Matanoski, G.M.; Whitman, N.E.
Worker exposures to paint materials were studied at the Coal Creek Station, Cooperative Power Association in Underwood, North Dakota, on February 27, 1979. The facility was under consideration for inclusion in a NIOSH study of the health effects of occupational paint materials exposure. Approximately 30 painters were employed under contract at the facility. The company had no formal safety and industrial hygiene program. Medical services were furnished by two staff nurses. Personnel records were thought to be maintained by the painters union. About 20,000 gallons of paint were expected to be used for the current contract project, and consisted of acrylic and oil alkyd, polyamine cured epoxy, epoxy coal tar, inorganic zinc primer, and modified silicone. The authors conclude that this work force should be considered for inclusion in the painting-hazard study.
Zaebst, D.D.; Seligman, P.J.; Bloom, T.F.
In order to evaluate controls used to reduce or eliminate worker exposures to lead, a survey was undertaken at the nonferrous foundry, Central Brass Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio. After a review of the exposure and blood lead monitoring data, along with interviews with management and union officials and a tour of the facility, the investigators conclude that there is evidence to support excessive exposures to work-place lead at the time of compensation claims made early in 1985. Since that time the company has taken steps to reduce these exposures. Some engineering controls had been installed in October of 1984, including portable flexible-duct local exhaust hoods, side draft local exhaust systems and traveling hoods. Improvements or replacements were also made to existing equipment including doubling the ventilation capacity of the exhaust system on polishing equipment and replacing local exhaust hoods on all grinding machines. All new employees receive a complete physical examination including audiometry, pulmonary function test, and blood-lead screening. The frequency of subsequent blood lead monitoring was based on the previous blood-levels. The respiratory protection program seemed generally adequate. With the improvements made, a correlation between the decline in ambient lead and blood-lead levels was noted.
A walk-through survey was conducted at the National Veneer facility, Broyhill Furniture Industries, Inc., Lenoir, North Carolina to determine the effectiveness of control measures used at this facility. Specific attention was given to the control of formaldehyde vapors as they are emitted from heated process veneering operation using a urea/formaldehyde resin. This facility had a complete veneer manufacturing process including cutting the veneer from the logs. They manufactured laminated wood panels and parts. Each of the three radiofrequency (RF) presses in operation had a local exhaust system, and doors with gridded openings which formed the sides of the enclosure and permitted operator access. Time-weighted average airborne formaldehyde samples were collected from the breathing zones of the press operators as well as from work-area air. Breathing-zone formaldehyde concentrations ranged from below 0.37 to 0.53 mg/m/sup 3/. The highest worker exposure to formaldehyde appeared to be during the separation of the hot boards. With minor alterations in this activity, a backdraft could be created across the hot pieces and into the hood face. The author concludes that this facility represents an opportunity to observe a well-defined control method at three different levels of performance on three presses.
Horng, L.M.; Unicomb, L.; Alam, M.-U.; Halder, A.K.; Shoab, A.K.; Ghosh, P. K.; Opel, A.; Islam, M.K.; Luby, S. P.
SUMMARY Background Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. Aim To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. Methods The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, res...
Horng, L M; Unicomb, L; Alam, M-U; Halder, A K; Shoab, A K; Ghosh, P K; Opel, A; Islam, M K; Luby, S P
Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. More than 96% of facilities had 'improved' water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78-92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4-30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J
A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). Faculty and student respondents agreed on the effectiveness of educational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices.
Brown, B.; Dobbin, R.
A walk-through survey was conducted at IMC, located in Sterlington, Louisiana, to determine the feasibility of using this site for a health-effects study on nitropropane workers. The facility produced anhydrous ammonia, nitric acid, nitroparaffin derivatives, tris(hydroxyl-methyl)-amino methane, ammonium sulfate crystals, hydroxyl ammonium sulfate, nitropropanes, nitromethane, and nitroethane. Tank farms were used for the storage of fuel oil, ammonia, and nitroparaffins. Workers at the facility involved in production, storage, or working at the loading docks had potential exposure to 2-nitropropane at approximately 1 part per million. There was a safety program in place at the facility. Protective equipment provided by the employer included clothing, glasses, shoes, and respirators. The authors conclude that the length of time since these exposures began is not sufficient to conduct a meaningful pregnancy outcome study, cross sectional medical study or a retrospective cohort mortality study. Unexpectedly, some straight-chain aliphatic amines were detected in the nitroparaffin product which warranted further study as some of these can unite with nitrogen-containing compounds to produce carcinogenic nitroso compounds.
Moss, Connie M.; Brookhart, Susan M.
Traditionally, principals have used walk-throughs to determine whether teachers are implementing strategies that the principal believes define good teaching. In this model, the principal is the expert, and the teacher is the learner. Connie M. Moss and Susan M. Brookhart believe that this approach can cause the principal to disregard the classroom…
Stedman-Smith, Maggie; DuBois, Cathy L Z; Grey, Scott
Community hand hygiene interventions have reduced the spread of infectious disease in elementary schools, daycare centers, and private homes. Despite this success, and the potential for reducing workplace absenteeism and presenteeism, few peer-reviewed hand hygiene intervention studies among workers have been published. This research used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to guide the development of a model to understand and predict motivations for performing hand hygiene, and to examine related illness, absenteeism, and presenteeism among employees from 39 bank branches in Ohio. Although the TPB has been used extensively to elucidate hand hygiene practices among employees in the health care and food industries, little is known about the ability of the TPB to predict hand hygiene practices among workers in public settings. These survey findings indicate a need for hand hygiene improvement, and support the use of attitudinal beliefs and social norms to guide multimodal approaches for workplace hand hygiene interventions.
Full Text Available Walking through a narrow aperture requires unique postural configurations, i.e., body rotation in the yaw dimension. Stroke individuals may have difficulty performing the body rotations due to motor paralysis on one side of their body. The present study was therefore designed to investigate how successfully such individuals walk through apertures and how they perform body rotation behavior.Stroke fallers (n = 10, stroke non-fallers (n = 13, and healthy controls (n = 23 participated. In the main task, participants walked for 4 m and passed through apertures of various widths (0.9-1.3 times the participant's shoulder width. Accidental contact with the frame of an aperture and kinematic characteristics at the moment of aperture crossing were measured. Participants also performed a perceptual judgment task to measure the accuracy of their perceived aperture passability.Stroke fallers made frequent contacts on their paretic side; however, the contacts were not frequent when they penetrated apertures from their paretic side. Stroke fallers and non-fallers rotated their body with multiple steps, rather than a single step, to deal with their motor paralysis. Although the minimum passable width was greater for stroke fallers, the body rotation angle was comparable among groups. This suggests that frequent contact in stroke fallers was due to insufficient body rotation. The fact that there was no significant group difference in the perceived aperture passability suggested that contact occurred mainly due to locomotor factors rather than perceptual factors. Two possible explanations (availability of vision and/or attention were provided as to why accidental contact on the paretic side did not occur frequently when stroke fallers penetrated the apertures from their paretic side.
It was concluded that, there is a need for provision of adequate personal protective equipment, adequate decontamination and hygienic facilities for poultry workers as well as awareness creation and education of poultry workers on various exposure factors of zoonotic diseases. Keywords: Personal hygiene, Knowledge of ...
Forsell, Marianne; Kullberg, Erika; Hoogstraate, Janet; Herbst, Bertil; Johansson, Olle; Sjögren, Petteri
The aim of this survey was to test the impact of an oral hygiene educational model on attitudes and perceptions toward oral hygiene among nursing home staff members. A pilot questionnaire was distributed to the nursing staff before and after a course on oral hygiene at a geriatric nursing home in Stockholm in 2008. The nursing staff was of the opinion that they had sufficient time to carry out oral hygiene tasks but considered such tasks unpleasant, mainly because of unwillingness and resistance from the residents. These attitudes and perceptions among the nursing staff did not change significantly after oral hygiene education. Future oral hygiene educational models need to be developed with an aim to alter the perceptions and behavior of the nursing home staff. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Conclusions: This nationwide survey revealed that Iranian students have an acceptable level of hygienic behaviors both in urban and rural areas; however, still it is necessary to improve school health facilities and hygienic habits in Iranian students.
Grappasonni, Iolanda; Marconi, Donatella; Mazzucchi, Fabrizio; Petrelli, Fabio; Scuri, Stefania; Amenta, Francesco
The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes on food hygiene in seafarers. The study was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire presented to the workers of 7 tankers of an Italian shipping company (Finaval S.p.A.). As a reference, the analysis was extended to office employees of the same firm. Data were divided according to the rank of seafarers to assess possible differences in perceiving the risk. Overall knowledge on food safety concept was not high among seafarers. In general, galley and catering workers group provided a lower percentage of correct answers than other crew members. Foodservices staff revealed little awareness of the risks linked with handling food and their perception of risk of disease transmission through food was low. Answers about risk related to specific food (eggs and fish) showed that knowledge about these problems was less than satisfactory. Moreover, the percentage of 'I don't know' answers was high. These findings suggest that this personnel is aware of the right stepsof health protection in terms of food hygiene, but does not understand why it is necessary. Galley and catering group workers were not the most informed about food hygiene problems.This highlights the need to hire qualified personnel of the food industry on board ships. All those working inthe food service area should be properly trained on food hygiene. Seafarers should be the target of specificinformative campaigns about health risks linked with aliments, possible consequences of it and also oneson how to minimise the exposure to potentially dangerous agents/behaviours during travel/life at sea.
Olusegun Adesola Busari
Full Text Available Introduction: Hand hygiene causes a significant reduction in the carriage of potential pathogen in the hand. Inadequate hand hygiene facilities is one of the factors affecting compliance with hand hygiene by health care workers. The objective of the study was to evaluate the availability and accessibility of hand hand hygiene facilities and supplies of hand hygiene agents in the inpatient wards of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Methods and Materials: The study was conducted in a federal tertiary hospital in Nigeria. A modified survey checklist that assessed the condition of hand hygiene sink and other facilities was adapted and pretested. Direct observations of existing hand hygiene facilities in all the inpatient wards were carried out by one of the authors. Results: Of the 28 sinks, 22 (78.6% were accessible but 13 (46.4% had blocked drain. All the taps were hand operated with only 4 (14.3% working. Majority of the sinks (67.9% had no soap and no sink had antiseptic solution. Only 8 (28.6% sinks had hand drying material which was a cloth towel. No sink had hand hygiene instructions displayed on or close to it. Conclusion: There is gross inadequacy of hand hygiene facilities in Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. There is an urgent need for health managers to give priority to provision of hand hygiene facilities at all levels of health care delivery. Infection Control Unit should be established and strengthened in each facility for effective implementation of infection control policies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 571-576
Aim of the study: The German legislature reacted to the increasing number of nosocomial infections with a set of laws to strengthen hospital hygiene. The aim of the study is to measure the current and future importance of hospital hygiene in Germany. Methods: CEOs and hygiene staff from German hospitals took part in a survey on 13 items regarding the current and future importance of hospital hygiene. Statistical analyses were conducted to identify significances regarding the professional groups. Results: The results of the study show that hospital hygiene is currently of high importance and will be rising in the future. Hospital hygiene has a high economic impact, especially as a competitive factor. The patients' fear to suffer from a nosocomial infection, especially caused by multi-resistant bacteria, is countered with intensive educational work. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the legislators' efforts are taken note of in German hospitals and the future strategic impact of hospital hygiene in a pay-for-performance reimbursement system has become clear. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Modi, Pranav D; Kumar, Pooja; Solanki, Rajavi; Modi, Janhavi; Chandramani, Srinath; Gill, Niharika
Background and objectives To prevent the spread of infections in all healthcare settings, hand hygiene must be routinely practiced. Appropriate hand hygiene techniques can go a long way in reducing nosocomial infections, cross-transmission of microorganisms and the risk of occupational exposure to infectious diseases. World Health Organisation (WHO) has taken an incredible approach called "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" which defines the key moments when health-care workers should perform hand hygiene. We thus carried out a survey to assess knowledge of hand hygiene practices among undergraduate medical students. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 523 Indian medical undergraduates. The questionnaire used was adapted from the WHO hand hygiene knowledge questionnaire for health-care workers and was distributed both, in print and online formats. The response to each question was examined using percentages. Results Nearly 57% (n=298) of medical students who participated in this study did not receive any formal training in hand hygiene. Only 27% (n=141) students knew that the most frequent source of germs responsible for health-care associated infections were the germs already present on or within the patient. Nearly 68.6% (n= 359) students were unaware of the sequence of hand washing and hand rubbing. Although 71.9% (n=376 ) students claimed that they use an alcohol-based hand rub routinely, only 36.1% (n=189 ) students knew the time required for a hand rub to kill the germs on the hands. Overall hand hygiene knowledge was low in 6.9% (n=36), moderate in 80.9% (n=423) and good in 12.2% (n=23) of respondents. Conclusions The awareness about hand hygiene practices among medical students is low. Nearly 57% (n=298) of the respondents never received any formal training in hand hygiene throughout their course of medical undergraduate study. To prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings, medical students should be given
Vijayalakshmi, S; Ramkumar, S; Narayan, K A; Vaithiyanathan, P
Each year, millions of patients around the world are affected by Health Care Associated Infections (HCAIs). Understanding and assessing the global burden of HCAI is one of the key areas of work to improve the hand hygiene. To assess the patient empowerment and awareness on hand hygiene among online users. A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted during September 2013 to December 2013 among adults. A predesigned questionnaire to assess the awareness on hand hygiene was sent to volunteers through emails and social networking sites. The data were transferred to excel sheet and analyzed in Epi info and represented in proportions and percentages. Total 94 (57%) participants responded to the survey among which 51.1% were males and 48.9% were females. Majority of them belongs to the age group of 20 to 35 years. Only 28.7% of them said they will ever ask health care worker to wash their hands before they examine. A 27.7% of the participants reported that their country/community have a program that educates/communicates with patients about the importance of hand hygiene. Adherence and compliance to hand hygiene practices is suboptimal among people. There seems to be a lack of knowledge regarding hand hygiene.
Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Alves, Daniel
This paper presents an embryo of a literary guide on the Carnation Revolution to be explored for educational historical excursions other than leisure and tourism. We propose a historical trail through the centre of Lisbon, city of the Carnation Revolution, called "Walk through the Revolution." The trail aims to reinforce collective…
2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB The lectures are postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 firstname.lastname@example.org
Moreland, Leslie D; Gore, Fiona M; Andre, Nathalie; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H J
There are significant gaps in information about the inputs required to effectively extend and sustain hygiene promotion activities to improve people's health outcomes through water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We sought to analyse current country and global trends in the use of key inputs required for effective and sustainable implementation of hygiene promotion to help guide hygiene promotion policy and decision-making after 2015. Data collected in response to the GLAAS 2013/2014 survey from 93 countries of 94 were included, and responses were analysed for 12 questions assessing the inputs and enabling environment for hygiene promotion under four thematic areas. Data were included and analysed from 20 External Support Agencies (ESA) of 23 collected through self-administered surveys. Firstly, the data showed a large variation in the way in which hygiene promotion is defined and what constitutes key activities in this area. Secondly, challenges to implement hygiene promotion are considerable: include poor implementation of policies and plans, weak coordination mechanisms, human resource limitations and a lack of available hygiene promotion budget data. Despite the proven benefits of hand washing with soap, a critical hygiene-related factor in minimising infection, GLAAS 2013/2014 survey data showed that hygiene promotion remains a neglected component of WASH. Additional research to identify the context-specific strategies and inputs required to enhance the effectiveness of hygiene promotion at scale are needed. Improved data collection methods are also necessary to advance the availability and reliability of hygiene-specific information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Takenouchi, A; Sakurai/Matsukubo, M; Matsukubo, T
Globalization of Japanese dental hygienists is important to match the demands in the present society. The purpose of this study was to gauge opinions on international programmes of Japanese dental hygiene students and educators. Data were collected using a survey that was sent to all eight Japanese universities of oral hygiene in December 2014. Participants were composed of 466 university students majoring in oral hygiene (463 women; three men; mean age: 21 years) and 45 educators teaching dental hygiene education (mean age: 50 years). The response rates were 83.81% and 46.88%, respectively. 48.06% of 464 students would like to study abroad, and 76.04% of 330 students would like to interact with foreign students frequently. 97.54% of 455 students answered that learning English is important for dental hygienists, but 72.39% of 460 students are not comfortable interacting with foreigners in English. Those who knew more dental English terms had higher interest in studying abroad (odds ratio: 1.136). 75% of 44 educators think that dental hygiene students need to or sometimes need to study abroad. 68.89% of 45 educators think that teaching international programmes is costly. We found that Japanese dental hygiene students and educators have positive interest in international programmes. However, they have concerns about their English skills and about the cost of studying it. Therefore, English classes need to be improved, and new approaches are required for lowering the cost of teaching international programmes, while stimulating foreign students' and educators' interest in studying abroad in Japan. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Scott, Elizabeth; Vanick, Karabeth
Upper respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal tract infections are the cause of a significant level of illness on college campuses. However, preventative measures such as handwashing and hand sanitation are often not well-supported, understood, or practiced on campus. A confidential, self-administered on-line survey was performed during April-May 2006. Nine hundred and ninety-four participants completed the survey. Of these, 49% were undergraduates, 30% were graduates, and 34% lived in residence halls on campus. We recommend the importance of creating an awareness of proper hand hygiene practices as they relate to the everyday context of a college campus. In addition, we believe there is a need for hand hygiene education targeted at students. Finally, we strongly recommend that college authorities provide soap and a means of hand drying in all residential bathrooms.
Holt, M P
The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive demographic database of dental hygiene education administrators and to examine their academic professional profile. On April 1, 1996, a survey was mailed to all dental hygiene education administrators in the U.S. The survey requested participants to respond to specific questions regarding demographic characteristics, professional academic profile, and extent of management theory background. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages. Cross-tabulations and chi-square tests were calculated for type of institution, type of program, extent of management theory background, highest degree earned, and rank. One hundred thirty-eight valid surveys (63%) were returned. The demographic profile determined the majority of administrators were Caucasian (95.6%), female (87.6%), dental hygienists (87.6%), with a mean age of 47. The highest degree earned was a master's degree (64.5%) with a specialization in education (47.7%). Additionally, 87.5 percent had some form of educational management theory background, and 22.6 percent held the rank of full professor. Professional experience ranged from one to 30 years, with a mean of 10 years. The majority of participants worked in public (95.7%) institutions, primarily community and technical colleges (67.4%) that awarded associate's degrees (72.5%). Cross-tabulations and chi-square tests for type of institution, type of program, extent of management theory background, and rank were calculated. Significance was found between rank and type of institution, type of program, highest degree earned, and gender. Additionally, a relationship was found between gender and highest degree earned. These findings help develop a demographic database and professional academic profile of dental hygiene education administrators that can be used for future research and theory development, trends identification, problem solving, decision making, and
Jeong, Sun Young; Kim, Kyung Mi
Hand hygiene is the single most important measure to prevent transmission of infection, but the compliance rate of healthcare workers is relatively low. This study was conducted to identify the knowledge, beliefs, behavior, and affecting factors about hand hygiene among nursing students. A descriptive survey study. The study was carried out in two South Korean nursing schools. A total 208 nursing students participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The percentage of correct answers in the survey section concerning hand hygiene knowledge was 68.1%. No significant difference in the knowledge, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, or control beliefs data was found related to general characteristics. Behavioral beliefs correlated with normative beliefs (r=.25, phand hygiene behavior (r=.17, p=.017), and control beliefs correlated with hand hygiene behavior (r=.18, p=.010). The results suggest that knowledge is not enough to change the beliefs related to hand hygiene; positive behavioral beliefs and strong control beliefs are also needed to increase hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polesskiĭ, V A; Krasil'shchikov, M I; Osipova, E M; Potemkin, E L; Tsymbalova, T V; Kutumova, O Iu; Nemets, M G
The outcomes of a survey research completed in the workers of public catering facilities in two large cities of the Russian Federation are presented which show that the system of hygienic training for this occupational group of the population needs updating. This includes improving the programs and teaching and learning materials, as well as developing criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of educational activities in the field of occupational hygienic education and training.
2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 email@example.com
This study is carried out to know the oral hygiene status and dentofacial anomalies in mentally compromised patients with an idea of helping them to have a better oral hygiene status and treat the developed dentofacial changes on time.
Background: Hygiene refers to the condition or practices of people to maintain or promote good health by keeping themselves and their surroundings clean. Good hygiene practices in bakeries include proper construction and layout of premise, cleaning and sanitation, pest control, hygiene of personnel, storage and waste ...
Full Text Available Maintaining appropriate oral cavity hygiene in a young child is closely related to the health awareness and health-promoting behaviours of their parents/guardians, and especially that of the child’s mother. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pregnant women regarding best practice oral hygiene procedures in young children. The survey involved 327 pregnant women aged 16-49 years, and the tool utilized was an anonymous questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included seven one-choice questions concerning basic information on proper oral hygiene procedures as should be practiced by young children. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica PROGRAM 10 (StatSoft. The results of the survey reveal 60.55% of all surveyed had correct knowledge with regard to appropriate cleaning practices for the toothless oral cavity of an infant, that concerning the beginning of tooth brushing - 70.03%, tooth cleaning after night feeding - 39.76%, the duration of tooth brushing (at least 3-4 minutes - 43.12%. What is more, the result of the survey demonstrate that slightly more than a half of the surveyed mothers (53.82% would encourage their children to brush their teeth on their own from the first year of age, while 18.35% believe that children should be assisted in tooth brushing at least to their eighth year of age, and 59.63% would use fluoride toothpaste to brush their child’s teeth before he or she is one year old. Of the participants in this survey, pregnant women with university education, those living in large cities, or who are older, and those who had had previous pregnancies, show greater knowledge regarding suitable oral hygiene practices among young children. Our results reveal that extensive application of modern information technologies can be a means of preventing early childhood caries by facilitating the transmission of knowledge on proper nutrition and oral hygiene practices among young children.
Chatfield, Sheryl L; Nolan, Rachael; Crawford, Hannah; Hallam, Jeffrey S
Hand hygiene is promoted as an effective practice to counter health care-acquired infections; however, compliance is less than optimal. Nurses have many patient contact opportunities and therefore are frequent participants in intervention research. The optimal combination of efficient and effective intervention components has not been conclusively identified. A factorial survey research design offers an efficient method to assess multiple factors simultaneously by combining elements into vignettes. This article describes a process, grounded in the framework of Bandura's social cognitive theory, that explored environmental and individual factors that potentially influence nurses' hand hygiene behavior in acute care settings. Survey respondents consisted of nurses employed in patient care; respondents also could address an open response item. A total of 466 participants scored a total of 3,685 vignettes. Statistically significant parameters included goal, supervisor priority, electronic monitoring, and rewards. The most frequently mentioned open response item was the need to keep hand hygiene product dispensers refilled. Participants also suggested that culture and intrinsic motivation influenced hand hygiene behavior. Researchers might consider assessing promising factors, especially use of goal setting, as an intervention rather than as components of an intervention. Further research is indicated to better understand how nurses define and view hand hygiene culture. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 A walk through the LHC injector chain M. BENEDIKT, P. COLLIER, K. SCHINDL /CERN-AB Proton linac, PS Booster, PS, SPS and the two transfer channels from SPS to LHC are used for LHC proton injection. The lectures will review the features of these faithful machines and underline the modifications required for the LHC era. Moreover, an overview of the LHC lead ion injector scheme from the ion source through ion linac, LEIR, PS and SPS right to the LHC entry will be given. The particular behaviour of heavy ions in the LHC will be sketched and the repercussions on the injectors will be discussed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 firstname.lastname@example.org If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on...
Full Text Available Introduction: Amalgam, the most commonly used restorative material, is composed of nearly 50% mercury and 69% silver. It cannot be disposed along with biomedical waste (BMW because mercury-contaminated waste cannot be incinerated or autoclaved. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and observance of proper mercury hygiene and amalgam waste management among general dental practitioners (GDPs. Materials and Methods: A confidential questionnaire containing 14 questions regarding handling and disposal of amalgam was randomly distributed to 175 GDPs in Chandigarh, Panchkula, and Mohali. A response rate of 78% was obtained, and results were statistically analyzed. Results: Out of total dentists surveyed, 71% were found to be using amalgam as restorative material, 63% were doing <5 amalgam restorations per week. Only 6.5% of dentists placed rubber dam during removal and replacement of amalgam restorations. Fifty-five percent of dentists used high-volume evacuation. Filter was used only by 6% dentists. For 98%, dentists' evacuation drained into regular drain. Eighty-six percent of dentists never used amalgamator. Only 31% of dentists stored leftover amalgam scrap in radiographic fixer. Fifty-one percent of dentists disposed the bottle of leftover amalgam scrap along with BMW. One hundred percent of dentists disposed amalgam-contaminated gloves and cotton along with BMW. Only 17% of GDPs periodically monitored mercury vapors in their dental operatories. Conclusion: There exists a significant lack of knowledge regarding mercury hygiene and amalgam waste disposal among GDPs. Guidelines on mercury management need to be strongly implemented to prevent contamination of environment by mercury.
Collis, J J; Stafford, G D
Patients attending the Cardiff Dental Hospital were interviewed by staff and students in the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and a multidisciplinary teaching clinic. Information on denture hygiene was collected using a questionnaire. This questionnaire consisted of nineteen questions on the methods and materials used for denture hygiene, along with details pertinent to the patients and their dentures. One thousand patients were interviewed. The results showed that patients were less critical of standards of denture hygiene than clinicians. Only 46% of patients believed their dentures stained. This suggests high patient apathy regarding denture hygiene, that should be addressed in health education programs.
Lagendijk, Emmanuelle; Asséré, Adrien; Derens, Evelyne; Carpentier, Brigitte
A Web-enabled survey was conducted to improve knowledge of home refrigeration practices of French consumers (n = 809), with an emphasis on hygiene, and this information was used to establish recommendations. The survey targeted a convenience sample of working people. Analysis of the survey responses revealed that efforts should be directed toward improvement of microbiological control measures. Only 37% of respondents made sure the temperature in their refrigerator was 4 degrees C or below. Only 37% of respondents reported that they systematically wrapped food. Sponges, known to be frequently highly contaminated, were used by 89% of the respondents to clean their refrigerator, which indicates the need to recommend disinfection of sponges before they are used for cleaning. Twenty-seven percent of respondents used sodium hypochlorite (bleach), but it was applied without previous cleaning (21% of the users) or in the commercial concentrated form (7% of the users). The permanent presence of water condensation on the shelves was noted by 2% of respondents, suggesting imperfect closure of the door, with a consequence of higher energy consumption and water available for microbial circulation and growth. Thus, an important recommendation is to check the door gaskets and to ensure the tight closure of the door. Seventy percent of the respondents declared that they never put warm or hot food in the refrigerator. However, many people, when orally questioned, acknowledged that they leave dishes at ambient temperature overnight before putting them in the refrigerator. It therefore is essential to recommend that perishable food not be left for more than 2 h at ambient temperature.
Knöfler, Gerhild; Friedl, Katrin; Fresmann, Sylvia; Mausberg, Rainer F; Haak, Rainer; Ziebolz, Dirk
The aim of this survey-based cross-sectional study was to analyse the oral health behaviour of dental professionals and persons without professional dental knowledge (layperson group) regarding the use and selection of tools for their personal dental hygiene. A total of 356 persons participated in the survey (dental professional group: 160; layperson group: 196). Information regarding dental hygiene habits, such as toothbrush use, toothbrushing habits, and the use of additional dental hygiene tools was determined using a standardised questionnaire. Data were analysed using the chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests, with significance set at p < 0.05. 93% of the dental professional group and 89% of layperson group used manual toothbrushes (p = 0.03). Power toothbrushes were used by 57% of those surveyed in the dental professional group and 37% of those in the layperson group (p < 0.01). In the dental professional group, the duration of toothbrushing was significantly longer and it was performed more often compared to layperson group (p < 0.001). The use of dental floss and interdental brushes in the layperson group (dental floss 38%, interdental brush 5%) was considerably lower than in the dental professional group (dental floss 84%, interdental brush 11%; p < 0.001). The results of the survey on oral health behaviour revealed significant differences between the groups. The acceptance of additional tools for personal dental hygiene was low, such as dental floss and interdental brushes. Given the great importance of these tools for biofilm control, they should be emphasised in motivational measures and instructions regarding oral care performed at home.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify possible hygiene behaviors associated with the incidence of ILI among adults in Beijing. In January 2011, we conducted a multi-stage sampling, cross-sectional survey of adults living in Beijing using self-administered anonymous questionnaires. The main outcome variable was self-reported ILI within the past year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with self-reported ILI. A total of 13003 participants completed the questionnaires. 6068 (46.7% of all participants reported ILI during the past year. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, the variables significantly associated with a lower likelihood of reporting ILI were regular physical exercise (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.74-0.87, optimal hand hygiene (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.80-0.94, face mask use when going to hospitals (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.80-0.95, and not sharing of towels and handkerchiefs (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.63-0.73. These results highlight that personal hygiene behaviors were potential preventive factors against the incidence of ILI among adults in Beijing, and future interventions to improve personal hygiene behaviors are needed in Beijing.
Kingston, Liz M; O'Connell, Nuala H; Dunne, Colum P
Hand hygiene is widely recognised as the most important measure a healthcare worker can take in preventing the spread of healthcare associated infections. As a member of the healthcare team, nursing students have direct patient contact during clinical practice; hence, good hand hygiene practice among nursing students is essential. Low to moderate levels of hand hygiene knowledge and poor attitudes and practices are reported among nursing students. However, less is known about their attitudes and practices of handrubbing with ABHR, even though handrubbing is the recommended optimum practice in most situations. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes and practices of hand hygiene, in particular handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub, among nursing students in Ireland. This survey employed a descriptive, self-report design using a questionnaire to gather data. It was administered electronically to all undergraduate nursing students (n=342) in the Department of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Limerick, Ireland in March and April 2015. Response rate was 66%. Attitudes towards hand hygiene were generally positive. Compliance with hand hygiene after contact with body fluid was high (99.5%) and before a clean or aseptic procedure (98.5%). However, suboptimal practices emerged, before touching a patient (85%), after touching a patient (87%) and after touching patients' surroundings (61%), with first year students more compliant than fourth year students. 16% of students were not aware of the clinical contraindications for using alcohol-based hand rub and 9% did not know when to use soap and water and when to use alcohol-based hand rub. Educators and practitioners play an important role in ensuring that nursing students develop appropriate attitudes towards hand hygiene and engage in optimal handrubbing practices. Raising awareness among nursing students of their responsibility in preventing the occurrence and reducing the transmission of HCAI as an on
Brühwasser, Christina; Hinterberger, Guido; Mutschlechner, Wolfgang; Kaltseis, Josef; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid
A 1-day point prevalence study evaluated hand hygiene compliance, yeast colonization, and contamination, focusing on the hands of health care workers (HCWs) and patient-oriented surfaces. Hand hygiene compliance was evaluated by applying the direct observation technique and the World Health Organization's compliance program, "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene." A total of 128 samples from HCWs working in intensive care (n = 11) and intermediate care (n = 2) units and 65 environmental samples from Innsbruck Medical University Hospital were investigated. Hand hygiene compliance was superior for nurses (83.5%) and moderate for medical doctors (45.2%). In general, fungal growth was unique; only 9 of 128 HCW samples and only 4 of 65 environmental samples yielded positive results. The genetic relatedness of yeasts from the same species was investigated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing. RAPD profiles exhibited the potential for cross-transmission of yeasts. In general, the fungal colonization and contamination rate was low, but a high level of hand hygiene compliance was lacking. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dairy industry involved various milking operation stages. Coliform and E. coli are marker and indicator of hygiene for fecal contamination of food at any point. Following 17 lactating dairy cow milking operations, five segments of stages consisting of 21 cut-off points were identified. Three hundred four (304) samples from ...
Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi
Full Text Available Background: It is widely accepted that there are socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. A socioeconomic gradient is found in a range of clinical and self-reported oral health outcomes. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the differences in oral hygiene practices among patients from different socioeconomic status (SES visiting the Outpatient Department of the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to October 2014 to assess the effect of SES on the oral hygiene habits. The questionnaire included the questions related to the demographic profile and assessment of the oral hygiene habits of the study population. Results: Toothbrush and toothpaste were being used significantly (P < 0.05 more by lower middle class (84.4% and upper middle class (100.0%. A significantly higher frequency of cleaning teeth (twice a day was reported among the lower middle class (17.2% and upper middle class (21.5%. The majority (34.3% of the study population changed their toothbrush once in 3 months. The cleaning of tongue was reported by patients belonging to the upper middle (62.0%, lower middle (52.1%, and upper lower class (30.0%. The use of tongue cleaner was reported to be significantly (P < 0.05 more among upper middle (10.1% class patients. A significantly higher number of patients from the lower class (81.3% never visited a dentist. Conclusion: The oral hygiene practices of the patients from upper and lower middle class was found to be satisfactory whereas it was poor among patients belonging to lower and upper lower class.
Gola, Marco; Signorelli, Carlo; Buffoli, Maddalena; Rebecchi, Andrea; Capolongo, Stefano
WHO has highlighted the need to strengthen the relationship between health and built environment factors, such as inappropriate housing conditions. Local Health Rules (LHRs) and Building Regulations (BRs) are tools which provide safety and building hygiene in construction practices. Currently the Italian Government is considering to establish a National Building Regulation and, related to the following purpose, this paper presents a survey on the status of adoption and updating of LHRs and BRs in Italian municipalities. The current Italian state of LHRs, BRs and Municipal Development Plans (MDPs) have been examined by a survey considering a sample of about 550 cities, with different demo graphic and geographic features, starting from the previous research work by Signorelli et al. (1999). The analysis underlines a serious shortage of updated LHRs, especially in small and medium-sized municipalities whereas BRs and MDPs are widespread. Only 30% of them are previously approved and validated by Local Health Authorities. Starting from a survey, the present scenario of Building Regulations requires the introduction of further performance guidelines instead of normative ones and, therefore, the current actions to give rise to a National Building Regulation could be integrated by building hygiene contents of LHRs.
Full Text Available Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43% was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%. Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.
Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665
Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students' families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.
Kirk, Jane; Kendall, Anson; Marx, James F; Pincock, Ted; Young, Elizabeth; Hughes, Jillian M; Landers, Timothy
Hand hygiene at the point of care is recognized as a best practice for promoting compliance at the moments when hand hygiene is most critical. The objective of this study was to compare knowledge, attitudes, and practices of US and Canadian frontline health care personnel regarding hand hygiene at the point of care. Physicians and nurses in US and Canadian hospitals were invited to complete a 32-question online survey based on evidence supporting point of care hand hygiene. Eligible health care personnel were in direct clinical practice at least 50% of the time. Three hundred fifty frontline caregivers completed the survey. Among respondents, 57.1% were from the United States and 42.9% were from Canada. Respondents were evenly distributed between physician and nurses. The US and Canadian respondents gave identical ranking to their perceived barriers to hand hygiene compliance. More than half of the respondents from both the United States and Canada agreed or strongly agreed that they would be more likely to clean their hands when recommended if alcohol-based handrub was closer to the patient. This survey demonstrates that similarities between Canada and the United States were more common than not, and the survey raises, or suggests, potential knowledge gaps that require further illumination. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Choi, Hye Min; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Park, Jun-Beom
Recently, a positive association has been reported between hypertension and periodontitis. The authors hypothesized that oral hygiene promotion activities could have an effect on hypertension prevention or the degree of hypertension control. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between oral hygiene behaviors and hypertension using data from a nationally representative survey, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Using data from the KNHANES (2008 to 2010), 19,560 adults with complete data sets were included. The authors analyzed the relationship of the prevalence and control rate of hypertension and numerous variables, including oral hygiene behavior. As the frequency of toothbrushing increased, the prevalence of hypertension decreased in multivariate analysis after adjusting for various factors, including the presence of periodontitis. In a subgroup analysis, this relationship was also observed in individuals without periodontitis. In particular, systolic blood pressure levels progressively decreased as the frequency of toothbrushing and the number of secondary oral products used increased. The adjusted odds ratio of hypertension prevalence was 1.195 (95% confidence interval 1.033 to 1.383) for individuals who brushed their teeth hardly ever or once daily compared with those who brushed after every meal. Individuals with poor oral hygiene behavior are more likely to have a higher prevalence of hypertension, even before periodontitis is shown. Oral hygiene behavior may be considered an independent risk indicator for hypertension, and maintaining good oral hygiene may help to prevent and control hypertension.
Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Consumption of honey has remarkably increased in the last years all over the world. Factors such as plant species, environmental, processing, and storing condition are affecting honey quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluation of Hygienic quality of honey samples produced from Qazvin province. Materials and Methods: 34 fresh honey Samples were obtained from beekeepers from different regions of the alamut area in the period between June and November 2011. The microbial contamination (bacteria and fungi was determined using conventional microbiological methods and the total aflatoxin was detected by “high performance liquid chromatography” (HPLC. Results: The results of microbial analysis showed that the aerobic mesophil bacteria count (50 cfu/g and fungal count (1.5*10 2 cfu/g were in low levels. However, coliforms were not detected in any of the honey sample. The most prevalent bacteria and fungi were Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus flavus respectively. Based on the HPLC method analysis, all of honey samples were contaminated whit aflatoxin and the mean concentration of aflatoxin was 3.67 ppb. Also the aflatoxin levels in 35% honey samples were higher than the maximum allowable amount of Europe ::::union:::: (4 µg/kg. Conclusion : According to the results, should have more control on the Hygienic quality of honey over the production, storage and supply periods in this area.
Heifetz, Milton D
A Walk through the Heavens is a beautiful and easy-to-use guide to the constellations of the northern hemisphere. Written for the complete beginner, this practical guide introduces the patterns of the starry skies in a memorable way. No equipment is needed, apart from normal sight and clear skies.
Kosanovich, Marcia L.; Miller, Debra H.
This document provides professional development material that supplements the Center on Instruction publication "Adolescent Literacy Walk-Through for Principals: A Guide for Instructional Leaders," or ALWP. Emerging from a request from the field for illustrations of the concepts in the ALWP, the scenarios herein illustrate adolescent literacy…
Aligne, C; Mosnier, M; Mistretta, F; Larguier, J S
Chronic arterial occlusive disease of the lower limbs, a common (800,000 patients in France) invalidating condition, can involve one or more arterial territories. In 90% of the cases, it is related to a more general disease, atherosclerosis. The risk factors are the same as for atherosclerosis and can be classed into three distinct groups: pathological conditions, constitutional characteristics, and lifestyle. Besides age and gender, smoking habits are by far the most predominant vascular risk factor for chronic arterial occlusive disease. Other factors include diabetes, known to play a particular role in diabetic arteriopathy, generally with more distal and quite severe lesions, high blood pressure, a less evident but certain risk factor, and hyperlipidemia, whole role in the pathogenesis of chronic arterial occlusive disease is well recognized though not predominant. These different data led us to analyze a cohort of patients with chronic arterial occlusive disease of the lower limbs to ascertain the cause of success or failure of hygiene and diet counseling. The study protocol included three steps. We first established the profile of a typical arteriopathy patient based on demographic data, history of the arterial disease, personal and familial medical history and lifestyle: smoking habits, physical exercise, diet. The second step was to estimate the proportion of patients following hygiene and dietary rules. Finally, we looked for the reasons why the patients succeeded or failed in following these rules. This cross-sectional study involved 1,500 practitioners. Each physician selected 3 patients, men or women aged 40 to 80 years whose arteriopathy had reached the stage of intermittent claudication. Evaluation criteria were based on the demographic data and conditions of adherence to advice as well as conditions leading to success or failure: personal motivation, familial support, the patient's knowledge of the disease, its pathophysiological mechanisms, and the
Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong
We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P index than those without. In conclusion, H pylori infection in the oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.
Boeniger, M.; Dobbin, D.
A site visit was made to perform a preliminary industrial-hygiene survey. The company produces solar panels, optical switches, photo transistors, photodiodes, tape and card reader heads and printer heads, and other mechanical assemblies related to the photo-electronic field. Minor accidents have occurred related to acid spills and burns. During the visit it was noted that the ingot-slicing machine was not ventilated, allowing some mist to escape. The operation should be fully enclosed to prevent inhalation of silicon. The authors recommend that consideration be given to ventilation systems to control organic-solvent and acid vapors. The use of trichloroethylene should be replaced by a less-toxic solvent. Proper lighting should be offered to reduce eye fatigue. During the final quality testing, a Senon lamp was used to simulate the sun. The possible release of ozone and oxides of nitrogen should be controlled through the installation of a proper ventilation system.
Sorensen, Thomas R., Jr.
Due to the increasing pressure of meeting the demands of No Child Left Behind, and reducing the achievement gap between subgroups of school populations, school administrators across the nation have implemented a variety of short classroom walk-through observations. A walk-through is defined as a 3-5 minute observation of the classroom teacher by…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Walk-Through Metal Detectors and Hand-Held Metal Detectors Test Method... has recently developed updated versions of its minimum performance standards for walk-through metal...
Weller, Mark J.
The purpose of this study was to identify the possible use of structured classroom walk-through observations as a strategy to improve teaching and learning. A wide variety of programs and initiatives have recently been implemented across the country to improve student achievement. One such initiative is classroom walk-through observations.…
... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... hygiene and by frequently washing parts of the body and hair with soap and clean, running water ( ...
Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Work in hospitals is supported by contributions of life sciences industry representatives (IR in various ways of fields. Close contact between them, caretakers and patients is unavoidable, even in situations where hygiene is critical.The present study investigates whether IR display comparable levels of and methicillin-resistant (MRSA contamination after being exposed to a shared environment for a minimum of 4 hours.Material and methods: An anonymous survey to sample a group of healthcare professionals for traces of fingertip contamination was performed. We used dip slides ( and MRSA to evaluate professionals at the medical exhibition MEDICA. After applying exclusion criteria 298 participants remained valid, they consisted of 208 industry representatives, 49 nurses and 41 physicians.Results: IR where engaged in hospitals, operating rooms and outpatient clinics (82%, 41.8%, 51.9% respectively. 65.9% of IR (vs. 48.8% physicians and 40.8% nurses carried a microbiological burden ≥10 CFU (colony forming units. Neither (≥10 CFU in IR (40.9% did show statistical differences in contamination patterns in comparison to physicians (43.9%, p=0.346 and nurses (36.7%, p=0.878 nor did MRSA (physicians p=0.579, nurses p=0.908. We were unable to differentiate transient from pre-existing permanent colonization.Conclusion: Exposure to the same environment may result in similar hand contamination patterns of IR when compared caregivers. This supports the concern that industry representatives can cause cross infection between hospitals and hygiene sensitive areas like operation room, intensive care unit and central sterilization units particularly. Further study is required to clarify whether pre-existing bacterial colonization is an influencing factor and how industry is taking care of this to create a safe working environment for their employees, the customers and ultimately the patients.
