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Sample records for hygiene indicator microorganisms

  1. Microorganisms as an Indicator of Hygiene Status Among Migrant Food Handlers in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woh, Pei Yee; Thong, Kwai Lin; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Behnke, Jerzy Marian; Lewis, John Watkin; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2017-10-01

    This study used microbial indicators to assess the hygiene status of 383 migrant food handlers from 3 urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia. Microbiological analysis revealed that all the hand swabs tested 99.5% positive for aerobic plate counts (mean [M] ± standard deviation [SD] = 3.57 ± 0.83 log 10 CFU [colony forming unit]), 20.8% positive for total coliform/ Escherichia coli (M ± SD = 0.30 ± 0.67 log 10 CFU), and 63.4% positive for Staphylococcus aureus (M ± SD = 1.38 ± 1.26 log 10 CFU). In addition, aerobic plate counts and Staphylococcus aureus counts exceeded the acceptable standard levels. Bacterial counts were found to be significantly associated with subjects' country of origin ( P = .019) and working responsibilities ( P = .001). Our findings indicate high probability of transmission of pathogenic bacteria from the food handlers' hands to customers during meal preparation and serving. This calls for improvements in personal hygiene and sanitation standards by the relevant health authorities among migrant food handlers.

  2. [Evaluation of the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in food served in public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida; Capalonga, Roberta; Silveira, Joice Trindade; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar; Cardoso, Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in samples of food served in public schools in Porto Alegre. All the food served in the meal of the session visited was analyzed for Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. Of the total of 196 food products analyzed in 120 schools, 4 contained and Escherichia coli score above the permitted level, and 2 contained coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Neither Shigella nor Salmonella genus were detected. In the majority of schools studied, it was found that food was of an adequate hygienic-sanitary standard. However, only municipal schools had the supervision of a technician responsible for school food. In the state schools, 60% had never been visited by a nutritionist and in these schools several procedures failed to comply with legal requirements. In most of the schools studied, the food served to students was within adequate standards, though the problems detected revealed the need for the implementation of Best Practices in the school environment.

  3. Effect of irradiation and storage post-irradiation of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on counts of microorganisms hygienic indicator using methods of conventional analysis and PETRIFILMTM plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimes, Marcial Ibo Silva

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen samples of ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) purchased in Sao Paulo local stores, were submitted to irradiation in doses of 3, 6 and 10 kGy. All irradiated samples, including non-irradiated controls, were submitted to counts of yeasts and molds, aerobes (APC), coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers (MASC), using conventional plate count methods and PETRIFILM TM plates. For yeasts and molds count, acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) an PETRIFILM TM PFYM plates were used. For aerobes, plate count agar (PCA) and PETRIFILM TM PFAC plates were used. Violet red bile agar (VRBA) and PETRIFILM TM PFEC plates were employed for enumeration of coliforms. Counts of these groups of microorganisms obtained through the traditional plating procedures did not differ significantly from those using the corresponding PETRIFILM TM plates. In samples submitted to irradiation, a dose of 10 kGy caused a decrease of the yeasts and molds count from 10 4 -10 5 to less than 10 cfu/g. The same dose caused a decrease of the aerobic counts from 10 7 -10 8 to 10 2 -10 3 cfu/g, of coliforms from 10 4 -10 5 to less than 10 cfu/g and MASC from 10 6 -10 7 cfu/g to 10-10 2 cfu/g. The introduction of a injury repair step in the counting procedure resulted in a 32 to 89% increase in the number of coliforms. However, this additional step did not improve significantly the counts of MASC. After 270 days of storage of samples irradiated with 3 kGy, a decrease in the yeasts and molds population from 10 3 to 20 cfu/g was observed. The APC population in these samples was reduced from 5,0x10 6 to 2,4x10 4 cfu/g; in those irradiated with 6 kGy the reduction was from 4,0x10 4 to 5,0x10 3 cfu/g and in those irradiated with 10 kGy the counts were reduced from 30 to less than 10 cfu/g. After the same time of storage, the coliform population in non irradiated samples decreased from 2,8x10 5 to 1,5x10 4 cfu/g and from 9,1x10 3 to 20 cfu/g in those irradiated with 3 kGy. Similarly, the MASC

  4. [Preventive measures for avoiding transmission of microorganisms between hospitalised patients. Hand hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupión, Carmen; López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Health-care associated infections are an important public health problem worldwide. The rates of health-care associated infections are indicators of the quality of health care. The infection control activities related to prevention of transmission of hospital microorganisms can be grouped in 4 mayor areas: standard precautions, specific precautions (including isolation if appropriate), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and surveillance activities (including providing infection rates and monitoring procedures). Hand hygiene and the correct use of gloves are the most important measures to prevent health-care associated infections and to avoid the dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Continuous educational activities aimed at improving adherence to hand hygiene are needed. Periodical assessment of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations with feed-back have been shown to provide sustained improvement. Several complementary activities are being evaluated, including skin decolonization prior to certain surgeries, a package of measures in patients with central venous catheters or mechanical ventilation, and universal body hygiene with chlorhexidine. The present area of discussion concerns in which situations and in which groups would such measures be effective and efficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.

