesion number (27.82 ± 20.66 vs. 25.20 ± 20.43, p < 0.05) than T1SE. Lesion volume differences persisted when considering RR and SP patients separately (both p < 0.01). A higher lesion number by T1GE was seen only in the RR group (p < 0.05). When comparing correlations between lesion volume and overall neurologic disability (EDSS score), T1SE correlated with EDSS (Spearman r = 0.29, p < 0.05) while T1GE (r = 0.23, p = 0.13) and FLAIR (r = 0.24, p = 0.12) did not. Conclusion: Our data suggest that hypointense lesions on T1SE and T1GE are not interchangeable in patients with MS. Based on these results, we hypothesize that T1GE

  5. Mucocele-like lesions of the sphenoid sinus with hypointense foci on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

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    Ishibashi, T. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Social Insurance Central General Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Tokyo Univ. Branch Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    Lesions limited to the sphenoid sinus are relatively rare, and are obscure with respect to symptoms and physical findings. The differential diagnosis of isolated sphenoid sinus disease includes bacterial sinusitis, fungal infection, granulomatous inflammation, mucocele, and tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide information that closely reflects the composition of the tissues, sometimes permitting differentiation between pathologically distinct lesions showing similar density by computed tomography. We describe two cases involving mucocele-like lesions of the sphenoid sinus where preoperative MRI revealed a focus of hypointensity within the lesions. In both patients the sphenoid sinus was opened by a transnasal endoscopic approach, and diseased tissue corresponding to the hypointense area was removed under direct endoscopic vision. Histopathological diagnosis revealed colonies of Aspergillus in one case and necrotic granulation tissue without fungus in the other. We concluded that MRI is a crucial part of preoperative evaluation and that the transnasal endoscopic approach represents a safe and effective method for treating nonmalignant isolated sphenoid sinus disease. (orig.)

  6. The Effect of Fingolimod on Conversion of Acute Gadolinium-Enhancing Lesions to Chronic T1 Hypointensities in Multiple Sclerosis.

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    Oommen, Vinit V; Tauhid, Shahamat; Healy, Brian C; Chua, Alicia S; Malik, Muhammad T; Diaz-Cruz, Camilo; Dupuy, Sheena L; Weiner, Howard L; Chitnis, Tanuja; Bakshi, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Brain lesions converting to chronic T1 hypointensities ("chronic black holes" [CBH]), indicate severe tissue destruction (axonal loss and irreversible demyelination) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Two mechanisms by which fingolimod could limit MS lesion evolution include sequestration of lymphocytes in the periphery or direct neuroprotective effects. We investigated the effect of fingolimod on the evolution of acute gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) brain lesions to CBH in patients with MS. This was a retrospective nonrandomized comparison of patients with Gd+ brain lesions at the time of starting oral fingolimod [.5 mg/day, n = 26, age (mean ± SD) 39.2 ± 10.6 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score - median (range): 1.75 (0, 6.5)] to those on no therapy [n = 30, age 41.7 ± 9.3 years; EDSS 1.0 (0, 6)]. Each lesion was classified by whether it converted to a CBH in the year following treatment. In the fingolimod group, 99 Gd+ baseline lesions (mean ± SD, range: 3.8 ± 5.1; 1, 21 per patient) were identified of which 25 (25%) evolved to CBH (1.0 ± 2.0; 0, 10 per patient). The untreated group had 62 baseline Gd+ lesions (2.1 ± 2.3; 1, 13), 26 (42%) of which evolved to CBH (.9 ± 1.4; 0, 7) (P = .063). Thirteen patients (50%) receiving fingolimod and 17 untreated patients (57%) developed CBH (P = .79). This pilot study shows a trend of fingolimod on reducing the conversion rate from acute to chronic destructive MS lesions. Such an effect awaits verification in larger randomized prospective studies. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Neuroimaging.

  7. The effect of hypointense white matter lesions on automated gray matter segmentation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelineau-Morel, Rose; Tomassini, Valentina; Jenkinson, Mark; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Matthews, Paul M; Palace, Jacqueline

    2012-12-01

    Previous imaging studies assessing the relationship between white matter (WM) damage and matter (GM) atrophy have raised the concern that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) WM lesions may affect measures of GM volume by inducing voxel misclassification during intensity-based tissue segmentation. Here, we quantified this misclassification error in simulated and real MS brains using a lesion-filling method. Using this method, we also corrected GM measures in patients before comparing them with controls in order to assess the impact of this lesion-induced misclassification error in clinical studies. We found that higher WM lesion volumes artificially reduced total GM volumes. In patients, this effect was about 72% of that predicted by simulation. Misclassified voxels were located at the GM/WM border and could be distant from lesions. Volume of individual deep gray matter (DGM) structures generally decreased with higher lesion volumes, consistent with results from total GM. While preserving differences in GM volumes between patients and controls, lesion-filling correction revealed more lateralised DGM shape changes in patients, which were not evident with the original images. Our results confirm that WM lesions can influence MRI measures of GM volume and shape in MS patients through their effect on intensity-based GM segmentation. The greater effect of lesions at increasing levels of damage supports the use of lesion-filling to correct for this problem and improve the interpretability of the results. Volumetric or morphometric imaging studies, where lesion amount and characteristics may vary between groups of patients or change over time, may especially benefit from this correction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Persistent T2*-hypointensity of the liver parenchyma after irradiation to the SPIO-accumulated liver: An imaging marker for responses to radiotherapy in hepatic malignancies.

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    Furuta, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Minami, Manabu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Fujii, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether T2*-weighted MRI has the ability to visualize the irradiated liver parenchyma and liver tumor after irradiation to the previously superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-accumulated liver. We examined 24 liver tumor-bearing rats. Nine rats (Group 1) received 20 µmol Fe/kg SPIO and subsequent 70-Gy irradiation to the tumor-bearing liver lobe. Four rats (Group 2) received SPIO and sham irradiation. Six rats (Group 3) received saline and irradiation. Finally, five rats (Group 4) received saline and sham irradiation. We acquired sequential 3 Tesla T2*-weighted images of the liver on day 7, and assessed MR image findings including signal intensity of the tumors and tumor-bearing liver lobes. In six rats in Group 1, tumors shrunk by 39-100% (303-0 mm3 ), and severely, well-defined hypointense irradiated areas were observed. In the other two rats, tumors enlarged by 25 and 172% (595 and 1148 mm3 ), and hypointense rings surrounded the tumors. The normalized relative signal intensity of the irradiated areas was significantly lower than that of the tumor (0.53 ± 0.06 versus 0.94 ± 0.06; P irradiated areas. The number of CD68-positive cells was higher in irradiated areas than in nonirradiated areas. T2*-weighted MR imaging visualized the irradiated liver parenchyma as markedly, well-defined hypointense areas and liver cancer lesions as hyperintense areas only when SPIO was administered before irradiation. The visualization of the hypointense area was associated with tumor regression after irradiation. 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:303-312. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Gadobenate-dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for hepatic lesions in children

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    Chavhan, Govind B.; Mann, Erika [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Kamath, Binita M. [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Toronto (Canada); Babyn, Paul S. [Royal University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging enhanced by hepatocyte-specific contrast media has been found useful to characterize liver lesions in adults and children. To present our experience with gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA)-enhanced MRI for evaluation of focal liver lesions in children. We retrospectively reviewed gadobenate-dimeglumine-enhanced MR images obtained for evaluation of suspected hepatic lesions in 30 children. Signal characteristics on various sequences including 45- to 60-min hepatobiliary phase images were noted by two radiologists. Chart review identified relevant clinical details including history of cancer treatment, available pathology and stability of lesion size on follow-up imaging. Of the 30 children who had gadobenate-enhanced MRI, 26 showed focal lesions. Diagnoses in 26 children were focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in 15, hemangiomas in 3, regenerating nodules in 3, focal fatty infiltration in 2, indeterminate lesions in 3, and one patient each with adenomas, hepatoblastoma and metastasis. Two patients had multiple diagnoses. All FNH lesions (39), all regenerative nodules (19) and an indeterminate lesion were iso- or hyperintense on hepatobiliary-phase images while all other lesions (28) were hypointense to hepatic parenchyma. The average follow-up period was 21.7 months. Our experience with gadobenate-enhanced MRI indicates potential utility of gadobenate in the evaluation of pediatric hepatic lesions in differentiating FNH and regenerating nodules from other lesions. (orig.)

  10. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

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    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  11. Prognosis of small hepatocellular nodules detected only at the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging as hypointensity in cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis

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    Higaki, Atsushi; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Kanki, Akihiko; Noda, Yasufumi; Yasokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Akira [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki City, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the prognosis of ''strict'' high-risk nodules (small hepatocellular nodules detected only in the hepatobiliary phase of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR examination) in patients with cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. The study included thirty-three patients with 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showing hypointensity at the hepatobiliary phase that was undetectable at the vascular phase and other conventional sequences of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. These nodules were observed on follow-up MR examinations until hypervascularity was detected. The potential predictive factors for hypervascular transformation were compared between two groups (group A showing hypervascular transformation, group B not showing hypervascularization). Ten (16.7 %) of 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods (group A). The growth rates of the nodules in group A (6.3 ± 4.5 mm/year) were significantly higher than those in group B (3.4 ± 7.2 mm/year) (p = 0.003). Additionally, the median observation period in group A (177.5 ± 189.5 day) was significantly shorter than in group B (419 ± 372.2 day) (p = 0.045). The other predictive factors were not significantly correlated with hypervascularization. Subsets of ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods in association with increased growth rates, indicating that nodule growth rate is an important predictive factor for hypervascularization. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of hepatic cystic lesions

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    Lantinga, Marten A; Gevers, Tom JG; Drenth, Joost PH

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic cysts are increasingly found as a mere coincidence on abdominal imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These cysts often present a diagnostic challenge. Therefore, we performed a review of the recent literature and developed an evidence-based diagnostic algorithm to guide clinicians in characterising these lesions. Simple cysts are the most common cystic liver disease, and diagnosis is based on typical USG characteristics. Serodiagnostic tests and microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are invaluable in differentiating complicated cysts, echinococcosis and cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma when USG, CT and MRI show ambiguous findings. Therefore, serodiagnostic tests and CEUS reduce the need for invasive procedures. Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is arbitrarily defined as the presence of > 20 liver cysts and can present as two distinct genetic disorders: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (PCLD). Although genetic testing for ADPKD and PCLD is possible, it is rarely performed because it does not affect the therapeutic management of PLD. USG screening of the liver and both kidneys combined with extensive family history taking are the cornerstone of diagnostic decision making in PLD. In conclusion, an amalgamation of these recent advances results in a diagnostic algorithm that facilitates evidence-based clinical decision making. PMID:23801855

  13. CT EVALUATION OF THE HEPATIC MASS LESIONS

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    Aniruddha Basu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic mass lesions represent a spectrum of disorders congenital, infective, neoplastic, and otherwise. The use of non-contrast and contrast enhanced CT enables to detect the liver lesions more adequately and detects other associated effects if any. CT delineates affected segments in the disease process and the extent of involvement. AIMS To study of effectiveness of CT in studying the CT patterns of different hepatic mass lesions and to correlate CT findings in hepatic mass lesions in various patients with FNAC and HPE findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 cases of clinically suspected hepatic mass lesions were scanned by Philips 16 slice CT MX-16 EVO within the period of July 2015 - 1 st week of July 2016 in JMCH, Jorhat. All OPD and indoor patients of both sexes and patients in whom hepatic mass lesions were detected with other modalities of imaging were included. Hydatid cyst and haemangioma cases were excluded due to risk of anaphylaxis and haemorrhage during FNAC. All the patients were scanned pre and post IV contrast administration and data was recorded FNAC of the lesions were done by 20 G Chiba or 18 G Tru-Cut needle. The scans were viewed by two senior radiologists to minimise interpretative errors. RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS In the 50 cases studied, 25 patients (50% had metastatic lesions, 10 patients (20% had hepatocellular carcinoma, 3 patients (6% had hepatoblastoma, 11 patients (22% had liver abscesses, 1 patient (2% had polycystic liver disease. These correlated well with CT-guided FNAC findings where FNAC was positive in cases as follows: Metastatic lesions 23 patients (46%, hepatocellular carcinoma 8 patients (16%, hepatoblastoma 3 patients (6%, liver abscesses 9 patients (18%, 1 patient (2% polycystic liver disease. CONCLUSION In this study, CT proved to be the diagnostic tool of choice for hepatic mass lesions. CT-guided FNAC and HPE findings correlated well with the CT diagnosis of hepatic masses. CT proved to be a fast imaging

  14. Added value of smooth hypointense rim in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in identifying tumour capsule and diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma

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    An, Chansik; Han, Kyunghwa; Choi, Jin-Young; Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Hyungjin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Nyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sumi [National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To examine the added value of considering smooth hypointense rim in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI as capsule appearance for diagnosing tumour capsules and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 377 hepatic lesions (330 HCCs, 35 non-HCC malignancies and 12 benign) were included from 345 patients who underwent resection after MRI between January 2008 and December 2011. Two radiologists assessed the presence or absence of conventional capsule appearance and smooth hypointense rim in the HBP, and categorized each hepatic lesion according to the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System. Difference in diagnostic performance was evaluated using the generalized estimating equation method. For identifying capsule, the sensitivity and accuracy of HBP hypointense rim were significantly higher than those of conventional capsule appearance (81.5 % vs. 57.8 % and 76.1 % vs. 59.4 %, respectively; P < 0.001). For diagnosing HCC, the sensitivity and accuracy of LR-5 or LR-5 V were significantly higher when the HBP hypointense rim was also considered capsule appearance (83 % vs. 72.7 % and 84.1 % vs. 75.1 %, respectively; P < 0.001), with the same specificity (91.5 %). Regarding smooth hypointense rim in the HBP as capsule appearance could improve the detection of tumour capsule and the diagnosis of HCC. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of hepatic cystic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantinga, M.A.; Gevers, T.J.G.; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic cysts are increasingly found as a mere coincidence on abdominal imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These cysts often present a diagnostic challenge. Therefore, we performed a review of the recent literature and

  16. Size and geometry of hepatic radiofrequency lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulier, S; Ni, Y; Miao, Y; Rosière, A; Khoury, A; Marchal, G; Michel, L

    2003-12-01

    To report and compare the size and geometry of hepatic radiofrequency (RF) lesions using the currently available commercial devices. A literature search was carried out for the period from January 1st 1990 to June 15th 2003. The commercial suppliers were asked to provide all available data. For each electrode and protocol, size and geometry of single-cycle thermal lesions were registered. No information at all on size and geometry of the inducible lesions was available for 17 of the 28 current commercial electrodes. Many descriptions of RF lesions are limited to the mean transverse diameter. With normal blood flow, diameter of lesions is often smaller than suggested by the length of the electrode tip or the diameter of the deployed prongs. Lesions are rarely perfect spheres but either ellipses or flattened spheres. Distortion of the RF lesion by nearby blood vessels is very common. Fusion of thermal zones between prongs of expandable electrodes can be incomplete. Blood flow interruption using a Pringle maneuver yields larger lesions that are less distorted and more complete. There is insufficient experimental data for many electrodes that are currently used in patients. RF companies should provide these data before releasing electrodes for use. For those electrodes for which data exist, coagulation lesions are often smaller, less spherical, less complete and less regular than generally presumed. Accurate knowledge of size and geometry of RF lesions is crucial to prevent local recurrence.

  17. Effect of glatiramer acetate three-times weekly on the evolution of new, active multiple sclerosis lesions into T1-hypointense "black holes": a post hoc magnetic resonance imaging analysis.

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    Zivadinov, Robert; Dwyer, Michael; Barkay, Hadas; Steinerman, Joshua R; Knappertz, Volker; Khan, Omar

    2015-03-01

    Conversion of active lesions to black holes has been associated with disability progression in subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and represents a complementary approach to evaluating clinical efficacy. The objective of this study was to assess the conversion of new active magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions, identified 6 months after initiating treatment with glatiramer acetate 40 mg/mL three-times weekly (GA40) or placebo, to T1-hypointense black holes in subjects with RRMS. Subjects received GA40 (n = 943) or placebo (n = 461) for 12 months. MRI was obtained at baseline and Months 6 and 12. New lesions were defined as either gadolinium-enhancing T1 or new T2 lesions at Month 6 that were not present at baseline. The adjusted mean numbers of new active lesions at Month 6 converting to black holes at Month 12 were analyzed using a negative binomial model; adjusted proportions of new active lesions at Month 6 converting to black holes at Month 12 were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Of 1,292 subjects with complete MRI data, 433 (50.3 %) GA-treated and 247 (57.2 %) placebo-treated subjects developed new lesions at Month 6. Compared with placebo, GA40 significantly reduced the mean number (0.31 versus 0.45; P = .0258) and proportion (15.8 versus 19.6 %; P = .006) of new lesions converting to black holes. GA significantly reduced conversion of new active lesions to black holes, highlighting the ability of GA40 to prevent tissue damage in RRMS.

  18. Benign focal hepatic lesions; Benigne fokale Leberlaesionen

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    Baroud, S.; Bastati, N.; Prosch, H.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [AKH, Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Schima, W. [Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Wien, Abteilung fuer Radiologie und Bildgebende Diagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    A profound knowledge of the various benign focal hepatic lesions and selection of the most suitable radiological examination modality is essential for achieving an accurate characterization of a hepatic lesion and in turn will determine the further patient management. This will avoid unnecessary agitation to both patient and the referring clinician and limits time-consuming, costly and risky biopsies to an absolute minimum. The following article will discuss the typical and atypical appearances of the most frequent and clinically relevant benign focal hepatic lesions with ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.) [German] Eine genaue Kenntnis des breiten Spektrums benigner fokaler Leberlaesionen und der geeigneten radiologischen Untersuchungsmethode ist essenziell, um eine sichere Diagnose bzgl. der Dignitaet und damit das weitere Vorgehen bestimmen zu koennen. Damit wird eine unnoetige Verunsicherung des Patienten und des behandelnden Arztes vermieden, und invasive, eventuell mit Komplikationen assoziierte Biopsien sowie zeit- und kostenintensive Verlaufskontrollen koennen reduziert werden. Der folgende Artikel erlaeutert die haeufigsten und klinisch wichtigsten benignen fokalen Leberlaesionen und deren typisches und atypisches Erscheinen in den 3 haeufig verwendeten bildgebenden Verfahren Sonographie, Computertomographie und Magnetresonanztomographie. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

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    Han, Chul Ju

    2000-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases.

  20. Hepatic lesions in 90 captive nondomestic felids presented for autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J M; Newkirk, K M; McRee, A E; Whittemore, J C; Ramsay, E C

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic lesions in nondomestic felids are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hepatic lesions in 90 captive, nondomestic felids including tigers, cougars, and lions. Hepatic lesions were histologically characterized as vacuolar change (lipidosis or glycogenosis), biliary cysts, biliary hyperplasia, hepatitis, necrosis, neoplasia, fibrosis, veno-occlusive disease, cholestasis, hematoma, congestion, or hemorrhage. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed for vacuolar change, benign biliary lesions, hepatitis, lipogranulomas, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic stellate cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with species as the outcome variable. Ninety cats met the inclusion criteria. Seventy livers (78%) contained 1 or more lesions. Hepatocellular vacuolar change (41/90 [46%]) was the most common lesion overall. Extramedullary hematopoiesis, lipogranulomas, and hepatic stellate cell hyperplasia were also common. One snow leopard had veno-occlusive disease. Tigers were more likely than other felids to have no significant hepatic histologic lesions (odds ratio [OR], 12.687; P = .002), and lions were more likely to have biliary cysts (OR, 5.97; P = .021). Six animals (7%) died of hepatic disease: cholangiocellular carcinoma (n = 2) and 1 each of hepatic lipidosis, hepatocellular necrosis, pyogranulomatous hepatitis, and suppurative cholecystitis. Hepatocellular iron and copper accumulations were present in 72 of 90 (80%) and 10 of 90 (11%) sections, respectively. Sinusoidal fibrosis was common (74/90 [82%]) and primarily centrilobular (65/74 [88%]). Hepatocellular iron, copper, and fibrosis were not significantly associated with hepatic lesions. Primary hepatic disease was not a common cause of death in nondomestic felids in this study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Halothane hepatitis: benign resolution of a severe lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D J; Dwyer, J; Klatskin, G

    1978-08-01

    Three patients with halothane hepatitis were studied during the acute phase of their illness and for 10 to 14 months thereafter. Clinical, biochemical, and histologic data were obtained initially and during the course of follow-up. Despite initially severe clinical and biochemical presentations, with extensive bridging hepatic necrosis on liver biopsy, all three patients resolved completely and had minimally abnormal liver biopsy appearances at last follow-up. The results of this study suggest that hepatic necrosis associated with halothane hypersensitivity is self-limited and that despite the initial severity of the hepatic lesion, postnecrotic cirrhosis does not develop. Based on these three patients' courses, survival of the acute bout of halothane hepatitis is apparently accompanied by an excellent prognosis ultimately, provided that reexposure to halothane is avoided.

  2. DIAGNOSTIC UTILITY OF USG-GUIDED FNAC IN HEPATIC LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha P. Meena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is an easy, rapid, minimally invasive and a cost effective diagnostic method for detecting benign and malignant lesions of liver. AIM The main aim of the present study was to establish the incidence of various hepatic lesions and to find out adequacy and utility of the procedure. MATERIAL AND METHOD A total of 174 cases were included in the study from Government Medical College, Kota and associated hospitals. All cases diagnosed to have single or multiple hepatic mass lesions on USG were included in the study. RESULTS Most common age group affected by hepatic lesion was 51-60 years (34.0%. 91.4% cases were having adequate aspirates. 95.6% of the total diagnosed cases were malignant and among malignant cases majority were metastatic. CONCLUSION USG-guided FNAC is a very useful procedure in the diagnosis of hepatic lesions as the procedure is simple and safe. Thus, FNAC is a simple and effective diagnostic tool in our hand.

  3. Specific imaging characteristic of solitary necrotic nodule of the liver: Marked peripheral rim-like enhancement with internal hypointensity on longer delayed MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jiayang; Yu, Dexin; Ma, Xiangxing; Xiang, Ying; Guo, Lijuan [Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Ji' nan City, Shandong (China); Ma, Xiaoyuan [Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Orthopaedics, Ji' nan City (China)

    2017-09-15

    To obtain specific imaging findings of solitary necrotic nodule of the liver (SNNL) using longer delayed contrast-enhanced MRI and compare them with those of three mimic hepatic diseases. Sixteen patients with SNNL underwent plain and contrast-enhanced triphasic CT and multiphasic MRI with delayed time prolonged to 2 h after contrast bolus injection. Twenty-three patients with mimic lesions including seven with eight HCCs, five with five iCCs and 11 with metastatic lesions served as the control group. Those patients also received plain and multiphasic contrast-enhanced MRI. Imaging features of lesions such as peripheral wash-out time were evaluated. Among the 16 SNNLs, with a prolonged delayed MRI time, the enhancement degree of tumour periphery increased gradually. When it was up to 1 h, all lesions represented moderate/marked peripheral enhancement with internal hypointensity. However, the peripheral wash-out in seven HCCs (87.5%) and all metastatic lesions except three appeared at 10 or 15 min, one iCC (20%) at 30 min and the other lesions at 1 h. Longer MRI with a delayed time of 1-2 h may be useful in diagnosis SNNL, revealing the specific imaging characteristic of SNNL as pronounced peripheral enhancement with internal hypointensity. (orig.)

  4. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: a rare cystic liver lesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts (CHFC) are rare congenital cystic lesions of the liver. CHFC are usually asymptomatic but may present with vague abdominal symptoms. CHFC are clinically important because of the possibility of malignant transformation1 and the diagnostic difficulties CHFC pose. We report the details of a ...

  5. {sup 99m}Tc-RBC Hepatic Scintiscan in focal Hepatic Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Yun; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Hee [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Phila (United States)

    1987-09-15

    39 patients with focal hepatic lesions were evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC liver scan. The diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions were made by percutaneous needle biopsy, angiography, surgery, or clinical courses. These diagnoses included 24 cases of hemangioma, 7 hepatomas, 6 metastatic disease, 1 abscess, and 1 cyst. 19 hemangiomas showed focal hot activity on delayed static planar images. 3 small deep seated hemangiomas were diagnosed by SPECT that would have been missed by planar images alone. 2 large hemangiomas had no radioisotope uptake within the lesions on delayed images and at surgery cavernous hemangioma with thrombosis, calcification, and fibrosis were found. For hepatic hemangiomas in our series, the sensitivity was 91.7% and the specificity was 100%. The remaining 15 patients including hepatomas, metastatic lesions, cyst and abscess showed cold defect on delayed blood pool images. It is concluded that{sup 99m}Tc-RBC liver scan should be the choice of primary diagnostic procedure for clinically suspected hepatic hemangioma since its inexpensive, non-invasive, and readily available.

  6. Evaluation of the various hepatic lesions with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chul Ju

    1999-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 27 patients with focal liver lesions (6 patients with HCC, 5 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 9 patients with liver metastasis, 2 patients with hemangioma, 3 patients with liver abscess, and 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. The concordance rates between CT and PET images were 57 % (4/7) for HCC, 83 % (5/6) for CC, 89% (8/9) for metastatic liver cancer, 100 % (6/6) for benign liver lesions. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC of liver metastasis. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these disease.

  7. Persistent T1 hypointensity as an MRI marker for treatment efficacy in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elskamp, I.J.; Lembcke, J.; Dattola, V.; Beckmann, K.; Pohl, C.; Hong, W.; Sandbrink, R.; Wagner, K.; Knol, D.L.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Barkhof, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: MRI is often used as primary outcome measure in phase II clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). Since persistent T1 hypointense lesions are a surrogate parameter for axonal damage and demyelination, they may serve as a marker for monitoring the efficacy of neuroprotective drugs. At

  8. Scintigraphic diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma: its role in the management of hepatic mass lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moinuddin, M.; Allison, J.R.; Montgomery, J.H.; Rockett, J.F.; McMurray, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    Hepatic cavernous hemangiomas are benign tumors of the liver that are often an incidental finding. They are usually asymptomatic but may cause symptoms when traumatized, may bleed spontaneously, or may produce pain by virtue of their large size and mass effect. A retrospective analysis of the clinical presentation, liver function tests, and diagnostic imaging procedures in 20 patients with hepatic hemangiomas is presented and the literature is reviewed. The 20 patients had 27 mass lesions as seen on liver scintigraphy, computed tomography, or sonography. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell flow studies and blood pool scintigrams showed delayed filling of the mass lesions, diagnostic of hemangiomas. This finding was not encountered in any other type of lesion. A new diagnostic algorithm is proposed in which flood-flow and blood-pool scintigraphy play a more prominent role in the diagnostic workup.

  9. Transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic resection of focal hepatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuodong; Yu, Xiao-Peng; Tian, Yu; Siwo, Ernest Amos; Li, Yongnan; Yu, Hong; Yao, Dianbo; Lv, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is gaining in popularity as a minimally invasive technique. The reduced pain and superior cosmetic appearance it affords make it attractive to many patients. For this study, we focused on SILS, analyzing the outcomes of transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic liver resection (SILLR) achieved at our institution between January 2010 and February 2013. Pre- and postoperative data from 17 patients subjected to transumbilical SILLR for various hepatic lesions (8 hemangiomas, 2 hepatocellular carcinomas, 2 metastases, 2 calculi of left intrahepatic duct, and 3 adenomas) were assessed. Altogether, eight wedge resections, seven left lateral lobectomies, a combination wedge resection/left lateral lobectomy, and a proximal left hemihepatectomy segmentectomy were performed, as well as four simultaneous laparoscopic cholecystectomies. In each instance, three ports were installed through an umbilical incision. Once vessels and bleeding were controlled, the lesion(s) were resected with 5-mm margins of normal liver. Resected tissues were then bagged and withdrawn through the umbilical incision. The follow-up period lasted for a minimum of 6 months. All 17 patients were successfully treated through a single umbilical incision. The procedures required 55 to 185 minutes to complete, with blood loss of 30 to 830 mL. Subjects regained bowel activity 0.8 to 2.3 days postoperatively and were discharged after 3 to 10 days. There were few complications (23.5%), limited to pleural effusion, wound infection, and incisional hernia. Transumbilical SILLR is challenging to perform through conventional laparoscopic instrumentation. The risk of bleeding and technical difficulties is high for lesions of the posterosuperior hepatic segment. Surgical candidates should be carefully selected to optimize the benefits of this technique.

  10. Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging: Differentiation between early-enhancing non-tumorous lesions and hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi, E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Watanabe, Haruo; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Nozomi; Kawada, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Shiratori, Yoshimune [Department of Medical Informatics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Onozuka, Minoru [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka (Japan); Moriyama, Noriyuki [Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tsukiji (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess imaging features that help differentiate early-enhancing non-tumorous (EN) hepatic lesions from hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging. Materials and methods: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study. We reviewed the studies of 158 patients (92 men and 65 women; age range: 29-91; mean age: 65.6 years) with chronic liver damage, who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging at 3T MR scanner. Hypervascular lesions identified during the hepatic artery phase were selected for a study cohort. The location, shape, size (maximum diameter and maximum area), and contrast enhancement signal intensity characteristics of the lesions were evaluated, then compared between the EN and HCC lesions. Results: A total of 65 EN lesions (range: 3-60 mm, mean: 13.6 {+-} 10.6 mm) from 35 patients and 33 HCCs (range: 9-61 mm, mean: 19.3 {+-} 12.6 mm) from 20 patients were identified. Lesions were more frequently round or oval in shape for HCCs (n = 29; 88%) than ENs (n = 26; 40%) (P < 0.01). Unexpectedly, some ENs (n = 12; 18%) showed hypointensity on hepatocyte-phase, and 6 (50%) of them were T2 hyperintense. For lesions smaller than 2 cm (9 ENs and 21 HCCs) on hepatic arterial-phase images, the mean area of hypointensity in hepatocyte-phase (54.2 {+-} 33.1 mm{sup 2}) was significantly smaller than those of the corresponding hyperintensity in hepatic arterial-phase (97.1 {+-} 42.0 mm{sup 2}) for EN lesions (P = 0.019), whereas no significant difference in area was found for HCCs. Conclusion: EN lesions may occasionally present with hypointensity during the hepatocyte-phase; presenting a diagnostic dilemma. In this situation, EN lesions may be differentiated from HCCs when a hypointense area in hepatocyte-phase is smaller than the corresponding hypervascular area in hepatic-arterial phase.

  11. Hepatic lesions that mimic metastasis on radiological imaging during chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancy: Recent updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sung Hye; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Yeul Hong [Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    During chemotherapy in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy, the hepatic lesions may occur as chemotherapy-induced lesions or tumor-associated lesions, with exceptions for infectious conditions and other incidentalomas. Focal hepatic lesions arising from chemotherapy-induced hepatopathies (such as chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal injury and steatosis) and tumor-associated eosinophilic abscess should be considered a mimicker of metastasis in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancy in the liver has roles in both the therapeutic effects for hepatic metastasis and injury to the non-tumor bearing hepatic parenchyma. In this article, we reviewed the updated concept of chemotherapy-induced hepatopathies and tumor-associated eosinophilic abscess in the liver, focusing on the pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the causative chemo-agent, pathophysiology, and characteristic imaging findings of these mimickers is critical for accurate diagnosis and avoidance of unnecessary exposure of the patient to invasive tissue-based diagnosis and operation.

  12. Effect of Lesion Size in the Diagnosis of Hepatic Hemangioma with Tc-99m Erythrocyte Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diagnosis of the hepatic hemangiomas is sometimes difficult by means of computed tomography (CT or ultrasound (USG. This kind of lesions can be accurately identified by Tc-99m labeled erythrocyte -red blood cell (RBC imaging. However there are controversial results about small lesions (

  13. Beyond Parasitism: Hepatic Lesions in Stranded Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Without Trematode (Campula oblonga) Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, S; Harkema, L; Wiersma, L C M; Keesler, R I

    2015-11-01

    The liver can be an indicator of the health of an individual or of a group, which can be especially important to identify agents that can cause disease in multiple species. To better characterize hepatic lesions in stranded harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), we analyzed the livers from 39 porpoises that stranded along the Dutch coast between December 2008 and December 2012. The animals were selected because they had either gross or histologic liver lesions with minimal autolysis and no evidence of trematode (Campula oblonga) infection. The most common finding was a chronic hepatitis (22/39, 56.4%) that was often associated with significant disease reported in another organ system (18/22, 81.8%), of which 14 had chronic systemic disease. One case of chronic hepatitis was so severe as to mimic lymphoma, which could only be differentiated with immunohistochemistry. The other common lesions were lipidosis (11/39, 28.2%) and acute hepatitis (6/39, 15.4%), often in combination with mild chronic changes. Overall, although there were no consistent trends in etiology for the hepatic lesions, lipidosis was associated with starvation (8/11, 72.7%) and acute disease, and acute hepatitis was associated with bacterial infections and sepsis (6/6, 100%). © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Morphometric study of the hepatic lesions experimentally induced in hamsters by Entamoeba dispar and E. histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa C.A.X.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of experimental hepatic lesions produced in hamsters with Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively through morphometry and immunohistochemistry. Animals infected with E. dispar developed hepatic lesions quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those produced by E. histolytica on the first three days of infection. On the 6th and 8th days of infection, E. histolytica produced larger tissue damage than E. dispar. A gradual decrease was observed in the number of trophozoites along the infection. A negative correlation was observed between the reduced number of trophozoites and the larger area of necrosis in both groups, confirming the importance of trophozoites killed in the lesion genesis. Regarding the genetic similarity between E. histolytica and E. dispar, comparison strategy between lesions produced by these species may culminate in identifying virulence factors of E. histolytica.

  15. Cutaneous lesions and finger clubbing uncovering hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis and hepatitis C with mixed cryoglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Almeida, Teresa; Caetano, Mónica; Alves, Rosário; Selores, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Urticarial vasculitis is a rare clinicopathologic entity characterized by urticarial lesions that persist for more than 24 hours and histologic features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Patients can be divided into normocomplementemic or hypocomplementemic. The authors report the case of a healthy 49-year-old woman with a 1-year history of highly pruritic generalized cutaneous lesions and finger clubbing. Laboratory tests together with histopathologic examination allowed the diagnosis of hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, chronic hepatitis C and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia. The patient started symptomatic treatment and was referred to a gastroenterologist for management of the hepatitis C, with progressive improvement of the skin condition. The development of hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis in the context of chronic hepatitis C is exceedingly rare and possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed.

  16. Cutaneous lesions and finger clubbing uncovering hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis and hepatitis C with mixed cryoglobulinemia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Almeida, Teresa; Caetano, Mónica; Alves, Rosário; Selores, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Urticarial vasculitis is a rare clinicopathologic entity characterized by urticarial lesions that persist for more than 24 hours and histologic features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Patients can be divided into normocomplementemic or hypocomplementemic. The authors report the case of a healthy 49-year-old woman with a 1-year history of highly pruritic generalized cutaneous lesions and finger clubbing. Laboratory tests together with histopathologic examination allowed the diagnosis of hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, chronic hepatitis C and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia. The patient started symptomatic treatment and was referred to a gastroenterologist for management of the hepatitis C, with progressive improvement of the skin condition. The development of hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis in the context of chronic hepatitis C is exceedingly rare and possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24474109

  17. Lesions of the segmental and lobar hepatic ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, W P; Tompkins, R K

    1975-01-01

    Despite reports to the contrary, unobstructed drainage of 50% of an otherwise normal liver through either the right or left uninfected hepatic duct is adequate to restore normal liver function, even if the obstructed lobe remains in place. An undrained liver lobe, if present, may require no further treatment. As long as it is completely obstructed and uninfected, it will undergo a progressive asymptomatic atrophy. Cholangitis invariably develops behind a partial lobar ductal obstruction, producing jaundice, pruritis, and fever. Unless unobstructed, uninfected biliary flow can be achieved through a segmental or lobar duct, it is better that the duct be completely obstructed and the affected liver parenchyma allowed to atrophy, provided there is normal biliary flow from the residual 50% of liver. This concept is important in the management of injured anomalous segmental or lobar hepatic duct and in the palliative treatment of bile duct carcinoma. Localized intrahepatic infections communicating with abnormal biliary ducts will require hepatic resection of the infected parenchyma and ducts for cure. The abnormality may be saccular dilatation of the intrahepatic ductal system with abscess formation or intrahepatic abscess associated with stenosis of the ductal system from trauma to the duct, to the duct and liver, or to retained intrahepatic stones. Diffusely situated intrahepatic abscesses secondary to ductal abnormalities can be treated with systemic antibiotics, local drainage of a dmoninant abscess, and efforts to improve biliary drainage. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Figs. 11A and B Figs. 12A and B. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. PMID:1180585

  18. Dynamic assessment of the focal hepatic lesion in rats using ultrasonic contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Deng, Youbin; Huang, Daozhong; Zhang, Qingping

    2006-01-01

    The focal hepatic lesion caused by local injection of absolute alcohol in rats was evaluated with ultrasonic contrast agent and pathologic examination. Twenty adult Wistar rats weighing about 200 g were injected with absolute alcohol (0.05-0.1 mL each one) on the exterior left lobe of the liver under the monitoring of ultrasound. Pulse inversion harmonic imaging was used to evaluate the focal lesion after bolus injection of ultrasonic contrast agent (0.05 mL/200 g) through caudal vein. Seven days later, the focal lesion was studied again as before. The exterior left lobe of liver with focal lesion was incised and underwent pathologic examination. The results showed that all of the focal lesions could be defined clearly after bolus injection of the ultrasonic contrast agent under the mode of pulse inversion harmonic imaging. There was good correlation between the size of the focal lesion measured by ultrasound on the 7th day after the "ablation" under the mode of pulse inversion harmonic imaging and that gotten by pathologic examination (P = 0.39). The focus size measured by ultrasound right after the ablation was larger than that gotten by pathologic examination (P = 0.002). It was concluded that ultrasonic contrast agent plus pulse inversion harmonic imaging could be used to assess the size of the focal hepatic lesion caused by local injection of absolute alcohol in rats.

  19. Simple resection of the lesion bile duct branch for treatment of regional hepatic bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enliang, Li; Rongshou, Wu; Shidai, Shi; Jingling, Zhang; Qian, Feng; Wenjun, Liao; Linquan, Wu

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of simple resections of bile duct branch lesions for the treatment of regional hepatic bile duct stones.A retrospective analysis of the clinical data from patients in our hospital from November 2008 to November 2015, who only underwent a simple resection of the lesion bile duct branch. The patients' clinical characteristics, surgical features, postoperative complications, stone clear rate, residual stone rate, and recurrence stone rate were analyzed.This study of 32 patients included 13 males and 19 females with intrahepatic bile duct stones confined to the right hepatic bile duct branch. The intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and postoperative hospital stay were 478.0 ± 86.5, 210.7 ± 6.6, and 10.8 ± 3.5, respectively. Postoperative complications occurred in 6 patients (18.8%), all of whom recovered with conservative management. There were no deaths during hospitalization. The intraoperative stone clearance rate was 95.8%. Three patients had a recurrence of stones at a mean of 22 months of follow-up (range, 4-36 months).Simple resection of bile duct branch lesions is safe and feasible for patients who have regional hepatic bile duct stones limited to the right hepatic bile duct branches.

  20. Diverticular bile duct lesion in chronic active hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyberg, M

    1989-01-01

    of a not previously described diverticular type were revealed. The diverticuli were of varying shape with a diameter of 30 to 110 microns and a length of 75 to 150 microns budding from small (12 to 25 microns), slightly ectatic bile ducts. The diverticular epithelium was disordered. Some cells appeared as bile duct...... cells, but most were larger, with rounded nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, sometimes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant granules. The lesions were only partly surrounded by a basement membrane. They were all embedded in a tight mononuclear inflammatory...

  1. Prominent hypointense veins on susceptibility weighted image in the cat brain with acute infarction: DWI, SWI, and PWI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Woo; Kim, Hak Jin; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Dong Chan

    2014-10-01

    The multiple prominent hypointense veins on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) have been found in the ischemic territory of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Venous side is the unknown area in the hemodynamics of brain infarction. To evaluate the venous aspect in acute brain infarction through an animal study. The acute infarction in cat brains was induced with a bolus infusion of 0.25 mL of triolein through one side of the common carotid artery. The magnetic resonance (MR) images, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, SW, and perfusion-weighted (PWI) images, were obtained serially at 2 h (n = 17), 1 day (n = 11), and 4 days (n = 4) after triolein infusion. The obtained MR images were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. For qualitative assessment, the signal intensity of the serial MR images was evaluated. The presence or absence and the location with serial changes of infarction were identified on DWI and ADC map images. The presence or absence of prominent hypointense veins and the serial changes of cortical veins were also evaluated on SWI. Quantitative assessment was performed by comparing the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and mean transit times (MTT) of the lesions with those of the contralateral normal side calculated on PWI. The serial changes of rCBV, rCBF, and MTT ratio were also evaluated. Acute infarction in the first and second medial gyrus of lesion hemisphere was found by qualitative evaluation of DWI and ADC map images. On the serial evaluation of SWI, the cortical veins of cat brain with infarction were obscured at 2 h and then re-appeared at 1 day. The hemorrhage transformation and prominent hypointense veins were seen at 4 days on SWI. The quantitative evaluation revealed increased MTT ratios and decreased rCBV and rCBF ratios on PWIs in the acute infarction of cat brain. The prominent hypointense veins on SWI were seen in the half of the acute

  2. Impaired nuclear translocation of CAR in hepatic preneoplastic lesions: association with an attenuated CYP2B induction by phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Satoshi; Shindo, Sawako; Maruyama, Keiji; Chibana, Fumika; Kawahara, Yosuke; Ashino, Takashi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Yoshida, Takemi

    2005-07-04

    Phenobarbital (PB) induction of CYP2B, a representative target gene of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), has been observed to be attenuated in preneoplastic lesions of rat liver; however, molecular basis for this attenuation is poorly understood. In this report, we provide evidence indicating that the CAR expressed in the hepatic preneoplastic lesions of rats and mice was resistant to nuclear translocation and transactivation of the PB-responsive enhancer module upon PB treatment. These observations suggest that the attenuation of the induction of CYP2B by PB in hepatic preneoplastic lesions is evidently a consequence of impaired nuclear translocation of CAR.

  3. Hepatic splenosis presenting as arterialised liver lesion in a patient with NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchingolo, R; Peddu, P; Karani, J

    2013-11-01

    Splenosis represents the heterotopic autotransplantation of splenic tissue after a traumatic splenic rupture and splenectomy. It is not a rare condition and it is estimated to occur in up to 67% of patients with traumatic splenic rupture. We report one case of patient, affected by non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with a hypervascularised liver lesion, that the final histological examination revealed hepatic splenosis. This is a rare condition that may be misinterpreted as adenoma or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Imaging techniques and features that might contribute to the diagnosis and may avoid invasive treatment are also discussed. Although hepatic splenosis is a rare condition, this diagnosis should be considered in patients with previous history of abdominal trauma and then the diagnosis of splenosis may be confirmed by Tc-99m-DRBC scintigraphy, avoiding biopsy or further surgery.