Schiffers, Hank; Zaatreh, Sarah; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer
Work in hospitals is supported by contributions of life sciences industry representatives (IR) in various ways of fields. Close contact between them, caretakers and patients is unavoidable, even in situations where hygiene is critical. The present study investigates whether IR display comparable levels of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination after being exposed to a shared environment for a minimum of 4 hours. An anonymous survey to sample a group of healthcare professionals for traces of fingertip contamination was performed. We used dip slides (S. aureus and MRSA) to evaluate 311 healthcare professionals at the medical exhibition MEDICA. After applying exclusion criteria 298 participants remained valid, they consisted of 208 industry representatives, 49 nurses and 41 physicians. IR where engaged in hospitals, operating rooms and outpatient clinics (82%, 41.8%, 51.9% respectively). 65.9% of IR (vs. 48.8% physicians and 40.8% nurses) carried a microbiological burden ≥10(4) CFU (colony forming units). Neither S. aureus (≥10(4) CFU) in IR (40.9%) did show statistical differences in contamination patterns in comparison to physicians (43.9%, p=0.346) and nurses (36.7%, p=0.878) nor did MRSA (physicians p=0.579, nurses p=0.908). We were unable to differentiate transient from pre-existing permanent colonization. Exposure to the same environment may result in similar hand contamination patterns of IR when compared caregivers. This supports the concern that industry representatives can cause cross infection between hospitals and hygiene sensitive areas like operation room, intensive care unit and central sterilization units particularly. Further study is required to clarify whether pre-existing bacterial colonization is an influencing factor and how industry is taking care of this to create a safe working environment for their employees, the customers and ultimately the patients.
Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Wu, Maryalice; Scott, Linda; Montgomery, Paul
The primary objective was to describe Ugandan schoolgirls' menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices and estimate the prevalence of inadequate MHM. Second, to assess the relative contribution of aspects of MHM to health, education and psychosocial outcomes. Secondary analysis of survey data collected as part of the final follow-up from a controlled trial of reusable sanitary pad and puberty education provision was used to provide a cross-sectional description of girls' MHM practices and assess relationships with outcomes. Rural primary schools in the Kamuli district, Uganda. Participants were 205 menstruating schoolgirls (10-19 years) from the eight study sites. The prevalence of adequate MHM, consistent with the concept definition, was estimated using dimensions of absorbent used, frequency of absorbent change, washing and drying procedures and privacy. Self-reported health, education (school attendance and engagement) and psychosocial (shame, insecurity, embarrassment) outcomes hypothesised to result from poor MHM were assessed as primary outcomes. Outcomes were measured through English surveys loaded on iPads and administered verbally in the local language. 90.5% (95% CI 85.6% to 93.9%) of girls failed to meet available criteria for adequate MHM, with no significant difference between those using reusable sanitary pads (88.9%, 95% CI 79.0% to 94.4%) and those using existing methods, predominantly cloth (91.5%, 95% CI 85.1% to 95.3%; χ 2 (1)=0.12, p=0.729). Aspects of MHM predicted some consequences including shame, not standing in class to answer questions and concerns about odour. This study was the first to assess the prevalence of MHM consistent with the concept definition. Results suggest that when all aspects of menstrual hygiene are considered together, the prevalence is much higher than has previously been reported based on absorbents alone. The work demonstrates an urgent need for improved assessment and reporting of MHM, and for primary research
Tang, C H; Fong, U W
The purpose of this study was to find out the knowledge and attitudes concerning food hygiene among Chinese food handlers in Fong Song Tong district, and to analyze the impact of variables on the degree of knowledge and attitudes. Face-to-face interviews were conducted within Chinese food handlers in Fong Song Tong district using a self-designed questionnaire, which contained food hygiene knowledge and attitudes. Main knowledge outcome measures included food handling, personal hygiene and legislation issues. Questionnaires were completed by 580 (72.0%) Chinese food handlers from 91% premises of the district. 71.2% Chinese food handlers could respond correctly to eight or more out of 11 knowledge questions and 1.4% respondents only achieved full scores of knowledge. Fully correct response of personal hygiene knowledge was statistically and significantly higher than food handling knowledge (pfood hygiene education. Male respondents, age less than 30, secondary education or above, five years or more of working experience, or who had previously attended a health training within the last two years, generally performed better on the knowledge of food hygiene. Chinese food handlers working in the kitchen and owners' beliefs on 'cleaning the kitchen before getting off duty' was reasonable. Those with secondary education at least, or who had prior participation in a health training within the last two years would need more food hygiene knowledge than the people aged over 30 or who were the owners. It would be more motivated by changing the traditional training model, community-based education in an optimum situation, additional authoritative information, attitudes and intentions of learning on food hygiene.
Hillenburg, Kenneth L; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol A; Kinney, Janet S; Temple, Henry; Inglehart, Marita R
The aims of this study were to assess curricular coverage of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) content in U.S. and Canadian dental schools and U.S. dental hygiene programs, including hours of LGBT content, pedagogy used, and assessment methods, and to determine whether respondents perceived their institution's coverage as adequate. Data were collected from academic deans at 32 U.S. and two Canadian dental schools and from program directors at 71 U.S. dental hygiene programs (response rates 49%, 20%, 23%, respectively). The results showed that 29% of responding dental schools and 48% of responding dental hygiene programs did not cover LGBT content. Among the respondents, dental schools dedicated on average 3.68 hours and dental hygiene programs 1.25 hours in required settings to LGBT content. Lectures (dental schools 68%, dental hygiene programs 45%) and small group instruction (43%, 25%) were reported as the most common methodology used in teaching this content. Most of the responding dental schools and dental hygiene programs covered HIV (85%, 53%), oral disease risk (63%, 54%), and barriers to accessing health care for LGBT people (58%, 38%). Up to a third reported no need for coverage of topics such as sexual orientation (21%, 32%), coming out (29%, 37%), transitioning (29%, 38%), and sex reassignment surgery (32%, 35%). Assessment was through written examinations (41%, 30%) and faculty-observed patient interactions (21%, 23%); some respondents (20%, 33%) reported no assessment of learning outcomes. The most frequently endorsed strategies for increasing LGBT content were receiving curricular material focusing on LGBT-related health issues and health disparities and having trained faculty to teach LGBT content.
Heifetz, Milton D.; Tirion, Wil
What star is that? Where's the Great Bear? Who was Andromeda? A Walk through the Heavens is your guide to the pathways of the night sky, answering the commonest questions about what you can see up there. There are simplified maps of the constellations, together with instructions on how to gauge their sizes and the distances between them. With this information you can find the constellations easily, and make a journey by eye from one constellation to the next. Ancient myths surrounding the constellations are retold, enriching our understanding of how historical peoples saw the awe-inspiring spectacle of a sky sprinkled with stars. This book, magically illustrated by Wil Tirion, does not require any instrument or telescope. It is an ideal introduction to launch a young astronomer on a journey across starlit skies.
Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom
The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... phenomenological approach of Dahlberg, Dahlberg, and Nyström. The essence of the phenomenon, oral hygiene, is described as a challenge: a mixture of ability and assigning priority; a challenge in which significant others, for better or worse, play an important role. We recommend a systematic cooperation between...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....
Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah
Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Setting India. Participants A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. Primary outcome measures The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16–39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0–23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, psanitation and hygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the
Adane, Metadel; Mengistie, Bezatu; Kloos, Helmut; Medhin, Girmay; Mulat, Worku
In developing countries, children under the age of five years who live in slums are highly vulnerable to diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions to acute diarrhea among under-five children in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study examines the sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions in the slums of Addis Ababa and identifies the main factors significantly associated with acute diarrhea among children aged 0-50 months in those slums. A community-based cross-sectional household survey was carried out between September and November 2014, that then served as the baseline survey of a longitudinal study. For this survey, 697 children aged 0-50 months were recruited from two slum districts in Addis Ababa. A pre-tested structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used for data collection. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sanitation facilities and hygiene-related factors that were significantly associated with acute diarrhea by controlling potential confounding effects of selected socio-demographic factors. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the strength of association. The prevalence of acute diarrhea among children aged 0-50 months in the study area was 11.9% and 94.6% of the sanitation facilities were unimproved. Sharing of a sanitation facility by six or more households (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.4-9.4), proximity of sanitation facilities within 15 meters of homes (AOR = 6.6; 95% CI: 2.5-17.0), presence of feces (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.5-10.3) and flies (AOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-5.0) on the floor of and/or around sanitation facilities, and presence of uncollected garbage inside house compounds (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-8.4) were significantly associated with acute diarrhea. This study reveals the slum environment to be high risk for diarrhea due to close proximity
Pang, Junxiong; Chua, Shao Wei Jonathan Lumen; Hsu, Liyang
Diarrhoea incidence has been increasing progressively over the past years in developed countries, including Singapore, despite the accessibility and availability to clean water, well-established sanitation infrastructures and regular hygiene promotion. The aim of this study is to determine the current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene, and the potential risk factors of diarrhoea in a residential community of Singapore. A cross-sectional study was conducted within a residential area in the west of Singapore from June to August 2013. A total of 1,156 household units were randomly sampled and invited to participate in an interviewer-assisted survey using standardised questionnaires. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's Exact test and multivariate logistic regression modelling, respectively. R program was used for all statistical analysis. All tests were conducted at 5% level of significance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported where applicable. A total of 240 units (20.8%) consented and responded to the survey invitation. About 77% of the expected knowledge and attitude were observed in at least 80% of the participants, compared to only about 31% of the expected behaviours and practises. Being single [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.16-4.48], having flu in the past six month (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.74-6.06), preferred self-medication (AOR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.06-4.12) were risk factors of diarrhoea. Washing hands with water before attending to children or sick persons (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.82), washing hands with water (AOR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.05-0.45) and water with soap (AOR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) after attending to children or sick persons, and hand washing between 30 s to a minute (AOR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.20-0.90) were protective factors against diarrhoea. Good knowledge and attitude of the
Dunder, Teija; Tapiainen, Terhi; Pokka, Tytti; Uhari, Matti
To evaluate the effect of successful prevention of common infections in child day care centers on the later development of allergic diseases. Prospective follow-up survey with a questionnaire administered 12 years after a controlled randomized hygiene intervention. Twenty municipal child day care centers in Oulu, Finland. A questionnaire was sent to 1354 prior participants (98%) in the intervention trial. The response rate was 68% (928 of 1354 participants). MAIN INTERVENTION: Hygiene intervention from March 1, 1991, to May 31, 1992. The number of respondents who had a diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and/or atopic dermatitis made by a physician, and the number of those who reported symptoms of atopic diseases. Asthma was diagnosed by a physician in 48 of the 481 respondents (10%) from the intervention child day care centers, with markedly fewer infections, and in 46 of the 447 controls (10%) (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.4). Similarly, no differences were found in the numbers of children who had a diagnosis of other atopic diseases or who had reported such symptoms. The prevention of common respiratory tract and enteric infections during early childhood does not change later allergic morbidity.
Guag, Joshua; Addissie, Bisrat; Witters, Donald
There have been concerns that Electromagnetic security systems such as walk-through metal detectors (WTMDs) can potentially cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in certain active medical devices including implantable cardiac pacemakers and implantable neurostimulators. Incidents of EMI between WTMDs and active medical devices also known as personal medical electronic devices (PMED) continue to be reported. This paper reports on emission measurements of sample WTMDs and testing of 20 PMEDs in a WTMD simulation system. Magnetic fields from sample WTMD systems were characterized for emissions and exposure of certain PMEDs. A WTMD simulator system designed and evaluated by FDA in previous studies was used to mimic the PMED exposures to the waveform from sample WTMDs. The simulation system allows for controlled PMED exposure enabling careful study with adjustable magnetic field strengths and exposure duration, and provides flexibility for PMED exposure at elevated levels in order to study EMI effects on the PMED. The PMED samples consisted of six implantable cardiac pacemakers, six implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), five implantable neurostimulators, and three insulin pumps. Each PMED was exposed in the simulator to the sample WTMD waveforms using methods based on appropriate consensus test standards for each of the device type. Testing the sample PMEDs using the WTMD simulator revealed EMI effects on two implantable pacemakers and one implantable neurostimulator for exposure field strength comparable to actual WTMD field strength. The observed effects were transient and the PMEDs returned to pre-exposure operation within a few seconds after removal from the simulated WTMD exposure fields. No EMI was observed for the sample ICDs or insulin pumps. The findings are consistent with earlier studies where certain sample PMEDs exhibited EMI effects. Clinical implications were not addressed in this study. Additional studies are needed to evaluate potential PMED
Full Text Available Neuroarchitecture uses neuroscientific tools to better understand architectural design and its impact on human perception and subjective experience. The form or shape of the built environment is fundamental to architectural design, but not many studies have shown the impact of different forms on the inhabitants’ emotions. This study investigated the neurophysiological correlates of different interior forms on the perceivers’ affective state and the accompanying brain activity. To understand the impact of naturalistic three-dimensional (3D architectural forms, it is essential to perceive forms from different perspectives. We computed clusters of form features extracted from pictures of residential interiors and constructed exemplary 3D room models based on and representing different formal clusters. To investigate human brain activity during 3D perception of architectural spaces, we used a mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI approach recording the electroencephalogram (EEG of participants while they naturally walk through different interior forms in virtual reality (VR. The results revealed a strong impact of curvature geometries on activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Theta band activity in ACC correlated with specific feature types (rs (14 = 0.525, p = 0.037 and geometry (rs (14 = −0.579, p = 0.019, providing evidence for a role of this structure in processing architectural features beyond their emotional impact. The posterior cingulate cortex and the occipital lobe were involved in the perception of different room perspectives during the stroll through the rooms. This study sheds new light on the use of mobile EEG and VR in architectural studies and provides the opportunity to study human brain dynamics in participants that actively explore and realistically experience architectural spaces.
Banaei, Maryam; Hatami, Javad; Yazdanfar, Abbas; Gramann, Klaus
Neuroarchitecture uses neuroscientific tools to better understand architectural design and its impact on human perception and subjective experience. The form or shape of the built environment is fundamental to architectural design, but not many studies have shown the impact of different forms on the inhabitants' emotions. This study investigated the neurophysiological correlates of different interior forms on the perceivers' affective state and the accompanying brain activity. To understand the impact of naturalistic three-dimensional (3D) architectural forms, it is essential to perceive forms from different perspectives. We computed clusters of form features extracted from pictures of residential interiors and constructed exemplary 3D room models based on and representing different formal clusters. To investigate human brain activity during 3D perception of architectural spaces, we used a mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) approach recording the electroencephalogram (EEG) of participants while they naturally walk through different interior forms in virtual reality (VR). The results revealed a strong impact of curvature geometries on activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Theta band activity in ACC correlated with specific feature types (rs (14) = 0.525, p = 0.037) and geometry (rs (14) = -0.579, p = 0.019), providing evidence for a role of this structure in processing architectural features beyond their emotional impact. The posterior cingulate cortex and the occipital lobe were involved in the perception of different room perspectives during the stroll through the rooms. This study sheds new light on the use of mobile EEG and VR in architectural studies and provides the opportunity to study human brain dynamics in participants that actively explore and realistically experience architectural spaces.
Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Nusi, Iswan A; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio
The hygiene hypothesis links environmental and microbial exposures in early life to the prevalence of atopy, allergy, and asthma. Helicobacter pylori infection is typically acquired in childhood and acquisition of the infection is associated with poor household hygiene. Some population surveys have shown an inverse association between H. pylori infection and atopy, allergy, and asthma leading to the suggestion that H. pylori infection may be protective against disease; others consider it simply a biomarker for poor household hygiene. We review the relevant surveys, cohort studies, meta-analyses, and studies testing the protective hypothesis. Overall, the results of surveys and cohort studies are inconsistent, whereas meta-analyses show a significant but weak inverse correlation. In contrast, studies directly testing the protection hypothesis in relation to asthma in populations with poor hygiene and low H. pylori prevalence failed to confirm a protective effect. H. pylori is a major cause of human disease including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric malignancies. H. pylori infections most likely serve as a biomarker for poor hygienic conditions in childhood. We conclude that while synergistic interactions between environmental factors in childhood are important determinants of the pathogenesis of atopy, allergy, and asthma; H. pylori is inversely related to good hygiene and thus it's presence serves as a biomarker rather than for a specific prevention role for H. pylori or H. pylori antigens.
Full Text Available The hygiene hypothesis links environmental and microbial exposures in early life to the prevalence of atopy, allergy, and asthma. Helicobacter pylori infection is typically acquired in childhood and acquisition of the infection is associated with poor household hygiene. Some population surveys have shown an inverse association between H. pylori infection and atopy, allergy, and asthma leading to the suggestion that H. pylori infection may be protective against disease; others consider it simply a biomarker for poor household hygiene. We review the relevant surveys, cohort studies, meta-analyses, and studies testing the protective hypothesis. Overall, the results of surveys and cohort studies are inconsistent, whereas meta-analyses show a significant but weak inverse correlation. In contrast, studies directly testing the protection hypothesis in relation to asthma in populations with poor hygiene and low H. pylori prevalence failed to confirm a protective effect. H. pylori is a major cause of human disease including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric malignancies. H. pylori infections most likely serve as a biomarker for poor hygienic conditions in childhood. We conclude that while synergistic interactions between environmental factors in childhood are important determinants of the pathogenesis of atopy, allergy, and asthma; H. pylori is inversely related to good hygiene and thus it's presence serves as a biomarker rather than for a specific prevention role for H. pylori or H. pylori antigens.
Ayub Irmadani Anwar; Nita Damayanti; Fuad Husain Akbar
The value of dental and oral hygiene is important to be knownby each individual, it plays a role in efforts to prevent the occurrence of caries. One fifth of the world's population are adolescents, defined by WHO as the age group 10 to 19 years which is an important target group for the development of dental and oral health. Oral hygiene can be determined through measurement of oral hygiene status. Measurement of oral hygiene status commonly usedare the Oral Hygiene Indeks Simplified (OHI-S)b...
Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Islam, Khairul; Opel, Aftab; Shoab, Abul K; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mahon, Therese; Unicomb, Leanne
Background Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. Methods We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche. We sampled 700 schools from 50 urban and 50 rural clusters using a probability proportional to size technique. We interviewed 2332 schoolgirls and conducted spot checks in each school for menstrual hygiene facilities. To assess factors associated with reported school absence, we estimated adjusted prevalence difference (APD) for controlling confounders’ effect using generalised estimating equations to account for school-level clustering. Results Among schoolgirls who reached menarche, 41% (931) reported missing school, an average of 2.8 missed days per menstrual cycle. Students who felt uncomfortable at school during menstruation (99% vs 32%; APD=58%; CI 54 to 63) and who believed menstrual problems interfere with school performance (64% vs 30%; APD=27; CI 20 to 33) were more likely to miss school during menstruation than those who did not. School absence during menstruation was less common among girls attending schools with unlocked toilet for girls (35% vs 43%; APD=−5.4; CI −10 to –1.6). School absence was more common among girls who were forbidden from any activities during menstruation (41% vs 33%; APD=9.1; CI 3.3 to 14). Conclusion Risk factors for school absence included girl’s attitude, misconceptions about menstruation, insufficient and inadequate facilities at school, and family restriction. Enabling girls to manage menstruation at school by providing knowledge and management
Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Islam, Khairul; Opel, Aftab; Shoab, Abul K; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mahon, Therese; Unicomb, Leanne
Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche. We sampled 700 schools from 50 urban and 50 rural clusters using a probability proportional to size technique. We interviewed 2332 schoolgirls and conducted spot checks in each school for menstrual hygiene facilities. To assess factors associated with reported school absence, we estimated adjusted prevalence difference (APD) for controlling confounders' effect using generalised estimating equations to account for school-level clustering. Among schoolgirls who reached menarche, 41% (931) reported missing school, an average of 2.8 missed days per menstrual cycle. Students who felt uncomfortable at school during menstruation (99% vs 32%; APD=58%; CI 54 to 63) and who believed menstrual problems interfere with school performance (64% vs 30%; APD=27; CI 20 to 33) were more likely to miss school during menstruation than those who did not. School absence during menstruation was less common among girls attending schools with unlocked toilet for girls (35% vs 43%; APD=-5.4; CI -10 to -1.6). School absence was more common among girls who were forbidden from any activities during menstruation (41% vs 33%; APD=9.1; CI 3.3 to 14). Risk factors for school absence included girl's attitude, misconceptions about menstruation, insufficient and inadequate facilities at school, and family restriction. Enabling girls to manage menstruation at school by providing knowledge and management methods prior to menarche, privacy and a
Full Text Available ... and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22. ...
... and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22. ...
Torlesse, Harriet; Cronin, Aidan Anthony; Sebayang, Susy Katikana; Nandy, Robin
Stunting in early life has considerable human and economic costs. The purpose of the study was to identify factors associated with stunting among children aged 0-23 months in Indonesia to inform the design of appropriate policy and programme responses. Determinants of child stunting, including severe stunting, were examined in three districts in Indonesia using data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2011. A total of 1366 children were included. The analysis used multiple logistic regression to determine unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting was 28.4 % and 6.7 %, respectively. The multivariate analysis on determinants of stunting identified a significant interaction between household sanitary facility and household water treatment (P for interaction = 0.007) after controlling for potential covariates: in households that drank untreated water, the adjusted odds on child stunting was over three times higher if the household used a unimproved latrine (adjusted odds ratio 3.47, 95 % confidence interval 1.73-7.28, P water, the adjusted odds on child stunting was not significantly higher if the household used an unimproved latrine (adjusted odds ratio 1.27, 95 % confidence interval 0.99-1.63, P = 0.06). Other significant risk factors included male sex, older child age and lower wealth quintile. The risk factors for severe stunting included male sex, older child age, lower wealth quintile, no antenatal care in a health facility, and mother's participation in decisions on what food was cooked in the household. The combination of unimproved latrines and untreated drinking water was associated with an increased odds on stunting in Indonesia compared with improved conditions. Policies and programmes to address child stunting in Indonesia must consider water, sanitation and hygiene interventions. Operational research is needed to determine how best to converge and integrate water, sanitation and hygiene
von Lengerke, Thomas; Kröning, Barbara; Lange, Karin
Hand hygiene in wound care by health care providers (HCPs) is a key principle in treating hospitalized patients with diabetic foot infections. This study aimed to estimate the extent to which patients with type-2-diabetes (T2D) intend to speak up for HCPs' hand hygiene during inpatient foot treatment, test whether this motivation increases given the hospital would invite patients to speak up, and identify associations with socio-demographics, knowledge of hand hygiene requirements, and diabetes-related factors. A questionnaire-survey was conducted in eight diabetes outpatient centres in Lower Saxony/Germany. Intentions to speak up (without and with institutional encouragement) and knowledge about hand hygiene during foot-care were assessed. Analyses of variance were conducted, partly as repeated measures-models with intention-items as within-subject factor. N = 473 patients participated (response = 77.4%). N = 177 (41%) strongly intended to speak up. Institutional encouragement was associated with an increased rate of strong (54% vs. 41%; p < .001) and higher mean intention (M = 3.9 vs. 3.4 with vs. without encouragement [5-point-scales]; F(1, 434) = 41.5, p < .001). In patients without diabetic foot syndrome, this effect was limited to those with at least medium school education (F(2, 292) = 4.4, p = .013) and knowledge on HCPs' hand hygiene (F(2, 294) = 3.1, p = .047). In conclusion, a majority of T2D-patients in diabetes outpatient centres intend to speak for HCPs' hand hygiene in inpatient foot treatment, and are receptive to institutional encouragement. However, this presupposes at least medium education and knowledge about hand hygiene, emphasizing that patient empowerment begins with knowledge.
Ikeda, Wakaha; Inaba, Yutaka; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Katsumi; Ogoshi, Kumiko; Okamoto, Kazushi
The purpose of this study was to compare current awareness of the "On a Code of Conduct for Scientists" (OCCS) among members of the Japanese Society for Hygiene (JSH). An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was mailed to JSH members, including 439 councilors and 376 junior members (who were under 50 years of age with a membership of 3 years or longer, excluding councilors). Councilors were surveyed from November to December 2007, while junior members were surveyed from November to December 2008. The overall response rate was 40.6% (n = 331/815), with responses from 46.7% of the councilors (n = 205/439) and 33.5% of the junior members (n = 126/376). Among the respondents, 36.0% of councilors (n = 68) and 59.8% of junior members (n = 73) did not know the contents of "On the Code of Conduct for Scientists" (P Code [70.0% of councilors (n = 133), 68.6% of junior members (n = 83)] (P code of conduct for scientists (P Code of Conduct for Scientists. This result provides important information that should be considered during the formulation of an individual code of conduct for scientists in the JSH.
Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio
This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8-7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1-0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren's homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities.
Shane M Khan
Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs require household survey programmes such as the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS to enhance data collection to cover new indicators. This study aims to evaluated methods for assessing water quality, water availability, emptying of sanitation facilities, menstrual hygiene management and the acceptability of water quality testing in households which are key to monitoring SDG targets 6.1 and 6.2 on drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH and emerging issues.As part of a MICS field test, we interviewed 429 households and 267 women age 15-49 in Stann Creek, Belize in a split-sample experiment. In a concurrent qualitative component, we conducted focus groups with interviewers and cognitive interviews with respondents during and immediately following questionnaire administration in the field to explore their question comprehension and response processes.About 88% of respondents agreed to water quality testing but also desired test results, given the potential implications for their own health. Escherichia coli was present in 36% of drinking water collected at the source, and in 47% of samples consumed in the household. Both questions on water availability necessitated probing by interviewers. About one quarter of households reported emptying of pit latrines and septic tanks, though one-quarter could not provide an answer to the question. Asking questions on menstrual hygiene was acceptable to respondents, but required some clarification and probing.In the context of Belize, this study confirmed the feasibility of collecting information on the availability and quality of drinking water, emptying of sanitation facilities and menstrual hygiene in a multi-purpose household survey, indicating specific areas to improve question formulation and field protocols. Improvements have been incorporated into the latest round of MICS surveys which will be a major source of national data for
Khan, Shane M; Bain, Robert E S; Lunze, Karsten; Unalan, Turgay; Beshanski-Pedersen, Bo; Slaymaker, Tom; Johnston, Richard; Hancioglu, Attila
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require household survey programmes such as the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) to enhance data collection to cover new indicators. This study aims to evaluated methods for assessing water quality, water availability, emptying of sanitation facilities, menstrual hygiene management and the acceptability of water quality testing in households which are key to monitoring SDG targets 6.1 and 6.2 on drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and emerging issues. As part of a MICS field test, we interviewed 429 households and 267 women age 15-49 in Stann Creek, Belize in a split-sample experiment. In a concurrent qualitative component, we conducted focus groups with interviewers and cognitive interviews with respondents during and immediately following questionnaire administration in the field to explore their question comprehension and response processes. About 88% of respondents agreed to water quality testing but also desired test results, given the potential implications for their own health. Escherichia coli was present in 36% of drinking water collected at the source, and in 47% of samples consumed in the household. Both questions on water availability necessitated probing by interviewers. About one quarter of households reported emptying of pit latrines and septic tanks, though one-quarter could not provide an answer to the question. Asking questions on menstrual hygiene was acceptable to respondents, but required some clarification and probing. In the context of Belize, this study confirmed the feasibility of collecting information on the availability and quality of drinking water, emptying of sanitation facilities and menstrual hygiene in a multi-purpose household survey, indicating specific areas to improve question formulation and field protocols. Improvements have been incorporated into the latest round of MICS surveys which will be a major source of national data for monitoring of SDG
Tumath, Ursula G M; Walsh, Margaret
To determine perceptions about dental hygiene doctoral education among dental hygiene master's degree program enrollees. In this cross-sectional national study, all dental hygiene master degree program directors were sent an email requesting they forward an attached consent form and online-survey-link to their graduate learners. The 29-item online survey assessed their perceptions about need for, importance of and interest in applying to proposed dental hygiene doctoral degree programs. A second-request was sent 1 month later to capture non-responders. Frequencies and cross-tabulations of responses were analyzed using the online software program, Qualtrics.™ Of the 255 graduate learners enrolled in 2014 reported by dental hygiene program directors, 159 completed the survey for a 62% response rate. The majority of respondents (77%) indicated that doctoral education in dental hygiene is needed for the advancement of the dental hygiene discipline and such programs are important to the dental hygiene profession (89%). Although most respondents supported both the PhD in dental hygiene and the Doctor of Dental Hygiene Practice (DDHP) degrees, more were interested in applying to a DDHP program (62%) than to a dental hygiene PhD program (38%). In addition, 43% expressed interest in enrolling in a doctoral degree program in the next 1 to 5 years and most preferred a hybrid online/onsite program format. The most frequently reported reasons for pursing a doctoral degree were: to become a better teacher, to expand clinical practice opportunities, to become a better researcher and to increase salary. Most dental hygiene master degree learners in this study believed doctoral dental hygiene education is needed and important to the dental hygiene discipline and profession, and were interested in applying to such programs. Future research is needed in this area. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Ianuale, Carolina; Leoncini, Emanuele; Mazzucco, Walter; Marzuillo, Carolina; Villari, Paolo; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania
The relevance of Public Health Genomics (PHG) education among public health specialists has been recently acknowledged by the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the prevalence of post-graduate public health schools for medical doctors which offer PHG training in Italy. The directors of the 33 Italian public health schools were interviewed for the presence of a PHG course in place. We stratified by geographical area (North, Centre and South) of the schools. We performed comparisons of categorical data using the chi-squared test. The response rate was 73% (24/33 schools). Among respondents, 15 schools (63%) reported to have at least one dedicated course in place, while nine (38%) did not, with a significant geographic difference. Results showed a good implementation of courses in PHG discipline in Italian post-graduate public health schools. However further harmonization of the training programs of schools in public health at EU level is needed.
Nelson, D M
This study was designed to identify personal, familial, academic, and employment characteristics of dental hygiene students from the central region of the United States to develop a comprehensive student profile for research and recruitment purposes. In fall 1990, 25 dental hygiene program directors in ten states in the central region of the United States and 475 students enrolled in these programs were mailed surveys to develop program and student profiles. Data were analyzed using measures of central tendency and frequency. Directors and students from 24 of 25 dental hygiene programs responded. Data are reported from these 24 directors and 422 of 464 (91%) of the students enrolled in the programs. Dental hygiene students in the central region of the United States are similar in personal, parental, and academic backgrounds to the general population of college students nationally. Unlike the general college population, the regional dental hygiene population tends to be singularly female. Students chose to major in dental hygiene for economic and personal reasons. The availability of employment opportunities, the flexibility to work full- or part-time, and the prospects of making a better income and becoming a professional influenced their decision. Students identified dentists, dental hygienists, and relatives as being influential in their becoming interested in the dental hygiene profession. Previous dental office employment experience also influenced many students in their career choice. The study findings provide information for dental hygiene educators and others interested in student characteristics and factors that influence the selection of dental hygiene as a career.
Full Text Available ... United States, patients get more than a million infections in the hospital while being treated for something else. The best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene ...
Full Text Available ... hospital while being treated for something else. The best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows how patients can play an active role in reminding healthcare ...
Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows ...
Yazaji, Eskandar Alex
Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance. Keywords: hand hygiene; healthcare associated infections; multidisciplinary program; system change; accountability; education; feedback(Published: 18 July 2011)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2011, 1: 72...
Montoya, Ana; Chen, Shu; Galecki, Andrzej; McNamara, Sara; Lansing, Bonnie; Mody, Lona
Utilizing a self-administered questionnaire in 440 health care workers (81% response rate), we evaluated the impact of health care workers policy awareness on hand hygiene and urinary catheter care in nursing homes. We show that health care workers aware of their nursing home policies are more likely to report wearing gloves and practicing hand hygiene as per evidence-based recommendations during urinary catheter care compared with those who are unaware of their facility policies. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Garavaglia, M T; Bassoli, L; Cappoia, S; Medaglia, M; Meroni, C; Morgutti, M; Olivieri, P; Fontana, G
Hand hygiene represents the main way to prevent and/or at least reduce nosocomial infection incidence. In this paper we discuss this "hot topic" through both the analysis of CDC guide lines and the data resulting from a questionnaire survey sent to health care workers, eventually corroborated by their direct observation. From literature data and our survey result analyses, we are more than convinced that the winning strategies for a slow but progressive improvement of hand washing practice and compliance are (i). using a product able to decontaminate hands very quickly and without needing water; (ii). the health care worker awareness of hand hygiene and compliance feed-back importance. From our questionnaire survey as well as from our direct observation, we found a very low (5.6%) compliance of our hospital health care workers to CDC guidelines for hand washing. This may be justified above all by ward logistical and structural problems, as only 55% of sinks are located inside patient rooms, but also because there is a lacking of knowledge of new CDC suggested practices and decontaminating products. Health care worker specific training and the choice of an alcoholic antiseptic disinfectant, allowed us to significantly increase their compliance to proper practices in hand washing and hygiene, showing their interest in such an important and delicate matter.
Full Text Available Gibson's (1979 The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception ecological approach to visual perception is based on several key notions (i.e., affordance, optic flow, and invariants. Early research focused on identifying invariants (π-numbers to describe affordances using geometric body-scaled measures. Kadar and Koszeghy (2010 International Journal of Sport Psychology 41(3 80–81 generalized π-numbers to invariant functions (π-functions to allow dynamically scaled description of driving through gates of variable width. The present study further investigated the dynamic invariants of human locomotion in walking towards and passing through gates. Six participants were instructed to walk through gates of four different sizes with either comfortable or fast walking speed while holding a tray by two hands. Consistent with the results of Kadar and Koszeghy (2010 dynamically-scaled π-functions were identified. The speed control of the approach phase was further assessed in relation to the use of the optical τ parameter derived from optic flow specifying estimated time to contact with the virtual plane defined by the frontal surfaces of the aperture. Aperture size and walking speed have influenced the control of speed at the approach phase: the derivative of τ in the neighborhood of the aperture increased with increasing width of the aperture. Analysis of the approach phase suggests a need for searching an even higher-level invariant structure of the dynamics of this passing through task.
Teter, Jonathan; Millin, Michael G; Bissell, Rick
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) affect millions of patients annually (World Health Organization. Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare. Geneva: WHO Press; 2009). Hand hygiene compliance of clinical staff has been identified by numerous studies as a major contributing factor to HAIs around the world. Infection control and hand hygiene in the prehospital environment can also contribute to patient harm and spread of infections. Emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners are not monitored as closely as hospital personnel in terms of hand hygiene training and compliance. Their ever-changing work environment is less favorable to traditional hospital-based aseptic techniques and education. This study aimed to determine the current state of hand hygiene practices among EMS providers and to provide recommendations for improving practices in the emergency health services environment. This study was a prospective, observational prevalence study and survey, conducted over a 2-month period. We selected participants from visits to three selected hospital emergency departments in the mid-Atlantic region. There were two data components to the study: a participant survey and hand swabs for pathogenic cultures. This study recruited a total sample of 62 participants. Overall, the study revealed that a significant number of EMS providers (77%) have a heavy bacterial load on their hands after patient care. All levels of providers had a similar distribution of bacterial load. Survey results revealed that few providers perform hand hygiene before (34%) or in between patients (24%), as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. This study demonstrates that EMS providers are potential vectors of microorganisms if proper hand hygiene is not performed properly. Since EMS providers treat a variety of patients and operate in a variety of environments, providers may be exposed to potentially pathogenic organisms, serving as vectors for the exposure of
Pääkkönen, Rauno; Koponen, Milja
The aim of this work is to evaluate and describe the current status of, and prospects for, the future of occupational hygiene in Finland. The main sources of information include a seminar held in the annual meeting of Finnish Occupational Hygiene Society and interviews with different stakeholders. Nanotechnology and other new materials, changing work environments, circular economy including green jobs, new medical methods and advances of construction methods were recognized as future challenges. Future work opportunities for occupational hygiene experts included exposure assessments in indoor air surveys, private consulting and entrepreneurship in general, international activities and product safety issues. Unclear topics needing more attention in the future were thought to be in new exposures, sensitive persons, combined effects, skin exposures and applicability of personal protective equipment. Occupational hygiene should broaden its view; occupational hygienists should have to cooperate with other specialists and grasp new challenges.
Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders
infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified...
Full Text Available ... than a million infections in the hospital while being treated for something else. The best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows how patients can play an active role ...
Nasirudeen, A M A; Koh, Josephine W N; Lau, Adeline Lee Chin; Li, Wenjie; Lim, Lay Seng; Ow, Cynthia Yi Xuan
Hand hygiene is an important means of preventing nosocomial infections. Studies have shown a nursing students in a tertiary institution in Singapore. The results of this survey strongly indicate that nursing students understand the importance of hand hygiene compliance and perceive clinical internship programs and practical laboratory sessions to be effective methods of hand hygiene education. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Dunn-Navarra, Ann-Margaret; Cohen, Bevin; Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Jordan, Sarah; Larson, Elaine
This study was a cross sectional descriptive survey of acute care hospitals in California to describe staff hand hygiene compliance and related predictors, and explore the relationship between hand hygiene adherence to health care-associated infections. Although there was a relatively small sample size, institutions with morning huddles reported a significantly higher proportion of ≥95% hand hygiene compliance. Huddles are an organizational tool to improve teamwork and communication and may o...
Goldberg, Judith L
Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jorritsm, R; Lansink, B J G; Döpfer, D
This field trial was designed to evaluate the effect of treatment with copper chelate or formalin walk-through footbaths on the prevalence of digitalis dermatitis and interdigital dermatitis on a dairy farm. Although there was no difference in effect between the two types of footbath, the probability that interdigital dermatitis improved or remained stable was lower with the copper chelate footbath than with the formalin footbath.
Komrska, Shelley; Rupe, Melissa
Last year, a school embarked on a school-wide project that would take all of their students, kindergarten through-sixth grade, through a tangible art timeline. The result was a passageway--over seventy-five feet in length--that revealed the history of art, from cave painting to modern-day graffiti art. The "walk through time" was inspired by how…
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Shunsheng Han, Cliff
Allergic diseases have reached epidemic proportions in Western populations in the last several decades. The hygiene hypothesis proposed more than twenty years ago has helped us to understand the epidemic and has been verified with numerous studies. However, translational measures deduced from these studies to prevent allergic diseases have not proven effective. Recent studies on immigrants' allergies and any potential association between oral infection and allergic diseases prompt me to propose a specific hygiene hypothesis to explain how oral hygiene practices might have contributed to the uprising of hay fever, the most common allergic disease. The historic oral hygiene level in US is closely associated with the emerging allergic epidemic. Future studies to test the hypothesis are needed and verification of the hypothesis can potentially yield highly effective measures to prevent allergic diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... into the dwelling, and in many dwellings the bathroom has developed into being the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today's housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of ‘space for hygiene’ in the 20th...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...
This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.
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Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... from its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...
Ardizzone, Laura L; Smolowitz, Janice; Kline, Nancy; Thom, Bridgette; Larson, Elaine L
Little is known about the hand hygiene practices of surgical patients. Most of the research has been directed at the health care worker, and this may discount the role that hand hygiene of the surgical patient might play in surgical site infections. A quasiexperimental, pretest/post-test study was conducted in which patients (n = 72) and nurses (n = 42) were interviewed to examine perceptions and knowledge about patient hand hygiene. Concurrently, observations were conducted to determine whether surgical patients were offered assistance by the nursing staff. Following an initial observation period, nursing staff received an educational session regarding general hand hygiene information and observation results. One month after the education session, patient/nurse dyads were observed for an additional 6 weeks to determine the impact of the educational intervention. Eighty observations, 72 patient interviews, and 42 nurse interviews were completed preintervention, and 83 observations were completed postintervention. In response to the survey, more than half of patients (n = 41, 55%) reported that they were not offered the opportunity to clean their hands, but a majority of the nursing staff reported (n = 25, 60%) that they offered patients the opportunity to clean their hands. Prior to the educational intervention, nursing staff assisted patients in 14 of 81 hand hygiene opportunities. Following the intervention, nursing staff assisted patients 37 out of 83 opportunities (17.3% vs 44.6%, respectively, [χ(2)1 = 13.008, P = .0003]). This study suggests that efforts to increase hand hygiene should be directed toward patients as well as health care workers. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Pittet, Didier; Simon, Anne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Pessoa-Silva, Carmen Lúcia; Sauvan, Valérie; Perneger, Thomas V
Physician adherence to hand hygiene remains low in most hospitals. To identify risk factors for nonadherence and assess beliefs and perceptions associated with hand hygiene among physicians. Cross-sectional survey of physician practices, beliefs, and attitudes toward hand hygiene. Large university hospital. 163 physicians. Individual observation of physician hand hygiene practices during routine patient care with documentation of relevant risk factors; self-report questionnaire to measure beliefs and perceptions. Logistic regression identified variables independently associated with adherence. Adherence averaged 57% and varied markedly across medical specialties. In multivariate analysis, adherence was associated with the awareness of being observed, the belief of being a role model for other colleagues, a positive attitude toward hand hygiene after patient contact, and easy access to hand-rub solution. Conversely, high workload, activities associated with a high risk for cross-transmission, and certain technical medical specialties (surgery, anesthesiology, emergency medicine, and intensive care medicine) were risk factors for nonadherence. Direct observation of physicians may have influenced both adherence to hand hygiene and responses to the self-report questionnaire. Generalizability of study results requires additional testing in other health care settings and physician populations. Physician adherence to hand hygiene is associated with work and system constraints, as well as knowledge and cognitive factors. At the individual level, strengthening a positive attitude toward hand hygiene and reinforcing the conviction that each individual can influence the group behavior may improve adherence among physicians. Physicians who work in technical specialties should also be targeted for improvement.
Curtis, Val; Schmidt, Wolf; Luby, Stephen; Florez, Rocio; Touré, Ousmane; Biran, Adam
Although promotion of safe hygiene is the single most cost-effective means of preventing infectious disease, investment in hygiene is low both in the health and in the water and sanitation sectors. Evidence shows the benefit of improved hygiene, especially for improved handwashing and safe stool disposal. A growing understanding of what drives hygiene behaviour and creative partnerships are providing fresh approaches to change behaviour. However, some important gaps in our knowledge exist. For example, almost no trials of the effectiveness of interventions to improve food hygiene in developing countries are available. We also need to figure out how best to make safe hygiene practices matters of daily routine that are sustained by social norms on a mass scale. Full and active involvement of the health sector in getting safe hygiene to all homes, schools, and institutions will bring major gains to public health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blümle, S; Kaercher, T; Khaireddin, R
Although contact lenses have long been established in ophthalmology, practical aspects of handling contact lenses is becoming increasingly less important in the clinical training as specialist for ophthalmology. Simultaneously, for many reasons injuries due to wearing contact lenses are increasing. In order to correct this discrepancy, information on contact lenses and practical experience with them must be substantially increased from a medical perspective. This review article deals with the most important aspects for prevention of complications, i.e. contact lens hygiene.
Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2
This survey assesses the levels of knowledge and preventive practices of workers on the hygienic and sanitary operations in slaughterhouses in Niger State, north-central Nigeria. A cross sectional survey was conducted on 385 workers aged 20 years and above between January 2013 and April 2013 using structured ...
Kjærbeck, Susanne; Petersen, Helle
The article focuses on strengths and weaknesses of the local hygiene communication in a hospital ward. Efficient change communication consists of central and local communication activities. The hygiene coordinator is an important local "change agent", but in practice the role is difficult. The communicative interaction between the central infection control organization and a specific ward as well as between the department management and the hygiene coordinator should be strengthened in order to create change in staff behaviour.