    ecosystem parameters representing policy relevant end points. It is further recommended to identify a specific minimum data set for specific policy relevant end points, to carefully establish baseline values, to improve scientific knowledge on biodiversity and modelling of soil data, and to implement new......Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...... indicators into soil monitoring programmes as they become applicable....

  6. Microorganisms, Qualitative Indicators for Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicoleta Filimon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that, for a few years now, our focus is more and more concentrated on safety and security of meat and vegetable products, this study’s aim is to evaluate the quality of certain well - known meat products (sausages, dry salami, and half-dried salami, purchased in a supermarket, from Timisoara. Microbiological tests were made especially on sanitary microbiological indicators (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella. These tests emphasize hygiene in processing ang handling of products. In some cases, it higtlights how various heat treatments (pasteurization type apply to food products. It also establishes the microbial load on the microscopic field and the colony forming units, by a culture method in plates, at 37º C for 48 hours. Based on the obtained results, it has been established that, concerning the microbial load and the presence or absence of coliform bacteria, studied products fall into the quality permitted by applicable law.

  7. Identification of main contamination points by hygiene indicator microorganisms in beef processing plants Identificação dos principais pontos de contaminação por microrganismos indicadores de higiene em plantas de processamento de carnes

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    Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of beef and meat products is strongly influenced by the conditions of hygiene prevailing during their production and handling. Without proper hygienic control, the environment in slaughterhouses and butcher shops can act as an important source of microbiological contamination. To identify the main points of microbiological contamination in the beef processing chain, 443 samples of equipment, installations and products were collected from 11 establishments (1 slaughterhouse and 10 butcher shops located in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The microbiological quality of all the samples was evaluated using Petri dishes to obtain counts of mesophilic aerobes (AC, total coliforms, Escherichia coli (EC, yeasts and molds (YM. The main contamination points identified in butcher shops, in decreasing order, were stainless steel boxes, beef tenderizers, grinders, knives, mixers, sausage stuffers, plastic boxes, floors and drains. In the slaughterhouse, these points were sausage stuffers, platforms, floors and drains. The most severely contaminated products were fresh sausages and ground beef. This information about the main points of microbiological contamination in the beef processing chain is expected to aid professionals responsible for hygiene in similar establishments to set up proper hygienic procedures to prevent or reduce microbiological contamination of beef and meat products.A qualidade microbiológica de carne e derivados é altamente influenciada pelas condições higiênicas durante sua produção e manipulação. Sem um controle higiênico adequado, o ambiente de abatedouros e açougues pode representar um importante ponto de contaminação. Com o objetivo de identificar os principais pontos de contaminação microbiológica na linha de processamento de carne, 443 amostras de equipamentos, instalações e produtos foram coletados em 11 estabelecimentos (1 abatedouro e 10 açougues localizados no Estado do Paran

  8. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts

  9. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  10. Fate of indicator microorganisms under nutrient management plan conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A; Segal, Eran

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient management plans (NMPs) for application of wastewater from concentrated animal feeding operations are designed to meet crop water and nutrient requirements, but implicitly assume that pathogenic microorganisms in the wastewater will be retained and die-off in the root zone. A NMP was implemented on a field plot to test this assumption by monitoring the fate of several fecal indicator microorganisms (Enterococcus, fecal coliforms, somatic coliphage, and total Escherichia coli). When well-water and wastewater were applied to meet measured evapotranspiration (ET), little advective transport of the indicator microorganisms occurred below the root zone and the remaining microorganisms rapidly died-off (within 1 mo). Additional experiments were conducted in the laboratory to better quantify microorganism transport and survival in the field soil. Batch survival experiments revealed much more rapid die-off rates for the bacterial indicator microorganisms in native than in sterilized soil, suggesting that biotic factors controlled survival. Saturated column experiments with packed field soil, demonstrated much greater transport potential for somatic coliphage than bacterial indicators (Enterococcus and total E. coli) and that the retention rates for the indicator microorganisms were not log-linear with depth. A worst case transport scenario of ponded infiltration on a large undistributed soil column from the field was also initiated and indicator microorganisms were not detected in the column outflow or in the soil at a depth of 65 cm. All of these observations support the hypothesis that a NMP at this site will protect groundwater supplies from microorganism contamination, especially when applied water and wastewater meet ET.