  4. Ibuprofen hepatic encephalopathy, hepatomegaly, gastric lesion and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Spomenko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zarkovic, Kamelija; Kolenc, Danijela; Brcic, Luka; Radic, Bozo; Djuzel, Viktor; Blagaic, Alenka Boban; Romic, Zeljko; Dzidic, Senka; Kalogjera, Livije; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2011-09-30

    Chronic ibuprofen (0.4 g/kg intraperitoneally, once daily for 4 weeks) evidenced a series of pathologies, not previously reported in ibuprofen-dosed rats, namely hepatic encephalopathy, gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased AST and ALT serum values with prolonged sedation/unconsciousness, and weight loss. In particular, ibuprofen toxicity was brain edema, particularly in the cerebellum, with the white matter being more affected than in gray matter. In addition, damaged and red neurons, in the absence of anti-inflammatory reaction was observed, particularly in the cerebral cortex and cerebellar nuclei, but was also present although to a lesser extent in the hippocampus, dentate nucleus and Purkinje cells. An anti-ulcer peptide shown to have no toxicity, the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419, 10 μg, 10 ng/kg) inhibited the pathology seen with ibuprofen (i) when given intraperitoneally, immediately after ibuprofen daily or (ii) when given in drinking water (0.16 μg, 0.16 ng/ml). Counteracted were all adverse effects, such as hepatic encephalopathy, the gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased liver serum values. In addition, BPC 157 treated rats showed no behavioral disturbances and maintained normal weight gain. Thus, apart from efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease and various wound treatments, BPC 157 was also effective when given after ibuprofen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Consistent associations between hepatic lesions in english sole (Parophrys vetulus) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landahl, J.T.; McCain, B.B.; Myers, M.S.; Brown, D.W. (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (USA) Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A consistent and statistically significant association between prevalence of hepatic neoplasms in free-living sole (Parophrys vetulus) and levels of anthropogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediment from sites of fish capture was documented in a series of studies conducted over a period of 7 years in Puget Sound, Washington. This result strengthens the evidence supporting a causal relationship between exposure to sediment-associated hydrocarbons and development of hepatic neoplasms in this bottom-dwelling marine fish species. Prevalence of two other distinct categories of idiopathic hepatic lesions - megalocytic hepatosis and steatosis/hemosiderosis - also showed consistent, statistically significant associations with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in bottom sediment, and association with prevalence of a third category (putatively preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration) approached statistical significance. On the basis of other studies, megalocytic hepatosis and foci of cellular alteration are both considered to be important precursor lesions in the stepwise histogenesis of hepatic neoplasms.

  6. Difference of contrast enhancement characteristics of hepatic hemangiomas according to lesion size on two-phase spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Sung Hye; Yoon, Suk Kwon; Yang, Dal Mo; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Chung, Jin Woo [Chungang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the different of enhancement patterns of hepatic hemangioma according to the lesion size, using dual-phase spiral CT. Fifty-nine lesions in 45 patients with hepatic hemangiomas were subjected to spiral CT. According to size, the lesions were divided into two groups (<2.5 cm : n=34;> {>=} 2.5 cm : n=25). The enhancement patterns of the lesions were classified as one of four types (homogeneous hyperdense, peripheral hyperdense, central hyperdense, peripheral hyperdense, central hyperdense, or hypodense) during the early phase, and as one of five types (homogeneous hyperdense, peripheral hyperdense, central hyperdense, hypodense of isodense) during the delayed phase. We evaluated differences in enhancement patterns during the early and delayed phase according to lesion size. During the early phase, the enhancement patterns of lesions large than 2.5 cm were peripheral hyperdense (96%) or homogeneous hyperdense (4%); those of less than 2.5 cm were peripheral hyperdense (53%), homogenous hyperdense (26%), hypodense (18%), or central hyperdense (3%). Thus, hemangiomas in these two groups usually showed a peripheral enhancement patterns were more common. During the delayed phase, the enhancement patterns of lesions larger than 2.5 cm were peripheral hyperdense (3%), or isodense (3%). Thus, the enhancement patterns of lesions larger than 2.5 cm showed a homogeneous enhancement pattern. The enhancement patterns of hepatic hemangiomas differ according to lesion size. A knowledge of these differences is helpful in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma. (author). 16 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-weighted Imaging: Evaluation of the Differentiation of Solid Hepatic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Luo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate whether intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM–related parameters could be used to differentiate malignant from benign focal liver lesions (FLLs and to improve diagnostic efficiency. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with 75 lesions, including 51 malignant FLLs and 24 benign FLLs, underwent liver 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging for routine examination sequences. IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI with 11 b values (0-800 s/mm2 was also acquired concurrently. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCtotal and IVIM-derived parameters, such as the pure diffusion coefficient (D, the pseudodiffusion coefficient (D⁎, and the perfusion fraction (f, were calculated and compared between the two groups. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess their diagnostic value. RESULTS: ADCtotal, D, and f were significantly lower in the malignant group than in the benign group, whereas D⁎ did not show a statistical difference. D had a larger area under the curve value (0.968 and higher sensitivity (92.30% for differentiation. CONCLUSION: IVIM is a useful method to differentiate malignant and benign FLLs. The D value showed higher efficacy to detect hepatic solid lesions.

  8. Could near-infrared Raman spectroscopy be correlated with the METAVIR scores in liver lesions induced by hepatitis C virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggini, Marcio Cesar Reino; Navarro, Ricardo Scarparo; Stefanini, Aline Reis; Sano, Rubens Sato; Silveira, Landulfo

    2013-03-01

    The liver is responsible for several basic functions in human body how the syntheses of the most main proteins and degradation process of toxins, drugs and alcohols. In present days, the viral hepatitis C is one of the highest causes of chronic hepatic illness worldwide, affecting around 3% of the world population. The liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing hepatic fibrosis; however, the biopsies may be questioned because of potential sampling error, morbidity, possible mortality and relatively high costs. Spectroscopy techniques such as Raman spectroscopy have been used for diagnosis of human tissues, with favorable results. Raman spectroscopy has been employed to distinguish normal from hepatic lesions through spectral features mainly of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In this study, eleven patients with diagnoses of chronic hepatitis C underwent hepatic biopsies having two hepatic fragments collected: one was scored through METAVIR system and the other one was submitted to near-infrared Raman spectroscopy using a dispersive spectrometer (830 nm wavelength, 300 mW laser power and 20 s exposure time). Five spectra were collected in each fragment and submitted to Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Results showed a good correlation between the Raman spectroscopy features and the stage of hepatic fibrosis and inflammation. PCA showed that samples with higher degree of fibrosis presented higher amount of protein features (collagen), whereas samples of higher degree of inflammation presented higher features of hemoglobin, in accordance to the expected evolution of the chronic hepatitis. It has been found an important biomarker for the beginning of hepatic lesion (quinone) with a spectral feature at 1595 cm-1.

  9. Added value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound on biopsies of focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Min Woo; Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Mimi; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Seong Hyun; Ha, Sang Yun [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    To assess whether contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid can improve the lesion conspicuity and feasibility of percutaneous biopsies for focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging of real-time ultrasonography (US) with computed tomography/magnetic resonance images, and evaluate its impact on clinical decision making. The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study. Between June 2013 and January 2015, 711 US-guided percutaneous biopsies were performed for focal hepatic lesions. Biopsies were performed using CEUS for guidance if lesions were invisible on fusion imaging. We retrospectively evaluated the number of target lesions initially invisible on fusion imaging that became visible after applying CEUS, using a 4-point scale. Technical success rates of biopsies were evaluated based on histopathological results. In addition, the occurrence of changes in clinical decision making was assessed. Among 711 patients, 16 patients (2.3%) were included in the study. The median size of target lesions was 1.1 cm (range, 0.5–1.9 cm) in pre-procedural imaging. After CEUS, 15 of 16 (93.8%) focal hepatic lesions were visualized. The conspicuity score was significantly increased after adding CEUS, as compared to that on fusion imaging (p < 0.001). The technical success rate of biopsy was 87.6% (14/16). After biopsy, there were changes in clinical decision making for 11 of 16 patients (68.8%). The addition of CEUS could improve the conspicuity of focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging. This dual guidance using CEUS and fusion imaging may affect patient management via changes in clinical decision-making.

  10. Persistent T1 hypointensity as an MRI marker for treatment efficacy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elskamp, I J; Lembcke, J; Dattola, V; Beckmann, K; Pohl, C; Hong, W; Sandbrink, R; Wagner, K; Knol, D L; Uitdehaag, B; Barkhof, F

    2008-07-01

    MRI is often used as primary outcome measure in phase II clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). Since persistent T1 hypointense lesions are a surrogate parameter for axonal damage and demyelination, they may serve as a marker for monitoring the efficacy of neuroprotective drugs. At present, a power analysis using black hole (BH) evolution as primary outcome measure has not been performed. To assess the feasibility of using BH evolution on serial brain MR images as primary outcome measure in proof of concept studies in MS. MRI-data obtained from 169 active RRMS patients were analysed for BH evolution by determining the cumulative number of contrast enhancing lesions (CEL) evolving into a persistent black hole (PBH) after 3 months. With a parametric simulation procedure, based on a statistical distribution fitting the data, sample sizes were calculated. 21.2% of the total number of CELs observed during the study period evolved into a PBH. Ring enhancing lesions evolved most frequently into a PBH (59.4%), followed by lesions larger than 10 mm (57.4%) and periventricular CELs (30.6%). The simulation procedure, based on the statistical negative binomial (NB) model resulted in a sample sizes between 200 subjects and 30 subjects per arm, for treatment effects ranging from 50% to 90% reduction of the number of CELs evolving into a PBH, respectively. To perform a MRI monitored phase II clinical trial with a feasible sample size, using the evolution of CELs into PBHs as primary outcome parameter, a potent drug is required to obtain sufficient power.

  11. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of the hepatic lesions experimentally induced by Entamoeba dispar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. X. Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The sequence of hepatic necrotic-inflammatory events produced by Entamoeba dispar are originally described in this work. For the first time were described in details the experimental lesions produced by E. dispar, as well as the distribution of the trophozoites detected by the immunohistochemistry. Animals experimentally infected with E. dispar presented necrosis, thrombosis and chronic granulomatous inflammation. Immunoreactive products derived from trofozoites were observed close or associated with trophozoites, epithelioid cells, leucocytes and hepatocytes. Few are the articles on the literature about virulence of E. dispar, which is approximately 9 times more frequent than to E. histolytica. Variation in the virulence is, therefore expected and signalizing the need of the continuity of studies with E. dispar strains from different places in the world. Taking into account that E. dispar is a closely related species to E. histolytica, these studies could determine new elements involved with E. histolytica pathogenesis, helping us to understand better the disease.

  12. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of the hepatic lesions experimentally induced by Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C A X; De Brito, K N O; Gomes, M A; Caliari, M V

    2010-08-26

    The sequence of hepatic necrotic-inflammatory events produced by Entamoeba dispar are originally described in this work. For the first time were described in details the experimental lesions produced by E. dispar, as well as the distribution of the trophozoites detected by the immunohistochemistry. Animals experimentally infected with E. dispar presented necrosis, thrombosis and chronic granulomatous inflammation. Immunoreactive products derived from trofozoites were observed close or associated with trophozoites, epithelioid cells, leucocytes and hepatocytes. Few are the articles on the literature about virulence of E. dispar, which is approximately 9 times more frequent than to E. histolytica. Variation in the virulence is, therefore expected and signalizing the need of the continuity of studies with E. dispar strains from different places in the world. Taking into account that E. dispar is a closely related species to E. histolytica, these studies could determine new elements involved with E. histolytica pathogenesis, helping us to understand better the disease.

  13. A Case of Hypereosinophilia-Associated Multiple Mass Lesions of Liver Showing Non-Granulomatous Eosinophilic Hepatic Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Katayanagi, Kazuyoshi; Kurumaya, Hiroshi; Harada, Kenichi; sato, Yasunori; Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2011-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is defined by elevation more than 1.5×109/L of presence of a peripheral blood count, evidence of organ involvement, and exclusion of secondary eosinophilia such as allergic, vasculitis, drugs, or parasite infection and also clonal eosinophilia. We present the HES case with hepatic involvement. The patient is 70-year-old male. He complained fever and back pain. Blood examination showed marked peripheral eosinophilia, elevation of transaminase and biliary enzymes. Multiple irregular mass lesions of the liver were pointed out by CT and MRI. The liver biopsy was done for differentiation from malignancy. In parenchyma, hepatic necrotic lesion was observed accompanying severe eosinophilic infiltration with Charcot-Leyden’s crystals. There was granulomatous reaction. He was diagnosed as HES and got recovery due to steroid therapy. From the review of HES article, the hepatic histology is categorized into four types as below: 1) cholangitis type; 2) chronic active hepatitis type; 3) vasculopathic type, 4) hepatic necrosis type. Our case is classified in hepatic necrosis type. This type seems to be important to distinguish malignant tumor and also visceral larva migrans by liver biopsy. PMID:27942335

  14. Differential rescue of the renal and hepatic disease in an autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease mouse mutant. A new model to study the liver lesion.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoder, B. K.; Richards, W. G.; Sommardahl, C.; Sweeney, W. E.; Michaud, E. J.; Wilkinson, J. E.; Avner, E. D.; Woychik, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is characterized by biliary and renal lesions that produce significant morbidity and mortality. The biliary ductual ectasia and hepatic portal fibrosis associated with ARPKD have not been well studied even though such lesions markedly affect the clinical course of patients after renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or transplantation. Here we describe the generation of a new mouse model to study the hepatic lesions associated with po...

  15. "Venous congestion" as a cause of subcortical white matter T2 hypointensity on magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash Harsha Kamble

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcortical T2 hypointensity is an uncommon finding seen in very limited conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and meningitis. Some of the conditions such as moyamoya disease, severe ischemic-anoxic insults, early cortical ischemia, and infarcts are of "arterial origin." We describe two conditions in which "venous congestion" plays a major role in T2 hypointensity - cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST and dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF. The third case is a case of meningitis, showing T2 hypointensity as well, and can be explained by the "venous congestion" hypothesis. The same hypothesis can explain few of the other conditions causing subcortical T2 hypointensity.

  16. Hepatic Lesions Detected after Mastectomy, in Breast Cancer Patients with Hepatitis Background May Need to Undergo Liver Biopsy to Rule Out Second Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi-wen; Li, Hai-jin; Chen, Ya-nan; Ning, Zhou-yu; Gao, Song; Shen, Ye-hua; Meng, Zhi-qiang; Vargulick, Sonya; Wang, Bi-yun; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Liver metastasis is a common phenomenon in breast cancer patients. Hepatic lesions detected in breast cancer patients may be easily misdiagnosed as metastatic sites, rather than being treated as primary foci. This descriptive study aims to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of second primary hepatocellular carcinoma in breast cancer patients and to infer in which circumstances liver biopsy is needed. Eighty-one consecutive breast cancer patients with hepatic lesions admitted to our department were retrospectively studied and analyzed from January 2009 to March 2014 according to Warren and Gates' criteria for second primary cancers. Second primary hepatocellular carcinoma was observed in sixteen of seventy eight patients with breast cancer. There was a significant difference in HBV status between the second HCC group and liver metastases group (Phistory (P = 0.1160) between second primary HCC and metastases group. Two of these patients had synchronous second primary hepatocellular carcinoma and the remaining fourteen patients had metachronous second primary HCC. All sixteen patients were infected with hepatitis, including hepatitis virus B and C, or resolved HBV infection. Breast cancer patients with either HBV infection or resolved HBV infection, regardless of an elevated AFP level, may receive liver biopsy to avoid unnecessary and inappropriate treatments for metastasis. Awareness of second primary HCC in breast cancer patients needs to be emphasized.

  17. CT and MR imaging characteristics of infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Shiting, E-mail: fst1977@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen Univeristy, 58th, The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou (China); Chan Tao, E-mail: taochan@hku.hk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Hong Kong, Room 406, Block K, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Ching, A.S.C., E-mail: chingsc@hotmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Hong Kong, Room 406, Block K, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Sun Canhui, E-mail: canhuisun@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen Univeristy, 58th, The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou (China); Guo Huanyi, E-mail: guohuanyi@163.com [Department of Medical ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen Univeristy, 600th, Tianhe Road, Guangzhou (China); Fan Miao, E-mail: cmu-sums@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen Univeristy, 58th, The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou (China); Meng Quanfei, E-mail: mzycoco@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen Univeristy, 58th, The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou (China); Li Ziping, E-mail: liziping163@tom.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen Univeristy, 58th, The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou (China)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: This study aims to analyze computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of infantile hepatic hemangioendotheliomas before and after treatment. Materials and methods: CT and MR examinations of seven infants with biopsy proven hepatic hemangioendotheliomas were retrospectively analyzed. The distribution, number, size, imaging appearance, enhancement pattern and post-treatment changes of the tumors were evaluated. Results: A total of 153 hepatic hemangioendotheliomas were detected on CT (111) and MR (42) imaging. In six infants, 109/111 (98.2%) tumors were hypodense and 2/111 (1.8%) lesions contained calcification on unenhanced CT. On MR imaging, all 42 lesions in one infant were heterogeneously T1-hypointense and T2-hyperintense compared to the normal liver parenchyma. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI showed peripheral rim (51.6%), uniform (48.4%), fibrillary (33.3%), and nodular (28.8%) contrast enhancement in the hepatic arterial phase. Homogeneous (100%), rim (98.2%) and mixed enhancement patterns were noted in tumors <1.0 cm, >2.0 cm and 1.0-2.0 cm in diameter respectively in the hepatic arterial phase. In three patients who underwent steroid therapy, follow-up CT examination demonstrated tumor size reduction and increased intra-tumoral calcification in two patients. Conclusion: Infantile hepatic hemangioendotheliomas show some typical imaging features and size-dependent pattern of contrast enhancement on CT and MR imaging, which allow accurate imaging diagnosis and post-treatment evaluation.

  18. Hepatocellular Carcinomas Originate Predominantly from Hepatocytes and Benign Lesions from Hepatic Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna S. Tummala

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is an aggressive primary liver cancer. However, its origin remains a debated question. Using human data and various hepatocarcinogenesis mouse models, we show that, in early stages, transformed hepatocytes, independent of their proliferation status, activate hepatic progenitor cell (HPC expansion. Genetic lineage tracing of HPCs and hepatocytes reveals that, in all models, HCC originates from hepatocytes. However, whereas in various models tumors do not emanate from HPCs, tracking of progenitors in a model mimicking human hepatocarcinogenesis indicates that HPCs can generate benign lesions (regenerative nodules and adenomas and aggressive HCCs. Mechanistically, galectin-3 and α-ketoglutarate paracrine signals emanating from oncogene-expressing hepatocytes instruct HPCs toward HCCs. α-Ketoglutarate preserves an HPC undifferentiated state, and galectin-3 maintains HPC stemness, expansion, and aggressiveness. Pharmacological or genetic blockage of galectin-3 reduces HCC, and its expression in human HCC correlates with poor survival. Our findings may have clinical implications for liver regeneration and HCC therapy.

  19. Change of hepatic arterial systolic/diastolic ratio predicts ischemic type biliary lesion after orthotropic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiming; Shi, Yuexian; Wu, Hongtao; Chen, Guang; Tang, Ying; Liu, Lei; Zhu, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective nested case-control study for the hepatic artery and portal vein hemodynamic changes after orthotopic liver transplantation. A total 128 cases of orthotropic liver transplantation were analyzed, including 25 cases of ischemic type biliary lesions (ITBL). The portal vein and hepatic artery flow velocities were detected by ultrasound on days 28, 42, and 84 after liver transplantation. In the GLM analysis of Lg(S/D), the P values of Group Effect, Time Effect, and Time×Group were 0.014, 0.376, and 0.008, respectively. Our results show a relatively reduced hepatic artery S/D in ITBL, especially in extrahepatic ITBL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Silent hepatic lesions detected with computed tomography in aplastic anemia patients administered androgens for a long period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Morihisa (Shiga Univ., Otsu (Japan)); Hiraoka, Atsumobu; Uchino, Haruto

    1982-07-01

    Macroscopic liver lesions were investigated with the use of computed tomography (CT) and radionuclide imaging (RN) in 15 aplastic anemia patients who were administered anabolic steroids for over one year and who showed no apparent physical and biochemical sign of liver tumor. In 3 patients, CT scans showed radiolucent areas in the liver. Contrast enhancements revealed these lesions to be well vascularized, suggesting they were not cysts but probably tumors. RN imaging could not demonstrate any definite space occupying lesions. Total dose of AS administered to each of the three patients exceeded 30,000 mg. It was felt that attention should be paid to the possible development of hepatic tumor when the dose of AS administered exceeds 30,000 mg.

  1. Diagnostic value of time-intensity curve for hepatic space-occupying lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hui

    2014-11-01

    .001, but no significant difference in TP was observed between the AFP-negative HCC group and AFP-positive HCC group. ConclusionAFP-negative HCC (or AFP-positive HCC and hepatic hemangioma can be diagnosed differentially by CEUS findings and TP. A combination of the two examinations can improve the diagnostic value for benign and malignant liver lesions and increase the detection rate of AFP-negative HCC.

  2. Hepatic hemangioma and metastasis: differentiation with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced 3-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Satoshi; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Watanabe, Haruo; Kondo, Hiroshi; Shiratori, Yoshimune; Onozuka, Minoru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI findings of hepatic hemangioma and to investigate the diagnostic performance in differentiating hepatic hemangioma and metastasis. Images of 32 hepatic hemangiomas in 25 patients and of 29 hepatic metastatic lesions in 20 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Two independent readers interpreted hepatobiliary phase images alone, dynamic extracellular phase images alone, and combined hepatobiliary and dynamic extracellular phase images. MRI findings and performance with respect to the differential diagnosis of hemangioma and metastasis were assessed. During the hepatic arterial phase, 11 of the 32 hemangiomas (34%) exhibited early total enhancement, and nine (28%) exhibited peripheral nodular enhancement. A bright dot sign or minimal peripheral enhancement during the late dynamic phase was observed for a small number of lesions (6% and 28%, respectively). Twenty-three of the 29 metastatic lesions (79%) exhibited ring enhancement during the hepatic arterial phase. Twenty-nine hemangiomas (91%) and all of the metastatic lesions exhibited homogeneous or heterogeneous hypointensity during the hepatobiliary phase. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of hemangioma were 76%, 81%, and 0.87 for the hepatobiliary phase alone; 97%, 88%, and 0.97 for the dynamic extracellular phase alone; and 97%, 88%, and 0.98 for the combination. Five nodules smaller than 1 cm (four hemangiomas, one metastatic lesion) that exhibited no enhancement during the arterial phase and minimal enhancement during the late dynamic phase were not differentiated. Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI was found useful for differentiating hepatic hemangiomas and metastatic lesions, especially during the dynamic extracellular phase. Only a limited number of lesions smaller than 1 cm in diameter, which exhibited minimal enhancement on late dynamic phase images, were

  3. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules in Alagille syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jordan B. [Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Department of Radiology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bellah, Richard D.; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Maya, Carolina [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pawel, Bruce R. [University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Children with Alagille syndrome undergo surveillance radiologic examinations as they are at risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is limited literature on the imaging of liver masses in Alagille syndrome. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of incidental benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules in this population. To describe the imaging findings of giant regenerative nodules in patients with Alagille syndrome. A retrospective search of the hospital database was performed to find all cases of hepatic masses in patients with Alagille syndrome during a 10-year period. Imaging, clinical charts, laboratory data and available pathology were reviewed and analyzed and summarized for each patient. Twenty of 45 patients with confirmed Alagille syndrome had imaging studies. Of those, we identified six with giant focal liver masses. All six patients had large central hepatic masses that were remarkably similar on US and MRI, in addition to having features of cirrhosis. In each case, the mass was located in hepatic segment VIII and imaging showed the mass splaying the main portal venous branches at the hepatic hilum, as well as smaller portal and hepatic venous branches coursing through them. On MRI, signal intensity of the mass was isointense to liver on T1-weighted sequences in four of six patients, but hyperintense on T1 in two of six patients. In all six cases, the mass was hypointense on T2- weighted sequences. The mass post-contrast was isointense to adjacent liver in all phases in five the cases. Five out of six patients had pathological correlation demonstrating preserved ductal architecture confirming the final diagnosis of a regenerative nodule. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules with characteristic US and MR features can occur in patients with Alagille syndrome with underlying cirrhosis. Recognizing these lesions as benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules should, thereby, mitigate any need for

  4. Hypodense liver lesions in patients with hepatic steatosis: do we profit from dual-energy computed tomography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nattenmueller, Johanna; Hosch, Waldemar; Nguyen, Tri-Thien; Skornitzke, Stephan; Joeres, Andreas; Grenacher, Lars; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Sommer, Christof M.; Stiller, Wolfram [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (DIR), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of hypodense liver lesions in patients with hepatic steatosis, having a high incidence in the general population and among cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. One hundred and five patients with hepatic steatosis (liver parenchyma <40 HU) underwent contrast-enhanced DECT with reconstruction of pure iodine (PI), optimum contrast (OC), 80 kV{sub p}, and 120 kV{sub p}-equivalent data sets. Image noise (IN), lesion to liver signal to noise (SNR) and contrast to noise (CNR) ratios were quantitatively analysed; image quality was rated on a 5-point scale (1, excellent; 2, good; 3, fair; 4, poor; 5, non-diagnostic) by two independent reviewers. In 21 patients with hypodense liver lesions, IN was lowest in PI followed by 120 kV{sub p}-equivalent and OC, and highest in 80 kV{sub p}. SNR was highest in PI (1.30), followed by 120 kV{sub p}-equivalent (0.72) and 80 kV{sub p} (0.63), and lowest in OC (0.55). CNR was highest in 120 kV{sub p}-equivalent (4.95), followed by OC (4.55) and 80 kV{sub p} (4.14), and lowest in PI (3.63). The 120 kV{sub p}-equivalent series exhibited best overall qualitative image score (1.88), followed by OC (1.98), 80 kV{sub p} (3.00) and PI (3.67). In our study, the 120 kV{sub p}-equivalent series was best suited for visualization of hypodense lesions within steatotic liver parenchyma, while using DECT currently seems to offer no additional diagnostic advantage. (orig.)

  5. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yourself against hepatitis A is by vaccination. Other ways to protect yourself include avoiding rimming and other anal and oral contact. While condom use is essential in preventing the spread of HIV, hepatitis B and other STDs, it does not ...

  6. Noise-reducing algorithms do not necessarily provide superior dose optimisation for hepatic lesion detection with multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobeli, K L; Lewis, S J; Meikle, S R; Thiele, D L; Brennan, P C

    2013-03-01

    To compare the dose-optimisation potential of a smoothing filtered backprojection (FBP) and a hybrid FBP/iterative algorithm to that of a standard FBP algorithm at three slice thicknesses for hepatic lesion detection with multidetector CT. A liver phantom containing a 9.5-mm opacity with a density of 10 HU below background was scanned at 125, 100, 75, 50 and 25 mAs. Data were reconstructed with standard FBP (B), smoothing FBP (A) and hybrid FBP/iterative (iDose(4)) algorithms at 5-, 3- and 1-mm collimation. 10 observers marked opacities using a four-point confidence scale. Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic figure of merit (FOM), sensitivity and noise were calculated. Compared with the 125-mAs/5-mm setting for each algorithm, significant reductions in FOM (pSuperior performance for hepatic lesion detection was not shown with either a smoothing FBP algorithm or a hybrid FBP/iterative algorithm compared with a standard FBP technique, even though noise reduction with thinner slices was demonstrated with the alternative approaches. Reductions in image noise with non-standard CT algorithms do not necessarily translate to an improvement in low-contrast object detection.

  7. Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia: contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings with emphasis on lesion size, depth and liver echogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Taibbi, Adele; Matranga, Domenica; Malizia, Giovanni; Lagalla, Roberto; Midiri, Massimo

    2010-09-01

    To correlate contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) findings of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) with lesion size, depth and liver echogenicity and to compare CEUS with baseline US. Two radiologists evaluated baseline US and CEUS examinations of 92 FNHs (mean size: 3.1 +/- 1.7 cm) in 71 patients (59 women and 12 men) to detect the "spoke-wheel" sign, central scar and feeding vessel. The FNHs were grouped and analysed by dimension, depth and liver echogenicity. At least one sign could be detected at CEUS in 27 out of 36 (75%) FNHs larger than 3 cm and in 17 out of 56 (30%) FNH measuring 3 cm or less (p 0.05) as well as between CEUS or baseline US/CD with regard to lesion size, depth or liver echogenicity (p > 0.05). The detection rate of the central scar and spoke-wheel sign in FNH at CEUS is strongly dependent on lesion size and CEUS can confidently diagnose most FNHs larger than 3 cm.

  8. Noise-reducing algorithms do not necessarily provide superior dose optimisation for hepatic lesion detection with multidetector CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobeli, K L; Lewis, S J; Meikle, S R; Thiele, D L; Brennan, P C

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dose-optimisation potential of a smoothing filtered backprojection (FBP) and a hybrid FBP/iterative algorithm to that of a standard FBP algorithm at three slice thicknesses for hepatic lesion detection with multidetector CT. Methods: A liver phantom containing a 9.5-mm opacity with a density of 10 HU below background was scanned at 125, 100, 75, 50 and 25 mAs. Data were reconstructed with standard FBP (B), smoothing FBP (A) and hybrid FBP/iterative (iDose4) algorithms at 5-, 3- and 1-mm collimation. 10 observers marked opacities using a four-point confidence scale. Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic figure of merit (FOM), sensitivity and noise were calculated. Results: Compared with the 125-mAs/5-mm setting for each algorithm, significant reductions in FOM (p<0.05) and sensitivity (p<0.05) were found for all three algorithms for all exposures at 1-mm thickness and for all slice thicknesses at 25 mAs, with the exception of the 25-mAs/5-mm setting for the B algorithm. Sensitivity was also significantly reduced for all exposures at 3-mm thickness for the A algorithm (p<0.05). Noise for the A and iDose4 algorithms was approximately 13% and 21% lower, respectively, than for the B algorithm. Conclusion: Superior performance for hepatic lesion detection was not shown with either a smoothing FBP algorithm or a hybrid FBP/iterative algorithm compared with a standard FBP technique, even though noise reduction with thinner slices was demonstrated with the alternative approaches. Advances in knowledge: Reductions in image noise with non-standard CT algorithms do not necessarily translate to an improvement in low-contrast object detection. PMID:23392194

  9. Glutathione S-transferase expression in pollution-associated hepatic lesions of brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, K L; Gallagher, E P

    2004-07-01

    In rodents, overexpression of glutathione S-transferase pi is a characteristic feature of foci of cellular alteration (FCA) and neoplastic liver lesions induced by genotoxic chemicals. Alterations of glutathione S-transferase (GST) expression in hepatic lesions have also been reported in fish exposed to environmental carcinogens, and cellular GST expression may be an important determinant of growth and progression of chemical-associated liver tumors in certain fish species. In the present study, GST expression was examined in hepatic lesions of brown bullheads (n = 44) from the Cuyahoga River, a highly industrialized site located in Cleveland, Ohio. GST proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry and polyclonal antibodies that recognize either two major bullhead GST proteins or a pi-like GST isoform. Hepatic lesions were present in 70% of the fish and included biliary hyperplasia and biliary fibrosis; eosinophilic, basophilic, clear cell, and vacuolated FCA; and biliary neoplasms. Eosinophilic FCA and biliary tumors were the most prevalent preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. GST expression in hyperplastic biliary tissue, FCA and tumors did not markedly differ from that of surrounding normal hepatocytes or biliary epithelium. Some hepatocytes within eosinophilic FCA had decreased GST expression. A complete absence of GST immunoreactive protein was not observed in any lesion, and there were no marked differences when comparing GST pi to overall GST expression. Our results indicate that GST expression in hepatic lesions of brown bullhead exposed to environmental carcinogens does not significantly differ from that in surrounding normal cells and is therefore not a useful predictor of environmental carcinogenesis in this species. Furthermore, the regulation and expression of GST pi in bullhead hepatocarcinogenesis appears to differ markedly from that during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and some other fish species.

  10. HEPATIC LESIONS IN CATTLE GRAZING ON Brachiaria Decumbens IN MESETAS, META (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Caicedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available e n la Orinoquía colombiana hay una considerable cantidad de ganado bovino que se alimenta predominantemente de Brachiaria spp. s in embargo, se ha reconocido que esta pastura puede ocasionar daño hepático y posterior fotosensibilización en rumiantes, por las saponinas esteroidales que contiene. Con el propósito de evaluar las lesiones hepáticas en ganado bovino procedente de los Llanos Orientales colombianos, se to - maron y procesaron, mediante técnicas histológicas de rutina, muestras de hígado de los lóbulos derecho e izquierdo, así como de la entrada de la vena porta de cinco toros clínicamente sanos. Las principales lesiones observadas en estos tejidos fueron colangiohepatitis mononuclear, macrófagos espumosos, acumulación moderada de pigmentos biliares, muerte de hepatocitos, hepatocitos binucleados, moderada hiperplasia de ductos biliares y múltiples focos de fibrosis leve en áreas periportales, que fueron corroborados por tinción tricrómica de Masson. e stas lesiones se distribuyeron predominantemente en la entrada de la vena porta y se localizaron con frecuencia en la entrada de la región periportal. d ado que estas lesiones se atribuyen comúnmente al consumo de Brachiaria decumbens, y estaban presentes en animales clínicamente sanos exclusivamente alimentados con esta pastura, se concluye que las lesiones aquí encontradas fueron causadas por la Brachiaria decumbens. Se sugiere ampliar este estudio involucrando más bovinos, granjas y municipios.

  11. Exposure (mAs) optimisation of a multi-detector CT protocol for hepatic lesion detection: Are thinner slices better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobeli, Karen Leigh; Lewis, Sarah Jane; Meikle, Steven Richard; Thiele, David Lewis; Brennan, Patrick Christopher

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the exposure-optimised slice thickness for hepatic lesion detection with CT. A phantom containing spheres (diameter 9.5, 4.8 and 2.4 mm) with CT density 10 HU below the background (50 HU) was scanned at 125, 100, 75 and 50 mAs. Data were reconstructed at 5-, 3- and 1-mm slice thicknesses. Noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), area under the curve (AUC) as calculated using receiver operating characteristic analysis and sensitivity representing lesion detection were calculated and compared. Compared with the 125 mAs/5 mm slice thickness setting, significant reductions in AUC were found for 75 mAs (P mAs (P mAs (P mAs at all three slice thicknesses (P mAs exposures was approximately 10, 30 and 50% higher, respectively, than that at 125 mAs exposure. CNRs decreased in an irregular manner with reductions in exposure and slice thickness. This study demonstrated no advantage to using slices below 5 mm thickness, and consequently thinner slices are not necessarily better. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  12. Multicentric Castleman's disease with multiple hepatic mass lesions mimicking malignant liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Toshimitsu; Nasuno, Masaru; Kaiume, Hiroko; Hiroshima, Yuki; Sumi, Masahiko; Watanabe, Masahide; Inoue, Dai; Masaki, Yasufumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Kojima, Masaru; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2017-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) is a rare, non-malignant lymphoproliferative disorder. We report a case of MCD with multiple liver masses. A 26-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic anemia and hypoalbuminemia. Laboratory tests detected high CRP levels and findings indicative of polyclonal gammopathy. Abdominal CT revealed multiple hepatic large masses (≤10 cm) and partial calcification in the right lobe. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also identified in the cardiophrenic angle and porta hepatis. We suspected hepatic malignancy, but pathological examinations of the liver and lymph nodes demonstrated polyclonal plasma cell infiltration and fibrosis. IL-6 staining was positive for plasma cell infiltration of lymph nodes. A few plasma cells were positive for IgG4, and tests for HIV and HHV-8 were negative. Serum IL-6 and plasma VEGF levels were both elevated (45 and 536 pg/ml, respectively). The patient was diagnosed with plasma cell type MCD. We started treatment with PSL 1 mg/kg/day, which led to improvement of anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and high CRP levels. Marginal regression of liver masses was also observed. At the last follow-up, the patient had been progression-free for 18 months. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plasma cell type MCD with liver masses.

  13. Cat-scratch disease presenting as multiple hepatic lesions: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Andrade Baptista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although infectious diseases are the most prevalent cause of fevers of unknown origin (FUO, this diagnosis remains challenging in some pediatric patients. Imaging exams, such as computed tomography (CT are frequently required during the diagnostic processes. The presence of multiple hypoattenuating scattered images throughout the liver associated with the history of cohabitation with cats should raise the suspicion of the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease (CSD, although the main etiologic agent of liver abscesses in childhood is Staphylococcus aureus. Differential diagnosis by clinical and epidemiological data with Bartonella henselae is often advisable. The authors report the case of a boy aged 2 years and 9 months with 16-day history of daily fever accompanied by intermittent abdominal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound performed in the initial work up was unrevealing, but an abdominal CT that was performed afterwards disclosed multiple hypoattenuating hepatic images compatible with the diagnosis of micro abscesses. Initial antibiotic regimen included cefotaxime, metronidazole, and oxacillin. Due to the epidemiology of close contact with kittens, diagnosis of CSD was considered and confirmed by serologic tests. Therefore, the initial antibiotics were replaced by clarithromycin orally for 14 days followed by fever defervescence and clinical improvement. The authors call attention to this uncommon diagnosis in a child presenting with FUO and multiple hepatic images suggestive of micro abscesses.

  14. [Digestive tract hemorrhages of cirrhotic patients. Relation between hepatic insufficiency and the hemorrhagic lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D; Deporte, A; Darragon, T; Bismuth, H

    1975-12-06

    The cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was studied in 85 cirrhotic patients by emergency endoscopy. In every patient, one or several lesions were observed and the site of bleeding was ascertained in 59. The two main causes were oesophago-gastric varices (46 p.cent) and acute mucosal lesions(42 p.cent). The source of bleeding appeared to be related to the degree of liver function impairment. In patients with no or moderate liver function impariment, bleeding usually originated from varices or from drug-associated mucosal erosions. Patients with severe impairment of liver function most often bled from spontaneous acute oeso-gastro-duodenal ulcerations. These ulcerations resembled what has been described in "stress" hemorrhage. Because of the relationship between liver function and the cause of hemorrhage, mortality was lower in variceal bleeders (29 p.cent) than in patients with spontaneous ulcerations (83 p.cent). In patients with severely impaired liver function, portacaval shunt was rarely indicated since hemorrhage was generally due to acute mucosal ulcerations.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in focal liver lesions by using T1 mapping: differences between hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia and cavernous hemangioma

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Zhenpeng; Li, Chang; Chan, Tao; Cai, Huasong; Luo, Yanji; Dong, Zhi; Li, Zi-Ping; Feng, Shi-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the difference of T1 relaxation time on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and cavernous hemangioma of liver (CHL), and to quantitatively evaluate the uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA in these three focal liver lesions (FLLs). Results The T1P of CHL was significantly higher than those of HCC and FNH (P < 0.05). Reduction of T1 relaxation time on hepatobiliary phase could be observed in all three types of lesions. ...

  16. SU-E-T-545: A MLC-Equipped Robotic Radiosurgery-Radiotherapy Combined System in Treating Hepatic Lesions: Delivery Efficiency as Compared to a Standard Linac for Treating Hepatic Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, L; Price, R; Wang, L; Meyer, J; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadephia, PA (United States); Fan, J [Virtua Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The CyberKnife (CK) M6 Series introduced a mulitleaf collimator (MLC) beam for extending its capability to the conventional radiotherapy. This work is to investigate delivery efficiency of this system as compared to a standard Varian linac when treating hepatic lesions. Methods: Nine previously treated patients were divided into three groups with three patients in each. Group one: fractionated radiotherapy; Group two: SBRT-like treatments and Group three: fractionated radiotherapy targeting two PTVs. The clinically used plans were generated with the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). We re-planned these cases using a Mulitplan (MP) TPS for the CK M6 and normalized to the same PTV dose coverage. CK factors (CF) (defined as modulation scaling factor in this work), number of nodes (NN), number of MLC segments (NS) and beam delivery time (BT) with an estimated image interval of 60 seconds, were used for evaluation of delivery efficiency. Results: Generated plans from the MP and Eclipse TPS demonstrated the similar quality in terms of PTV confomality index, minimum and maximum PTV doses, and doses received by critical structures. Group one: CF ranged from 8.1 to 8.7, NN from 30 to 40, NS from 120 to 155 and BT from 20 to 23 minutes; group two: CF from 4.7 to 8.5, NN from 15 to 19, NS from 82 to 141 and BT from 18 to 24 minutes; and group three: CF from 7.9 to 10, NN from 47 to 49, NS from 110 to 113 and BT from 20 to 22 minutes. Conclusions: Delivery time is longer for the CK M6 than for the Varian linac (7.8 to 13.7 minutes). Further investigation will be necessary to determine if a PTV reduction from the tracking feature will shorten the delivery time without decreasing plan quality.

  17. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia: magnetic resonance imaging of finger lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jinkyeong; Kim, Jee-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Changyoung [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Hospital Pathology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), to identify findings differentiating IPEH of the finger from that of other locations, and to correlate these with pathology. Nineteen patients with 20 I.E. masses of the finger (n = 13) and other locations (n = 7) were evaluated. All patients underwent MRI, and the results were correlated with pathology. Seventeen IPEHs, including all IPEHs of the finger, were located in the subcutis, the three other lesions in the muscle layer. On T1WI, all masses were isointense or slightly hyperintense. IPEHs of the finger (n = 13) revealed focal hyperintense nodules (n = 2) or central hypointensity (n = 2) on T1WI, hypointensity with a hyperintense rim (n = 7), hyperintensity with hypointense nodules (n = 5), or isointensity with a hypointense rim (n = 1) on T2WI, and rim enhancement (n = 5), heterogeneous enhancement with nodular nonenhanced areas (n = 6), peripheral nodular enhancement (n = 1), or no enhancement (n = 1) on gadolinium-enhanced T1WI. IPEHs of other locations (n = 7) demonstrated focal hyperintense nodules (n = 5) on T1WI, hyperintensity with hypointense nodules (n = 5) or heterogeneous signal intensity (n = 2) on T2WI, and rim or rim and septal enhancement (n = 6) or peripheral nodular enhancement (n = 1). Microscopically, IPEHs were composed of thrombi that were hypointense on T2WI and papillary endothelial proliferations that showed T2 hyperintensity and enhancement. MRI of finger IPEH reveals well-demarcated subcutaneous masses with hypointensity or hypointense nodules with peripheral hyperintensity on T2WI, as well as peripheral enhancement. T1 hyperintense nodules, internal heterogeneity on T2WI, and septal enhancement are more common in IPEH of other locations. (orig.)