Valerie A Curtis
Full Text Available In unpacking the Pandora’s box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they are adaptive. In humans, responses to most infectious threats are accompanied by sensations of disgust. In historical times, religions, social codes and the sciences have all provided rationales for hygiene behaviour. However, the author argues that disgust and hygiene behaviour came first, and that the rationales came later. The implications for the modern-day practice of hygiene are profound. The natural history of hygiene needs to be better understood if we are to promote safe hygiene and, hence, win our evolutionary war against the agents of infectious disease.
Bader, James D.
Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…
Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Lukasse, L.J.S.
The hygiene aspect of food transport has become an issue for European transport operators. This development started roughly in 1990, when national governments urged transport operators to act on food safety. However, nowadays retailers and food producers are demanding more hygiene measures from
Verena G. Herbert
Full Text Available Background. Adherence to hygiene guidelines is of utmost importance for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge on and the adherence to hygiene guidelines among medical students in Austria. Additionally, a possible difference between female and male students was investigated. Methods. An open paper-based survey among third-year medical students at the Medical University of Graz was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single-choice questions covering compliance with basic hygiene standards, self-rated knowledge of hygiene guidelines, and satisfaction with current hygiene education, equipment, and quality standards. Results. Of 192 medical students, 70% judged their knowledge of hygiene standards as “excellent” or “good”; however, only 49% reported adherence to hygiene guidelines and only 43% performed hygienic hand disinfection according to WHO guidelines. Of the respondents, 79% voted for a mandatory course on hygiene standards in medical education. No significant gender differences were observed. Conclusion. While the knowledge on hygiene guidelines appears to be good among medical students, adherence is limited and requires improvement. The need for an optimum education in hygiene is high.
Increased security measures at high secure psychiatric hospitals can complicate hand hygiene. This audit assessed the availability of appropriate hand hygiene equipment and the practice of good hand hygiene at Broadmoor Hospital using the local hand hygiene policy as the standard for comparison. A data collection tool used to audit the hand hygiene equipment on 23 wards in the hospital showed that there were significant deficits in the supply of hand hygiene equipment on the wards. In addition, a staff survey was conducted using a questionnaire designed to assess awareness, training and hand decontamination practice among nursing staff. This survey identified a need to increase awareness of the hand hygiene policy and the appropriate timing of hand decontamination procedures. As a result of the audit, appropriate equipment was ordered and the duties of infection prevention link nurses on each ward were made more explicit; namely, to check and order equipment for hand hygiene as necessary, to conduct regular reminder sessions of the hand decontamination procedure and to raise awareness of hand hygiene policy. Posters were also placed on wards in patient areas to increase awareness of hand hygiene among patients, and alcohol gel dispensers were introduced into nursing stations. Similar audits may prove beneficial at other psychiatric hospitals. (c) 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pedersen, Laura; Elgin, Kimberly; Peace, Barbara; Masroor, Nadia; Doll, Michelle; Sanogo, Kakotan; Zuelzer, Wilhelm; Peterson, Gene; Stevens, Michael P; Bearman, Gonzalo
We examined the perceptions and barriers to nonsurgical scrubbed hand hygiene in the operating room and endoscopy procedure room using 2 anonymous Likert-scale surveys. Results indicated poor role modeling, inconvenience, and the need to monitor hand hygiene and feedback data to providers because of poor self-awareness of hand hygiene practices. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the survey was to assess awareness regarding oral hygiene practice amongst children toward oral health in rural population of Mangalore city. Materials and Methods: The survey was carried out among 2636 children (boys: 1508 and girls: 1128 who were in the age group of 5-12 years studying in various schools of rural Mangalore. Data on oral hygiene practice were collected by means of self-administered questionnaire. Results: This survey found that 52% children brush their teeth twice a day and 98.9% children brushed in horizontal direction. Other oral hygiene aids were sparsely used (5.3%. None of the school children had any form of interactive sessions on oral hygiene practice with their respective class teacher. Conclusion: Results of the study suggest that basic oral hygiene knowledge and practice of the study participants was good but advanced knowledge needs to be improved. Systematic community-oriented oral health promotion programs and awareness amongst teachers are needed to improve oral health of school children.
Andrade, Elizabeth L; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B; Edberg, Mark C; Zoerhoff, Kathryn L; Putzer, Emily M
There has been considerable progress in the reduction of diarrheal disease among children under five through health and nutrition interventions. However, diarrheal disease is still the second leading cause of child death worldwide. There is growing recognition that comprehensive hygiene behavior improvements should be integral to prevention efforts, but the effectiveness of different approaches for hygiene promotion is still being established. Hygiene risk practices vary across settings, suggesting that prevention strategies should be adapted to local contexts using community-based approaches. We planned, implemented, and evaluated a hygiene promotion intervention using the hygiene cluster framework. The two-year, multi-level intervention was implemented by local health promoters who were involved in identifying and addressing disease transmission risks at the household, school, and community levels. The intervention was evaluated using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with repeated follow-up assessments to determine changes in hygiene knowledge and behavior. A household survey instrument was administered at three time points in the intervention ( n = 480) and comparison ( n = 271) communities to assess two hygiene knowledge and eleven hygiene behavior outcome variables. We used one-way analysis of variance with post hoc analysis using Tukey's HSD for multiple comparisons to examine change and differences over time. We also fit a linear regression model to identify statistically significant differences. Study results demonstrated improvements in the areas of: knowledge of disease transmission and key times for handwashing, water container hygiene, sanitation practices, personal hygiene and food hygiene. The hygiene cluster framework is useful for hygiene promotion intervention planning and evaluation, and we recommended continued testing of this framework across contexts. We also recommend local community participatory approaches, as well as in
Meteorological Organization (WMO) at Pune. This helped me understand basic concepts of Meteorology and ... research in national and international journals. I also presented some of the research results in various seminars, at national as well as international levels. I completed my doctoral thesis based on the variability of ...
Turrin, B. D.; Turrin, M.
After "What is this rock?" the most common questions that is asked of Geologists is "How old is this rock/fossil?" For geologists considering ages back to millions of years is routine. Sorting and cataloguing events into temporal sequences is a natural tendency for all humans. In fact, it is an everyday activity for humans, i.e., keeping track of birthdays, anniversaries, appointments, meetings, AGU abstract deadlines etc… However, the time frames that are most familiar to the non scientist (seconds, minutes, hours, days, years) generally extend to only a few decades or at most centuries. Yet the vast length of time covered by Earth's history, 4.56 billion years, greatly exceeds these timeframes and thus is commonly referred to as "Deep Time". This is a challenging concept for most students to comprehend as it involves temporal and abstract thinking, yet it is key to their successful understanding of numerous geologic principles. We have developed an outdoor learning activity for general Introductory Earth Science courses that incorporates several scientific and geologic concepts such as: linear distance or stratigraphic thickness representing time, learning about major events in Earth's history and locating them in a scaled temporal framework, field mapping, abstract thinking, scaling and dimensional analysis, and the principles of radio isotopic dating. The only supplies needed are readily available in local hardware stores i.e. a 300 ft. surveyor's tape marked in feet, and tenths and hundredths of a foot, and the student's own introductory geology textbook. The exercise employs a variety of pedagogical learning modalities, including traditional lecture-based, the use of Art/Drawing, use of Visualization, Collaborative learning, and Kinesthetic and Experiential learning. Initially the students are exposed to the concept of "Deep Time" in a short conventional introductory lecture; this is followed by a 'field day'. Prior to the field exercise, students work with their textbook selecting events is Earth History that they find interesting. Using the textbook and online resources they then draw figures that represent these events. The drawing exercise reinforces the learning by having students visualize (imprinting an image) of these geologic events. Once the students have produced their drawings, the outdoor field exercise follows. Working collaboratively, the students measure and lay out a scaled linear model representing 4.56 billion years of geologic time. They then organize and place their drawings in the proper sequence on the temporal model that they have created. Once all the drawings are in place they are able to visualize the expanse of time in Earth's history. Through comparing results from a pre-test to those from a post-test we can show the gains in student understanding of Deep Time, a concept that is central to many of our geologic understandings.
The practicum reported here involved the design of a hygiene awareness unit to help 30 second-grade students in an inner-city school become aware of and improve their personal and oral hygiene, and to provide necessary knowledge concerning pediculosis. Surveys of students and faculty prior to the program demonstrated the need for such a program as…
Signorelli, C; Guasticchi, G
As the bacteria found more frequently in hospital infections are the same found in the linen, it is speculated that hospital linens can contribute to the spread of nosocomial patologies. Nevertheless this consideration does not prove that linen constitutes a significant source for transmission of hospital infections, although some studies have strengthened this possibility. The hygienic problems of hospital linens washing have a great importance and in this contest the possibility of contagion throught infected sheets or overalls constitutes only a part of the question. The problem of the spreading of nosocomial infections has to be divided into (1) collection and arlage of the linens; and (2) their disinfection and washing. Collection and carriage need precautions to prevent the hospital staff and the patients from the direct contagion, while during the washing the infected, or potentially infected, linen are to be regarded as a potential risk, which can be avoided through a disinfection before the standard washing cycle. During the washing the processes of cleansing, the dilution and the effect of temperature could be sufficient to obtain the final results. The last consideration is linked to gestational aspects, that's to say the consumptions, the costs, the traditional organizing procedures and the alternative ones, such as the possibility of substituting disposable material to linens or to refer to central laundries placed outside the hospital building and independently operated.
Todd, Jemma; Mullan, Barbara
University students have poor sleep hygiene, leading to poorer health. Facets of self-regulation such as planning, behavioural inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory were explored in relation to three sleep hygiene behaviours: Avoiding stress or anxiety before bed, avoiding going to bed hungry or thirsty, and making the bedroom restful. One hundred and thirty-seven participants took part in an Internet-based survey over two time points separated by a period of two weeks. Only cognitive flexibility and behavioural inhibition correlated with sleep hygiene. Cognitive flexibility significantly predicted an aspect of sleep hygiene after controlling for past behaviour. However, when past behaviour was controlled for, behavioural inhibition no longer predicted sleep hygiene. Thus, cognitive flexibility may play a role in explaining sleep hygiene; however, behavioural inhibition does not appear as important as previously assumed. Further research could build on this study to determine whether cognitive flexibility can be experimentally improved.
Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene before and after teaching program among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A true experimental study was conducted among 50 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the Bhaniyawala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned into control (n=25 and experimental group (n=25. Adolescent girls from both groups were assessed for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 and on 15th day. Participants of experimental group were administered educational programme regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 after assessment for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene. Data were analysed statistically by simple proportions. Results: The mean age of the adolescent girl was 13.88± 1.5 and age of menarche 12.74±0.98. Out of 50, 32 (64% mothers’ of adolescent girls were educated at graduate level. The mean pre-test knowledge and practice in experimental group 8.04±1.54, 3.52±1.0 and control group 8.02±2.0, 3.24±1.0 respectively. The level of knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene of subjects who participated in educational program was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl
Full Text Available Aim: Oral hygiene maintenance is one of the most difficult tasks for visually impaired people. The aim of study was to investigate about knowledge on oral hygiene practices among patients with visual sensory disabilities by proposing an effective management in order to achieve and maintain oral health status of these patients. Methods:It was administered a questionnaire about oral health management to the patients with visual disabilities accessing to dental unit of “Mons. Di Liegro” Hospital of Gaeta. Results: The survey covered a sample of 49 patients, aged between 14 and 95 years. More than half (66% was blind ( 65% of cases with primary blindness and the remaining 35% with secondary blindness. Only 32.65% brushed their teeth 3 times a day; 68% of the surveyed patients limited home oral hygiene procedures to toothbrush and toothpaste; 79% used manual toothbrush; 49% of respondents reported odontophobia (it was basically generated by pain often due to bad experience during childhood. More than half declared a dental office attendance as needed. Conclusions: This study showed as, although starting from a compromised oral health and inadequate knowledge of oral hygiene practices, visual impaired/ blind patients were able to achieve and maintain a good level of oral hygiene, using the most appropriate techniques and instruments.
Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.
Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…
The study assessed the prevalence of helminths on raw vegetables presented for sales and the level of hygienic practices among vegetable marketers in Maiduguri. All the markets surveyed were categorized into quadrants for the purpose of this study. A total of three hundred and twenty samples of spinach, cabbage, ...
Lastinger, Allison; Gomez, Kayeromi; Manegold, Ellen; Khakoo, Rashida
Patient empowerment is recognized as an important component of a multimodal strategy to improve hand hygiene adherence. We examined the attitudes of adult patients and parents of pediatric patients toward a new patient empowerment tool (PET) at our hospital. We also surveyed physicians to determine their perceptions about the PET. A cross-sectional survey was performed of hospitalized children's parents and adult patients in a 531-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in West Virginia. Surveys were anonymous and self-administered. A separate survey was administered via e-mail to resident and attending physicians from the departments of internal medicine, pediatrics, and family medicine. Most parents and adult patients felt it was their role to speak up if a provider did not perform hand hygiene, but a smaller number actually felt comfortable using the PET. Only 54.9% of physicians felt that patients should be involved in reminding providers to perform hand hygiene. Overall, physicians indicated that they would prefer a patient to use words rather than the PET to remind them to perform hand hygiene. In our study, parents and adult patients supported use of the PET, but physicians were less supportive. As the patient empowerment movement grows, we should work to improve physician acceptance of patient involvement if it is to be successful. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dec 1, 2014 ... Aims: The aim of this study was conducting a survey of hygiene habits and use of removable partial dentures (RPDs) and correlate them with the social conditions of the interviewees. Methods: A total of 145 RPD wearers were interviewed by experienced clinical staff using a structured questionnaire.
National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.
Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…
Alghamdi, Yousef A; Camp, Andrew; Feuer, William; Karp, Carol L; Wellik, Sarah; Galor, Anat
Lid hygiene is a commonly prescribed first-line therapy in patients with lid margin disease, yet compliance with therapy is not well characterized. The goals of this study were to assess patient compliance with lid hygiene and evaluate which factors predict a favorable symptomatic response to treatment. This was a cross-sectional study of patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic between August and December 2014. An evaluation was performed to assess dry eye symptoms and lid margin signs. All patients were then instructed to perform warm compresses and lid scrubs. A follow-up phone survey assessed compliance and subjective therapeutic response 6 weeks later. Two hundred seven of 211 (98%) patients (94% male, 60% white) completed the survey. Of the 207 patients, 188 (91%) completed the follow-up survey. Compliance with therapy was reported in 104 patients (55%); 66 reported complete improvement, 30 partial improvement, and 8 no improvement in symptoms. Patients who self-reported dry eye symptoms at first visit (n=86, 74%) were more likely to be compliant with lid hygiene than those who did not report symptoms (n=18, 25%) (P<0.0005). The only factor associated with poorer response to lid hygiene was longer time of self-reported dry eye symptoms. None of the other signs studied, including the presence of skin rosacea and lid margin telangiectasia, were associated with a differential response to lid hygiene. Patients with dry eye symptoms were moderately compliant with lid hygiene, and patients who performed the routine noted improvement in symptoms.
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The overall objective of this survey is to collect relevant information on water, sanitation and hygiene sectors in Praia, hinterlands of Santiago and Sal Islands....
Hand hygiene is one of the most effective measures for preventing infections. The annual NHS staff survey in England provides national and local data on how staff feel about working in the NHS. It also provides staff with the opportunity to give their views on the availability of hand-washing materials. The infection prevention and control team at an NHS trust decided a review was required on this issue. This review assessed the availability of hand-washing materials and alcohol handrub on wards and at ward entrances. Three community buildings and 31 wards were reviewed. The audit results showed the availability of hand-washing materials was good in 30 out of 34 areas. Staff on both wards and in the community buildings highlighted what other materials were required for hand hygiene, and steps were made to provide these. The audit allowed hand-hygiene practices to be benchmarked across the trust and increased staff awareness of improving hand hygiene. As a result of this audit, the hand-hygiene compliance score increased from 80% to 95%.
Full Text Available [english] Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine.Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers.Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare
Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter
Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training
Kravchenko, O K
The paper gives data on the positive and negative effects of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). It provides the hygienic characteristics of solaria used to produce an artificial tan. This device has been found to present a high health risk to its users. There are considerable problems in the hygienic assessment of this type of exposure. The ways of solving the arising problems in developing the metrological monitoring of UVR and compiling a document regulating the sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance of solaria are defined.
Alp, Emine; Haverkate, Diana; Voss, Andreas
We performed a study to measure the compliance of laboratory personnel with different components of hand hygiene. The level of compliance at the end of duty was 100%; however, 36.7% of subjects wore a ring, 46.9% wore a watch, and 6.1% wore a bracelet. Pathogenic microorganisms were exclusively found on hands of laboratory personnel who wore jewelry. After interventions, the level of compliance with the no-jewelry policy among laboratory personnel showed sustained improvement. Efforts to improve hand hygiene should be directed not only at healthcare workers but also at laboratory personnel.
In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.
Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann
To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was
Alp, E.; Haverkate, D.; Voss, A.
We performed a study to measure the compliance of laboratory personnel with different components of hand hygiene. The level of compliance at the end of duty was 100%; however, 36.7% of subjects wore a ring, 46.9% wore a watch, and 6.1% wore a bracelet. Pathogenic microorganisms were exclusively
Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.
National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.
The second in a series on parenting education for American Indians, the booklet offers information on health and hygiene for the mother-to-be and the newborn baby. Chapters include care during pregnancy, mother's weight, mother's health, feeding newborns, washing the baby, baby's early diet, and baby's health care. (ERB)
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…
Muhney, Kelly A; Gutmann, Marylou E; Schneiderman, Emet; DeWald, Janice P; McCann, Ann; Campbell, Patricia R
The media has given much attention to the academic cheating crisis in America. A majority of college students believe that, in today's global environment, it is necessary to cheat in order to get ahead and to compete with their peers. The prevalence and attitudes concerning academic dishonesty of health professions students, including those in medical, dental, and nursing schools, have been extensively researched. No such studies exist in the discipline of dental hygiene. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cheating in Texas dental hygiene programs. Four hundred surveys were mailed to twenty Texas dental hygiene schools for graduating students to complete. A total of 289 usable surveys was returned for a response rate of 72.25 percent. Data were analyzed using SPSS with frequencies and chi-square tests. Findings from this study reveal that 86.5 percent of graduating Texas dental hygiene students have cheated a minimum of one time during matriculation. Students identified the demands of what they considered academic overload as the primary justification for cheating behavior.
Barker, Anna; Sethi, Ajay; Shulkin, Emily; Caniza, Rachell; Zerbel, Sara; Safdar, Nasia
We examine factors associated with hand hygiene practices of hospital patients. Hygiene decreased compared to at home, and home practices were strongly associated with hospital practices. Understanding and leveraging the intrinsic value some patients associate with hand hygiene may be important for improving overall hospital hygiene and decreasing healthcare-associated infections.
Van Schie, M.; Wiesman, R.F.F.
The invention relates to a hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system, comprising: means for detecting the occurrence of an event specified in a hand-hygiene rule, wherein the event involves a person; means for updating behaviour data that is related to acts according to the hand-hygiene rule, wherein
Strong, Carol; Lin, Chung-Ying; Jalilolghadr, Shabnam; Updegraff, John A; Broström, Anders; Pakpour, Amir H
Poor sleep quality and inadequate sleep in adolescents are a rising trend globally. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-which centres on an individual's attitude toward performing the behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control-has been applied to examine sleep hygiene behaviours in young adults. We expanded on prior works by using a longitudinal design to examine the effects of TPB factors, together with sleep hygiene knowledge and planning constructs, on sleep hygiene behaviours and on sleep quality and health in a group of Iranian adolescents. A total of 1822 healthy adolescents (mean age = 13.97) from 25 high schools in Qazvin, Iran, completed a self-reported survey at baseline and 6 months later. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to delineate the pathway from adolescents' sleep hygiene knowledge, TPB constructs of their behavioural intentions and sleep hygiene behaviours and their sleep quality and self-reported health. The SEM model demonstrated that although behavioural intention, coping planning and action planning predicted the sleep hygiene behaviours positively 6 months later with acceptable model fit [comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.936; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.902; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.080; standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.044], sleep hygiene knowledge did not predict behavioural intentions significantly. Sleep hygiene behaviours were associated with sleep quality and psychiatric wellbeing. Thus, the TPB, combined with coping and action planning, is useful in understanding the sleep hygiene behaviours of adolescents. Health-care providers may want to emphasize TPB constructs and coping and action planning to improve adolescents' sleep hygiene behaviours, rather than rely solely upon increasing adolescents' sleep hygiene knowledge. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
Meltzer, Lisa J; Ullrich, Maureen; Szefler, Stanley J
There is a need to understand more about modifiable health behaviors that may be related to asthma control. Sleep is one such health behavior that has received little attention in pediatric asthma research. To examine sleep duration, sleep hygiene, and insomnia in adolescents with and without asthma. Adolescents (n = 298; 51% boys; age range, 12-17 years; 48% with asthma) from the general community completed an online survey that included the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire, the Children's Report of Sleep Patterns, and the Insomnia Severity Index. Sleep duration did not differ between the asthma severity groups, yet more adolescents with severe asthma reported insufficient weekday sleep (44%) versus adolescents without asthma (31%). Significant asthma group differences were found for sleep hygiene, with adolescents with severe asthma reporting poorer sleep hygiene. Almost twice as many adolescents with severe asthma reported clinically significant insomnia than adolescents with mild or no asthma. Sleep hygiene variables were correlated with insomnia, although these associations did not differ between adolescents with and without severe asthma. Finally, both insomnia severity and asthma severity were significant predictors of daytime sleepiness; however, asthma severity accounted for only 2% of the variance compared with 28% of the variance accounted for by insomnia severity. Many adolescents with severe asthma regularly obtain insufficient sleep, have poor sleep hygiene, and experience clinically significant insomnia. It is important to ask adolescents with asthma about sleep duration, sleep hygiene, and insomnia because there are effective interventions that can improve sleep for these youths. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5% girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5% girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25% girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75% girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25% girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85% girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.
van Tilburg Bernardes, Erik; Arrieta, Marie-Claire
Industrialized countries have registered epidemic rates on allergic diseases, such as hay fever, asthma, eczema, and food allergies. The Hygiene Hypothesis was born from work made by Dr. David Strachan, who observed that younger siblings were less susceptible to eczema and asthma, and proposed that this was a result of increased transmission of infectious agents via unhygienic practices within a household. This initial hypothesis was then reframed as the old friends/microbiota hypothesis, implicating non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms as the source of immunomodulatory signals necessary to prevent immune-mediated chronic disorders. Although the hygiene hypothesis is supported by epidemiological research of allergic diseases in certain industrialized settings, it often fails to explain the incidence of asthma in less affluent regions of the world. In this review, we summarize up-to-date information on genetic and environmental factors associated with asthma in different human populations, and present evidence that calls for caution when associating hygiene with the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic conditions. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chou, Tsui-Lan; Chang, Lu-I; Chung, Min-Huey
This study aimed to test the mediating and moderating effects of sleep hygiene practice on the relationship between anxiety and insomnia severity in hospital nurses. A cross-sectional survey was employed, and a convenience sample was recruited from one regional hospital in Taiwan. Participants completed the following self-report questionnaires over a 3-month period in 2009: the Insomnia Severity Index, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Sleep Hygiene Awareness and Practice Scale. The results indicated that nurses with more anxiety tended to have higher insomnia severity. Further, nurses with poor sleep hygiene practice had more insomnia. Sleep hygiene practice partially mediated the effects of anxiety on insomnia severity. Also, sleep hygiene practice was a moderator in the relationship between anxiety and insomnia severity with age and work units as covariates. Sleep hygiene practice mediated and moderated the relationship between anxiety and insomnia severity after controlling the variables of age and work units. Continuing to learn and train sleep hygiene practice might promote nurses' sleep hygiene, and thereby ameliorate anxiety and reduce the risk of insomnia. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Sadule-Rios, Nohemi; Aguilera, Graciela
The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of reasons for persistent low rates in hand hygiene compliance in the Critical Care Unit and their recommendations for improvement. This study used an exploratory, descriptive survey design to identify critical care nurses' perceptions of barriers to hand hygiene compliance in the unit and their recommendations for improvement. Nurses selected high workload, understaffing and suggested lack of time as the main problems with hand hygiene compliance in the critical care unit. Second to that, they identified difficulty accessing sinks and lack of appropriately located hand sanitisers at the point of care complemented by suggestions of not enough sinks and inconveniently located hand sanitiser as major barriers to hand hygiene compliance. Results of this study indicate that high workload and understaffing added to difficulty accessing hand hygiene resources contribute to low rates of hand hygiene compliance in the critical care unit. Addressing nursing understaffing and workload and making some environmental modifications to allow easy access to sinks and hand sanitisers may facilitate nurses hand hygiene compliance in this setting. Further studies on the relationship between nurses' workload, unit staffing, and hand hygiene compliance rates are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Seung Soon; Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun
Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygien...
Allaire, Joanna L
Dental hygiene educators must determine which educational practices best promote critical thinking, a quality necessary to translate knowledge into sound clinical decision making. The aim of this small pilot study was to determine whether virtual patient simulation had an effect on the critical thinking of dental hygiene students. A pretest-posttest design using the Health Science Reasoning Test was used to evaluate the critical thinking skills of senior dental hygiene students at The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston Dental Hygiene Program before and after their experience with computer-based patient simulation cases. Additional survey questions sought to identify the students' perceptions of whether the experience had helped develop their critical thinking skills and improved their ability to provide competent patient care. A convenience sample of 31 senior dental hygiene students completed both the pretest and posttest (81.5% of total students in that class); 30 senior dental hygiene students completed the survey on perceptions of the simulation (78.9% response rate). Although the results did not show a significant increase in mean scores, the students reported feeling that the use of virtual patients was an effective teaching method to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and confidence in the clinical realm. The results of this pilot study may have implications to support the use of virtual patient simulations in dental hygiene education. Future research could include a larger controlled study to validate findings from this study.
Boyce, John M
Monitoring hand hygiene compliance among health care personnel (HCP) is an essential element of hand hygiene promotion programs. Observation by trained auditors is considered the gold standard method for establishing hand hygiene compliance rates. Advantages of observational surveys include the unique ability to establish compliance with all of the World Health Organization "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" initiative Moments and to provide just-in-time coaching. Disadvantages include the resources required for observational surveys, insufficient sample sizes, and nonstandardized methods of conducting observations. Electronic and camera-based systems can monitor hand hygiene performance on all work shifts without a Hawthorne effect and provide significantly more data regarding hand hygiene performance. Disadvantages include the cost of installation, variable accuracy in estimating compliance rates, issues related to acceptance by HCP, insufficient data regarding their cost-effectiveness and influence on health care-related infection rates, and the ability of most systems to monitor only surrogates for Moments 1, 4, and 5. Increasing evidence suggests that monitoring only Moments 1, 4, and 5 provides reasonable estimates of compliance with all 5 Moments. With continued improvement of electronic monitoring systems, combining electronic monitoring with observational methods may provide the best information as part of a multimodal strategy to improve and sustain hand hygiene compliance rates among HCP. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Soon Ryun Lim
The purpose of this study is to understand factors affecting on communication competency in dental hygiene students. From September 20 to October 20, 2016, 439 students participated in survey through structured questionnaire. The results showed that mean of communication competency was 3.46±0.41 and mean of communication apprehension was 3.26±0.59, speech apprehension was highest in sub-factors of communication apprehension. The group of intention to receive communication education and the gr...
Brick, Cameron A.; Seely, Darbi L.; Palermo, Tonya M.
The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Correlation and regression analyses tested for associations among...
Sabogal, Raquel I; Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J
The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998's Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence sustainability. Regional sustainability indicator results showed there was a statistically significant decline in access to water. The presence of sanitation facilities had not changed since the beginning of the project; however, maintenance and use of latrines declined but continued to meet the goal of 75% use after 7 years. The hygiene indicator, hand washing, initially declined and then increased. Declines in water access were due to operational problems related to storm events and population changes. Sanitation facilities were still present and sometimes used even though they reached or surpassed their original design life. Changes in hygiene practices appeared related to ongoing hygiene promotion from outside organizations. These results provide useful input for making WASH programs more sustainable and informing future, more in-depth research into factors influencing sustainability.
Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.
The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence sustainability. Regional sustainability indicator results showed there was a statistically significant decline in access to water. The presence of sanitation facilities had not changed since the beginning of the project; however, maintenance and use of latrines declined but continued to meet the goal of 75% use after 7 years. The hygiene indicator, hand washing, initially declined and then increased. Declines in water access were due to operational problems related to storm events and population changes. Sanitation facilities were still present and sometimes used even though they reached or surpassed their original design life. Changes in hygiene practices appeared related to ongoing hygiene promotion from outside organizations. These results provide useful input for making WASH programs more sustainable and informing future, more in-depth research into factors influencing sustainability. PMID:26413262
Barrett, Rachael; Randle, Jacqueline
The present study examines nursing students' perceptions of hand hygiene practices in clinical settings. The objectives were to investigate any factors that affect students' perceptions of their own and healthcare workers' (HCWs) hand hygiene compliance, and to make recommendations for future practice and hand hygiene training in preregistration nursing courses. Effective hand hygiene decontamination can lower the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs); unfortunately, the prevalence of HCAIs continues to rise and so poses challenges to healthcare providers to reduce such infections. Previous studies have shown that hand hygiene compliance in HCWs is generally low and that any increase in compliance is difficult to sustain. Several barriers to hand hygiene compliance have been identified in the literature. A qualitative interpretive design was used to examine nursing students' perceptions of hand hygiene practices. Ten preregistration students participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, which were analysed thematically. Hand hygiene compliance was perceived to be effected by specific barriers which included: time and busyness; clinical procedure; skin condition; lack of knowledge and glove use. Importantly, students perceived other HCWs as being the influencing factor for hand hygiene compliance resulting from the perception that they should 'fit in' with those working in the clinical area. The findings support previous literature and found that respondents emphasised the importance of fitting into the clinical area and role models in shaping hand hygiene compliance. For nursing students, the influence of other HCWs as role models should not be underestimated.
Issa, Mohamad; McHenry, Michael; Issa, Abdul Aziz; Blackwood, R Alexander
Diarrheal illness, frequently associated with fecal-oral transmission, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is commonly preventable through the implementation of safe water practices. This experiment concerns how to best implement safe water practices in a quasi-permanent refugee camp setting with limited ability for structural changes. Specifically, we explore how health promotion activities that help identify target groups for hygiene interventions can play a role in disease prevention. An anonymous survey was conducted at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency Health Clinic in the Kulandia refugee camp to assess the safe water and personal hygiene practices. Demographic and social characteristics, accessible water and personal hygiene characteristics, and gastrointestinal (GI) burden for individuals and their households were assessed. A total of 96 individuals were enrolled; 62 females and 34 males. Approximately 58% of the sample had soap available and washed hands before and after eating and when preparing food. Piped water was the main source of drinking water (62%), while 31% of our sample utilized tanker-trucks. 93% of participants had access to toilet facilities, with 86% of these facilities being private households. 55% practice extra water hygiene measures on their household drinking water source. 51.3% considered vendor cleanliness when they were buying food. 51% had received formal health education. 68.8% had been taught by their parents, but only 55.2% were teaching their children and 15.6% had consistent access to a health professional for hygiene inquiries. Individual variables and hygiene practices associated with lower rates of diarrheal illnesses included having water piped into the home, proper hand washing, adequate soap availability, proper consideration of vendor cleanliness, higher income, levels of education, health hygiene education, and having access to healthcare professions to discuss hygiene related matters. This is
Full Text Available Diarrheal illness, frequently associated with fecal-oral transmission, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is commonly preventable through the implementation of safe water practices. This experiment concerns how to best implement safe water practices in a quasi-permanent refugee camp setting with limited ability for structural changes. Specifically, we explore how health promotion activities that help identify target groups for hygiene interventions can play a role in disease prevention. An anonymous survey was conducted at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency Health Clinic in the Kulandia refugee camp to assess the safe water and personal hygiene practices. Demographic and social characteristics, accessible water and personal hygiene characteristics, and gastrointestinal (GI burden for individuals and their households were assessed. A total of 96 individuals were enrolled; 62 females and 34 males. Approximately 58% of the sample had soap available and washed hands before and after eating and when preparing food. Piped water was the main source of drinking water (62%, while 31% of our sample utilized tanker-trucks. 93% of participants had access to toilet facilities, with 86% of these facilities being private households. 55% practice extra water hygiene measures on their household drinking water source. 51.3% considered vendor cleanliness when they were buying food. 51% had received formal health education. 68.8% had been taught by their parents, but only 55.2% were teaching their children and 15.6% had consistent access to a health professional for hygiene inquiries. Individual variables and hygiene practices associated with lower rates of diarrheal illnesses included having water piped into the home, proper hand washing, adequate soap availability, proper consideration of vendor cleanliness, higher income, levels of education, health hygiene education, and having access to healthcare professions to discuss hygiene related
Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H
The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board.
Wolter, Markus; Bussemas, Ralf
Bei einer großen angelegten Untersuchung von Schweinen an einem deutschen Schlachthof waren die Erkrankungsarten der angelieferten Bio-Schweine und die Anzahl der Befunde nicht signifikant von denen konventioneller Schweine zu unterscheiden und somit eindeutig zu hoch.
Harne-Britner, Sarah; Allen, Marianne; Fowler, Kimberly A
This quasi-experimental study explored initial and sustained effects of educational and behavioral interventions on hand hygiene adherence and the relationships between hand hygiene adherence and health care-associated infections. Education paired with positive reinforcement behavioral interventions significantly improved hand hygiene adherence after the first month (χ² = 4.27; P = .039); however, the improvement was not sustained over 6 months. There were no significant differences in infection rates between the treatment and control groups.
Azzam al Kadi; Sajad Ahmad Salati
Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization’s concept of “Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” was used to evaluate the awarene...
Simonian, Whitney Z; Brame, Jennifer L; Hunt, Lynne C; Wilder, Rebecca S
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 3-week practicum experience on the clinical self-confidence of University of North Carolina (UNC) senior dental hygiene students. A mixed methods approach was utilized. Before and after a 3-week practicum experience, UNC senior dental hygiene students (n=32) were asked to complete a 20-statement clinical self-confidence survey based on the dental hygiene process of care. Statements were Likert-scaled, ranging from "not at all confident" to "totally confident." The stratified Mantel Haenszel row mean score test with the subject as strata as a repeated approach was used to assess whether on average across subjects, the pre- and post-surveys had the same mean score. Students were also asked to submit reflective journal entries discussing critical incidents during their practicum experience. Representative comments from students' journal entries were selected as qualitative data to support survey results. Pre- and post-practicum surveys (31 and 32, respectively) were completed, and all 32 students submitted journal entries. The differences in the row mean scores from pre- to post-practicum survey were statistically significant (pself-confidence from the practicum experience. Students' journal entries provided comments that supported the quantitative results. The results suggest that a 3-week practicum experience in dental hygiene students' final semester increased UNC dental hygiene students' clinical self-confidence in the dental hygiene process of care. Dental hygiene administrators may want to consider the benefits of requiring students to participate in a practicum experience if they do not already do so. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Jones, Vickie E; Karydis, Anastasios; Hottel, Timothy L
Interprofessional and intraprofessional education (when students from two or more professions or within the same profession, respectively, learn about, from, and/or with each other) is crucial for effective interdisciplinary collaboration. The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of a clinical intraprofessional education program for dental and dental hygiene students, based on students' expectations and satisfaction with the program and patients' satisfaction with the team-based care. The pilot program was developed at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Dentistry, where dental hygiene students were paired randomly with dental students scheduled for prophylaxis, scaling and root planing, or periodontal maintenance. Surveys with questions about the students' expectations and satisfaction were distributed to 89 senior dental students and 27 senior dental hygiene students before and after team-based procedures. Another survey was distributed to 17 patients asking about their satisfaction with the team-based care. All 27 dental hygiene students (100% response rate), 51 dental students (57.3% response rate), and all 17 patients (100% response rate) participated in the surveys. The results showed that both the dental and dental hygiene students had high expectations and were overall satisfied with the intraprofessional education. The students' expectations and perceived educational gap (difference between expectations and satisfaction) differed for the dental and dental hygiene students (ppatients were overwhelmingly satisfied with the team-based care. These results suggest that this intraprofessional practice model provided an effective educational experience for both dental and dental hygiene students and patients. The differences between the dental hygiene and dental students' expectations will help in the design of more effective training that promotes intraprofessional and interprofessional teamwork.
Al Kadi, Azzam; Salati, Sajad Ahmad
Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" was used to evaluate the awareness of the indications for hand hygiene and compliance was observed during Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) sessions. Sixty students including thirty-six males (60%) and twenty-four females (40%) participated voluntarily in the study. Results. The average awareness regarding the positive indications of hand hygiene was 56%. Rest of the 44% of students were either not sure or unaware of the indications of hygiene. Only 29% of students were able to identify all the five indications for hand hygiene in the questionnaire. Compliance as assessed during OSCE sessions was only 17% with no significant difference between the genders. Conclusion. It was concluded that serious efforts are needed to improve the hand hygiene practices among medical students.
Buhr-Riehm, B; Lenz, T
Following a patient complaint, the Health Department carried out a hygiene inspection of a urological practice in Braunschweig in February 2013. The topic of the complaint was that a patient assumed having acquired a resistant pathogen in the practice. In the subsequent visit, significant hygiene defects were found, particularly with regard to the processing of medical devices. This led to a decision to commit all urological practices in Braunschweig to hygiene inspections as part of a priority project. In retrospect, the hygiene surveys were justified. Deficiencies included inadequate preparation of medical products, procedures in practice inconsistent with hygiene plans, poor knowledge of hygiene procedures among assistant staff and doctors, lack of expertise of assistant staff and lack of hygiene risk awareness by doctors. Positive experiences were: open communication in a good atmosphere with the Practice managers, willingness to change, good cooperation between the Health Authority and the Labor Inspectorate and Physicians' Association. The claimed deficits were corrected by spring 2014 by the practice operators. The consulting expertise of the health authorities was made use of continuously. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Decker, Andrew S; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Tsouri, Gill; Lavigne, Jill E
Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student's seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth within the last 30 days of the completion of questionnaire. Findings Most of the 2257 respondents were males (53.9% and went hungry (82.5%. More than 4 in 10 respondents drank alcohol (42.2% while 37.2% smoked cannabis. Overall 10.0% of the respondents reported to have poor oral hygiene. Male respondents were 7% less likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to females. Compared to respondents who never drank alcohol, those who drank alcohol were 27% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene. Respondents who smoked cannabis were 4% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not smoke cannabis. Finally, respondents who went hungry were 35% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not go hungry. Conclusions Results from this study indicate that female gender, alcohol drinking, cannabis smoking, and going hungry were associated with self-reported poor oral hygiene. The identification of these factors should guide the design and implementation of programs aimed to improve oral health among adolescents.
Foley, E S
The American Dental Association and the Centers for Disease Control are currently stressing the need for protective clinical attire and barrier techniques to reduce cross-contamination and the spread of diseases. They strongly recommend disposable or clean, reusable gowns, lab coats, or uniforms during treatment of all dental patients. Surgical masks, gloves, and protective eyewear are also recommended. The program directors of 197 dental hygiene programs in the United States were surveyed to determine how these recommendations affect the current clinical attire requirements for dental hygiene students and clinical faculty. All of the programs responding to this survey required protective eyewear and gloves for both students and faculty. Seventy-seven percent of the programs responding required students to wear uniforms while working on clinical patients. Surgical gowns and surgical scrubs are currently worn by only eight percent and five percent of dental hygiene students respectively. Most clinical instructors wear lab coats over street clothes, instead of traditional uniforms. Many program directors indicated they are considering changes in clinical attire requirements in the future because of concern for infection control. The issues of most concern for possible changes in the near future appear to be (1) switching from uniforms to surgical gowns or scrubs, (2) changing to disposable gowns, and (3) utilizing a laundry service for lab coats or scrubs.
-care workers’ perception surveys revealed high appreciation of the different strategy components. Conclusion Promotion of hand hygiene is feasible and sustainable in a resource-constrained setting using a multimodal improvement strategy. However, absolute compliance remained low. Strong and long-term commitment by hospital management and health-care workers may be needed for further improvement.
Azzam al Kadi
Full Text Available Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization’s concept of “Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” was used to evaluate the awareness of the indications for hand hygiene and compliance was observed during Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE sessions. Sixty students including thirty-six males (60% and twenty-four females (40% participated voluntarily in the study. Results. The average awareness regarding the positive indications of hand hygiene was 56%. Rest of the 44% of students were either not sure or unaware of the indications of hygiene. Only 29% of students were able to identify all the five indications for hand hygiene in the questionnaire. Compliance as assessed during OSCE sessions was only 17% with no significant difference between the genders. Conclusion. It was concluded that serious efforts are needed to improve the hand hygiene practices among medical students.
Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...
The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.
Luís, H S; Morgado, I; Assunção, V; Bernardo, M F; Leroux, B; Martin, M D; DeRouen, T A; Leitão, J
Dental hygiene activities were developed as part of a randomized clinical trial designed to assess the safety of low-level mercury exposure from dental amalgam restorations. Along with dental-hygiene clinical work, a community programme was implemented after investigators noticed the poor oral hygiene habits of participants, and the need for urgent action to minimize oral health problems in the study population. Clinical and community activity goal was to promote oral health and prevent new disease. Community activities involved participants and their fellow students and were aimed at providing education on oral health in a school environment. Dental hygienists developed clinical work with prophylaxis, sealants application and topical fluoride and implemented the community programme with in-class sessions on oral health themes. Twice a month fluoride mouthrinses and bi-annual tooth brushing instructional activity took place. Participation at dental-hygiene activities, sealed teeth with no need of restoration and dental-plaque-index were measures used to evaluate success of the programme for the participants. Improvement in dental hygiene is shown by the decrease in dental plaque index scores (P teeth. 888 (13.7%) teeth with sealants had to be restored or were lost. Children participated actively on dental hygiene activities. Teachers became aware of the problem and included oral-health in school curricula. Dental hygiene activities have shown to be helpful to promote dental hygiene, promote oral health and to provide school-age children with education on habits that will be important for their future good health.
Menstrual hygiene is vital to the health, well-being, dignity and productivity of women and girls. The study assessed menstrual hygiene practices among adolescents in selected secondary schools around the University of Ibadan. The study was descriptive. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 381 ...
At the basis of Oral Health lies daily oral hygiene self-care with the result, if correctly performed, of plaque and gingivitis reduction. Epidemiological studies indicate that the level of oral hygiene in the general population has increased over the last decades. However, there still appears to be
The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.
SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...
Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M
This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Forrester, L A; Bryce, E A; Mediaa, A K
A year-long multifaceted hand-hygiene campaign entitled Clean Hands for Life targeting individual, environmental and organisational factors that influence healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour was implemented in 36 acute and long-term care facilities in Vancouver Coastal Health region. The campaign involved rotation of ten novel posters, two poster contests, and distribution of multiple promotional items. A social marketing approach was used to implement and monitor the effectiveness of the campaign. Evaluation included quality assurance surveys, staff surveys (baseline, mid- and post-campaign), and focus groups. A total of 141 poster contest submissions was received, 5452 staff surveys completed and 14 focus groups conducted. Overall knowledge of the importance of hand-hygiene and intention to clean hands was high at baseline. No significant differences were observed when mid- and post-campaign scores were compared to baseline. The majority (89.5%) of HCWs reported that they preferred soap and water over alcohol hand gel. A significant increase in the self-reported use of hand-hygiene products was observed particularly among HCWs not providing direct patient care. Barriers to hand-hygiene included inappropriate placement of sinks, traffic flow issues, inadequately stocked washrooms, workload and time constraints. Organisational support was visible throughout the campaign. The results showed that social marketing is an effective approach in engaging HCWs. Hand-hygiene campaigns that focus almost exclusively on increasing awareness among HCWs may not be as successful as multifaceted campaigns or campaigns that target identified barriers to hand-hygiene. Copyright 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kullberg, Erika; Forsell, Marianne; Wedel, Peter; Sjögren, Petteri; Johansson, Olle; Herbst, Bertil; Hoogstraate, Janet
The aim of this study was to describe a new dental hygiene education program for nursing staff and to report experiences from the program at a nursing home in Stockholm, Sweden (2006). This strategy comprises 3 steps. The first is individual instruction for nursing staff about oral care for patients and hands-on training in toothbrushing technique using an electric toothbrush. The second step was small discussion groups of 4 to 8 nursing staff, led by a dental hygienist and a psychologist. The third step was a theoretical lecture focusing on the associations among dental hygiene, oral health, and general health among the elderly. During the dental hygiene education program, a negative attitude toward oral care was noted among members of the nursing staff, although they did consider oral care important for their patients. Increased self-confidence of staff in providing oral care was noted after completing the dental hygiene education program. Nursing staff members stated that they had received more detailed knowledge about oral care during the program. This dental hygiene education program appears to result in increased knowledge and interest in oral hygiene tasks among the nursing staff and may lead to improved dental hygiene among nursing home residents.
Benjamin A Miko
Full Text Available While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status.501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar.While the vast majority of study participants (n = 461, 92% believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p = .002 and after using the toilet (p = .001. Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n = 367 of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm(2 area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5% and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%. Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05.Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or health in the university
Ab Malik, Normaliza; Mohamad Yatim, Saari; Lam, Otto L T; Jin, Lijian; McGrath, Colman
This study aimed to examine "intention to" and "performance of" oral hygiene care to stroke patients using the Theory of Planned Behavior. A large scale survey of 13 centers in Malaysia was conducted involving 806 nurses in relation to oral hygiene care intentions and practices. In addition, information on personal and environmental factors was collected. The response rate was 95.6% (778/806). The domains of the Theory of Planned Behavior were significantly associated with general intention to perform oral hygiene care: attitudes (β = 0.21, p Theory of Planned Behavior provides understanding of "intention to" and "performance of" oral hygiene care to stroke patients. Several provider and environmental factors were also associated with intentions and practices. This has implications for understanding and improving the implementation of oral hygiene care in stroke rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Oral hygiene care is crucial for stroke patients as it can prevent oral health problems and potentially life threatening events (such as aspiration pneumonia). Despite oral hygiene care being relative simple to perform, it is often neglected during stroke rehabilitation. A large-scale national survey was conducted to understand "intentions to" and "performance of" oral hygiene care to stroke patients using the Theory of Planned Behavior social cognition model. These study findings may have implications and use in promoting oral hygiene care to stroke patients:i) by understanding the pathways and influences to perform oral hygiene care.ii) to conduct health promotion and health education based on behavioral models such as Theory of Planned Behavior.
López Martín, M Beatriz; Erice Calvo-Sotelo, Alejo
To compare presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution following the WHO protocol with traditional presurgical hand hygiene. Cultures of the hands of surgeons and surgical nurses were performed before and after presurgical hand hygiene and after removing gloves at the end of surgery. Cultures were done in 2different days: the first day after traditional presurgical hand hygiene, and the second day after presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution following the WHO protocol. The duration of the traditional hand hygiene was measured and compared with the duration (3min) of the WHO protocol. The cost of the products used in the traditional technique was compared with the cost of the hydroalcoholic solution used. The variability of the traditional technique was determined by observation. Following presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution, colony-forming units (CFU) were detected in 5 (7.3%) subjects, whereas after traditional presurgical hand hygiene CFU were detected in 14 subjects (20.5%) (p < 0.05). After glove removal, the numbers of CFU were similar. The time employed in hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution (3min) was inferior to the time employed in the traditional technique (p < 0.05), its cost was less than half, and there was no variability. Compared with other techniques, presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution significantly decreases CFU, has similar latency time, a lower cost, and saves time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Pargger, Hans; Widmer, Andreas F
Healthcare-associated infections affect 1.4 million patients at any time worldwide, as estimated by the World Health Organization. In intensive care units, the burden of healthcare-associated infections is greatly increased, causing additional morbidity and mortality. Multidrug-resistant pathogens are commonly involved in such infections and render effective treatment challenging. Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of preventing healthcare-associated infections. In addition, it is equally important to stop transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, alcohol-based handrub should be used as the preferred means for routine hand antisepsis. Alcohols have excellent in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a variety of fungi, and most viruses. Some pathogens, however, such as Clostridium difficile, Bacillus anthracis, and noroviruses, may require special hand hygiene measures. Failure to provide user friendliness of hand hygiene equipment and shortage of staff are predictors for noncompliance, especially in the intensive care unit setting. Therefore, practical approaches to promote hand hygiene in the intensive care unit include provision of a minimal number of handrub dispensers per bed, monitoring of compliance, and choice of the most attractive product. Lack of knowledge of guidelines for hand hygiene, lack of recognition of hand hygiene opportunities during patient care, and lack of awareness of the risk of cross-transmission of pathogens are barriers to good hand hygiene practices. Multidisciplinary programs to promote increased use of alcoholic handrub lead to an increased compliance of healthcare
Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun
Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygiene compliance and perceptions toward hand hygiene among medical personnel were compared between the second quarter of 2009 (before the start of a hand hygiene promotion program) and the second quarter of 2012. We assessed adherence to hand hygiene among medical personnel quarterly according to the WHO recommended method for direct observation. Also, we used a modified self-report questionnaire to collect perception data. Results Hand hygiene compliance among physicians and nurses improved significantly from 19.0% in 2009 to 74.5% in 2012 (P Hand hygiene compliance among the medical personnel continued to improve, with a slight decline in 2013. Perceptions toward hand hygiene improved significantly between 2009 and 2012. Specifically, improvements were evident in intention to adhere to hand hygiene, knowledge about hand hygiene methods, knowledge about hand hygiene indications including care of a dirty and a clean body site on the same patient, perceived behavioral and subjective norms, positive attitude toward hand hygiene promotion campaign, perception of difficulty in adhering to hand hygiene, and motivation to improve adherence to hand hygiene. Conclusions The examined hand hygiene promotion program resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. The improved perception increased hand hygiene compliance. Especially, the perception of being a role model for other colleagues is very important to improve hand hygiene
Fitzpatrick, Kimberley R; Pantle, Annette C; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Hughes, Clifford F
To present the results of surveys of staff, patients and visitors about their perceptions of hand hygiene behaviour before and after implementation of the Clean hands save lives campaign in New South Wales public hospitals. Pre- and post-campaign questionnaires, disseminated through project officers in each health authority, were completed by selected staff and patients/visitors in all 208 public hospitals in NSW. Combined, de-identified results for each health authority were forwarded to the NSW Clinical Excellence Commission for analysis. Awareness of campaign material; staff perceptions about their ability to maintain a high level of hand hygiene compliance before and after contact with patients; compliance self-reported by staff compared with compliance perceived by patients/visitors and compliance assessed by overt observation. Most staff and patients/visitors were aware of campaign materials. Eighty-six per cent of staff respondents (495/578) believed that placement of alcohol-based hand rub (AHR) close to the point of patient care had improved hand hygiene compliance, and 76% (510/671) believed they could sustain their level of compliance. Only 1 in 4 patients or visitors (106/397) were willing to question health care workers who appeared not to be complying with hand hygiene practices. As the first coordinated statewide campaign to modify hand hygiene culture, the Clean hands save lives campaign successfully engendered positive attitudes and dispelled negative perceptions about the onerous nature of before- and after-patient-contact hand hygiene compliance.
Anwar, Muhammad Ali; Rabbi, Sana; Masroor, Muhammad; Majeed, Fouad; Andrades, Marie; Baqi, Shehla
To determine the compliance of hand hygiene among the trainee physicians of a tertiary care teaching hospital; and to identify physicians' opinion regarding various obstacles in adhering to the hand hygiene principles. Cross-sectional survey was conducted among the Interns (House Officers) and Post Graduate trainee physicians of a tertiary care teaching hospital in a resource limited country. Subjects were consented and selected through non probability convenient sampling. A self-administered questionnaire, based on the hand hygiene guidelines laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used. A total of 211 questionnaires were completed. Only 4.7% of the physicians reported to decontaminate their hands before having direct contact with their patients. Only 17% claimed to be aware of the WHO recommendations on hand hygiene. Majority of subjects considered "lack of sinks, soap, water and disposable towel" as a major barrier towards hand hygiene adherence. Overall compliance of hand hygiene was found to be 38.8% but it widely varied as a function of patient care activity. Hand hygiene practices among trainee physicians were not in line with WHO recommendations. To make a difference, interventions taken to improve awareness alone, won't be sufficient; they have to be supported with improving facilities for hand hygiene.
Stadelmann, Pascale; Zemp, Elisabeth; Weiss, Carine; Weiger, Roland; Menghini, Giorgio; Zitzmann, Nicola U
Since the first survey in 1992/93, the Swiss Health Survey (SHS) has been repeated every 5 years (1997, 2002 and 2007). In the present study, dental visits (dental care utilisation within the last 12 months), oral hygiene measures and the frequency of orthodontic treatments in the Swiss population in 2002 were examined and dental visits were compared with the years 1992/93, 1997 and 2007. Weighted data were analysed regarding different sociodemographic factors. From 1992 to 2002, dental visits among the 15-74-year-old declined continuously (1992/93: 70%, 1997: 66%, 2002: 63%), whereas in 2007 a slight increase (66%) was documented. In the survey from 2002, a large proportion (74%) of the population stated to clean their teeth or prostheses several times a day, predominantly with a manual toothbrush, whereas 28% applied an electric toothbrush and almost half of the respondents also used dental floss or toothpicks. Fewer visits and less intensive oral hygiene measures were observed among the elderly, men, weak social strata, smokers, persons with more than 8 missing teeth and in the group with removable dentures. Almost a quarter of the population had orthodontic treatment with the highest proportion among the 15-24-year-old (56%).
Gyawali, Rajendra; Nestha Mohamed, Fathimath; Bist, Jeewanand; Kandel, Himal; Marasini, Sanjay; Khadka, Jyoti
Significant levels of non-compliance and poor hygiene among contact lens wearers have been reported previously from different parts of the world. This survey aimed at identifying the scope of hygiene and non-compliant behaviour of soft contact lens wearers in the Maldives. Established soft lens wearers attending two eye clinics in Male' city, were interviewed in office or via telephone. A set of interviewer-administered questions was used to access the subjective response on compliance and hygiene behaviour (hand and lens case hygiene, water exposure, adherence to lens replacement schedule, dozing and overnight wear, awareness of aftercare visits and reuse of disinfecting solution). Participants were also asked to rate themselves as a contact lens user based on their perceived compliance and hygiene practices. Out of 107 participants, 79 (74.8 per cent) were interviewed in the office and the rest via telephone. The majority of lens wearers were female, office workers and students, with a mean age of 20.64 ± 4.4 years. Mean duration of lens wear was 28.04 ± 8.36 months. Most of them were using spherical lenses (86.9 per cent) on a daily wear basis (96.3 per cent). Major reported forms of non-compliance were poor hand hygiene (60.7 per cent), lack of aftercare awareness (39.3 per cent), water exposure (35.5 per cent) and over-use of lenses (24.3 per cent). While females were more likely to overuse their lenses than males (p hygienic behaviour. A significant number of Maldivian contact lens wearers exhibited poor levels of hygiene and compliance with contact lenses and lens care systems. An effective educational reinforcement strategy needs to be developed to modify lens wearers' non-compliance. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.
This article explores how the Meiji medical authorities applied Western medicine-derived hygienic ideas and plans to build up imperial Japan. Although several medical historians have recently begun to investigate the important role that Western medicine played Japan's modern nation-building, there has been little historical analysis of how hygiene administration influenced military hygiene in this process. While some prominent historians of modern Japan have discussed the impact of Dutch medicine on the rise of Western learning during the Tokugawa era (1603-1868) or have placed it within the context of Japan's colonial expansion into Taiwan or China, they have not analyzed the process by which hygiene administration contributed to the development of military hygiene in the making of imperial Japan. In this paper, I will investigate why and how Japan's medical leaders adopted German medicine and the British hygiene administration system, and pursued their application to Meiji Japan's military forces.
Sato, Y; Saito, A; Nakamura-Miura, A; Kato, E; Cathcart, G
This paper reports the incorporation of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DHHN) and the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Model (OHRQL) into a dental hygiene curriculum in Japan. A simulated patient practice was offered to 67 dental hygiene students. In the practice activity, all students were introduced to the use of an OHRQL assessment tool. A DHHN assessment tool was utilized additionally only by the experimental student group. The statistical analysis of the post-practice survey showed that the OHRQL instrument was more helpful in assessment and problem identification than the DHHN instrument. By contrast, text-based analysis of dental hygiene diagnostic statements showed that the experimental group identified more domains of patients' human needs deficits than the control group. This suggested the possibility that the DHHN model helped them to see patients from broader perspectives. However, it was difficult for students to design care plans attending to the domains of the models. Also, in considerations to the cultural issues, the validity and equivalence of the Japanese versions of both models should be further investigated. Within the limitation of the present study, the results suggested that incorporation of the combination of the DHHN and OHRQL models can be useful in a dental hygiene curriculum, as each tool helps students expand the perspective from which they view client. Further improvements in learning strategies should facilitate the effective utilization of these models.
Turner, April M; Prihoda, Thomas J; English, Dana K; Chismark, Aubreé; Jacks, Mary E
The aim of this study was to compare the learning preferences of millennial dental hygiene students (born between 1982 and 2002) in the U.S. with the teaching methods used by their non-millennial instructors. Cross-sectional surveys were developed with 21-item, five-point Likert scales to examine students' preferences for and faculty use of lecture, collaborative activities, technology, independent work, and group discussion. Surveys were emailed to U.S. dental hygiene program directors in September 2015. The respondents totaled 800 students and 343 faculty members-approximately 5% of all dental hygiene students and 6.8% of all dental hygiene faculty members in the U.S. The results showed that the responding faculty members (88.7%) used case studies more than the students (61.2%) preferred and that the students (71.4%) preferred games when learning more than the faculty members (57.2%) used them (plearning over lecture.
Arbogast, James W; Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Jarvis, William R; Harpster-Hagen, Amanda; Hughes, Jillian; Parker, Albert
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a multimodal hand hygiene intervention program in reducing health care insurance claims for hygiene preventable infections (eg, cold and influenza), absenteeism, and subjective impact on employees. A 13.5-month prospective, randomized cluster controlled trial was executed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer in strategic workplace locations and personal use (intervention group) and brief hand hygiene education (both groups). Four years of retrospective data were collected for all participants. Hygiene-preventable health care claims were significantly reduced in the intervention group by over 20% (P < 0.05). Absenteeism was positively impacted overall for the intervention group. Employee survey data showed significant improvements in hand hygiene behavior and perception of company concern for employee well-being. Providing a comprehensive, targeted, yet simple to execute hand hygiene program significantly reduced the incidence of health care claims and increased employee workplace satisfaction.
In the current study, the hygienic behaviors of 5th instar larva of Iranian honeybees (Apis mellifera. meda) were investigated. The results of hygienic evaluation demonstrated that 35% of Iranian honeybees are hygienic. For more research, different levels of hygienic behaviors were used as a treatment and then the selected ...
This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene. Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID). Date Released: 6/19/2008.
Busby, Sunni R; Kennedy, Bryan; Davis, Stephanie C; Thompson, Heather A; Jones, Jan W
The authors hypothesized that patients may not understand the forms of effective hand hygiene employed in the hospital environment. Multiple studies demonstrate the importance of hand hygiene in reducing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Extensive research about how to improve compliance has been conducted. Patients' perceptions of proper hand hygiene were evaluated when caregivers used soap and water, waterless hand cleaner, or a combination of these. No significant differences were observed, but many patients reported they did not notice whether their providers cleaned their hands. Educating patients and their caregivers about the protection afforded by proper, consistent hand hygiene practices is important. Engaging patients to monitor healthcare workers may increase compliance, reduce the spread of infection, and lead to better overall patient outcomes. This study revealed a need to investigate the effects of patient education on patient perceptions of hand hygiene. Results of this study appear to indicate a need to focus on patient education and the differences between soap and water versus alcohol-based hand sanitizers as part of proper hand hygiene. Researchers could be asking: "Why have patients not been engaged as members of the healthcare team who have the most to lose?"
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tobacco smoking on gingival health and the oral hygiene status of respondents. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional survey of 213 adults from three communities in the Ibadan North local government was carried out. Respondents were divided into two groups ...
Background: The WHO goals of oral health for all by the year 2000 was the target for many oral health researchers. The awareness, attitudes and oral hygiene practices of 1357 five (5) and 23 year old Naval School children in the southern part of Nigeria was assessed in the year 2000 as part of a general survey. Objective: ...
Lemon, Sherry; Reveal, Marge
A survey of 138 dental hygiene programs gathered information on didactic and clinical experiences for preparing students to treat patients with mental illnesses. Although most curricula addressed the issue, inadequate time was allotted. Over half did not provide oral care to these patients; few felt the community's need was met. (MSE)
K. Helder MScN (Onno); J.W.M. Weggelaar-Jansen (Anne Marie); D.J.C. Waarsenburg (Daniël); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Brug (Hans); R.F. Kornelisse (René)
markdownabstract__Abtract__ Background: Appropriate hand hygiene among health care workers is the most important infection prevention measure; however, compliance is generally low. Gain-framed messages (ie, messages that emphasize the benefits of hand hygiene rather than the risks of
Helder, Onno K.; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Waarsenburg, Daniël C. J.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Brug, Johannes; Kornelisse, René F.
Background: Appropriate hand hygiene among health care workers is the most important infection prevention measure; however, compliance is generally low. Gain-framed messages (ie, messages that emphasize the benefits of hand hygiene rather than the risks of noncompliance) may be most effective, but
Engeswick, Lynnette Marie
This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…
Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Debono, Deborah; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Objectives The study aims are twofold. First, to investigate the suitability of hand hygiene as an indicator of accreditation outcomes and, second, to test the hypothesis that hospitals with better accreditation outcomes achieve higher hand hygiene compliance rates. Design A retrospective, longitudinal, multisite comparative survey. Setting Acute public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Participants 96 acute hospitals with accreditation survey results from two surveys during 2009–2012 and submitted data for more than four hand hygiene audits between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes Our primary outcome comprised observational hand hygiene compliance data from eight audits during 2010–2013. The explanatory variables in our multilevel regression model included: accreditation outcomes and scores for the infection control standard; timing of the surveys; and hospital size and activity. Results Average hand hygiene compliance rates increased from 67.7% to 80.3% during the study period (2010–2013), with 46.7% of hospitals achieving target compliance rates of 70% in audit 1, versus 92.3% in audit 8. Average hand hygiene rates at small hospitals were 7.8 percentage points (pp) higher than those at the largest hospitals (phand hygiene rates, accreditation outcomes and infection control scores is less clear. Conclusions Our results indicate that accreditation outcomes and hand hygiene audit data are measuring different parts of the quality and safety spectrum. Understanding what is being measured when selecting indicators to assess the impact of accreditation is critical as focusing on accreditation results would discount successful hand hygiene implementation by smaller hospitals. Conversely, relying on hand hygiene results would discount the infection control related research and leadership investment by larger hospitals. Our hypothesis appears to be confounded by an accreditation programme that makes it more difficult for smaller hospitals to achieve high infection
Johns, G H; Gutmann, M E; DeWald, J P; Nunn, M E
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence the retention and attrition of dental hygienists within the workforce in Texas. Respondents' perception of the role of employee benefits and practice of dental hygiene on career retention were explored. Demographic descriptors, including educational level, marital status, age, employment setting, and practice statuses, were also examined. A questionnaire modified from the American Dental Hygienists' Association Extension Study: Retention of Dental Hygienists in the Workforce Final Report, April 1992, was mailed to a systematic sample of licensed Texas dental hygienists in March 1999. Descriptive statistics were computed for dental hygienists currently in practice in Texas and those not in practice at the time of the survey. Differences in demographics, benefits, and attitudes between dental hygienists currently in practice in Texas and dental hygienists not in practice at the time of the survey were tested using independent t-tests for interval data and chi-squared tests for categorical data. All statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS v. 9, Chicago, Illinois). A response rate of 68.1% was obtained. Results revealed the primary reasons for remaining in the practice of dental hygiene were salary, family responsibility, professional collaboration, and variety of work. The primary reasons for leaving dental hygiene practice were family responsibility, boredom, salary, and lack of benefits. Secondary and tertiary reasons stated for staying in clinical practice revealed additional factors including benefits, participation in decision-making, and a safe environment. Dental hygienists in clinical practice were more likely to be employed by a dentist in a single practice and see more patients per day, have a certificate or associate's degree, be unmarried, have fewer children, and be younger than dental hygienists not in practice. The findings suggest
Full Text Available The music of Walt Disney’s classic films was written by a number of hand-picked composers who, working with Disney, ingeniously crafted the music to fit animation and bring musical inspiration to the homes of viewers leaving America and the world with a beloved legacy. Though Walt Disney was a cartoonist and not a musician, music was given a distinct, almost central, role in the creation of his cartoons. Special techniques such as Mickey-mousing or the click track were developed by composers and used to synchronize this music and animation. These processes really began with Disney and have formed the basis for all music synchronized to cartoon animation. From the very beginning with Mickey Mouse, to The Silly Symphonies, to the beloved classic Disney movies music has been an ever-present and developing center. Walt Disney, though not a composer himself, hired a number of key composers from which we have many cherished melodies. Unlike most other cartoons Disney’s were focused on using music of the classical style rather than the popular style. The music from a number of classical composers was used or drawn upon as a model. Disney had a special purpose for the music in his animated films. Most of his films contained a story other than the music, but his movie Fantasia really seeks to find the purpose music itself has with visual interpretation. College students have done research on these ideas of simply listening to music or listening while seeing an image. All of Disney’s animated films would not be the classics they are without the music that holds them together. Disney music has become recognized as its own individual art form. It has inspired America to dream and to think more deeply than realized. Walt Disney’s indirect effect on music history may be considered a stretch, but there is no doubt that the music developed through Disney Bros. has left an inspiration on the hearts of Americans.
Meystre, Pierre [Department of Physics and College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona (United States)
This paper gives a brief review of the basic physics of quantum optomechanics and provides an overview of some of its recent developments and current areas of focus. It first outlines the basic theory of cavity optomechanical cooling and gives a brief status report of the experimental state-of-the-art. It then turns to the deep quantum regime of operation of optomechanical oscillators and covers selected aspects of quantum state preparation, control and characterization, including mechanical squeezing and pulsed optomechanics. This is followed by a discussion of the ''bottom-up'' approach that exploits ultracold atomic samples instead of nanoscale systems. It concludes with an outlook that concentrates largely on the functionalization of quantum optomechanical systems and their promise in metrology applications. (copyright 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Kaye, Brian H
Fractal geometry is revolutionizing the descriptive mathematics of applied materials systems. Rather than presenting a mathematical treatise, Brian Kaye demonstrates the power of fractal geometry in describing materials ranging from Swiss cheese to pyrolytic graphite. Written from a practical point of view, the author assiduously avoids the use of equations while introducing the reader to numerous interesting and challenging problems in subject areas ranging from geography to fine particle science. The second edition of this successful book provides up-to-date literature coverage of the use of fractal geometry in all areas of science.From reviews of the first edition:''...no stone is left unturned in the quest for applications of fractal geometry to fine particle problems....This book should provide hours of enjoyable reading to those wishing to become acquainted with the ideas of fractal geometry as applied to practical materials problems.'' MRS Bulletin
Mathai, E; Allegranzi, B; Kilpatrick, C; Bagheri Nejad, S; Graafmans, W; Pittet, D
The World Health Organization (WHO) First Global Patient Safety Challenge conducted a baseline survey of coordinated large-scale activities in improving hand hygiene in healthcare in 2007. The survey was repeated in early 2009 to assess current status and generate information on factors contributing to success. Coordinated activities were identified through WHO regional offices and experts in the field. An online survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted during March-April 2009. Personnel involved in all 38 campaigns/programmes in 2009 completed the survey. Of these, 29 were active national/subnational-level initiatives and 22 (75.8%) were initiated after the Challenge launch in October 2005. Main targets were general, district, and university hospitals with increasing coverage of long-term care facilities and primary care. The scope varied from awareness-raising to formal scaled-up activities with ongoing evaluation. Most initiatives (20/29) obtained funding from multiple sources with governments among the main funders; governments also initiated 25/29 (86.2%) programmes. The facilitator role played by the Challenge in initiating and supporting activities with tools and recommendations was clearly identified. The perceived significance of specific barriers varied considerably across initiatives. Those related to commitment (priority and support) and resource availability were important across all regions. Hand hygiene is being promoted in healthcare in many nations/subnations with clear objectives, strategies, and governmental support through policies and resource allocation. While this is important for sustainability, further action is required to initiate coordinated activities across the world, including countries with limited resources. Copyright © 2011 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of the Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.
Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation. PMID:24945613
Kalandyk-Konstanty, Aleksandra; Konstanty-Kalandyk, Janusz; Zarzecka, Joanna; Kapelak, Bogdan; Drwiła, Rafał; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka; Piątek, Jacek; Sadowski, Jerzy
Proper oral hygiene is an important element in the prevention of many diseases. Oral hygiene habits different depending on the place of residence, age and public awareness. The aim of the study was assessment of oral hygiene habits in a group of patients admitted for cardiac surgery. The database has been made on the basis of anonymous questionnaires filled by all participants. The study included 643 patients admitted to the hospital for surgical treatment of acquired heart disease. We divided patients into 3 groups depending on age, place of residence and type of heart disease. More than 30% of patients brush their teeth once a day or less. Over 40% of all respondents do not attend for regular visits to the dentist. Most patients, who do not brush teeth or dentures were in group > 70 years old (6%) and live in the countryside. Patients in a big city perform control visit the most often (64%) and this group had the largest proportion of pa- tients who declared that the visits take place once a year or more (46%). Habits of proper oral hygiene among patients scheduled for cardiac surgery are at high level. 9 out of 10 patients declares daily teeth brushing. Among patients living in the country, 46% do not use regular visits and only 29% go to the dentist once a year or more often. Education campaigns about influence of the improper oral cavity hygiene should be initiated.
Diegel-Vacek, Lauren; Ryan, Catherine
The objective of this pilot study was to assess an automatic sink light design intervention as a prompt for clinician hand hygiene (as defined by World Health Organization [WHO]). Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are still leading causes of morbidity and mortality and contribute to burdens on our healthcare system. Hand hygiene has been related to reducing the rate of HAIs and positively impacting both patient and hospital outcomes. This pilot study was a prospective, longitudinal observational study of a convenience sample of healthcare clinicians. In one inpatient room, clinicians were exposed to a hand hygiene reminder that consisted of a light turning on over the sink as they entered. A control room (the adjacent inpatient room) did not have the intervention. A total of 88 clinician encounters were monitored during the study. On the first observation day at the initial activation of the signal light system, the percentage of clinicians performing hand hygiene upon entering a room was only 7% in the control room and 23% in the intervention room. During the second observation (Day 14), those percentages were 16% in the control room and 30% in the intervention room. During the third observation (Day 21), those percentages were 23% in the control room and 23% in the intervention room. The healthcare system frequently relies on expensive technology to improve healthcare delivery, but implementation of low-cost, low-technology methods such as this light may be effective in prompting hand hygiene. © The Author(s) 2016.
Hancart-Petitet, Pascale; Dumas, Céline; Faurand-Tournaire, Anne-Laure; Desclaux, Alice; Vong, Sirenda
The frequency of bloodborne pathogen healthcare-associated infections is thought to be high in developing Southeast Asian countries. The underlying social-cultural logics contributing to the risks of transmission are rarely studied. This report provides some insights on the social and cultural factors that shape hygiene practices in Cambodian health care settings. We conducted qualitative surveys in various public and private health facilities in Phnom Penh, the capital city and in provinces. We observed and interviewed 319 participants, health care workers and patients, regarding hygiene practices and social relationships amongst the health care staff and with patients. We also examined the local perceptions of hygiene, their impact on the relationships between the health care staff and patients, and perceptions of transmission risks. Data collection stem from face to face semi-structured and open-ended interviews and focus group discussions with various health care staffs (i.e. cleaners, nurses, midwives and medical doctors) and with patients who attended the study health facilities. Overall responses and observations indicated that hygiene practices were burdened by the lack of adequate materials and equipment. In addition, many other factors were identified to influence and distort hygiene practices which include (1) informal and formal social rapports in hospitals, (2) major infection control roles played by the cleaners in absence of professional acknowledgment. Moreover, hygiene practices are commonly seen as an unessential matter to be devoted to low-ranking staff. Our anthropological findings illustrate the importance of comprehensive understanding of hygiene practices; they need to be considered when designing interventions to improve infection control practices in a Cambodian medical setting.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of bloodborne pathogen healthcare-associated infections is thought to be high in developing Southeast Asian Countries. The underlying social-cultural logics contributing to the risks of transmission are rarely studied. This report provides some insights on the social and cultural factors that shape hygiene practices in Cambodian health care settings. Methods We conducted qualitative surveys in various public and private health facilities in Phnom Penh, the capital city and in provinces. We observed and interviewed 319 participants, health care workers and patients, regarding hygiene practices and social relationships amongst the health care staff and with patients. We also examined the local perceptions of hygiene, their impact on the relationships between the health care staff and patients, and perceptions of transmission risks. Data collection stem from face to face semi-structured and open-ended interviews and focus group discussions with various health care staffs (i.e. cleaners, nurses, midwives and medical doctors and with patients who attended the study health facilities. Results Overall responses and observations indicated that hygiene practices were burdened by the lack of adequate materials and equipements. In addition, many other factors were identified to influence and distort hygiene practices which include (1 informal and formal social rapports in hospitals, (2 major infection control roles played by the cleaners in absence of professional acknowledgment. Moreover, hygiene practices are commonly seen as an unessential matter to be devoted to low-ranking staff. Conclusion Our anthropological findings illustrate the importance of comprehensive understanding of hygiene practices; they need to be considered when designing interventions to improve infection control practices in a Cambodian medical setting.
Forsell, M; Sjögren, P; Kullberg, E; Johansson, O; Wedel, P; Herbst, B; Hoogstraate, J
To assess attitudes and perceptions towards oral hygiene tasks among geriatric nursing home staff, before and after a dental hygiene education. A survey questionnaire was distributed to the nursing staff (n = 105), at a geriatric nursing home in Stockholm, Sweden. The response rate to the questionnaire was 83%. A vast majority (87%) of the nursing staff considered oral hygiene tasks unpleasant. The main reason for considering oral care unpleasant was a perceived unwillingness from the residents. The perceived unwillingness from the residents among the nursing staff was reduced after the dental hygiene education (chi-square test, P = 0.02). A vast majority of the nursing staff experienced, always or sometimes, resistance from the residents towards oral care. Nursing home staff members consider oral care tasks unpleasant, and frequently experience resistance from the nursing home residents towards oral care. The perceived unwillingness from the residents is reduced after an advanced dental hygiene education. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of education on nursing staff's attitudes and perceptions towards oral care tasks, with the overall aim of improving the oral health among older people in hospitals and nursing homes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Birnbach, David J; Rosen, Lisa F; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Everett-Thomas, Ruth; Arheart, Kristopher L
Proper hand hygiene is critical for preventing healthcare-associated infection, but provider compliance remains suboptimal. While signs are commonly used to remind physicians and nurses to perform hand hygiene, the content of these signs is rarely based on specific, validated health behavior theories. This observational study assessed the efficacy of a hand hygiene sign disseminated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in an intensive care unit compared to an optimized evidence-based sign designed by a team of patient safety experts. The optimized sign was developed by four patient safety experts to include known evidence-based components and was subsequently validated by surveying ten physicians and ten nurses using a 10 point Likert scale. Eighty-two physicians and 98 nurses (102 females; 78 males) were observed for hand hygiene (HH) compliance, and the total HH compliance rate was 16%. HH compliance was not significantly different among the signs (Baseline 10% vs. CDC 18% vs. OIS 20%; p=0.280). The findings of this study suggest that even when the content and design of a hand hygiene reminder sign incorporates evidence-based constructs, healthcare providers comply only a fraction of the time. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kote, S; Dadu, M; A R, Sowmya; Ds, Aruna; Arora, D
There is a lot of information available about various oral hygiene aids used for the maintenance of oral hygiene and the prevention of oral diseases but the reason why people choose a particular product is under-reported. This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of choosing oral hygiene aids among students of management institutes in Ghaziabad, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five management institutes selected by simple random sampling and data were collected from 1224 students by self-administered structured validated questionnaire. The study showed that toothbrush (96.8%) and toothpaste (95.2%) were the main products used for the maintenance of oral hygiene. The most commonly used brand dentifrices were Colgate and Close-Up (47%, 23.3%) and in toothbrush, Oral B and Colgate (48.4%, 30.9%), respectively. A particular brand of toothpaste was preferred by 66.4% of the subjects because of childhood and parental use, which was the most influential factor (56.9%). Bristle design was the main criterion for choosing a toothbrush (44.9%), followed by bristle consistency (33.1%). The most commonly used toothbrushes were of soft bristle consistency (51.2%) and 10.9% of the subjects did not know the type of bristle consistency present in their toothbrush. Selection of oral hygiene products was based more on parental influence and there seems to be a lack of knowledge and awareness about how to choose a dentifrice and toothbrush.
Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Sultana, Sonia; Halder, Amal K; Ahsan, Mohammed Ali; Arnold, Benjamin F; Hubbard, Alan E; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P; Colford, John M
To evaluate whether the quality of implementation of a water, sanitation, and hygiene program called SHEWA-B and delivered by UNICEF to 20 million people in rural Bangladesh was associated with health behaviors and sanitation infrastructure access. We surveyed 33 027 households targeted by SHEWA-B and 1110 SHEWA-B hygiene promoters in 2011 and 2012. We developed an implementation quality index and compared the probability of health behaviors and sanitation infrastructure access in counterfactual scenarios over the range of implementation quality. Forty-seven percent of households (n = 14 622) had met a SHEWA-B hygiene promoter, and 47% of hygiene promoters (n = 527) could recall all key program messages. The frequency of hygiene promoter visits was not associated with improved outcomes. Higher implementation quality was not associated with better health behaviors or infrastructure access. Outcomes differed by only 1% to 3% in scenarios in which all clusters received low versus high implementation quality. SHEWA-B did not meet UNICEF's ideal implementation quality in any area. Improved implementation quality would have resulted in marginal changes in health behaviors or infrastructure access. This suggests that SHEWA-B's design was suboptimal for improving these outcomes.
Full Text Available Introduction. Currently beauty salons offer a wide range of services, from beauty treatments starting with skin cleansing, peeling or manicure, to permanent makeup and body piercing. During all these treatments, there is a risk of infection with different diseases caused most often by Fungi (Candida albicans, pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and viruses (herpes, hepatitis B and C, and therefore the staff should use disposable equipment and sterilized tools.Aim of research. The aim of the study was to assess the hygiene conditions in a selected beauty salon. Material and methods. The research was carried out in a selected Salon in the Tri-city. The subject of microbiological analysis were the hands of beauticians, the surface of the table, the uniform, the cover of the chair for treatments for the face, clean towels and bowls for soaking feet prior to pedicure treatment. The aim of the research was to establish the total number of microorganisms (OLD, the number of yeasts and moulds, and the presence of staphylococci. Results. In the analysed material, the presence of Staphylococcus aureus was not confirmed. Among the studied samples, only slightly above 8% were free of moulds, while 25% were free of the presence of yeasts. Staphylococci settled on about 14% of the evaluated surfaces, mostly occurring on the hands of beauticians and in bowls for soaking feet. The average number of microorganisms isolated from the tips of 5 fingers amounted to 32 cfu/25 cm2. Staphylococcus epidermidis was present on the hands in more than 60% of the samples. Only about 7% of the samples were found to exceed the limit for class D premises, amounting to 50 cfu/25 cm2, while on over 70% of the analysed surfaces the microorganisms reached the level of 1–25 cfu/25 cm2, which confirms high standard of provided services. Conclusions. 1 In the examined beauty salon the analyzed surfaces were clean and free of Staphylococcus aureus, but Staphylococcus
McCalla, Saungi; Reilly, Maggie; Thomas, Rowena; McSpedon-Rai, Dawn
Consistent hand hygiene is key to reducing health care-associated infections (HAIs) and assessing compliance with hand hygiene protocols is vital for hospital infection control staff. A new automated hand hygiene compliance system (HHCS) was trialed as an alternative to human observers in an intensive care unit and an intensive care stepdown unit at a hospital facility in the northeastern United States. Using a retrospective cohort design, researchers investigated whether implementation of the HHCS resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and a reduction in common HAI rates. Pearson χ 2 tests were used to assess changes in compliance, and incidence rate ratios were used to test for significant differences in infection rates. During the study period, the HHCS collected many more hand hygiene events compared with human observers (632,404 vs 480) and ensured that the hospital met its compliance goals (95%+). Although decreases in multidrug-resistant organisms, central line-associated bloodstream infections, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates were observed, they represented nonsignificant differences. Human hand hygiene observers may not report accurate measures of compliance. The HHCS is a promising new tool for fine-grained assessment of hand hygiene compliance. Further study is needed to examine the association between the HHCS and HAI rate reduction. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: To verify the oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of schoolchildren in public elementary school in the city of Itajaí-SC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional research. The sample consisted of children enrolled in the first year of elementary level in public schools of Itajaí-SC in 2011. Data collection was performed through registration of the children’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians about the characterization of schoolstudent’s oral hygiene. Results: The study evaluated 202 schoolstudent. Regarding daily toothbrushing, 121 (59.9% reported that an adult is responsible for carrying out this procedure for the child and 81 (40.1% reported the own child performs brushing. Brushing frequency for 128 (63.4% children was three times a day and floss was not used by 137 (68% of them. In 114 (56.4% of the schoolchildren was found an OHI-S classified as reasonable hygiene (1.3 to 2. Regarding how to deal with the oral hygiene of children, 140 (69% parents stated having already received such information and the source cited by 118 (58.4% was the dentist. Conclusion: Schoolchildren presented oral hygiene habits with deficiency in dental plaque removal and flossing, resulting in a reasonable OHI-S. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p455
Graf, Jürg; Meierhofer, Regula; Wegelin, Martin; Mosler, Hans-Joachim
In this research project, we studied factors that presumably affect the incidence of diarrhoea among young children in urban slums in developing countries: consumption of safe drinks, hygiene behaviour, cleanliness of household surroundings and the quality of raw water. Beliefs concerning the causes of diarrhoea were also related to health-improving behaviour, namely the application of the water-treatment method SODIS (solar water disinfection) and hygiene behaviour. We conducted a survey in a shanty town in Nairobi, Kenya. Field workers interviewed 500 households. Analysis with regression models revealed that two out of the four postulated factors were significant: children have a lower risk of contracting diarrhoea when they consume high percentages of safe drinks and live in households with good hygiene. As regards beliefs, we found that biomedical knowledge of children's diarrhoea as well as the perceived social norm for treating water was associated with the use of SODIS and good hygiene.
Full Text Available This study examines the water, sanitation and hygiene situation in 42 schools in Haiti after the earthquake of January 12, 2010, by using a comprehensive approach, which includes participatory assessment tools and formal surveys. By conducting a detailed assessment of school water and sanitation infrastructure conditions and of the perceptions of students and professors, a series of recommendations are provided to support further project implementation towards more sustainable results. Direct observations showed that schools lack safe drinking water, appropriate sanitation and hand washing facilities. The main constraints to improve the water, sanitation and hygiene services were found to be related to lack of funding and infrastructure losses after the earthquake. Moreover, hygiene education is commonly not part of the school curriculum. Providing schools with adequate access to water and sanitation facilities and supporting the implementation of hygiene promotion programs, including a disaster risk preparedness plan, can play significant roles for a sustainable recovery phase.
Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086
Gupta, Vivek V; Asawa, Kailash; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Bapat, Salil; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Philip-George, Pradeep; Chitkara, Neha; Patel, Maulikkumar-Natubhai; Shinde, Kushal; Sidhu, Prabhjot-Kaur
The association between oral hygiene habits & practices and severity of tooth wear lesion varies from community to community and also from occupation to occupation. The present study was conducted with to assess oral hygiene habits & practices and tooth wear among fertilizer factory workers of Punjab, India. A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted among 965 male workers who were aged between 19-58 years, who were the workers of fertilizers factory of Bathinda, India. An interview on the demographic profile, oral hygiene practices, and adverse habits followed a clinical examination for recording the Tooth Wear (Smith and Knight Index 1984) using Type III examination. The Chi-square test and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Confidence interval and p-value set at 95% and ≤ 0.05 respectively. In the present study majority (47.2%) of the study population used chew sticks for cleaning their teeth. Overall prevalence of adverse habits was reported (92.4%). Study population showed higher prevalence of tooth wear (77.1%). Best predictors identified for Tooth Wear were oral hygiene practices, adverse habits, years of work experience and age respectively. Considerable percentages of fertilizer factory workers have demonstrated a higher prevalence of tooth surface loss. This may be useful in designing the investigations that aim to further explore the causes for these findings and more importantly to plan oral health promotion program implementing both preventive and curative strategies. Tooth wear, smith & knight index, fertilizer factory.
East African Medical Journal Vol. 91 No. 2 February 2014. SEQUENTIAL LOW COST INTERVENTIONS DOUBLE HAND HYGIENE RATES AMONG MEDICAL TEAMS IN A. RESOURCE LIMITED SETTING. RESULTS OF A HAND HYGIENE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT CONDUCTED. AT UNIVERSITY TEACHING ...
Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates Among Medical Teams in a Resource Limited Setting. Results of a Hand Hygiene Quality Improvement Project Conducted At University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Chuk), Kigali, Rwanda.
behaviour in the study community were poor. Hygiene education and social marketing of sanitation facilities are hereby advised. Keywords: Sanitation facility; hygiene practices; Semi-. Urban community; Nigeria. Correspondence: Dr B. Ordinioha. INTRODUCTION. Water and sanitation projects are synergistic in producing.