  11. Hand hygiene in hospital environments: use of conformity indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíne Cristina Romualdo dos SANTOS

    Full Text Available An exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative approach whose objective was to use indicators to evaluate the frequency and infrastructure for hand hygiene, as well as the nursing team's knowledge about the subject. Systematized observation was carried out at hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil of the routine activities of 33 participating professionals (nurses and technicians as well as the application of an individual questionnaire about the subject.1206 opportunities for hand hygiene were identified, though it was effected in only 481 (39.9% of them. Alcohol solution was not used at any opportunity. The infrastructure indicator for hand hygiene was close to the ideal value (83.3%. The professionals reported a high frequency of hand hygiene, demonstrating knowledge in relation to its importance, yet contradicting the findings of the observation. It was concluded that, despite the adequate infrastructure, hand hygiene was below that expected, requiring actions and strategies to overcomes these barrier and increase the use of alcohol solution.

  12. Avaliação da presença de microrganismos indicadores higiênico-sanitários em alimentos servidos em escolas públicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil Evaluation of the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in food served in public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a presença de microrganismos indicadores higiênico-sanitários em amostras de alimentos servidos em escolas públicas de Porto Alegre. Foram analisados todos os alimentos servidos na refeição do turno da visita, quanto à presença de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, Salmonella sp. e Shigella sp. No total de 196 alimentos analisados de 120 escolas, 4 apresentavam contagem de Escherichia coli acima do permitido e dois tinham a presença de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva. Os gêneros Shigella e Salmonella não foram encontrados. Foi observado que a maioria das escolas estudadas servia alimentos dentro de padrões higiênico-sanitários adequados. Foi evidenciado que somente escolas municipais contavam com a orientação de responsável técnico pela alimentação escolar. Das escolas estaduais 60% nunca haviam recebido visita de nutricionista nas quais foram encontrados procedimentos em desacordo com as exigências da legislação. Na maioria das escolas, os alimentos servidos estavam dentro de padrões adequados, porém os problemas detectados demonstram a necessidade da implantação das Boas Práticas no ambiente escolar.The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in samples of food served in public schools in Porto Alegre. All the food served in the meal of the session visited was analyzed for Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. Of the total of 196 food products analyzed in 120 schools, 4 contained and Escherichia coli score above the permitted level, and 2 contained coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Neither Shigella nor Salmonella genus were detected. In the majority of schools studied, it was found that food was of an adequate hygienic-sanitary standard. However, only municipal schools had the supervision of a technician responsible for school food. In the state

  13. The combined effect of heat and gamma irradiation on the inactivation of selected microorganisms associated with food hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, O.J.; Byun, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    The bactericidal effectiveness of radiation alone or in combination with heat against 8 strains associated with food hygiene were evaluated. In the case of radiation alone, D values of micro-organisms were 0.14~0.48 kGy, and inactivation factors were 4.54~21.43 at the doses of 2~3 kGy. Escherichia coli was the most sensitive among the tested strains, resulting in a D value of 0.14 kGy. D values of tile strains were 10~40 minutes at 50±1°C and 5~10 minutes at 60±1°C. Combination with heat and radiation showed D values of 0.04~0.31. Inactivation factors were 6.45~75 at the doses of 2 to 3 kGy. Therefore, heat treatment prior to irradiation significantly increased activation rate by increasing radiation sensitivity of microorganisms

  14. Microorganisms -indicators of the level of soil pollution with lead

    OpenAIRE

    Stavreva Veselinovska, Snezana

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution with heavy metals present a real threat to wildlife because the metals cannot be naturally decomposed as is the case with organic pollutants, and as such they can survive in the environment while accumulating the heavy metals in different parts. Pollution with metals can affect different organisms in the environment, such as microorganisms, plants and animals, but the degree of toxicity depends on the species. Microorganisms have different mechanisms of coping with...

  15. Indicators for Monitoring Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Systematic Review of Indicator Selection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Schwemlein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH is important to track progress, improve accountability, and demonstrate impacts of efforts to improve conditions and services, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Indicator selection methods enable robust monitoring of WaSH projects and conditions. However, selection methods are not always used and there are no commonly-used methods for selecting WaSH indicators. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review of indicator selection methods used in WaSH-related fields. We present a summary of indicator selection methods for environment, international development, and water. We identified six methodological stages for selecting indicators for WaSH: define the purpose and scope; select a conceptual framework; search for candidate indicators; determine selection criteria; score indicators against criteria; and select a final suite of indicators. This summary of indicator selection methods provides a foundation for the critical assessment of existing methods. It can be used to inform future efforts to construct indicator sets in WaSH and related fields.

  16. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene. © 2012 APJPH.