  18. Cortical and subcortical vascular hypointensity on T2* weighted imaging in moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshiro, Shouhei; Mikami, Takeshi; Komatsu, Katsuya; Miyata, Kei; Akiyama, Yukinori; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Decreased cortical and subcortical vascular signals in gradient echo T2* weighted imaging have been reported in acute stroke due to major artery occlusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this cortical and subcortical vascular hypointensity (CSVH) in patients with moyamoya disease. Subjects were 20 consecutive patients with moyamoya disease. The numbers of CSVH in each hemisphere were counted and the numbers were compared between patients with moyamoya disease and controls. The distribution of CSVH, clinical features of cases exhibiting large numbers of CSVH and post-operative changes were analysed. Patients with moyamoya disease had significantly more CSVH in the middle cerebral artery territory (p moyamoya disease. Our small series study shows that revascularization surgery can decrease the number of CSVH.

  19. Dosimetric and delivery efficiency investigation for treating hepatic lesions with a MLC-equipped robotic radiosurgery–radiotherapy combined system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Lihui, E-mail: lihui.jin@fccc.edu; Price, Robert A.; Wang, Lu; Meyer, Joshua; Fan, James; Charlie Ma, Chang Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: The CyberKnife M6 (CK-M6) Series introduced a multileaf collimator (MLC) for extending its capability from stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) to conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. This work is to investigate the dosimetric quality of plans that are generated using MLC-shaped beams on the CK-M6, as well as their delivery time, via comparisons with the intensity modulated radiotherapy plans that were clinically used on a Varian Linac for treating hepatic lesions. Methods: Nine patient cases were selected and divided into three groups with three patients in each group: (1) the group-one patients were treated conventionally (25 fractions); (2) the group-two patients were treated with SBRT-like hypofractionation (5 fractions); and (3) the group-three patients were treated similar to group-one patients, but with two planning target volumes (PTVs) and two different prescription dose levels correspondingly. The clinically used plans were generated on the ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered on a Varian Linac (E-V plans). The multiplan (MP) TPS was used to replan these clinical cases with the MLC as the beam device for the CK-M6 (C-M plans). After plans were normalized to the same PTV dose coverage, comparisons between the C-M and E-V plans were performed based on D{sub 99%} (percentage of prescription dose received by 99% of the PTV), D{sub 0.1cm{sup 3}} (the percentage of prescription dose to 0.1 cm{sup 3} of the PTV), and doses received by critical structures. Then, the delivery times for the C-M plans will be obtained, which are the MP TPS generated estimations assuming having an imaging interval of 60 s. Results: The difference in D{sub 99%} between C-M and E-V plans is +0.6% on average (+ or − indicating a higher or lower dose from C-M plans than from E-V plans) with a range from −4.1% to +3.8%, and the difference in D{sub 0.1cm{sup 3}} was −1.0% on average with a range from −5.1% to +2.9%. The PTV

  20. Dynamic MR imaging of hepatic hemangioma and hepatocellular: findings and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seon Hee; Kim, Sook Young; Choi, Seok Jin; Song, Dong Hoon; Cha, Seong Sook; Eun, Tchoong Kie [Pusan Paik Hospital, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    We performed dynamic MR imaging using Gd-DTPA to find characteristic enhancement pattern of hepatic hemangioma distinguishing from hepatocellular carcinoma. 28 hepatic hemangiomas and 10 hepatocellular carcinomas were evaluated. Serial dynamic scans after Gd-DTPA(0.1m mol/kg) intravenous injection were obtained by using 0.5T machine and analyzed contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR) of the lesion and enhancement pattern on each scan. Hepatic hemangiomas had positive CNR from 1-2 minute images, and revealed typical 'fill-in phenomenon' on early phase with prolonged enhancement in 26 cases(92.8%), and early homogeneous enhancement with isointensity on delayed phase in 2 cases(7.2%) of small hemangioma. Hepatocellular carcinomas revealed inhomogeneous enhancement with hypointensity on delayed phase in 10 cases(100%) and 3 cases (30%) of capsular enhancement. Hepatic hemangioma can be easily distinguished from hepatocellular carcinoma by using Gd-DTPA enhanced dynamic MR imaging according to its typical enhancement pattern of 'fill-in phenomenon' and prolonged enhancement.

  1. Detection and Characterization of focal Hepatic Lesions Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging in Late Phase with ADI Mode. Preliminary study; Detection y caracterizacion de lesiones focales hepaticas con contraste ecografico en la fase tardia mediante la tecnica ADI. Estudio preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, C.; Blomley, M.; Harvey, C.; Bru, C.

    2003-07-01

    ADI (agent diagnostic imaging) permits the detection of contrast agent micro bubbles which settle in hepatic parenchyma during late phase, once the vascular phase is over. the aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of this technology in the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound scan with ADI mode after administration of the contrast agent Levovist (SHU 508) was performed on 17 patients, Spiral CT was also performed either for reasons of a clinically suspected metastasis or received tumor (n=12), or for the study of a focal hepatic lesion (n=5). The findings obtained using ultrasound scan with ADI were compared with those using standard ultrasound scan and spiral CT. ADI detected 100% of focal lesions detected by CT. In 2 patients the ultrasound scan detected a 1 cm. lesion not detected in the CT. In comparison to CT, standard ultrasound imaging correctly classified the lesions as being either malignant or benign in 71.4% of the cases (10/14 lesions), whereas ADI did so in 92.8% (13/14 lesions). This represents an increase of 21.4% in diagnostic yield with regard to standard ultrasound imaging. ADI during late phase is useful in differentiating malignant from benign focal hepatic lesions, permitting an increase in diagnostic yield over that of standard ultrasound imaging. (Author) 20 refs.

  2. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde, Sergi; Oliver, Arnau; Roura, Eloy; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramió-Torrentà, LLuís; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier; Rovira, Àlex; Lladó, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. Fir...

  3. Improved differentiation between MS and vascular brain lesions using FLAIR* at 7 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilsdonk, Iris D.; Wattjes, Mike P.; Lopez-Soriano, Alexandra; Jong, Marcus C. de; Graaf, Wolter L. de; Conijn, Mandy M.A.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, HZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Polman, Chris H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Geurts, Jeroen J.G. [VU University, Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Geerlings, Mirjam I. [University Medical Center, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate whether a new magnetic resonance image (MRI) technique called T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) can differentiate between multiple sclerosis (MS) and vascular brain lesions, at 7 Tesla (T). We examined 16 MS patients and 16 age-matched patients with (risk factors for) vascular disease. 3D-FLAIR and T2*-weighted images were combined into FLAIR* images. Lesion type and intensity, perivascular orientation and presence of a hypointense rim were analysed. In total, 433 cerebral lesions were detected in MS patients versus 86 lesions in vascular patients. Lesions in MS patients were significantly more often orientated in a perivascular manner: 74 % vs. 47 % (P < 0.001). Ten MS lesions (2.3 %) were surrounded by a hypointense rim on FLAIR*, and 24 MS lesions (5.5 %) were hypointense on T2*. No lesions in vascular patients showed any rim or hypointensity. Specificity of differentiating MS from vascular lesions on 7-T FLAIR* increased when the presence of a central vessel was taken into account (from 63 % to 88 %), most obviously for deep white matter lesions (from 69 % to 94 %). High sensitivity remained (81 %). 7-T FLAIR* improves differentiation between MS and vascular lesions based on lesion location, perivascular orientation and presence of hypointense (rims around) lesions. circle A new MRI technique T2*-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR*) was investigated. circle FLAIR* at 7-T MRI combines FLAIR and T2* images into a single image. circle FLAIR* at 7 T does not require enhancement with contrast agents. (orig.)

  4. Added value of arterial enhancement fraction color maps for the characterization of small hepatic low-attenuating lesions in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Park

    Full Text Available To assess the added value of arterial enhancement fraction (AEF color maps for the differentiation of small metastases from hepatic benign lesions.We retrospectively analyzed 46 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent multiphasic liver CT imaging and had low-attenuating liver lesions smaller than 3 cm (123 total lesions; metastasis: benign = 32:91. AEF color maps of the liver were created from multiphasic liver CT images using dedicated software. Two radiologists independently reviewed multiphasic CT image sets alone and in combination with image sets with AEF color maps using a five-point scale. The additional diagnostic value of the color maps was assessed by means of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC analysis.The area under the ROC curve (Az increased when multiphasic CT images were combined with AEF color map analysis as compared with evaluation based only on multiphasic CT images (from 0.698 to 0.897 for reader 1, and from 0.825 to 0.945 for reader 2; P < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively. The increase Az was especially significant for lesions less than 1 cm (from 0.702 to 0.888 for reader 1, and from 0.768 to 0.958 for reader 2; P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively. The mean AEF of tumor-adjacent parenchyma (35.07 ± 27.2 was significantly higher than that of tumor-free liver parenchyma (27.3 ± 20.6 (P = 0.04.AEF color mapping can improve the diagnostic performance for small hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer and may allow for the elimination of additional examinations.

  5. Detection and characterization of small focal hepatic lesions ({<=}2.5 cm in diameter): a comparison of diffusion-weighted images before and after administration of gadoxetic acid disodium at 3.0T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Young Kon; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Min Jung; Hwang, Jiyoung; Lee, Mi Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: youngkon0707@samsung.com

    2012-06-15

    Background: As diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is routinely incorporated into the standard clinical protocol, it is clinically relevant to determine whether DWI after gadoxetic acid is comparable to pre-contrast DWI, with regard to the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. Purpose: To compare DWI before and after administration of gadoxetic acid in the detection and characterization of small ({<=}2.5 cm) focal hepatic lesions. Material and Methods: One hundred and fifty-eight patients with 237 focal hepatic lesions ({<=}2.5 cm) (124 HCCs, 50 metastases, 2 cholangiocarcinomas, 43 hemangiomas, and 18 cysts) were included. DWIs were obtained before and after administration of gadoxetic acid. Non-breath-hold DWI was performed with b values of 0, 100, and 800 s/mm{sup 2}. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), lesion-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the liver and lesion were calculated. Lesion detection with each DWI was evaluated with alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic analysis by two observers. The sensitivity of the characterization of focal hepatic lesions as solid (malignancy) or non-solid (benignity) with each DWI was calculated using a five-point confidence scale. Inter-observer agreement regarding lesion detection and characterization was evaluated using kappa statistics. Results: SNRs of the liver on post-contrast DWI were significantly lower than on unenhanced DWI at b = 800 s/mm{sup 2} (P < 0.05). SNRs, CNRs, and ADCs of focal hepatic lesions were not significantly different between two DWIs (P > 0.05). The diagnostic accuracy (Az) for lesion detection and the sensitivity for lesion characterization did not show significant difference between two DWIs (P > 0.05). With regard to the detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions, the kappa values for two DWIs indicated good and excellent inter-observer agreement, respectively. Conclusion: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced DWI

  6. Quantitative evaluation of Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake in focal liver lesions by using T1 mapping: differences between hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia and cavernous hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhenpeng; Li, Chang; Chan, Tao; Cai, Huasong; Luo, Yanji; Dong, Zhi; Li, Zi-Ping; Feng, Shi-Ting

    2017-09-12

    To investigate the difference of T1 relaxation time on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and cavernous hemangioma of liver (CHL), and to quantitatively evaluate the uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA in these three focal liver lesions (FLLs). The T1P of CHL was significantly higher than those of HCC and FNH (P T1 relaxation time on hepatobiliary phase could be observed in all three types of lesions. There were significant differences of T1P, T1E, T1D and T1D% between FNH, CHL and HCC (P T1 mapping were enrolled, consisting of 51 HCCs, 10 FNHs, and 13 CHLs. T1 relaxation times of these lesions were measured on pre-contrast (T1P) and on hepatobiliary phase images at 20 minute after contrast (T1E). The reduction of T1 relaxation time on hepatobiliary (T1D) and the percentage reduction (T1D%) was calculated. The differences of T1P, T1E, T1D and T1D% in these FLLs were analyzed. The usefulness of these parameters for classification of FLLs was evaluated. Uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA is different between in HCC, FNH and CHL. These three lesions can be distinguished using T1 mapping.

  7. Hepatic Lesions Caused by Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia in Fischer 344 Rats: Similar Morphologic Features and Morphogenesis to Those of Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia (NRH) in the Human Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Atsushi; Narama, Isao

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the hepatic lesions in Fischer 344 (F344) rats afflicted with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia, the livers of rats with LGL leukemia at various stages were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The morphologic features in the livers of rats afflicted with LGL leukemia were diffuse, uniform-sized, granular, or micronodular lesions consisting of hepatocytes showing centrilobular atrophy and perilobular hypertrophy (CAPH) without fibrosis. With progression in the stage of the LGL leukemia, the severity of the CAPH of hepatocytes increased resulting in fatty change and/or single-cell necrosis, along with compensatory hyperplasia of the hepatocytes, finally resulting in lesions similar to those seen in nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) in the human liver. The CAPH of hepatocytes was a nonspecific tissue adaptation against ischemia or hypoxemia and/or imbalance in blood supply due to disturbance in the portal circulation and hemolytic anemia induced by the leukemia cells. In addition, direct and/or indirect hepatocellular injuries by leukemia cells were considered to be necessary for the formation of human NRH-like lesions. Morphogenetic investigation of the livers of rats afflicted with LGL leukemia may be helpful to clarify the pathogenesis of NRH in the human liver. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  8. Focal neuronal loss, reversible subcortical focal T2 hypointensity in seizures with a nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavendra, S.; Ashalatha, R.; Thomas, Sanjeev V. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Kesavadas, C. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum (India)

    2007-04-15

    Neuroimaging in seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) is considered normal. We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in four patients with NKH and seizures. We prospectively evaluated clinical and radiological abnormalities in four patients with NKH during the period March 2004 to December 2005. All patients presented with seizures, either simple or complex partial seizures or epilepsia partialis continua. Two of them had transient hemianopia. MRI showed subcortical T2 hypointensity in the occipital white matter and in or around the central sulcus (two patients each), T2 hyperintensity of the overlying cortex (two patients), focal overlying cortical enhancement (three patients) and bilateral striatal hyperintensity (one patient). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) performed in three patients showed restricted diffusion. The ictal semiology and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings correlated with the MRI abnormalities. On clinical recovery, the subcortical T2 hypointensity and striatal hyperintensity reversed in all patients. The initial cortical change evolved to FLAIR hyperintensity suggestive of focal cortical gliosis. The radiological differential diagnosis considered initially included encephalitis, malignancy and hemorrhagic infarct rendering a diagnostic dilemma. We identified subcortical T2 hypointensity rather than hyperintensity as a characteristic feature of seizures associated with NKH. Only very few similar reports exist in literature. Reversible bilateral striatal T2 hyperintensity in NKH has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. (orig.)

  9. Impact of variations in fatty liver on sonographic detection of focal hepatic lesions originally identified by CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Size Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variations in fatty liver on the ultrasonographic detection of focal liver lesions. Methods: A total of 229 patients with varying degrees of fatty liver and focal liver lesions and 200 patients with focal liver lesions but no fatty liver were randomly selected for inclusion in groups I and II, respectively. Findings of focal liver lesions identified on computed tomography were taken as the reference, and findings on ultrasonography were compared with them. Results: The number of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 501 and 413, respectively. The ultrasonographic detection rates of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 86.8% (435/501 and 94.2% (389/413, respectively. Comparison of the detection of the focal lesions between patients with and without fatty liver or different grades of fatty liver were as follows: mild fatty liver (162/177 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P=0.277; mild fatty liver (162/177 vs. moderate fatty liver (190/212 (P=0.604; mild fatty liver (162/177 vs. severe fatty liver (83/112 (P<0.001; moderate fatty liver (190/212 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P=0.051; moderate fatty liver (190/212 vs. severe fatty liver (83/112 (P<0.001; severe fatty liver (83/112 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P<0.001; and fatty liver (435/501 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P<0.001. Conclusion: Mild and moderate fatty liver are not significantly associated with the visualization of the lesion, while severe fatty liver usually impairs the detection of focal lesions in the liver. If a patient with severe fatty liver is suspected to have a liver tumor, ultrasonography should only be chosen cautiously in case of a missed diagnosis.

  10. A prospective comparison between auto-registration and manual registration of real-time ultrasound with MR images for percutaneous ablation or biopsy of hepatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong Ik; Lee, Min Woo; Song, Kyoung Doo; Oh, Young-Taek; Jeong, Ja-Yeon; Chang, Jung-Woo; Ryu, Jiwon; Lee, Kyong Joon; Kim, Jaeil; Bang, Won-Chul; Shin, Dong Kuk; Choi, Sung Jin; Koh, Dalkwon; Seo, Bong Koo; Kim, Kyunga

    2017-06-01

    To compare the accuracy and required time for image fusion of real-time ultrasound (US) with pre-procedural magnetic resonance (MR) images between positioning auto-registration and manual registration for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation or biopsy of hepatic lesions. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and all patients gave written informed consent. Twenty-two patients (male/female, n = 18/n = 4; age, 61.0 ± 7.7 years) who were referred for planning US to assess the feasibility of radiofrequency ablation (n = 21) or biopsy (n = 1) for focal hepatic lesions were included. One experienced radiologist performed the two types of image fusion methods in each patient. The performance of auto-registration and manual registration was evaluated. The accuracy of the two methods, based on measuring registration error, and the time required for image fusion for both methods were recorded using in-house software and respectively compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Image fusion was successful in all patients. The registration error was not significantly different between the two methods (auto-registration: median, 3.75 mm; range, 1.0-15.8 mm vs. manual registration: median, 2.95 mm; range, 1.2-12.5 mm, p = 0.242). The time required for image fusion was significantly shorter with auto-registration than with manual registration (median, 28.5 s; range, 18-47 s, vs. median, 36.5 s; range, 14-105 s, p = 0.026). Positioning auto-registration showed promising results compared with manual registration, with similar accuracy and even shorter registration time.

  11. Pulmonary and hepatic lesions caused by the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plants Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria retusa in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, C R M; Pessoa, A F A; Maia, L A; Medeiros, R M T; Colegate, S M; Barros, S S; Soares, M P; Borges, A S; Riet-Correa, F

    2013-09-01

    The effects and susceptibility of donkeys to Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria retusa poisoning were determined at high and low doses. Seeds of C. juncea containing 0.074% of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs) (isohemijunceines 0.05%, trichodesmine 0.016%, and junceine 0.008%) were administered to three donkeys at 0.3, 0.6 and 1 g/kg body weight (g/kg) daily for 365 days. No clinical signs were observed and, on liver and lung biopsies, the only lesion was a mild liver megalocytosis in the donkeys ingesting 0.6 and 1 g/kg/day. Two other donkeys that received daily doses of 3 and 5 g seed/kg showed initial respiratory signs 70 and 40 days after the start of the administration, respectively. The donkeys were euthanized following severe respiratory signs and the main lung lesions were proliferation of Clara cells and interstitial fibrosis. Three donkeys ingested seeds of C. retusa containing 5.99% of monocrotaline at daily doses of 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg for 365 days. No clinical signs were observed and, on liver and lung biopsies, the only lesion was moderate liver megalocytosis in each of the three donkeys. One donkey that received a single dose of 5 g/kg of C. retusa seeds and another that received 1 g/kg daily for 7 days both showed severe clinical signs and died with diffuse centrilobular liver necrosis. No lung lesions were observed. Another donkey that received a single dose of 2.5 g/kg of C. retusa seeds showed no clinical signs. The hepatic and pneumotoxic effects observed are consistent with an etiology involving DHPAs. Furthermore, the occurrence of lung or liver lesions correlates with the type of DHPAs contained in the seeds. Similarly as has been reported for horses, the data herein suggest that in donkeys some DHPAs are metabolized in the liver causing liver disease, whereas others are metabolized in the lung by Clara cells causing lung disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neural Network-Based Learning Kernel for Automatic Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions on Magnetic Resonance Images

    OpenAIRE

    Khastavaneh, H.; Ebrahimpour-Komleh, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative disease of central nervous system. MS patients have some dead tissues in their brains called MS lesions. MRI is an imaging technique sensitive to soft tissues such as brain that shows MS lesions as hyper-intense or hypo-intense signals. Since manual segmentation of these lesions is a laborious and time consuming task, automatic segmentation is a need. Materials and Methods: In order to segment MS lesions, a method based on learning kernels...

  13. Intranodular signal intensity analysis of hypovascular high-risk borderline lesions of HCC that illustrate multi-step hepatocarcinogenesis within the nodule on Gd–EOB–DTPA-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi, E-mail: satoshik@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Dept of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Matsui, Osamu, E-mail: matsuio@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Dept of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Gabata, Toshifumi, E-mail: gabata@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Dept of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Koda, Wataru, E-mail: wkoda@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Dept of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Minami, Tetsuya, E-mail: tminami@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Dept of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Ryu, Yasuji, E-mail: yryu-kanazawa@umin.ac.jp [Dept of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Kozaka, Kazuto, E-mail: k-kozaka@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Dept of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Kitao, Azusa, E-mail: azusa@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Dept of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: To analyze intranodular signal intensity pattern of hypovascular high-risk borderline lesions of HCC that illustrate multi-step hepatocarcinogenesis within the nodule on Gd–EOB–DTPA-enhanced MRI. Methods: A total of 73 nodules showing hypervascular foci in hypovascular high-risk borderline lesions identified by angiography-assisted CT were included in this study. The intranodular signal intensities of both the hypervascular foci and the hypovascular high-risk borderline lesions were evaluated on hepatobiliary-phase EOB-enhanced MRI obtained 20 min after intravenous injection of contrast media. Results: Among 59 hypervascular foci within hypointense hypovascular high-risk borderline lesions, 6 showed more hypointensity, 32 isointensity, and 21 hyperintensity compared to the surrounding hypointense, hypovascular portion of the nodules. Among 14 hypervascular foci within isointense hypovascular high-risk borderline lesions, 5 showed isointensity, and 9 hypointensity compared to the surrounding isointense hypovascular high-risk borderline lesions. No hypervascular foci showed hyperintensity compared to the surrounding isointense hypovascular high-risk borderline lesions. Conclusions: In most of the hypovascular high-risk borderline lesions containing hypervascular foci within the nodule, the signal intensity was decreased in hypervascular foci as compared with hypovascular high-risk borderline lesions and the surrounding background liver parenchyma. This supports the concept of signal intensity decrease during the dedifferentiation process in multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. However, around 30% of the nodules did not follow this rule, and hypervascular foci showed hyperintensity relative to the hypovascular high-risk borderline lesions.

  14. A Lesion-Based Response Prediction Model Using Pretherapy PET/CT Image Features for Y90 Radioembolization to Hepatic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rahul; Cai, Kejia; Kumar, Nishant; Knuttinen, M Grace; Anderson, Thomas M; Lu, Hui; Lu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    We present a probabilistic approach to identify patients with primary and secondary hepatic malignancies as responders or nonresponders to yttrium-90 radioembolization therapy. Recent advances in computer-aided detection have decreased false-negative and false-positive rates of perceived abnormalities; however, there is limited research in using similar concepts to predict treatment response. Our approach is driven by the goal of precision medicine to determine pretherapy fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography imaging parameters to facilitate the identification of patients who would benefit most from yttrium-90 radioembolization therapy, while avoiding complex and costly procedures for those who would not. Our algorithm seeks to predict a patient's response by discovering common co-occurring image patterns in the lesions of baseline fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans by extracting invariant shape and texture features. The extracted imaging features were represented as a distribution of each subject based on the bag-of-feature paradigm. The distribution was applied in a multinomial naive Bayes classifier to predict whether a patient would be a responder or nonresponder to yttrium-90 radioembolization therapy based on the imaging features of a pretherapy fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography scan. Comprehensive published criteria were used to determine lesion-based clinical treatment response based on fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography imaging findings. Our results show that the model is able to predict a patient with liver cancer as a responder or nonresponder to yttrium-90 radioembolization therapy with a sensitivity of 0.791 using extracted invariant imaging features from the pretherapy fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron

  15. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of cystic lesions of neurocysticercosis: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffin, Luciana S.; Bacheschi, Luiz A.; Machado, Luis R.; Nobrega, Jose P.S.; Coelho, Christina; Leite, Claudia C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia]. E-mail: bacheschi@henet.usp.br

    2001-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic disease in some developing countries. It has pleomorfic clinical and imaging findings, which are variable from patient to patient. In this preliminary note, we studied the magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of sixteen patients presenting with cystic lesions of this disease diagnosed by clinical and laboratorial findings. All the lesions had hypointense signal and the similar apparent diffusion coefficient values as the cerebrospinal fluid. (author)

  16. Comparison Between CT and MR Images as More Favorable Reference Data Sets for Fusion Imaging-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation or Biopsy of Hepatic Lesions: A Prospective Study with Focus on Patient's Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong Ik; Lee, Min Woo; Kang, Tae Wook; Oh, Young-Taek; Jeong, Ja-Yeon; Chang, Jung-Woo; Ryu, Jiwon; Lee, Kyong Joon; Kim, Jaeil; Bang, Won-Chul; Shin, Dong Kuk; Choi, Sung Jin; Koh, Dalkwon; Kim, Kyunga

    2017-10-01

    To identify the more accurate reference data sets for fusion imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation or biopsy of hepatic lesions between computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. This study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was received from all patients. Twelve consecutive patients who were referred to assess the feasibility of radiofrequency ablation or biopsy were enrolled. Automatic registration using CT and MR images was performed in each patient. Registration errors during optimal and opposite respiratory phases, time required for image fusion and number of point locks used were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The registration errors during optimal respiratory phase were not significantly different between image fusion using CT and MR images as reference data sets (p = 0.969). During opposite respiratory phase, the registration error was smaller with MR images than CT (p = 0.028). The time and the number of points locks needed for complete image fusion were not significantly different between CT and MR images (p = 0.328 and p = 0.317, respectively). MR images would be more suitable as the reference data set for fusion imaging-guided procedures of focal hepatic lesions than CT images.

  17. Using 'swallow-tail' sign and putaminal hypointensity as biomarkers to distinguish multiple system atrophy from idiopathic Parkinson's disease: A susceptibility-weighted imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Yang, HuaGuang; Li, ChengBo; Fan, GuoGuang [The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Luo, XiaoGuang [The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Neurology, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2017-08-15

    To investigate the value of 'swallow-tail' sign and putaminal hypointensity on 3 T susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) for distinguishing multiple system atrophy (MSA) from idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Three groups - 39 MSA patients, 18 IPD patients,and 31 healthy controls (HCs) - were administered a 3 T SWI sequence to evaluate 'swallow-tail' sign and putaminal hypointensity using visual scales from 0 to 2 and 0 to 3 scores, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of the two signs separately and combined was calculated using a receiver operating characteristic curve, with clinical diagnosis as the gold standard. The scores of 'swallow-tail' sign were lower in IPD than in MSA or in HCs, as well as for putaminal hypointensity in IPD or HCs than in MSA (p < 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of 'swallow-tail' sign and putaminal hypointensity were 87.9% and 83.3%, and 35.9% and 100%, respectively, in the respective patient groups. The area under the curve of combined signs was increased from 0.85 ('swallow tail') or 0.68 (putaminal hypointensity) to 0.93. The combination of 'swallow-tail' sign and putaminal hypointensity can increase the accuracy of discriminating between MSA and IPD. (orig.)

  18. Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Hypointensity of the Pulvinar Nucleus of Patients with Alzheimer Disease: Its Possible Association with Iron Accumulation as Evidenced by the T2 Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Jin [Dept. of Neurology, Hanyang University Medical Center, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seol Heui [Center for Geriatric Neuroscience Research, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    We hypothesized that prominent pulvinar hypointensity in brain MRI represents the disease process due to iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether or not the pulvinar signal intensity (SI) on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at 3.0T MRI differs between AD patients and normal subjects, and also whether the pulvinar SI is correlated with the T2 map, an imaging marker for tissue iron, and a cognitive scale. Twenty one consecutive patients with AD and 21 age-matched control subjects were prospectively included in this study. The pulvinar SI was assessed on the FLAIR image. We measured the relative SI ratio of the pulvinar to the corpus callosum. The T2 values were calculated from the T2 relaxometry map. The differences between the two groups were analyzed, by using a Student t test. The correlation between the measurements was assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. As compared to the normal white matter, the FLAIR signal intensity of the pulvinar nucleus was significantly more hypointense in the AD patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.01). The pulvinar T2 was shorter in the AD patients than in the control subjects (51.5 {+-} 4.95 ms vs. 56.5 {+-} 5.49 ms, respectively, p = 0.003). The pulvinar SI ratio was strongly correlated with the pulvinar T2 (r = 0.745, p < 0.001). When controlling for age, only the pulvinar-to-CC SI ratio was positively correlated with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.303, p < 0.050). Conversely, the pulvinar T2 was not correlated with the MMSE score (r = 0.277, p = 0.080). The FLAIR hypointensity of the pulvinar nucleus represents an abnormal iron accumulation in AD and may be used as an adjunctive finding for evaluating AD.

  19. Is diffusion-weighted imaging a significant indicator of the development of vascularization in hypovascular hepatocellular lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kenichi; Saito, Kazuhiro; Saguchi, Toru; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Taira, Junichi; Imai, Yasuharu; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Akata, Soichi; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in predicting the development of vascularization in hypovascular hepatocellular lesions (HHLs). Forty-two HHLs that were diagnosed by computed tomographic (CT) arteriography were evaluated retrospectively. The lesion on DWI was classified as isointense, hypointense, or hyperintense. Follow-up studies that included intravenous dynamic CT or magnetic resonance imaging were performed. The 730-day cumulative developments of vascularization in hypointense, isointense, and hyperintense lesions were 17%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. The differences among these developments were not statistically significant. The signal intensity on DWI showed no significant difference in the development of vascularization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diffusion-weighted images of intracranial cyst-like lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergui, M.; Zhong, J.; Sales, S. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University of Turin (Italy); Bradac, G.B. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University of Turin (Italy); Neuroradiologia Universitaria, Ospedale S. G. Battista, Turin (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    Magnetic resonance sequences may be designed to evaluate the diffusion movements of the protons (diffusion-weighted images, DWI). In these images, a bright signal identifies a region where the diffusion along a spatial axis is restricted. The contents of a cystic lesion frequently have the signal intensities of a generic homogeneous hyperproteinic fluid (hypointensity in T1-, hyperintensity in T2-weighted images). DWI may give further information about the microscopic organisation of these fluids: a hyperintense signal indicates the presence of a restricted diffusion, due to some kind of microscopic organisation, at the cellular or macromolecular level. This may provide additional information useful for clinical purposes. We obtained DWI in 24 consecutive patients with intracranial cystic lesions, (19 intra-axial: five abscesses, five gliomas, six metastases, two demyelinating lesions, one neurocysticercosis; five extra-axial: two arachnoid cysts, two epidermoid cysts, one cholesteatoma). We found a strongly hyperintense signal, indicating restricted diffusion, in brain abscesses, epidermoid cysts and cholesteatoma; all the remaining lesions were hypointense or mildly hyperintense. We found these data useful in critical diagnoses, such as in differentiating abscesses from tumours, and in identifying elusive tumours such as epidermoid cysts. (orig.)

  1. MRI-findings of nodular lesions in an enlarged spleen, associated with visceral Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeymaeckers, Steven, E-mail: Steven.Raeymaeckers@vub.ac.be [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Docx, Martine; Demeyere, Nathan [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: ► We confirm a previous report that infection with Leishmania can manifest multiple nodular lesions of the spleen. ► We confirm these lesions to be readily detectable with present imaging modalities. ► We affirm the fact that these lesions are hypoechoic on ultrasound, though in our case no hypoechoic halo was observed. ► We found these lesions to be hypodense on CT in the delayed phase after intravenous contrast administration. ► In addition to these previous findings we found that the spleen showed an inhomogeneous intensity on MRI; upon closer examination whilst scrolling through the T2-weighted sequences we can note multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. -- Abstract: We present a case of a 15-month-old Moroccan girl with fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenomegaly and multiple hypoechoic nodular splenic lesions that appear hypodense on CT. T2-weighted MRI sequences show a markedly inhomogeneous intensity of the parenchyma, seemingly caused by multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. Laboratory tests confirmed a recent infection with Leishmania, a parasite endemic to (sub)tropic regions. During and after therapy these lesions gradually resolved. To our knowledge this is the second published case in which different imaging modalities were able to demonstrate organ lesions associated with Leishmania. It is also the first report of MRI-findings associated with these lesions.

  2. Hypovascular hypointense nodules on hepatobiliary phase without T2 hyperintensity on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images in patients with chronic liver disease: long-term outcomes and risk factors for hypervascular transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Seek [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jeonju-si, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Han, Young Min [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jeonju-si, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes and imaging features associated with hypervascularization of hypovascular nodules that show T2 iso-/hypointensity and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with chronic liver disease. Sixty patients and 114 nodules, which were hypovascular and iso-/hypointense on T2-weighted images and hypointense on HBP of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, were included. We evaluated the effect of baseline clinical features, baseline MR features and growth rate on subsequent hypervascularization. Twenty-seven nodules in 21 patients transformed to hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using multivariate Cox analysis, T1 hyperintensity (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.69, P = 0.021), previous history of HCC (HR = 2.64, P = 0.021), and initial nodule size (HR = 1.09, P = 0.046) were identified to be associated with hypervascularization. The growth rate of nodules was a more powerful determinant of subsequent hypervascularization than baseline clinical and MR features. At long-term follow-up after >3 years, only one nodule with T1 isointensity showed hypervascularization. Careful follow-up or diagnostic procedures, such as biopsy, should be considered for up to 3 years after detection of hypointense nodules on HBP with T1 hyperintensity or a higher growth rate. (orig.)

  3. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Hepatitis E Fact sheet Updated July 2017 Key facts ... in 2005 . Report Global hepatitis report, 2017 World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  4. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  5. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or care for someone who has hepatitis A People who travel to developing countries are more likely to get hepatitis A. What are the complications of hepatitis A? People typically recover from hepatitis A without complications. In ...

  6. Early assessment of coagulation necrosis after hepatic microwave ablation: a comparison of non-enhanced and enhanced T1-weighted images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Qi-Feng; Yang, Zheng-Qiang; Wu, Wen-Tao; Shi, Hai-Bin; Liu, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    To compare the technical success and accuracy of hepatic microwave ablation (MWA) using non-enhanced and enhanced T1-weighted imaging early after ablation. Patients were evaluated with regard to the ablation zone and local tumor progression (LTP). This retrospective study conducted between September 2014 and December 2015 which consisted of 56 patients with 56 hepatic malignant lesions who underwent percutaneous MWA. Non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imagings were performed within 2 days after tumor ablation. The efficacy of ablation assessed according to the hyperintense middle zone on non-enhanced T1-weighted images and the non-enhanced area on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were compared. The development of LTP during ≥7 months of follow-up served as the end point. On the non-enhanced T1-weighted images, the ablated region had a characteristic two-zone structure featuring a hyperintense middle zone and a surrounding hypointense band. Among the 56 patients, LTP developed in ten including seven lesions, in which both the non-enhanced T1-weighted and portal-phase images showed incomplete tumor ablation. In two of the remaining three patients, incomplete tumor ablation was detected on the non-enhanced T1-weighted images, whereas the corresponding portal-phase images showed complete ablation. In the remaining patient, no residual tumor was detected on either the non-enhanced T1-weighted or the portal-phase images. In the 46 patients without LTP, there was no evidence of residual tumor on the non-enhanced T1-weighted or portal-phase images obtained early after ablation. Non-enhanced T1-weighted images are useful in assessing the therapeutic efficacy of MWA of liver tumors early after the procedure.

  7. Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Brain lesions By Mayo Clinic Staff A brain lesion is an abnormality seen on a brain-imaging test, such as ... tomography (CT). On CT or MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don' ...

  8. Relationship between signal intensity on hepatobiliary phase of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MR imaging and prognosis of borderline lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi, E-mail: satoshik@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Matsui, Osamu, E-mail: matsuio@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Gabata, Toshifumi, E-mail: gabata@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Koda, Wataru, E-mail: wkoda@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Minami, Tetsuya, E-mail: tminami@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Ryu, Yasuji, E-mail: yryu-kanazawa@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Kozaka, Kazuto, E-mail: k-kozaka@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Kitao, Azusa, E-mail: azusa@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1, Takara Machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To elucidate the incidence of signal intensity patterns of borderline lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on hepatobiliary phase Gd-EOB-DTPA (EOB) enhanced MRI and clarify the natural histories of these lesions. Materials and methods: Total 99 borderline lesions of HCC were identified by angiography-assisted CT. The signal intensity of borderline lesions on hepatobiliary phase of EOB-enhanced MRI was analyzed. Progress rate from borderline lesions to hypervascular HCC was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method among each signal intensity groups of nodules. Results: On hepatobiliary phase of EOB-enhanced MRI, 41.4% of the borderline lesions showed hypo-, 42.4% showed iso-, and 16.2% showed hyperintense, compared to background liver. Overall progress rates from borderline lesions to HCC were 10% in 1-year, 14% in 2-year and 20% in 3-year follow-up period. Progress rates to HCC in hypointense borderline lesions were 17% in 1-year, 28% in 2-year and 41% in 3-year follow-up period, and in isointense borderline lesions were 7% in 1-year, 7% in 2-year and 7% in 3-year follow-up period. No hyperintense borderline lesions progressed to HCC in follow-up period. Conclusion: Although borderline lesions of HCC may show hypo-, iso- and hyperintensity on hepatobiliary phase of EOB-enhanced MRI, hypointense borderline lesions are high risk to progress HCC.

  9. Computed tomographic appearances of hepatic hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Masahide; Onodera, Hiroyoshi; Oikawa, Masamichi; Ohta, Kei; Goto, Yoshio (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-02-01

    Fifteen patients with hepatic hemangioma (16 lesions) were examined by computed tomography (CT). CT appearances were classified into three groups. Initially the CT appearances of hepatic hemangioma was a well-defined and low density. Following contrast material injection, three lesions became hyperdense and two lesions became isodense as compared with surrounding normal liver parenchyma. And eight lesions showed early peripheral enhancement with delayed central opacification. As CT appearances of hepatic hemangioma is characteristic, CT is the procedure of choice to confirm the diagnosis.

  10. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI: can hypointensity on the hepatobiliary phase be used as an alternative to washout?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ijin; Lee, Dong Ho; Jeon, Ju Hyeon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To determine which dynamic phase(s) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is most appropriate to assess ''washout'' in the noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on hemodynamic pattern. In this retrospective cohort study, 288 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease presented with 387 arterially enhancing nodules (292 HCCs, 95 non-HCCs) (≥1 cm) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. All HCCs were confirmed by histopathology or by their typical enhancement pattern on dynamic liver CT. MR imaging diagnosis of HCC was made using criteria of arterial enhancement and hypointensity relative to the surrounding parenchyma (1) on the portal-venous phase (PVP), (2) on the PVP and/or transitional phase (TP), or (3) on the PVP and/or TP, and/or hepatobiliary phase (HBP). For the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, criterion 1 provided significantly higher specificity (97.9 %; 95 % confidence interval, 92.6 - 99.7 %) than criteria 2 (86.3 %; 77.7 - 92.5 %), or 3 (48.4 %; 38.0 - 58.9 %). Conversely, higher sensitivity was obtained with criterion 3 (93.8 %; 90.4 - 96.3 %) than with criterion 2 (86.6 %; 82.2 - 90.3 %) or 1 (70.9 %; 65.3 - 76.0 %). To make a sufficiently specific diagnosis of HCC using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI based on typical enhancement features, washout should be determined on the PVP alone rather than combined with hypointensity on the TP or HBP. (orig.)

  11. Hepatic hemangioma -review-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajenaru, N; Balaban, V; Săvulescu, F; Campeanu, I; Patrascu, T

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic hemangiomas are benign tumors of the liver consisting of clusters of blood-filled cavities, lined by endothelial cells, fed by the hepatic artery. The vast majority of HH are asymptomatic, most often being discovered incidentally during imaging investigations for various unrelated pathologies. Typical hemangiomas, the so-called capillary hemangiomas, range from a few mm to 3 cm, do not increase in size over time and therefore are unlikely to generate future symptomatology. Small (mm-3 cm) and medium (3 cm-10 cm) hemangiomas are well-defined lesions, requiring no active treatment beside regular follow-ups. However, the so-called giant liver hemangiomas, of up to 10 cm (most commonly) and even 20+ cm in size (according to occasional reports) can, and usually will develop symptoms and complications that require prompt surgical intervention or other kind of therapy. HH belong to the class of hepatic "incidentalomas", so-called because they are diagnosed incidentally, on imaging studies performed as routine examinations or for other reasons than the evaluation of a possible liver mass. Less than half of HH present with overt clinical symptoms, consisting, most often, of upper abdominal pain (this is usually the case for large lesions, which cause the distension of Glisson's capsule). Hepatic hemangiomas require a careful diagnosis to differentiate from other focal hepatic lesions, co-occurring diagnoses are also possible.

  12. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  13. Hypovascular hypointense nodules on hepatobiliary phase without T2 hyperintensity on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images in patients with chronic liver disease: long-term outcomes and risk factors for hypervascular transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Seek; Song, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Han, Young Min

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes and imaging features associated with hypervascularization of hypovascular nodules that show T2 iso-/hypointensity and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with chronic liver disease. Sixty patients and 114 nodules, which were hypovascular and iso-/hypointense on T2-weighted images and hypointense on HBP of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, were included. We evaluated the effect of baseline clinical features, baseline MR features and growth rate on subsequent hypervascularization. Twenty-seven nodules in 21 patients transformed to hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using multivariate Cox analysis, T1 hyperintensity (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.69, P = 0.021), previous history of HCC (HR = 2.64, P = 0.021), and initial nodule size (HR = 1.09, P = 0.046) were identified to be associated with hypervascularization. The growth rate of nodules was a more powerful determinant of subsequent hypervascularization than baseline clinical and MR features. At long-term follow-up after >3 years, only one nodule with T1 isointensity showed hypervascularization. Careful follow-up or diagnostic procedures, such as biopsy, should be considered for up to 3 years after detection of hypointense nodules on HBP with T1 hyperintensity or a higher growth rate. • T1 hyperintensity is a baseline MR predictive factor for subsequent hypervascularization. • A higher growth rate is a more powerful determinant of subsequent hypervascularization. • Management of patients with these predictive factors requires more attention.

  14. Can electroporation previous to radiofrequency hepatic ablation enlarge thermal lesion size? A feasibility study based on theoretical modelling and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Macarena; Castellví, Quim; Burdío, Fernando; Sánchez Velazquez, Patricia; Ivorra, Antoni; Andaluz, Anna; Berjano, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a hybrid ablative technique based on applying electroporation (EP) pulses just before conducting radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The rationale was that the EP-induced reduction in blood perfusion could be sufficient to reduce the thermal sink effect and hence to increase the coagulation volume in comparison to that created exclusively by RFA. A modelling study and in vivo experimental study were used. A Cool-tip RF applicator was used both for EP and RFA. Overall, the results did not show any synergy effect from using the hybrid technique. Applying EP pulses prior to RFA did not increase the coagulation zone obtained and the lesions were almost identical. Additional computer simulations provided an explanation for this; the effect of reducing blood perfusion by thermal damage during RFA completely masks the effect of reducing blood perfusion by EP. This is because both thermal damage and EP affect the same zone, i.e. the tissue around the electrode. Our computer modelling and in vivo experimental findings suggest that the combination of EP and RFA with monopolar applicators does not provide an additional benefit over the use of RFA alone.