Taylor, Ronald E
Eighty-six infection control specialists evaluated 24 messages promoting hand hygiene (HH). Brief, simple messages using appeals to social situations and to ego (self-efficacy) were rated as most likely to increase HH compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This school based study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of school-friendly and peer-led approach in improving personal hygiene practices of school adolescents in Jimma Zone, Southwest of Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 1000 students from 10 to 19 years were included into the study. The intervention was done using ...
Altun, Insaf; Cinar, Nursan Dede; Dede, Cemile
To identify university students' hygiene behaviour using a hygiene behaviour inventory in a Turkish sample. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 353 randomly selected university students aged 17-24 years in Kocaeli, Turkey. Data were collected in December 2009 using a socio-demographic form and the Turkish version of the Hygiene Behaviour Inventory-23. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. The mean score was 3.08 +/- 0.94; ranging from 1.91 +/- 0.85 to 3.77 +/- 0.52. Of the students, 290 (82.2%) always washed their hands when soap was available; 266 (75.4%) had cleaned their toilets three times or more in the preceding month; 260 (73.7%) always washed their hands after touching a pet or some animal; 260 (73.7%) always washed their hand before preparing food; 256 (72.5%) always washed fruits and vegetables before eating them; 227 (64.3%) always covered the seat with paper while using a public toilet; 244 (69.1%) had always cleaned their bathroom at home three times or more in the preceding month; and 183 (51.8%) of the students always washed their hands before eating food with their hands. Community-based awareness and education plans must initiated to improve regular hygiene practices at the level of university students in Turkey.
Dec 12, 2012 ... HYGIENE PRACTICES IN URBAN RESTAURANTS AND CHALLENGES TO IMPLEMENTING FOOD SAFETY AND. HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP) PROGRAMMES IN THlKA TOWN, KENYA. R. K. Muinde, Dip LM., H.Dip CA., Msc. H.T. (Food Safety), Lecturer, Department of ...
Nov 19, 2007 ... Often mouthwash and foam swabs rather than toothbrushes are available, or the toothbrushes provided are of poor quality, large, and not readily accessible.5. Communication barriers are related to both to language and treatment. Practice experience shows that the care activities related to oral hygiene ...
In this paper, the author focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene—the bathroom. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time, urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well into the dwelling,...... by analyzing the spatial organization of dwellings....
Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.
This study examined the knowledge and practices of adolescent school girls in Kano, Nigeria around menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Data was collected quantitatively and analyzed using Epi info version 3.2.05. The mean age of the students was 14.4 ± 1.2 years; majority was in their mid adolescence. The students ...
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
The laws, rules and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state are presented. In addition, the requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist in New York are discussed. The following chapters are provided: (1)…
Bernard, Laurence; Biron, Alain; Lavigne, Geneviève; Frechette, Julie; Bernard, Agnès; Mitchell, Jonathan; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie
The objectives of the study were to: (1) examine the relationships between three different qualitative perceptions of safety culture and the Canadian Patient Safety Climate Survey factors; (2) determine whether these perceptions are associated with different hand hygiene practices. Healthcare-associated infections and safety cultures are a worldwide issue. During the A/H1N1 Influenza pandemic, Europe and North America did not have the same responses. Importantly, healthcare professionals' perceptions can influence patient safety through infection prevention practices like hand hygiene. A cross-sectional design was used with data collected in 2015. The Canadian Patient Safety Culture Survey and hand hygiene observations were gathered from three healthcare centres (two Canadian and one European). Descriptive analyses and ANOVAs were conducted to explore healthcare professionals' safety perceptions and practices. The rates of hand hygiene practices varied widely between the three sites, ranging from 35-77%. One site (Site 3) was found to have the highest scores of management follow-up, feedback about incidents, supervisory leadership for safety, unit learning culture and senior leadership support for safety, and the highest levels of overall patient safety grades for the unit and organization. The quantitative results of this study support the previously described model based on qualitative results: individual culture, blaming culture and collaborative culture. Differences between continents emerged regarding infection prevention practices and the way we qualify infections. The results raise concerns about infection practices and about safety cultures and challenges worldwide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hinchman, Sharon Stemple; Funk, Amy; DeBiase, Christina; Frere, Cathryn
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of ultrasonic scaling instrumentation instruction in dental hygiene programs in the U.S. Currently, there is no publication available defining a consensus of instruction for ultrasonic instrumentation. Exempt status was received from the West Virginia University Institutional Review Board. A survey was developed with dental hygiene administrators and faculty, based on assumptions and a list of questions to be answered. The survey was tested for validity and revised after feedback from additional faculty. The instrument was 64 questions divided into demographics, curriculum and equipment. Most questions included a text box for additional comments. An email survey was sent to all directors of accredited dental hygiene programs in the U.S. (n=323). The final possible number of respondents was n=301. Results were collected in aggregate through the Secure Online Environment (SOLE). Results were transferred to an Excel spreadsheet for statistical analysis. After 3 emails, the response rate was 45% (n=136). No significant differences in methods of instruction were found between associate and baccalaureate degree granting programs. Eighty-nine percent of programs introduce hand scaling prior to ultrasonic scaling instruction. Students in 96% of the programs were required to administer pre-procedural mouth rinse intended to reduce the amount of bacteria. The magnetostrictive ultrasonic scaler is widely used in dental hygiene instruction. A variety of inserts/ tips were available although a universal or straight insert/tip was most common. Calculus, not inflammation, was the primary criterion for ultrasonic scaler use. The results of this study demonstrate that ultrasonic instrumentation is an integral component of the clinical curriculum and the majority of the dental hygiene programs prescribe to similar teaching methods. Programs could benefit from incorporating current scientific research findings of using site
Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G
Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was associated with poor hygiene of the udder and lower legs; multiparous cows had poorer hygiene of the upper legs
Brown, Franklin C; Buboltz, Walter C; Soper, Barlow
College students are known for their variable sleep schedules. Such schedules, along with other common student practices (e.g., alcohol and caffeine consumption), are associated with poor sleep hygiene. Researchers have demonstrated in clinical populations that improving sleep hygiene knowledge and practices is an effective treatment for insomnia. However, researchers who have examined relationships between sleep hygiene and practices in nonclinical samples and overall sleep quality have produced inconsistent findings, perhaps because of questionable measures. In this study, the authors used psychometrically sound instruments to examine these variables and to counter the shortcomings in previous investigations. Their findings suggest that knowledge of sleep hygiene is related to sleep practices, which, in turn, is related to overall sleep quality. The data from their regression modeling indicated that variable sleep schedules, going to bed thirsty, environmental noise, and worrying while falling asleep contribute to poor sleep quality.
Full Text Available The importance of hand hygiene was highlighted in the nineteenth century during the first trial done by Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis, an obstetrician practicing in Vienna, now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures. He was able to reduce maternal mortality rate in his hospital by 90% by just applying the protocol of washing hands in chlorinated lime solution before examining the patients. Semmelweis's hypothesis was largely ignored, rejected, or ridiculed. He was dismissed from the hospital for political reasons and harassed by the medical community in Vienna, being eventually forced to move to Budapest. Semmelweis's practice earned widespread acceptance, when Louise Pasteur confirmed the germ theory and Joseph Lister, pioneered antiseptic surgery. Lister practiced and operated using hygienic methods with great success.There are many national and international guidelines which emphasize the practice of hand hygiene in reducing the incidence of hospital acquired infections (HAI. With all the evidence of decreasing the HAIs the practice of hand hygiene compliance should have been a 100% in all healthcare facilities. However, various studies done in different countries show that the compliance of hand hygiene amongst the healthcare workers is not satisfactory, ranging only 40 to 50% even in the developed nations.Why Not?Inaccessible hand washing facilities: This is one of the major factors due to which the compliance to wash hands is compromised.Wearing Gloves: The misconception amongst the healthcare workers that wearing gloves will prevent transmission of germs is another major factor.Scepticism about the value of hand hygiene: CMEs, lectures, demonstrations and evidence based studies on hand hygiene should be kept in top priority to disseminate the knowledge which will reduce the scepticism.Lack of concept of IPAC, motivation and role model: Many healthcare centres do not have IPAC committee; hence the concept of IPAC is
Hasan Al Toufailia
Full Text Available Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony. These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001, and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008. This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because
Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.
ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack
Stronks, I.; Keuten, M.G.A.
Previous studies on contamination of swimming pool water showed that the hygienic behaviour of swimmers is the most important factor. The suggested hygienic behaviour is; having a pre-swim shower and using the toilet when nature calls. Knowing the importance of hygienic behaviour is one thing,
1997) due to a poor local disease surveillance system. Moreover, if other indicators related to the field of food hygiene are considered, there is cause for concern. ..... Visits of sanitary officers and hygiene status of plants. Level of hygiene. Visits from sanitary officers. Total in the plant. Yes. No. Outstanding. 1. 0. 1. Good. 5. 0.
A study was carried out to assess hygiene level in the 20 local animal product processing plants. Questionnaire based interviews with managers and food handlers gave an overview of perception of hygiene and practices related to it. Checklists using a scoring system, were designed for objective hygiene inspection.
Background: Sleep hygiene significantly affects quality of sleep in children. Poor sleep hygiene is associated with disorders of sleep which can produce significant cognitive and behavioural consequences in children. However, not much is known about sleep hygiene African children. This study therefore sought to evaluate ...
Background: Females are generally more motivated with regard to oral hygiene practices and thus brush their teeth more frequently than males. Objective: To determine the prevalence of gingival recession, oral hygiene status, oral hygiene practices and associated factors in women attending a maternity ward in Tanzania.
Ahuja, Swati; Wicks, Russell; Selecman, Audrey
Maintenance of adequate and effective oral hygiene is crucial for the long-term success of any dental therapy. This article discusses a case that failed due to the poor oral hygiene of the patient. Fabrication of uncomplicated restorations, patient education, motivation, maintenance and recall are important factors to be considered when treatment planning patients with poor oral hygiene.
By analyzing the influence of early Pasteurian thought on health discourse and practice, this paper discusses the thesis postulating an opposition between pre- and post- Pasteurian hygiene. Focusing on an analysis of the sanitary strategies to control lower-class housing that were proposed by Argentine and Brazilian hygienists, the author identifies the breaks and continuities between classical hygiene and hygiene reorganized by microbiology.
The results showed that the content of the representation of hygiene in the populations living in the vicinity of the Akouedo dump refer to the terms of cleanliness and health that they associate with the notions of environment, food, health and body hygiene. Keywords: Social representation, hygiene, riparian populations, ...
Joshi, D.; Buit, G.; González-Botero, D.
This paper discusses the recent attention of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector to resolving the menstrual hygiene crisis for young girls in developing countries. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) interventions, including the use of sanitary pads, education, and awareness, and where
Sassenrath, Claudia; Diefenbacher, Svenja; Siegel, André; Keller, Johannes
Adopting a social-psychological approach, this research examines whether emotional empathy, an affective reaction regarding another's well-being, fosters hand hygiene as this affects other's health-related well-being extensively. Three studies tested this notion: (a) a cross-sectional study involving a sample of health care workers at a German hospital, (b) an experiment testing the causal effect of empathy on hand hygiene behaviour and (c) an 11-week prospective study testing whether an empathy induction affected disinfectant usage frequency in two different wards of a hospital. Self-reported hand hygiene behaviour based on day reconstruction method was measured in Study 1, actual hand sanitation behaviour was observed in Study 2 and disinfectant usage frequency in two different hospital wards was assessed in Study 3. Study 1 reveals an association of empathy with hand hygiene cross-sectionally, Study 2 documents the causal effect of empathy on increased hand sanitation. Study 3 shows an empathy induction increases hand sanitiser usage in the hospital. Increasing emotional empathy promotes hand hygiene behaviour, also in hospitals. Besides providing new impulses for the design of effective interventions, these findings bear theoretical significance as they document the explanatory power of empathy regarding a distal explanandum (hand hygiene).
The CleanFleet project was a 24-month demonstration of FedEx delivery vans operating on each of four gaseous or liquid alternative fuels: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol M-85, and California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG). Two electric vans were also demonstrated. Each alternative fuel fleet was operated from a different FedEx station site in the Los Angeles area. Gasoline-fueled control vans located at each site allowed for comparisons between fleets. The alternative fuels used in the CleanFleet project differ from conventional fuels both in their physical properties and in their potential health effects. These differences can result in occupational health implications for fleet users of these fuels. Therefore, as part of the CleanFleet project a limited occupational hygiene survey was performed.
Kalyan Kumar Paul
Full Text Available Context: In India, children of upper primary school receive less attention from health-care providers. The majority of their health problems are preventable through hygienic practices. Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in a rural upper primary school of Odisha. Subjects and Methods: A semi-structured schedule based on the Global School Health Survey Questionnaire and necessary instruments for clinical examination were used. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Results: Of 90 participants, 58 (64.4% were girls. The mean age was 11.8 (±1.01 years. The mean body mass index of females was significantly higher than males (16.95 vs. 14.72; P = 0.001. More than 90% of children maintained good personal hygiene such as clean tongue, clean hair, handwashing, and using footwear. The most common morbidities found were dental caries (38.9%, history of worms in stool and lethargy (20%. A mean score of 6.14 ± 0.11 (out of 8 was seen for personal hygiene and not associated with any particular morbidity or gender. Brushing daily was significantly associated with reduced dental caries (χ2 = 8.7; P < 0.005 and foul-smelling breath (χ2 = 4.93; P < 0.05. Fungal infections were significantly less in children who bathed daily (χ2 = 28.7; <0.005 and wore clean clothes (χ2 = 5.06; P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dental caries, foul-smelling breath, and fungal infections were significantly associated with poor personal hygiene. School health services should also focus on upper primary school children for improvement of personal hygiene.
Sobrequés, Jordi; Espuñes, Jordi; Bañeres, Joaquim
Hand hygiene (HM) is the single most important measure and effective in reducing the risk of Healthcare acquired infections (IRAS). Although HM is an effective, simple and cheap measure, it is usual to find results of low compliance among health professionals. The main objective of this strategy has been to give new force to the promotion of HM in hospitals and educate professionals about the importance of this single action. The strategy was planned as a multicenter intervention study to promote HM in health centers of Catalonia in 2009-2010. The intervention is based on 4 main areas: a survey of barriers and facilitators, distribution of graphic material, training at different levels and measure of quality indicators. With this strategy a total of 57% of the number of acute beds in the concerted public and private network of hospitals were reached. The survey revealed that training was perceived as the main facilitator of the HM action. 15,376 professionals registered to the on-line training. The overall compliance with HM indications (based on "five moments for HM") was 56.45% in the acute areas. The campaigns and programs to promote HM carried out in the last four years in Catalonia has helped to achieve an increasing number of hospitals associated to the strategy of the Alliance for Patient Safety in Catalonia. The on-line curse acceptance was very high and seems a powerful tool to improve hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among health professionals. The compliance of HM seems to increase in the hospitals of Catalonia evaluated. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.
Faye, A; Ndiaye, N M; Faye, D; Tal-Dia, A
The high prevalence of diarrhea in developing countries is mostly due to poor water quality and hygiene practices. The purpose of this study was to assess water quality as well as hygiene practices and their determinants in Ngohé, i.e., a rural community (RC) in Senegal. A combined approach consisting of a cross-sectional descriptive survey and bacterial analysis of water was used. Study was conducted in 312 randomly selected households. Data was collected through individual interviews with the assistance of a guide. Water for bacteriological analysis was collected from various sources, i.e., 3 modem borehole wells, 2 protected wells, and 10 traditional wells. Study points included home water treatment, drinking water source, latrine use, hand washing habits, and bacteria identified in water. A multiple regression model was used for data analysis. The household survey population was 59% male, 61% illiterate, and 93% married. Mean age was 44.8 +/- 18.1 years. Chlorination technique was inadequate in 62% of cases. Latrines were not restricted to adult use in 76% of homes. Hand washing was not performed at critical times in 94%. Drinking water was drawn from traditional wells in 48% of households, modem borehole wells in 45% and protected wells in 7%. Escherichia coli was found in water from all three sources and Vibrio cholerae was found in two traditional wells. Level of education, average monthly income, knowledge about chlorination techniques, and source of the water consumed were the main behavioral determinants (p Water treatment at the source and in the home as well as protection of water sources is necessary to ensure water quality. This will require effective public education campaigns and financial support for improvement of sanitary facilities.
A large body of literature exists on the instructional pedagogy known as service-learning. Service-learning is a teaching and learning approach characterized by the dental hygiene student's practical application of academic studies and occurs within a community setting, to the benefit of both the student and community. Dental hygiene educators use service-learning to enhance student knowledge and application of oral health curriculum. This manuscript reports on the importance of service-learning assessment to the National Dental Hygiene Research Agenda as well as the future of the profession of dental hygiene and the successful strategies in service-learning evaluation available for utilization by dental hygiene educators.
Full Text Available This study, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out to determine the hygiene knowledge of the staff (N = 317 employed in kitchen and service departments of catering firms in Ankara. It was found that the mean scores of the staff with regard to personal hygiene, food hygiene, and kitchen and equipment hygiene were 10.7 ± 1.6, 19.8 ± 4.0, and 13.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Male staff achieved higher mean scores in personal hygiene knowledge test compared with female staff (p < .01. The staff receiving a hygiene training were determined to have higher mean scores in terms of hygiene knowledge tests compared with those who have not received, and the production staff had higher knowledge as to hygiene than the other groups (p < .01. The mean scores for hygiene knowledge tests were found to be increasing with age. Hygiene knowledge scores of the staff were quite lower than what must be taken. For that reason, periodical training programs should be organized to increase the awareness of the staff about hygiene.
Full Text Available Before serving the meals, the managements that operate in the production and distribution of table d’hôte meals, the data related to whether it's appropriate for the food hygiene regulation and the other legal requirements are so insufficient. So, an interview study was performed for the present conditions of the manufactures producing and serving meals and the good hygiene practices profile of their working personal in the plants with regard to Law No.5966 on Veterinary Services, Plant health, Food and Feed in the Samsun city. The survey was applied in catering enterprises and face to face interviews with a total of 258 people (employees and managers responsible for the kitchen area and at the same time observing the operating conditions of 32 companies in 9 different counties. The questions of survey included gender, age, education level, professional experience of workers, real production capacities, the power of engine, number of employees in production, and findings related to good hygiene practice. It was observed that the design and layout of the production area in terms of good hygiene practices were not sufficient in some manufactures and only four manufactures had positive air pressure ventilation. It was stated that tools and equipment were required to take more precautions against the risk of corrosion. It was established that cleaning and disinfection process, personal hygiene rules and dissolving operations for frozen food were inadequate. It was determined that record forms were not sufficient to provide the traceability. Hazard and risk factors will be controlled by establishment of practical food safety management system in catering sector.
Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between allergic respiratory diseases and the number of siblings. It was hypothesized that the lower prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in large sibships was due to cross-infections between siblings. According to this hygiene hyp...... influence of the mother was overlooked. A new hypothesis is therefore proposed. Maternal exposure to infections induces immunological memory, which protects her children against allergic respiratory diseases.......Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between allergic respiratory diseases and the number of siblings. It was hypothesized that the lower prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in large sibships was due to cross-infections between siblings. According to this hygiene...... hypothesis the increase in the prevalence of atopic diseases is caused by a decrease in the exposure to infections. It was believed that early infections were beneficial for health because of their contribution to the maturation of the immune system. However, in this interpretation a possible protective...
Strobel, E; Gleich, P
Not only in blood donation services, but also in the immunohaematological laboratory of a hospital including the depository for blood products a hygiene plan must be drawn up and its realization has to be documented. From 2011 to 2014, some equipment in the depository and in the immunohematological laboratory was microbiologically monitored once a year. The examinations were done by direct contact cultures taken from several places of each device. Most of the devices showed inconspicuous numbers of environmental microorganisms. Sometimes the refrigerators for fresh frozen plasma and a transport container for blood products revealed moderately, the incubator in the laboratory and a transport container for patient blood samples inadequately increased bacterial contamination. Microbiological examinations can detect critical points in the immunohaematological laboratory of a hospital. By communicating these results, the staff can be motivated to observe the regulations of the hygiene plan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.
. Finding materials with low so-called bioadhesion focuses on the development of surfaces where biofilm formation is delayed or reduced. Studies have been carried out e.g. by modifying stainless steel with different surface finishes, and by the effect of possible antimicrobial coatings like silver. Another......Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...... goals: • Development of materials with low bioadhesion (defined as resistance towards biofilm formation) - and in this context evaluation of quantitative techniques for examination of bioadhesion • Improvement of surface material hygienic life time by selecting surface materials in combination...
Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications.
Full Text Available Objectives: To find out the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its epidemiological correlates among rural Indian school going (6-14 years children and to study the effect of focused, need based child to child hygiene education on personal hygiene of school children. Materials and Methods: In September 2007, the present participatory action research was undertaken at a feasibly selected village Dhotra (Kasar in Wardha district of central India. A triangulated research design of quantitative (survey and qualitative (transect walk & pile sorting methods was used for the needs assessment before initiating formal hygiene education. Out of enlisted 172 children, data of 118 children with complete information was used for final analysis. The quantitative and qualitative data was entered and analyzed using the Epi Info 6.04 software and Anthropac 4.98.1/X software package respectively. School based participatory life skills based child to child hygiene education was undertaken for message dissemination and behavior change. The effect of this hygiene education on identified key behaviors was assessed after one month Results: Out of the 118 (50 male and 68 female subjects examined 21 (17.8%, 95%CI, 11.4 – 25.9% had intestinal parasite infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was significantly high among children having dirty untrimmed nails (47.4%, 95%CI, 30.9 – 64.1% followed by those having poor hand washing practices (37.2%, 95%CI, 22.9 – 53.2%. One month after hygiene education, the proportion of children having practice of hand washing with soap after defecation significantly improved from 63.6 % to 78%. The proportion of clean and cut nails also improved from 67.8% to 80 % (p<0.05. Conclusions: The need based, focused, life skills based child to child hygiene education was effective for behavior change. An integrated approach of drug treatment and focused participatory hygiene education is required to control parasite
Rihtaršič Tanja; Rihtaršič Matjaž
This article starts with a review of different recent theoretical views and positions on culture, menstruation taboos, and ethical consumer behaviour. We performed a quantitative research in England, Germany, Slovenia and Sweden on 1,081 responding female students about the effect of cultural and sociological factors on female consumer behaviour when buying feminine hygiene products. Countries were selected depending on different cultures, religions and consumer behaviour. Based on the acquir...
Kuzybaeva, M P
The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined.
Bjerke, Nancy B
Handwashing is a fundamental principle and practice in the prevention, control, and reduction of healthcare-acquired infection. Advocated by Semmelweiss (Nursing, The Finest Art: An Illustrated History. St Louis: Mosby; 1985:204) from the 1800s to resolve an obstetric morbidity and mortality occurrence, the simple act of hand cleansing portrays the intuitive benefits to basic hygiene, health continuum, and, most important, disease prevention. According to recently published guidance (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. October 25, 2002;51:32-34), the term handwashing is replaced by the new term hand hygiene, which includes hand cleansing, hand disinfecting, and surgical hand scrub. This article focuses on the published guidance, blending the salient aspects of hand hygiene practices from noted champions, reinforcing the aesthetics of meticulous cleansing, to guidance on its practice in healthcare settings. In healthcare, the principle of "clean hands are healing hands" bears value and demands compliance in order to prevent and control infectious processes while protecting the person from acquiring infectious diseases.
Cheng, Vincent C C; Tai, Josepha W M; Li, W S; Chau, P H; So, Simon Y C; Wong, Lisa M W; Ching, Radley H C; Ng, Modissa M L; Ho, Sara K Y; Lee, Doris W Y; Lee, W M; Wong, Sally C Y; Yuen, K Y
The importance of compliance with hand hygiene by patients is increasingly recognized to prevent health care-associated infections. This descriptive study observed the effects of an education campaign, targeted to increase patients' self-initiated hand hygiene, and a hand hygiene ambassador-initiated directly observed hand hygiene program on patients' hand hygiene compliance in a university-affiliated hospital. The overall audited compliance of patients' self-initiated hand hygiene was only 37.5%, with a rate of 26.9% (112/416 episodes) before meals and medications, 27.5% (19/69 episodes) after using a urinal or bedpan, and 89.7% (87/97 episodes) after attending toilet facilities. Patients referred from a residential care home for older adults had significantly lower hand hygiene compliance (P = .007). Comparatively, the overall audited compliance of ambassador-initiated directly observed hand hygiene was 97.3% (428/440 episodes), which was significantly higher than patients' self-initiated hand hygiene via a patient education program (37.5%, 218/582 episodes, P hand hygiene can play an important role in improving compliance with hand hygiene by hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Ying; Bruning, Elizabeth; Rubino, Joseph; Eder, Scott E
Women use various feminine hygiene products, often as part of their daily cleansing routine; however, there is a paucity of published medical literature related to the external vulva and how personal hygiene practices can affect it. This review article provides background information on the physiological changes that occur during women's lives and reviews the relevance of transient and resident microbiota as they relate to common vaginal and vulvar disorders. It also discusses the need for female intimate hygiene, common practices of feminine hygiene from a global perspective, and the potential benefits of using suitable external, topical feminine vulvar washes to minimize the risk of vulvovaginal disorders and to improve overall intimate health in women around the world. Supported by international guidelines, daily gentle cleansing of the vulva is an important aspect of feminine hygiene and overall intimate health. Women should be encouraged to choose a carefully formulated and clinically tested external wash that provides targeted antimicrobial and other health benefits without negatively impacting on the natural vulvovaginal microbiota.
Danckert, Rachael; Ryan, Anna; Plummer, Virginia; Williams, Cylie
Poor oral health has been associated with systemic diseases, morbidity and mortality. Many patients in hospital environments are physically compromised and rely upon awareness and assistance from health professionals for the maintenance or improvement of their oral health. This study aimed to identify whether common individual and environment factors associated with hospitalisation impacted on oral hygiene. Data were collected during point prevalence audits of patients in the acute and rehabilitation environments on three separate occasions. Data included demographic information, plaque score, presence of dental hygiene products, independence level and whether nurse assistance was documented in the health record. Data were collected for 199 patients. A higher plaque score was associated with not having a toothbrush (p = 0.002), being male (p = 0.007), being acutely unwell (p = 0.025) and requiring nursing assistance for oral hygiene (p = 0.002). There was fair agreement between the documentation of requiring assistance for oral care and the patient independently able to perform oral hygiene (ICC = 0.22). Oral hygiene was impacted by factors arising from hospitalisation, for those without a toothbrush and male patients of acute wards. Establishment of practices that increase awareness and promote good oral health should be prioritised. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Shimokura, Gayle; Weber, David J; Miller, William C; Wurtzel, Heather; Alter, Miriam J
Because exposure to blood by health care workers is frequent during hemodialysis, gloves are required for all contact with patients and their equipment, followed by hand hygiene. In this study, we investigated factors associated with performing these practices as recommended. Staff members from a sample of 45 US hemodialysis facilities were surveyed using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors independently associated with reporting increased compliance with recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices during patient care were identified with multivariate modeling. Of 605 eligible staff members, 420 (69%) responded: registered nurses, 41%; dialysis technicians, 51%; and licensed practical nurses, 8%. Only 35% reported that dialysis patients were at risk for bloodborne virus infections, and only 36% reported always following recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices. Independent factors associated with more frequent compliance were being a technician (versus a registered nurse) and reporting always doing what was needed to protect themselves from infection. Compliance with recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices by hemodialysis staff was low. The rationale for infection control practices specific to the hemodialysis setting was poorly understood by all staff. Infection control training should be tailored to this setting and should address misconceptions.
Cakan, U; Yuzbasioglu, E; Kurt, H; Kara, H B; Turunç, R; Akbulut, A; Aydin, K C
The aim of this study was conducting a survey of hygiene habits and use of removable partial dentures (RPDs) and correlate them with the social conditions of the interviewees. A total of 145 RPD wearers were interviewed by experienced clinical staff using a structured questionnaire. A Chi-squared test was performed to evaluate statistical significance between the variables, and the level of significance was Pdentures at night. The frequency of cleaning dentures and using cleansing tablet was significantly higher in females than in males (Pdenture cleaning, cleaned parts of denture, use of cleansing tablet, removal of dentures at night, frequency of tooth brushing, does not show any significant difference according to age, educational status or duration of denture usage (P>0.05). RPD wearers did not clean their dentures and natural teeth satisfactorily and had limited knowledge of denture cleansing and oral hygiene maintenance. Hygiene habits and attitudes may be affected by gender, but education level and hygiene attitudes may not always present positive correlation. Dentists should thoroughly inform patients about the harmful effects of overnight wearing and motivate to clean metal parts of RPD's and cleansing tablet use in order to minimize the abrasive effect of widely preferred cleaning method of brushing with toothpaste.
Cooper, Brigette R; Monson, Angela L
In 2003, the Minnesota Dental Practice Act was modified to allow dental hygienists and assistants to place amalgam, composite, glass ionomer, and stainless steel crowns. A restorative functions course was added to the curriculum of a dental hygiene program at a state university in Minnesota to teach these skills. Student requirements for the course included clinical experiences on a minimum of twelve patients, as outlined by the Minnesota Board of Dentistry. The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics and satisfaction levels of patients receiving care in the restorative functions dental hygiene clinic. An online survey was offered to eighty-two adult patients receiving restorative treatment in the clinic, with sixty-four patients agreeing to participate for a response rate of 78 percent. The average patient was thirty-one to forty years old, Caucasian, worked full-time, did not have dental insurance, had a family income of between $20,000 and $40,000, and chose this clinic due to low cost. Ninety-eight percent of responding patients were satisfied or very satisfied with their overall clinic experience, and 98 percent also thought the quality of care at this clinic was the same, better, or much better than previous dental care they had received. Most patients would return to this clinic for future restorative work (97 percent), in addition to recommending this clinic to others seeking restorative work (98 percent). Wilcoxen signed rank tests revealed the patients were significantly more satisfied (prestorative visit to a private dentist. Group differences were examined using the non-parametric test, Mann-Whitney, which is similar to the two-sample t-test for parametric data. No significant group differences in the overall satisfaction with this clinic were found according to income level, dental insurance, or ability to pay for an unexpected dental bill. Findings in this study suggest the majority of patients were satisfied with the overall
Anderson, Maureen E C; Sargeant, Jan M; Weese, J Scott
Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique...
Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Lindberg, Maria; Larsson, Rigmor; Fläckman, Birgitta; Engström, Maria
This paper is a report of a study conducted to describe primary healthcare personnel's knowledge of multidrug-resistant and preventive hygiene measures. The group of patients at risk for multi-drug resistant bacteria is largely cared for in primary care. Knowledge of multidrug-resistant and hygiene preventive measures among primary healthcare personnel is therefore essential. A descriptive and comparative questionnaire survey among primary healthcare personnel was performed in 2008. In total, five urban and rural primary healthcare centres situated in one county in central Sweden were included. Convenient sampling was used and 10 physicians, 38 district nurses and 10 nursing assistants participated. Knowledge/medical facts concerning multidrug-resistant and hygiene preventive measures were investigated and data were analysed using a quantitative approach. Knowledge/medical facts concerning several aspects of multidrug-resistant bacteria, particularly Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase producing bacteria, were deficient as was knowledge of different aspects of hygiene preventive measures. Physicians showed significantly better results than district nurses and nursing assistants did. Awareness of proper hand-washing as an effective preventive method and use of aprons in nursing care was high among all participants. Staff who knew they had cared for these patients had significantly better results than the others did. Our findings suggest that evidence-based education of multidrug-resistant and hygiene preventive measures, in primary health with subsequent follow-ups should become a prioritized clinician and management concern. Research is needed that focus implementation of evidence-based educations, staff attitudes and responsibilities related to the work with patients at risk of multidrug-resistant bacteria. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sensabaugh, Cynthia F; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando; Overman, Pamela R; Van Ness, Christopher J; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a program evaluation of the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program (MSDH). This evaluation examined long-term outcomes in the context of stakeholders (the profession, the student, and the degree-granting institution).Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to gather data from the 28 graduates from the MSDH program. An electronic questionnaire included both open- and closed-ended questions including demographic and practice data, and data related to alumni preparedness to reach their career goals. Virtual focus groups provided valuable insight into whether the program has achieved its goals, and prepared the graduates to meet their program competencies and future goals.Results: Out of a total of 28 individuals who have successfully completed the distance program (2001-2011), 19 participated in an online survey (67.8%). The majority of the participants (73.7%) participated in one of 3 focus groups. Sixty-three percent of the graduates are currently employed in dental hygiene education. Eighty-four percent of the respondents have published their research conducted while in the program, thereby contributing to the dental hygiene body of knowledge. Sixty-eight percent indicated that had the distance option not existed, they would not have been able to obtain their advanced degree in dental hygiene. Twenty-one percent of the respondents report either being currently enrolled in a doctoral program, or having completed a doctoral degree.Conclusion: These results suggest that the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program is meeting its goals from the perspective of all stakeholders and providing its graduates with access to education and educational resources to meet the program competencies and ultimately achieve their career goals. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Rothman, Richard E; Irvin, Charlene B; Moran, Gregory J; Sauer, Lauren; Bradshaw, Ylisabyth S; Fry, Robert B; Josephine, Elaine B; Ledyard, Holly K; Hirshon, Jon Mark
The emergency department (ED) is an essential component of the public health response plan for control of acute respiratory infectious threats. Effective respiratory hygiene in the ED is imperative to limit the spread of dangerous respiratory pathogens, including influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and bioterrorism agents, particularly given that these agents may not be immediately identifiable. Sustaining effective respiratory control measures is especially challenging in the ED because of patient crowding, inadequate staffing and resources, and ever-increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients. Threat of contagion exists not only for ED patients but also for visitors, health care workers, and inpatient populations. Potential physical sites for respiratory disease transmission extend from out-of-hospital care, to triage, waiting room, ED treatment area, and the hospital at large. This article presents a summary of the most current information available in the literature about respiratory hygiene in the ED, including administrative, patient, and legal issues. Wherever possible, specific recommendations and references to practical information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are provided. The "Administrative Issues" section describes coordination with public health departments, procedures for effective facility planning, and measures for health care worker protection (education, staffing optimization, and vaccination). The patient care section addresses the potentially infected ED patient, including emergency medical services concerns, triage planning, and patient transport. "Legal Issues" discusses the interplay between public safety and patient privacy. Emergency physicians play a critical role in early identification, treatment, and containment of potentially lethal respiratory pathogens. This brief synopsis should help clinicians and administrators understand, develop, and implement appropriate policies and
Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate han...
Attieh, Elie; Maalouf, Samer; Roumieh, Dina; Abdayem, Pamela; AbiTayeh, Georges; Kesrouani, Assaad
Background Inappropriate feminine hygiene practices are related to vulvovaginitis. We investigated the prevalence of personal hygiene habits among Lebanese women as well as their awareness of adequate practices. Methods Consists of a cross-sectional observational study. Female patients and nurses at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital in Beirut- Lebanon filled a questionnaire about their intimate hygiene habits and knowledge of proper practices. Results The study included 249 women. 21.3...
Full Text Available This article starts with a review of different recent theoretical views and positions on culture, menstruation taboos, and ethical consumer behaviour. We performed a quantitative research in England, Germany, Slovenia and Sweden on 1,081 responding female students about the effect of cultural and sociological factors on female consumer behaviour when buying feminine hygiene products. Countries were selected depending on different cultures, religions and consumer behaviour. Based on the acquired results, we established a structural model of female consumer behaviour in the selected countries. This model showed a spiral transfer of cultural limitations and prejudices to the respondent students through the environment.
The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.
Hülya Yardımcı; Gülperi Hakli; Funda Pinar Çakiroğlu; Ayşe Özfer Özçelik
This study, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out to determine the hygiene knowledge of the staff (N = 317) employed in kitchen and service departments of catering firms in Ankara. It was found that the mean scores of the staff with regard to personal hygiene, food hygiene, and kitchen and equipment hygiene were 10.7 ± 1.6, 19.8 ± 4.0, and 13.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Male staff achieved higher mean scores ...
Patel, B; Engelbrecht, H; McDonald, H; Morris, V; Smythe, W
Hand hygiene is an important and basic practice that should be used by all healthcare staff to protect both themselves and their patients against infection. Unfortunately hand hygiene compliance remains poor. To show an improvement in hand hygiene compliance using a multifaceted approach. This was a quasiexperimental pre-post intervention study design with a number of standardised interventions to promote hand hygiene. The World Health Organization hand hygiene multimodal (five-step) intervention approach was used. The study ran from June 2015 to August 2015 in 11 selected wards of a 975-bed tertiary and quaternary care public hospital (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa). The outcome was to assess improvement in hand hygiene compliance monthly over the 3 months, compared with non-intervention wards and compared with the wards' own performance measured in 2014. The study included both descriptive and analytical components. Post intervention, hand hygiene compliance showed a statistically significant improvement for before patient contact from 34% in 2014 to 76% in 2015 (p<0.05) and for after patient contact from 47% in 2014 to 82% in 2015 (p<0.05). The intervention improved hand hygiene compliance and can easily be replicated in other wards, resulting in sustaining a culture of hand hygiene improvement and behavioural change throughout the hospital.
Randle, Jacqueline; Firth, Joseph; Vaughan, Natalie
To measure healthcare workers', children's and visitors' hand hygiene compliance in a paediatric oncology ward and a paediatric respiratory ward in an English hospital. Children are especially vulnerable to healthcare-associated infections, yet few studies have reported on hand hygiene compliance in paediatric clinical areas. This was an observational study. We measured hand hygiene compliance over an eight-hour period in two hospital wards using the 'five moments of hand hygiene' observation tool. We monitored a total of 407 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall opportunities for compliance were 74% for healthcare workers (n = 315) and children and visitors 23% (n = 92). Compliance was 84% for allied health professionals, 81% for doctors, 75% for nurses and 73% for ancillary and other staff. Hand hygiene compliance varied depending on which of the five moments of hygiene healthcare workers were undertaking (p oncology ward, hand hygiene compliance was higher (p < 0·05). Owing to the nature of the clinical environments, we are unable to draw conclusions about children's hand hygiene compliance; however, visitors' compliance was low. Among healthcare workers, levels of compliance were higher compared with previous reported estimates. Visitors had the lowest level of compliance yet owing to the nature of the clinical environments, nearly a quarter of care is delivered by them rather than healthcare workers, and so, this offers opportunities for specific future interventions aimed at families and carers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Cobban, S J; Edgington, E M; Compton, S M
The practice of dental hygiene was developed to provide oral health education and preventive oral health care, originally for children. It has grown to provide oral health services valued by a broad spectrum of society, but has not attained the desired respect and status accorded to other professional groups. Professional disciplines link actions of practitioners with the science that is the foundation of practice. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether dental hygiene practice could benefit from pursuit of development as a discipline. Literature on professionalization and disciplines, related to dental hygiene in general and the North American context specifically, was retrieved from databases and grey sources, such as organizational reports. Dental hygiene's current characteristics relative to a discipline were examined. Dental hygiene has developed some characteristics of a discipline, such as identifying a metaparadigm that includes concepts of the client, the environment, health/oral health and dental hygiene actions, with a perspective that includes a focus on disease prevention and oral health promotion. However, research production by dental hygienists has been limited, and often not situated within theoretical or conceptual frameworks. Dental hygiene draws its knowledge for practice from a variety of sources. Dental hygiene could strengthen its value to society by prioritizing development of highly skilled researchers to study interventions leading to improved oral outcomes, and transferring that knowledge to practitioners, strengthening links between practice and science. Intentional pursuit of knowledge for practice would lead to dental hygiene's eventual emergence as a professional discipline.
Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Sibilio, Fabio; Amenta, Francesco
This study has assessed the dental hygiene habits and problems of seafarers and their attitudes/ perceptions regarding oral hygiene using a dental hygiene/habits questionnaire. A research questionnaire on oral hygiene habits was prepared along with a summary of all the questions and sent to ships via e-mail by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) networks. CIRM, is the Italian Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS), and represents the Centre with the largest number of seafarers assisted on board ships worldwide. CIRM proposed the questionnaire to all ships (n = 1,198) asking for medical advice from 1 July 2014 till 31 October 2014. Two dental professionals were involved in the development and analysis of the questionnaire. Seafarers are at risk of several dental health problems due to their oral hygiene and dietary habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, poor oral hygiene knowledge and motivation. Dietary habits during voyages were also questionable and seafarers consume food rich in fermentable carbohydrates, which is a major risk factor for dental caries. Seafarers need better oral hygiene education and care to enable them to manage their oral health in a better way. Life at the sea, under challenging circumstances is not without stress, that is why it is important that seafarers are given complete information about correct oral hygiene protocols and dental hygiene and the advantages for their health of keeping a healthy mouth.
This thesis deals with the question, what is the strategy of mental hygiene education at the Waldorf school. The aim was to find out how mental hygiene at the Waldorf school is educated and then compare this strategy with the strategy of mental hygiene education at the school of traditional education system. Another aim of this study was to show whether the correct strategy of mental hygiene education in elementary schools has some influence on the development of the child. The research was m...
Wetzker, W; Bunte-Schönberger, K; Walter, J; Pilarski, G; Gastmeier, P; Reichardt, Ch
Hand hygiene is a key measure to prevent healthcare-associated infection. To promote hand hygiene nationally the German campaign 'Aktion Saubere Hände' was launched in January 2008, based on the World Health Organization's 'Clean Care is Safer Care' initiative. We report the first results from a full year of data collection on hand hygiene compliance recorded with the help of a renewed observation tool. Data were based on submissions from 109 participating hospitals collected from 576 wards between January 1st and December 31st, 2014. The overall median compliance was 73%, ranging from 55% (10th percentile) to 89% (90th percentile). The results demonstrated only small differences between adult and non-adult intensive care units (ICUs) with neonatal ICUs and paediatric non-ICUs maintaining higher compliance than adult care units. Performance among nurses was better than physicians, and overall rates of hand hygiene performance were significantly higher after patient contact than before. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a motivation and practical skills development methods on the oral hygiene of orphans. Material and Methods: Sixty eight orphans aged between 7 and 17 years from two orphanages in Kaunas were divided into two groups: practical application group and motivation group. Children were clinically examined by determining their oral hygiene status using Silness-Löe plaque index. Questionnaire was used to estimate the oral hygiene knowledge and practices at baseline and after 3 months. Statistical analysis included: Chi-square test (χ2, Fisher‘s exact test, Student‘s t-test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient and Kappa coefficient. Results: All children had a plaque on at least one tooth in both groups: motivation 1.14 (SD 0.51, practical application 1.08 (SD 0.4 (P = 0.58. Girls in both groups showed significantly better oral hygiene than boys (P < 0.001. After 3 months educational program oral hygiene status improved in both groups significantly 0.4 (SD 0.35 (P < 0.001. Significantly better oral hygiene was determined in practical application group 0.19 (SD 0.27 in comparison with motivation group 0.55 (SD 0.32 (P < 0.001. By comparing results of first and second questionnaire surveys on use of soft drinks, the statistically significant decline of their use was in both groups (P = 0.004. Conclusions: Educational programs are effective in improving oral hygiene, especially when they’re based on practical skills training.