  17. Indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of industrial scale operating Biowaste Composting Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    The hygienic performance of biowaste composting plants to ensure the quality of compost is of high importance. Existing compost quality assurance systems reflect this importance through intensive testing of hygienic parameters. In many countries, compost quality assurance systems are under construction and it is necessary to check and to optimize the methods to state the hygienic performance of composting plants. A set of indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of normal operating biowaste composting plants was developed. The indicator methods were developed by investigating temperature measurements from indirect process tests from 23 composting plants belonging to 11 design types of the Hygiene Design Type Testing System of the German Compost Quality Association (BGK e.V.). The presented indicator methods are the grade of hygienization, the basic curve shape, and the hygienic risk area. The temperature courses of single plants are not distributed normally, but they were grouped by cluster analysis in normal distributed subgroups. That was a precondition to develop the mentioned indicator methods. For each plant the grade of hygienization was calculated through transformation into the standard normal distribution. It shows the part in percent of the entire data set which meet the legal temperature requirements. The hygienization grade differs widely within the design types and falls below 50% for about one fourth of the plants. The subgroups are divided visually into basic curve shapes which stand for different process courses. For each plant the composition of the entire data set out of the various basic curve shapes can be used as an indicator for the basic process conditions. Some basic curve shapes indicate abnormal process courses which can be emended through process optimization. A hygienic risk area concept using the 90% range of variation of the normal temperature courses was introduced. Comparing the design type range of variation with the

  18. Monitoring Pharmacy Student Adherence to World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Indications Using Radio Frequency Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Andrew S; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Tsouri, Gill; Lavigne, Jill E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student's seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique.

  19. Correlation between Salmonella and hygiene indicators in the Danish fresh pork chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Sandø, G.; Hansen, Tina Beck

    ,569 samples from cutting plants, and in 1,232 samples from retail supermarkets and butcher shops sampled from June 2010 to March 2011 and associates this to two hygiene indicators, enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae. In six large cutting plants, Salmonella was isolated from 1.3 % compared 3.7 % of samples...... in 12 smaller plants. Process hygiene was described by quantifying Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci in samples and high levels of both were mostly seen for smaller plants. Enterococci counts varied more between plants than Enterobacteriaceae. Occurrence of Salmonella was positively correlated...... supermarkets and 12 % from butcher shops contained enterococci. Samples containing enterococci were six times more likely to contain Salmonella whereas no correlation was found between Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella in retail samples. In conclusion, presence of Salmonella was associated with lower hygiene...

  20. Indicators of pleasure/pain in hygiene and cleaning outsourced workers of a university hospital

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    Liana Bohrer Berni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to measure the indicators of pleasure and suffering of hygiene and cleaning outsourced workers of a university hospital. Methods: a quantitative study of 51 workers at a university hospital in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire with socio-occupational data and Pleasure Indicators Scale and Suffering at Work were used. There was descriptive and statistical analysis of the internal consistency of the factors using statistical program Predictive Analytics Software. Results: professional achievement and freedom of expression, were evaluated respectively as satisfactory and critical pleasure indicators. Suffering indicator Lack of recognition was considered bearable and professional exhaustion as critical. Conclusion: the work context researched requires interventions that minimize the suffering of experiences, promote pleasure in work and, consequently, the health of contract workers hygiene and cleanliness.

  1. Indicators of pleasure/pain in hygiene and cleaning outsourced workers of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Bohrer Berni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to measure the indicators of pleasure and suffering of hygiene and cleaning outsourced workers of a university hospital. Methods: a quantitative study of 51 workers at a university hospital in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire with socio-occupational data and Pleasure Indicators Scale and Suffering at Work were used. There was descriptive and statistical analysis of the internal consistency of the factors using statistical program Predictive Analytics Software. Results: professional achievement and Freedom of expression, were evaluated respectively as satisfactory and critical pleasure indicators. Suffering indicator Lack of recognition was considered bearable and professional exhaustion as critical. Conclusion: the work context researched requires interventions that minimize the suffering of experiences, promote pleasure in work and, consequently, the health of contract workers hygiene and cleanliness.

  2. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety.