  15. The relation between hypointense core, microvascular obstruction and intramyocardial haemorrhage in acute reperfused myocardial infarction assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandler, Diana; Luecke, Christian; Grothoff, Matthias; Andres, Claudia; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Nitzsche, Stefan; Riese, Franziska; Gutberlet, Matthias [University Leipzig - Heart Centre, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Mende, Meinhard [University Leipzig, Coordination Centre for Clinical Trials, Leipzig (Germany); Waha, Suzanne de; Desch, Steffen; Lurz, Philipp; Eitel, Ingo [University Leipzig - Heart Centre, Department of Internal Medicine/ Cardiology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Intramyocardial haemorrhage (IMH) and microvascular obstruction (MVO) represent reperfusion injury after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with prognostic impact and ''hypointense core'' (HIC) appearance in T{sub 2}-weighted images. We aimed to distinguish between IMH and MVO by using T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and analysed influencing factors for IMH development. A total of 151 patients with acute STEMI underwent CMR after primary angioplasty. T{sub 2}-STIR sequences were used to identify HIC, late gadolinium enhancement to visualise MVO and T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted sequences to detect IMH. IMH{sup +}/IMH{sup -} patients were compared considering infarct size, myocardial salvage, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow, reperfusion time, ventricular volumes, function and pre-interventional medication. Seventy-six patients (50 %) were IMH{sup +}, 82 (54 %) demonstrated HIC and 100 (66 %) MVO. IMH was detectable without HIC in 16 %, without MVO in 5 % and HIC without MVO in 6 %. Multivariable analyses revealed that IMH was associated with significant lower left ventricular ejection fraction and myocardial salvage index, larger left ventricular volume and infarct size. Patients with TIMI flow grade ≤1 before angioplasty demonstrated IMH significantly more often. IMH is associated with impaired left ventricular function and higher infarct size. T{sub 2} and HIC imaging showed moderate agreement for IMH detection. T{sub 2}{sup *} imaging might be the preferred CMR imaging method for comprehensive IMH assessment. (orig.)

  16. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 2 vaccines for hepatitis B on the market. There is 1 combination vaccine on the market for hepatitis A and B together. Vaccination Schedule ... hepatitis B vaccine with no risk to their babies. Resources Products and Publications Hepatitis B Fact Sheets ...

  17. A prospective study on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of testicular lesions: distinctive features of Leydig cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganaro, Lucia; Vinci, Valeria; Saldari, Matteo; Bernardo, Silvia; Cantisani, Vito; Catalano, Carlo [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Pozza, Carlotta; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pofi, Riccardo; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome (Italy); Scialpi, Michele [Perugia University, S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Division of Radiology 2, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    Up to 20 % of incidentally found testicular lesions are benign Leydig cell tumours (LCTs). This study evaluates the role of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the identification of LCTs in a large prospective cohort study. We enrolled 44 consecutive patients with at least one solid non-palpable testicular lesion who underwent scrotal MRI. Margins of the lesions, signal intensity and pattern of wash-in and wash-out were analysed by two radiologists. The frequency distribution of malignant and benign MRI features in the different groups was compared by using the chi-squared or Fisher's exact test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. The sensitivity of scrotal MRI to diagnose LCTs was 89.47 % with 95.65 % specificity; sensitivity for malignant lesions was 95.65 % with 80.95 % specificity. A markedly hypointense signal on T2-WI, rapid and marked wash-in followed by a prolonged washout were distinctive features significantly associated with LCTs. Malignant lesions were significantly associated with blurred margins, weak hypointense signal on T2-WI,and weak and progressive wash-in. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 93 %. LCTs have distinctive contrast-enhanced MRI features that allow the differential diagnosis of incidental testicular lesions. (orig.)

  18. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jinbo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor is rare and poses a challenge for diagnosis and management. We presented a case of primary hepatic carcinoid tumor in a 53-year-old female with a complaint of right upper abdominal pain. Computer tomography scans revealed a hypervascular mass in segment 4 of the liver. An ultrasonography-guided biopsy showed a carcinoid tumor. No other lesions were found by the radiological investigations. Surgery resection was performed and histopathological examination revealed a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor. Three years later, recurrence was found and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was performed. After transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, the patient has been free of symptom and had no radiological disease progression for over 6 months. Surgical resection combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is effective to offer excellent palliation.

  19. Hepatitis C and cutaneous alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Rita Fachinelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While most of those infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV are asymptomatic or only develop liver manifestations, a significant percentage evolves with autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders, resulting in a clinical condition called HCV syndrome. This work involving case studies of six patients with hepatitis C and varied skin manifestation aimed to report skin lesions occurring with HCV infection and its treatment. Skin manifestations in hepatitis C have been based on epidemiological studies. This justifies the need for studies that correlate HCV infection and its treatment with skin manifestations.

  20. [Hepatic hemangioma: the choice of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, I V; Fedorchenko, A N

    2010-01-01

    117 patients with hepatic hemangioma were treated. 17 patients were operated on with the use of laser and plasmic scalpel. The possibility and technical features of liver resections by hepatic hemangiomas are discussed. In 8 of 17 operated patients, endovascular hemangiomatous vessel occlusion was effective. Authors state the necessity of reduction of surgical treatment of hepatic hemangiomas and substantiate the need of dynamic observation of such lesions of the liver.

  1. Solitary Perihepatic Splenosis Mimicking Liver Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Binhao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic splenosis, one type of manifestation of ectopic spleen tissue, is rarely reported. It cannot be distinguished from hepatic malignancies because of lack of significant radiological features. By means of this case report and 31 literature reviews, potential treatment modalities concerning clinical diagnostics, patient's management could be discussed. The report presents the case of a 33-year-old man with a liver lesion. Finally, after a mini-incision laparotomy, the lesion was resected and the diagnosis confirmed it as hepatic splenosis. A literature search for case reports published between January 1, 1900, and August 1, 2014, was performed on PubMed. Approximately 80% (27/34) of patients diagnosed with hepatic splenosis had a history of splenectomy. The mean time interval between splenectomy and hepatic splenosis detection was 25 (1.5–47) years. The median size of reported hepatic splenosis is 30 mm in diameter. Technetium-99m-labeled heat denatured red-blood-cells scintigraphy or superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is now considered to be the optimal method of diagnosing splenosis. Hepatic splenosis requires no treatment in most cases. Operation should be performed if it is accompanied by hypersplenism in hematological diseases. When the diagnosis remains unclear, further biopsy or laparoscopy is recommended. If hepatic splenosis is confirmed, careful follow-up is beneficial. PMID:25738479

  2. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  3. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight loss Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy) Spider-like blood vessels on your skin (spider angiomas) Every chronic hepatitis C infection starts with an acute phase. ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  5. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ... Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update. Hepatology . ...

  6. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doctors treat hepatitis C with antiviral medicines that attack the virus and can cure the disease in most cases. ... Doctors treat hepatitis C with antiviral medicines that attack the virus. You may need to take medicines for 12 ...

  7. Lesiones laborales

    OpenAIRE

    Plachesi, Pierina

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones laborales se producen por un esfuerzo repetitivo, cuando un exceso de presión se ejerce sobre una parte del cuerpo provocando lesiones óseas, articulares, musculares y daños en los tejidos. Los accidentes laborales también pueden producir una lesión en el organismo y esto sumado a diversos factores es un problema para la reinserción laboral de los trabajadores de la energía eléctrica. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son las lesiones más frecuentes que afectan a los ...

  8. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  9. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  10. [Lupus hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hadj, Yahia Chiraz; Chaabouni, Lilia; Montacer, Kchir Mohamed; Abid, Feriel; Zouari, Rafik

    2002-07-01

    We report the case of 42 year-old man who presents an acute polyarthritis associated with systemic manifestation and immunologic disorders related to systemic lupus erythematosus. Hepatic tests show cholostase and cytolysis. Hepatic involvement is linked with systemic lupus erythematosus after exclusion of hepatotoxic drugs, viral hepatitis and absence of anti mitochondrial and anti muscle antibodies. Lupus hepatitis seems to be correlated with autoantibodies to ribosomal P protein. Its treatment remains to be defined.

  11. Antenatal diagnosis of congenital hepatic hemangioma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Sofia Vargas; Gonçalves, Sónia; Rodrigues, Henrique; Guerra, Nuno; Moura, Paulo

    2009-08-07

    Hepatic tumors in children account for only 1 to 5% of all pediatric tumors. Hepatic hemangioma is, however, the third most common tumor of the liver in childhood. We report a case of an antenatal diagnosis of a hepatic tumor detected on a first obstetric ultrasound, at 26(th) week of gestation. It revealed a complex, predominantly solid hepatic lesion with 3 x 3 cm and a marked, essentially peripheral, Doppler blood flow. Fetal echocardiography showed a normal heart besides a vena cava displacement by the hepatic mass. Fetal Hepatic hemangioma was suspected. Follow-up ultrasounds were unchanged. Pregnancy evolved well. At 36 weeks of gestation was spontaneously delivered a 3300 g boy whose examination revealed a visible thoracoabdominal circulation and a palpable liver. No skin lesions, namely hemangiomas or petechiae were identified. Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of Hepatic hemangioma. Treatment was initiated with prednisolone followed by interferon. After 2 years, there is no active lesion.

  12. Hepatic lipomas and steatosis: an association beyond chance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Benitez, Gregorio; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Barber, Carmen; Vila, Rocio

    2012-04-01

    To determine if hepatic lipomas have a higher prevalence of liver steatosis than other benign hepatic lesions. Ninety-two benign hepatic lesions were analyzed with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. There were 6 lipomas and 86 benign non-lipomatous lesions, including 55 hemangiomas, 23 focal nodular hyperplasias (FNH) and 8 adenomas. All studies included a chemical shift T1-weighted sequence (in-phase and opposed-phase) in order to evaluate the presence of steatosis. A statistically significant relationship (Fischer's Exact Test, p=0.019) between hepatic lipomas and steatosis was demonstrated. Fifty percent of hepatic lipomas associated steatosis, while this association was present in only 9% of the non-lipomatous lesions. Lipomas have a significantly greater association with steatosis when compared to nonlipomatous lesions. This relationship may be related to a common insuline resistance mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  14. Computed tomography of three cases of hepatic hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Fukushima, Keisuke; Hino, Kazunari; Ohumi, Tsuneyo; Hirano, Yutaka (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1983-02-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of hepatic hemangioma was reported. Hepatic hemangioma appears as a well-defined, uniform low density area with mean CT No. of 32.7 H.U. CT No. of the lesions became isodense or more higher after contrast enhancement and the degree of enhancement was more than twice as high as the surrounding hepatic tissue. These findings seem to be useful in the differentiation from other focal lesions of the liver.

  15. Vinyl chloride-induced hepatic coproporphyrinuria with transition to chronic hepatic porphyria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, M.; Lange, C.E.; Veltman, G.

    1984-02-15

    A chronic hepatic disorder of porphyrin metabolism was found in 36 workers with vinyl chloride (VC)-induced hepatic injury following long-time industrial exposure. Pathologic porphyrinuria, especially secondary coproporphyrinuria with transition to subclinical chronic hepatic porphyria, is a consistent pathobiochemical parameter for the recognition of VC hepatic lesions. The porphyrinuria is of diagnostic value for the incipient toxic phase. Erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity studied in six cases with initial chronic hepatic porphyria was normal, suggesting that VC affects only this enzyme in the liver.

  16. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  17. Uncommon scintigraphic findings of multiple hepatic hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    el-Desouki, M.; Joharjy, I.A.; al-Muzrakchi, A.M.; Bashi, S.A. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh, (Saudi Arabia))

    1991-03-01

    Tc-99m labeled red blood cell scintigraphy is a valuable, noninvasive technique for differentiating hepatic hemangioma from other lesions by demonstrating a 'perfusion blood pool mismatch.' The characteristic finding on dynamic CT scan of peripheral and subsequent central enhancement is not usually seen on Tc-99m RBC angiography, probably due to rapid mixing and dilution of the radionuclide and low resolution of the gamma camera. A case of multiple hepatic hemangioma is presented in which Tc-99m RBC dynamic angiography demonstrated peripheral enhancement with subsequent central filling. In addition, delayed static images showed more hepatic lesions.

  18. Ileocaecal TB with multiple hepatic granuloma mimicking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESR 100mm/hr, normal CXR, ultrasound revealed multiple hypoechoic liver focal lesions, multiple para-aortic Lymph node and a thick wall terminal ilium. CT abdomen showed bowel segment with wall thickening and irregular lumen in the right iliac fossa, enlarge para-aortic lymph nodes and multiple hepatic focal lesions ...

  19. Hepatic hemangiomas: pitfalls in scintigraphic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, L.I.; Alavi, A.; Trotman, B.W.; Oleaga, J.A.; Eymontt, M.J.

    1978-04-01

    The evaluation of solitary hepatic lesions detected on scintiscans is a commmon clinical problem. It is usually assumed that radionuclide rapid sequence flow studies and blood pool images are reliable and accurate methods of demonstrating the vascularity of hepatic lesions. Our recent experience with 3 patients with angiographically proven hepatic hemangiomas indicates that radionuclide techniques may fail to detect the vascularity of hemangiomas. We speculate that blood flow within a hepatic hemangioma may be sluggish and its vascularity may be appreciated only by arteriography. Therefore, we alert the clinician to assess the vascularity of solitary hepatic tumors by angiography before percutaneous liver biopsy and thereby avert the possibility of life-threatening exsanguination, as occurred in one of our patients.

  20. THE DRUG-INDUCED HEPATITIS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Molochkova; O. B. Kovalev; V. F. Uchaykin; V. A. Konev; Yu. S. Snetkova

    2017-01-01

    Among toxic lesions of the liver, an important place belongs to medicinal hepatitis. Among patients with hepatitis, drug disease of the liver occurs in 0.7—1.4% of cases, and in the presence of jaundice — in 5%. A family case of sisters 9 and 4-year-old life development  of acute drug hepatitis caused by ibuprofen in a daily dose of 32 mg / kg (total 3.2 g) and 25 mg / kg (total 2 g), respectively, was demonstrated in siblings. Hepatitis developed after an acute respiratory infection. Weaknes...

  1. Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in hepatic cirrhosis: causes and relation to hepatic failure and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D; Durandy, Y; Deporte, A; Bismuth, H

    1977-01-29

    Emergency fibroscopy revealed bleeding lesions in 84 cirrhotic patients. In patients with moderate or no hepatic failure, the commonest actively bleeding sources were oesophagogastric varices and acute mucosal ulcers associated with the ingestion of anti-inflammatory drugs. In patients with severe hepatic failure, acute mucosal ulcers unrelated to drugs predominated and there was evidence that these were stress-induced erosions.

  2. MRI of degenerative bone marrow lesions in experimental osteoarthritis of canine knee joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Adam, G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Buehne, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the value of MRI in the detection of degenerative bone marrow abnormalities in an animal osteoarthritis model. Design. In 10 dogs with experimentally induced unilateral osteoarthritis of the knee, MRI was performed using two-dimensional spin-echo (2D-SE) and three-dimensional gradient-echo (3D-GE) imaging. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted 2D-SE sequences were also obtained after injection of gadolinium-DTPA. The results were compared with the gross and histopathologic findings and with radiography. Results. Histopathologic specimens revealed 21 osteosclerotic lesions and 5 intraosseous cysts. On 2D-SE images, 24 of 26 lesions were detected, while 21 of 26 lesions were identified on 2D-GE sequences. Radiography, including conventional tomography, demonstrated 9 of 26 lesions. Regardless of the sequence weighting, all osteosclerotic lesions appeared hypointense on MRI. Signal loss in bone sclerosis resulted primarily from the reduction of intact fat marrow, the increased bone density being of secondary importance. Quantitative signal analysis allowed approximate estimation of the grade of sclerosis. On postcontrast images, sclerotic bone remained hypointense, although significant but non-specific enhancement relative to the normal fat marrow was observed. The extent of contrast enhancement did not correlate with the grade of osteosclerosis. All five cysts were readily diagnosed by MRI. Cysts displayed either central or marginal contrast enhancement within their cavities. Conclusions. MRI provides a sensitive method for the diagnosis of osteoarthritic bone abnormalities, allowing their differentiation from most non-degenerative subarticular lesions. (orig.). With 1 tab.

  3. Quantitative MRI analysis of dynamic enhancement of focal liver lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Bagnenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study 45 patients with different focal liver lesions (110 nodules were examined using high field MR-system (1,5 T. During this investigation quantitative MRI analysis of dynamic enhancement of various hepatic lesions and parenchymatous organs of abdomen were performed. It was shown that quantitative evaluation of enhanced MRI improves understanding of vascular transformation processes in pathologic hepatic focuses and in liver itself that is important for differential diagnoses of these diseases.

  4. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  5. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Liver Transplant Definition & Facts Transplant Process Transplant Surgery Living with a Liver Transplant Clinical Trials Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH Definition & ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  8. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  9. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  10. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  11. Spinal focal lesion detection in multiple myeloma using multimodal image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fränzle, Andrea; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2015-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a tumor disease in the bone marrow that affects the skeleton systemically, i.e. multiple lesions can occur in different sites in the skeleton. To quantify overall tumor mass for determining degree of disease and for analysis of therapy response, volumetry of all lesions is needed. Since the large amount of lesions in one patient impedes manual segmentation of all lesions, quantification of overall tumor volume is not possible until now. Therefore development of automatic lesion detection and segmentation methods is necessary. Since focal tumors in multiple myeloma show different characteristics in different modalities (changes in bone structure in CT images, hypointensity in T1 weighted MR images and hyperintensity in T2 weighted MR images), multimodal image analysis is necessary for the detection of focal tumors. In this paper a pattern recognition approach is presented that identifies focal lesions in lumbar vertebrae based on features from T1 and T2 weighted MR images. Image voxels within bone are classified using random forests based on plain intensities and intensity value derived features (maximum, minimum, mean, median) in a 5 x 5 neighborhood around a voxel from both T1 and T2 weighted MR images. A test data sample of lesions in 8 lumbar vertebrae from 4 multiple myeloma patients can be classified at an accuracy of 95% (using a leave-one-patient-out test). The approach provides a reasonable delineation of the example lesions. This is an important step towards automatic tumor volume quantification in multiple myeloma.

  12. Incidence of jaw lesions and activity and gene expression of hepatic P4501A enzymes in mink (Mustela vison) exposed to dietary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Moore, Jeremy; Newsted, John L; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Bello, Nora; Bhat, Virunya S; Kay, Denise; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wiseman, Steve; Budinsky, Robert A; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) on the incidence of jaw lesions and on hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) endpoints in mink (Mustela vison). Adult female mink were assigned randomly to one of 13 dietary treatments (control and four increasing doses of TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF) and provided spiked feed for approximately 150 d (60 d prior to breeding through weaning of offspring at 42 d post-parturition). Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 150 d. Activity of hepatic CYP1A enzymes in adult and juvenile mink exposed to TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDD was generally greater compared with controls, but changes in other CYP1A endpoints were less consistent. Histopathology of the mandible and maxilla of juvenile mink suggested a dose-related increase in the incidence of jaw lesions. The dietary effective doses (ED) for jaw lesions in 50% of the population (ED50) were estimated to be 6.6, 14, and 149 ng/kg body weight (bw)/d for TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF, respectively. The relative potencies of PeCDF and TCDF compared with TCDD based on ED10, ED20, and ED50 values ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 and 0.04 to 0.09, respectively. These values are within an order of magnitude of the World Health Organization toxic equivalency factor (TEF(WHO)) values of 0.3 and 0.1 for PeCDF and TCDF, respectively. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  13. Hepatitis amebiana

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Mendoza, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Se ha considerado habitualmente la hepatitis amebiana como una inflamación del parénquima hepático causada por localización del parásito mismo en el hígado, distinguiéndose la forma supurada o absceso y el estado presupurativo o hepatitis aguda.

  14. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM and white matter (WM using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  15. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Oliver, Arnau; Roura, Eloy; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier; Rovira, Àlex; Lladó, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  16. SPECT in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, J.C.; Van Heertum, R.L.; Yudd, A.P.

    1985-05-01

    Tc99m labeled red blood cell blood flow and delayed static blood pool imaging is widely accepted as a reliable, accurate method for the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomata. The purpose of this study is to assess the relative value of SPECT blood pool imaging in the evaluation of hepatic hemangionata. A total of 68 patients, including 21 patients with proven hepatic cavernous hemangiomas, were studied using both planar and SPECT imaging techniques. All patients underwent multi-phase evaluation which included a hepatic flow study, immediate planar images of the liver, followed by a 360/sup 0/ tomographic (SPECT) study and subsequent 60 minute delayed static planar hepatic blood pool images. All 21 patients with proven hepatic hemangiomas had a positive SPECT exam and 17 of the 21 (81%) patients had a positive planar exam. In the 21 patients, there were a total of 36 hemangiomas ranging in size from .7 cm to 13 cm. The SPECT imaging technique correctly identified all 36 lesions (100%) where as planar imaging detected 25 of the 36 lesions (69.4%). In all the remaining patients (10-normal, 17-metastatic disease, 12-hepatocellular disease, 6-hepatoma, 2-liver cysts), both the planar and SPECT imaging techniques were interpreted as showing no evidence of focal sequestration of red blood cells. SPECT hepatic blood pool imaging represents an improvement in the evaluation of hepatic hemangioma as a result of a reduction in imaging time (less than thirty minutes), improved spatial resolution and greater overall accuracy.

  17. Role of diffusion weighted MR in the discrimination diagnosis of the cystic and/or necrotic head and neck lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Osman [Selcuk University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya 42080 (Turkey); Paksoy, Yahya [Selcuk University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya 42080 (Turkey)]. E-mail: yahyapaksoy@yahoo.com; Erayman, Ibrahim [Selcuk University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious Disease, Konya (Turkey); Kivrak, Ali Sami [Selcuk University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya 42080 (Turkey); Arbag, Hamdi [Selcuk University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Konya (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine whether the diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was able to differentiate necrotic tumor or metastatic lesions from infected necrotic lesions such as abscesses and necrotic lymphadenitis in the neck. Materials and methods: DWI was performed on 37 consecutive patients with 85 head and neck necrotic and cystic lesions. The lesions were classified into four categories: metastatic lymph node involvement including lymphoma, necrotic tumor, abscesses and necrotic lymphadenitis. Each lesion was histopathologically studied and proved. Results: In 12 patients, there were 35 necrotic lymphadenitis (necrotic tuberculosis lymphadenitis, n = 18; necrotic nonspecific suppurative lymphadenitis, n = 17). Of the 15 necrotic metastatic nodes, 11 lesions were lymphomatous involvement and 4 lesions were other tumor involvement. Other 11 patients have abscesses. Thirteen primary tumoral necrotic lesions arose in the neck of nine patients. All of the abscesses and necrotic lympadenitis showed hyperintensity on DWI, in contrast to necrotic tumor and necrotic nodal metastasis that showed hypointensity on DWI. DWI successfully differentiated metastatic nodes and necrotic tumors from necrotic lymphadenitis and abscesses. Conclusion: DWI may be supportive for differentiating necrotic tumor lesions such as necrotic tumor and metastatic necrotic nodes from the infective necrotic lesions such as necrotic lymphadenitis and abscesses in the head and neck.

  18. [The state of oral cavity in patients with hepatitis A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, A A; Bogomolov, B P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate oral cavity condition in 42 patients aged 25-58 years with hepatitis A. Forty patients without hepatic pathology served as controls. Hepatitis A is known to be associated with inflammation of oral mucosa with stomatitis occurring in 78.5% of the patients, glossitis in 71.4%, cheilitis in 64.3%, marginal periodontal inflammation in 85.7%. Oral mucosal lesions confound the clinical picture of hepatitis. The prevalence of caries and its complications in patients with hepatitis A amounts to 95.2%. Results of our studies confirm the necessity of early stomatological examination of such patients.

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE ... liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2017 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  4. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us FAQs Ask a Question Toll Free Numbers Homeless Veterans Chat VA » Health Care » Viral Hepatitis » Veterans and ... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans ...

  5. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapy medicines have worked or lived in a prison had a blood transfusion or organ transplant before ... can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? ... portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reading Webinars Caregivers The Role of a Caregiver Signs and Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver ... and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are the Symptoms of HE? What Are the Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause ... may not be aware you have it. The stages of HE span from mild to severe and ...

  11. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person usually needs blood tests for an exact diagnosis because a person with autoimmune hepatitis can have the same symptoms as those of other liver diseases or metabolic disorders. Blood tests. A blood test involves drawing ...

  12. Hepatic hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Hepatic hemangioma URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ...

  13. Hepatic ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Hepatic ischemia URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ...

  14. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you need the vaccine The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Fact Sheet ... Suite 750 Bethesda, MD 20814 T: (301) 656-0003 | F: (301) 907-0878 Privacy Policy Disclaimer Link to ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cirrhosis of the Liver & Symptoms Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of ... Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ALF HE Materials Suggested Reading Webinars Caregivers The Role of a Caregiver Signs and Symptoms to look ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  18. Peritumoral Hyperplasia in Hepatic Sclerosed Hemangioma

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Seitarou; Tajiri, Kazuto; Baba, Hayato; Minemura, Masami; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Nakano, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2017-01-01

    Peritumoral hyperplasia (PTH) is a hyperplastic lesion located around hypervascular tumors. Hepatic sclerosed hemangioma is a very rare form of hemangioma with sclerotic changes and is distinct from sclerosing hemangioma. We present a patient with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-induced cirrhosis who presented with a hypervascular tumor. The tumor showed atypical findings of hemangioma and was treated with surgical resection because hepatic malignancy could not be ruled out. Histopathologic exa...

  19. Infantile hepatic hemangioma: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmida Najmuddin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Infantile hepatic hemangioma is a tumor arising from the mesenchymal liver tissue. Presentation varies from being asymptomatic to having life threatening complications. They can manifest as solitary or multicentric lesions. We hereby, report a one and half month old child who presented with respiratory distress and was incidentally found to have a liver mass, which eventually was diagnosed as infantile hepatic hemangioma and successfully treated with propranolol.

  20. Infantile hepatic hemangioma: a diagnostic delimma

    OpenAIRE

    Najmuddin, Fehmida; Sharif, Mumtaz; Kotrashetty, Veeranna; Patel, Harsh; Puskur, Dedeepya

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioma is a tumor arising from the mesenchymal liver tissue. Presentation varies from being asymptomatic to having life threatening complications. They can manifest as solitary or multicentric lesions. We hereby, report a one and half month old child who presented with respiratory distress and was incidentally found to have a liver mass, which eventually was diagnosed as infantile hepatic hemangioma and successfully treated with propranolol.

  1. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  2. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  3. Contrast enhanced ultrasound features of hepatic cystadenoma and hepatic cystadenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Mao, Feng; Fan, Mei; Ignee, Andre; Serra, Carla; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Braden, Barbara; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2017-03-01

    Hepatic (biliary) cystic tumor (HBCT) is a rare focal cystic liver lesion, which has been rarely described in the literature. In our current multicenter, retrospective study, we aimed to analyze contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features and its diagnostic performance in histologically proved HBCT. Twenty-three patients with single HBCT were retrospectively analyzed. Histologically, 17 (73.9%) were benign hepatic (biliary) cystadenoma (HBCA), 6 (26.1%) were hepatic (biliary) cystadenocarcinoma (HBCAC). All CEUS examinations were assessed by two independent radiologists in consensus. Criteria of CEUS imaging evaluation included the contrast enhancement pattern of lesion (hypoenhancing, hyperenhancing, isoenhancing in comparison to the surrounding liver parenchyma) during the arterial, portal venous and late phases. After injection of ultrasound contrast agents, most of the HBCTs (78.3%, 18/23) had typical honeycomb enhancement pattern of the cystic wall, septa or mural nodules. Comparing between HBCA and HBCAC, hyperenhancement of the honeycomb septa during the arterial phase was more common in HBCA (p = .047). However, hypoenhancement during the portal venous and late phases was the characteristic of HBCAC (p = .041). The EFSUMB algorithm for CEUS for characterization of solid focal liver lesions is also applicable to HBCT. CEUS evaluation can avoid further diagnostic investigations or invasive biopsy procedure.

  4. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  5. Hepatic infarction in HELLP syndrome; a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Hong [Keimyung Univ. School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-01

    Hepatic infarction is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy-associated preeclampsia or HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver function tests, low platelets) syndrome. We present a case of hepatic infarction subsequent to HELLP syndrome and occurring during the immediate postpartum, and the associated radiologic findings. Sonography revealed poorly defined hypoechoic zones of infarction. Computed tomography(CT) demonstrated the characteristic features of nonenhancing, low attenuation, relatively well-defined, wedge shaped or geographic hepatic lesions, without mass effect.

  6. Hepatic cavernous hemangioma in cirrhotic liver: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Sik; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Mi Suk; Yoon, Sang Wook [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    To document the imaging findings of hepatic cavernous hemangioma detected in cirrhotic liver. The imaging findings of 14 hepatic cavernous hemangiomas in ten patients with liver cirrhosis were retrospectively analyzed. A diagnosis of hepatic cavernous hemangioma was based on the findings of two or more of the following imaging studies: MR, including contrast-enhanced dynamic imaging (n=10), dynamic CT (n=4), hepatic arteriography (n=9), and US (n=10). The mean size of the 14 hepatic hemangioma was 0.9 (range, 0.5-1.5) cm in the longest dimension. In 11 of these (79%), contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MR imaging showed rapid contrast enhancement of the entire lesion during the early phase, and hepatic arteriography revealed globular enhancement and rapid filling-in. On contrast-enhanced MR images, three lesions (21%) showed partial enhancement until the 5-min delayed phases. US indicated that while three slowly enhancing lesions were homogeneously hyperechoic, 9 (82%) of 11 showing rapid enhancement were not delineated. The majority of hepatic cavernous hemangiomas detected in cirrhotic liver are small in size, and in many, hepatic arteriography and/or contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MR imaging demonstrates rapid enhancement. US, however, fails to distinguish a lesion of this kind from its cirrhotic background. (author)

  7. Protozoal hepatitis in a western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    2017-01-01

    A western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) found dead in southern California had many light-colored lesions visible grossly on its liver, and histopathology revealed extensive necrosis throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Single-celled organisms were seen in clear spaces within the areas of necrosis. The owl was diagnosed with protozoal hepatitis.

  8. How to Differentiate Borderline Hepatic Nodules in Hepatocarcinogenesis: Emphasis on Imaging Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Byung Ihn; Lee, Eun Sun; Park, Sung Bin; Lee, Jong Beum

    2017-06-01

    Rapid advances in liver imaging have improved the evaluation of hepatocarcinogenesis and early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this situation, detection of early-stage HCC in its development is important for the improvement of patient survival and optimal treatment strategies. Because early HCCs are considered precursors of progressed HCC, precise differentiation between a dysplastic nodule (DN), especially a high-grade DN, and early HCC is important. In clinical practice, these nodules are frequently called "borderline hepatic nodules." This article discusses radiological and pathological characteristics of these borderline hepatic nodules and offers an understanding of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis by focusing on the descriptions of the imaging changes in the progression of DN and early HCC. Detection and accurate diagnosis of borderline hepatic nodules are still a challenge with contrast enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI with extracellular contrast agents. However, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI may be useful for improving the diagnosis of these borderline nodules. Since there is a net effect of incomplete neoangiogenesis and decreased portal venous flow in the early stage of hepatocarcinogenesis, borderline hepatic nodules commonly show iso- or hypovascularity. Therefore, precise differentiation of these nodules remains a challenging issue. In MRI using hepatobiliary contrast agents, signal intensity of HCCs on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) is regarded as a potential imaging biomarker. Borderline hepatic nodules are seen as nonhypervascular and hypointense nodules on the HBP, which is important for predicting tumor behavior and determining appropriate therapeutic strategies.

  9. Uncommon hepatic tumors: iconographic essay - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrassa, Bruno Cheregati; da Rocha, Eduardo Lima; Kierszenbaum, Marcelo Longo; Bormann, Renata Lilian; Torres, Lucas Rios; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Most malignant liver tumors are represented by hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma; however a variety of other uncommon hepatic lesions might also be found. Common lesions such as hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia and metastases are well known and have already been extensively documented in the literature. The diagnosis of typical hepatic lesions may be done with some reliability by means of several imaging methods; on the other hand, uncommon lesions normally represent a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. In this first part of the study, the authors will approach five uncommon liver tumors - angiosarcoma, angiomyolipoma, cystadenoma/biliary carcinoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma -, describing their main characteristics and image findings with focus on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Evaluation of the histopathological hepatic lesions and opportunistic agents in Brazilian HIV patients Avaliação das alterações histológicas hepáticas e infecções oportunistas em pacientes brasileiros infectados pelo HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Hanna Pereira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: to evaluated the type histopathological hepatic lesions and opportunistic agents in Brazilian HIV-infected patients. METHODS: we examined 52 percutaneous liver biopsies of 50 HIV-infected patients who had at least two of the following conditions: fever of unknown origin, unexplained severe emaciation, hepatomegaly or abnormal liver chemistry. The specimens were cultured for mycobacteria and fungi and stained by standard procedures. RESULTS: reactive patterns, granulomatous hepatitis and chronic active hepatitis were verified in 28 (54%, 11 (21% and 8 (15% of the patients respectively. Opportunistic infections were diagnosed in 18 (36% patients: mycobacteria in 12 (24%, Cryptococcus neoformans in 5 (10% patients and mycobacteria and yeast was isolated from the same liver fragment in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: mycobacteriosis was the most common opportunistic infection and liver tissue culture is an important method to detect opportunistic agents, even in the absence of histological lesions.INTRODUÇÃO: avaliar os tipos de lesões histopatológicas e infecções oportunistas de Brasileiros infectados pelo HIV. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 52 biópsias hepáticas percutâneas de 50 pacientes que apresentavam pelo menos duas das alterações: febre de origem indeterminada, emagrecimento inexplicado, hepatomegalia ou anormalidades na bioquímica hepática. O fragmento de tecido hepático foi submetido a histopatologia por métodos habituais e cultura para micobacteria e fungo. RESULTADOS: padrão reacional, hepatite granulomatosa e hepatite crônica ativa foram encontrados em 28 (54%, 11 (21% e 8 (15% dos pacientes respectivamente. Infecções oportunistas foram diagnosticadas em 18 (36% dos pacientes: micobacteria em 12 (24%, Cryptococcus neoformans em 5 (10% pacientes e micobacteria e fungo foram isolados no mesmo fragmento em um paciente. CONCLUSÕES: micobacteriose foi a infecção oportunista mais comum e a cultura de tecido hep

  11. [Giant simple hepatic cysts as dyspnea symptom in a 93-year-old patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho Pérez, O; Gómez Pavón, J; Núñez González, A; Narvaiza Grau, L; Albéniz Aguiriano, L

    2007-03-01

    Giant simple hepatic cysts is generally asymptomatic in the 3% of cases of adult patients. We present a woman case of 93 years old who was diagnoses of giant simple hepatic cyst presented as dysnea. The management of this patient was with percutaneous aspiration and fenol alcohol. It made a review of cystic lesions of the liver and of simple hepatic cysts management.

  12. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  13. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  14. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  15. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  16. Hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, Jose Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; Joao, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima, E-mail: ecamic@uol.com.br [Hospital Universitario Onofre Lopes (HUOL/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Clinica Gastrocentro e Ambulatorios de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo e de Cirurgia Hepatobiliopancreatica

    2017-09-01

    Background: The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. Aim: To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. Method: This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Results: Eighty eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. Conclusion: It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine amino transaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. (author)

  17. Correlations between MDCT features and clinicopathological findings of hepatic paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-ming; Yu, Jian-qun; Yang, Zhi-gang; Chu, Zhi-gang; Peng, Li-qing; Kushwaha, Sudarshan

    2012-04-01

    To illustrate the MDCT features of hepatic paragonimiasis and correlate the results with clinicopathological findings. Eighteen patients (8 male, 10 female; mean age 37years) with hepatic paragonimiasis were included in this study. MDCT features of their hepatic lesions were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with clinicopathological findings. All patients were lifelong residents in endemic areas of paragonimiasis, especially Paragonimiasis skrjabini variety. Abdominal pain or discomfort, fever and high eosinophil percentage were the predominant clinical features. In total, 21 lesions were detected on MDCT images, 18 (85.7%) directly contacted the hepatic capsule and 3 (14.3%) were adjacent to the capsule. Segment V (26%), VIII (26%) and VI (18.5%) were the most commonly involved sites. Sixteen lesions (76%) were conglomerated cystic or multilocular and 5 (24%) were solid. On plain MDCT scan, the margin and internal detail of the lesions were not clear except for one cystic variety, while they were clearly demonstrated on enhanced images. Single or multiple cysts with different diameters were commonly detected in the non-solid lesions, and some of them were mutually connected with tortuous tract formation. Among the solid lesions, 2 and 3 showed tubular and homogeneous enhancement, respectively. Peripherally distributed lesions, mutually connected cysts with tortuous tract formation, and tubular enhancement, which may be closely associated with the infection route and migration of the worm, could be seen as the main MDCT features of hepatic paragonimiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    acute, fatal infections in ducklings with a rapid decline within 1-2 hr and clinical and pathologic signs virtually indistinguishable from DHAV. DAstV-1 has only been recognized in the United Kingdom and recently in China, while DAstV-2 has been reported in ducks in the United States. FAdV, the causative agent of inclusion body hepatitis, is a Group I avian adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. The affected birds have a swollen, friable, and discolored liver, sometimes with necrotic or hemorrhagic foci. Histologic lesions include multifocal necrosis of hepatocytes and acute hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies in the nuclei of the hepatocytes. THV is a picornavirus that is likely the causative agent of turkey viral hepatitis. Currently there are more questions than answers about THV, and the pathogenesis and clinical impacts remain largely unknown. Future research in viral hepatic diseases of poultry is warranted to develop specific diagnostic assays, identify suitable cell culture systems for virus propagation, and develop effective vaccines.

  19. Hepatic Kaposi sarcoma. Sonographic and computed tomographic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defalque, D.; Menu, Y.; Nahum, H.; Matheron, S.; Girard, P.M.

    1988-10-01

    AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma is most often multicentric and extensive. Hepatic involvement is unusual and asymptomatic. An anicteric cholestasis may exist. Ultrasonography shows a pedicular echogenic infiltration and a heterogeneous parenchyma with small hyperechoic nodules. On CT, these hypodense lesions are related to the involvement of the hepatic pedicle. This is linked to angiosarcomatous tumorous tissue infiltration of the liver evolving along portal branches. In a patient suffering from cutaneous or digestive Kaposi sarcoma lesions, these radiological aspects are suggestive of hepatic involvement.

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often starts slowly, and at first you may not be ...

  1. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stop drinking alcohol. People who continue to drink alcohol face a high risk of serious liver damage and death. Symptoms The ... amount of alcohol you consume. The amount of alcohol intake that puts a person at risk of alcoholic hepatitis isn't known. But most ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical ... mild to severe and symptoms vary depending on how bad your liver disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy ...

  3. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liver diseases like hepatitis C. An occasional alcoholic drink may be okay, but check with your doctor first.What are the side ... family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on ... Urticaria Check Your Symptoms Find out what else could be ...

  4. Hepatic autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Peter; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increased glycogenolysis, simulated by galactose's conversion to glucose, on the contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to hepatic glucose production (GP) was determined. The conversion of galactose to glucose is by the same pathway as glycogen's conversion to glucose, i.e., glucose 1...

  5. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lemon SM, Brown CO, Brookes OS, et al. Specific IgM response to hepatitis A virus determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Infect Immun 1980 ..... benefit from review by a specialist centre interested in liver disease. It is our experience that many patients referred to the Liver Clinic of the University of Cape Town for.

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Signs and Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to ... Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and Support program is provided by Salix Pharmaceuticals

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. ... reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  8. Talar Dome Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Please enable Javascript in your browser. Talar Dome Lesion What Is a Talar Dome Lesion? The ankle joint is composed of the bottom ... on the specific case. Complications of Talar Dome Lesions Depending on the amount of damage to the ...

  9. Evaluating the effects of white matter multiple sclerosis lesions on the volume estimation of 6 brain tissue segmentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, S; Oliver, A; Díez, Y; Cabezas, M; Vilanova, J C; Ramió-Torrentà, L; Rovira, À; Lladó, X

    2015-06-01

    The accuracy of automatic tissue segmentation methods can be affected by the presence of hypointense white matter lesions during the tissue segmentation process. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of MS white matter lesions on the brain tissue measurements of 6 well-known segmentation techniques. These include straightforward techniques such as Artificial Neural Network and fuzzy C-means as well as more advanced techniques such as the Fuzzy And Noise Tolerant Adaptive Segmentation Method, fMRI of the Brain Automated Segmentation Tool, SPM5, and SPM8. Thirty T1-weighted images from patients with MS from 3 different scanners were segmented twice, first including white matter lesions and then masking the lesions before segmentation and relabeling as WM afterward. The differences in total tissue volume and tissue volume outside the lesion regions were computed between the images by using the 2 methodologies. Total gray matter volume was overestimated by all methods when lesion volume increased. The tissue volume outside the lesion regions was also affected by white matter lesions with differences up to 20 cm(3) on images with a high lesion load (≈50 cm(3)). SPM8 and Fuzzy And Noise Tolerant Adaptive Segmentation Method were the methods less influenced by white matter lesions, whereas the effect of white matter lesions was more prominent on fuzzy C-means and the fMRI of the Brain Automated Segmentation Tool. Although lesions were removed after segmentation to avoid their impact on tissue segmentation, the methods still overestimated GM tissue in most cases. This finding is especially relevant because on images with high lesion load, this bias will most likely distort actual tissue atrophy measurements. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Granulomatous hepatitis in pasteurella multocida infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateil, J.F.; Brun, M.; Perel, Y.; Sananes, J.C.; Castell, J.F.; Diard, F. [Service de Radiologie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    1998-05-01

    Numerous diseases can lead to multilocular lesions of the liver. The authors report a rare pediatric case of hepatic granulomas due to Pasteurella multocida: a 7-year-old girl with chronic fever was investigated by sonography and CT scan, demonstrating mesenteric lymph node enlargement and numerous small hepatic lesions. After surgical biopsy, histopathology of the liver specimens showed pyogenic granuloma, with serologic testing positive for Pasteurella multocida. Treatment with a tetracycline and corticosteroids was successful. Pasteurella multocida infection, despite its habitual benign course, should be suspected among differential diagnoses of lymphogranulomatous affections with hepatic involvement. No case of liver and lymph node foci in a child has been previously described. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  11. Ultrasonographic classification of Atypical hepatic hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Jin; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon Ha [Wonkwang University Hospital, Junju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is the most common benign hepatic tumor. Typically, the most common features revealed by ultrasound (US) include its small size (4 cm or less in diameter), uniform hyperechogenicity, well defined margins, position in the subcapsular region of the right lobe of the liver, and some posterior echo enhancement. In addition, follow-up scanning may reveal changes in size, though this is rare. The US findings of hepatic hemangiomas may vary, however, especially when lesions are large and/or multiple. For that reason, differential diagnosis between this condition and hepatocellular carcinomas, metastatic lesions, lymphomas and other tumors is difficult. An understanding of the various sonographic findings of hepatic hemangioma can facilitate the early detection of the condition. (author)

  12. Pedunculated Hepatic Hemangioma - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Elhajjam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedunculated hemangioma is a rare and atypical hepatic angioma. We report the case of a pedunculated hepatic hemangioma presenting as an abdominal sub-hepatic mass incidentally discovered in a 66-year-old woman with anal cancer. The diagnosis was strongly suggested by the vascular features of the lesion on spiral computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance (MR imaging. A surgical removal of the mass was decided to prevent potential risk of ischemic volvulus along the pedicle. Histo-pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis. Contrast enhanced thin sections and subsequent multiplanar reconstructions on CT and MR are very helpful to show the angioma features and the pedicle linking the lesion with the liver.