Woltering, R; Münster, W; Hoffmann, G; Heudorf, U
Increasing demands on hygiene in hospitals require improved methods of systematic monitoring by the Public Health Service. The hygiene skills of at least 20% of the hospital physicians and nurses were evaluated by structured interviews and observation. The results were presented to the hospitals. In total, 184 persons were reviewed in 5 hospitals. On average, 7 out of 10 questions on hygiene knowledge were answered correctly, 74% of the persons asked demonstrated proper hand hygiene and 66% of them were not wearing any jewellery on their hands. There were no significant differences between physicians and nurses. The slight differences between the 5 hospitals were transferred into a ranking. The application of the method provides additional information on hygiene in hospitals and allows a comparison of the hygiene skills of their staff members. The results form the basis for a dialogue between hospital and Public Health Service. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Thacker, K K; Kaste, L M; Homsi, K D; LeHew, C W
To assess oral cancer prevention and early detection curricula in Illinois associate-degree dental hygiene programmes and highlight global health applications. An email invitation was sent to each Illinois associate-degree granting dental hygiene programme's oral cancer contact to participate in a survey via a SurveyMonkey™ link to a 21-item questionnaire. Questions elicited background information on each programme and inquired about curriculum and methods used for teaching oral cancer prevention and early detection. Eight of the 12 (67%) programmes responded. Three (37.5%) reported having a specific oral cancer curriculum. Five (62.5%) require students to perform examinations for signs and symptoms of oral cancer at each clinic visit. Variations exist across the programmes in the number of patients each student sees annually and the number of oral cancer examinations each student performs before graduation. Seven programmes (87.5%) conduct early detection screening in community settings. All programmes included risk assessment associated with tobacco. All other risk factors measured were treated inconsistently. Significant differences in training and experience were reported across Illinois dental hygiene programmes. Training is neither standardized nor uniformly comprehensive. Students' preparation for delivering prevention and early detection services to their patients could be strengthened to ensure competence including reflection of risk factors and behaviours in a global context. Regular review of curricular guidelines and programme content would help dental hygienists meet the expectations of the Crete Declaration on Oral Cancer Prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A
In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Häggström, Mikael; Spira, Jack; Edelstam, Greta
To determine whether current hygiene practices are appropriate during sonographic examinations. Five major hospitals in Sweden were investigated with a survey. At each hospital, the departments corresponding to the main types of sonographic examination were chosen. Personnel who were responsible for or acquainted with the local hygiene procedures completed a standardardized questionnaire. The surveys were completed by 25 departments, where the total number of sonographic examinations was approximately 20,000 per month. For transvaginal and transrectal sonographic examinations, the most common method for decontamination of the transducer was barrier protection during the procedure followed by cleansing with alcohol. Latex was the predominant cover material, but one department used polyethylene gloves, and another department used nitrile gloves. Both of these involved transvaginal ultrasonography. In transcutaneous examinations, all hospitals were using alcohol and paper or cloth for decontamination at a minimum. Transesophageal examinations were carried out without barrier protection, and decontamination was performed with an alkylating substance. The hygiene practices appear to be appropriate at most hospitals, but there is a prevalence of transducer cover materials of unacceptable permeability, as well as use of gloves on transducers despite insufficient evidence of safety. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shearston, Jenni A; Shah, Krina; Cheng, Eric; Moosvi, Rizvan; Park, Su Hyun; Patel, Naiya; Spielman, Andrew I; Weitzman, Michael L
Using cigarettes and alternative tobacco products (ATPs) is associated with negative oral health outcomes, and dental health professionals are poised to help patients quit. The aim of this study was to determine dental, dental hygiene, and advanced dental students' use, knowledge, and beliefs about cigarettes and ATPs, including perceptions about their education in tobacco dependence treatment and counseling experience. All 1,783 students enrolled in the dental, dental hygiene, and postdoctoral dental programs at the New York University College of Dentistry were invited to participate in the survey in 2016. A total of 708 students at least partially completed the survey, for a response rate of 39.7%. In the results, 146 of the students (20.1%) reported ever using cigarettes, while 253 (35.7%) reported ever using any ATP. Regarding tobacco use intervention, the students reported they had not received enough training on ATPs, were neutral about cigarettes, and were somewhat confident and not so confident counseling a cigarette smoker or ATP user, respectively. By their fourth year, 77.8% of the dental students reported they had counseled someone to stop smoking cigarettes, but only 40.7% had counseled someone to stop using ATPs. Overall, all groups of students reported feeling more confident and had received more education on interventions for cigarettes than for ATPs (pcigarettes and ATPs. These findings call for a revised tobacco education curriculum for dental, dental hygiene, and advanced dental students, focused on building knowledge and confidence for promoting tobacco dependence treatment.
Bloomfield, Sally F; Carling, Philip C; Exner, Martin
.... They are used in situations including hand hygiene, clinical procedures, decontamination of environmental surfaces, respiratory hygiene, food handling, laundry hygiene, toilet hygiene and so on...
Mazzette, Rina; Piras, Francesca; Agus, Vanessa; Porcheddu, Gabriella; Fois, Giuseppe; Consolati, Simonetta Gianna
The slaughtering procedures at agritourism farms must be carried out in accordance with the general and hygiene requirements of Regulations (EC) No 852 and 853/2004. In addition, regional laws define minimum requirements allowing some flexibility. Piglets and finishing pigs are the most frequently slaughtered animal in Sardinian agritourism farms. The aim of the present survey was to evaluate: the general and hygiene requirements of outbuilding slaughterhouses in agritourisms; the animal welfare indicators; the microbial contamination of piglets and finishing pigs carcasses. Six agritourisms outbuilding slaughterhouses - EU-approved - were investigated. General and hygiene requirements of outbuilding slaughterhouses and animal welfare indicators of 68 piglets and 5 finishing pigs were evaluated by mean of a checklist. The following parameters were determined on 45 piglets and 5 finishing pigs carcasses: i) pH 1 and 24 h after slaughter, and ii) carcass surface microbial contamination by non destructive method (sponge) on the following sampling sites: ham; back (adults); belly; jowl (adults). Aerobic colony count (ACC; ISO 4833:2003), Enterobacteriaceae (EB; ISO 21528-2:2004), Salmonella spp. (ISO 6579:2002), Listeria monocytogenes (ISO 11290-1:1996 and 11290-2:1998) were also tested. All the plants except one have two separate rooms, for clean and dirty zones, stunning and bleeding operations being frequently carried out on open air. The piglet scalding was carried out in hot water bowls, and hair removal by singeing. Animal welfare signs revealed the following aspects: handling: hoisting prior to stunning, vocalizations (41%); stunning: not individual access to box, repeated shocks (4%), mean voltage 135.6 V, mean current for head-only electrical stunning 0.78 A; indicators of not effective stunning: palpebral reflex (24.2%), corneal reflex (12.8%), vocalizations (15.4%); bleeding: conscious and sensitive animal shackling (53.8%). Results of carcass evaluation
Full Text Available The slaughtering procedures at agritourism farms must be carried out in accordance with the general and hygiene requirements of Regulations (EC No 852 and 853/2004. In addition, regional laws define minimum requirements allowing some flexibility. Piglets and finishing pigs are the most frequently slaughtered animal in Sardinian agritourism farms. The aim of the present survey was to evaluate: the general and hygiene requirements of outbuilding slaughterhouses in agritourisms; the animal welfare indicators; the microbial contamination of piglets and finishing pigs carcasses. Six agritourisms outbuilding slaughterhouses – EU-approved – were investigated. General and hygiene requirements of outbuilding slaughterhouses and animal welfare indicators of 68 piglets and 5 finishing pigs were evaluated by mean of a checklist. The following parameters were determined on 45 piglets and 5 finishing pigs carcasses: i pH 1 and 24 h after slaughter, and ii carcass surface microbial contamination by non destructive method (sponge on the following sampling sites: ham; back (adults; belly; jowl (adults. Aerobic colony count (ACC; ISO 4833:2003, Enterobacteriaceae (EB; ISO 21528-2:2004, Salmonella spp. (ISO 6579:2002, Listeria monocytogenes (ISO 11290-1:1996 and 11290-2:1998 were also tested. All the plants except one have two separate rooms, for clean and dirty zones, stunning and bleeding operations being frequently carried out on open air. The piglet scalding was carried out in hot water bowls, and hair removal by singeing. Animal welfare signs revealed the following aspects: handling: hoisting prior to stunning, vocalizations (41%; stunning: not individual access to box, repeated shocks (4%, mean voltage 135.6 V, mean current for head-only electrical stunning 0.78 A; indicators of not effective stunning: palpebral reflex (24.2%, corneal reflex (12.8%, vocalizations (15.4%; bleeding: conscious and sensitive animal shackling (53.8%. Results of carcass
Branson, B G; Toevs, S E
Within the confines of a lock-step dental hygiene education curriculum, the remediation of clinical skills poses a challenge for both the faculty responsible for assuring clinical competence and for the students expected to meet the stringent clinical performance criteria. To gain an understanding of how dental hygiene programs meet remediation challenges, a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs was conducted. A questionnaire designed to elicit information on specific remediation protocols, the type of instructional methods used in clinical remediation, and the management of faculty work load and compensation when the need for remediation was identified was developed. The questionnaire was pretested by dental hygiene program administrators and then distributed to 227 U.S. dental hygiene programs via mail and Internet services with a follow-up mailing to non-respondents. Data were analyzed and reported as descriptive statistics using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). An 80 percent (n = 181) response rate was obtained. A chi-square analysis of goodness of fit demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the respondents and the survey population in relationship to type of degree granted, educational setting, or geographic location. Results revealed an average student to clinical faculty ratio of five to one regardless of year of curriculum, educational setting, or geographic location. Just over half (53.6%, n = 97), reported having a written policy on clinical remediation with a clinical course syllabus being the most frequently cited mode of distribution. Ninety-eight percent (n = 177) indicated that clinical faculty met regularly to discuss student clinical progress. Issuing an incomplete grade, requiring the student to attend additional clinical sessions, and allowing the student to continue with his or her peers was the most frequent action taken when clinical remediation was needed at the end of the academic term (32.6%, n = 59
Pirincci, Edibe; Altun, Bengu
The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudes and conduct of hospital cleaning staff regarding cleaning and hand hygiene. In May and June 2014, the cleaning staff of Elazig Training and Research Hospital participated in this descriptive research. Data was collected by a survey prepared by the researchers. The SPSS program was used to analyze the data. Of the participants, 70.3% of them were male and their mean age was 38.69 ± 6.61. The percentage of those hand washing before starting work was 29.8% for primary school graduates or those with lower education. For those with higher levels of education, the percentage was 68.2% (p staff are not sufficiently hygienic. These employees need training before and throughout their employment.
Rapoport, I K; Sergeeva, A A; Chubarovskiĭ, V V
Clinical and epidemiological examinations were made in rural junior (8-10-year-old) schoolchildren from the Vyazma District, Smolensk Region. The clinical findings were compared with the results of evaluation of sanitary-and-hygienic school welfare (SGW), made by the regional branch of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, and with those of a sociological survey of school directors and teachers. In the rural schools referred to as Group III morbidity, the incidence of diseases was ascertained to be significantly higher and their patterns had its peculiarities as compared to good hygienic and social educational institutions. There was evidence that the worse schooling conditions, the more children suffered from chronic diseases, chronic mental diseases and physical malformations in particular.
Widmer, A F
Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Izmerov, N F; Suvorov, G A; Kuralesin, N A; Ovakimov, V G
The paper analyzes and sums up technically originated infrasound (IS) hygienic problems. Trends for an increase in its role as an unfavourable factor of the industrial, transport, and residential environments are established. Comprehensive physiological, hygienic, and experimental studies revealed the pathogenetic features of IS. Involvement of the limbicoreticular complex, hypothalamus, and other subcortical structures into responses to higher factor levels on human beings stipulates a sharply prominent pathological discomfort as a manifestation of the infrasonic diencephalic hypothalamic syndrome with sensorisomatic and autonomic visceral symptoms. A conceptual pathogenetic model of IS exposure has been worked out. Main subjective and objective signs of and criteria for IS exposure have been defined, its ranking by human risk areas is given with the influencing factor parameters borne in mind. The biometry of biological effects on exposure to IS at 4 and Hz and at 130 dB and their changes in the vestibular and acoustic analyzers, as well as in the neurohumoral regulation system and other homeostatic parameters has revealed the priority of the whole body's responses.
Christensen Brydges, Sarah; Gwozdek, Anne E
The Boys & Girls Club of America (BGCA) requires a health curriculum be taught. With the assistance of the University of Michigan (UM) Dental Hygiene program, these requirements have been addressed at the Huron Valley Boys & Girls Club (HVBGC) through dental hygiene students presenting oral health education to club members throughout the year. This study assessed the outcomes and benefits of the service learning initiative between the UM Dental Hygiene Program and the HVBGC from both the students' and staffs' perceptions. Three surveys were distributed: one to the HVBGC staff, one to UM's Dental Hygiene class of 2012 (with no service learning experience at the HVBGC) and one to UM Dental Hygiene classes of 2010 and 2011 (most of whom had experience at the HVBGC). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and evaluated. The respondents from the class of 2012 were less knowledgeable about the BGCA and access to care issues. The members of the classes of 2010 and 2011, 79% of whom had HVBGC experience, identified they had benefitted from this service learning experience. The HVBGC staff survey indicated a high level of satisfaction with the student presentations and felt their curricular requirements were being met. Future topics of safety, orthodontics and gardening/nutrition were identified. This study indicates the service learning initiative has been beneficial for both the UM Dental Hygiene students and the HVBGC. Future studies should use a longitudinal design to obtain baseline and post-service learning data.
Wilder, Rebecca S; Thomas, Katherine M; Jared, Heather
The relationship between periodontal disease and systemic disease has gained much attention in recent years in the dental profession and from national health care agencies. Two third-party providers are now modifying their dental reimbursements for patients who have periodontal disease and are pregnant or have cardiovascular disease. However, there are few reports in the dental or dental hygiene literature about how students are taught this information and how it is incorporated into the didactic and clinical aspects of the curriculum. A thirty-item survey and cover letter on these subjects were emailed to the directors of the 286 accredited dental hygiene programs in the United States in 2007. The response rate was 63 percent. According to these responses, the three most emphasized topics regarding oral-systemic disease are diabetes, tobacco use, and cardiovascular disease. Most programs (90 percent) use journal articles for instructional content, and 87 percent use the American Academy of Periodontology website for reference. Only 4 percent have content taught jointly with nursing, medical, or allied health students. The majority of directors (87 percent) indicated they could use more evidence-based educational materials to help teach the concepts to students. Only 9 percent of survey respondents thought that nurses and physicians are knowledgeable about the relationship of oral health to systemic disease. The findings indicate that dental hygiene program directors are confident about the education on oral-systemic content provided to their dental hygiene students, but would like additional evidence-based materials to help their students learn this topic.
Leibler, Jessica H; Nguyen, Daniel D; León, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M; Perez, Debora
Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA ( n = 194) to identify hygiene-related self-care practices and risk factors for reduced hygiene in this population. Most participants (72%) reported taking a daily shower. More than 60% reported hand washing with soap five or more times each day, and use of hand sanitizer was widespread (89% reported using sanitizer in the last week). A majority (86%) used a laundromat or laundry machine to wash clothing, while 14% reported washing clothing in the sink. Heavy drinking, injection drug use, and sleeping outdoors were identified as significant risk factors for reduced hygiene practices. People experiencing homelessness who also engage in these activities may be among the most difficult to reach for intervention, yet targeted efforts may decrease illness risk associated with reduced hygiene. Housed friends and family play a critical role in assisting homeless individuals maintain hygiene by providing showers and laundry facilities.
Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge
Western bathroom standards, which have long been dominated by ideas of hygiene, seem to be in the process of change. Whereas transformations of kitchens have been well studied, little attention has been directed towards the contemporary development of bathrooms. This article provides a case study....... In particular, the notion of well-being is highlighted as challenging existing hygiene ideas....
Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer
The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…
Sheftel', V O; Baĭda, N A; Petrusha, V G; Shutova, T V
Results of hygienic study of baby's baths made of polystyrene are presented. Migration of components of the material into the water is studied, as well as skin-resorptive and sensitizing effect of polystyrene extracts on the organism of laboratory animals. The methodological procedure of hygienic investigation of plastic baby's baths is presented.
Weerdesteijn MCH; Bremmer HJ; Zeilmaker MJ; Veen MP van; LBM
In this study it was examined how people are exposed to compounds contained in hygienic cleaning products used in the kitchen. The products for which exposure was assessed are dishwashing liquids, hygienic cleaning napkins, spray cleaners and bleach containing products (abrasive, all purpose cleaner
Background: Health care associated infections are most commonly transmitted by the hands of Health care workers and other hospital personnel. Objective: To investigate compliance with hand hygiene guidelines and methods of hand hygiene practice among community health officers in Rivers State Nigeria. Methods: Self ...
Vaidotas, Marina; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Gysi, Deisy Morselli; Leal, Flavio; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Edmond, Michael B
Despite the importance of hand hygiene in the health care setting, there are no studies evaluating hand hygiene compliance at hospital entrances. The study was prospectively performed over a 33-week period from March 30, 2014-November 15, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 hospital reception areas. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (GOJO SMARTLINK) (electronic observer) that counts each activation of alcohol gel dispensers to direct observation (human observer) via remote review of video surveillance. We found low hand hygiene compliance rates of 2.2% (99/4,412) and 1.7% (140/8,277), respectively, at reception areas A and D, detected by direct observation. Using the electronic observer, we measured rates of 17% (15,624/91,724) and 7.1% (51,605/730,357) at reception areas A and D, respectively. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, the human observer captured 1% of the hand hygiene episodes detected by the electronic observer. Our study showed very low hand hygiene compliance in hospital reception areas, and we found an electronic hand hygiene system to be a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Magiorakos, A.P.; Suetens, C.; Boyd, L.; Costa, C.; Cunney, R.; Drouvot, V.; Farrugia, C.; Fernandez-Maillo, M.M.; Iversen, B.G.; Leens, E.; Michael, S.; Moro, M.L.; Reinhardt, C.; Serban, R.; Vatcheva-Dobrevska, R.; Wilson, K.; Heisbourg, E.; Maltezou, H.C.; Strauss, R.; Borocz, K.; Dolinsek, M.; Dumpis, U.; Erne, S.; Gudlaugsson, O.; Heczko, P.B.; Hedlova, D.; Holt, J.; Joe, L.; Lyytikainen, O.; Riesenfeld-Orn, I.; Stefkovikova, M.; Valinteliene, R.; Voss, A.; Monnet, D.L.
Hand hygiene represents the single most effective way to prevent healthcare-associated infections. The World Health Organization, as part of its First Global Patient Safety Challenge, recommends implementation of multi-faceted strategies to increase compliance with hand hygiene. A questionnaire was
Vegt, D.S. van der; Voss, A.
Compliance with hand hygiene in the healthcare setting is generally low. The aim of the present study was to investigate the degree of compliance with hand hygiene after toilet visits inside and outside the hospital. We observed hospital/laboratory staff, participants of the European Congress of
Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark
Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…
Van Donk, DP; Gaalman, G
Hygiene and food safety have been dealt with from different fields of science such as biology and health, and from different angles such as HACCP and GMP. Little systematically ordered knowledge is available for the analysis of a layout, taking hygienic factors into account. HACCP and GMP are
A discussion of the available research evidence to guide oral hygiene care activities includes aspects of timing as well as recommended 'tools'. While some nursing-led research has been published on this topic, there is scope for further investigation into oral hygiene care practices in the critically ill. Southern African ...
Encouraging changes in hygiene practices are potentially one of the mosteffective means of reducing the global impact of diarrhoeal diseases, whichkill an estimated 3.3 million children a year. However, efforts to improve hygiene in the developing world have met with limited success. Some
Paarmann, Carlene S.; And Others
The establishment of the baccalaureate degree as the minimum entry level for dental hygiene practice centers around three main concerns: changes in health care delivery, awarding of a degree commensurate with students' educational background, and the credibility of dental hygiene as a profession. A curriculum model is discussed. (MLW)
Skin diseases are among the common childhood problems of public health importance in Nigeria. Poor personal hygiene practices especially among children are believed to be contributory to its prevalence. This study assessed the prevalence of skin infections and practices in relation to hygiene among public primary ...
Introduction: Oral hygiene involves the prevention of oral diseases which have been found to be common in pregnancy. Dental care in pregnancy aims at achieving healthy oral environment. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude towards and practice of oral hygiene among antenatal clinic attendees in public ...
Oral hygiene care includes a combination of nursing activities that are often placed very low on the priority care list for a critically ill patient. This may have detrimental implications for the patient. A literature review was done to identify and describe the available evidence related to the beneficial effects of oral hygiene care ...
Objective: To determine the oral hygiene practices of adolescents attending schools within Surulere, a Local Government Area in Lagos, Nigeria. Method: A questionnaire enquiring about oral hygiene practices such as method of oral cleansing and frequency, and attitude to professional prophylaxis was administered to 600 ...
Background: Prisoners are a vulnerable and socially deprived group requiring dental care intervention. They are often neglected with little or no access to health care and poor oral hygiene may be an additional burden. Objectives: To assess the oral hygiene status of prison inmates and investigate its relationship to ...
Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in a ...
The aim of the study was therefore to determine the extent to which training in organic farming methods, including modules such as the Importance of Production Hygiene' influenced the hygienic farming practices of small-scale, organic farmers in eTholeni, uMbumbulu, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Questionnaires were ...
Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Guerrero-Ramos, Emilia; Capita, Rosa
A total of 180 lamb carcasses and 200 inert surfaces were sampled in two commercial abattoirs (plants A and B) from northwest Spain. A higher (P slaughterhouses could be attributed to differences in external hygiene of livestock and in the number of slaughterhouse workers. Microbiological analysis of carcasses and surfaces allows detection of hygienic concerns in the overall process.
This paper has three related aims. Firstly, it aims to profile the current food hygiene and safety needs of children under the age of five in South Africa. Secondly, to reflect the importance of domestic hygiene, access to water and sanitation in reducing the transmission of gastrointestinal pathogens while feeding infants and ...
Background: There are different options available for the replacement of missing teeth. These include fixed partial dentures, removable partial dentures and implants. Aim: To assess patients' knowledge on denture hygiene and the hygiene methods used for cleaning removable partial dentures. Methods: This was a ...
Pérez-Sato, J A; Châline, N; Martin, S J; Hughes, W O H; Ratnieks, F L W
Disease is one of the main factors driving both natural and artificial selection. It is a particularly important and increasing threat to the managed honeybee colonies, which are vital in crop pollination. Artificial selection for disease-resistant honeybee genotypes has previously only been carried out at the colony-level, that is, by using queens or males reared from colonies that show resistance. However, honeybee queens mate with many males and so each colony consists of multiple patrilines that will vary in heritable traits, such as disease resistance. Here, we investigate whether response to artificial selection for a key resistance mechanism, hygienic behaviour, can be improved using multi-level selection, that is, by selecting not only among colonies as normal but also among patrilines within colonies. Highly hygienic colonies were identified (between-colony selection), and the specific patrilines within them responsible for most hygienic behaviour were determined using observation hives. Queens reared from these hygienic patrilines (within-colony selection) were identified using DNA microsatellite analysis of a wing-tip tissue sample and then mated to drones from a third highly hygienic colony. The resulting colonies headed by queens from hygienic patrilines showed approximately double the level of hygienic behaviour of colonies headed by sister queens from non-hygienic patrilines. The results show that multi-level selection can significantly improve the success of honeybee breeding programs.
Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming
Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account
Full Text Available The aim of the work was an analysis of nutriotion and hygienic habits of students while staying at school as well as analysis of catering hygiene in the school catering establishment. Method for obtaining information, a questionnaire was developed for this purpose (355 respondents, aged 7 – 15 years. We have focused on the awareness of the issues of healthy nutrition, the observance of the principles of personal hygiene, prioritising certain dishes and drinks, the food, the overall level of quality of the knowledge of the risk and the overall level of hygiene of catering in the school meals catering establishment. The results have shown that it is necessary to increase the awareness and education in the areas of healthy eating and hygiene principles and achieve the mutual cooperation of students, families, and schools.doi:10.5219/211
Mechkuev, R; Chuchkova, M; Kurchatova, G
The atmospheric environment in two blocks of flats with different degree of gardens and parks lain out and in a town park in Sofia was studied by the basic physical, chemical and physiologic parameters. The results give grounds to admit that laying out gardens and parks in urban zones contributes to the creation of definite, qualitatively and quantitatively different housing environment: a more favourable temperature-and-moisture, radiation - thermal and biologicaly active regime. The physiologic state of residents, looking for recreation in these places, was better in an environment of ample verdure. Laying out gardens and parks should gain wider acceptance in the urbanization of bloks of flats, since it is an effective means of improving the hygienic merits of housing environment.
Seward, Robert (Skip) A.
Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.
Sjögren, Petteri; Kullberg, Erika; Hoogstraate, Janet; Johansson, Olle; Herbst, Bertil; Forsell, Marianne
This paper is a report of a study evaluating the long-term effects on the oral hygiene status of older nursing home residents one and a half years after dental hygiene education was given to the staff. A strong relationship exists between oral infections and general health complications (especially aspiration pneumonia) among nursing home residents and hospitalized older people. It is therefore important to educate nursing home staff in oral hygiene measures and to follow up the effects of the education over time. Dental plaque measurements were conducted at a Swedish nursing home in 2006-2008. Forty-one residents (12 men, 31 women, aged 69-99 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and participated in a dental hygiene evaluation 1.5 years after dental hygiene education was given to the staff at the nursing home. Plaque index scores (year 2008) were compared to those soon after the education (year 2006). After the dental hygiene education in 2006, 60 nursing home residents (14 men, 46 women) were available for plaque index measurements, whereas 41 residents (12 men, 29 women) were available 1.5 years later. The median plaque index scores were 17.0 (n = 60) in 2006, and 18.0 (n = 41) in 2008 (Mann-Whitney U-test, P > 0.05). Dental hygiene education for nursing home staff is important to maintain an adequate level of oral hygiene among older nursing home residents over time. Follow-up of dental hygiene education for nursing home staff is recommended to maintain a sufficient level of oral hygiene among the residents.
Kuhlmann, Anne Sebert; Henry, Kaysha; Wall, L Lewis
Adequate management of menstrual hygiene is taken for granted in affluent countries; however, inadequate menstrual hygiene is a major problem for girls and women in resource-poor countries, which adversely affects the health and development of adolescent girls. The aim of this article is to review the current evidence concerning menstrual hygiene management in these settings. A PubMed search using MeSH terms was conducted in English, supplemented by hand searching for additional references. Retrieved articles were reviewed, synthesized, and summarized. Most research to date has described menstrual hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Many school-based studies indicate poorer menstrual hygiene among girls in rural areas and those attending public schools. The few studies that have tried to improve or change menstrual hygiene practices provide moderate to strong evidence that targeted interventions do improve menstrual hygiene knowledge and awareness. Challenges to improving menstrual hygiene management include lack of support from teachers (who are frequently male); teasing by peers when accidental menstrual soiling of clothes occurs; poor familial support; lack of cultural acceptance of alternative menstrual products; limited economic resources to purchase supplies; inadequate water and sanitation facilities at school; menstrual cramps, pain, and discomfort; and lengthy travel to and from school, which increases the likelihood of leaks/stains. Areas for future research include the relationship between menarche and school dropout, the relationship between menstrual hygiene management and other health outcomes, and how to increase awareness of menstrual hygiene management among household decision makers including husbands/fathers and in-laws.
Anderson, Maureen EC; Sargeant, Jan M.; Weese, J. Scott
Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygien...
Freeman, Joshua; Dawson, Louise; Jowitt, Deborah; White, Margo; Callard, Hayley; Sieczkowski, Christine; Kuriyan, Ron; Roberts, Sally
To detail the progress made by Hand Hygiene New Zealand (HHNZ) since 2011 and also describe the challenges experienced along the way and the factors required for delivery of a successful hand hygiene programme at a national level. HHNZ is a multimodal culture-change programme based on the WHO '5 moments for hand hygiene' approach. The key components of the programme include clinical leadership, auditing of hand hygiene compliance with thrice yearly reporting of improvement in hand hygiene practice, biannual reporting of the outcome marker, healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (HA-SAB), effective communication with key stakeholders and the use of the front-line ownership (FLO) principles for quality improvement. The nationally aggregated hand hygiene compliance has increased from 62% in June 2012 to 81% in March 2016. There has been improvement across all 'moments', all healthcare worker groups and a range of different clinical specialties. The rate of HA-SAB has remained stable. The HHNZ programme has led to significant improvements in hand hygiene practice in DHBs throughout New Zealand. The principles of FLO are now widely used to drive hand hygiene improvement in New Zealand DHBs.
White, Katherine M.; Starfelt, Louise C.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Campbell, Megan; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G.; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David
Hand hygiene is the primary measure in hospitals to reduce the spread of infections, with nurses experiencing the greatest frequency of patient contact. The "5 critical moments" of hand hygiene initiative has been implemented in hospitals across Australia, accompanied by awareness-raising, staff training and auditing. The aim of this…
Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.
GRADES OR AGES: Grades 1-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical education and hygiene. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is in French. It is divided into two main sections, one for physical education, and one for hygiene. Each section contains several straight-text chapters with illustrations interspersed. The guide is offset printed and…
Uwem Friday Ekpo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. METHODS AND FINDINGS: THREE PRIMARY SCHOOLS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4-15 y, of whom 146 (56.8% were boys and 111 (43.2% were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (chi(2 = 18.85, df = 2, p<0.0005. A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage
Zhang, Jinwen; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Kena; Chen, Ting; Ye, Xiuxia; Shen, Zhifei; Wu, Zengjiang; Zhang, Jun; Shen, Xiaoming; Li, Shenghui
Studies in adults suggested that sleep could be a significant contributor to mental health. However, little is known about their relationship in adolescents. The present study aimed to examine the overall associations of full-spectrum sleep behaviors, including sleep habits, sleep problems, and sleep hygiene, with mental health problems among adolescents in Shanghai, China. A stratified, cluster random sample of 4,823 adolescents aged 11 to 20 years participated in a cross-sectional survey. The Adolescent Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire and the modified Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale were used to examine sleep behaviors. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to evaluate mental health problems. Five sleep variables were found to be associated with adolescents' mental health. The five factors covered three sleep domains: sleep habits (later bedtime during weekdays), sleep problems (maintaining sleep difficulties, disorders of arousal), and sleep hygiene (poor emotion at bedtime, unstable sleep schedule). The clinical significance of the findings lies in the emphasis of comprehensive screening of sleep in the predicting, diagnosis, nursing, and intervention of adolescents' mental health problems.
Theophilus Ogochukwu Nwankwo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The menstrual practices of adolescents derive largely from health issues associated with their adjustment to reproductive life. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of pre-menarcheal training on the menstrual and hygiene practices of Nigerian school girls . METHODs: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of randomly selected post-menarcheal school girls using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was done. RESULTS: The mean age of the school girls was 14.9 years (+ or - 1.7 years. Pre-menarcheal training was given to 273 (55.2% of them. Mothers (74.7% were the more common source of information. Inappropriate experience of menarche, adverse effect of menstruation on schooling and social life and the use of unhygienic menstrual absorbents were common in girls who had no pre-menarcheal training than those who did. CONCLUSION: Lack of timely information results in inappropriate menstrual experiences and poor menstrual hygiene practices. Ways to promote menstrual education and hygiene practices are suggested.
McKittrick, T R; Jacobsen, K H
To examine the relationship between infrequent toothbrushing and infrequent handwashing among middle school students from 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay). A secondary analysis was done of nationally-representative data from 33 174 middle school students who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2006 and 2011. In all 15 countries, the association between rarely brushing or cleaning teeth and rarely handwashing after using the toilet was significant for both boys and girls. The pooled odds ratio for this association was 6.7 (5.8, 7.7). Healthcare providers who notice signs of poor dental hygiene or infrequent bathing in adolescents should consider providing comprehensive hygiene education to their patients, since infrequent oral and body hygiene behaviours tend to co-exist and both are threats to health.
Full Text Available For reasons of limiting the spread of serious transmissible diseases, with regard to the requirement for reducing landfill of biodegradable waste (which may or contains animal by-products and thus presents a potential risk to human and animal health and with a focus on supporting its separate collection, there has been created a legal framework for processing and hygienization of materials containing animal by-products. For the above reasons new technologies are being developed and implemented. These technologies are able to ensure the processing of biological waste containing animal by-products. As a practical result of the effort to ensure the hygienization of biowaste, a hygienization unit of own design, which uses the thermal way of hygienization, is presented in this work. The general part of the work defines a legislative framework for the assignment and gives technical parameters and minimum requirements for conversion that hygienization unit should be able to perform, including the limits for digestion residues and compost.In the experimental section there are described operational tests which document the technological process of hygienization depending on the aeration of the contents of the reactor. Experiment III outlines the validation process which uses contamination by indicator organisms, including subsequent checking of their occurrence as well as processing of the results of experiments and evaluation of the process of hygienization.
Fakhry, Morkos; Hanna, George B; Anderson, Oliver; Holmes, Alison; Nathwani, Dinesh
Multimodal interventions aim to improve health care workers' adherence to hand hygiene guidelines. Visitors are not primarily targeted, but may spread epidemic infections. Effective interventions that improve the adherence of visitors to hand hygiene guidelines are needed to prevent the transmission of epidemic infections to or from health care environments. An electronic motion sensor-triggered audible hand hygiene reminder was installed at hospital ward entrances. An 8-month preinterventional and postinterventional study was carried out to measure the adherence of hospital visitors and staff to hand hygiene guidelines. Overall hand hygiene adherence increased from 7.6% to 49.9% (P staff increased immediately from 10.6% to 63.7% and from 5.3% to 34.8%, respectively (P staff (P staff (P = .341). The electronic motion sensor-triggered audible reminder immediately and significantly improved and sustained greater adherence of hospital visitors and clinical staff to hand hygiene guidelines. This is an effective addition to multimodal hand hygiene interventions and may help control epidemic infections. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuruno, Noriko; Kasahara, Kei; Mikasa, Keiichi
The use of gloves for every patient contact (ie, universal gloving) has been suggested as an infection prevention adjunct and alternative to contact precautions. However, gloves may carry organisms unless they are changed properly. In addition, hand hygiene is required before donning and after removing gloves, and there are scarce data regarding glove changing and hand hygiene in a universal gloving setting. This nonrandomized observational before-after study evaluated the effect of education and feedback regarding hand hygiene. Compliance with hand hygiene and glove use was directly observed in a universal gloving setting at a 10-bed intensive care unit in a Japanese tertiary care university teaching hospital. A total of 6,050 hand hygiene opportunities were identified. Overall, hand hygiene compliance steadily increased from study period 1 (16.1%) to period 5 (56.8%), although there were indication-specific differences in the baseline compliance, the degree of improvement, and the reasons for noncompliance. There were decreases in the compliance with universal gloving and the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It is difficult to properly perform glove use and hand hygiene in a universal gloving setting, given its complexity. Direct observation with specific feedback and education may be effective in improving compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manomenidis, Georgios; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony
Health professional burnout has been associated with suboptimal care and reduced patient safety. However, the extent to which burnout influences hand hygiene compliance among health professionals has yet to be explored. The aim of the study was to examine whether job burnout reduces hand washing compliance among nursing staff. A diary study was conducted. Forty registered nurses working in a general city hospital in Thessaloniki, Greece, completed a questionnaire, while they were monitored for hand hygiene compliance following the World Health Organization protocol for hand hygiene assessment. Burnout was measured using validated items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data were collected from September to October 2015. Multiple regression analysis showed that controlling for years in practice, burnout was negatively associated with hand hygiene compliance (R = 0.322, F(3,36) = 5.704, P burnout were less likely to comply with hand hygiene opportunities (b = - 3.72, 95% confidence interval = -5.94 to -1.51). This study showed that burnout contributes to suboptimal care by reducing compliance to hand hygiene among nurses. Given the crucial role of hand hygiene compliance for the prevention of in-hospital infections, this study highlights the need for interventions targeting the prevention of burnout among nursing staff.
Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Harris, Muriel J; Newton, Samuel; Gulis, Gabriel
Hygiene education appears to be the commonest school-based intervention for preventing infectious diseases, especially in the developing world. Nevertheless, there remains a gap in literature regarding a school-specific theory-based framework for designing a hand hygiene educational intervention in schools. We sought to suggest a framework underpinned by psychosocial theories towards bridging this knowledge gap. Furthermore, we sought to propound a more comprehensive definition of hand hygiene which could guide the conceptualisation of hand hygiene interventions in varied settings. Literature search was guided by a standardized tool and literature was retrieved on the basis of a predetermined inclusion criteria. Databases consulted include PubMed, ERIC, and EBSCO host (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, etc.). Evidence bordering on a theoretical framework to aid the design of school-based hand hygiene educational interventions is summarized narratively. School-based hand hygiene educational interventions seeking to positively influence behavioural outcomes could consider enhancing psychosocial variables including behavioural capacity, attitudes and subjective norms (normative beliefs and motivation to comply). A framework underpinned by formalized psychosocial theories has relevance and could enhance the design of hand hygiene educational interventions, especially in schools.
Milward, P; Katechia, D; Morgan, M Z
Regular good denture hygiene by individuals with removable partial dentures (RPDs) is an important component of oral health and in the prevention of further dental problems. These individuals should be provided with advice on the importance of denture care and be aware of this information. To establish deficiencies in patient knowledge surrounding denture hygiene by RPD wearers. The study was undertaken as an audit. Data was collected from April 2012 to October 2012 via a questionnaire completed by 196 RPD wearers attending as patients at the University Dental Hospital Wales and the dental units at St David's Hospital and Cynon Valley Hospital. The audit criterion was patients with RPDs should have knowledge of denture hygiene, with the standard set at 100%. While 91.8% of participants stated they were provided with instructions on denture hygiene when provided with their current prosthesis, 60.2% were shown to have less than an appropriate level of denture cleanliness, with 9.2% reporting that they slept wearing their prosthesis. The audit criterion and standard set were not achieved. A lack of knowledge surrounding denture hygiene was demonstrated among participants. As a part of the audit process the health education of RPD wearers' hygiene needs to be improved and awareness levels of the whole dental team needs to be raised. All partial dentures should receive information and regular reinforcement of key dental hygiene messages.
Wassel, J R; Mauriello, S M; Weintraub, J A
Since the mid-1970s, the dental hygiene profession has experienced a decline in the number of applicants. Reasons cited for this decline are fewer traditional college-age students, an increase in the career opportunities available to women, and a decrease in student financial aid. Four-year dental hygiene programs have experienced applicant decline faster than two-year programs. The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influenced university freshmen to designate dental hygiene as a career choice. Factors examined included reasons for choosing or not choosing a career in dental hygiene, and retention in the college major chosen. A questionnaire was mailed to three groups of students who entered the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill as freshmen from 1985 through 1987: (1) all students who designated dental hygiene as a major on their entrance application; (2) a random sample who did not; and (3) all the freshman during that time period who subsequently matriculated into the dental hygiene program. The overall response rate was 78% (n = 80). Subjects began to explore career opportunities at a mean age of 16. Having a family member/friend in the selected field was found to be the most influential factor in career selection. Among dental hygiene students, contact with a dental hygienist was perceived to be influential in their career choice. Entering college freshmen exhibited a lack of knowledge about the dental hygiene profession, and most had not received any information about dental hygiene in high school. These findings can be used to develop recruitment strategies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand hygiene has evolved over the last decades and many terminologies emerged. We aimed to analyse the evolution in the frequency of utilization of key hand hygiene terms in the literature along the years. Methods We identified keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH used in MEDLINE® indexation related to hand hygiene by searching international guidelines and the MeSH database. We performed a MEDLINE® search combining the selected keywords and MeSH and analysed the number of publications retrieved yearly. Results The literature search yielded 9019 publications when all hand hygiene related search terms were combined, between 1921 and November 2016. The total number of publications per year increased from a median of 4 (IQR 3, 6 in the 1950’s to 554 (IQR 478, 583 between 2011 and 2015. The most frequently used keywords are hand disinfection, hand hygiene, hand washing, handrub, hand sanitizer and alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR. Until the 1990s, hand disinfection and hand washing were the most frequently used terms. Whilst the last decade has seen a remarkable increase in publications mentioning hand disinfection and hand hygiene and for the first time handrub, hand sanitizers and ABHR were introduced in the literature. Hand disinfection, hand hygiene and hand sanitizers are the main MeSH used by MEDLINE®. Since 2013 hand hygiene is the most frequently used MeSH and keyword. Conclusions The change seen in literature in the last two decades, from hand washing and hand disinfection to hand hygiene, most probably reflect the paradigm shift favouring use of ABHR over soap and water promoted by international guidelines in the early 2000s.
Full Text Available Introduction: Poor oral health can have a profound effect on the quality of life. The experience of pain, endurance of dental abscesses, problems with eating and chewing, embarrassment about the shape of teeth or about missing, discolored or damaged teeth can adversely affect people's daily lives and well-being. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral hygiene among college students in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered 21-item structured questionnaire that assessed oral health and hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 499 students from various professions. 202 engineering students, 99 MBA/BBM students, 99 nursing students, and 99 students from B.Com. The study was conducted during June and July 2013. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS version 14. All tests were set at a 0.05 significance level. Results: The toothbrush with toothpaste is the most common oral hygiene aid used for cleaning teeth, which was adopted by 304 (60.9% students. More than half 287 (57.5 of the students felt that dental caries affected their esthetics. 358 (71.7 students felt that the health of the mouth and dentition had an impact on the health of the body. Conclusion: The toothbrush with toothpaste is the most common oral hygiene aid used for cleaning teeth; it was observed that a greater number of students brushed their teeth in the morning. Dental pain was the main reason to visit a dentist.
Jacobs, Barbara B; Lazar, Ann A; Rowe, Dorothy J
To assess the instruction of pathology content in entry-level and advanced practitioner dental hygiene educational programs and the program directors' perceptions whether their graduates are adequately prepared to meet the increasingly complex medical and oral health needs of the public. A 28-question survey of instructional content and perceptions was developed and distributed using Qualtrics® software to the 340 directors of entry-level and advanced practitioner dental hygiene programs in the US. Respondents rated their level of agreement to a series of statements regarding their perceptions of graduates' preparation to perform particular dental hygiene services associated with pathology. Descriptive statistics for all 28 categorical survey questions were calculated and presented as the frequency (percentage). Of the 340 directors surveyed, 130 (38%) responded. Most entry-level respondents (53%) agreed or strongly agreed (29%) that their graduates were adequately prepared to meet the complex medical and oral health needs of the public, while all respondents of advanced practitioner programs strongly agreed. More respondents strongly agreed to statements related to clinical instruction than to didactic courses. While 64% of respondents agreed that their graduates were prepared to practice unsupervised, if it were legally allowed, 21% were ambivalent. The extent of pathology instruction in entry-level programs varied, but most used traditional formats of instruction, educational resources and assessments of educational outcomes. Advanced practitioner programs emphasized histological and clinical examination of oral lesions and patient case studies. Strengthening pathology instruction would ensure that future generations of dental hygienists would be adequately prepared to treat medically compromised patients. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Hand hygiene practices of home visiting community nurses: perceptions, compliance, techniques, and contextual factors of practice using the World Health Organization's "five moments for hand hygiene".