  3. Indicator microorganisms in fresh vegetables from “farm to fork” in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssemanda, James Noah; Reij, Martine; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Joosten, Han; Zwietering, Marcel H.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial safety of ready-to-eat vegetables is currently a global concern. We studied indicator microorganisms in fresh vegetables from “farm to fork” in Rwanda, to identify possible trends in microbial counts along the supply chain in a developing country. A total of 453 samples were taken across

  4. Entre miasmas y microbios: la vivienda popular higienizada From miasmas to microorganisms: hygienic lower-class housing

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    Sandra Caponi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Analizando la influencia del primer pasteurianismo en los discursos y las prácticas sanitarias, en este trabajo discuto la tesis que postula una oposición entre la higiene pre y post pasteuriana. Centrando mi análisis en las estrategias sanitarias encaminadas a controlar la vivienda popular que fueron propuestas por higienistas de Brasil y Argentina, muestro las rupturas y las continuidades entre la higiene clásica y aquélla que se reorganizó a partir de la microbiología.By analyzing the influence of early Pasteurian thought on health discourse and practice, this paper discusses the thesis postulating an opposition between pre- and post- Pasteurian hygiene. Focusing on an analysis of the sanitary strategies to control lower-class housing that were proposed by Argentine and Brazilian hygienists, the author identifies the breaks and continuities between classical hygiene and hygiene reorganized by microbiology.

  5. The validity of domestic hygiene indicators in the scope of social and technological changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, P.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Home hygiene plays a significant role in well-being and health of consumers. It is linked with the nature and quality of household practices and of the household technical system. At the same time the impact of the level of home hygiene on well-being and human health is related to demographic

  6. Waste Stabilization Ponds and Aerated Lagoons Performance in Removal of Wastewater Indicator Microorganisms

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    Seyed ali Ghasemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of two treatment plants in the City of Mashhad, one with an aerated lagoons system and the other one with waste stabilization ponds system were evaluated in regard to their efficiency in reduction of pathogenic microorganisms. For this purpose, over a period of one year (with 15-days intervals, samples were taken from the influent and effluent (prior to disinfection unit of the above mentioned treatment plants. The samples then were analyzed for parameters such as temperature, pH, density of total coliforms (TC and fecal coliforms (FC, dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids concentration. The results indicated that the aerated lagoons system was much more efficient in removal of indicator bacteria than the waste stabilization ponds during autumn and winter periods. However during the summer months, the waste stabilization ponds showed a higher efficiency in this regard. In general, the waste stabilization ponds system reduced the density of TC and FC by 0.21-2.15 log10 and 0.20-2.33 log10, respectively. In contrast, the levels of reduction in aerated lagoons system were in the range of 0.29-2.03 log10 for TC and 0.42-2.40 log10 for FC. Results indicated that solar intensity, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were found to be the most significant parameters that reduced the microorganisms population in waste stabilization ponds, While, in the aerated lagoons system, the dissolved oxygen concentration in aerated basin and solar intensity play the most important role. In general, without receiving an adequate disinfection, the effluent from waste stabilization ponds and aerated lagoons cannot provide the microbiological standards required for irrigation of agricultural crops.

  7. The effects of mandatory HACCP implementation on microbiological indicators of process hygiene in meat processing and retail establishments in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasevic, Igor; Kuzmanović, Jelena; Anđelković, Aleksandra; Saračević, Miroslava; Stojanović, Marija M; Djekic, Ilija

    2016-04-01

    A total of 48,246 microbiological test results were collected from 130 meat processing plants and 220 meat retail facilities over a seven year period: 41 months before and 43 months after HACCP implementation. Our results confirm a strong positive effect of mandatory HACCP implementation on process hygiene indicators in meat establishments. Significant reductions were observed in the number of hygiene indicator organisms on all types of surfaces examined and types of meat establishments investigated. The improvement of process hygiene was articulated as aerobic colony count reduction of at least 1.0 log10 CFU/cm(2) for food contact surfaces and over 2 log10 CFU/cm(2) for cooling facilities (refrigerators, freezers and other meat cooling devices). Meat handlers' hands hygiene was least positively affected. The period after mandatory HACCP implementation was also marked by a steady decline of positive Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus samples. Process hygiene advances for meat processing plants and meat retail facilities were similar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation between slaughter practices and the distribution of Salmonella and hygiene indicator bacteria on pig carcasses during slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasino, W; De Zutter, L; Mattheus, W; Bertrand, S; Uyttendaele, M; Van Damme, I

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the distribution of hygiene indicator bacteria and Salmonella on pig carcasses. Moreover, the relation between hygiene indicator counts and Salmonella presence as well as associations between specific slaughter practices and carcass contamination were determined for each carcass area. Seven Belgian pig slaughterhouses were visited three times to swab five randomly selected carcasses at nine different areas, after evisceration and trimming. Information about slaughter practices was collected using a questionaire. In all samples, the E. coli and Salmonella presence was analyzed and Enterobacteriaceae and total aerobic bacteria were quantified. Average total aerobic counts ranged from 3.1 (loin, pelvic duct, ham) to 4.4 log 10  CFU/cm 2 (foreleg). Median Enterobacteriaceae numbers varied between 0.4 (ham) an 1.8 log 10  CFU/cm 2 (foreleg). E. coli and Salmonella presence ranged from 15% (elbow) to 89% (foreleg) and 5% (elbow) to 38% (foreleg), respectively. Positive relations were found between hygiene indicator counts and Salmonella presence at the head, sternum, loin and throat. Several slaughter practices, such as splitting the head and incising tonsils, were associated with higher levels of hygiene indicator bacteria and Salmonella. These findings can be used to educate slaughterhouse personnel and estimate the public health risk involved in consumption of different pork cuts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hand rub consumption and hand hygiene compliance are not indicators of pathogen transmission in intensive care units.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckmanns, T; Schwab, F; Bessert, J; Wettstein, R; Behnke, M; Grundmann, Hajo; Rüden, H; Gastmeier, P