  13. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  14. [Chronic viral hepatitis: protocol proposal for the management of cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Brito, Vicens; Cardoso, Helder; Sarmento, António

    2008-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the terminal phase of hepatic fibrosis, that leads to impaired hepatic function and blood flow. Liver cirrhosis is the final stage of many hepatic diseases characterized by chronic cellular destruction. The complications of liver cirrosis are the result of the hepatocellular lesion and portal hypertension. The most frequent complications are ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, gastroesophageal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, hypersplenism, hepatocellular carcinoma, methabolic disorders, hepatorenal syndrome and hepatopulmonary syndrome. We review the current approach of cirrhosis and its complications in order to improve the prevention and therapeutics of this frequent disease.

  15. Conversion of a neonatal hepatic hemangioma to focal nodular hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Carmen; Feist, Henning; Alzen, Gerhard; Glüer, Sylvia; Petersen, Claus

    2009-04-01

    Hepatic hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia are both frequently observed benign lesions of the liver. Whereas hepatic hemangioma is the most frequent benign liver tumor in children, focal nodular hyperplasia occurs predominantly in adult patients. Concomitance of both entities has been described in adults, suggesting a similar pathogenesis. We report on a 6-month-old child with a continuously shrinking hepatic hemangioma after interventional therapy and a growing hepatic mass 5 years later, which emerged as focal nodular hyperplasia at the site of the former hemangioma. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies regarding this patient are discussed. The present case supports the theory that these two entities may share a similar pathomechanism.

  16. Antenatal diagnosis of congenital hepatic hemangioma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrita, SV; Gonçalves, S.; Rodrigues, H.; Guerra, N; Moura, P

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic tumors in children account for only 1 to 5% of all pediatric tumors. Hepatic hemangioma is, however, the third most common tumor of the liver in childhood. We report a case of an antenatal diagnosis of a hepatic tumor detected on a first obstetric ultrasound, at 26(th) week of gestation. It revealed a complex, predominantly solid hepatic lesion with 3 x 3 cm and a marked, essentially peripheral, Doppler blood flow. Fetal echocardiography showed a normal heart besides a vena cava displ...

  17. Concurrent hepatic hemangioma and solitary fibrous tumor: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueht, Michael; Masand, Prakash; Rana, Abbas; Cotton, Ronald; Goss, John

    2015-07-24

    Hepatic solitary fibrous tumor (HSFT) is a very rare benign liver tumor without well-defined findings on imaging. Even with multiphase advanced contrast-enhanced liver imaging, a definitive preoperative diagnosis is impossible. The diagnostic process can be further complicated when there are two concurrent lesions with different radiologic appearances. Here, we compare the findings of a commonly encountered liver lesion, hepatic hemangioma, with those of an exceedingly rare lesion, HSFT. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015.

  18. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  19. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  20. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic ( ... or kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a ...

  1. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. ... at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed by the CDC and get a personalized ...

  2. Preventing hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  3. Hepatitis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, Yoshiro; Doi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yasuharu; Tohya, Yoshikazu; Yanagi, Tadamichi

    1986-01-01

    115 patients (71 male and 44 female) with infectious hepatitis were hospitalized in Nagasaki University Hospital during 1974-1984. They were all the hospitalized patients in our pediatric department. The total patient was 8150 and that of hepatitis was 115, that is 1.4%. On the classification of hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis patients were the most. Next was HB hepatitis. HA hepatitis were less than we had expected. Generally in Japan, childrens HA hepatitis patients are less usual than ...

  4. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes hepatitis A? Hepatitis A is an infectious liver disease caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). How does hepatitis A virus ...

  5. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  6. Incidental visualization of hepatic hemangioma by Tc-99m-HDP bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong An; O, Joo Hyun; Kim, Jung Ho; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Chung, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-15

    Hepatic hemangioma is the most common benign liver tumor and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of other space occupying hepatic masses. A 54-year-old man was referred to evaluate bone metastases of lung adenocarcinoma. In our case, we thought that a focal hepatic uptake in the bone scan was a metastatic lesion because of underlying lung adenocarcinoma. However, the findings of abdominal CT and Tc-99m RBC scan results were deemed to be characteristic of hepatic hemangioma. The biopsy of the lesion was not performed.

  7. THE DRUG-INDUCED HEPATITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Molochkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among toxic lesions of the liver, an important place belongs to medicinal hepatitis. Among patients with hepatitis, drug disease of the liver occurs in 0.7—1.4% of cases, and in the presence of jaundice — in 5%. A family case of sisters 9 and 4-year-old life development  of acute drug hepatitis caused by ibuprofen in a daily dose of 32 mg / kg (total 3.2 g and 25 mg / kg (total 2 g, respectively, was demonstrated in siblings. Hepatitis developed after an acute respiratory infection. Weakness, nausea, vomiting, jaundice of the skin and sclera, pruritus, multiple increase in serum transaminases and markers of cholestasis are revealed. Viral hepatitis and some hereditary liver diseases were excluded. The drug lesion of the liver was of a mixed nature: hepatocellular (cytotoxic and cholestatic. Timely administration of therapy (detoxification, glucocorticosteroids, ursodeoxycholic acid (Ursosan led to a regression of clinical symptoms of the disease and positive dynamics of laboratory indicators.

  8. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... сский Español What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  9. Structure of viral hepatitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many current studies are devoted to the study of hepatitis caused by viral infections, which are qualified as TORCH-infection. In infants TORCH-induced lesions prevail in the structure of viral hepatitis, the largest proportion is hepatitis of cytomegalovirus etiology. The purpose was to study the structure of viral hepatitis in infants. Materials and methods. The study included sixty-two children (mean age 1.8 ± 0.9 years born in 2007–2016 treated in Chernivtsi Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital. The comparison group consisted of 36 healthy children of the same age. The pathogens of viral hepatitis B, C, TORCH infections were verified by enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction. The results of the research were analyzed using computer package Statistica StatSoft Inc. and Excel XP for Windows for a personal computer. Results. The results of the analysis of the liver diseases structure in 62 young children, according to hospital statistics, determined that the overwhelming majority (38 children; 61.3 % had viral hepatitis (VH, the other 24 (38.7 % patients were divided by the etiological structure of liver damage as follows: 8 (12.9 % patients had prolonged conjunctive jaundice, 7 (11.3 % patients had congenital metabolic disorders, 9 (14.5 % patients had congenital hepatobiliary abnomalities. 16.6 % of young children had hepatitis B and C viruses. In 5.8 % of cases VH was caused by viruses of the TORCH group of infections. Conclusions. In the structure of hepatobiliary diseases in infants, viral hepatitis (68.4 % is on the first ranked place. Among the viral hepatitis in children in the first year of life, CMV-hepatitis (68.4 % is most common, in children over 1 year old chronic hepatitis B and C. Severe obstetrical anamnesis, violations of pregnancy, placental infection are rather significant in the group of children with viral hepatitis. The main clinical signs of CMV-hepatitis are prolonged jaundice, cholestasis

  10. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    of predictors increases the accuracy of lesion activity prediction for both primary coronal and root lesions. Three surrogate methods have been used for evaluating lesion activity (construct validity); all have disadvantages. If construct validity is accepted as a 'gold standard', it is possible to assess......This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R...... in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  11. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave excision - skin; Excision of skin lesions - benign; Skin lesion removal - benign; Cryosurgery - skin, benign; BCC - removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; ...

  12. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000865.htm Skin lesion of blastomycosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A skin lesion of blastomycosis is a symptom of an infection ...

  13. Skin lesion aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003451.htm Skin lesion aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skin lesion aspiration is the withdrawal of fluid from a ...

  14. Hepatitis B in pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Arevalo, J A

    1989-01-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus can result in the development of serious liver disease such as chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Vertical transmission from infected mothers to infants is thought to be partially responsible for the high prevalence of infection in certain high-risk groups. Immunoprophylaxis using hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis immune globulin has been highly effective in decreasing the probability of chronic hepatitis B virus inf...

  15. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (IIDL): Conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings in 42 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelblinger, Claus; Fruehwald-Pallamar, Julia [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Kubin, Klaus [CT/MRI Institut Dr. Klaus Kubin, Salzburg (Austria); Wallner-Blazek, Mirja [Department of Neurology, Medical University Graz, Graz (Austria); Hauwe, Luc van den [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Macedo, Leonardo [Department of Radiology, CEDIMAGEM, Centro - Juiz de Fora (Brazil); Puchner, Stefan B. [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Thurnher, Majda M., E-mail: majda.thurnher@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR imaging characteristics with conventional and advanced MR imaging techniques in patients with IIDL. Methods: MR images of the brain in 42 patients (20 male, 22 female) with suspected or known multiple sclerosis (MS) from four institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Lesions were classified into five different subtypes: (1) ring-like lesions; (2) Balo-like lesions; (3) diffuse infiltrating lesions; (4) megacystic lesions; and (5) unclassified lesions. The location, size, margins, and signal intensities on T1WI, T2WI, and diffusion-weighted images (DWI), and the ADC values/ratios for all lesions, as well as the contrast enhancement pattern, and the presence of edema, were recorded. Results: There were 30 ring-like, 10 Balo-like, 3 megacystic-like and 16 diffuse infiltrating-like lesions were detected. Three lesions were categorized as unclassified lesions. Of the 30 ring-like lesions, 23 were hypointense centrally with a hyperintense rim. The mean ADC, measured centrally, was 1.50 ± 0.41 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s. The mean ADC in the non-enhancing layers of the Balo-like lesions was 2.29 ± 0.17 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, and the mean ADC in enhancing layers was 1.03 ± 0.30 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s. Megacystic lesions had a mean ADC of 2.14 ± 0.26 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s. Peripheral strong enhancement with high signal on DWI was present in all diffuse infiltrating lesions. Unclassified lesions showed a mean ADC of 1.43 ± 0.13 mm{sup 2}/s. Conclusion: Restriction of diffusion will be seen in the outer layers of active inflammation/demyelination in Balo-like lesions, in the enhancing part of ring-like lesions, and at the periphery of infiltrative-type lesions.

  16. Clinicopathological study of primary biliary cirrhosis with interface hepatitis compared to autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mio; Kakuda, Yuko; Harada, Kenichi; Sato, Yasunori; Sasaki, Motoko; Ikeda, Hiroko; Terada, Mitsuhiro; Mukai, Munenori; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2014-04-07

    To investigate histological and immunohistochemical differences in hepatitis between autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) with AIH features. Liver needle biopsies of 41 PBC with AIH features and 43 AIH patients were examined. The activity of periportal and lobular inflammation was scored 0 (none or minimal activity) to 4 (severe), and the degree of hepatitic rosette formation and emperipolesis was semiquantatively scored 0-3. The infiltration of mononuclear cells positive for CD20, CD38, CD3, CD4, and CD8 and positive for immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA) at the periportal areas (interface hepatitis) and in the hepatic lobules (lobular hepatitis) were semiquantitatively scored in immunostained liver sections (score 0-6). Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), immunoglobulins, and autoantibodies at the time of liver biopsy were correlated with the histological and immunohistochemical scores of individual lesions. Lobular hepatitis, hepatitic rosette formation, and emperipolesis were more extensive and frequent in AIH than in PBC. CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cell infiltration scores were higher in the hepatic lobules and at the interface in AIH but were also found in PBC. The degree of mononuclear cell infiltration correlated well with the degree of interface and lobular hepatitis in PBC, but to a lesser degree in AIH. CD20+ cells were mainly found in the portal tracts and, occasionally, at the interface in both diseases. Elevated AST correlated well with the hepatocyte necroinflammation and mononuclear cell infiltration, specifically CD38+ cells in PBC. No correlation existed between autoantibodies and inflammatory cell infiltration in PBC or AIH. While most AIH cases were IgG-predominant at the interface, PBC cases were divided into IgM-predominant, IgM/IgG-equal, and IgG-predominant types, with the latter sharing several features with AIH. These results suggest that the hepatocellular injuries associated with interface and lobular hepatitis

  17. Distinct MDCT imaging features to differential diagnosis of hepatic paragonimiasis and small hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Xie, Si-Ming; Chen, Yong-Hua; Liu, Xu-Bao; Mai, Gang

    2017-06-06

    We used multi-row detector computed tomography (MDCT) to identify the distinguishing characteristics of hepatic paragonimiasis and small hepatocellular carcinoma lesions. We analyzed a cohort of 60 patients, of which 26 had hepatic paragonimiasis and 34 with a small (≤ 3cm) hepatocellular carcinoma. MDCT detected 65 lesions that were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed based on their imaging features. Both groups showed distinct MDCT imaging features that could contribute to an accurate diagnosis. In the paragonimiasis group, 75% (21/28) lesions were located in the hepatic subcapsular region, whereas only 10.8% (4/37) of lesions in the hepatocellular carcinoma group were subcapsular. Most hepatic paragonimiasis lesions (57.1%; 16/28) also showed characteristic tubular or tunnel features that were not present in hepatocellular carcinomas. Further, 71.4% (20/28) paragonimiasis lesions were rim enhanced with irregular tract-like non-enhanced internal areas with a characteristic target loop, while 94.6% (35/37) of small hepatocellular carcinoma lesions showed homogenous enhancement in the arterial and venous phase. In addition, the period CT values for hepatic paragonimiasis were less than those of hepatic carcinomas (Pparagonimiasis from small hepatocellular carcinomas.

  18. Tumefactive demyelinating lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, A.P. [Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Div. of Neuroradiology; Smirniotopoulos, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Div. of Neuroradiology]|[Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Radiological Pathology

    1996-08-01

    We studied 21 cases of pathologically confirmed tumefactive demyelinating lesions and reviewed the spectrum of tumefactive demyelinating lesions in the literature. Radiological features and clinical data were reviewed to characterize the lesions as consistent with a known demyelinating disease, most notably multiple sclerosis. Atypical clinical or radiological features (other than tumefaction) were noted. Most lesions were part of a clinical and/or radiological picture consistent with multiple sclerosis. No case strongly suggestive of variants or related diseases, such as Schilder`s disease or Balo`s concentric sclerosis, were found. There was one case suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Features which help distinguish the lesions from tumour are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating between benign and malignant vertebral lesions: role of diffusion-weighted imaging, in-phase/opposed-phase imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel Villagrán, J; Bueno Horcajadas, Á; Pérez Fernández, E; Martín Martín, S

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ability of MRI to distinguish between benign and malignant vertebral lesions. We included 85 patients and studied a total of 213 vertebrae (both pathologic and normal). For each vertebra, we determined whether the lesion was hypointense in T1-weighted sequences and whether it was hyperintense in STIR and in diffusion-weighted sequences. We calculated the in-phase/out-of-phase quotient and the apparent diffusion coefficient for each vertebra. We combined parameters from T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and STIR sequences to devise a formula to distinguish benign from malignant lesions. The group comprised 60 (70.6%) women and 25 (29.4%) men with a mean age of 67±13.5 years (range, 33-90 y). Of the 85 patients, 26 (30.6%) had a known primary tumor. When the lesion was hypointense on T1-weighted sequences, hyperintense on STIR and diffusion-weighted sequences, and had a signal intensity quotient greater than 0.8, the sensitivity was 97.2%, the specificity was 90%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 91.2%. If the patient had a known primary tumor, these values increased to 97.2%, 99.4%, and 99%, respectively. Benign lesions can be distinguished from malignant lesions if we combine the information from T1-weighted, STIR, and diffusion-weighted sequences together with the in-phase/out-of-phase quotient of the lesion detected in the vertebral body on MRI. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Von Recklinghausen disease and hepatic neurofibromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Toro, F; Hinestroza, D; Colmenares, D

    1995-01-01

    Von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis is one of the most common autosomal dominant disease with an estimated frecuency of 1:3000 live births. Characteristic lesions include cafe-au-lait spots and neurofibromas following the path of peripheral nerves. Liver involvement by neurofibromatosis is rare and very few cases have been reported. We present a case of a young man with Von Recklinhausen's disease and hepatic neurofibromatosis with multiple caf-au-lait spots, cutaneous neurofibromas, short stature and osseous lesions and compare the clinical, radiological, surgical and anatomopathological findings with others describe previously in the literature.

  1. A brainstem inflammatory lesion causing REM sleep behavior disorder and sleepwalking (parasomnia overlap disorder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Nadège; Dehais, Caroline; Gout, Olivier; Héran, Françoise; Oudiette, Delphine; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2009-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman with no prior parasomnia developed an acute inflammatory rhombencephalitis with multiple cranial nerve palsies and cerebellar ataxia, followed by myelitis 6 months later, and by an intracranial thrombophlebitis 1 month after. Between and after these episodes, she had a persistent, mild right internuclear ophtalmoplegia, a mild cerebellar ataxia, and a severe REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) lasting for 2 years. She talked, sang and moved nightly while asleep, and injured her son (cosleeping with her) while asleep. In addition, she walked asleep nightly. During video-polysomnography, there were two arousals during slow wave sleep without abnormal behavior, while 44% of REM sleep was without chin muscle atonia with bilateral arm and leg movements. There were small hypointensities in the right pontine tegmentum and in the right dorsal medulla on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, suggesting post-inflammatory lesions that persisted between acute episodes. The RBD and sleepwalking did not improve with clonazepam, but improved with melatonin 9 mg/d. The unilateral small lesion of the pontine tegmentum could be responsible for the parasomnia overlap disorder as in other rare lesional cases.

  2. Giant simple hepatic cyst: a case report and review of relevant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large cysts can produce atrophy of the adjacent hepatic tissue while huge cysts can ... ble mass lesion measuring 24cm x 20cm and extending below the umbilicus. ... epithelium resembling biliary duct epithelium and re- ported as simple ...

  3. Anetoderma occurring after hepatitis B vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Marta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anetoderma is an elastolytic disorder of unknown origin. To our knowledge, anetoderma secondary to hepatitis B immunization has been described only once in the literature, in two siblings vaccinated at the same time. We describe, what we believe to be an additional case of such a rare disorder in a 21-year-old man. He presented with white spots and papules on his neck, upper limbs, and trunk, that had developed gradually within the last 6 years without any symptoms. The initial lesions were red macules, which gradually enlarged in size and number, becoming pale. Biopsy of a sack-like lesion revealed normal epidermis, and a discrete mononuclear infiltrate throughout the dermis. Association of anetoderma with hepatitis B vaccination is speculated here, as suggested by history of vaccination two weeks prior to the onset of skin eruption, and ruling out other possible causes of anetoderma.

  4. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  5. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  6. Hepatic Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Duerksen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR is a clinical syndrome of the elderly characterized by malaise, proximal muscle aching and stiffness, low grade fever, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rare and the frequent association with temporal giant cell arteritis. The authors describe a case of PMR associated with hepatic giant cell arteritis. This lesion has been described in two other clinical reports. The distribution of the arteritis may be patchy; in this report, diagnosis was made with a wedge biopsy performed after an initial nonspecific percutaneous liver biopsy. The authors review the spectrum of liver involvement in PMR and giant cell arteritis. Hepatic abnormalities respond to systemic corticosteroids, and patients with hepatic arteritis have a good prognosis.

  7. Hepatic hemangiosarcoma: imaging findings and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademaker, J.; Galanski, M. [Department of Radiology I, Medical School Hannover (Germany); Widjaja, A. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical School Hannover (Germany)

    2000-01-01

    Primary hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the liver that usually presents with nonspecific symptoms in elderly men. We present four cases of hepatic hemangiosarcoma and discuss the imaging characteristics of this entity. Our series shows that this tumor is not uncommon in younger patients with no associated risk factors such as previous exposure to thorotrast or vinyl chloride. Our experiences on a limited number of patients suggests that the combined use of angiography and dual-phase helical CT provides a better identification of the tumor and its complications. Analysis of imaging studies in patients with hepatic hemangiosarcoma reveals hypervascular lesions. Common complications were portal vein thrombosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, as well as arterio-venous or arterio-portal shunts. Due to the vascularity of the tumor, percutaneous liver biopsy is hazardous. (orig.)

  8. Hepatic Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica

    OpenAIRE

    Duerksen, Donald R; Jewell, Laurence D.; Bain, Vincent G

    1994-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a clinical syndrome of the elderly characterized by malaise, proximal muscle aching and stiffness, low grade fever, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rare and the frequent association with temporal giant cell arteritis. The authors describe a case of PMR associated with hepatic giant cell arteritis. This lesion has been described in two other clinical reports. The distribution of the arteritis may be patchy; in this report, diagnosis was made with a wedge biop...

  9. Multiple cerebral cavernous malformations: typical pattern on MR imaging and appearance of a new lesion in the follow-up MRI; Multiple zerebrale kavernoese Angiome - Klassischer MRT-Befund mit Nachweis einer de-novo Gefaessmalformation im Verlauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, J.; Bewermeyer, H. [Neurologische Klinik, Kliniken der Stadt Koeln, Krankenhaus Merheim (Germany); Knitelius, H.O. [Radiologische Klinik, Kliniken der Stadt Koeln, Krankenhaus Merheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are common, mostly benign vascular anomalies of the CNS. Clinical features are seizures, headache and focal neurological signs. Often they are asymptomatic. Apart from sporadically cases CCM occur as an autosomal dominant condition. Familial cases are associated with a high frequency of multiple lesions. MRI is most sensitive in the detection of cavernous malformations. The MRI findings of CCM are variable, depending on hemorrhage and calcifications. The typical appearance of CCM are heterogenous ''popcorn-like'' lesions of different size with a mixed signal core and a hypointense hemosiderin rim. Our report concerns a 22 year old man with multiple cerebral cavernous malformations whose follow-up MRI of brain showed the appearance of a new lesion. (orig.)

  10. An unusual cause of acute pulmonary embolism: giant hepatic hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Duygu Hatice Duygu Bas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are the most common benign hepatic tumors and are usually asymptomatic. Lesions measuring more than 4 cm in diameter are known as “giant hemangiomas” and may cause various symptoms or complications depending on the size, the location, and the degree of compression of adjacent structures. Pulmonary embolism is a very rare complication of giant hepatic hemangiomas. In this case report, we describe a patient with acute pulmonary emboli, which presumably originated from laminar thrombi in the inferior vena cava caused by compression by giant hepatic hemangiomas.

  11. Hepatic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient affected by AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Lv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor characterized by spindle cells and angiomatoid structures. Hepatic KS is rarely reported in living patients, while autopsies show liver involvement in 35% of patients with KS. The characteristic findings on imaging are: 1 multiple nodules located mainly along the periportal area, intrahepatic bile ducts and peripheral branches of the portal vein; 2 delayed contrast enhancement, or sometimes enhanced in the type of hepatic hemangioma; 3 dilated intrahepatic bile ducts; 4 enlarged lymph nodes in the retroperitoneal region; 5 multifocal lesions in various organs. Those findings are considered indicative of hepatic KS.

  12. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  13. The Role Of Fibroscan In Detecting Hepatic Fibrosis Induced By Methotrexate

    OpenAIRE

    Iliescu Madalina; Craciun R. L.; Stavar Angelica Nela

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Liver represents the main place of drug metabolisation. Drugs and toxic substances reach the level of liver after absorption at gastro-intestinal level. Drug hepatotoxicity represents an important chapter of iatrogenic pathology, because the hepatic lesions induced by drugs include extremely diverse clinical, biological and histological expressions that can take the aspect of any form of acute or chronic hepatobiliary disease. Hepatic lesions induced by drugs (LHIM) represent a ...

  14. Lichen planus secondary to hepatitis B vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Akhilesh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The association of lichen planus (LP with liver diseases is now well established. Recent reports suggest that the hepatitis viruses may play a central role in this association. Lichen planus following hepatitis B vaccination is much more unusual. A 19-year-old previously healthy male developed itchy violaceous papules and plaques over the upper extremities eight to ten days after the first injection of hepatitis B vaccine. He developed similar lesions over the upper trunk, neck and lower leg after the second and third injections. A skin biopsy showed a lichenoid tissue reaction. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF showed multiple colloid bodies and a strong continuous ragged basement membrane zone (BMZ band with fibrinogen. HbsAg by ELISA and anti-HCV antibodies were negative. The patient was treated with oral steroids and the lesions improved. LP is a pruritic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown origin. An increased prevalence of liver disease in patient with LP has been reported. Since the first case reported by Rebora in 1990, about 15 cases of LP occurring after hepatitis B vaccination have been reported in the literature irrespective of the type of vaccine used.

  15. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  16. Urticaria and Periorbital Edema as Prodromal Presenting Signs of Acute Hepatitis B Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalsburg, Rob; de Pagter, Anne P. J.; van Genderen, Perry J.

    2011-01-01

    A 34-year-old patient presented with giant, transient urticarial skin lesions and periorbital edema after a 3-month stay in DR Congo. Retrospective analysis of stored samples revealed that these signs were prodromal manifestations of acute hepatitis B infection. The hepatitis B infection was

  17. Uterine vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management.

  18. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  19. Hepatitis A - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attends day care: Make sure the children and staff at the day care center have had their hepatitis A vaccine. Inspect the area where diapers are changed to ensure that proper hygiene is followed. If your child gets hepatitis A, ...

  20. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  1. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  2. A rare diagnosis of a focal liver lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Del Prato

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Splenosis can be considered as a benign condition due to the presence of heterotopic splenic tissue in abdomen, thorax and pelvis because of a massive splenic trauma or surgery. Here we report the case of a patient with an unknown hepatic mass, chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and a previous splenectomy after abdominal trauma. In our case lesion could not be clearly defined by ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. Classical features of malignancy were not demonstrated at computed tomography, while at magnetic resonance imaging the differential diagnosis of the lesion appeared quite difficult and debate. Then an ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated the liver mass in left hepatic lobe consisted of splenic tissue and some millimetric accessory spleens in the left upper quadrant. So the possibility of an intra-hepatic splenosis should be taken into account in patients with an unknown liver mass and a history of previous abdominal trauma, followed by splenectomy. The conclusive diagnosis of intra-hepatic splenosis was given by ultrasound-guided biopsy.

  3. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  4. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  5. Know More Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death. In fact, Hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver cancer and the #1 cause of liver transplants. Many people can get lifesaving care and treatment. Knowing you have Hepatitis C can help you make important decisions about your health. Successful treatments can eliminate the ... “Hepatitis C: Did You Know?” Watch this video ...

  6. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a ...

  7. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are infected never get rid of the hepatitis B virus. This is called chronic infection. These people keep the virus for the rest of their lives. They are known as carriers . Most carriers do not have ... and early death. Can hepatitis B virus infection be cured? There is no ...

  8. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an increasing public health concern. The most widely used

  9. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  10. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  11. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: a rare cystic liver lesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    right upper quadrant pain. The pain fluctuated in severity and was controlled with oral analgesic medication. There was no associated jaundice, rigors or weight loss. Apart from minimal right upper quadrant tenderness, examination was unremarkable. Full blood count, liver and renal function tests and clotting profile were ...

  12. [Natural history and clinical manifestations of chronic hepatitis B virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro de Moura, Miguel; Marinho, Rui

    2008-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. In the last few decades, major advances have been achieved that have contributed to greater understanding of the natural history and clinical manifestations of this infection. The fluctuation between viral replication and the host's immune response has implications in the pathogenesis and progression of the hepatic lesion. In immunocompetent adults, most HBV infections resolve spontaneously in contrast with progression to chronic infection in most infants. Patients with chronic hepatitis due to HBV or chronic hepatitis B can present at four phases: 1) the immune tolerance phase, 2) HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B, 3) inactive HBsAg carrier state, and 4) HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis. HBeAg-positive or -negative chronic hepatitis can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Progression to these complications is more frequent in HBeAg-negative forms, associated with mutations that affect the pre-core region and maintain active viral replication. Risk factors are HBV-DNA positive serum levels, an increase in serum transaminase levels and some genotypes. These factors highlight the need to evaluate and monitor all HBV carriers to identify those who could benefit from early antiviral treatment, thus avoiding progression to more advanced forms of liver disease. These measures could improve prevention and treatment of hepatitis B.

  13. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  14. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic findings of hepatic paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Ling, Wen-Wu; Ma, Lin; Huang, Zi-Xing; Lu, Chang-Li; Luo, Yan

    2013-04-07

    To investigate the features of hepatic paragonimiasis on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. Fifteen patients with hepatic paragonimiasis who were admitted to our hospital between March 2008 and August 2012 were enrolled to this study. The conventional ultrasound and CEUS examinations were performed with a Philips IU22 scanner with a 1-5-MHz convex transducer. After conventional ultrasound scanning was completed, the CEUS study was performed. Pulse inversion harmonic imaging was used for CEUS. A bolus injection of 2.4 mL of a sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue) was administered. CEUS features were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with pathological findings. In total, 16 lesions were detected on CEUS. The mean size of the lesions was 4.4 ± 1.6 cm (range, 1.7-6.6 cm). Subcapsular location was found in 12 lesions (75%). All the lesions were hypoechoic. Six lesions (37.5%) were of mixed content, seven (43.8%) were solid with small cystic areas, and the other three (18.8%) were completely solid. Ten lesions (62.5%) were rim enhanced with irregular tract-like nonenhanced internal areas. Transient wedge-shaped hyperenhancement of the surrounding liver parenchyma was seen in seven lesions (43.8%). Areas with hyper- or iso-enhancement in the arterial phase showed contrast wash-out and appeared hypoenhanced in the late phase. The main pathological findings included: (1) coagulative or liquefactive necrosis within the lesion, infiltration of a large number of eosinophils with the formation of chronic eosinophilic abscesses and sporadic distribution of Charcot-Leyden crystals; and (2) hyperplasia of granulomatous and fibrous tissue around the lesion. Subcapsular location, hypoechogenicity, rim enhancement and tract-like nonenhanced areas could be seen as the main CEUS features of hepatic paragonimiasis.

  16. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic findings of hepatic paragonimiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Ling, Wen-Wu; Ma, Lin; Huang, Zi-Xing; Lu, Chang-Li; Luo, Yan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the features of hepatic paragonimiasis on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. METHODS: Fifteen patients with hepatic paragonimiasis who were admitted to our hospital between March 2008 and August 2012 were enrolled to this study. The conventional ultrasound and CEUS examinations were performed with a Philips IU22 scanner with a 1-5-MHz convex transducer. After conventional ultrasound scanning was completed, the CEUS study was performed. Pulse inversion harmonic imaging was used for CEUS. A bolus injection of 2.4 mL of a sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue) was administered. CEUS features were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with pathological findings. RESULTS: In total, 16 lesions were detected on CEUS. The mean size of the lesions was 4.4 ± 1.6 cm (range, 1.7-6.6 cm). Subcapsular location was found in 12 lesions (75%). All the lesions were hypoechoic. Six lesions (37.5%) were of mixed content, seven (43.8%) were solid with small cystic areas, and the other three (18.8%) were completely solid. Ten lesions (62.5%) were rim enhanced with irregular tract-like nonenhanced internal areas. Transient wedge-shaped hyperenhancement of the surrounding liver parenchyma was seen in seven lesions (43.8%). Areas with hyper- or iso-enhancement in the arterial phase showed contrast wash-out and appeared hypoenhanced in the late phase. The main pathological findings included: (1) coagulative or liquefactive necrosis within the lesion, infiltration of a large number of eosinophils with the formation of chronic eosinophilic abscesses and sporadic distribution of Charcot-Leyden crystals; and (2) hyperplasia of granulomatous and fibrous tissue around the lesion. CONCLUSION: Subcapsular location, hypoechogenicity, rim enhancement and tract-like nonenhanced areas could be seen as the main CEUS features of hepatic paragonimiasis. PMID:23599629

  17. Solitary perihepatic splenosis mimicking liver lesion: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Binhao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiaoping

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic splenosis, one type of manifestation of ectopic spleen tissue, is rarely reported. It cannot be distinguished from hepatic malignancies because of lack of significant radiological features. By means of this case report and 31 literature reviews, potential treatment modalities concerning clinical diagnostics, patient's management could be discussed.The report presents the case of a 33-year-old man with a liver lesion. Finally, after a mini-incision laparotomy, the lesion was resected and the diagnosis confirmed it as hepatic splenosis. A literature search for case reports published between January 1, 1900, and August 1, 2014, was performed on PubMed.Approximately 80% (27/34) of patients diagnosed with hepatic splenosis had a history of splenectomy. The mean time interval between splenectomy and hepatic splenosis detection was 25 (1.5-47) years. The median size of reported hepatic splenosis is 30  mm in diameter. Technetium-99m-labeled heat denatured red-blood-cells scintigraphy or superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is now considered to be the optimal method of diagnosing splenosis.Hepatic splenosis requires no treatment in most cases. Operation should be performed if it is accompanied by hypersplenism in hematological diseases. When the diagnosis remains unclear, further biopsy or laparoscopy is recommended. If hepatic splenosis is confirmed, careful follow-up is beneficial.

  18. Nodular hepatic and splenic sarcoidosis in a patient with a normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most patients with sarcoidosis usually have an abnormal chest radiograph, while nodular lesions of both the liver and the spleen is an unusual manifestation of sarcoidosis.We report a patient with multiple nodular hepatic and splenic hypodense lesions with an unremarkable chest x-ray, and biopsy of the liver revealed ...

  19. Hepatic sarcoidosis: a case series | Ennaifer | Pan African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatomegaly was observed in all patients as well as abnormal serum liver function test reflected by anicteric cholestasis. Liver biopsy, showed in all granulomatous lesions consistent with sarcoidosis and severe fibrosis in 2 cases. Extra-hepatic manifestations were present in all patients represented mainly by pulmonary ...

  20. Hepatic pathologies in the brackish water catfish ( Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observed pathologies included hydropic degeneration (58%), portal/sinusoidal congestion (33%), hepatic necrosis (26%), hemosiderosis (12%) and foci of cellular alterations (FCA's). No obvious oncologic features were observed; the presence of the hydropic vacuolation lesion was taken as prelude to the development of ...

  1. In vivo T2* weighted MRI visualizes cardiac lesions in murine models of acute and chronic viral myocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Helluy

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic forms of myocarditis are mainly induced by virus infections. As a consequence of myocardial damage and inflammation dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic heart failure may develop. The gold standard for the diagnosis of myocarditis is endomyocardial biopsies which are required to determine the etiopathogenesis of cardiac inflammatory processes. However, new non-invasive MRI techniques hold great potential in visualizing cardiac non-ischemic inflammatory lesions at high spatial resolution, which could improve the investigation of the pathophysiology of viral myocarditis.Here we present the discovery of a novel endogenous T2* MRI contrast of myocardial lesions in murine models of acute and chronic CVB3 myocarditis. The evaluation of infected hearts ex vivo and in vivo by 3D T2w and T2*w MRI allowed direct localization of virus-induced myocardial lesions without any MRI tracer or contrast agent. T2*w weighted MRI is able to detect both small cardiac lesions of acute myocarditis and larger necrotic areas at later stages of chronic myocarditis, which was confirmed by spatial correlation of MRI hypointensity in myocardium with myocardial lesions histologically. Additional in vivo and ex vivo MRI analysis proved that the contrast mechanism was due to a strong paramagnetic tissue alteration in the vicinity of myocardial lesions, effectively pointing towards iron deposits as the primary contributor of contrast. The evaluation of the biological origin of the MR contrast by specific histological staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that impaired iron metabolism primarily in mitochondria caused iron deposits within necrotic myocytes, which induces strong magnetic susceptibility in myocardial lesions and results in strong T2* contrast.This T2*w MRI technique provides a fast and sensitive diagnostic tool to determine the patterns and the severity of acute and chronic enteroviral myocarditis and the precise localization of

  2. Hepatic tuberculosis mimicking metastasis in a case of carcinoma sigmoid colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musharraf Husain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB presenting as isolated liver mass without clinical evidence of TB is difficult to diagnose preoperatively and is usually mimicked by primary or metastatic carcinoma of the liver. Hepatic TB associated with carcinoma colon is a rare association which has very rarely been reported in the literature. This case illustrates the diagnostic difficulties of hepatic TB and the need to consider it in the differential diagnosis of hepatic nodular lesions in carcinoma colon patients. Here, we report a case of 48-year-old female who presented in the casualty with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Preoperatively a mass was seen at the hepatic flexure along with three lesions in the liver presumed to be metastatic in origin. However, histopathology of the mass revealed adenocarcinoma colon and the liver lesion proved to be hepatic TB. We wish to highlight that on encountering a hepatic lesion in a carcinoma colon patient the possibility of hepatic TB should also be kept in mind apart from the obvious possibility of metastasis especially in an endemic country like India.

  3. Tracking the Evolution of Cerebral Gadolinium-Enhancing Lesions to Persistent T1 Black Holes in Multiple Sclerosis: Validation of a Semiautomated Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermatt, Simon; Papadopoulou, Athina; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Sprenger, Till; Cattin, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Some gadolinium-enhancing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions remain T1-hypointense over months ("persistent black holes, BHs") and represent areas of pronounced tissue loss. A reduced conversion of enhancing lesions to persistent BHs could suggest a favorable effect of a medication on tissue repair. However, the individual tracking of enhancing lesions can be very time-consuming in large clinical trials. We created a semiautomated workflow for tracking the evolution of individual MS lesions, to calculate the proportion of enhancing lesions becoming persistent BHs at follow-up. Our workflow automatically coregisters, compares, and detects overlaps between lesion masks at different time points. We tested the algorithm in a data set of Magnetic Resonance images (1.5 and 3T; spin-echo T1-sequences) from a phase 3 clinical trial (n = 1,272), in which all enhancing lesions and all BHs had been previously segmented at baseline and year 2. The algorithm analyzed the segmentation masks in a longitudinal fashion to determine which enhancing lesions at baseline turned into BHs at year 2. Images of 50 patients (192 enhancing lesions) were also reviewed by an experienced MRI rater, blinded to the algorithm results. In this MRI data set, there were no cases that could not be processed by the algorithm. At year 2, 417 lesions were classified as persistent BHs (417/1,613 = 25.9%). The agreement between the rater and the algorithm was > 98%. Due to the semiautomated procedure, this algorithm can be of great value in the analysis of large clinical trials, when a rater-based analysis would be time-consuming. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  4. Fever of Unknown Origin Caused by Giant Hepatic Hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Yang, Zhiying; Tan, Haidong; Zhou, Wenying; Su, Yunchao

    2017-08-07

    A 33-year-old man had fever for 2 months. He was admitted by the physician with the suspicion of pneumonia. However, both chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) showed no abnormality. Tuberculosis and hematological and autoimmune diseases were all excluded. A giant hepatic lesion (20 cm) was detected by ultrasonography with the diagnosis of hemangioma. Contrast enhanced CT scan was conducted and hepatic hemangioma was confirmed. Some areas of the hepatic lesion had lower density compared to surrounding tissues and necrosis of the tumor was suspected. Right trisectionectomy was then performed and the symptom of fever disappeared after the operation. No bacteria grew in the culture of the necrosis tissue. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of hemangioma and the necrosis. He was followed up for 5 months and no fever occurred.

  5. Association of Oral Lichen Planus with Chronic C Hepatitis. Review of the Data in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHEORGHE, Carmen; MIHAI, Lelia; PARLATESCU, Ioanina; TOVARU, Serban

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) and oral lichen planus (OLP) is a current topic in the field of oral medicine. Many studies of this association have been made over time. The geographic variation of the hepatitis C prevalence proved to be an important factor influencing the statistical results of the studies analyzing the association of the oral plan lichen with the hepatitis C virus. Approaching this issue is not to be neglected. Treatment outcomes in patients with oral lichen planus associated with chronic hepatitis C virus are often unsatisfactory compared to patients suffering from idiopathic oral lichen planus. Also, the evolution of oral lesions is often fluctuating, with repeated periods of relapse according to the degree of liver function decompensation. Background therapy for liver disease itself may influence lichen planus lesions. Thus, during therapy with interferon and ribavirin oral lesions may appear or become acute. PMID:25553136

  6. Gram stain of skin lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin lesion gram stain ... skin sore. This procedure is called a skin lesion biopsy . Before the biopsy, your provider will numb ... means bacteria have been found in the skin lesion. Further tests are needed to confirm the results. ...

  7. Acute periodontal lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Gonzalez, David; Alonso Álvarez, Bettina; Arriba de la Fuente, Lorenzo; Santa- Cruz Astorqui, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz Alonso, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    This is a review and update on acute conditions affecting the gingival tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases, and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious process not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, muco-cutanenous disorders, and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important since it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodo...

  8. Traditional lesion detection aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, K W; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Lesion detection aids ideally aim at increasing the sensitivity of visual caries detection without trading off too much in terms of specificity. The use of a dental probe (explorer), bitewing radiography and fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI) have long been recommended for this purpose. Today, probing of suspected lesions in the sense of checking the 'stickiness' is regarded as obsolete, since it achieves no gain of sensitivity and might cause irreversible tooth damage. Bitewing radiography helps to detect lesions that are otherwise hidden from visual examination, and it should therefore be applied to a new patient. The diagnostic performance of radiography at approximal and occlusal sites is different, as this relates to the 3-dimensional anatomy of the tooth at these sites. However, treatment decisions have to take more into account than just lesion extension. Bitewing radiography provides additional information for the decision-making process that mainly relies on the visual and clinical findings. FOTI is a quick and inexpensive method which can enhance visual examination of all tooth surfaces. Both radiography and FOTI can improve the sensitivity of caries detection, but require sufficient training and experience to interpret information correctly. Radiography also carries the burden of the risks and legislation associated with using ionizing radiation in a health setting and should be repeated at intervals guided by the individual patient's caries risk. Lesion detection aids can assist in the longitudinal monitoring of the behaviour of initial lesions. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Oral lesions in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprotic oral lesions are more common in the lepromatous form of leprosy, indicate a late manifestation, and have a great epidemiological importance as a source of infection. METHODS: Patients with leprosy were examined searching for oral lesions. Biopsies of the left buccal mucosa in all patients, and of oral lesions, were performed and were stained with H&E and Wade. RESULTS: Oral lesions were found in 26 patients, 11 lepromatous leprosy, 14 borderline leprosy, and one tuberculoid leprosy. Clinically 5 patients had enanthem of the anterior pillars, 3 of the uvula and 3 of the palate. Two had palatal infiltration. Viable bacilli were found in two lepromatous patients. Biopsies of the buccal mucosa showed no change or a nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate. Oral clinical alterations were present in 69% of the patients; of these 50% showed histopathological features in an area without any lesion. DISCUSSION: Our clinical and histopathological findings corroborate earlier reports that there is a reduced incidence of oral changes, which is probably due to early treatment. The maintenance of oral infection in this area can also lead to and maintain lepra reactions, while they may also act as possible infection sources. Attention should be given to oral disease in leprosy because detection and treatment of oral lesions can prevent the spread of the disease.