Felembam, Ohood; John, Winsome St; Shaban, Ramon Z
In this observational study, the perceptions, compliance, techniques, and contextual issues of hand hygiene practices among community clinicians (nurses) during 103 hand hygiene opportunities (based on the World Health Organization "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene") in 40 patient care episodes were examined. Compliance with standard hand hygiene practices was generally poor, with many contextual influences making compliance difficult. Clinician preferences and convenience are important considerations in hand hygiene compliance. Improving home-visiting community clinicians' hand hygiene practices requires addressing contextual issues related to the availability of hand hygiene equipment, such as alcohol-based hand rubs, as well as hand hygiene in-service education to update knowledge on hand hygiene for everyday practice in community settings.
Anderson, Maureen E C
Hand hygiene, contact precautions, and other basic infection control measures are crucial in veterinary clinics, because these facilities can be community mixing pots of animals and people with a wide range of health and disease-carrier states. Veterinary staff must be knowledgeable and well trained regarding when and how to apply situation-appropriate contact precautions and to properly perform hand hygiene. The limited information on the use of contact precautions and hand hygiene practices among veterinary staff suggests that compliance is low. Improving the infection control culture in clinics and in veterinary medicine is critical to achieving better compliance with these practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kocovski, Darko; Toneva, Verica; Dimova, Cena; Apostoloski, Pavle
Introduction: Oral hygiene is one of the most important measures for the preservation and promotion of oral health. Not proper maintenance of oral hygiene leads to create dental plaque. Dental plaque of the teeth and gums is the major cause of diseases of the tissues such as tooth decay, sensitivity of teeth and tooth necks, sore gums, gum recession, loosening of the teeth as a result of periodontitis. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the level of maintenance of oral hygiene am...
Izmerov, N F; Tikhonova, G I; Churanova, A N
The article covers history of establishment and development of social hygienic research in Industrial Medicine Research Institute with RAMSc over last 90 years. The materials deal with founders and leaders of Social Hygienic research laboratory in various periods, with history of occupational morbidity studies, with development and results of social hygienic studies, organization of occupational therapy service in Russia, studies concerning remote effects of occupational hazards through analytic epidemiology methods, with considerably restricted possibilities in studies of relationships (especially remote) between work conditions and workers' health nowadays due to implemented law on personal data and new approaches to evaluation of industrial hazards effects on health.
Barr, Nigel; Holmes, Mark; Roiko, Anne; Dunn, Peter; Lord, Bill
Noncompliance with recommended hand hygiene and gloving practices by workers in the emergency medical services may contribute to the transmission of health care-associated infections and lead to poor patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the self-reported behaviors and perceptions of Australian paramedics in relation to their hand hygiene and gloving practices in paramedic-led health care. A national online survey (n = 417; 17% response rate) and 2 semistructured focus groups (6 per group) were conducted with members of Paramedics Australasia. Although most of the study participants perceived hand hygiene and gloving to be important, the findings suggest poor compliance with both practices, particularly during emergency cases. All participants reported wearing gloves throughout a clinical case, changing them either at the completion of patient care or when visibly soiled or broken. Hand hygiene was missed at defined moments during patient care, possibly from the misuse of gloves. Paramedic hand hygiene and gloving practices require substantial improvement to lower potential transmission of pathogens and improve patient safety and clinical care. Further research is recommended to explore how to alleviate the barriers to performing in-field hand hygiene and the misuse of gloves during paramedic-led health care. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
White, Otto; Morris, Samuel; Cessario, Thomas R.; Baier, Edward; Brief, Richard; Corn, Morton; Ettinger, Harry; Fraser, David; Lippman, Morton; Sharkey, Andrew
Conclusions of a study group organized to assess the need for research and development of instrumentation for monitoring occupational exposures in the coal conversion and oil shale industries are reported. Research and development requirements for assessing potentially hazardous exposures are reviewed. Hazardous substances are classified in the following four categories: those which are immediately hazardous to life and health; high risk, but not immediately hazardous; moderate risk and not immediately hazardous; and short-term, nonroutine high hazards. Specific research recommendations are made in the following areas: personal monitors for gases; nitrogen compounds; aerosols; metals; fibers and dust; surface contamination; skin contamination; analytical development; industrial hygiene surveys;research; and, bioassays. (JGB)
Dmitrievskaia, S V; Istomin, A V; Korolev, A A; Lukicheva, L A; Nikitenko, E I
The present research was directed on study of an actual meal and status of nutrition of children in the age of from birth till 5 years living in Murmansk (region of Far North). 998 children were surveyed. At an estimation of an actual meal of children the data about breast feeding are received, the basic nutrients misbalance of structure of diets of children are established, and their reasons are analyzed. On the basis of the received data the regional recommendations for organization of a healthy meal in children's preschool establishments and program of hygienic training of the parents to skills of a balanced diet of children of early and junior age were developed.
Ushnickiy, I D; Terent'eva, Z V; Egorova, L I; Shirko, O I; Meloyan, A G
Comprehensive social and hygienic survey of 209 patients with mandible fracture was conducted. Their social features were: young adults, predominantly male, ethnicity mainly yakuts, temporarily unemployed, with secondary and post-secondary education and health behavior problems. The majority of jaw injuries were caused by household (26.21 ± 0.92%) and street traumas (63.03 ± 0.46%). High prevalence of major oral diseases depends strongly on the low sanitary culture, which had a negative impact on the development of posttraumatic complications.
Arai, Akie; Tanabe, Masaki; Nakamura, Akiko; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Muraki, Yuichi; Kaneko, Toshihiro; Kadowaki, Ayako; Ito, Masaaki
Our objectives were to evaluate the utility of electronic hand hygiene counting devices in outpatient settings and the impact of results feedback on physicians' hand hygiene behaviors. We installed 130 electronic hand hygiene counting devices in our redesigned outpatient department. We remotely monitored physicians' hand hygiene practices during outpatient examinations and calculated the adherence rate as follows: number of hand hygiene counts divided by the number of outpatients examined multiplied by 100. Physician individual adherence rates were also classified into 4 categories. Two hundred and eighty physicians from 28 clinical departments were monitored for 3 months. The overall hand hygiene adherence rate was 10.7% at baseline, which improved significantly after feedback to 18.2% in the third month. Of the clinical departments, 78.6% demonstrated significant improvement in hand hygiene compliance. The change in the percentage of physicians in each category before and after feedback were as follows: very low (84.3% to 72.1%), low (8.6% to 14.3%), moderate (2.9% to 8.9%), and high (4.3% to 4.6%), from the first to third month, respectively. Based on category assessment, 17.1% of physicians were classified as responders. Physicians' adherence to hand hygiene practices during outpatient examinations was successfully monitored remotely using electronic counting devices. Audit and feedback of adherence data may have a positive impact on physicians' hand hygiene compliance. Copyright Â© 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bilski, Bartosz; Marynowicz, Barbara
The aim of the study was to examine hygiene practices and risk factors for bloodborne infections in the selected staff of beauty parlors and hairdressing salons. In this study, 118 people (112 women and 6 men), aged 18-55 years, were surveyed. The majority of the respondents (76 people) fell within the 20-29 age group. Negligence in obeying some rules of work hygiene were found in the surveyed group of workers; at the same time most of the parlors and salons met legal requirements concerning sanitation and equipment hygiene. Of the total group of respondents, 53% of the staff employed in beauty parlors and hairdressing salons replied "Yes" to a question on incidents of sharp injuries during typical work activities over the last 2 years. The staff of hairdressing salons reported more accidents of this kind. It is necessary to teach this group of employees about hygiene and sanitary practices. The current state of affairs in this small, but quite representative occupational group shows considerable ignorance in this regard. As for sanitation and disease control, special attention must be paid to the constant observance of hygiene rules at work. In particular, hands should be kept clean, gloves should be worn and adequate microbiological cleanliness of tools should be ensured. Inspection services should pay particular attention to whether the rules of handling used materials, a potential source of infection, are obeyed by workers. The results of numerous studies show that a large majority of parlors and salons to cut their operating costs do not follow relevant regulations in force. Incidents of staff exposure to potentially infectious material are usually connected with mechanical skin injuries. Contact with mucous membranes is less frequent. It should be pointed out that employees failed to wear protective gloves during incidents of exposure to potentially infectious material. Scissors, the major tool used by the staff of hairdressing salons were most frequently the
Full Text Available The air is the most endangered component of the environment. The air pollution has not only got various economical and ecological consequences but also has various negative effects on human health, animals, plants and food hygiene. Elevated anthropogenic SO2 emissions can also have negative influences upon the environmental conditions, human health, and ecosystems. The most emissions come from industrial chimneys, heavy traffic emissions and population density. It is inevitable to monitor the state of the air pollution. Submitted work includes the summary of the sulphur dioxide pollution and its impact on the environment in the area of chemical factory Duslo Šaľa, Inc. Monitoring anthropic impacts help us to predict what requirements on space particular industry requires and how they act in the area. The basis of our evaluation was observing diversity monitoring and types of negative anthropogenic features in monitored area: concentrations of SO2 in air, real sources of air pollution from the vehicles and other mechanisms and real sources of air pollution from local town residential area sources.
Takahashi, Y; Yonekawa, Y; Kanada, K; Maeda, S
An infrasound experiment system has been constructed in order to investigate the effects of infrasound on human health from the point of view of industrial hygiene and to establish a method to assess it in working environments. Some measurements were carried out to evaluate the acoustic performance of the system in the low frequency sound range, including infrasound, and to clarify the points to be improved. As a result, it was found that the system had some weak points in the audible frequency range. They were considered to be caused by the large capacity of the test chamber, and some countermeasures were required. On the other hand, in the infrasound range, it appeared that the higher harmonics of infrasound possibly affected the experiments and some limitations might be found necessary. But the frequency response of the chamber and the spatial uniformity of the reproduced infrasound proved to be satisfactory for the experiments in this range. Consequently it was concluded that the system could contribute to the study of infrasound.
Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands and pieces of money from street food processing sites in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). N Barro, AR Bello, A Savadogo, CAT Ouattara, AJ Iiboudo, AS Traoré ...
Violet I. Haraszthy
Conclusions: Oral hygiene comprising toothbrushing and rinsing with a mouthwash containing 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride demonstrated greater reductions of dental plaque bacteria, improving gingival health, and eliminating supragingival plaque than toothbrushing alone.
Mann, Nancy K
This historical narrative highlights the origin and development of the dental hygiene profession in South Korea. The legacy of early American missionaries to Korea includes profound and long-lasting contributions in medicine, education and theology. Many of Korea's top universities today have their roots in the missionary schools of the late nineteenth century, including Yonsei University, home of the first dental hygiene program in Korea. From Yonsei in Seoul, the dental hygiene profession spread throughout the country, includingtheAmerican missionary-based program in Kwangju in 1977. Contributions included clinical and didactic education, as well as professional leadership and development. American dental missionaries developed the profession of dental hygiene in Korea, and provided guidance to Korean dentists and hygienists for its growth and expansion.
Turuchko, Ivan Ivanovych; Korshun, M.M.; Hubar, Inna Volodymyrivna
The sanitary and hygienic characteristics of industrial explosives and their components are considered, the types of combinations of harmful substances in the air of the working zone at different technological stages of manufacturing explosives
Attieh, Elie; Maalouf, Samer; Roumieh, Dina; Abdayem, Pamela; AbiTayeh, Georges; Kesrouani, Assaad
.... Consists of a cross-sectional observational study. Female patients and nurses at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital in Beirut- Lebanon filled a questionnaire about their intimate hygiene habits and knowledge of proper practices...
Bencko, V.; Šíma, Petr
Roč. 2, 6 March (2017), č. článku 1244. ISSN 2474-1663 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : allergy disorders * atopic disorders * hygiene hypothesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology
The status of hygiene and sanitation practice among rural model families of the Health Extension Program (HEP) in Wolayta and Kembata Tembaro Zones of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region of Ethiopia.
This paper analyses the views of 20 Japanese mothers concerning paediatric male circumcision and penile hygiene. In Japan, routine male circumcision has never been implemented for newborns and children, and adult males are mostly circumcised at aesthetic clinics. However, media reports indicate a trend of Japanese mothers willing to have their sons circumcised. In discussing penile hygiene and male circumcision, the construct of a 'sexual script' becomes relevant to understanding how linguistic and gender barriers made references to male genitalia and penile hygiene largely appear as 'vulgar' and 'unfeminine' in daily life conversations. Peers were often identified as the main source of information and only mothers who have struggled with their children's penile infections have learnt about male genital hygiene, a domain of knowledge largely transmitted by men. Male circumcision becomes a double-edged sword that could help prevent penile infections but also an embarrassing conversational topic that could elicit discrimination because most Japanese children are uncircumcised.
Bery, Renuka; Rosenbaum, Julia
"Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices are essential for maintaining health, yet most countries and donors have not included WASH in national policies and programmes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV...
Full Text Available Hygienic quality of raw milk is basic indicator of hygienic conditionduring processing and handling of milk as well as economical valorisation of animal product as a raw material in dairy products manufacture. Thus, total bacterial count in 1 mL of raw milk is used in modern legislation in milk pricing system. Apart from the economical and technological reasons hygienic quality of raw milk is also important from the health safety issue. In this paper microbiological quality legislation, set down by the EU and Croatian directives, are presented. Apart form the total microorganisms number the normative on the somatic cell number in row milk, as one of the quality indicators, are also presented. Pricing system of raw milk with regard to hygienic quality, current legislation especially from the point of view of a new legislation on row milk quality as well as suggestions to faster association into progressive dairy, legislation are listed.
Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.
Skin hygiene, particularly of the hands, is a primary mechanism for reducing contact and fecal-oral transmission of infectious agents. Widespread use of antimicrobial products has prompted concern about emergence of resistance to antiseptics and damage to the skin barrier associated with frequent washing. This article reviews evidence for the relationship between skin hygiene and infection, the effects of washing on skin integrity, and recommendations for skin care practices.
Dentith, Melanie; Shelmerdine, Tracey
When an audit of hand hygiene practice in an NHS trust revealed room for improvement, a strategy was developed to address the issue. An awareness week has been organised to launch the strategy and to take the message about the importance of hand hygiene to all hospital staff, patients and visitors in innovative and engaging ways. This article reports on the organisation of the awareness week.
McGuckin, M; Govednik, J
Multi-modal hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment are promoted as a necessary component of hand hygiene compliance. However, the question still remains, do we have enough information to determine if, and under what conditions, patients will be able to play an immediate role in healthcare workers' hand hygiene behaviour? To review the current literature on patient willingness to be empowered, barriers to empowerment, and hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment and hand hygiene improvement. A Medline (Ovid) search of all English-language papers for 1997-2007 and 2008-2012 was conducted using the following keywords alone and in various combinations: 'patient participation', 'involvement', 'empowerment', 'education', 'decision-making', 'professional-patient relations', 'behavioural change', 'culture of safety', 'social marketing', 'consumer awareness', 'leadership', 'institutional climate', 'hand hygiene' and 'patient reminders'. The 1997-2007 review was conducted as part of the World Health Organization's Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, and updated with the 2008-2012 review. Several studies show that, in principle, patients are willing to be empowered. However, there is variation in the actual number of patients that practice empowerment for hand hygiene, ranging from 5% to 80%. The actual performance of patient empowerment can be increased when a patient is given explicit permission by a healthcare worker. There is ongoing support from patients that they are willing to be empowered. There is a need to develop programmes that empower both healthcare workers and patients so that they become more comfortable in their roles. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maintaining healthy teeth and soft oral tissues for life is important. Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings can damage the soft oral tissues. This thesis investigates the safety of manual toothbrushes, interdental brushes and rubber bristles interdental cleaners by analysing the gingival abrasion score. The efficacy of the various oral hygiene devices is measured by the use of dental plaque scores and gingivitis scores. In addition, the prevalence, the short- and long-term effects and the ...
This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene. Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID). Date Released: 4/26/2010.
Rameswarapu, Rohin; K, Surendranath Sai; Valsangkar, Sameer
IntroductionHand hygiene, either by hand disinfection or hand washing remains to be most pivotal in controlling infection in healthcare settings. Simple preventive measures have been proven effective to contain infections. The exiguity on studies done in healthcare settings in India has galvanized us to undertake this study on hand hygiene assessment among nurses in a healthcare setting in IndiaMaterials and methodsA cross sectional study was done in one of leading organization in preventive ...
Lum, Tia; Picardo, Kristin; Westbay, Theresa; Barnello, Amber; Fine, Lynn; Lavigne, Jill
To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of adding a hand hygiene exercise in self-screening for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization to a health care delivery course for first-year pharmacy (P1) students. About one month after students were trained in hand hygiene technique and indications, faculty members demonstrated how to self-screen for MRSA nasal colonization. Students were then asked to screen themselves during the required class time. Aggregated class results were shared and compared to prevalence estimates for the general population and health care providers. The 71 students present in class on the day of the self-screening exercise chose to participate. A survey comparing presecreening and postscreening responses indicated incremental improvements in student knowledge and awareness of health care associated infections and motivation to perform hand hygiene. On the written exam, student performance demonstrated improved knowledge compared to previous class years. Self-screening for MRSA nasal colonization in a health care delivery course for P1 students increased students' motivation to perform hand hygiene techniques and follow indications promulgated by the World Health Organization.
Kamińska, Aneta; Szalewski, Leszek; Batkowska, Justyna; Wallner, Jan; Wallner, Eliza; Szabelska, Anna; Borowicz, Janusz
Dental caries is considered to be a modern civilization disease;however, the state of oral health negatively influences psychological and sociological relations in children which leads to feelings of discomfort from early age. The aim of study was evaluation of the association between incidence of dental caries (d3ft index) in preschool children from urban and rural areas, and determining the relationship between dental caries intensity and hygienic habits. 844 children aged 3-6 years from the city and the countryside were examined. The survey was conducted among parents/care givers regarding dental care of children. With parents' consent, the children had a dental examination. The incidence of caries was recorded at the level of 52.61%, with an average value of 4.31 on the d3ft index; however, for the children from the urban area this ratio amounted to 4.15, and in the countryside it reached the value of 4.7. A correlation was found between age and area of residence of the children and various components of hygienic behavior model. More than a half of the children had dental caries in combination with a high frequency of unsatisfactory hygiene needs. There is a relationship between oral hygiene habits and age of the children, depending on the place of residence.
Natto, Zuhair S; Aladmawy, Majdi; Rogers, Thomas C
The purpose of this article is to discuss the impact of the training program for predoctoral dental and hygiene students at Loma Linda University School of Dentistry (LLUSD) with regard to issues related to treating patients with a high risk of having HIV/AIDS. LLUSD offers a training program for fourth-year dental hygiene and predoctoral dental students that addresses the oral health care needs of persons with HIV disease. The training occurs in small groups 2 days per week at a community clinic serving HIV-positive individuals. Three academic quarters are required to train all fourth-year students each year. Evaluation of program effectiveness is conducted by means of pre- and post-session surveys. Dental hygiene and dental students completed the pre-survey during the spring quarter of their third year in public health dentistry courses. The same students completed the post-session survey at the end of their weekly training sessions during the fourth year. The overall change in all areas related to the students' comfort level in treating patients in the 3 defined categories is in a positive direction (p-valuehistory of blood transfusion in both student groups upon completion of the HIV and the Dentist training program at LLUSD. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Karon, Andrew J; Cronin, Aidan A; Cronk, Ryan; Hendrawan, Reza
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in schools are important for child health, development, and educational performance; yet coverage in Indonesian schools remains low. To address this deficiency, UNICEF and partners conducted a WASH intervention in 450 schools across three provinces in Indonesia. A survey evaluating the sustainability of infrastructure and behavioral interventions in comparison to control districts was conducted one year after completion of the intervention. The survey data were also compared with national government data to assess the suitability of government data to report progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Logistic regression was used to explore associations between WASH conditions and behaviors. Intervention schools were more likely to have handwashing stations with soap and water. In multivariable analyses, schools with a toilet operation and maintenance fund were more likely to have functional toilets. Students who learn hygiene skills from their teachers were less likely to defecate openly, more likely to share hygiene knowledge with their parents, and more likely to wash their hands. Survey data were comparable with government data, suggesting that Indonesian government monitoring may be a reliable source of data to measure progress on the SDGs. This research generates important policy and practice findings for scaling up and sustaining WASH in schools and may help improve WASH in schools programs in other low-resource contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Monsalve, Mauricio N; Pemmaraju, Sriram V; Thomas, Geb W; Herman, Ted; Segre, Alberto M; Polgreen, Philip M
To determine whether hand hygiene adherence is influenced by peer effects and, specifically, whether the presence and proximity of other healthcare workers has a positive effect on hand hygiene adherence. An observational study using a sensor network. A 20-bed medical intensive care unit at a large university hospital. Hospital staff assigned to the medical intensive care unit. We deployed a custom-built, automated, hand hygiene monitoring system that can (1) detect whether a healthcare worker has practiced hand hygiene on entering and exiting a patient's room and (2) estimate the location of other healthcare workers with respect to each healthcare worker exiting or entering a room. We identified a total of 47,694 in-room and out-of-room hand hygiene opportunities during the 10-day study period. When a worker was alone (no recent healthcare worker contacts), the observed adherence rate was 20.85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.78%-21.92%). In contrast, when other healthcare workers were present, observed adherence was 27.90% (95% CI, 27.48%-28.33%). This absolute increase was statistically significant (P hygiene rates. Furthermore, our results also indicate that rates increase as the social environment becomes more crowded, but with diminishing marginal returns.
Sie, Ingrid; Thorstad, Margrete; Andersen, Bjørg Marit
Nosocomial infections and transmission can be substantially reduced by good infection control. The laws and regulations for infection control in heath care institutions emphasize establishment of infection control programs and improved hand hygiene. Our study reviews some factors that are important for practicing adequate hand hygiene (knowledge about infection control and hand-washing facilities). Health care workers (HCW) in nursing homes in Oslo participated in this study in 2006-2007. A questionnaire was made and SPSS was used to analyse the data . 70.7% of 324 HCW (in 42 nursing homes) answered the questionnaires. Nearly all of the respondents (95.6%) knew about the written procedures for hygiene and infection control; 88.5% knew that an infection control program was in place and about 50% had received information through internal education. Three of four had read the National guidelines for hand hygiene, 77.5% thought that hand disinfection was more effective than hand washing, and 97% reported hand hygiene after contact with a patient having an infection. Dispensers for hand disinfection were situated at central work places. At the same time, 17.9% informed that they worked in more than one place at the same time. This study confirms that most nursing homes in Oslo have an infection control program and training that improves the knowledge and awareness of hand hygiene among HCWs. However, the fact that nursing homes in Oslo have the resources, knowledge and education, is not the same as compliance.
Scheithauer, S; Oude-Aost, J; Stollbrink-Peschgens, C; Haefner, H; Waitschies, B; Wagner, N; Lemmen, S W
Viral gastroenteritis is common on pediatric wards, increasing the need for adherence with hand hygiene recommendations in order to prevent cross-transmission. Therefore, we investigated hand hygiene reflecting complete work-day activities on pediatric wards and focused on the influence of viral gastroenteritis. There are, so far, no studies representing complete working days on pediatric wards or addressing the influence of viral gastroenteritis. This was a prospective, observational study (144 h in each group) on hand hygiene behavior in the care for children with and without suspected or proven viral gastroenteritis. We documented 40 and 30 hand hygiene opportunities per patient-day for ward-associated healthcare workers for children with and without viral gastroenteritis, respectively (P = 0.316). Healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene recommendations was significantly higher in children with viral gastroenteritis compared to those without, i.e., 72 versus 67% (P = 0.033), especially among physicians, being 92 versus 50% (P = 0.032). Compliance tended to be higher after patient contact than before, especially in the children with gastroenteritis (78 vs. 62%; P = 0.083). We conclude that viral gastroenteritis seemed to increase the number of daily opportunities for hand hygiene and did significantly increase compliance. In particular, this effect was seen after patient contact. Further research might address the awareness of undiagnosed transmissible diseases in order to prevent cross-transmissions.
Gould, D J; Drey, N S; Creedon, S
Infection prevention and control experts have expended valuable health service time developing and implementing tools to audit health workers' hand hygiene compliance by direct observation. Although described as the 'gold standard' approach to hand hygiene audit, this method is labour intensive and may be inaccurate unless performed by trained personnel who are regularly monitored to ensure quality control. New technological devices have been developed to generate 'real time' data, but the cost of installing them and using them during routine patient care has not been evaluated. Moreover, they do not provide as much information about the hand hygiene episode or the context in which hand hygiene has been performed as direct observation. Uptake of hand hygiene products offers an inexpensive alternative to direct observation. Although product uptake would not provide detailed information about the hand hygiene episode or local barriers to compliance, it could be used as a continuous monitoring tool. Regular inspection of the data by infection prevention and control teams and clinical staff would indicate when and where direct investigation of practice by direct observation and questioning of staff should be targeted by highly trained personnel to identify local problems and improve practice. Copyright © 2011 the Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Lippke, Sonia; Knoll, Nina; Blanca Moya, Emanuel; Schwarzer, Ralf
We examined a brief educational intervention addressing hand hygiene self-regulatory mechanisms, and evaluated which psychological mechanisms may lead to hand hygiene behaviours. Two hundred forty two students (mean age = 21 years, SD = 3.9) received either an experimental (n = 149) or a control condition on action control and planning (n = 93). Hand hygiene, coping planning, and action control were measured at baseline and six weeks later. By applying repeated measures ANOVA, we compared the experimental condition addressing planning to perform hand hygiene with a control condition. Additionally, working mechanisms were evaluated by means of mediation analysis. The intervention had an effect on action control, as reflected by a time by treatment interaction. The direct effect of the intervention on behaviour was, however, non-significant. Changes in action control led to changes in coping planning. These social-cognitive changes mediated the effect of intervention on behaviour, after controlling for gender, baseline behaviour, and classroom membership. In spite of the associations between the intervention and self-regulatory strategies, no direct effect was found of the intervention on behaviour. Further research on how to increase hand sanitizing, involving enviromental characteristics, is required. The intervention led only indirectly to an improvement of hand hygiene via changes in self-regulatory factors. Results indicate the importance of promoting action control and coping planning to initiate changes in hand hygienic behaviours.
Vania Arista Muljadi
Full Text Available Introduction: Parents knowledge related to oral health affects toothbrushing behavior in children. The habit of toothbrushing introduced to the children by their parents, and usually becomes child's habit that affects the application of toothbrushing and how to maintain good oral hygiene in the future. The purpose of this study was to know the description of parents knowledge about toothbrushing and the kindergarten students oral hygiene level. Methods: This study was conducted towards 25 students of Gymboree and Kidsville which consisted of 14 boys (56% and 11 girls (44%. The study design was cross sectional research. The data collection was done by giving questionnaires to parents and examination of student’s oral hygiene level by using PHP index. Results: Generally parents already have the good knowledge that supports the children oral hygiene level of children, but there were still 52% of parents who does not use the techniques recommended to brush the outer surface of the teeth and 64% of parents who does not use the techniques recommended to brush the tooth surface that close to the cheek. The oral hygiene level of Gymboree and Kidsville students were very good 0% (0, 32% good (0.1 -1.7, 60% medium (1.8 -3.4, and 8% bad (3.5-5.0. Conclusion: Awareness of parents about toothbrushing and oral hygiene level of children were generally adequate, but were not fulfilling the standards of oral health recommended by dentist.
Tanner, Susan; Chuquimia-Choque, Maria E; Huanca, Tomás; McDade, Thomas W; Leonard, William R; Reyes-García, Victoria
Social science has long recognized the importance of understanding how interactions between culture and behavior shape disease patterns, especially in resource-poor areas where individuals draw on multiple medical treatments to maintain health. While global health programs aimed at controlling high infection rates of soil-transmitted helminthes among indigenous groups often acknowledge the value of local culture, little research has been able to examine this value. This study investigates the association between parental ethnomedical knowledge, parental biomedical knowledge, and household sanitation behavior and childhood soil-transmitted helminth infections among a group of foragers-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon (Tsimane'). During 2007, a parasitological survey was completed for 329 children (≤ 16 years of age) from 109 households in combination with a comprehensive survey of both of the child's parents to assess biomedical and ethnomedical knowledge and household sanitary environment. Soil-transmitted helminthes were found to be common with 67% of sample positive for hookworm species. Indices that capture a household's relative state of risky and preventive hygienic behavior were significantly associated with risk of hookworm infection. Mother's but not father's ethnomedical knowledge was also negatively associated with a child's probability of being positive for hookworm infection. The effect was stronger for young children and boys. Like many rural populations, Tsimane' actively draw upon multiple medical systems to respond to health challenges. Integration into markets and national societies is likely to affect local medical systems by increasing the use of biomedicine as formal education prioritizes biomedical over ethnomedical systems. This study underscores the value of considering both ethnomedical knowledge systems and household hygiene in public health campaigns to treat and control soil-transmitted helminths. There is no question that providing
Reeves, L M; Priest, P C; Poore, M R
Clean hands play an important role in preventing infectious disease transmission. The physical quality of any toilet and handwashing facilities is an important determinant of whether and how it is used, especially for school children. This study assessed the physical quality of toilet and handwashing facilities used by 9 year olds at 68 primary schools in three cities in the South Island of New Zealand. The facilities were assessed for availability, functionality and provision of hand basins, hygiene products and drying facilities. Nineteen schools (28%) followed the New Zealand Ministry of Education Code of Practice for toilet and bathroom facilities in schools, by providing warm water, liquid soap at every basin and functioning hand drying facilities. A further 25 schools (37%) would have met the standards except they provided only cold water (21 schools) or the cloth roller towels were unusable (4 schools). The other 24 schools' toilet facilities were deficient in some way, including one with no soap and six that provided no drying facilities. School socioeconomic position and toilet facility quality were not related. These results suggest that a significant number of New Zealand children do not currently have access to high quality hygiene facilities at school.
Full Text Available The Institution for Special Education at the Faculty of Pedagogic of the University of Kaposvár has been engaged in animal assisted activities for about three years. Our most recent research program was conducted for over two month in the Spring of 2014 with the involvement of 66 children - all kindergarten and elementary school age -, 11 special educators, physicians, psychologists, special educators, teachers, ethologists. The primary focus of our research was the development (and examination of memory however observations with ethological and mental hygiene angles were a natural segment of our work. A significant part of the observations pointed to factors that both the children and their educators have experienced: the acceptance of each-other, an increased level of tolerance, an increased attention level towards the partner (human and animal. The teachers gave account of their respective observations in a small conference at the end of the last school year. Researches were offered a glimpse into the unique world of the relationship between a part of “living nature” - the pygmy rabbit in our case - and humans. During the 12 sessions of the training our colleagues have made observations that could serve as basis for a new system of paradigms of animal assisted pedagogics in the future. Our experience can also be re-considered with aspects of remedial pedagogics: we are convinced that animal assistance can become an accentuated part of the care of children and students with impairments. This is also implied by the fact that preparatory works for the continuation of this research at a kindergarten and at a school are already in progress.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine microbial contamination of mutton carcass surface with regard to the number of the slaughtered animals. The total bacterial load and Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci counts were determined. Sampling for microbiological analysis as well as detection and enumeration of each microorganism group were performed according to the Polish Standards. No significant effect of the order of the slaughtering animals during the slaughter day on total bacterial count on mutton carcass surfaces was found. The overall bacterial contamination of mutton carcasses were between 1.0 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.0 log - stage I and 2.5 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.4 log - stage III. No significant difference among the slaughter cycles, as indicated by total microbial numbers was observed. The obtained daily mean log values ranged from 4.7 × 102 (2.67 log and 7.6 × 103 (3.88 log cfu/cm2. The daily log mean values were lower than the maximal bacteria count (M set out for hygiene standard of sheep slaughter process by the Commission Regulation 2073/2005. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were recovered from 21 (65.6% samples while enterococci were identified in 28 (87.5% samples. In most cases, significant differences in the level of contamination with bacteria isolated from the carcasses at each stage of a daily slaughter cycle, were not observed. At stage III, significantly higher levels of bacterial contamination (0.86 and 1.31 log cfu/cm2 respectively were established as compared to stage I (0.37 and 0.58 log cfu/cm2 respectively. There were no Salmonella-positive samples determined. Importantly, the number of slaughtered animals during a slaughter day did not influence bacterial contamination on carcass surface if the successful application of HACCP control system was combined with the implementation of optimal sanitary supervision.
Henry, Rachel K; Gibson-Howell, Joan
Research has shown that Millennial students are different than students in previous generations. This study compares the expectations of the didactic environment of faculty and students in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Expectations of faculty and students were examined, and comparisons between Millennial and non-Millennial students and faculty were made in order to improve the educational experience of dental hygiene students. Students and faculty completed a survey adapted from McCargar's role expectations survey. Items were chosen from the survey to cover such areas as technology, group work and authority. The survey consisted of a Likert-type scale including strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. Data was entered into SPSS 15.0 database. Scoring on negative questions was reversed so that the score would be positive. Individual answers are given the following scoring assignments: Strongly Agree (+2), Agree (+1), Neutral (0), Disagree (-1) and Strongly Disagree (-2). Scores were added together to create a summative score for each item. Descriptive statistics and an unpaired t-test comparing responses were used to analyze data. Cronbach's alpha was run to measure the internal consistency of the instrument. Twelve faculty and 94 students returned surveys. Students felt strongly that copies of course notes should be available online and faculty should return emails within 24 hours. Statistically significant differences in the expectations of Millennial and non-Millennial students were found in regards to issues of authority, community service, attendance and evaluation. The majority of significant differences were found between Millennial students and faculty. Significant differences were found in interaction, community service, technology and homework. Faculty should examine the expectations of their students and should use the findings to create learning experiences that are more effective for students. Expectations change with
Hagel, Stefan; Reischke, Jana; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Winning, Johannes; Gastmeier, Petra; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Scherag, André; Pletz, Mathias W
To quantify the Hawthorne effect of hand hygiene performance among healthcare workers using direct observation. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit, university hospital. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance over 48 audits of 2 hours each. Simultaneously, hand hygiene events (HHEs) were recorded using electronic alcohol-based handrub dispensers. Directly observed and electronically recorded HHEs during the 2 hours of direct observation were compared using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots. To quantify the Hawthorne effect, we compared the number of electronically recorded HHEs during the direct observation periods with the re-scaled electronically recorded HHEs in the 6 remaining hours of the 8-hour working shift. A total of 3,978 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed during the 96 hours of direct observation. Hand hygiene compliance was 51% (95% CI, 49%-53%). There was a strong positive correlation between directly observed compliance and electronically recorded HHEs (ρ=0.68 [95% CI, 0.49-0.81], Phand hygiene performance.
Verena Widya Pertiwi
Full Text Available Abstract - Application of hygiene and sanitation in Hilton Hotel Bandung is important thing to note in the process of implementation. This is done to prevent food contamination of food that cab be caused by several factors such as, human, work area, kitchen utensil, material strorage systems and product. Because of this determination of standarts personal hygiene, area and utensil must be done correcly so that each product is safe for consumption. Authors on the basis of these issues are very keen to examine and make a final project with the title “application of hygiene and sanitation in the Hilton Hotel Bandung”. Research carried out by several methode of observation, interview and the latter is the study of documents. The research was conducted at the Hilton Hotel Bandung, for 6 months. The study was conducted as one of the requiremants for the final session of college exams Bina Sarana Informatika university Bandung. Based on the result of research and discussion conducted, authors concluded that the presence of load application staandard of hygiene and sanitation in hotel can improve the standard of health, hygiene and quality of a product when it is done in accordance with existing procedures. Key word : Hygiene and sanitation pastry hotel. Abstraksi - Penerapan hygiene dan sanitasi di Hotel Hilton Bandung merupakan upaya penting yang harus diperhatikan dalam proses pelaksanannya. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mencegah terjadinya kontaminasi makanan yang dapat disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor seperti manusia, area kerja, peralatan, sistem penyimpanan bahan dan produk. Penentuan standar kebersihan personal, area kerja maupun peralatan harus dilakukan dengan tepat dan benar agar setiap produk yang dihasilkan oleh bagian pastry hotel aman untuk dikonsumsi. Atas dasar persoalan di atas penulis sangat tertarik untuk menelitinya dan membuat tugas akhir dengan judul “ Penerapan Hygiene dan Sanitasi di Hotel Hilton Bandung ”. Metode penelitian
Kingston, L M; Slevin, B L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P
Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection prevention and control practices, and reduces healthcare-associated infections significantly. However, international evidence suggests that medical doctors demonstrate poor compliance. To explore and compare practices and attitudes towards hand hygiene, particularly hand rubbing using alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), among hospital-based physicians in Ireland between 2007 and 2015. In 2007, a random sample of doctors in a large teaching hospital was invited to complete a postal survey using a validated questionnaire. In 2015, the study was replicated among all doctors employed in a university hospital group, including the setting of the original study, using an online survey. Data were analysed using SPSS and Survey Monkey. Predominately positive and improving attitudes and practices were found, with 86% of doctors compliant with hand hygiene before patient contact in 2015, compared with 58% in 2007. Ninety-one percent of doctors were compliant after patient contact in 2015, compared with 76% in 2007. In 2015, only 39% of respondents reported that they 'almost always' used ABHR for hand hygiene. However, this represents 13.5% more than in 2007. Stated barriers to use of ABHR included dermatological issues, poor acceptance, tolerance and poor availability of ABHR products. Greater awareness of hand hygiene guidelines and greater governance appear to have had a positive impact on practice. However, despite this, practice remains suboptimal and there is scope for substantial improvement. Continued and sustained efforts are required in order to build on progress achieved since the World Health Organization hand hygiene guidelines were published in 2009. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rai, Herleen; Knighton, Shanina; Zabarsky, Trina F; Donskey, Curtis J
We conducted a randomized trial of a simple educational intervention encouraging patients to perform hand hygiene at 5 specific moments, including on entry of health care personnel into their room as a reminder of the importance of hand hygiene. The intervention resulted in a significant increase in patient hand hygiene. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja
The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Galland, Barbara C; Gray, Andrew R; Penno, Jonathan; Smith, Claire; Lobb, Carmen; Taylor, Rachael W
To examine, in a nationwide sample of New Zealand adolescents, self-reported sleep hygiene, and specifically evening technology and caffeine use, and body mass index, in relation to sleep quality. Cross-sectional survey. A total of 692 adolescents (59% girls), predominantly European (78%), with an average age of 16 years 9 months were recruited through schools, community advertising, and social media. All participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale online, and questions about their height, weight, evening technology use, and caffeine consumption. Fifty-six percent of adolescents had poor sleep quality with a higher prevalence in girls (63.1%) than in boys (44.5%), and sleep hygiene (Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale) was significantly worse in girls. Caffeine after dinner was associated with increased adjusted odds of a poorer score for Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-evaluated daytime dysfunction (P=.002). A higher proportion of girls drank hot caffeinated drinks (51.8%) after dinner than did boys (38.1%), and although more boys (12.1% vs 9.2%) drank energy drinks, the difference was not significant. A 1-hour increase in evening technology time increased the odds of poor sleep efficiency by 20% (P=.04). A 1-zscore increase in body mass index resulted in a 38% higher adjusted odds of poor sleep efficiency (P=.015) and 21% higher adjusted odds of long sleep latency (P=.032). The findings highlight gender differences in sleep quality and some presleep behaviors of New Zealand youth, and support the role for good sleep hygiene practices to promote healthy sleep in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: In India, teachers play an important role in providing long-term health education and changes in behavior. Aim: To assess the relationship among the oral health status, oral hygiene practices, and habits of primary and middle school teachers in Mangalore city. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was carried out for 1½ months on 241 primary and middle school teachers in Mangalore city. Oral hygiene practices and habits were assessed using a questionnaire. The oral health status of the teachers was examined using simplified oral hygiene index, gingival index, and caries experience was scored using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were done. P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: A total of 241 school teachers were included in the study. The majority of the males and females were in the age group of 30-39 years and 40-49 years, respectively. The increase in the gingival score in subjects was not statistically significant with the use of indigenous methods along with the brush. With respect to caries experience and oral hygiene practices, as the frequency of brushing increase, there was a decrease in the number of decayed and missing teeth and increase in the number of filled teeth (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight the importance of proper oral hygiene habits and its relationship of oral health status and recommend the continuous implementation of school-based programs to promote the oral health.
Tabor, Milkiyas; Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh
Lack of safe drinking water, basic sanitation, and hygienic practices are associated with high morbidity and mortality from excreta related diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking water and investigate the hygiene and sanitation practices of the consumers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A cross sectional prospective study was conducted in Bahir Dar City from October-December, 2009. Water samples were collected from 35 private taps and 35 household water containers for bacteriological analysis. The turbidity, pH, temperature and turbidity were measured immediately after collection. Finally, the hygiene-sanitation practices of the consumers were surveyed using interview. Twenty seven (77.1%) of the household water samples had high total coliforms counts. Twenty (57.1%) household water samples and 9 (25.7%) of the tap water samples had no residual free chlorine. Sixteen (45.7%) household water samples had very high risk score to thermotolerant coliforms. Eight (22.9%) tap water samples had low risk score for total coliforms whereas 21(60%) tap water had very low risk score for thermotolerant coliforms. Twelve (34.3%) of the consumers collect water without contact with their hand and 9(25.7%) wash their hands with soap after visiting toilet. Water supplies at tap and household water containers were contaminated with bacteria. Poor sanitation, low level of hygiene, uncontrolled treatment parameters are the causes for contamination. Control of physico-chemical parameters and promoting good hygiene and sanitation are recommended.
Wood, Donna F; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando; Holt, Lorie A; Branson, Bonnie G
The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges related to formal clinical remediation in dental hygiene programs, which include timing of student identification, policy development, and the issues of methodology and scheduling. A 23 item investigator-designed survey was electronically distributed to all 303 U.S. entry-level dental hygiene program directors. This questionnaire included 23 forced-choice questions with the options to add comments to 8 of the questions. A total of 111 surveys were returned yielding a response rate of 36%. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square analyses were utilized to analyze relationships between responses and the degree earned from the dental hygiene program. All schools reported having a remediation policy; however, 13.6% of the respondents revealed this information was not readily available to students. The majority of respondents (67.8%) reported identifying students with clinical deficiencies in the preclinical semester, and 15.5% identified students in the second year, second clinical semester. Instrumentation technique was identified as the area in greatest need of remediation (81%), followed by critical thinking and problem solving skills (12%). Coordination of faculty and student schedules to conduct remediation was identified as one of the greatest challenges by respondents (25.2%). Results of this study suggest that challenges exist with the process of remediation. Some of these challenges include involving the student in remedial plan development, the academic consequences associated with remediation and scheduling time and space for remedial activities. These findings indicate that respondents are well aware of the need for remediation policies in dental hygiene programs. The point in time varies when students in need of remediation are identified. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted to determine the reasons for this difference. Some reasons may include inability to grasp the foundational skills and
ABSTRAC'f: A survey was conducted among 200 school children in llala district. The average age of the children was 12 years. The schools were chosen from the city centre namely Kisarawe and Mnazi. Mmoja Primary Schools. Prevalence of caries and periodontal condi- tions was studied. The diagnostic cr:teria used.