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether nosocomial infection (NI) rates, hand hygiene compliance rates and the amount of alcohol-based hand rub used for hand disinfection are useful indicators of pathogen transmission in intensive care units (ICUs), and whether they could be helpful

  10. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassays carried out on solid and liquid substrates: assessing the factor "indicator microorganism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosiadis Ioannis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful application of growth inhibition techniques for quantitative determination of bacteriocins relies on the sensitivity of the applied indicator microorganism to the bacteriocin to which is exposed. However, information on indicator microorganisms' performance and comparisons in bacteriocin determination with bioassays is almost non-existing in the literature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the parameter "indicator microorganism" in bioassays carried out on solid -agar diffusion assay- and liquid -turbidometric assay- substrates, applied in the quantification of the most studied bacteriocin nisin. Results The performance of characterized microorganisms of known sources, belonging to the genera of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Leuconostoc, has been assessed in this work in the assays of plate agar diffusion and turbidometry. Dose responses and sensitivities were examined and compared over a range of assay variables in standard bacteriocin solutions, fermentation broth filtrates and processed food samples. Measurements on inhibition zones produced on agar plates were made by means of digital image analysis. The data produced were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA technique and pairwise comparisons tests. Sensitivity limits and linearity of responses to bacteriocin varied significantly among different test-microorganisms in both applied methods, the lower sensitivity limits depending on both the test-microorganism and the applied method. In both methods, however, only two of the nine tested microorganisms (Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436 and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 25740 were sensitive to very low concentrations of the bacteriocin and produced a linear-type of response in all kinds of samples used in this work. In all cases, very low bacteriocin concentrations, e.g. 1 IU/ml nisin, were more accurately determined in the turbidometric assay. Conclusion The present work shows that in

  11. The effect of anaerobic digestion and storage on indicator microorganisms in swine and dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Annamaria; Gusmara, Claudia; Gardoni, Davide; Zaninelli, Mauro; Tambone, Fulvia; Sala, Vittorio; Guarino, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestion and storage on indicator microorganisms in swine and dairy excreta. Samples were collected every 90 days for 15 months at eight farms, four pig, and four dairy farms, four of them having a biogas plant. Moreover, to evaluate storage effects on samples, 20 l of manure and slurry taken at each farm (digested manure only in farms with a biogas plant) were stored in a controlled climatic chamber at 18 °C, for 6 months. The bacterial load and the chemical-physical characteristics of excreta were evaluated at each sampling time, stored slurry, and manure were sampled and analyzed every 2 months. A high variability of the concentration of bacteria in the different excreta types was observed during the experiment, mainly depending on the type and time of treatment. No sample revealed either the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or of Salmonella, usually linked to the temporary rearing of infected animals in facilities. Anaerobic digestion and storage affected in a significant way the reduction of indicator bacteria like lactobacilli, coliforms, and streptococci. Anaerobic digestion lowered coliforms in pig slurry (- 2.80 log, P manure (- 2.44 log, P < 0.001) and in pig slurry (- 1.43 log, P < 0.05), and lactobacilli in pig slurry (- 3.03 log, P < 0.05). Storage lowered coliforms and the other indicators counts, in particular in fresh wastes, while clostridia did not show a reduction in concentration.

  12. Evaluation of Two Methods in Food Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Diandra Graciela; Centro Universitário de Votuporanga - UNIFEV; Silva, Nayara Bessa Martins da; Centro Universitário de Votuporanga - UNIFEV; Rezende, Catia; Centro Universitário de Votuporanga - UNIFEV; Jacobucci, Helaine Beatriz; Centro Universitário de Votuporanga - UNIFEV; Fontana, Eloni Aparecida; Centro Universitário de Votuporanga - UNIFEV

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms in food may be a risk to human health. Pathogenic microorganisms reach food by several routes, always indicating poor hygiene during production, storage, processing, distribution and handling at the household level. Current analysis investigates two techniques (water and soap and sodium hypochlorite) used in washing fruits and vegetables to remove fecal or total coliforms. Samples of grape, pear, apple, guava, tomato and lettuces were obtained from commercial establishments in ...