  10. Hepatic sarcoidosis complicating treatment-naive viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Gelson, William; Limbu, Anita; Brais, Rebecca; Richardson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic but rarely leads to adverse liver-related outcome. Co-existence of viral hepatitis and hepatic sarcoidosis is a rare, but recognised phenomenon. Obtaining a balance between immune suppression and anti-viral therapy may be problematic. Immunosuppression in the presence of viral hepatitis can lead to rapid deterioration of liver disease. Similarly, anti-viral therapy may exacerbate granulomatous hepatitis. Here we present two cases of viral hepatitis ...

  11. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting for Hepatic Vessel Stenosis after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Yuan; Wu, Yi-Ju; Lin, Tung-Chao; Shen, Thau-Yun; Yang, Ho-Pang; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Fu-Chung

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of vascular intervention in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for the treatment of hepatic artery and hepatic vein stenosis after liver transplantation (LT), including thrombotic total occluded lesions. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty after orthotopic liver transplantation was performed to re-open hepatic vessel lesions. We daily used routine Doppler ultrasound during admission for early detection of graft hepatic vessel lesions, including hepatic artery and vein lesions. In outpatients, Doppler ultrasound was performed every month. Urokinase was delivered with a dose of 150,000-300,000 IU by catheter before PTA for thrombotic total occlusion of the graft for hepatic artery patients. Laboratory data were collected to evaluate the effects of the PTA procedure. The study involved a total of seven patients, six of whom were successfully treated by a first PTA procedure. Thrombolysis use of urokinase in totally occluded donor hepatic arteries post-LT following stenting was successful in three patients. One complication occurred, an arterial dissection and perforation, finalizing the success rate at ~86% and the complication rate at ~14%. Therefore, our study has a primary patency rate of 100% at 1 and 3 months. Also, the graft survival rate was 100 % and 86 % in the first and third months, respectively. PTA with stenting is an effective treatment for hepatic vessel stenosis, including hepatic arteries and hepatic veins, after a liver transplantation without an increase in the complication rate. In addition, thrombolysis using urokinase intra-artery infusion in graft thrombotic total occluded patients is a good treatment strategy as well. Angioplasty; Complication; Liver transplantation.

  12. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting for Hepatic Vessel Stenosis after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Yuan; Wu, Yi-Ju; Lin, Tung-Chao; Shen, Thau-Yun; Yang, Ho-Pang; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Fu-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of vascular intervention in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for the treatment of hepatic artery and hepatic vein stenosis after liver transplantation (LT), including thrombotic total occluded lesions. Methods Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty after orthotopic liver transplantation was performed to re-open hepatic vessel lesions. We daily used routine Doppler ultrasound during admission for early detection of graft hepatic vessel lesions, including hepatic artery and vein lesions. In outpatients, Doppler ultrasound was performed every month. Urokinase was delivered with a dose of 150,000-300,000 IU by catheter before PTA for thrombotic total occlusion of the graft for hepatic artery patients. Laboratory data were collected to evaluate the effects of the PTA procedure. Results The study involved a total of seven patients, six of whom were successfully treated by a first PTA procedure. Thrombolysis use of urokinase in totally occluded donor hepatic arteries post-LT following stenting was successful in three patients. One complication occurred, an arterial dissection and perforation, finalizing the success rate at ~86% and the complication rate at ~14%. Therefore, our study has a primary patency rate of 100% at 1 and 3 months. Also, the graft survival rate was 100 % and 86 % in the first and third months, respectively. Conclusions PTA with stenting is an effective treatment for hepatic vessel stenosis, including hepatic arteries and hepatic veins, after a liver transplantation without an increase in the complication rate. In addition, thrombolysis using urokinase intra-artery infusion in graft thrombotic total occluded patients is a good treatment strategy as well. PMID:27122863

  13. Autophagy in Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic fibrosis is usually associated with chronic liver diseases caused by infection, drugs, metabolic disorders, or autoimmune imbalances. Effective clinical therapies are still lacking. Autophagy is a cellular process that degrades damaged organelles or protein aggregation, which participates in many pathological processes including liver diseases. Autophagy participates in hepatic fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells and may participate as well through influencing other fibrogenic cells. Besides that, autophagy can induce some liver diseases to develop while it may play a protective role in hepatocellular abnormal aggregates related liver diseases and reduces fibrosis. With a better understanding of the potential effects of autophagy on hepatic fibrosis, targeting autophagy might be a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis in the near future.

  14. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  15. Is liver biopsy mandatory in children with chronic hepatitis C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Raffaele; Verrico, Antonio; Giannattasio, Antonietta

    2007-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the most accurate means to estimate the necroinflammatory activity and the extent of fibrosis. However, histology evaluation is an invasive procedure associated with risk to the patient, risk of sampling error and diagnostic inconsistencies due to inter- and intra-observer error. On the basis of histological studies performed so far, chronic hepatitis C in children appears morphologically benign in the majority of cases. At the Pediatric Liver Unit of our university, a total of 67 children with chronic hepatitis C underwent liver biopsy. Liver biopsy was repeated 5.5 years after the initial histological evaluation in 21 children. On a total number of 88 liver biopsies, micronodular cirrhosis was detected only in one genotype 1b-infected obese child. Since liver histology investigation of a child with chronic hepatitis C has few chances to highlight severe lesions, we question how liver biopsy helps in the management of children with chronic hepatitis C. PMID:17663524

  16. Percutaneous CT-Guided Ablation in the Hepatic Dome: Artificially Induced Pneumothorax for Safe Transpleural Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Guedes Moreira Valle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ablative therapies have become a great alternative to surgical treatment of hepatic nodules. Some technical difficulties may negatively influence the effectiveness of this therapy, such as lesions located near the diaphragm. The transthoracic approach is commonly used to access these lesions. However, it is associated with an increased risk of complications, such as pneumothorax, hemothorax, alveolar bleeding, and others.We report a case of a radiofrequency ablation of a lesion in the hepatic dome, where an artificially induced pneumothorax was performed to guarantee a safe and effective access. The air was easily injected by a spinal needle and later aspirated by a single-lumen catheter. Induced pneumothorax shoud be considered in ablation of hepatic dome lesions, mainly when the transhepatic access is not appropriate.

  17. Computed tomography in the evaluation of hepatic hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, K.; Kumagai, M.; Hinosaka, T. (Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-05-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) was performed on 6 patients with hepatic hemangioma. Three patients had CT scans before and after an intravenous drip infusion of contrast medium. The other 3 patients had CT scans before and after an intravenous bolus injection of contrast medium. Scans were obtained at variable times extending to 45 minutes for these 3 patients. CT numbers were also obtained. 1) Hepatic hemangioma appears as a low density area on plain CT scan. 2) Scans show the lesion to be an isodense or high density area after a drip infusion of contrast medium. 3) Serial scans show early peripheral opacification of the lesion for several minutes after a bolus injection of contrast medium. 4) Scans examined at variable times up to 45 minutes after the injection demonstrated a progressive central enhancement of the lesion. 5) No side effects occurred after a bolus injection of contrast medium.

  18. Hepatitis E Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Levick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world. It is a waterborne virus that can cause epidemics in the face of overcrowding and poor sanitation. Although the hepatitis illness is usually self-limiting, it has a high mortality in pregnant women and can become a chronic infection in the immunosuppressed. Treatment is mostly supportive and prevention is by good water hygiene.

  19. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  20. Case report of hepatic artery dissection secondary to hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Chen, Kefei; Lu, Qiang; Ling, Wenwu; Luo, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm (HAP) and Hepatic artery dissection are rare vascular complications after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which may lead to graft loss and death of the recipients. Conventional gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound, as well as contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), play important roles in identifying vascular complications in the early postoperative period and during follow-up. We report a case of hepatic artery dissection secondary to HAP after LDLT, which was diagnosed and followed for one year by ultrasound. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have reported similar cases after liver transplantation in the English literature. A 43-year-old man underwent right-lobe LDLT for treatment of a severe acute hepatitis B infection and was followed up with ultrasound examinations for one year. Conventional gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound combined with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) accurately revealed the occurrence of HA dissection secondary to HAP and accompanied by thrombosis and collateral circulation, as well as secondary biliary complications, which provided a prompt diagnosis and guidance for the treatment. Our case suggests that ultrasound can help detect hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm and dissection, as well as secondary biliary lesions after LDLT in an accurate and timely manner and provide useful information for the treatment chosen. CEUS shows potential as an important complementary technique to gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound.

  1. Giant cavernous hemangioma coexistent with diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis presenting as portal vein thrombosis and hepatic lobar atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Bo Reum; Han, Hyun Young; Choi, So Young; Kim, Joo Heun [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    A combination of giant hepatic hemangioma and diffuse hemangiomatosis is extremely rare in adults. Even when they are large, hemangiomas are soft and rarely compress adjacent structures. A 78-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and distension. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large expansile mass replacing the medial segment and caudate lobe with diffusely scattered nodules in the entire liver. The large hilar mass contained a central nonenhancing area and had a mass effect, leading to left portal vein occlusion. The image findings also revealed two unprecedented findings: left lateral segmental atrophy of the liver and recent portomesenteric vein thrombosis. The hepatic lesions were confirmed with hemangiomas by ultrasonography-guided biopsy. We diagnosed intrahepatic portal vein obstruction caused by a mass effect of giant hepatic hemangioma coexistent with diffuse hemangiomatosis, resulting in hepatic segmental atrophy and extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis.

  2. Giant cavernous hemangioma coexistent with diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis presenting as portal vein thrombosis and hepatic lobar atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Reum Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A combination of giant hepatic hemangioma and diffuse hemangiomatosis is extremely rare in adults. Even when they are large, hemangiomas are soft and rarely compress adjacent structures. A 78-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and distension. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large expansile mass replacing the medial segment and caudate lobe with diffusely scattered nodules in the entire liver. The large hilar mass contained a central nonenhancing area and had a mass effect, leading to left portal vein occlusion. The image findings also revealed two unprecedented findings: left lateral segmental atrophy of the liver and recent portomesenteric vein thrombosis. The hepatic lesions were confirmed with hemangiomas by ultrasonography-guided biopsy. We diagnosed intrahepatic portal vein obstruction caused by a mass effect of giant hepatic hemangioma coexistent with diffuse hemangiomatosis, resulting in hepatic segmental atrophy and extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis.

  3. Giant cavernous hemangioma coexistent with diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis presenting as portal vein thrombosis and hepatic lobar atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A combination of giant hepatic hemangioma and diffuse hemangiomatosis is extremely rare in adults. Even when they are large, hemangiomas are soft and rarely compress adjacent structures. A 78-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and distension. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large expansile mass replacing the medial segment and caudate lobe with diffusely scattered nodules in the entire liver. The large hilar mass contained a central nonenhancing area and had a mass effect, leading to left portal vein occlusion. The image findings also revealed two unprecedented findings: left lateral segmental atrophy of the liver and recent portomesenteric vein thrombosis. The hepatic lesions were confirmed with hemangiomas by ultrasonography-guided biopsy. We diagnosed intrahepatic portal vein obstruction caused by a mass effect of giant hepatic hemangioma coexistent with diffuse hemangiomatosis, resulting in hepatic segmental atrophy and extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis. PMID:24936497

  4. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  5. Fulminant hepatitis due to human adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, B A; Agrwal, N; Carey, E J; De Petris, G; Kusne, S; Seville, M T; Blair, J E; Vikram, H R

    2014-02-01

    To describe the demographics, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of patients with human adenovirus (HAdV) hepatitis. A case of fulminant HAdV hepatitis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia receiving rituximab and fludarabine is described. We conducted a comprehensive review of the English-language literature through May, 2012 in search of definite cases of HAdV hepatitis. Eighty-nine cases were reviewed. Forty-three (48 %) were liver transplant recipients, 19 (21 %) were bone marrow transplant recipients, 11 (12 %) had received chemotherapy, five (6 %) had severe combined immunodeficiency, four (4 %) were HIV infected, two had heart transplantation, and two were kidney transplant recipients. Ninety percent (46/51) of patients presented within 6 months following transplantation. Fever was the most common initial symptom. Abdominal CT scan revealed hypodense lesions in eight of nine patients. Diagnosis was made by liver biopsy in 43 (48 %), and on autopsy in 46 (52 %). The HAdV was isolated at other sites in 54 cases. Only 24 of 89 patients (27 %) survived: 16 whose immunosuppression was reduced, six with liver re-transplantation, and two who received cidofovir and intravenous immunoglobulin. HAdV hepatitis can manifest as a fulminant illness in immunocompromised hosts. Definitive diagnosis requires liver biopsy. Early consideration of a viral etiology, reduction in immunosuppression, and liver transplantation can be potentially life-saving.

  6. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  7. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  8. Gene expression profiling of hepatitis B- and hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma using graphical Gaussian modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Teruyuki; Honda, Masao; Horimoto, Katsuhisa; Aburatani, Sachiyo; Saito, Shigeru; Yamashita, Taro; Sakai, Yoshio; Nakamura, Mikiko; Takatori, Hajime; Sunagozaka, Hajime; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2013-04-01

    Gene expression profiling of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and background liver has been studied extensively; however, the relationship between the gene expression profiles of different lesions has not been assessed. We examined the expression profiles of 34 HCC specimens (17 hepatitis B virus [HBV]-related and 17 hepatitis C virus [HCV]-related) and 71 non-tumor liver specimens (36 chronic hepatitis B [CH-B] and 35 chronic hepatitis C [CH-C]) using an in-house cDNA microarray consisting of liver-predominant genes. Graphical Gaussian modeling (GGM) was applied to elucidate the interactions of gene clusters among the HCC and non-tumor lesions. In CH-B-related HCC, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-family signaling and regulation of T cell differentiation, apoptosis, and survival, as well as development-related genes was up-regulated. In CH-C-related HCC, the expression of ectodermal development and cell proliferation, wnt receptor signaling, cell adhesion, and defense response genes was also up-regulated. Many of the metabolism-related genes were down-regulated in both CH-B- and CH-C-related HCC. GGM analysis of the HCC and non-tumor lesions revealed that DNA damage response genes were associated with AP1 signaling in non-tumor lesions, which mediates the expression of many genes in CH-B-related HCC. In contrast, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and phosphatase and tensin homolog were associated with early growth response protein 1 signaling in non-tumor lesions, which potentially promotes angiogenesis, fibrogenesis, and tumorigenesis in CH-C-related HCC. Gene expression profiling of HCC and non-tumor lesions revealed the predisposing changes of gene expression in HCC. This approach has potential for the early diagnosis and possible prevention of HCC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Giant infantile hepatic hemangioma: which therapeutic options?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Lobo, Luisa; Anjos, Rui; Salgueiro, Carlos; Lopes, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioma is the third most frequent liver tumor in children and the most common below 6 months of age. Therapeutic options depend on clinical manifestations and should be tailored on an individual patient basis. We present the case of a 4 year old boy with neonatal diagnosis of large vascularized liver tumor with imagiological criteria of infantile hepatic hemangioma. We highlight the occurrence of heart failure and Kasabach-Merrit syndrome (thrombocytopenia, anemia) that have spontaneously regressed. During follow up, sequential imaging (ultrasound with Doppler, magnetic resonance imaging, dynamic contrast enhancement computed tomography) confirmed the hypothesis of IHH, allowing vascular mapping of the lesion. From the first year on, we observed a favorable course with progressive tumor regression. In the present case, a conservative approach has been maintained, but the best therapeutic option remains unclear. We highlight the specific features of this case, discussing the most cost-effective approach.

  10. Surgical treatment of painful hepatic hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are the  most common hepatic benign lesions. They occur most frequently in young female patients. These tumors are generally found by  radiological imaging and, of such examinations, nuclear magnetic resonance is the best diagnostic method. Although highly frequent, it presents few symptoms. Most  cases are asymptomatic and thus must be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination. Surgical treatment should be restricted to unusual situations. Spontaneous or traumatic rupture, Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, uncertain diagnosis and pain have been the most common indications. The authors describe a successfully treated  case of painful hemangioma of the left hepatic lobe submitted to left hepatectomy.

  11. Suspected Acoustic Neuroma Demyelinating Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuming; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiejun; Wu, Qiang; Huang, Guodong; Li, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    Demyelinating lesions were recognized as a kind of rare central nervous system demyelinating lesion. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of demyelinating lesions is difficult. Once the diagnosis was delayed or incorrect, it will make a great impact on patients.Demyelinating lesions often involved in young and middle-aged, but this patient was the aged, which is rare.

  12. Laparoscopic resection of isolated hepatic splenosis mimicking liver tumors: case report with a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Liang, Yuelong; Liang, Xiao; Yu, Hong; Wang, Yifan; Cai, Xiujun

    2012-10-01

    Isolated hepatic splenosis is a rare condition in hepatobiliary surgery. In this study, we report a case of this condition managed by laparoscopic surgery. A 38-year-old male hepatitis B virus carrier, who had a motorcycle accident and splenectomy 14 years before the current incident, was hospitalized due to a hepatic mass. His laboratory tests were consistent with a hyposplenic state, whereas radiologic images revealed a benign tumor in the left liver lobe located in a site difficult to access with preoperative biopsy. Therefore, we performed a laparoscopic exploration and total resection, which revealed a bluish oval encapsulated nodule in the narrow gap between the diaphragm, falciform ligament, and left hepatic capsule. The pathologic diagnosis was hepatic splenosis. Unlike other patients with multiple intraperitoneal lesions and relatively normal splenism, this is the first case of isolated hepatic splenosis with evident hyposplenism managed by laparoscopic approach in the English literature.

  13. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  14. hy viral hepatitis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    randomized, controlled trial of interferon alfa-2b alone and after prednisone withdrawal for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The Hepatitis Interventional. Therapy Group. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 295-301. 14. Ncayiyana DJ. Coming to grips with the future of health care - the ANC National. Health Plan. 5 Air Med J 1994; ...

  15. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  16. Hepatitis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/hepatitis.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ List of All Topics All Hepatitis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for IV drug use or through unprotected sex. People who live in or travel to areas of the world where hepatitis B ... patients, people with chronic liver or kidney disease , people with ... drug treatment, and those who travel to countries where hepatitis B is common. Unless ...

  18. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis C virus can be spread when tattoo, body art, or piercing equipment has tiny amounts of blood on it. Many people get tattoos, piercings, or other marks ... if the Hepatitis C virus is still in the body. If this test is positive, it means a ...

  19. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  20. Serum Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Acute hepatitis is common in Nigeria and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major aetiological factor. However, the role of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is yet undetermined. Forty-five consecutive Nigerian patients with. Acute Icteric hepatitis (AIH) attending the Medical Clinic of the University College ...

  1. Mallory-Weiss lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, J.; Jensen, Lone Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Malory-Weiss syndrome (MW) has been known since 1929. Only few studies exist which focus on the prognosis of the lesion. No Danish MW data are available. The purpose of the study was to describe the demographics of patients admitted with an MW to a Danish surgical unit during a 5-year...

  2. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    where vision is affected, if the pterygium looks suspicious or if it is cosmetically unacceptable. Limbal dermoid (Fig. 6). A limbal dermoid is a congenital tumour that usually occurs at the inferotemporal limbus or globe. ... Such lesions may be multiple and appear in the caruncle or fornix. e sessile papilloma is more frequently ...

  3. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  4. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    or permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth...

  5. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  6. Hepatic Splenosis Preoperatively Diagnosed as Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis B: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gi-Hong; Ju, Man-Ki; Kim, June-Young; Kang, Chang-Moo; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Park, Mi-Suk; Park, Young-Nyun; Lee, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byong-Ro

    2008-01-01

    We report on a case of hepatic splenosis. A 32-yr-old man underwent a splenectomy due to trauma at the age of 6. He had been diagnosed as being a chronic hepatitis B-virus carrier 16 yr prior to the surgery. The dynamic computer tomography (CT) performed due to elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (128 ng/mL) demonstrated two hepatic nodules, which were located near the liver capsule. A nodule in Segment IVa had a slight enhancement during both the arterial and portal phases, and another nodule in Segment VI showed a slight enhancement only in the portal phases. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the mass in Segment VI showed enhanced development in the arterial phases and slight hyperintensivity to the liver parenchyma in the portal phases. These imaging findings suggested a hypervascular tumor in the liver, which could be either focal nodular hyperplasia, adenoma, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Even though these lesions were diagnosed as HCC, some of the findings were not compatible with typical HCC. On dynamic CT and MRI, all lesions showed a slight arterial enhancement and did not show early venous washout. All lesions were located near the liver capsule. These findings, along with a history of splenectomy, suggested a diagnosis of hepatic splenosis. PMID:18437023

  7. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  8. New developments in hepatitis C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink, H. W.; Bresters, D.; van der Poel, C. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Lelie, P. N.

    1992-01-01

    Since the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the 1960s and hepatitis A virus in the 1970s, a considerable proportion of infections of (probably viral) hepatitis could not be classified. About 90% of transfusion-related hepatitis was identified as non-A/non-B. In 1988 investigators from the

  9. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  10. Hepatic capillariasis in captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Martin; Tirado, Marcela; López, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    A female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and her two cubs held in a zoo in Chile exhibited signs of severe hepatic insufficiency. In spite of supportive treatment, the three animals died a few days after the onset of signs. Postmortem examination revealed ascites and fibrotic lesions in the liver of all the individuals. Histologically, the liver of two of them showed a severe parasitic ova infection and lipidosis, the morphologic characteristics of the parasitic ovas were consistent with Capillaria hepatica (syn. Calodium hepatica) eggs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical case report of hepatic capillariasis in prosimians, and its implications are discussed.

  11. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  12. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  13. Clonorchis sinensis antigens alter hepatic macrophage polarization in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Min Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis infection elicits hepatic inflammation, which can lead to cholangitis, periductal hepatic fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic macrophages are an intrinsic element of both innate and acquired immunity. This study was conducted to demonstrate the dynamics of hepatic macrophage polarization during C. sinensis infection in mice and to identify factors regulating this polarization. Treatment of hepatic macrophages isolated from normal mice with C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESPs resulted in the preferential generation of classically activated hepatic macrophages (M1 macrophages and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, cells stimulated with C. sinensis ESPs exhibited changes in cellular morphology. During the early stages of C. sinensis infection, hepatic macrophages preferentially differentiated into M1 macrophages; however, during the C. sinensis mature worm stage, when eggs are released, there were significant increases in the abundance of both M1 macrophages and alternatively activated hepatic macrophages (M2 macrophages. Moreover, there was a further increase in the M2 macrophage count during the fibrotic and cirrhotic stage of infection. Notably, this fibrotic and cirrhotic stage promoted a strong increase in the proportion of Arg-1-producing macrophages (M2 phenotype, which were associated with fibrosis and tissue repair in the liver. Our results suggest that the dynamic polarization of hepatic macrophages as C. sinensis infection progresses is related to the histological lesions present in liver tissue. Hepatic macrophages thus play an important role in local immunity during C. sinensis infection.

  14. Experimental study on the rim-enhancing lesion of rabbit brain abscess : MR imaging and histopathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Sang Pyo; Joo, Yang Goo; Zeon, Seok Kil; Woo, Seong Ku [Keimyung Univ. School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate on the basis of histopathologic carrelation the MR findings of mature brain abscess in the rabbit, with particular attention to rim-enhancing lesions. The evolution of abscess formation was obtained by the direct inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus into the gray-white matter junctions of the brains of 16 rabbits. The stages of brain abscesses were divided into four : early cerebritis (days 1 to 5 after inoculation of the organism);late cerebritis (days 6 to 14);early capsular (days 16 to 21);and late capsular (days 22 to 28). The available MR images showed 14 cases at the stage of early cerebritis, seven at the late cerebritis stage, three at the early capsular, and one at the late capsular stage. According to the known pathology of brain abscesses and on the basis of both MR imaging and histopathologic findings, the lesions were grouped according to whether they were found in the central necrotic, border, or peripheral zone. We analyzed the patterns of rim-enhancement (completeness of the rim, thickness, and margin) and the signal intensities of the abscess walls on MR images at each stage. Histopathologic correlation was performed in one case of each stage. We evaluated the presence or absence and degree of infiltration by inflammatory granulation tissue, microhemorrhage, reticulin, collagen, and hemosiderin of the abscess walls. Rim-enhancing lesions were present in three of 14 cases at the late cerebritis stage, in all three cases at the early capsular, in one at the late capsular, but in none at the early cerebritis stage. The enhancing pattern of the late cerebritis stage was irregular-margined incomplete rim-enhancement, with irregular thickness of the abscess walls (3/3). The enhancing pattern of the capsular stages was well-defined, complete rim-enhancement with uniform thickness of the abscess walls (3/4). The signal intensities of the abscess walls at the late cerebritis and early capsular stages were variable. The late capsular stage ws

  15. Neural Network-Based Learning Kernel for Automatic Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions on Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khastavaneh H.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a degenerative disease of central nervous system. MS patients have some dead tissues in their brains called MS lesions. MRI is an imaging technique sensitive to soft tissues such as brain that shows MS lesions as hyper-intense or hypo-intense signals. Since manual segmentation of these lesions is a laborious and time consuming task, automatic segmentation is a need. Materials and Methods: In order to segment MS lesions, a method based on learning kernels has been proposed. The proposed method has three main steps namely; pre-processing, sub-region extraction and segmentation. The segmentation is performed by a kernel. This kernel is trained using a modified version of a special type of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN called Massive Training ANN (MTANN. The kernel incorporates surrounding pixel information as features for classification of middle pixel of kernel. The materials of this study include a part of MICCAI 2008 MS lesion segmentation grand challenge data-set. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative results show promising results. Similarity index of 70 percent in some cases is considered convincing. These results are obtained from information of only one MRI channel rather than multi-channel MRIs. Conclusion: This study shows the potential of surrounding pixel information to be incorporated in segmentation by learning kernels. The performance of proposed method will be improved using a special pre-processing pipeline and also a post-processing step for reducing false positives/negatives. An important advantage of proposed model is that it uses just FLAIR MRI that reduces computational time and brings comfort to patients.

  16. Neural Network-Based Learning Kernel for Automatic Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions on Magnetic Resonance Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khastavaneh, H; Ebrahimpour-Komleh, H

    2017-06-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative disease of central nervous system. MS patients have some dead tissues in their brains called MS lesions. MRI is an imaging technique sensitive to soft tissues such as brain that shows MS lesions as hyper-intense or hypo-intense signals. Since manual segmentation of these lesions is a laborious and time consuming task, automatic segmentation is a need. In order to segment MS lesions, a method based on learning kernels has been proposed. The proposed method has three main steps namely; pre-processing, sub-region extraction and segmentation. The segmentation is performed by a kernel. This kernel is trained using a modified version of a special type of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) called Massive Training ANN (MTANN). The kernel incorporates surrounding pixel information as features for classification of middle pixel of kernel. The materials of this study include a part of MICCAI 2008 MS lesion segmentation grand challenge data-set. Both qualitative and quantitative results show promising results. Similarity index of 70 percent in some cases is considered convincing. These results are obtained from information of only one MRI channel rather than multi-channel MRIs. This study shows the potential of surrounding pixel information to be incorporated in segmentation by learning kernels. The performance of proposed method will be improved using a special pre-processing pipeline and also a post-processing step for reducing false positives/negatives. An important advantage of proposed model is that it uses just FLAIR MRI that reduces computational time and brings comfort to patients.

  17. Quantitative hepatic CT perfusion measurement: Comparison of Couinaud's hepatic segments with dual-source 128-slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuan [The Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730 (China); Xue, Hua-dan, E-mail: bjdanna95@hotmail.com [The Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730 (China); Jin, Zheng-yu, E-mail: jin_zhengyu@163.com [The Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730 (China); Su, Bai-yan; Li, Zhuo; Sun, Hao; Chen, Yu; Liu, Wei [The Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the quantitative liver computed tomography perfusion (CTP) differences among eight hepatic segments. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was based on 72 acquired upper abdomen CTP scans for detecting suspected pancreas tumor. Patients with primary or metastatic liver tumor, any focal liver lesions except simple cyst (<3 cm in diameter), history of liver operation or splenectomy, evidence of liver cirrhosis or invasion of portal vein were excluded. The final analysis included 50 patients (M:F = 21:29, mean age = 43.2 years, 15–76 years). Arterial liver perfusion (ALP), portal-venous perfusion (PVP), total hepatic perfusion (THP = ALP + PVP), and hepatic perfusion index (HPI) of each hepatic segment were calculated and compared by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferonni correction method. Results: Compared to hepatic segments 5, 6, 7 and 8, segments 2 and 3 showed a tendency of higher ALPs, lower PVPs, and higher HPIs, most of which were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Hepatic segments 1 and 4 had higher mean values of ALP and HPI and lower mean values of PVP than segments 5, 6, 7 and 8 as well, although no significant differences were detected except for ALP and HPI for liver segments 1 and 7 (p = 0.001 and 0.035 respectively), and ALP for liver segments 1 and 5 (p = 0.039). Higher ALP and HPI were showed in hepatic segment 3 compared to segment 4 (p = 0.000 and 0.000 respectively). No significant differences were found for THP among eight segments. Conclusions: Intra-hepatic perfusion differences exist in normal hepatic parenchyma especially between lateral sector (segments 2 and 3) and right lobe (segments 5, 6, 7 and 8). This might have potential clinical significance in liver-perfusion-related protocol design and result analysis.

  18. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unusual cross-sectional imaging findings in hepatic peliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinke, K.; Wiesner, W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel (Switzerland); Terraciano, L. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel (Switzerland)

    2003-08-01

    Hepatic peliosis is a rare entity that represents focal, multifocal, segmental, or diffuse dilatation of liver sinusoids. Hepatic peliosis is often associated with chronic wasting diseases but also has been reported in association with anabolic, contraceptive, or other hormonal treatment, and even in context with HIV-related bacterial infections. Hepatic peliosis is usually clinically unapparent and mostly found only during autopsy, but occasionally it may lead to diagnostic problems if detected radiologically since the imaging findings in hepatic peliosis are quite variable according to the variety of its possible histologic features as well as the possibility of additional hemorrhage. We present a case of hepatic peliosis associated with bronchial carcinoma that showed moderate centripetal enhancement during the portal-venous phase on CT, pronounced venous pooling on contrast enhanced T1-weighted images acquired during the hepatic-venous phase, and bright signal on T2-weighted images, thus mimicking in some way a capillary hemangioma. We also discuss some not yet described CT and MR features of this rare entity which should be included into the differential diagnosis of atypical liver lesions in patients with the above-mentioned conditions. (orig.)

  20. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LAPRADE, ROBERT F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and conse...

  1. Skin lesions in sadomasochism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sønderbo, K; Nyfors, A

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a 35-year-old man who consulted the department of venereology because of healing problems with some wounds caused by burning his skin perianally with cigarettes as part of a sexual satisfaction ritual. Knowledge of such lesions may be useful to physicians and social workers. Sadomasochism and 'offers' in the intimate-massage clinics in Copenhagen are surveyed.

  2. Hepatic sarcoidosis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaifer, Rym; Ayadi, Shema; Romdhane, Hayfa; Cheikh, Myriam; Nejma, Houda Ben; Bougassas, Wassila; Hadj, Najet Bel

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic non caseous granulomas disease. Liver is a common location but usually asymptomatic. Evidence based guidelines for this location treatment is lacking and the effect of corticosteroids may be inadequate. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical, biochemical, radiological and therapeutic features of seven patients with systemic sarcoidosis and liver involvement. A retrospective and descriptive monocentric study, over 3 years, including seven patients with systemic sarcoidosis and liver involvement. We included 5 women and 2 men with an average age of 43 years. Hepatic localization revealed sarcoidosis in 5 cases. Hepatomegaly was observed in all patients as well as abnormal serum liver function test reflected by anicteric cholestasis. Liver biopsy, showed in all granulomatous lesions consistent with sarcoidosis and severe fibrosis in 2 cases. Extra-hepatic manifestations were present in all patients represented mainly by pulmonary location. All patients were treated, five by corticosteroid and two with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Complete response was observed in one case, partial response in another case and corticosteroid refractoriness in one case. In two cases, corticosteroid therapy was introduced for less than 1 month, not allowing assessment of response. Antimalarials in combination with UDCA were used successfully in a patient with steroid-resistant liver disease. Liver involvement can reveal systemic sarcoidois. Given the risk of progression to severe liver disease, it must be screened in all patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Treatment is not systematic, and still based on corticosteroid therapy. In the absence of prospective randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of UDCA need to be proven.

  3. Viral hepatitis and hepatitis B antigen: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Saul

    1974-01-01

    Recent advances in hepatitis research have shed new light on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of type B hepatitis infection. The so-called ‘Dane’ particle is probably the complete hepatitis B virion; its outer coat is the hepatitis B (Australia) antigen (HB Ag) and its inner core is an immunologically distinct particle. Subtypes of HB Ag (a, d, y, w and r) are useful indices for epidemiological surveys. Concepts of epidemiology have changed: type B hepatitis is transmissible by contact as well as by inoculation. The presence of HB Ag in blood is indicative of the presence of hepatitis B virus. Tests to detect antigen and use of voluntary blood donors have played a major role in the decreased incidence of post transfusion hepatitis. A special hepatitis B gammaglobulin preparation and a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine have proved to be effective in preliminary studies. PMID:4219230

  4. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  5. Fusion imaging of real-time ultrasonography with CT or MRI for hepatic intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Woo [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    With the technical development of ultrasonography (US), electromagnetic tracking-based fusion imaging of real-time US and computed tomography/magnetic resonance (CT/MR) images has been used for percutaneous hepatic intervention such as biopsy and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Because of the fusion imaging technique, the fused CT or MR images show the same plane and move synchronously while performing real-time US. With this information, fusion imaging can enhance lesion detectability and reduce the false positive detection of focal hepatic lesions with poor sonographic conspicuity. Three-dimensional US can also be fused with realtime US for the percutaneous RFA of liver tumors requiring overlapping ablation. When fusion imaging is not sufficient for identifying small focal hepatic lesions, contrast-enhanced US can be added to fusion imaging.

  6. Fusion imaging of real-time ultrasonography with CT or MRI for hepatic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Woo Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available

    With the technical development of ultrasonography (US, electromagnetic tracking-based fusion imaging of real-time US and computed tomography/magnetic resonance (CT/MR images has been used for percutaneous hepatic intervention such as biopsy and radiofrequency ablation (RFA. Because of the fusion imaging technique, the fused CT or MR images show the same plane and move synchronously while performing real-time US. With this information, fusion imaging can enhance lesion detectability and reduce the false positive detection of focal hepatic lesions with poor sonographic conspicuity. Three-dimensional US can also be fused with realtime US for the percutaneous RFA of liver tumors requiring overlapping ablation. When fusion imaging is not sufficient for identifying small focal hepatic lesions, contrast-enhanced US can be added to fusion imaging.

  7. Skin lesion removal-aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave excision - skin aftercare; Excision of skin lesions - benign aftercare; Skin lesion removal - benign aftercare; Cryosurgery - skin aftercare; BCC - removal aftercare; Basal cell cancer - removal aftercare; Actinic keratosis - removal aftercare; Wart - ...

  8. Morphological classifications of gastrointestinal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Jasper L. A.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    In the era of spreading adoption of gastrointestinal endoscopy screening worldwide, endoscopists encounter an increasing number of complex lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. For decision-making on optimal treatment, precise lesion characterization is crucial. Especially the assessment of

  9. Cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst: a case of hemifacial spasm caused by an organic lesion other than neurovascular compression: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, Luciano; Taniguchi, Raymond; Caroli, Manuela; Crispo, Francesco; Ferrante, Luigi; Fukushima, Takanori

    2009-12-01

    A rare case of cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst manifesting as hemifacial spasm (HFS) is reported. The patient is a 42-year-old woman with 10-month history of left HFS. A preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a well-demarcated area, hypointense on T1-weighted imaging and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging, in the left cerebellopontine angle, without contrast enhancement, resembling an arachnoid cyst. The cyst was excised with microneurosurgical technique and the facial, vestibular, and acoustic nerves were completely decompressed from the arachnoid wall. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the left HFS disappeared immediately. Histologically, the cyst wall was a typical arachnoidal membrane. Ten months after surgery, the patient is symptom free. It is well-known that in approximately 10% of cases, trigeminal neuralgia can be caused by a space-occupying mass. However, the fact that HFS can also be caused by organic lesions as well as neurovascular compression is less well-known. Although the occurrence of tumor compression causing HFS has been previously recognized, cerebellopontine angle cysts have very rarely been described. The observation of a patient with a cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst causing HFS prompted us to review the literature relative to HFS caused by an organic lesion rather than neurovascular compression.

  10. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood. This test shows how well your child's treatment is working. ... Acute hepatitis B does not need any special treatment. Your child's immune system will fight the disease. If there is no sign of the HBV infection after ...

  11. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us FAQs Ask a Question Toll Free Numbers Homeless Veterans Chat VA » Health Care » Viral Hepatitis » Veterans and ... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans ...

  12. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  13. XTC-induced hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oranje, W A; von Pol, P; vd Wurff, A; Zeijen, R N; Stockbrügger, R W; Arends, J W

    1994-02-01

    An increasing number of severe complications associated with the use of XTC is being reported. After 11 earlier case reports we describe an acute hepatitis due to occasional use of XTC in a 25-year-old woman.

  14. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  15. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  16. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Hepatic Hemangioma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua; Meunier, Rashna; Jamshed, Sarah; Karam, Adib R; Yates, Jennifer; Wang, Xiaofei; LaFemina, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of 55-year-old female with biopsy-proven clear cell renal cell carcinoma with a suspicious lesion found in the liver who presented for right radical nephrectomy and partial hepatectomy. Histologic evaluation of the hepatic specimen demonstrated metastatic renal cell carcinoma within a hepatic hemangioma. Herein we provide a review of the literature for this uncommon scenario. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Hepatitis C in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a serious public health problem all over the world. It is caused by a single stranded RNA virus. Most acute infections are subclinical, but in 75% of individuals, infection leads to a chronic hepatitis, which in some cases can progress to cirrhosis and occasionally development of hepatoma. It has wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review article deals with the overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management and prevention.

  18. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  19. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  20. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  1. Ultrasonographic and T2-weighted MR imaging studies on hepatic hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niizawa, Makoto; Kuramitsu, Tomoyuki; Naganuma, Toshio; Yoshida, Tsukasa [Akita City Hospital (Japan); Masamune, Osamu

    1995-12-01

    We investigated the correlations between ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of hepatic hemangiomas to evaluate their heterogeneous echo patterns; we examined 20 hemangiomas (over 20 mm in maximal size) in 18 asymptomatic patients by US and MR imaging, and investigated the correlations between these images. T1-weighted images indicated 8 of 20 lesions as heterogeneous, T2-weighted images indicated 12 heterogeneous lesions, and US indicated 19 heterogeneous lesions. The internal pattern was consistent in US and T2-weighted images in 6 lesions, and inconsistent in 6 lesions. US revealed a heterogeneous pattern in 7 lesions in which T2-weighted images revealed a homogeneous pattern. Both US and T2-weighted images revealed a homogeneous pattern in one lesion. US findings of heterogeneous hepatic hemangioma reflect, to some extent, their histological changes based on MR morphology. In the near future, utilization of US equipment will probably permit the sonographic morphology of the heterogeneous hepatic hemangioma to be clarified. (author)

  2. Agreement assessment in size measurement of hepatic metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yangchen; Karademir, Ibrahim; Wise, Leon; Oto, Aytekin; Peng, Yahui

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate patient-wise agreement among multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences and radiologists, respectively, in the size assessment of hepatic metastases. A total of 30 liver metastases were identified from 20 patients and three radiologists independently measured the long and short axes for all metastases in T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with b of 0 and 800 s/mm2, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. We calculated the patient-wise intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCs) to estimate the interobserver and intersequence agreement in measured lesion size. Interobserver ICCs were 0.92-0.98 for different MR sequences and intersequence ICCs were 0.93-0.98. In conclusion, multiparametric MR imaging is a reliable tool for hepatic metastatic lesion measurement.

  3. Hepatic stellate cells in the liver of dogs with steroid-induced hepatopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczak-Filipiak Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological lesions in hepatic stellate cells caused by the immunosuppressive doses of dexamethasone were investigated in dogs. The archival samples of liver collected during a surgical biopsy were examined. The samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin or Carnoy’s solution and then stained with routine histochemical methods. The lesions were also investigated under electron microscope. It was demonstrated that the number of stellate cells significantly increased (P = 0.0277, yet the size of cytoplasmic lipid droplets significantly decreased (P = 0.0001. Even though steroid-induced hepatopathy is considered to be a reversible pathology, and the lesions in hepatocytes under the influence of dexamethasone occur in a short period, it was found that hepatic stellate cells proliferated and underwent activation. This resulted in collagen accumulation in the hepatic sinuses. The functional and morphological disturbances in the canine liver in the course of steroid-induced hepatopathy are initially subclinical, but the changes in the structure and function of hepatic stellate cells may become a cause of lesions in the wall of hepatic sinusoidal vessels, which may induce additional functional pathologies unrelated to the damage to hepatocytes.

  4. Minimally invasive treatment of hepatic adenoma in special cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasser, Felipe; Affonso, Breno Boueri; Galastri, Francisco Leonardo [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Odisio, Bruno Calazans [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (United States); Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hepatocellular adenoma is a rare benign tumor that was increasingly diagnosed in the 1980s and 1990s. This increase has been attributed to the widespread use of oral hormonal contraceptives and the broader availability and advances of radiological tests. We report two cases of patients with large hepatic adenomas who were subjected to minimally invasive treatment using arterial embolization. One case underwent elective embolization due to the presence of multiple adenomas and recent bleeding in one of the nodules. The second case was a victim of blunt abdominal trauma with rupture of a hepatic adenoma and clinical signs of hemodynamic shock secondary to intra-abdominal hemorrhage, which required urgent treatment. The development of minimally invasive locoregional treatments, such as arterial embolization, introduced novel approaches for the treatment of individuals with hepatic adenoma. The mortality rate of emergency resection of ruptured hepatic adenomas varies from 5 to 10%, but this rate decreases to 1% when resection is elective. Arterial embolization of hepatic adenomas in the presence of bleeding is a subject of debate. This observation suggests a role for transarterial embolization in the treatment of ruptured and non-ruptured adenomas, which might reduce the indication for surgery in selected cases and decrease morbidity and mortality. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a reduction of the embolized lesions and significant avascular component 30 days after treatment in the two cases in this report. No novel lesions were observed, and a reduction in the embolized lesions was demonstrated upon radiological assessment at a 12-month follow-up examination.