Curtis, Valerie A
Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of disgust. Intuition about hygiene, dirt and disease can be found underlying belief about health and disease throughout history. Purification ritual, miasma, contagion, zymotic and germ theories of disease are ideas that spread through society because they are intuitively attractive, because they are supported by evidence either from direct experience or from authoritative report and because they are consistent with existing beliefs. In contrast to much historical and anthropological assertion, I argue that hygiene behaviour and disgust predate culture and so cannot fully be explained as its product. The history of ideas about disease thus is neither entirely socially constructed nor an "heroic progress" of scientists leading the ignorant into the light. As an animal behaviour the proper domain of hygiene is biology, and without this perspective attempts at explanation are incomplete. The approaches of biological anthropology have much to offer the practice of cultural history.
Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Agbaje, Hakeem Olatunde; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji; Oziegbe, Elizabeth Obhioneh; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Oshomoji, Olusegun Victor
Objectives Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child’s socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression. Results The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2) years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80), mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30) while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73). Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58–2.81) but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34–1.01) insignificantly. Conclusions Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking. PMID:26890262
Coke, Lola; Otten, Karine; Staffileno, Beth; Minarich, Laura; Nowiszewski, Candice
Oral hygiene is inconsistent among patients with cancer and is a national patient care issue. To promote comfort and nutritional status, oral hygiene for patients with cancer is important. The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based oral hygiene educational module (EM) for nursing and patient care technician (PCT) staff to promote consistent oral hygiene patient education; evaluate patient understanding of oral hygiene practices post-EM; and determine staff documentation frequency of oral hygiene care. Pre- and post-EM data were collected using a developed oral hygiene assessment tool; nursing documentation data were collected by chart review. Post-EM data were collected eight weeks post-EM. Data were analyzed using frequencies and the Mann-Whitney U test. Twenty-two patient documentation pairs were collected. Compared to pre-EM, admission teaching, patient education, and patient oral hygiene practices improved post-EM. Post-EM oral hygiene documentation and PCT teaching increased.
Martin, U; Behler, R; Bock-Hensley, O; Boschek, H J; Fobbe, E; Gardemann, J; Groschopp, C; Hingmann, G; Istas, H; Weber, D; Wegerhof, P
New German legislative ordinances prescribe hygiene control in nursing homes and homes for the aged, e. g. the Law for Protection against Infectious Diseases and in North-Rhine Westphalia the Public Health Law. However, there are as yet no clearly defined standards of hygiene because the special features of nursing homes must be considered when applying the "Guidelines for Hospital Hygiene and Prevention of Infections" issued by the Robert Koch Institute. Hence, specific recommendations are given for hygiene of the hands, disinfection, hygienic treatment care, protective and professional clothing, washing of textiles, central kitchen, disposal of waste, house cleaning and handling of drugs and medicines.
Istenes, Nancy; Bingham, James; Hazelett, Susan; Fleming, Eileen; Kirk, Jane
Transmission of health care-associated infections (HAIs) has been primarily attributed to health care workers, and hand hygiene is considered the most important means to reduce transmission. Whereas hand hygiene research has focused on reducing health care worker hand contamination and improving hand hygiene compliance, contamination of patients' hands and their role in the transmission of HAIs remains unknown. Patients' hands were sampled by a "glove juice" recovery method and enumerated for the presence of common health care-associated pathogens. Patient demographics and other covariates were collected to determine their association with patient hand contamination. Patient attitudes and practices toward hand hygiene were also surveyed and analyzed. Of the 100 patients in the study, 39% of hands were contaminated with at least 1 pathogenic organism, and 8% were contaminated with 2 or more pathogens 48 hours after admission. Patient admission from or discharge to an outside institution and self-reported functional limitations were the only covariates that were significantly associated with hand contamination. Pathogenic organisms can be frequently detected on hands of acute care patients. Future studies are needed to better understand the relationship between patient hand contamination and the acquisition of HAIs in addition to the role patient hand hygiene can play in reducing HAIs. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Stenberg, Anna; Macdonald, Clare; Hunter, Paul R
To assess whether domestic kitchen hygiene is an important contributor to the development of diarrhoea in the developed world. Electronic searches were carried out in October 2006 in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane central register of clinical trials and CINAHL. All publications, irrespective of study design, assessing food hygiene practices with an outcome measure of diarrhoea were included in the review. All included studies underwent data extraction and the data was subsequently analysed. The analysis was conducted by qualitative synthesis of the results. Given the substantial heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures meta-analysis was not done. In addition the existing dataset of the UK IID study was reanalysed to investigate possible associations between self-reported diarrhoea and variables indicative of poor domestic kitchen hygiene Some 14 studies were finally included in subsequent analyses. Of the 14 studies included in this systematic review, 11 were case-control studies, 2 cross-sectional surveys, and 1 RCT. Very few studies identified any significant association with good environmental kitchen hygiene. Although some of the variables in the reanalysis of the UK IID study were statistically significant no obvious trend was seen. The balance of the available evidence does not support the hypothesis that poor domestic kitchen hygiene practices are important risk factors for diarrhoeal disease in developed countries.
Amin, T T; Al-Abad, B M
To assess the frequency of consumption of cariogenic foods, oral hygiene practices and dental health knowledge among Saudi male primary school children in relation to socio-demographics and to find the possible predictors for dental caries among them. The cross-sectional descriptive study included 1115 Saudi male selected by multistage random sample from 18 public primary schools. Subjects were interviewed by closed ended questionnaire gathering data regarding frequency consumption of some cariogenic foods, oral hygiene practices and dental health knowledge. Students were submitted to dental screening to detect the clinically evident caries lesion. The clinically decayed tooth was diagnosed in 68.9% of the included children, more in urban and younger students. Caries affected the subjects consumed cariogenic foods at greater frequency compared with caries-free children. Only 24.5% of the students brushed their teeth twice or more per day, and 29% of them never received instructions regarding oral hygiene practices. Miswak as an alternative and/or additional method of dental cleaning was used by 44.6%. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that maternal working conditions, large family size and poor oral hygiene practices were the chief predictors for dental caries among the included school children. The poor oral hygiene practices, lack of parental guidance and appropriate dental health knowledge with frequent exposure to cariogenic foods in addition to socio-demographics are the main risk factors for dental decay among the surveyed students.
Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Meranda, David; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Zabarsky, Trina F; McKee, Melissa; Macinga, David R; Donskey, Curtis J
One strategy to promote improved hand hygiene is to monitor health care workers' adherence to recommended practices and give feedback. For feasibility of monitoring, many health care facilities assess hand hygiene practices on room entry and exit (wash in-wash out). It is not known if the wash in-wash out method is comparable with a more comprehensive approach, such as the World Health Organization's My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method. During a 1-month period, a surreptitious observer monitored hand hygiene compliance simultaneously using the wash in-wash out and My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene methods. For 283 health care worker room entries, the methods resulted in similar rates of hand hygiene compliance (70% vs 72%, respectively). The wash in-wash out method required 148 hand hygiene events not required by the My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method (ie, before and after room entry with no patient or environmental contact) while not providing monitoring for 89 hand hygiene opportunities in patient rooms. The monitoring methods resulted in similar overall rates of hand hygiene compliance. Use of the wash in-wash out method should include ongoing education and intermittent assessment of hand hygiene before clean procedures and after body fluid exposure in patient rooms. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu
Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.
Rayman, Salim; Almas, Khalid
The aim of this paper is to highlight the need to integrate cultural care into dental hygiene practice. Culture can be better understood through the concepts, beliefs, and norms of the culturally diverse population of the United States. It is important to understand cultural perceptions of oral health in order to manage transcultural barriers that may arise during the utilization of oral healthcare services. It is assumed cultural competence can only be achieved through the knowledge of various cultural backgrounds in an extremely diverse US population. There is a need to integrate cultural awareness, knowledge, identification, and respect into the dental hygiene curriculum through the incorporation of competencies and standards associated with dental hygiene practice. Future dental hygienists should be culturally competent to render oral care to an ever expanding and diversified US population.
Nicol, P W; Watkins, R E; Donovan, R J; Wynaden, D; Cadwallader, H
In recent years, explicit behavioural theories have been used in some research into hand hygiene behaviour. One of the most prominent of these has been the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). In this qualitative study aimed at increasing understanding of infection prevention practice in the acute care setting, TPB was identified as a suitable framework for the emergence of new insights that have the potential to improve the power of existing education and training. The theory emerging from the research was based on a finding that individual experience is of greater import than formal education in explaining hand hygiene behaviour. This indicated that exposure to vivid vicarious experience is a potential means to improving the power of existing training methods and increasing the propensity for instilling sustainable adequate hand hygiene habits.
Harnacke, Daniela; Beldoch, Magdalena; Bohn, Gertrude-Heidi; Seghaoui, Ouarda; Hegel, Nicole; Deinzer, Renate
This randomized, evaluator-masked, controlled study evaluates the effectiveness of oral in contrast to written instruction of oral hygiene. Eighty-three students without clinical signs of periodontitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of three experimental conditions: 1) written instruction, 2) standardized oral instruction, or 3) individualized oral instruction. Plaque and bleeding indices were assessed to analyze intervention effects on oral health and oral hygiene skills. Measurements took place at baseline and 4 weeks after intervention. Groups differed significantly with respect to gingival bleeding and were tentatively significant with respect to oral hygiene skills. Participants who had received oral individualized instructions showed the best results. A gradient of effectiveness of the instruction methods was observed with most favorable results for the individualized instruction.
Non-pharmacological measures are recommended prior to use of hypnotics in the latest NICE guidance. This study investigated if non-pharmacological measures are utilised prior to hypnotic prescribing in a general adult psychiatry outpatient setting, and further reviewed patient\\'s sleep quality following implementation of sleep hygiene education. Interviews were conducted with 85 patients, and poor adherence with NICE guidance was found among the 74 (87%) patients previously prescribed a hypnotic. Just five (6.8%) patients recalled use of non-pharmacological measures prior to hypnotic prescription, 47 (63.5%) indicated non-pharmacological measures had not been discussed, while a further 22 (29.7%) could not remember. Improvement in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores following implementation of sleep hygiene education was also noted (P = 0.03). These findings suggest that increased awareness of sleep hygiene education for clinicians may be beneficial.
Full Text Available An increasing number of small-scale goat breeders produce goat's milk cheese that is sold on markets. In this study we determined the chemical composition and microbiological quality of goat's milk cheese samples. It has been found that the chemical composition of the samples were not standardised. Water content varied from 42,20 to 51,20 %, milk fat content in dry matter from 32,85 to 50,28%, while acidity varied from 15,08 to 39,36 ºSH. Only two samples (20% met the microbiological standards. In 2 samples Escherichia coli in the quantities larger than 102/g was found, whereas in all 8 samples yeasts and moulds were found in quantities larger than 102/g. The results of our study have shown that the hygienic conditions of goat's milk cheese production are often inadequate. Also, the hygienic conditions of goat keeping and milking hygiene are questionable.
Möse, J R; Mascher, F; Pichler-Semmelrock, F; Köck, M; Reinthaler, F F
In the course of the bathing season of 1989, investigations of bathing waters were carried out in two-week intervals. From the point of view of public health, the chemical-physical and microbiological results do not suggest objections against bathing at the beach areas investigated (Grado, Lignano). However, these favorable results do not imply intact ecological conditions. National and international standards are designed for humans and allow only very limited conclusions about the living conditions of the marine ecosystem. This also means that ecological investigations are not sufficient to permit conclusions about hygienic conditions. In spite of this seeming contradiction, hygienic and ecological concerns are clearly identical. Hygienic measures must not be limited to local "cosmetic" corrections but must target foremost unfavorable basic conditions.
Møller-Sørensen, H; Korshin, A; Mogensen, T; Høiby, N
The risks to patients from pathogens present on healthcare workers' (HCWs') hands are high; however, compliance with hand hygiene among HCWs is low. We devised a prospective intervention trial of a new hand-hygiene dispensing technology to improve HCWs' compliance with hand hygiene. Baseline hand-hygiene compliance was observed for three months before and after an intervention consisting of implementation of an electronic device that reminds people to comply with hand hygiene after restroom visits. Compliance in hand-hygiene performance after restroom visits increased among HCWs from 66% to 91% after the intervention. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Piras, Susan E; Lauderdale, Jana; Minnick, Ann
To describe critical care nurses' hand hygiene attitudinal, normative referent, and control beliefs. Hand hygiene is the primary strategy to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Social influence is an underdeveloped hand hygiene strategy. This qualitative descriptive study was conducted with 25 ICU nurses in the southeastern United States. Data were collected using the Nurses' Salient Belief Instrument. Thematic analysis generated four themes: Hand Hygiene is Protective; Nurses look to Nurses; Time-related Concerns; and Convenience is Essential. Nurses look to nurses as hand hygiene referents and believe hand hygiene is a protective behaviour that requires time and functional equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salati, Sajad Ahmad; Al Kadi, Azzam
Objective. The study was conducted to study the impact of various measures instituted to improve hand hygiene practices of the medical students after having documented poor hand hygiene awareness and compliance in a study conducted in 2012. Methods. A self-designed questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" was used to evaluate the awareness of the indications of hand hygiene. Compliance was observed during Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) sessions. Fifty-one students participated voluntarily in the study. Results. The awareness and compliance of hand hygiene among the medical students in 2014 had shown statistically significant improvement (P hand hygiene practices in medical students.
Full Text Available Active participation of the girl child in development is hampered by Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM challenges. MHM is an important gender issue and a critical component in holistic human development. It affects about 25% of the global population aged between 15 and 49 years. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions in schools have not prioritised MHM, thus exposing girls and the entire school community to health related hazards. The study explored knowledge, attitudes and community practices, and investigated the impact of religious and cultural beliefs on MHM and how they impact on the girl child in Masvingo district. The survey was largely qualitative and employed methodologies of document analysis, Focus Group Discussions (FGD and structured interviews. Participants included four churches, 13 NGOs, eight government departments and 40 women. Findings revealed deeply embedded power relations, a culture of silence around MHM, noninvolvement of men in MHM issues, limited availability in terms of information, and a girl unfriendly infrastructure, and limited access to menstrual hygiene products due to poverty and poor management and disposal practices. Resultant effects ranged from poor class participation, lack of concentration and constrained interactions with peers and teachers, low self-esteem, anxiety and the general feeling of being discriminated against. Results confirmed the need for increased awareness initiatives on MHM in a bid to tackle inherent religious and cultural beliefs that are a barrier to effective holistic implementation of WASH interventions that empower women and girls. Lobbying government to provide an appropriate policy framework, education and training, construction of girl friendly sanitary facilities, exploring and capitalisation of local production of Reusable Menstrual Pads (RUMPS, more research targeting children living with disabilities, those living in refugee and makeshift camps and Orphans and
Niniek L. Pratiwi
Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, the National Health Survey by Department of Health year 2001 showed that about 70% of people 10 years old and aboved had dental impairment. The dental impairment for persons aged 12 years old reached 43.9%, for people aged 15 years old reached 37.4%, for people aged 18 years old reached 51.1%, for people aged 35-44 years old reached 80.1%, and for people aged 65 years old and aboved reached 96.7%. Methods: Data were based on the Riskesdas year 2007 data. The dependent variables were DMFT index, data in ordinal scales. The independent variables were oral hygiene behaviors, socioeconomic factors, smoking habits, access to health facilities data in nominal scales. Multivariate analysis was done by ordinal regression. Results: Results indicated that the oral hygiene behaviors; socioeconomic factors: age, household expenditure per capita, smoking and access to health facilities: duration of time to health facilities were significantly associated to DMFT index. Meanwhile the distance to health facilities was not significantly associated to the DMFT index, p = 0.777. Recommendation: Health education is important to enhance the awareness brushing teeth correctly and on exact times for people at the lowest household expenditure per capita (quintile 1 to be a need and become a value in the community, and especially in the lowest household expenditure group. It needs a cross subsidy to enhance the ability to buy teeth pasta containing flouride and brush teeth that are affordable by low in comepeople including farmers/fishermen/workers and non workers. Was also needed to enhance accessibility for access to health facilities, especially dental services in remote, islands, and borders areas; either infrastructures, instruments facilities and dental health staffs. Besides, it needs to socialize the danger of smoking to impairment of teeth. Key words: DMFT index, the oral hygiene behaviors; socioeconomic, smoking and access to health
Storfer-Isser, A; LeBourgeois, MK; Harsh, J; Tompsett, CJ; Redline, S
Summary This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19 years; 17.7±0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Self-reports of sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness, caretaker-reports of behavior, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy were collected. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually-based factor structure was similar for 6 of the 8 proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α=0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α=0.60; behavioral arousal: α=0.62; cognitive/emotional: α=0.81; sleep environment: α=0.61; sleep stability: α=0.68; daytime sleep: α=0.78 α = 0.50. Sleep hygiene scores were positively associated with sleep duration (r=.16) and sleep efficiency (r=.12), and negatively correlated with daytime sleepiness (r=-.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. PMID:23682620
Srigley, J A; Gardam, M; Fernie, G; Lightfoot, D; Lebovic, G; Muller, M P
Electronic and video monitoring systems (EMS/VMS) may improve hand hygiene by providing feedback, real-time reminders or via the Hawthorne effect. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of EMS/VMS in improving hand hygiene or reducing the incidence of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they measured any hand hygiene outcome and/or HCAI incidence. Of the studies included, seven used system-defined compliance (SDC) (N = 6) or hand hygiene event rate (N = 1) as their outcome. SDC differed for all systems. Most (N = 6) were single ward studies. Two uncontrolled pretest‒post-test studies evaluating EMS that provided voice prompts showed increases in SDC, but risk of bias was high. Two uncontrolled time-series analyses of VMS that provided aggregate feedback demonstrated large, sustained improvement in SDC and were at moderate risk of bias. One non-randomized controlled trial of EMS with aggregate feedback found no difference in hand hygiene frequency but was at high risk of bias. Two studies evaluated EMS providing individual feedback and real-time reminders. A pretest‒post-test study at high risk of bias showed an increase in SDC. An RCT at low risk of bias showed 6.8% higher SDC in the intervention arm partially due to a fall in SDC in the control arm. In conclusion, the overall study quality was poor. The study at lowest risk of bias showed only a small increase in SDC. VMS studies at moderate risk of bias showed rapid and sustained increases in SDC. Data were insufficient to recommend EMS/VMS. Future studies should prioritize testing of VMS using stronger study designs including control arms and validated, system-independent measures of hand hygiene. Copyright © 2014 Taibah University. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phang, Koh Ni; Maznin, Nur Liyanna; Yip, Wai Kin
This project aimed to improve hand hygiene practice during diaper changing among nurses working in the nursery. This project was conducted in one of the nurseries in a 935-bed acute care hospital with a sample of 15 nurses. A pre- and post-intervention audit was conducted utilising the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice module. A revised written workflow, which specified the occasions and process for hand hygiene during diaper changing, was introduced. Modifications to the baby bassinets and nursery were made after barriers to good hand hygiene were identified. The project was carried out over 4 months, from March to June 2011. The post-intervention audit results show an improvement in performing hand washing after changing diapers (20%) and performing the correct steps of hand rubbing (25%). However, the compliance rates decreased for the other criteria that measured whether hand rubbing or hand washing was performed prior to contacting the infant and after wrapping the infant, and whether hand washing was performed correctly. The improvement in compliance with hand washing--the main focus of the new workflow--after changing diapers was especially significant. The results indicated that having a workflow on the occasions and process for hand hygiene during diaper changing was useful in standardising practice. Pre- and post-implementation audits were effective methods for evaluating the effect of translating evidence into practice. However, this project had limited success in improving compliance with hand hygiene. This suggested that more effort is needed to reinforce the importance of hand hygiene and compliance to the proposed workflow. In addition, this project showed that for change to take place successfully, environmental modifications, increased awareness and adequate communication to every staff member are essential. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence
Full Text Available The somatic cell count (SCC and total bacterial count (TBC as well as the presence of major food-borne pathogens and udder pathogens in reindeer raw milk were studied. Two groups of 4 female reindeer were milked on alternate days for six weeks. A milk sample from each quarter was taken before milking and of the bulk milk at the end of milking. Micrococcus sp. was observed in one, Staphylococcus aureus in one and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five of the quarter samples (n=318. In the bulk milk (n=19 TBC varied between 700 and 1 700 000 cfu (colony forming units/ml and SCC between 52 000 and 183 000 cells/ml. No Bacillus cereus, S. aureus or Listeria monocytogenes were detected in the bulk milk, but Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 bulk milk samples. According to the bacteriological examination the udder health of the reindeer was good. Indicative information on the SCC of healthy reindeer was obtained. None of the common potential food-poisoning bacteria were found in raw milk. There was great variation in the bulk milk TBC and the average TBC was rather high (ca. 300 000 cfu/ml. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk makes it well suited for food manufacture. However, the results indicate that the milking conditions may be crucial for the quality of raw milk.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto:Tutkimuksen kohteena oli poron raakamaidon solupitoisuus ja kokonaispesäkeluku sekä tärkeimpien elintarvike- ja utarepatogeenien esiintyminen raakamaidossa. Kaksi 4 vaatimen ryhmää lypsettiin vuoropäivinä 6 viikon ajan. Ennen lypsyä vaatimista otettiin vedinkohtaiset näytteet ja lypsyn päätyttyä näyte yhteismaidosta. Micrococcus sp. todettiin yhdessä, Staphylococcus aureus yhdessä ja koagulaasinegatiivisia stafylokokkeja viidessä vedinkohtaisessa näytteessä (n=318. Yhteismaitonäytteiden (n=19 kokonaispesäkeluvut vaihtelivat välillä 700-1 700 000 pmy (pesäkkeitä muodostava yksikkö/ml ja somaattisten
Hoerler, Sarah B; Nietz, Sandra K; Zook, Victoria L; Lohse, Christine M; Salinas, Thomas J; Carr, Alan B; Assad, Daniel A
The purpose of this retrospective study was to provide practice-based evidence to determine if the consistency of dental hygiene therapy, despite utilizing instrumentation literature that has proven to cause alterations to implant surfaces, affects peri-implant health or survival. The study sample comprised patients with implant-supported full-arch fixed dental prostheses who were distributed into two groups. The consistent hygiene group patients had dental hygiene therapy at a minimum biannually and were exposed to at least three dental hygiene instrument materials. The inconsistent hygiene group patients had dental hygiene therapy at a minimum once every 3 to 10 years and were exposed to at least three dental hygiene instrument materials. Years of survival free of soft tissue pathology and/or implant failure were estimated. Continuous features were summarized with medians, interquartile ranges (IQRs), and ranges; categorical features were summarized with frequency counts and percentages. Among 48 patients in the consistent hygiene group, 11 patients experienced soft tissue pathology or implant failure at a median of 11.3 years; among 99 patients in the inconsistent hygiene group, 17 patients experienced soft tissue pathology or implant failure at a median of 4.8 years. The survival free of soft tissue pathology or implant failure rate at 5 years was 94% for the consistent hygiene group and 91% for the inconsistent hygiene group. The survival free of soft tissue pathology or implant failure rate at 20 years was 70% for the consistent hygiene group and 79% for the inconsistent hygiene group (P = .91). Although no statistical differences were found between the groups, this practice-based evidence suggests more consistent dental hygiene therapy increases the median in years in which soft tissue pathology or implant failure is present.
Oh, Evon; Mohd Hamzah, Hamha Binte; Chain Yan, Chau; Ang, Emily
This project intended to enhance the compliance rate of nurses (registered nurses and enrolled nurses) in a polyclinic to the five moments of hand hygiene. It proposed to conduct a preliminary baseline audit on the standard of hand hygiene practice, educate nurses on the five moments of hand hygiene in the polyclinic and conduct a post-implementation audit to capture the compliance rate of nurses on practising the five moments of hand hygiene. The team conducted a pre- and post-implementation audit using the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice programme, from July 2011 through November 2011, over a period of 5 months. The pre-implementation audit, which involved 23 nurses from a polyclinic in Singapore, also adopted five out of the seven criteria suggested by the Joanna Briggs Institute. The intervention composed of educating the nurses on the five moments of hand hygiene, providing guidance to nurses in a non-intimidating manner, adopting an open communication approach and the appropriate placement of alcohol-based hand rub at the point of care in the service rooms. The post-implementation audit results showed significant improvement in four of the five criteria, with the greatest improvement observed for criterion 2: 'Hands are decontaminated immediately before each and every episode of direct patient contact or care, and/or all inanimate objects, including equipment'. This study has proven that by conducting the pre- and post-implementation audit using the five criteria gathered from the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System, nurses' hand hygiene compliance can be enhanced. From this study, we could also conclude that nurses' knowledge and accessibility/suitability of alcohol-based hand rubs play an important role in achieving better hand hygiene practices. Positive results were seen even though the project was conducted within a short period
Full Text Available The paper presents instructive methodology for introducing and realizing the HACCP system in pig production, as a typical representative of intensive breeding, with the objective of establishing radiation-hygiene supervision. Attention was focused on the type of pig diet as the key link in the production chain, in fact the selection of the raw material components necessary in the production of pig feed concentrates for intense breeding conditions, and on the establishment of a certain radiation-hygiene balance through prognostic-selective methodology, as a guarantee of radiation safety.
Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)
This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.
Full Text Available The explosive rise in the incidence of atopic diseases in the Western developed countries can be explained on the basis of the so-called "hygiene hypothesis". In short, it attributes the rising incidence of atopic dermatitis to reduced exposure to various childhood infections and bacterial endotoxins. Reduced exposure to dirt in the clean environment results in a skewed development of the immune system which results in an abnormal allergic response to various environmental allergens which are otherwise innocuous. This article reviews the historical aspects, epidemiological and immunological basis of the hygiene hypothesis and implications for Indian conditions.
Evdokimov, V I; Popov, V I; Rut, A N
There was analyzed the array of 1548 dissertations on the scientific specialty 14.02.01 (former specification 14.00.07) "Hygiene". Over period of 2000-2014 to the Dissertation Committee in Russia there were annually submitted (103 ± 10) theses, which include (21 ± 3) doctoral dissertations and (83 ± 8) candidate dissertations. Doctoral dissertations accounted for 20,1%, dissertations in medicine--89.3%. There was established not only the decline in the number of theses in hygiene, but the reduction of their proportion in the total array of all medical and biological dissertations in Russia. The conjugacy of the trend curves of the total stream of dissertations in medicine and biology in Russia and in hygiene is considered to be not very high (r = 0.54). In the total structure of dissertation works on General Hygiene accounted for 22.7%, Community Hygiene--15.45%, Occupational Hygiene--19.6%, Children's and Adolescents' Hygiene--24.7%, Nutrition Hygiene--8.2%, Radiation Hygiene--2.3%, in Rural Hygiene--1.2%, Hospital Hygiene-- 3.4%, Military Hygiene--2.3% correspondingly. There is pointed the development gap between the research studies in hygiene and tendency in training of high class health care professionals' in Russia.
Imada, Katiuscia Shirota; de Araújo, Thiago Santos; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; de Pádua, Valter Lúcio
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the contributions of the socioeconomic, hygienic, and sanitation improvements in reducing the prevalence of diarrhea in a city of the Amazon. METHODS In this population-based cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from surveys conducted in the city of Jordão, Acre. In 2005 and 2012, these surveys evaluated, respectively, 466 and 826 children under five years old. Questionnaires were applied on the socioeconomic conditions, construction of houses, food and hygienic habits, and environmental sanitation. We applied Pearson’s Chi-squared test and Poisson regression to verify the relationship between origin of water, construction of homes, age of introduction of cow’s milk in the diet, place of birth and the prevalence of diarrhea. RESULTS The prevalence of diarrhea was reduced from 45.1% to 35.4%. We identified higher probability of diarrhea in children who did not use water from the public network, in those receiving cow’s milk in the first month after birth, and in those living in houses made of paxiúba. Children born at home presented lower risk of diarrhea when compared to those who were born in hospital, with this difference reversing for the 2012 survey. CONCLUSIONS Sanitation conditions improved with the increase of bathrooms with toilets, implementation of the Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF – Family Health Program), and water treatment in the city. The multivariate regression model identified a statistically significant association between use of water from the public network, construction of houses, late introduction of cow’s milk, and access to health service with occurrence of diarrhea. PMID:28099660
Salati, Sajad Ahmad; Al Kadi, Azzam
Objective. The study was conducted to study the impact of various measures instituted to improve hand hygiene practices of the medical students after having documented poor hand hygiene awareness and compliance...
Lee, Jee Hye
The aim of this study was to explore factors that influence hygiene practices at small day care centers. It examines the effect of food hygiene training on hygiene practices and investigates the correlations between the hygienic status of food handlers' hands and that of kitchen utensils. Furthermore, it determines the influences of demographic and facility-related factors on hygiene practices in small day care centers. A total of 56 food handlers at 49 day care centers in the Gyeongnam area of South Korea participated in hygiene training. The results of the study showed that after two training sessions, the ATP bioluminescence levels of knives ( P food handlers' hands ( P hygiene practices at small food service kitchens, such as status of registration with the government certification authority, length of food handlers' working experience and their age, and maximum number of people served. This study helps to broaden our knowledge of food hygiene issues in small day care centers.
Teaching young children personal hygiene can have a positive impact for a lifetime. Encouraging regular handwashing is a good start. In this podcast, Dr. Vincent Hill discusses the importance of regular handwashing. Created: 10/12/2017 by MMWR. Date Released: 10/12/2017.
Notgarnie, Howard M.
The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…
Complex hygienic, clinical, sociologic and epidemiologic studies revealed reliable relationship between work conditions and arterial hypertension, locomotory system disorders, monocytosis in powder metallurgy production workers. Findings are more probable cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, digestive tract diseases due to influence of lifestyle factors.
Stevens, Stella C; Scott, Claire L M
Hospital-acquired infection costs money and lives. Improving compliance with hand hygiene is proving an intractable problem as initial gains often lack sustainability. A growing field of research suggests that health service managers may have a critical role in dealing with this issue, which crosses all professional boundaries.
The aim of this paper is to present a measure of the performance of Food Safety Management System (FSMS) implemented in five municipal abattoirs situated in Edo State, Nigeria. Hygiene status of the abattoirs was assessed by a quantitative interpretation of observations obtained from visual inspection of abattoir's ...
countries with limited resources. J. Hosp. Infect 65 (2007), pp. 148-. 150. 3. Nyamogoba H, Obala AA. Nosocomial infections in developing countries: cost effective control and prevention. East Afr Med J. 2002;79(8):435-41. 4. Pittet D., Boyce J.M., Hand hygiene and patient care: pursuing the. Semmelweis legacy. Lancet ...
Umetsu, Dale T
A recent paper suggests that reduced exposure to germs results in the expansion of a cell type called natural killer T cells, which predisposes to colitis and asthma. Such a scenario could explain the Hygiene Hypothesis, which has been a puzzle for decades.
To explore and identify precedent factors that may influence nursing students' oral hygiene practice in hospitalised patients, by using an adaptation of the Precede Model. A quantitative approach with a descriptive design was adopted in this pilot study. A questionnaire was designed and implemented as a self-report method of data collection. A convenience sample of 37 second-year diploma nursing students in an Irish teaching hospital participated in the study. The clinical area and the practices within it are influential factors in the provision of oral hygiene. Students are exposed to and influenced by outdated and non-research-based practices. Role modelling is an effective means of motivating and reinforcing student practices. However, qualified nurses' practices need to be critically reviewed before assuming that they can act as role models in assisting students to implement research-based oral hygiene. Formal education, current practices, socialisation and role modelling may influence students' behaviour in relation to oral hygiene. The results should be tentatively reviewed by clinical staff as an indication of current practices.
David B. Warner
Full Text Available We report a case of Rhizopus keratitis in a young woman with poor contact lens hygiene. The mold was highly sensitive to treatment with amphotericin 0.15% drops, after a relatively prompt diagnosis. Obtaining cultures of both corneal infiltrates and presumably infected contact lenses may help to avoid a delay in proper treatment.
The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes and practices of students related to oral hygiene teaching by mean of a questionnaire submitted to patients attending the clinics of the Department of Dentistry of Dakar. Method: A KPC study (Knowledge, Practices and Coverage) focusing on dental students was conducted ...
Purpose: To test the effect of menthol extract on the oral hygiene status of dental students of Faculty of. Dentistry, Al- Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq. Methods: A solution (18 mg %) of menthol was prepared by dissolving menthol crystals in absolute ethanol. Chlorhexidine (CHX, 0.2 %) and deionized water were ...
Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Larsen, Palle
SCOPING REVIEW OBJECTIVE: It is hypothesized that systematic oral hygiene may reduce airway infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Before considering doing a systematic review, a scoping review is necessary to explore and map literature on the subject and identify...
The activities of food vendors can increase the chances of food contamination with pathogenic microorganisms and mycotoxins. The study was conducted to assess the food hygiene practices among street food vendors in the Tamale Metropolis. Structured questionnaires, interviews and field observations were used to ...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... ensure that tables for eating are free of beryllium, and that no worker in a lunchroom facility is...
Hands may be the most important means by which enteric pathogens are transmitted. Skin hygiene particularly of the hands, has been accepted as a primary mechanism to control the spread of infectious agents. Therefore the present study was undertaken to evaluate the number and type of enteric bacterial pathogens ...
Background: While communicable diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Malawi, the contribution of nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) is unknown but could be substantial. The single most important method of preventing nosocomial infections is hand hygiene. We report a study which ...
Pan, Xiaojie; Zhang, Chichen; Zheng, Jianzhong; Su, Chunhui; Hu, Weihong; Zhao, Haifeng; Mi, Yuqian; Hao, Congying
To grasp research status and the revolution of Journal of Hygiene Research since started publishing, and also track research hot spots and developing trends of this field. Using the method of bibliometrics and information visualization software CiteSpace III, quantities of published literature, supported funds, institutions, authors and keywords from 6775 articles published in Journal of Hygiene Research from 1972 to 2014 were analyzed. Amount of literatures published on Journal of Hygiene Research increased wave upon wave, the peak appeared in 1995. Institutions of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, such as National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Institute of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control and some medical colleges were the most productive. The scholars with the most number of publications were YANG Xiaoguang, YIN Shian and PIAO Jianhua, the researcher of National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, with more than 75 articles were published. The research contents included influencing factors, related concepts, diseases, methods and objects. "mutagenicity", "apoptosis", "lead poisoning", "HPLC" and "rat" were research focuses in this field. There were lots of matter and cooperation in the articles published on Journal of Hygiene Research. The centers for disease control and prevention in different regions and universities pay attention to the coorperation, research teams with members of various ages collaborate and grow together, form a close, complex collaborative network among authors, which promote the development of the magazine and research fields together.
T. B. Baltrukova
Full Text Available In article one of modern methods of preparation of experts in radiating hygiene - problem-oriented training is considered. This method gives knowledge in shorter terms and develops creative abilities trained to the independent decision of problems of professional character.
Subjects and Methods: Descriptive cross‑sectional study was carried out among 235 food handlers; data collection was by interviewer administered questionnaires. Using the SPSS software, multivariate analysis in two separate models was done to explore the predictors of correct knowledge and good hygiene practices.
Bibbolino, C; Pittalis, S; Schininà, V; Busi Rizzi, E; Puro, V
Healthcare-associated infections are a critical challenge for the public health sector. Most are acquired through contact, predominantly with the hands of health care personnel. Hand hygiene, therefore, is the single most effective measure for preventing and controlling infectious diseases. Recently, cases of acute hepatitis C occurred in patients who had undergone contrast-enhanced computed tomography. This was probably related to inadequate handling by health care staff. Rigorous compliance with standard precautions is therefore compulsory even in radiology, a setting traditionally considered at low risk for the transmission of pathogens. Adherence to standard precautions is still poor and the persistence of inappropriate practices responsible for preventable incidents is very common in radiology, often owing to underestimation of risk. Radiology units must promote compliance with correct hand hygiene through appropriate education programmes and provision of adequate areas and hand hygiene products. The evidence base to support the use of alcohol-based hand rub is demonstrating that these formulations are effective in improving hand hygiene compliance and preventing infections.
Alcohol-based hand rub is a possible step to improve the hygiene situation in such a setting and was recommended already in 2002 by ... sustainable supply of methylated spirit and glycerin could be secured. Spirit and glycerin were mixed in the hospital pharmacy (1l spirit plus 10mg glycerin) and stored in 5l containers.
Maintaining healthy teeth and soft oral tissues for life is important. Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings can damage the soft oral tissues. This thesis investigates the safety of manual toothbrushes, interdental brushes and rubber bristles interdental cleaners by analysing the gingival abrasion
Frederick Herzberg\\'s motivation-hygiene theory revisited: The concept and its applicability to clergy (A study of fulltime stipendiary clergy of the global ... of Wood's (1973) “Faculty Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Scale” was used to measure the satisfaction of clergy relative to Herzberg's satisfier and dissatisfier factors.
Fonguh, Sylvanus; Uwineza, Annie; Catry, Boudewijn; Simon, Anne
Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are still a major problem especially in most intensive care units (ICU). Incompliance by clinical staff with hand hygiene (HH) increases rates of preventable infections. We report the outcome of the Belgian national hand hygiene campaign from 2005 to 2015 with focus on intensive care units. Using the World Health organisation (WHO) standardised observation roster, trained infection control teams measured adherence to HH guidelines by direct observation. HH opportunities were counted and the actual episodes of HH were scored as no HH, HH with water and soap, or HH with alcohol-based hand rub. Measurements were repeatedly done before and after a one month awareness campaign every second year. Compliance was stratified by indication and by type of healthcare worker, and computed as a percentage of the number of HH episodes with water and soap or with alcohol-based hand rub, divided by the number of opportunities. A total of 108,050 hand hygiene opportunities were observed in ICU during this period. HH compliance increased significantly from 49.6 % before campaign in 2005 to 72.0 % before campaign in 2015. Over the same time frame, post campaign compliance increased from 67.0 to 80.2 %. The number of opportunities observed substantially increased when automated feedback was installed. In Belgian intensive care units, hand hygiene compliance is getting improved overtime, though consecutive campaigns with immediate feedback are required to achieve and sustain a high compliance rate.
Attieh, Elie; Maalouf, Samer; Roumieh, Dina; Abdayem, Pamela; AbiTayeh, Georges; Kesrouani, Assaad
Inappropriate feminine hygiene practices are related to vulvovaginitis. We investigated the prevalence of personal hygiene habits among Lebanese women as well as their awareness of adequate practices. Consists of a cross-sectional observational study. Female patients and nurses at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital in Beirut- Lebanon filled a questionnaire about their intimate hygiene habits and knowledge of proper practices. The study included 249 women. 21.3 % of the 136 nurses and 38.9 % of the 113 patients reported a history of vulvovaginitis. The majority of women took an intimate bath at least twice daily. 14 % of nurses and 17 % of patients douched.20. Seven percent of the nurses and 43.4 % of the patients used wet wipes. 1.5 % of nurses and 4.4 % of patients used feminine deodorant sprays. There was a significant lack of awareness mainly among patients about suitable hygiene practices as well for their adverse effects. Education provided by nurses, and other healthcare providers is essential to promote reproductive health among Lebanese women.
The provision and promotion of the proper use of alcohol-based hand rub may further improve compliance with hand hygiene by reducing the time required to .... natural nails make cleaning and donning of gloves more difficult and can cause gloves to ... antimicrobial action on the skin. For routine examinations, nonsurgical ...
Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied to investigate the design of closed process equipment with respect to cleanability. The CFD simulations were validated using the standardized cleaning test proposed by the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group. CFD has been proven as a ...
Heijne, J.C.; Teunis, P.; Morroy, G.; Wijkmans, C.J.; Oostveen, S.; Duizer, E.; Kretzschmar, M.; Wallinga, J.
Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We
A. Burdorf (Alex)
textabstractIn many countries occupational hygiene has become an indispensable discipline in managing long-term risks to the health of workers. The international collaboration on education and training started with a workshop in Luxembourg in 1986 (sponsored by the EC and WHO). This meeting provided
Jong, de A.E.I.; Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.; Nauta, M.J.; Jonge, de R.
Aims: To determine the effect of hygiene measures on cross-contamination of Campylobacter jejuni at home and to select a safe tracer organism for C. jejuni. Methods and Results: Comparative tests were conducted with nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei and L. casei was chosen as
Buunk-Werkhoven, Yvonne A. B.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Wal, Henk; Basic, Nina; Loomans, Steven A.; van der Schans, Cees P.; van der Meer, Brig-Gen Rob
Objectives: To make practical recommendations for improving oral hygiene behavior (OHB) potential predictors based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were assessed. Measurements of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected social effect for having healthy teeth were included. Methods: 216
resulting in the greatest number of childhood deaths per year, are caused by disease agents that thrive in unsanitary ..... and water resolved a variety of chronic skin conditions in children, such as impetigo, eczema and rashes of ..... hygiene and diarrhea – pinpointing the problem. Tropical Medicine and International Health.
Objective: to assess the status and maintenance of hygiene and sanitation practices among rural model families of the. Health Extension Program. ... improving sanitation and the simple act of washing hands at critical times (before eating, after ... and its sustainability after model family graduation is important. The purpose of ...
hygiene practices among a group of Libyan volunteers. ... Conclusions: The prevalence of self-perceived malodour among the Libyan volunteers in this study is within ..... 2005; 60:17-29. 17. Tangerman A, Winkel EG. Intra- and extra-oral halitosis: finding of a new form of extra-oral blood-borne halitosis caused by dimethyl.
M. Melles (Marijke); V. Erasmus (Vicky); M.P.M. van Loon (Martijn); M. Tassoul (Marc); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); M.C. Vos (Margreet)
markdownabstractEssential in reducing hospital-acquired infections is adequate hand hygiene (HH) among healthcare workers (HCWs). International studies show, however, that HH guidelines are adhered to in less than 50% of required times. Research into HH behavior has shown that self-reported
Objective: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. Design: Case control study. Setting: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. Subjects: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. Results: The relative risk (RR) of oral ...
Context: The World Health Organization has stated that psychiatric patients are a group of people who have oral and dental illnesses. Aims: The aims of this study were to document the oral hygiene of individuals with chronic psychiatric illness, to determine the extraoral and intraoral findings, to detect the dominant ...
Apr 1, 2006 ... Objective: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. Design: Case control study. Setting: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. Subjects: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. Results: The relative risk ...
Purpose: To test the effect of menthol extract on the oral hygiene status of dental students of Faculty of Dentistry, Al- Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq. Methods: A solution (18 mg %) of menthol was prepared by dissolving menthol crystals in absolute ethanol. Chlorhexidine (CHX, 0.2 %) and deionized water were used ...
The essence of oral hygiene is to prevent the accumulation of dental plaque on the teeth and other dental appliances in the mouth. Thus preventing the development of oral diseases associated with its accumulation such as dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and halitosis (bad breath). The objective of the study was to ...