  13. Disentangling quality and safety indicator data: a longitudinal, comparative study of hand hygiene compliance and accreditation outcomes in 96 Australian hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Debono, Deborah; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The study aims are twofold. First, to investigate the suitability of hand hygiene as an indicator of accreditation outcomes and, second, to test the hypothesis that hospitals with better accreditation outcomes achieve higher hand hygiene compliance rates. Design A retrospective, longitudinal, multisite comparative survey. Setting Acute public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Participants 96 acute hospitals with accreditation survey results from two surveys during 2009–2012 and submitted data for more than four hand hygiene audits between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes Our primary outcome comprised observational hand hygiene compliance data from eight audits during 2010–2013. The explanatory variables in our multilevel regression model included: accreditation outcomes and scores for the infection control standard; timing of the surveys; and hospital size and activity. Results Average hand hygiene compliance rates increased from 67.7% to 80.3% during the study period (2010–2013), with 46.7% of hospitals achieving target compliance rates of 70% in audit 1, versus 92.3% in audit 8. Average hand hygiene rates at small hospitals were 7.8 percentage points (pp) higher than those at the largest hospitals (phand hygiene rates, accreditation outcomes and infection control scores is less clear. Conclusions Our results indicate that accreditation outcomes and hand hygiene audit data are measuring different parts of the quality and safety spectrum. Understanding what is being measured when selecting indicators to assess the impact of accreditation is critical as focusing on accreditation results would discount successful hand hygiene implementation by smaller hospitals. Conversely, relying on hand hygiene results would discount the infection control related research and leadership investment by larger hospitals. Our hypothesis appears to be confounded by an accreditation programme that makes it more difficult for smaller hospitals to achieve high infection

  14. Study of sequential disinfection for the inactivation of protozoa and indicator microorganisms in wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Corrêa Medeiros

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sewage disinfection has the primary objective of inactivating pathogenic organisms to prevent the dissemination of waterborne diseases. This study analyzed individual disinfection, with chlorine and ultraviolet radiation, and sequential disinfection (chlorine-UV radiation. The tests were conducted with anaerobic effluent in batch, in laboratory scale, with two dosages of chlorine (10 and 20 mg L-1 and UV (2.5 and 6.1 Wh m-3. In addition, to guarantee the presence of cysts in the tests, 104 cysts per liter of Giardia spp. were inoculated. The resistance order was as follows: E. coli = Total Coliforms < Clostridium perfringens < Giardia spp.. Furthermore, synergistic effects reached 0.06 to 1.42 log of inactivation in sequential disinfection for both the most resistant microorganisms.

  15. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  16. [Hygienic assessment of indicators of the nutritional status of Monchegorsk school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, A V; Mikhaĭlov, I G

    1997-01-01

    Diets, energy expenditures, physical and mental performance, anthropometric indices, ascorbic acid excretion, and morbidity rates were studied in 7-9-year-old schoolchildren of Monchegorsk, Murmansk Region. The alimentary features found served as the basis for developing sanitary recommendations to optimize diets and to promote children's health.

  17. Analyzing indicator microorganisms, antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, and regrowth potential of foodborne pathogens in various organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cortney; Heringa, Spencer; Kim, Jinkyung; Jiang, Xiuping

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzed various organic fertilizers for indicator microorganisms, pathogens, and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli, and evaluated the growth potential of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in fertilizers. A microbiological survey was conducted on 103 organic fertilizers from across the United States. Moisture content ranged from approximately 1% to 86.4%, and the average pH was 7.77. The total aerobic mesophiles ranged from approximately 3 to 9 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g. Enterobacteriaceae populations were in the range of fertilizer, respectively, whereas E. coli O157:H7 grew approximately 4.6, 4.0, 4.0, and 4.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Our results revealed that the microbiological quality of organic fertilizers varies greatly, with some fertilizers containing antibiotic resistant E. coli and a few supporting the growth of foodborne pathogens after reintroduction into the fertilizer.

  18. Hygienic quality of raw milk with regard to legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of raw milk is basic indicator of hygienic conditionduring processing and handling of milk as well as economical valorisation of animal product as a raw material in dairy products manufacture. Thus, total bacterial count in 1 mL of raw milk is used in modern legislation in milk pricing system. Apart from the economical and technological reasons hygienic quality of raw milk is also important from the health safety issue. In this paper microbiological quality legislation, set down by the EU and Croatian directives, are presented. Apart form the total microorganisms number the normative on the somatic cell number in row milk, as one of the quality indicators, are also presented. Pricing system of raw milk with regard to hygienic quality, current legislation especially from the point of view of a new legislation on row milk quality as well as suggestions to faster association into progressive dairy, legislation are listed.