  5. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  6. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  7. Management of Hepatic Rupture Diagnosed after an Emergency Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Raffaello Damiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A careful management of hepatic capsular rupture, with massive hemoperitoneum which occurred 14 hours after an emergency cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation, is meticulously reported. The grade of hepatic involvement varies from minor capsular laceration to extensive parenchymal rupture. Our management involved a combination of surgical interventions and aggressive supportive care. The patient was discharged after 53 days and 4 laparotomies and an unsuccessful attempt of superselective artery embolization. Ultrasound after 40 days from the last surgery showed uniform hepatic parenchyma free of focal lesions. Due to the rarity and the unpredictability nature of this devastating event we believe necessary to report our experience, reinforcing the importance of the postsurgery management.

  8. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  9. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  10. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  11. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  12. Lesiones Deportivas En Corredores

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Cano, Juan Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Hoy escribo como médico pero también como corredor. Por eso hay que empezar diciendo que los corredores somos unos apasionados con este deporte. Se convierte en una adicción. No se corre de vez en cuando, se hace por lo menos 5 días a la semana. Y los días que no corremos, quedamos incompletos. Eso es lo que siente un corredor, una sensación que parecería que sólo la entiende quien ha corrido. Tal vez por eso las lesiones deportivas son tan sentidas en este gremio d...

  13. Monitoring ferumoxide-labelled neural progenitor cells and lesion evolution by magnetic resonance imaging in a model of cell transplantation in cerebral ischaemia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/20l

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael A Panizzo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC therapies after cerebral ischaemia could be better evaluated by monitoring in vivo migration and distribution of cells post-engraftment in parallel with analysis of lesion volume and functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is ideally placed to achieve this, but still poses several challenges. We show that combining the ferumoxide MRI contrast agent Endorem with protamine sulphate (FePro improves iron oxide uptake in cells compared to Endorem alone and is non-toxic. Hence FePro complex is a better contrast agent than Endorem for monitoring NPCs. FePro complex-labelled NPCs proliferated and differentiated normally in vitro, and upon grafting into the brain 48 hours post-ischaemia they were detected in vivo by MRI. Imaging over four weeks showed the development of a confounding endogenous hypointense contrast evolution at later timepoints within the lesioned tissue. This was at least partly due to accumulation within the lesion of macrophages and endogenous iron. Neither significant NPC migration, assessed by MRI and histologically, nor a reduction in the ischaemic lesion volume was observed in NPC-grafted brains.  Crucially, while MRI provides reliable information on engrafted cell location early after an ischaemic insult, pathophysiological changes to ischaemic lesions can interfere with cellular imaging at later timepoints.

  14. Monitoring ferumoxide-labelled neural progenitor cells and lesion evolution by magnetic resonance imaging in a model of cell transplantation in cerebral ischaemia [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/30c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael A Panizzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC therapies after cerebral ischaemia could be better evaluated by monitoring in vivo migration and distribution of cells post-engraftment in parallel with analysis of lesion volume and functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is ideally placed to achieve this, but still poses several challenges. We show that combining the ferumoxide MRI contrast agent Endorem with protamine sulphate (FePro improves iron oxide uptake in cells compared to Endorem alone and is non-toxic. Hence FePro complex is a better contrast agent than Endorem for monitoring NPCs. FePro complex-labelled NPCs proliferated and differentiated normally in vitro, and upon grafting into the brain 48 hours post-ischaemia they were detected in vivo by MRI. Imaging over four weeks showed the development of a confounding endogenous hypointense contrast evolution at later timepoints within the lesioned tissue. This was at least partly due to accumulation within the lesion of macrophages and endogenous iron. Neither significant NPC migration, assessed by MRI and histologically, nor a reduction in the ischaemic lesion volume was observed in NPC-grafted brains.  Crucially, while MRI provides reliable information on engrafted cell location early after an ischaemic insult, pathophysiological changes to ischaemic lesions can interfere with cellular imaging at later timepoints.

  15. Physically based nonrigid registration using smoothed particle hydrodynamics: application to hepatic metastasis volume-preserving registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Soon Hyoung; Lee, Jeongjin; Park, Seongjin; Kim, Kyoung Won; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyung

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in computing hardware have enabled the application of physically based simulation techniques to various research fields for improved accuracy. In this paper, we present a novel physically based nonrigid registration method using smoothed particle hydrodynamics for hepatic metastasis volume-preserving registration between follow-up liver CT images. Our method models the liver and hepatic metastasis as a set of particles carrying their own physical properties. Based on the fact that the hepatic metastasis is stiffer than other normal cells in the liver parenchyma, the candidate regions of hepatic metastasis are modeled with particles of higher stiffness compared to the liver parenchyma. Particles placed in the liver and candidate regions of hepatic metastasis in the source image are transformed along a gradient vector flow-based force field calculated in the target image. In this transformation, the particles are physically interacted and deformed by a novel deformable particle method which is proposed to preserve the hepatic metastasis to the best. In experimental results using ten clinical datasets, our method matches the liver effectively between follow-up CT images as well as preserves the volume of hepatic metastasis almost completely, enabling the accurate assessment of the volume change of the hepatic metastasis. These results demonstrated a potential of the proposed method that it can deliver a substantial aid in measuring the size change of index lesion (i.e., hepatic metastasis) after the chemotheraphy of metastasis patients in radiation oncology.

  16. [Apparent worsening of psoriasis lesions revealing methotrexate overdosage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, R; Baroudjian, B; Battistella, M; Bagot, M; Petit, A

    2017-09-13

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an antimetabolite drug used in the treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases and frequently in dermatology for cutaneous and/or arthritic psoriasis. Toxicities due to MTX overdosage are mainly cutaneous, hepatic and hematologic. Herein, we report a case of MTX overdosage presenting as an erosive and an inflammatory flare of preexisting psoriatic plaques and with new palmar lesions. A 51-year-old male with a 6-year history of plaque psoriasis resistant to topical corticosteroids was started for the first time on MTX 20mg weekly. One week later, he presented with fever, general weakness and mucocutaneous ulcerations. Physical examination revealed inflammatory, erythematous and partially erosive annular plaques strictly confined to preexisting psoriatic lesions, along with keratotic psoriatic palmar plaques. Further questioning indicated that the patient was taking MTX 20mg daily. Investigations revealed neutropenia (1040/mm3) and skin histology showed prominent dystrophic keratinocytes and confirmed the diagnosis of methotrexate toxicity. Clinical and biological improvements were observed after cessation of MTX and treatment with folinic acid, IV hydration and urine alkalization. Skin lesions due to acute MTX toxicity are rare, but they herald later-onset pancytopenia. Identification of these cutaneous lesions might enable earlier treatment initiation. The predilection of MTX toxicity for preexisting lesions or the de novo appearance of palmoplantar pustules should not lead to the erroneous diagnosis of psoriasis flare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A case of pedunculated hepatic hemangioma mimicking submucosal tumor of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Han Kook; Kim, Hyoung Su; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Kyung Ho; Jang, Myoung Kuk; Lee, Jin Heon; Kim, Hak Yang; Kim, Doo Jin; Cho, Seong Jin

    2011-03-01

    Hepatic hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver. Most such hemangiomas are small, asymptomatic, and have an excellent prognosis. Giant hepatic hemangioma has been reported in the literature, but the exophytic and pedunculated forms of hepatic hemangioma are rare. A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital under the suspicion of having a gastric submucosal tumor. Abdominal computer tomography (CT) scans showed a pedunculated mass from the left lateral segment of the liver into the gastric fundus, exhibiting the atypical CT findings of hepatic hemangioma. We therefore decided to perform laparoscopic resection based on the symptoms, relatively large diameter, inability to exclude malignancy, and risk of rupture of the exophytic lesion. The pathology indicated it to be a cavernous hemangioma of the liver. Herein we report a case of pedunculated hepatic hemangioma mimicking a submucosal tumor of the stomach due to extrinsic compression of the gastric fundus.

  18. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contact with blood (and other body fluids) in the course ... Department of Public Health Dentistry, Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, 1Department of ... Keywords: Attitude, Health‑care workers, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Interns, Knowledge.

  19. A toxicologist's guide to biomarkers of hepatic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amacher, D E

    2002-05-01

    Biological markers (biomarkers) are used to recognize, characterize and monitor treatment-related responses following exposure to xenobiotics. Biomarkers serve three primary applications in toxicology: 1) to confirm exposure to a deleterious agent, 2) to provide a system for monitoring individual susceptibility to a toxicant, and 3) to quantitatively assess deleterious effects of a toxicant to an organism or individual. Because the liver is a general target for adverse effects of drugs and other chemicals, biomarkers of untoward hepatic response to xenobiotics are of particular interest to the pharmaceutical toxicologist. General requirements for the latter category of biomarkers are sample availability, target organ specificity, sensitivity for the toxicity of interest, accessibility, a relatively short half-life, and available detection systems. Biomarkers that can be assayed in biological fluids from both human and animal subjects are particularly desirable. Histologically, acute and subacute hepatic toxicity commonly involves necrosis, steatosis, cholestasis, vascular disorders, or multiple lesions. The purpose of this review is to summarize reported applications using clinical analytes and biochemical indicators of hepatic dysfunction with emphasis on those that show promise of supplementing or improving upon standard laboratory procedures. Liver function markers refer to peripheral indicators of hepatic synthetic and secretory activities, enterohepatic function, or perturbations of the hepatic uptake and clearance of circulating biomolecules. Liver injury biomarkers include various peripheral proteins released in response to a cellular damage or locally, proteins that are significantly altered within the liver. These include both circulating cytosolic, mitochondrial, or canalicular membrane markers, and the up-regulation or depletion of radical scavengers, modulators, and stabilizers of intracellular damage. Subsequent recovery from a toxic insult involves

  20. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  1. Ruptured hepatic cavernous hemangioma: a case report and literature review; Hemangioma cavernoso hepatico roto: relato de caso e revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula Neto, Walter Teixeira de [Hospital Uniclinicas, Chapeco, SC (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem], e-mail: walterteixeira21@yahoo.com.br; Koifman, Ana Celia Baptista [Hospital Municipal Souza Aguiar, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martins, Carlos Alberto de Souza [Sociedade Brasileira de Radiologia (SBR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica Life Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    Hepatic hemangioma is frequently asymptomatic, and bleeding is rare, even in cases of large lesions. The authors report the case of a 31-year-old female patient presenting with acute abdominal pain, whose imaging studies have demonstrated hematoma in the left hepatic lobe associated with hemo peritoneum. The patient was submitted to left hepatectomy, with a final histopathological diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma. (author)

  2. Primary hepatic actinomycosis mimicking hepatic malignancy with metastatic lymph nodes by F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Eun Jung [Yeungnam Univ. Medical School and Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Hepatic involvement is usually secondary to abdominal actinomycosis infection. Symptom onset is typically subscute and the disease follows a chronic and indolent course. These lesions are called inflammatory pseudotumors and cannot be differentiated from malignant tumors by radiological examination alone. Laboratory tests showed mild anemia; hemoglobin 119 g/L, elevated white blood cell count of 23,060/mm{sup 3}, AST 33 U/L, ALT 45 U/L, and γ-GT 155 U/L.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of hepatic hemangioma and its decision tree on ultrasonography, computed tomography and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesaka, Katsuhiko; Takayasu, Kenichi; Muramatu, Yukio; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Matsue, Hiroto; Yamada, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    1988-08-01

    Fifty seven lesions in 31 patients with hepatic hemangioma were concurrently imaged with ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and angiography (AG). Rates of lesion detection and qualitative diagnosis were 73.7 % and 59.5 %, respectively, for US; 89.5 % and 88.2 % for CT ; ad 89.5 % and 90.2 % for AG. Each of the three imaging methods had a diagnostic rate of 100 % for tumors more than 5 cm. In diagnosing tumors 5 cm or less, US was less sensitive than CT and AG (62.5 % vs 85.0 %). The qualitative diagnostic rate of both CT and AG was 90 % regardless of tumor diameter. As for US, it was 76.5 % in lesions more than 5 cm, and 48.0 % in lesions 5 cm or less. The necessity of decision tree of CT and the other imaging methods in hepatic hemangioma is presented. (Namekawa, K.).

  4. Hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity and knowledge of Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Despite its staggering toll on health, diseases arising from hepatitis are largely unknown, unappreciated, undiagnosed and untreated. Many Nigerians are unaware of their hepatitis B status and often present late to hospital with advanced chronic liver disease. The objectives were to determine the hepatitis B ...

  5. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they are a major cause of both acute and chronic liver disease, as well as hepatocellular cancer. Persons at risk of acquisition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are also at risk of acquisition of infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ...

  6. Oral lesions in lupus erythematosus: correlation with cutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Marcello Menta Simonsen; Vilela, Maria Apparecida Constantino; Rivitti, Evandro Ararigbóia; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Oral lesions in the context of lupus erythematosus (LE) have long been described. However, definitive agreement on about the exact nature and correct classification of these manifestations is lacking in published studies. Controversy exists on the significance of oral LE lesions regarding patient outcome. In this article, medical and dental literature on clinical and histopathological aspects of oral LE lesions are reviewed and critically discussed. A clinico-pathological correlation of oral lesions (interface mucositis-lupus mucositis) with cutaneous lesions (interface dermatitis-lupus dermatitis) is established, for those represent the mucosal counterparts of cutaneous LE. Validity about widely used but imprecise terms such as "oral ulcers", "ulcerative plaques", and others, in the context of LE, is discussed, and the uncertain relationship of these alterations to systemic disease with a worse outcome is commented. Furthermore, insights about the nature, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of oral lesions in LE patients are presented.

  7. Hepatic trauma: CT findings and considerations based on our experience in emergency diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Luigia; Giovine, Sabrina; Guidi, Guido; Tortora, Giovanni; Cinque, Teresa; Romano, Stefania E-mail: stefromano@libero.it

    2004-04-01

    Abdominal blunt trauma represents the main cause of death in people of age less than 40 years; the liver injury occurs frequently, with an incidence varying from 3 to 10%. Isolated hepatic lesions are rare and in 77-90% of cases, lesions of other organs and viscera are involved. Right hepatic lobe is a frequent site of injury, because it is the more voluminous portion of liver parenchyma; posterior superior hepatic segments are proximal to fixed anatomical structures such as ribs and spine that may have an important role in determining of the lesion. The coronal ligaments' insertion in this parenchymal region augments the effect of acceleration-deceleration mechanism. Associated lesions usually are homolateral costal fractures, laceration or contusion of the inferior right pulmonary lobe, haemothorax, pneumothorax, renal and/or adrenal lesions. Traumatic lesions of left hepatic lobe are rare and usually associated with direct impact on the superior abdomen, such as in car-crash when the wheel causes a compressive effect on thorax and abdomen. Associated lesions to left hepatic lobe injuries correlated to this mechanism are: sternal fractures, pancreatic, myocardial, gastrointestinal tract injuries. Lesions of the caudal lobe are extremely rare, usually not isolated and noted with other large parenchymal lesions. The Institution of Specialized Trauma Centers and the technical progress in imaging methodology developed in the last years a great reduction of mortality. New diagnostic methodologies allow a reduction of negatives laparotomies and allow the possibility of conservative treatment of numerous traumatic lesions; however, therapy depends from imaging findings and clinical conditions of the patient. Computed tomography (CT) certainly presents a large impact on diagnosis and management of patients with lesions from blunt abdominal traumas. It is important to establish a prognostic criteria allowing decisions for conservative or surgical treatment; CT

  8. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  9. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  10. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  11. Peginterferon beta-1a reduces the evolution of MRI lesions to black holes in patients with RRMS: a post hoc analysis from the ADVANCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Douglas L; You, Xiaojun; Castrillo-Viguera, Carmen

    2017-08-01

    The presence of chronic black holes, i.e., chronic lesions that are hypointense on T1-weighted images and are indicative of more severe tissue injury, has been increasingly utilized as a surrogate marker of therapeutic outcome in multiple sclerosis. The ADVANCE study was a 2-year, double-blind, pivotal trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a 125 mcg in 1512 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This report describes the correlation of clinical outcomes with the evolution of acute lesions into chronic black holes in ADVANCE, and the efficacy of peginterferon beta-1a in reducing this evolution. Treatment with peginterferon beta-1a significantly reduced the mean number of new/enlarging T2-weighted (NET2) lesions (0.76 vs. 1.03 from week 24, p = 0.0037; 0.44 vs. 0.99 from week 48, p black holes by 2 years. Patients with NET2 or Gd+ lesions at 24 weeks that evolved into chronic black holes showed significantly worse clinical outcomes, including a greater proportion with 12-week (14.9 vs. 8.4%; p = 0.0167) and 24-week (12.3 vs. 7.0%; p = 0.0333) confirmed disability worsening and higher mean annualized relapse rate (0.62 vs. 0.43; p = 0.0118), compared with patients with lesions that did not evolve into black holes. The correlation was independent of treatment. Reduced risk of evolution of new lesions into chronic black holes with peginterferon beta-1a treatment suggests potential to reduce long-term disability in RRMS by preventing irreversible tissue damage.

  12. Computed tomographic study of 50 patients with hypodense hepatic injuries in childhood; Estudo de 50 casos por tomografia computadorizada de lesoes hipodensas hepaticas fundamentais na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Baracat, Jamal; Martins, Daniel Lahan [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: iminniti@fcm.unicamp.br; Pereira, Ricardo Minniti Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2006-03-15

    Objective: To describe the different tomographic findings in hypodense hepatic lesions in children and its differential diagnosis. Materials and methods: computed tomographic studies were obtained from 50 patients (age range: 0-16 years) with low-density liver lesions previously diagnosed by ultrasound. Images were made before and after administration of intravenous contrast medium. Image findings were analyzed and afterwards correlated with anatomopathological diagnosis. Results: forty-seven of 50 cases were confirmed, 30 by anatomopathological diagnosis. Most of then were benign lesions, hemangioma in 20%. Such lesions presented a homogeneous contrast absorption, mainly at the delayed phase, differing from malignant lesions. Metastasis was the most frequently found malignant lesion (18%). Conclusion: computed tomographic study is of great value in complementing the diagnosis of hypodense hepatic lesions in children, and must follow ultrasound diagnosis as a routine procedure. (author)

  13. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  14. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  15. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lesion procedures in psychiatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaun R; Aronson, Joshua P; Sheth, Sameer A; Eskandar, Emad N

    2013-01-01

    Lesion procedures for psychiatric indications have a history that spans more than a century. This review provides a brief history of psychiatric surgery and addresses the most recent literature on lesion surgery for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. Relevant data described in publications from the early 1900 s through the modern era regarding lesion procedures for psychiatric indications, both historical and current use, are reported. The early procedures of Burkhardt, Moniz, and Freeman are reviewed, followed by descriptions of the more refined techniques of Leksell, Knight, Foltz, White, and Kelly. The application of lesion procedures to obsessive-compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and addiction are discussed. Lesioning procedures have informed modern deep brain stimulation targets. Recent lesioning studies demonstrate the efficacy and durability of these procedures in severely disabled patients. Judicious application of these techniques should continue for appropriately selected patients with severe, refractory psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Thalamic Lesions: A Radiological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Renard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thalamic lesions are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, trauma, tumours, and infections. In some diseases, thalamic involvement is typical and sometimes isolated, while in other diseases thalamic lesions are observed only occasionally (often in the presence of other typical extrathalamic lesions. Summary. In this review, we will mainly discuss the MRI characteristics of thalamic lesions. Identification of the origin of the thalamic lesion depends on the exact localisation inside the thalamus, the presence of extrathalamic lesions, the signal changes on different MRI sequences, the evolution of the radiological abnormalities over time, the history and clinical state of the patient, and other radiological and nonradiological examinations.

  18. Stentgraft Implantation for the Treatment of Postoperative Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersoli, F., E-mail: fpedersoli@ukaachen.de; Isfort, P.; Keil, S.; Goerg, F.; Zimmermann, M.; Liebl, M.; Schulze-Hagen, M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Schmeding, M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Clinic for General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery (Germany); Kuhl, C. K.; Bruners, P. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    PurposeHepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of major pancreaticobiliary surgery. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of endovascular stentgraft implantation for the management of such vascular lesions.Materials and MethodsBetween May 2013 and October 2015, ten patients with postoperative hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm, of which eight presented with active hemorrhage, were treated with endovascular stentgraft implantation. All patients had undergone major pancreatic or hepatic surgery before (pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, pancreatectomy, hemihepatectomy, extended hemihepatectomy). The pseudoaneurysms were diagnosed 13–202 days after surgery and were associated with postsurgical complications (e.g., leakage of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis).ResultsIn 9/10 patients, the pseudoaneurysm was completely excluded via stentgraft implantation. In 1/10 patient, the pseudoaneurysm ruptured during the procedure and was successfully treated by immediate open surgery. In 1/10 patient, a second intervention was performed after 6 days because of rebleeding; this was successfully treated by implantation of a second overlapping stentgraft. Mean follow-up time is 51 days. None of the patients died due to stentgraft- or aneurysm-related complications. Further episodes of hemorrhage were not observed. In one patient, clinically asymptomatic complete occlusion of the stentgraft was discovered at follow-up imaging.ConclusionStentgraft implantation is a safe and effective technique to treat hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms related to major pancreatic or hepatic surgery, especially in the setting of acute hemorrhage.

  19. Association of autoimmune hepatitis and multiple sclerosis: a coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sofia Mendes Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver inflammation resulting from deregulation of immune tolerance mechanisms. Multiple sclerosis is also an inflammatory disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. Here we present a case of an 18 year old female with multiple sclerosis was treated with glatiramer acetate and with interferon beta 1a at our hospital. Seven months after initiating treatment, liver dysfunction occurred. Clinical and laboratory findings were suggestive of drug-induced hepatitis, which led to discontinuation of treatment with interferon. Facing a new episode of acute hepatitis one year later, she was subjected to a liver biopsy, and the analysis of autoantibodies was positive for smooth muscle antibodies. Given the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis she started therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine, with good clinical and analytical response. Besides, the demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis became lower. In conclusion, there are only a few cases that describe the association of autoimmune hepatitis with multiple sclerosis, and there is a chance both diseases have the same autoimmune inflammatory origin.

  20. Halothane hepatitis in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenna, J G; Neuberger, J; Mieli-Vergani, G; Mowat, A P; Williams, R

    1987-01-01

    It is often stated that halothane hepatitis in children is nonexistent or extremely rare. This syndrome occurred in seven children aged between 11 months and 15 years, one of whom, a 3 1/2 year old boy, died with fulminant hepatic failure. All the children had received multiple halothane anaesthetics (range 2-6, median 3). In all cases other causes of liver diseases were excluded, and in all but one the diagnosis was confirmed serologically by antibodies to halothane altered liver cell membra...

  1. Prevention of Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV v...

  2. Biopsy of the pigmented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, David; Mariwalla, Kavita

    2012-07-01

    Although new technologies are becoming available to aid in diagnosis, the skin biopsy continues to be the fundamental tool of the dermatologist to evaluate the nature of a pigmented lesion. There are 3 major techniques for the biopsy of a pigmented lesion: shave biopsy, punch/incisional biopsy, and excisional biopsy. This article discusses when to biopsy a pigmented lesion and reviews the different biopsy techniques, with reference to specific clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. [The new technology of enhanced radiofrequency ablation is safe and effective for treating giant hepatic hemangioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hua; Yan, Jun; Wu, Yan-xia; Ou, Xia; Li, Xiao-wu; Xia, Feng; Ma, Kuan-sheng; Bie, Ping

    2012-04-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of the enhanced radiofrequency ablation (RFA) new technology for treatment of giant hepatic hemangiomas. From August 2010 to September 2011, 30 patients with giant hepatic hemangiomas (average diameter: 7.7+/-1.9 cm, range: 5.0 to 12.8 cm) were treated with enhanced RFA. The original lesion diameter, enhanced radiofrequency duration, and cases of RFA-induced burning were recorded. Cases requiring a second RFA treatment were also recorded. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine the association of enhanced RFA with adverse events and change in lesion diameter. The rate of completely destroyed lesions by enhanced RFA was 70.96%, and the total rate of reduced lesions was 87.1%. No severe adverse events occurred. The duration of enhanced radiofrequency correlated positively with the original lesion diameter (r=0.687, P less than 0.01). The enhanced RFA treatment significantly reduced the average lesion diameter (follow-up: 6.2+/-1.8 cm; t=6.417, P less than 0.01). The new minimally-invasive technology of enhanced radiofrequency ablation is effective and safe for treating giant hepatic hemangiomas and produces an obvious, short-term curative effect.

  4. Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Scott S

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acquisition, which can be lethal. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Fuzzy description of skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Nikolaos; Ballerini, Lucia; Fisher, Robert B.; Aldridge, Ben; Rees, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    We propose a system for describing skin lesions images based on a human perception model. Pigmented skin lesions including melanoma and other types of skin cancer as well as non-malignant lesions are used. Works on classification of skin lesions already exist but they mainly concentrate on melanoma. The novelty of our work is that our system gives to skin lesion images a semantic label in a manner similar to humans. This work consists of two parts: first we capture they way users perceive each lesion, second we train a machine learning system that simulates how people describe images. For the first part, we choose 5 attributes: colour (light to dark), colour uniformity (uniform to non-uniform), symmetry (symmetric to non-symmetric), border (regular to irregular), texture (smooth to rough). Using a web based form we asked people to pick a value of each attribute for each lesion. In the second part, we extract 93 features from each lesions and we trained a machine learning algorithm using such features as input and the values of the human attributes as output. Results are quite promising, especially for the colour related attributes, where our system classifies over 80% of the lesions into the same semantic classes as humans.

  6. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  7. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  8. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get some forms of viral hepatitis the same way you get HIV—through unprotected sexual contact and injection drug use. HAV, which causes a short-term but occasionally severe illness, is usually spread when the virus is ingested from contact with ...

  9. Hepatitis in HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Hepatitis, an infection in the liver, affects many people with HIV. Hepatitis A (HAV) is transmitted most often through sexual contact with an infected person or by ingesting contaminated food or drinks. Two ways of preventing HAV are by maintaining good personal hygiene or receiving a vaccination. There are no treatments for HAV, but most patients clear the infection without medication. Hepatitis B (HBV) is spread through blood, bodily fluids, or sexual contact. There is a vaccination to prevent HBV, but the only approved treatment for chronic HBV is Interferon Alfa-2b therapy. Several other drugs, however, are being tested as possible treatments for HBV. Hepatitis C (HCV) spreads similarly to HBV. Many people who are infected with HCV do not have any symptoms and unknowingly spread the disease. There is no vaccination for HCV. The treatment for HCV is the same as for HBV, but the medication may need to be taken indefinitely to avoid a relapse. People with HCV or HBV and HIV are at greater risk for developing chronic liver disease.

  10. Living with Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stressed by the hepatitis virus. Omit or severely limit alcohol use. Alcohol should not be taken with other ... Live-R Die © educational DVD addresses binge drinking, drug abuse and other liver ... to college age students with information specific to the functions of ...

  11. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-15

    Oct 15, 2008 ... Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India and an important pathogen causing liver disease in India. The high risk of chronicity of this blood-borne infection and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma underscores its public health importance. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic interventions ...

  12. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  13. The prevention of hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaccine appears to depress the level of antibody response obtained.9 An additional booster dose of vaccine may therefore be necessary. There appears to be no interference in the immune response to both antigens when hepatitis B vaccine is given concomitantly, although different injection sites are advised. Havrix is an ...

  14. Hepatic hemangioma: atypical appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikulis, D.J.; Costello, P.; Clouse, M.E.

    1985-07-01

    Recent reports indicate that computed tomography (CT) after bolus injection of contrast material is diagnostically specific for hemangioma, replacing the need for angiography in a high percentage of patients. The authors report a unique hepatic hemangioma that showed early diffuse intense opacification by angiography and contrast-enhanced CT.

  15. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... http://www.who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/whocdscsredc2007/en/index1.html through http://www.who.int . Accessed ...

  16. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... http://www.who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/whocdscsrlyo20022/en/index3.html#serologicalmarkers through http://www.who.int . ...

  17. XTC-induced hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oranje, W.A.; van Pol, V.; van der Wurff, A.A.; Zeijen, R.N.; Stockbrügger, R.W.; Arends, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    XTC-induced hepatitis. Oranje WA, von Pol P, vd Wurff A, Zeijen RN, Stockbrugger RW, Arends JW. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Maastricht, Netherlands. An increasing number of severe complications associated with the use of XTC is being reported. After 11 earlier case reports

  18. Hepatitis Testing - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Hepatitis Testing URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/hepatitistesting.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section A B C D E F G H I J K L M N ...

  19. Hepatitis A - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Hepatitis A URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/hepatitisa.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section A B C D E F G H I J K L M N ...

  20. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  1. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  2. Viral hepatitis in minority America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Renard A; Vega, Kenneth J

    2005-02-01

    Viral hepatitis continues as an important public health concern in the United States. Available data indicate that acute and chronic viral hepatitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this country despite the availability of immunization for hepatitis A and B and pharmacologic therapy for chronic hepatitis B and C. Minority populations within the United States are disproportionately affected by acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Many diseases, for example, Barrett's esophagus, affect ethnic groups differently. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C may demonstrate ethnic variation with regard to their epidemiology, natural history, clinicopatholgic findings, complications, and treatment outcomes. This report will review the literature regarding these areas in hepatitis A, B, and C among the African American, Hispanic American, and Native American populations of the United States.

  3. A case of prenatally detected hepatic cyst communicating with the hepatic duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Katsuno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe the case of a 9-year-old girl. During the patient's prenatal period, her mother had suffered domestic violence perpetrated by the patient's father. On maternal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, an intraabdominal cystic lesion was detected in the fetus at around the 30th prenatal week. The patient was delivered normally, and there were no evident anomalies on her body. Computed tomography with drip infusion cholangiography and percutaneous retrograde transhepatic cholangiography demonstrated an intrahepatic cyst of approximately 3 cm in diameter, which was located at S5–S8 and communicated with the confluence of the bilateral hepatic ducts. The cyst is clinically conjectured to be a solitary intrahepatic biliary cyst. However, it remains possible that the cyst is a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst or indicates hepatic injury that may have occurred as a result of domestic violence to the mother. Careful, long-term observation of the patient will be continued to ensure that any malignant transformation is not missed.

  4. [The focal renal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-05

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful.

  5. Hepatitis and hepatitis A vaccine: a glimpse of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilleman, M R

    1993-01-01

    Human hepatitis has been recognized since the dawn of recorded history, but proof of infectious etiology and delineation of hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) from hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) were not established until the first half of the present century. Development of the present killed hepatitis A vaccine depended on a series of breakthrough discoveries made during the last 25 years. These were marmoset propagation (1967); definition of virus attributes (1974-1975); development of diagnostic tests and seroepidemiology (1974-1975); and the preparation and proof of efficacy of a prototype killed hepatitis A vaccine (1976). Successful cultivation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 quickly led to development of both live and killed hepatitis A vaccines for tests in human beings (1980-1990). The year 1991 marks the initiation of protective efficacy trials of two different killed virus vaccines in human beings. The safety and protective efficacy of the first vaccine (Merck) is reported in this symposium and the findings in tests of a second vaccine (SKB) are awaited. Hepatitis A is clearly a conquerable disease, initially in its elimination as an important disease entity and eventually in its eradication.

  6. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver occurring during the course of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma treatment: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruhiko Honmyo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: HCV-related HCC has a high rate of multicentric recurrence. Our experience suggests that, when a hepatic lesion is suspected to be HCC, surgical resection should be considered for curative treatment and to rule out malignancy, even if the lesion may be an IPT.

  7. Hepatic hemangio-endothelioma: radiological findings and clinical evolution of a case; Hemangioendotelioma hepatico: aspectos radiologicos e evolucao clinica de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo de; Souza, Carolina Althoff; Yanaga, Ricardo Hideki [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia; Albonei, Mara [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Pediatria]. E-mail: carolina_althoff@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    Vascular tumors encompass a spectrum of lesions, which may vary from benign hemangiomas to malignant angio sarcomas. Hemangio-endotheliomas can be considered intermediary between these two types of lesions. We report a case of hepatic hemangio endothelioma in a newborn female and review the most important aspects of this disease. (author)

  8. Hepatic splenosis mimicking liver metastases in a patient with history of childhood immature teratoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotovsek, Blaz; Skrbinc, Breda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatic splenosis is rare condition, preceded by splenectomy or spleen trauma, the term refers to nodular implantation of normal splenic tissue in the liver. In patients with history of malignancy in particular, it can be mistaken for metastases and can lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures or inappropriate treatment. Case report Twenty-two-year old male was treated for immature teratoma linked to undescended right testicle after birth. On regular follow-up examinations no signs of disease relapse or long-term consequences were observed. He was presented with incidental finding of mature cystic teratoma after elective surgery for what appeared to be left-sided inguinal hernia. The tumour was most likely a metastasis of childhood teratoma. Origin within remaining left testicle was not found. Upon further imaging diagnostics, several intrahepatic lesions were revealed. Based on radiologic appearance they were suspicious to be metastases. The patient underwent two ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Cytologic diagnosis was inconclusive. Histology of laparoscopically obtained tissue disclosed presence of normal splenic tissue and led to diagnosis of hepatic splenosis. Conclusions Though hepatic splenosis is rare, it needs to be included in differential diagnosis of nodular hepatic lesions. Accurate interpretation of those lesions is crucial for appropriate management of the patient. If diagnosis eludes after cytologic diagnostics alone, laparoscopic excision of nodular lesion is warranted before considering more extensive liver resection. PMID:27247554

  9. The significance of echogenic rim of atypical hepatic hemangioma on ultrasonogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Hyeong; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, Joo Won; Yoon, Yup [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate whether the presence of a peripheral echogenic rim surrounding internal low echogenicity is helpful in the diagnosis of atypical hepatic hemangioma. Within a two-year period, a retrospective review of the sonographic appearances of 24 atypical hemangiomas in 21 patients was performed. Diagnosis was made by dynamic and delayed enhanced CT, MR imaging or clinical follow up for one year, including follow-up sonogram. The sonographic appearances of these hemangiomas were analyzed for pattern and thickness of the echogenic rim, internal echo pattern, shape, and size. Additionally, forty six lesions of hepatoma, metastasis, abscess and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma confirmed by pathology within the same period were also evaluated for the presence of echogenic rim. Twenty-three of 24 lesions showed an echogenic rim;these were thick in nine cases, and thin in 14 cases. The thickness of the rim was either uniform(n=10) or eccentric(n=13). The average maximum diameter of atypical hemangioma was 4.4cm(range of diameters, 1.5-12cm). The internal echo pattern was partially or entirely hypoechoic in 15 lesions, homogeneously isoechoic in three, and mixed in six cases. Twenty-one lesions were round, and the shape of three was irregular. The other forty six masses including hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases, cholangiocarcinoma and hepatic abscesses did not show an echogenic rim. The presence of a sonographic echogenic rim in a hepatic mass may help in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma.

  10. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... and magnetic resonance imaging data and obtained follow-up (FU) information on 77 of these patients over a mean duration of 4 years. The AIIDLs presented as a single lesion in 72 (80 %) patients and exhibited an infiltrative (n = 35), megacystic (n = 16), Baló (n = 10) or ring-like (n = 16) lesion appearance...... in 77 (86 %) patients. Additional multiple sclerosis (MS)-typical lesions existed in 48 (53 %) patients. During FU, a further clinical attack occurred rarely (23-35 % of patients) except for patients with ring-like AIIDLs (62 %). Further attacks were also significantly more often in patients...

  11. Endoscopic approach to subepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Laila; Buscaglia, Jonathan M

    2014-05-01

    Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) play a critical role in the detection and management of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common subepithelial lesions detected by endoscopists are gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), leiomyomas, lipomas, granular cell tumors (GCTs), pancreatic rests and carcinoid tumors. These lesions can be classified based on unique histochemical staining and the gastrointestinal layer of origin. While the majority of the lesions are considered benign, some tumors such as GISTs and carcinoids have a strong propensity for malignant transformation. Therefore, appropriate endoscopic versus surgical management based on size and location is crucial in the prevention of malignant transformation and metastasis. In this review, we provide a systematic approach to the diagnosis, management and treatment of commonly encountered subepithelial lesions.

  12. Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of necrotizing eosinophilic abscess clinically mimicking hepatic neoplasia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Grace; Kathuria, Manoj; Abraham, Bincy; Schnadig, Vicki J

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic hepatic pseudotumors (EHP) are known complications of visceral larva migrans (VLM). By radiologic studies, EHP can be suspicious for primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasia. Diagnosis of an EHP by fine needle aspiration (FNA) led to the diagnosis of Toxocara VLM in a patient with suspected hepatic neoplasia. A 38-year-old Cambodian man had hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis with grade III portal fibrosis diagnosed in 2003. He had had negative routine alpha-fetoprotein and radiologic screening for hepatic neoplasia until 2006 when abdominal computed tomography revealed a 1.6 x 1.2-cm, ill-defined hypodense lesion in segment VII. Biopsy was recommended in order to exclude hepatocellular carcinoma. FNA of the lesion contained abundant Charcot-Leyden crystals, degenerating eosinophils and necrotic debris. Work-up for nematode larva migrans was recommended. Toxocara antigen IgG titer was significantly elevated leading to a presumptive diagnosis of VLM, and therapy for Toxocara-induced VLM was given. Identification of abundant Charcot-Leyden crystals and necrotic eosinophils in an FNA of the liver led to appropriate ancillary diagnostic tests and therapy for visceral larva migrans.

  13. Lesion margin analysis for automated classification of cervical cancer lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raad, Viara; Xue, Zhiyun; Lange, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Digital colposcopy is an emerging technology, replacing the traditional colposcope for diagnosis of cervical lesions. Incorporating automated algorithms within a digital colposcopy system can improve the reliability and the diagnostic accuracy of cervical precancer and cancer. An automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can assess the three important cervical diagnostic cues: the color, the vascular patterns and the lesion margins with quantitative measures, similar to the way colposcopists use the Reid's index in traditional colposcopy. In this work we present a novel way to analyze and classify the global and the local features of one of the three major components in colposcopy diagnosis - the lesion margins. The margins of cervical lesion can be described as 'feathered,' 'geographic,' 'satellite,' 'regular or smooth' and 'margin-in-margin,' or they can be of mixed type. As margin characterization is a complex task, we use irregularity descriptors such as compactness indices and curvature descriptors. To address the complexity of the problem, the dependency of scale and the position of the lesion on the cervical image, our method use novel Fourier energy descriptors. The conceptually complex analysis of describing lesions as 'satellite' lesions or lesions with multiple margins is performed using descriptors, where the distance, the position and the local statistical estimates of image intensity play important role. We trained this new algorithm to classify and diagnose the cervix, evaluating only the lesions. The accuracy of the results is assessed against a 'ground truth' scheme, using colposcopists' annotations and pathology results. We report the resulted accuracy of the classification method assessed against this scheme.

  14. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV.

  15. Pathophysiology and long-term outcome of reversible tumor-like lesions induced by presenting status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Nuno; Soares, Pedro; Calado, Sofia; Pestana, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Constança; Vale, José

    2010-04-01

    Within the spectrum of reversible neuroimaging abnormalities induced by status epilepticus (SE) tumor-like lesions (TLL) have been rarely described. Their etiology, pathophysiology, and long-term outcome remain uncertain. These issues could be clarified by long-term magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in TLL induced by presenting SE. Prospective multi-sequence MRI and clinical and electroencephalographic long-term (18 to 60 months) follow-up studies were performed in 3 patients with reversible TLL induced by presenting SE. In the peri-ictal MRI, TLL are hypointense in T1-weighted, hyperintense in T2-weighted, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images with a marked subcortical component and sulci effacement. The diffusion and MR-spectroscopy studies disclosed intermixed areas of increased/decreased diffusivity associated with a lactate peak and a decreased N-acetylaspartate. At long-term follow-up, none of the patients had seizure recurrence or electroencephalographic epileptiform abnormalities; MRI showed residual focal atrophy and gliosis associated with neuronal loss/dysfunction. SE per se may induce TLL. MRI multi-sequence studies disclosed that they are mainly formed by focal vasogenic and cytotoxic edema resulting from the hypermetabolism associated with seizure activity. In spite of a clinical favorable long-term outcome, the demonstration of irreversible brain damage argues in favor of immediate treatment of SE.

  16. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  17. Dynamic CT vs 0.5 T MR imaging in the detection of surgically proven hepatic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, R K; Dritschilo, A; Silverman, P M; Clark, L R; Garra, B S; Thomas, D S; Ahlgren, J D; Smith, F P; Korec, S M; Nauta, R J

    1989-01-01

    Seventeen patients with 52 surgically proven hepatic metastases were studied preoperatively with dynamic CT and 0.5 T magnetic resonance (MR). Dynamic CT detected 38 metastases (73%), and the combination of short echo time (T1-weighted) and T2-weighted pulse sequences detected 46 lesions (88%). Magnetic resonance was also superior at assessing potential resectability. This study suggests that MR excels in detecting and anatomically localizing individual hepatic metastases.

  18. Hepatitis in a patient with SLE: Is it autoimmune hepatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Kooy, Adriaan; Heide, L. J M; Engelkens, Herman; Mulder, Andries; HAGEN, MARTIN; Schalm, Solko

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we considered the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in view of raised serum aminotransferases, hypergammaglobulinaemia, antinuclear antibodies (titre 1:10240), seronegative of markers for viral hepatitis and absence of recent hepatotoxic drug usage. The diagnosis of AIH was supported by using the scoring system, recently developed by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group and the excellent response to treatment with...

  19. Characteristics of hepatitis viruses among Egyptian children with acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed; Yano, Yoshihiko; El-Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is hyperendemic in Egypt, western Asia and Africa. However, little is known about the status of hepatitis viruses among rural Egyptian children. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis viruses among symptomatic Egyptian children. Serological and molecular analyses of hepatitis viral infection were conducted in 33 children hospitalised at Mansoura University with symptomatic hepatic dysfunction (mean ± standard deviation age, 9.7±3.4 years; alanine aminotransferase level, 130±68 IU/ml). Eleven children (33%) were positive for anti-haemagglutination-IgM and were diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti‑hepatitis C virus (HCV) were detected in 9 (27%) and 7 (21%) children, respectively, indicating acute-on-chronic infection with hepatitis viruses. None of the children was positive for anti‑hepatitis B core antigen-IgM. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all HBVs belonged to genotype D (subgenotype D1) and that HCV belonged to genotypes 4a and 1g. HBV-DNA was detected in 9 children (27%) in the pre-S/S region and in 16 children (48%) in the core promoter/precore region. The Y134F amino acid mutation in the 'α' determinant region was detected in all of the patients. The A1762T/G1764A double mutation, and the T1846A and G1896A single mutations were common in children with occult HBV infection. In conclusion, hepatitis viral infection, including acute-on-chronic infection with HCV and HBV, is common in Egyptian children hospitalised with acute hepatitis.

  20. The amazing universe of hepatic microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Valeer J

    2009-08-01

    An informal review is presented by the author of his 50 years of involvement in practice and research in hepatopathology. Some background for the author's attitude and meandering pathway into his professional career serves as introduction to a short discussion of the main topics of his interest and expertise. Histogenesis of liver cancer was the theme of early work for a Ph.D. thesis, the results of which were lost into oblivion due to local rules and circumstances, but were rescued three decades later. His conclusions about the cells of origin of liver cancer remain concordant with the newer concepts in the field after nearly half a century. Studies in the field of chronic hepatitis became a long saga, involving the first classification of this syndrome by "the Gnomes" in 1968, histochemical investigations of viral antigens, lymphocyte subsets and adhesion molecules, and a quarter century later, the creation of a new classification presently in use. Cholestasis was a broadening field in diagnostic entities and involved the study of liver lesions, comprising pathways of bile regurgitation (including reversed secretory polarity of hepatocytes) and so-called ductular reaction. The latter topic has a high importance for the various roles it plays in modulating liver tissue of chronic cholestasis into biliary cirrhosis, and as the territory of hepatic progenitor cells, crucial for liver regeneration in adverse conditions and in development of liver cancer. Study of the embryology of intrahepatic bile ducts helped to clarify the strange appearance of the ducts in "ductal plate configuration" in several conditions, including some forms of biliary atresia with poor prognosis and all varieties of fibrocystic bile duct diseases with "ductal plate malformation" as the basic morphologic lesion.

  1. Contemporary management and classification of hepatic leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Mazin O; Roberts, Keith J; Merchant, William; Lodge, J Peter A

    2015-04-01

    Hepatic leiomyosarcomas are rare soft-tissue tumours. The majority of lesions previously considered as leiomyosarcomas have been identified as gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Consequently, understanding of the role of liver resection for true leiomyosarcoma is limited, a fact that is exacerbated by the increasing recognition of leiomyosarcoma subtypes. This study presents data on the outcomes of liver resection for leiomyosarcoma and suggests an algorithm for its pathological assessment and treatment. Patients were identified from a prospectively collected departmental database. All tumours were negative for c-kit expression. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify the presence of oestrogen or progesterone receptor (OR/PR) expression or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and patients were stratified according to this profile. Eight patients (of whom seven were female) underwent a total of 11 liver resections over a 12-year period. One patient had a primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma. Of those with metastatic leiomyosarcomas, the primary tumours were located in the mesentery, gynaecological organs and retroperitoneum in four, two and one patient, respectively. Both leiomyosarcomas of gynaecological origin stained positive for OR/PR expression. One patient had previously undergone renal transplantation; this leiomyosarcoma was associated with EBV expression. Median survival was 56 months (range: 22-132 months) and eight, six and four patients remained alive at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. Hepatic resection for leiomyosarcoma is associated with encouraging rates of 5-year overall and disease-free survival. The worse outcome that had been expected based on data derived from historical cohorts (partly comprising subjects with GIST) was not observed. An algorithm for pathological classification and treatment is suggested. © 2014 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  2. Garlic and hepatic coccidiosis: prophylaxis or treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akkada, Somaia S; Oda, Samah S; Ashmawy, Karam I

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of crude garlic (Allium sativum) against experimental infection with Eimeria stiedae in rabbits. Forty rabbits were divided into four groups of ten rabbits each: a healthy control group (HC); a challenged-garlic-protected group (CGP) which received a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight (bwt) crude garlic for five successive days before challenge with E. stiedae; a challenged-garlic-treated group (CGT) which was treated with a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg bwt crude garlic for five successive days post-challenge; and an infected control group (IC). The challenge dose was 5 x 10(4) sporulated E. stiedae oocysts per rabbit. Mortality rate, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and faecal oocyst count were evaluated throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, all rabbits were killed and histopathological examination was performed. No mortalities were recorded in the HC and CGP groups, whilst mortality was found to be 20% and 40% in the CGT and IC groups, respectively. CGP rabbits had better body weight gain and lower numbers of oocysts than those in the CGT and IC groups. Hepatic lesions were less severe in the CGP group than in the CGT and IC groups. These results showed that oral administration of crude garlic ameliorated the adverse impacts of hepatic coccidiosis on rabbits when used as a prophylactic, but garlic was less effective as a therapeutic.

  3. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  4. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Taiwanese man presented with dark urine for 5 days before admission to hospital and with fever on the 2nd day of admission to hospital. Laboratory studies showed acute hepatitis with hyperbilirubinemia. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection was diagnosed. The fever subsided after treatment with ceftriaxone and cefepime. His serum bilirubin reached its peak value on the 3rd week after admission to hospital and then gradually returned to the normal range. To the best of our knowledge, acute hepatitis E coinfection with nontyphoidal salmonella has not been reported previously.

  5. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  6. Prevention of hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2015-03-02

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV vaccine is effective, and a combination of both yields the best efficacy in preventing HBV infection. The impact of universal HBV immunization is huge, with 90%-95% effectiveness in preventing chronic HBV infection. It is the first cancer preventive vaccine with a protective efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ∼ 70%. Nevertheless, further effort is still needed to avoid vaccine failure and to increase the global coverage rate. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Hepatic adenomatosis: rapid sequence MR imaging following gadolinium enhancement: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brummett, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States); Burton, E.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States)]|[Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States); Sabio, H. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Hepatic adenomas are primary liver tumors usually associated with underlying metabolic disease or with anabolic steroid or oral contraceptive use. Hepatic adenomatosis (HA) is defined as the presence of more than four adenomas. Only 13 cases of HA have been reported in patients without glycogen storage disease or steroid use. We report a case of HA imaged by postcontrast T1-weighted images obtained during a breath-holding series. The lesions were most conspicuous 3-4 min after contrast administration; 4 of the 5 tumors were not identified on T2-weighted images. Unlike previous reports of HA in which the lesions remained hyperintense during sequential postcontrast imaging, the smaller lesions in this case demonstrated contrast washout, thereby distinguishing them from hemangiomata. (orig.) With 3 figs., 10 refs.

  8. Hepatitis C in Haematological Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Y. Y.; Liang, R.H.S.

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus guideline concerning the management of chronic hepatitis C patients during chemotherapy, and immunosuppression. However, there are some suggestions in literature that hepatitis C viral load increases during chemotherapy and there is a risk of rebound immunity against hepatitis C after discontinuation of immunosuppression with a consequent liver injury. A close monitoring of liver function of these patients is prudent during treatment of haematological malignancy. Antivir...

  9. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused ...

  10. Voxel-based lesion mapping of meningioma: a comprehensive lesion location mapping of 260 lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuichi; Kinoshita, Manabu; Arita, Hideyuki; Kagawa, Naoki; Kishima, Haruhiko; Hashimoto, Naoya; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE In the present study the authors aimed to determine preferred locations of meningiomas by avoiding descriptive analysis and instead using voxel-based lesion mapping and 3D image-rendering techniques. METHODS Magnetic resonance images obtained in 248 treatment-naïve meningioma patients with 260 lesions were retrospectively and consecutively collected. All images were registered to a 1-mm isotropic, high-resolution, T1-weighted brain atlas provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute (the MNI152), and a lesion frequency map was created, followed by 3D volume rendering to visualize the preferred locations of meningiomas in 3D. RESULTS The 3D lesion frequency map clearly showed that skull base structures such as parasellar, sphenoid wing, and petroclival regions were commonly affected by the tumor. The middle one-third of the superior sagittal sinus was most commonly affected in parasagittal tumors. Substantial lesion accumulation was observed around the leptomeninges covering the central sulcus and the sylvian fissure, with very few lesions observed at the frontal, parietal, and occipital convexities. CONCLUSIONS Using an objective visualization method, meningiomas were shown to be located around the middle third of the superior sagittal sinus, the perisylvian convexity, and the skull base. These observations, which are in line with previous descriptive analyses, justify further use of voxel-based lesion mapping techniques to help understand the biological nature of this disease.

  11. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  12. Destructive lesions of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybaud, C

    1983-01-01

    The congenital destructive lesions of the brain include focal lesions (porencephaly) and diffuse lesions (micrencephaly, hydranencephaly). According to the time the injury occurred and following the assumption of Yakovlev and Wadworth (1946), they are classified as agenetic porencephalies, either - bilateral (schizencephaly) or unilateral, when the injury occurs early enough in gestation (before 6 months) to disturb the growth of the cerebral mantle: abnormal sulcal pattern and heterotopic gray matter are then observed. They are classified as encephaloclastic when the destruction affects an otherwise normal cerebrum (last trimester). The porencephalies should be differenciated from post natal lesions (multicystic encephalomalacia, focal cavitations). By showing the fluid cavity and the cortical distortion, neuroradiology permits precise diagnosis of the defect itself and the associated cortical disorder, as well as an evaluation when they occurred.

  13. Diluted hydrochloric acid generates larger radiofrequency ablation lesions in excised porcine livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rong-Guang; Fao, Fei; Huang, Jin-Hua; Gu, Yang-Kui; Jiang, Xiong-Ying; Huang, Ying-Jie

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of continuous infusion of diluted hydrochloric acid during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on the size of ablated lesions. Experiments were performed in 20 excised porcine livers using three different treatment modalities: (1) normal saline-enhanced RFA (NS-RFA), which was normal saline pumped into ablated tissue during RFA; (2) diluted hydrochloric acid ablation (DHAA), which was 3 mol/L diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) injected into hepatic tissue without RFA; and (3) HCl-enhanced RFA (HCl-RFA), which was 3 mol/L diluted HCl continuously infused into ablated tissue during RFA. We produced 20 HCl-RFA and NS-RFA lesions, respectively, using a monopolar perfusion electrode connected to a commercially available radiofrequency generator, and 20 DHAA lesions using an 18-gauge Chiba needle. The ablated lesions were evaluated both macroscopically and histologically. Dimensions of lesions were compared among HCl-RFA, NS-RFA, and DHAA. The ablated lesions had an elliptical-like shape and were well-demarcated with normal liver tissue. The mean volume, longitudinal diameter, and transverse diameter of NS-RFA lesions were 11.24±0.29 cm(3), 3.4±0.07 cm, and 2.48±0.03 cm, those of HCl-RFA lesions were 58.14±3.05 cm(3), 5.51±0.05 cm, and 4.49±0.11 cm, and those of DHAA lesions were 4.41±0.16 cm(3), 2.43±0.08 cm, and 1.8±0.03 cm, respectively. The mean dimensions of HCl-RFA lesions were the largest among the three types of ablation (P < 0.001). Under the present experimental conditions, the continuous infusion of diluted HCl during RFA can generate larger ablated lesions than NS-RFA or DHAA in excised porcine livers.

  14. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  15. Hepatitis C in Haematological Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Hwang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus guideline concerning the management of chronic hepatitis C patients during chemotherapy, and immunosuppression. However, there are some suggestions in literature that hepatitis C viral load increases during chemotherapy and there is a risk of rebound immunity against hepatitis C after discontinuation of immunosuppression with a consequent liver injury. A close monitoring of liver function of these patients is prudent during treatment of haematological malignancy. Antiviral treatment is deferred after the completion of chemotherapy and recovery of patients' immunity to minimize the toxicity of treatment. A combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is the standard therapy in hepatitis C infected haematological patients.

  16. Autochthonous hepatitis E in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Sandeep; Smith, Donald; Wellington, Louise; Vanek, Jeff; Simmonds, Peter; MacGilchrist, Alastair; Bathgate, Andrew; Simpson, Kenneth; Johannessen, Ingolfur

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus is well recognized cause of acute hepatitis. Traditionally hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections were generally associated with travel to Asia and Africa. Autochthonous hepatitis E is recognized as a major cause acute hepatitis in England and Wales. However, autochthonous hepatitis E has never been documented in Scotland. We attempted to determine if autochthonous HEV occurred in Scotland. Samples from 377 individuals in the South-East of Scotland presenting with acute hepatitis were tested over six years. Acute hepatitis E was confirmed by detecting viraemia or documenting seroconversion and ORF-2 region sequenced. Structured interviews were carried out to identify risk factors for infection. Sixteen individuals (4.2%) had evidence of past HEV infection. Twelve (3.2%) had acute HEV infection, 10 of whom had viraemia (genotype 1=3; genotype 3=7). Of these seven with genotype 3 infection, three had not travelled outside Scotland within the incubation period, while four had travelled to Spain (n=3) or Turkey (n=1). All three individuals with genotype 1 infection had travelled to the Indian subcontinent. A significant proportion of HEV genotype 3 infections was autochthonous (43%). HEV screening should hence be an integral part of acute hepatitis screening in Scotland, irrespective of the travel history. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Atypical appearance of an hepatic hemangioma with technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larcos, G.; Farlow, D.C.; Gruenewald, S.M.; Antico, V.F. (Westmead Hospital, NSW (Australia))

    1989-11-01

    Three-phase 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy is an established technique for distinguishing hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions. The most widely recognized feature is the perfusion to blood-pool mismatch characterized by decreased or normal arterial perfusion, with lesion activity which progressively increases over 1-2 hr. Although increased arterial vascularity of hemangiomas has been described, such cases either involved small portions of the lesion only or occurred in lesions not conclusively proven to be hemangiomas. We report a case of an angiography proven hemangioma with increased arterial vascularity involving a significant portion of the lesion as well as intense early blood-pool activity similar to that seen on delayed imaging. This case emphasizes the diverse appearance of hepatic hemangiomas using 99mTc blood cell scintigraphy.

  18. TRIPLE PHASE SPIRAL C.T. IN THE EVALUATION OF HEPATIC MASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : The goal of the study is to determine the value of various phases of Triple, Helical CT, Hepatic arterial Phase (HAP, Portal venous phase (PVP and Equilibrium Phase (EP, is the detection and characterization of Hepatic Lesions and to evaluate whether u nenhanced and hepatic arterial phases when used in conjunction with porto venous phase would lead to detection of greater number of lesions or better characterization of lesion. METHODOLOGY : The study population consists of 50 Patients aged between 30 Years and 80 Years were examined with multiphase (plain, hepatic arterial, portal venous and equilibrium phases. Spiral CT of liver. Patients were referred for CT scan when liver diseases were suspected clinically, if ultrasound and other previous investi gations revealed lesions which had to be further evaluated by spiral CT and to detect liver metastases in known cases of primary extra hepatic malignancy. CT TECHNIQUE: Helical scanning of liver with Toshiba astein s4, continuous spiral run and the images were reconstructed at 5mm intervals. Contrast material 100ml was injected through 18 or 20G catheter at the rate of 3ml per second using automatic medrad power injector. Non - ionic contrast [IOHEXOl – 300mg perml was used in all the patients]. After obtaine d unenhanced CT scan HAP scanning was initiated 25 seconds after initiation of contrast injection. Portal venous phase scanning was initiated 60 - 65 seconds after start of contrast injection. Equilibrium phase scanning was initiated after 180 seconds after the start of contrast injection. IMAGE EVALUATION: All the images of 4 phases were reviewed. First Step : The presence, appearance and enhancement of each Lesion were noted in all phases and lesion were described Isodense, Hypodense Hyperdense based on thei r attenuation relative to liver parenchyma during that phase of scanning. Based on enhancement pattern of the lesion during various phases they were

  19. Itchy lesions in pigmented skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rachel; Ahmeen, Mahreen; Fleming, Ann; Hoque, Shamali

    2013-10-10

    A 37-year-old woman with type VI skin presented with 1-year history of pruritic lesions affecting her arms, chest and legs. The lesions were approximately 5 mm in diameter, annular and with a raised border. A skin biopsy was performed which showed a diagnosis of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Porokeratosis is an unusual presentation in pigmented skin and there are very limited reports of this occurrence in the literature.

  20. Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.

  1. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdeva Meenakshi; Kaur Surjeet; Nagpal Madhu; Dewan S

    2002-01-01

    Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8%) newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%), Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%), su...

  2. MRI atlas of MS lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences Sina Hospital (Iran). Dept. of Neurology; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm [Univ. Hospital Basel (Switzerland). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2008-07-01

    MRI has become the main paraclinical test in the diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis. We have demonstrated more than 400 pictures of different typical and atypical MS lesions in this atlas. Each image has a teaching point. New diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis are discussed and the book is supported by a teaching DVD where the reader can see MS lesions in different slices and sequences. (orig.)

  3. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne fulminans (AF is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique.

  4. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

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    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  5. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  6. Histomorphological spetrum of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, S; Koirala, U; Khatri, R; Acharya, L; Suwal, A

    2011-04-01

    Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Mass in the breast, whether benign or malignant is a cause of anxiety to the patients and the family members. All breast lumps are considered to be carcinomas until proved otherwise and are the causes of concern both for the patient and surgeon. This is a retrospective study conducted in Kathmandu Model Hospital for a total duration of three years from August 2007 to August 2010. 114 sample of breast tissue sent for histopathology were studied. Peak incidence of benign lesion was in between 21-30 years and malignant lesions in between 31-50 years. No breast lesions were seen in the first decade of life. Cancer of the breast was seen in 12.28% of cases. Fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease were the commonest benign lesion and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest malignant lesion. Specimens from 10 male breasts were received. Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion encountered in males. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was seen in a 70 year old male. Breast cancer is one of the commonest causes of breast lump particularly in women and is growing public health problem in Nepal.

  7. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation in hepatic and pancreatic cancer: complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Eun; Cho, Se Hyun; Jang, Jin Hee; Han, Joon-Yeol

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the complications of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in patients with hepatic and pancreatic cancer. From January 2006 to December 2008, 133 sessions of HIFU treatment were performed in 114 consecutive patients with primary hepatic tumor (n = 57), hepatic metastasis (n = 22), and pancreatic cancer (n = 35) under general anesthesia. The extracorporeal, ultrasound-guided Model-JC system (HAIFU, Chongqing, China) was used. Artificial pleural effusion was created to obtain an adequate sonographic window for ablating hepatic dome masses in 53 patients. We reviewed medical records and imaging findings before, during, and after HIFU. All patients had skin redness, edema, and pain in the treatment regions. All hepatic tumor patients had necrosis of the ribs along the main ultrasound beam path that did not require further treatment. Major complications included biliary obstruction, symptomatic pleural effusion, pneumothorax and fistula formation between an abdominal wall abscess and the ablated hepatic tumor. In 35 pancreatic cancer patients, major complications included third-degree burns and fistula formation between the tumor and duodenum. Delayed complications in hepatic tumor patients included a diaphragmatic rupture and rib fractures along the ultrasound pathway. The complications of HIFU develop mainly around the targeted lesions or along the ultrasound beam pathway. It is essential to have awareness of the possible complications related to HIFU and its imaging features for to avoiding serious complications.

  8. Oral lesions associated with nevirapine-related Stevens Johnson syndrome: A report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, S; Ranganathan, K; Umadevi, K; Gunaseelan, R; Kumaraswamy, N; Solomon, Sunithi; Devaleenol, Bella; Ambrose, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Nevirapine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, widely used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for treatment of HIV infection. Steven Johnson syndrome (SJS) is the major toxicity of nevirapine. We describe here four cases of SJS in HIV seropositive patients following nevirapine therapy. In all four cases cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction was seen with extreme oral lesions, three patients presented clinically with elevated liver enzymes and hepatitis, and two patients had ocular involvement.

  9. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  10. Hepatitis in a patient with SLE: Is it autoimmune hepatitis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kooy (Adriaan); L.J.M. de Heide (Loek); H.J.H. Engelkens (Herman); A.H. Mulder (Andries); M.P. van Hagen (Martin); S.W. Schalm (Solko)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we considered the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in view of raised serum aminotransferases, hypergammaglobulinaemia, antinuclear antibodies (titre 1:10240), seronegative of markers for viral hepatitis and absence of recent

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They are also among the commonest transfusiontransmissible infectious agents. Students of higher institutions are often used as voluntary unpaid donors by many ...

  12. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  13. Chronic hepatitis B associated with hepatic steatosis, insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on fatty liver disease is unclear.. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the viral and host causes of fatty liver in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. This study included 88 CHB patients of which 17 were not treated. Liver biopsy was performed in each ...

  14. FFA STUDY OF MACULAR LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vinayagamurthy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Macula is an important portion of retina that occupies the posterior pole of retina. Any disease that affects macula results in significant loss of central vision, form vision and colour vision to an extent. Macular lesions can be hereditary as well as acquired. Macular lesions occur in both younger and older individuals. Anatomically, a macular lesions can vary from a simple lesion like an RPF defect to a vision-threatening lesions like choroidal neovascular membrane. Many screening tests that are sensitive and specific are available to assess the functioning of macula called as ‘macular function test’. But, the greater understanding of the retinal vascular led to the usage of fluorescein angiogram in the detection and screening of macular, retinovascular and optic disc lesions. Through fundus fluorescein angiogram is a thirty-year-old procedure; it is still in vogue in almost all parts of the world. It has its own merits. The aim of the study is to study the role of fluorescein angiography in the evaluation of macular lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based prospective randomised study was done, which included 50 patients. Detailed patient history was taken and thorough ocular and systemic examination was done. All patients were examined by ophthalmoscopy (direct and indirect and slit-lamp examination with 90D followed by fluorescein angiography. Ophthalmoscopic and fluorescein angiography findings were analysed and categorised. Patients were advised proper ocular and systemic treatment and follow up. RESULTS 50 cases with macular lesions were analysed and categorised into conditions like ARMD, CSR, macular oedema, CME, degenerations and dystrophies and miscellaneous conditions. FFA altered the diagnosis in 8% cases and categorised the cases in all cases. 16% patients developed adverse reactions like allergy, vomiting and nausea. On statistical analysis, FFA proved to be cheap and superior diagnostic tool in confirming

  15. How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Xiridou; Barbara Borkent-Raven; Joost Hulshof; Jacco Wallinga

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control measures for HBV may have also affected the spread of hepatitis D, as evidenced by the decline of hepatitis D in recent years. Since the presence of hepatitis D is associated with suppressed HBV replic...

  16. Extra-hepatic manifestations of autochthonous hepatitis E infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolson, K L; Forbes, A; Vine, L; Beynon, L; McElhinney, L; Panayi, V; Hunter, J G; Madden, R G; Glasgow, T; Kotecha, A; Dalton, H C; Mihailescu, L; Warshow, U; Hussaini, H S; Palmer, J; Mclean, B N; Haywood, B; Bendall, R P; Dalton, H R

    2014-12-01

    Autochthonous (locally acquired) hepatitis E is increasingly recognised in developed countries, and is thought to be a porcine zoonosis. A range of extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis E infection have been described, but have never been systematically studied. To report the extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus. Retrospective review of data of 106 cases of autochthonous hepatitis E (acute n = 105, chronic n = 1). Eight (7.5%) cases presented with neurological syndromes, which included brachial neuritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, neuromyopathy and vestibular neuritis. Patients with neurological syndromes were younger (median age 40 years, range 34-92 years, P = 0.048) and had a more modest transaminitis (median ALT 471 IU/L, P = 0.015) compared to cases without neurological symptoms [median age 64 years (range 18-88 years), median ALT 1135 IU/L]. One patient presented with a cardiac arrhythmia,twelve patients (11.3%) presented with thrombocytopenia, fourteen (13.2%) with lymphocytosis and eight (7.5%) with a lymphopenia, none of which had any clinical consequence. Serum electrophoresis was performed in 65 patients at presentation, of whom 17 (26%) had a monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance. Two cases developed haematological malignancies, acute myeloid leukaemia and duodenal plasmacytoma, 18 and 36 months after presenting with acute hepatitis E infection. A range of extra-hepatic manifestations can occur with hepatitis E. Neurological and haematological features of hepatitis E infection are relatively frequent in this UK cohort, and result in significant morbidity which warrants further study. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A model to environmental monitoring based on glutathione-S-transferase activity and branchial lesions in catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Torres, Audalio Rebelo

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we validate the glutathione-S-transferase and branchial lesions as biomarkers in catfish Sciades herzbergii to obtain a predictive model of the environmental impact effects in a harbor of Brazil. The catfish were sampled from a port known to be contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds and from a natural reserve in São Marcos Bay, Maranhão. Two biomarkers, hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and branchial lesions were analyzed. The values for GST activity were modeled with the occurrence of branchial lesions by fitting a third order polynomial. Results from the mathematical model indicate that GST activity has a strong polynomial relationship with the occurrence of branchial lesions in both the wet and the dry seasons, but only at the polluted port site. Our mathematic model indicates that when the GST ceases to act, serious branchial lesions are observed in the catfish of the contaminated port area.

  18. HIV and hepatitis C coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highleyman, Liz

    2003-01-01

    Coinfection with HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a growing public health concern. Because the diseases are spread in similar ways--notably through shared use of needles to inject drugs and sexual activity--many people are coinfected with HIV and HCV, HIV and HBV, or even all three viruses. Hepatitis C and hepatitis B are viral infections of the liver; over time they can lead to serious consequences including liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Most studies show that HIV infection leads to more aggressive hepatitis C or hepatitis B and a higher risk of liver damage. Studies of how HCV and HBV affect HIV disease are less clear. Most research shows that HCV does not accelerate HIV disease progression, but HIV/HCV coinfection may impair immune system recovery after starting antiretroviral therapy. Coinfection can complicate treatment. People with liver damage due to chronic hepatitis are more likely to experience hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity) related to anti-HIV drugs. In addition, drugs used to treat HIV and hepatitis can interact and side effects may be exacerbated. Most experts recommend that HIV should be controlled first before a person begins HCV treatment. With careful management, most people with HIV/HCV or HIV/HBV coinfection can be successfully treated for both diseases. In fact, several recent studies suggest that HIV/HCV-coinfected people with well-controlled HIV disease and relatively high CD4 cell counts may do as well as those with HCV alone.

  19. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  20. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  1. Clinical features of hepatitis D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farci, Patrizia; Niro, Grazia Anna

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis D is caused by infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV), a defective RNA virus that requires the obligatory helper function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its in vivo transmission. Thus, HDV is acquired only by coinfection with HBV or by superinfection of an HBV carrier. The clinical outcome of hepatitis D differs according to the modality of infection. Whereas coinfection evolves to chronicity in only 2% of the cases, superinfection results in chronic infection in over 90% of the cases. HDV is a highly pathogenic virus that causes acute, often fulminant hepatitis, as well as a rapidly progressive form of chronic viral hepatitis, leading to cirrhosis in 70 to 80% of the cases. The clinical picture of HDV disease is evolving as a consequence of a significant change in the epidemiology of HDV infection, which has led to a significant decline in incidence in Western countries, mainly as a result of universal HBV vaccination programs. However, in the face of a declining prevalence in areas of old endemicity like Europe, immigration poses a threat of HDV resurgence. The interaction of HDV with other hepatitis viruses or human immunodeficiency virus is complex and may lead to different patterns in terms of virologic expression and immunologic responses. Multiple viral infections are associated with rapid progression of liver fibrosis and eventually with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis D is not a vanishing disease, and continuous efforts should be made to improve its prevention and treatment. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in mid-1982. An inactivated hepatitis B vaccine that was licensed in the United States in November 1981 has been shown to be safe, immunogenic, and effective. When this vaccine becomes available for use in July 1982, it will be recommended for persons who are considered to be at increased risk of contracting hepatitis B infection. Future generations of hepatitis B vaccines may be prepared from hepatitis B surface antigen derived from DNA recombinant technology or by in vitro synthesis of HBs Ag determinants by chemical means. PMID:6295013

  3. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  4. Painful hepatic hemangioma: report of a case with an emphasis on sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryusuke; Ishida, Hideaki; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Ishii, Toru; Komatsuda, Tomoya; Miyauchi, Takaharu; Sato, Tsutomu; Saito, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic hemangiomas are usually asymptomatic and very rarely produce abdominal symptoms. We report a painful 10 × 9 cm hemangioma situated at the hepatic surface of segment 6. The lesion showed a heterogeneous internal structure, composed irregularly of hyperechoic and hypoechoic areas, and it also showed weak posterior echo enhancement. Contrast-enhanced US showed the so-called fill-in pattern, leading to the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma. The patient's abdomen showed no other abnormal findings, which stressed the relationship between the hemangioma and the patient's symptoms. When the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma is conclusive, surgical therapy is indicated only in patients with severe symptoms. Our patient was considered to be a candidate for enucleation of the lesion. Histopathologically, the lesion included no areas of hemorrhage or necrosis, and the patient's abdominal pain was likely due to distension of the liver capsule. After surgery, the patient was completely free of symptoms, and enucleation was considered to be appropriate.

  5. History of the infantile hepatic hemangioma: From imaging to generating a differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnarra, Maria; Behr, Gerald; Kitajewski, Alison; Wu, June K; Anupindi, Sudha A; Shawber, Carrie J; Zavras, Nick; Schizas, Dimitrios; Salakos, Chris; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-08

    We aim to provide an up-to-date summary of infantile hepatic hemangioma (IHH) and its misnomers and to dialectically present the differential diagnosis of these rare entities of the liver. Eligible peer-reviewed articles on hepatic infantile hemangiomas, published between 2000 and 2015, were reviewed for this study. IHH is the most common hepatic vascular tumor in children. Once a liver mass is identified in an infant, the differential diagnosis ranges from vascular malformations to benign and malignant tumors including mesenchymal hamartoma, hepatoblastoma, metastatic neuroblastoma, so careful physical examination, imaging studies, and, if indicated, tumor markers and biopsy, are of pivotal importance to ascertain the correct diagnosis. Despite the benign nature of IHHs, some of these lesions may demand medical and/or surgical intervention, especially for multiple and diffuse IHH. Complications can include hepatomegaly, hypothyroidism and cardiac failure. Therefore, a close follow-up is required until complete involution of the lesions. We propose an algorithm to guide the physicians towards the proper management of hepatic lesions.

  6. Tc-99m RBC SPECT in hepatic cavernous hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Park, Chan H.; Yoon, Seok Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Hepatic cavernous hemangioma (HCH) is the most common benign hepatic tumor which is detected incidentally during ultrasonography (US) done at health check-up and computed tomography (CT) done for evaluation of metastasis. The aim of the study is to evaluate retrospectively the accuracy of the modality in the diagnosis of HCH at our institution. 229 patients underwent Tc-99m RBC liver SPECT from Nov 16, 1994 to Sep 24, 2001. There were 127 males and 103 females. Their ages ranges from 82 to 17 years with a mean age of 45.8 years. Twenty millicuries of Tc-99m RBCs autologously labeled were injected. SPECT was done in 2-3 hours after the tracer administration and several hours delayed scan was also obtained in some patients. SPECT was performed with low energy high resolution collimators and triple-head gamma camera (MultiSPECT, Siemens medical systems, Inc., Hoffman Estate, III. USA). SPECT was evaluated visually and results were compared with US, CT, MRI, and clinical follow-up. Of the 156 patients a total of 210 hemangiomas were found in RBC liver SPECT. With regard to the distribution of the lesions, 113 cases revealed single; 43 cases depicted multiple HCHs, with 164 in the right lobe and 46 in the left lobe. The size of lesions ranges from 0.9 to 10 cm. Regarding the size of the lesions on radiographic image, 11 were less than 1cm, 144 were 1 to 4 cm, and the others were more than 4 cm in diameter. RBC liver SPECT is none-invasive and very useful method in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma in patients with sonographic and computed tomographic suspicion, if the size is more than 1 cm in diameter. The method is used often for confirmation of HCH in our institution.

  7. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J.; Janssen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly or...

  8. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  9. Genetic Susceptibility to Chronic Hepatitis Is Inherited Codominantly in Helicobacter hepaticus-Infected AB6F1 and B6AF1 Hybrid Male Mice, and Progression to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Linked to Hepatic Expression of Lipogenic Genes and Immune Function-Associated Networks▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexis; Ihrig, Melanie M.; Fry, Rebecca C.; Feng, Yan; Xu, Sandy; Boutin, Samuel R.; Rogers, Arlin B.; Muthupalani, Suresh; Samson, Leona D.; Fox, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus causes hepatitis in susceptible strains of mice. Previous studies indicated that A/JCr mice are susceptible and C57BL/6NCr mice are resistant to H. hepaticus-induced hepatitis. We used F1 hybrid mice derived from A/J and C57BL/6 matings to investigate their phenotype and determine their hepatic gene expression profile in response to H. hepaticus infection. F1 hybrid mice, as well as parental A/J and C57BL/6 mice, were divided equally into control and H. hepaticus-infected groups and euthanized at 18 months postinoculation. Hepatic lesions were evaluated histologically and the differential hepatic gene expression in F1 mice was determined by microarray-based global gene expression profiling analysis. H. hepaticus-infected parental strains including A/J and C57BL/6 mice, as well as F1 mice, developed significant hepatitis. Overall, hepatocellular carcinomas or dysplastic liver lesions were observed in 69% of H. hepaticus-infected F1 male mice and H. hepaticus was isolated from hepatic tissues of all F1 mice with liver tumors. Liver tumors, characterized by hepatic steatosis, developed in livers with high hepatitis scores. To identify gene expression specific to H. hepaticus-induced hepatitis and progression to hepatocellular carcinoma in F1 mice, a method using comparative group transcriptome analysis was utilized. The canonical pathway most significantly enriched was immunological disease. Fatty acid synthase and steaoryl-coenzyme A desaturase, the two rate-limiting enzymes in lipogenesis, were upregulated in neoplastic relative to dysplastic livers. This study suggests a synergistic interaction between hepatic steatosis and infectious hepatitis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. The use of AB6F1 and B6AF1 mice, as well as genetically engineered mice, on a C57BL/6 background will allow studies investigating the role of chronic microbial hepatitis and steatohepatitis in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. PMID:18285497

  10. Whole Body MRI at 3T with Quantitative Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Contrast-Enhanced Sequences for the Characterization of Peripheral Lesions in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and Schwannomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Laura M; Blakeley, Jaishri; Plotkin, Scott; Widemann, Brigitte; Jacobs, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. WB-MRI is mainly used for tumor detection and surveillance. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of WB-MRI at 3T for lesion characterization, with DWI/ADC-mapping and contrast-enhanced sequences, in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) and schwannomatosis. Materials and Methods. At 3T, WB-MRI was performed in 11 subjects (10 NF-2 and 1 schwannomatosis) with STIR, T1, contrast-enhanced T1, and DWI/ADC mapping (b = 50, 400, 800 s/mm(2)). Two readers reviewed imaging for the presence and character of peripheral lesions. Lesion size and features (signal intensity, heterogeneity, enhancement characteristics, and ADC values) were recorded. Descriptive statistics were reported. Results. Twenty-three lesions were identified, with average size of 4.6 ± 2.8 cm. Lesions were characterized as tumors (21/23) or cysts (2/23) by contrast-enhancement properties (enhancement in tumors, no enhancement in cysts). On T1, tumors were homogeneously isointense (5/21) or hypointense (16/21); on STIR, tumors were hyperintense and homogeneous (10/21) or heterogeneous (11/21); on postcontrast T1, tumors enhanced homogeneously (14/21) or heterogeneously (7/21); on DWI, tumor ADC values were variable (range 0.8-2.7), suggesting variability in intrinsic tumor properties. Conclusion. WB-MRI with quantitative DWI and contrast-enhanced sequences at 3T is feasible and advances the utility of WB-MRI not only to include detection, but also to provide additional metrics for lesion characterization.

  11. Role of diffusion weighted imaging in differentiation of intracranial tuberculoma and tuberculous abscess from cysticercus granulomas-a report of more than 100 lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rakesh K. [Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, MR Section, Lucknow 226014 (India)]. E-mail: rgupta@sgpgi.ac.in; Prakash, Mahesh [Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, MR Section, Lucknow 226014 (India); Mishra, Asht M. [Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, MR Section, Lucknow 226014 (India); Husain, Mazhar [Department of Neurosurgery, King George' s Medical University, Lucknow (India); Prasad, Kashi N. [Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India); Husain, Nuzhat [Department of Neuropathology, King George' s Medical University, Lucknow (India)

    2005-09-01

    Restricted diffusion is noted in a large number of non-stroke conditions including tuberculoma. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate spectrum of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities in tuberculomas and tuberculous abscess and to distinguish these from degenerating neurocysticercosis. Seventy tuberculomas and tuberculous abscesses in 30 patients were categorized in three groups depending on the intensity in the core of the lesion on T2 weighted images. Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated from the core as well as from the wall of the lesions. Forty-five lesions of neurocysticercosis in different stage of evolution in 12 patients were also included for comparison. The mean ADC value from the core of the T2 hypointense lesions was significantly higher compared to the wall ((1.24 {+-} 0.32) x 10{sup -3} and (1.06 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively), while mean ADC value from the core of mildly T2 hyperintense lesions was significantly lower compared to the wall ((0.80 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup -3} and (1.08 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively). Truly T2 hyperintense lesions were divided into two subgroups, tuberculomas and tuberculous abscesses; ADC values from the core and the wall of these lesions were (0.74 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -3} (0.61 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup -3} and (1.03 {+-} 0.14) x 10{sup -3} (1.08 {+-} 0.14) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively, and was significantly lower in core as compared to the wall. However, there was no significant difference between ADC values of the tuberculous abscess and the hyperintense tuberculomas. Vesicular and degenerating stages of cysticercus cysts from the core showed ADC values of (1.66 {+-} 0.29) x 10{sup -3} and (1.51 {+-} 0.23) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively, and were significantly higher than the core of all groups of tuberculomas and tuberculous abscess. We conclude that addition of DWI to routine imaging protocol may help in differentiation of

  12. Destructive lesions of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybaud, C.

    1983-08-01

    The destructive lesions of the brain include a wide variety of congenital and postnatally acquired lesions, variably designated porencephaly, schizencephaly, multicystic encephalomalacia and micrencephaly. The term ''porencephaly'' has been a source of confusion since it was first coined by Heschl in 1859. At first, ''porencephaly'' was used to describe a defect which extended through the full thickness of the cerebral mantle. The ventricular lumen then communicated with the subarachnoid space through the ''porus''. Later ''porencephaly'' was used indiscriminately to describe any cavity of the brain parenchyma, whatever its etiology, pathogenesis, or time of development. This problem in nomenclature was compounded by inability to determine whether the cavities observed represented ''true'' malformations or acquired encephaloclastic lesions. In 1946, Yakovlev and Wadsworth published two papers entitled ''Schizencephalies; study of the congenital clefts in the cerebral mantle''. In these works, they stressed the peculiar morphology of the congenital porencephalies, and suggested that these lesions were sufficiently distinctive to be isolated from the other defects of the brain. Without addressing the precise origin or developmental course of these lesions, they pointed out that the morphologic changes indicated partial agenesis of the cerebral mantle at an early stage of development.

  13. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Ruohonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted human teeth. The results were analysed with a computational algorithm in order to find a rule-based classification method to detect caries lesions. Results. The classification indicated that the measured points of enamel could be assigned to one of three classes: healthy enamel, a caries lesion, and stained healthy enamel. The features that enabled this were consistent with theory. Conclusions. It seems that spectroscopic measurements can help to reduce false positives at in vitro setting. However, further research is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence for the method’s performance.

  14. MR imaging of hepatic hemangiomas of infancy and changes seen with interferon alpha-2a treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, T. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Hoffer, F.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Burrows, P.E. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Paltiel, H.J. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the appearance on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of hepatic hemangioma, and how the appearance changes in infants who have received interferon alpha-2a (IFN) treatment. We retrospectively studied 16 MR examinations in seven infants (mean age 3.2 months; range 5 days to 13 months) who were symptomatic with hepatic hemangiomas. Five of these seven patients had MR examinations both before and after treatment with IFN. In six of the seven patients, the hepatic hemangiomas were multicentric; they were usually discrete, well-defined nodules, best seen on T2-weighted images as high intensity lesions. One patient had a large solitary heterogeneous lesion. They all exhibited fast flow (seen as flow voids on spin-echo images and high signal intensity structures on gradient-recalled echo images) and enlarged hepatic arteries and veins. There was enlargement of the proximal abdominal aorta with distal tapering. Treatment was followed by accelerated regression of the hemangiomas in size and number and variable shrinkage of the enlarged vessels. As the tumor nodules regressed, they were replaced by normal-appearing hepatic parenchyma; neither fat nor fibrosis was detected by MR imaging. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Primary hepatic actinomycosis mimicking a tumor (inflammatory pseudotumor: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Batirel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis often manifests with abscesses in the cervicofacial region. Hepatic involvement occurs usually secondary to an intraabdominal infection. “Isolated or primary hepatic actinomycosis (PHA defines actinomycosis in which the source of infection cannot be demonstrated elsewhere. Herein, we aimed to highlight hepatic actinomycosis in the differential diagnosis of hepatic mass lesions, and also its occurrence even in patients without underlying risk factors. A 24-year-old man, who presented with epigastric and right-upper-quadrant abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, and had a tumor-like mass in the liver was admitted to our hospital. He had no predisposing risk factors or comorbidities. We reviewed all the cases with PHA, who had no predisposing risk factors, in English medical literature from 1993 to 2014. Actinomycotic hepatic pseudotumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solitary liver lesions even in patients without any predisposing factors. Multi-disciplinary approach is important in the diagnosis and management. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(2: 79-84

  16. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavakhi, Ahmad; Norinayer, Babak; Esteghamat, Fateme Sadat; Seghatoleslami, Mohamad; Khodadustan, Mahsa; Somi, Mohamad Hosein; Masoodi, Mohsen; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients. METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women) were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique. RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%). No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05) and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission. PMID:21772856

  17. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

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    P. Castellarin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients.

  18. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  19. Dual Lesions: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. V. Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC is a rare aggressive developmental cyst of the jaw. It most commonly occurs in middle-aged people with mandible anterior region being the most affected site. This lesion can present as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency and has high recurrence rate. The histopathologic features of the GOC are complex and often coincide with the features of dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst, and low-grade central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC. At times, the microscopic features are so similar to central low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma that it becomes highly impossible to distinguish the two entities even with various advanced investigations. The reported case represents one such diagnostic dilemma occurring in the maxilla which is a rare site, and the lesion/s appeared as two distinct entities, that is, GOC and CMEC on either aspects of the same side of maxilla clinically, yet showing continuity on advanced imaging and demonstrating histopathological perplexity.

  20. Congenital granular cell lesion in newborn mandible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Congenital granular cell lesion (CGCL) is a rare non-neoplastic lesion found in newborns also known as Neumann's tumor. This benign lesion occurs predominantly in females mostly as a single mass. The histogenesis and natural history of the lesion remains obscure. It arises from the mucosa of the ...