  19. Quantification of pathogenic microorganisms and microbial indicators in three wastewater reclamation and managed aquifer recharge facilities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levantesi, Caterina; La Mantia, Rosanna; Masciopinto, Costantino; Böckelmann, Uta; Ayuso-Gabella, M Neus; Salgot, Miquel; Tandoi, Valter; Van Houtte, Emmanuel; Wintgens, Thomas; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2010-10-01

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is becoming an attractive option for water storage in water reuse processes as it provides an additional treatment barrier to improve recharged water quality and buffers seasonal variations of water supply and demand. To achieve a better understanding about the level of pathogenic microorganisms and their relation with microbial indicators in these systems, five waterborne pathogens and four microbial indicators were monitored over one year in three European MAR sites operated with reclaimed wastewater. Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts were found in 63.2 and 36.7% of the samples respectively. Salmonella spp. and helminth eggs were more rarely detected (16.3% and 12.5% of the samples respectively) and Campylobacter cells were only found in 2% of samples. At the Belgian site advanced tertiary treatment technology prior to soil aquifer treatment (SAT) produced effluent of drinking water quality, with no presence of the analysed pathogens. At the Spanish and Italian sites amelioration of microbiological water quality was observed between the MAR injectant and the recovered water. In particular Giardia levels decreased from 0.24-6.14 cysts/L to 0-0.01 cysts/L and from 0.4-6.2 cysts/L to 0-0.07 cysts/L in the Spanish and Italian sites respectively. Salmonella gene copies and Giardia cysts were however found in the water for final use and/or the recovered groundwater water at the two sites. Significant positive Spearman correlations (p<0.05, r(s) range: 0.45-0.95) were obtained, in all the three sites, between Giardia cysts and the most resistant microbial markers, Clostridium spores and bacteriophages. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A new indicator of the oral hygiene habits of disabled persons: relevance of the carer's personal appearance and interest in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limeres, J; Martínez, F; Feijoo, J F; Ramos, I; Liñares, A; Diz, P

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether there is a relationship between the oral hygiene habits of individuals with severe disability the carer's personal appearance and interest in oral health. The study group was formed of 60 disabled persons and their respective carers who came for the first time to consultation in the Special-Needs Dentistry Unit of the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. All the carers answered a standardised questionnaire of 28 questions divided into four sections: disabled individual's demographic data, disabled individual's general medical details, social aspects of the carer (personal appearance of the carer and interest in oral health), and disabled individual's oral hygiene habits. The personal appearance of the carers and their interest in the disabled individual's oral health were evaluated using independent scales designed specifically for the study, with five binary items in each scale. The carer's personal appearance and interest in the disabled individual's oral health showed a statistically significant relationship with the individual's oral hygiene habits, particularly with respect to the frequency and duration of toothbrushing, need for physical restraint during toothbrushing, use of a manual toothbrush and use of toothpaste. The carer's personal appearance and interest in the disabled individual's oral health are good indicators of the oral hygiene habits of an individual with severe disability. Consideration should be given to the inclusion of these aspects as a complementary element of the dental record. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Advance in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1975-01-01

    The development is reviewed of radiation hygiene in Czechoslovakia during the past twenty years since the formation of the branch as an independent discipline. The responsibilities of individual radiation hygiene research institutes in the country are indicated and the main tasks that have been solved so far are briefly outlined, including the research into the incidence of pulmonary cancer in uranium miners in which Czechoslovak radiation hygiene ranks first in the world. (L.O.)

  2. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hygiene Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Hygiene Basics What's in this article? Oily Hair Sweat ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  3. Microorganism immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Live metabolically active microorganisms are immobilized on a solid support by contacting particles of aggregate material with a water dispersible polyelectrolyte such as gelatin, crosslinking the polyelectrolyte by reacting it with a crosslinking agent such as glutaraldehyde to provide a crosslinked coating on the particles of aggregate material, contacting the coated particles with live microorganisms and incubating the microorganisms in contact with the crosslinked coating to provide a coating of metabolically active microorganisms. The immobilized microorganisms have continued growth and reproduction functions.

  4. Association between Lameness and Indicators of Dairy Cow Welfare Based on Locomotion Scoring, Body and Hock Condition, Leg Hygiene and Lying Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed B. Sadiq

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cow welfare is an important consideration for optimal production in the dairy industry. Lameness affects the welfare of dairy herds by limiting productivity. Whilst the application of LS systems helps in identifying lame cows, the technique meets with certain constraints, ranging from the detection of mild gait changes to on-farm practical applications. Recent studies have shown that certain animal-based measures considered in welfare assessment, such as body condition, hock condition and leg hygiene, are associated with lameness in dairy cows. Furthermore, behavioural changes inherent in lame cows, especially the comfort in resting and lying down, have been shown to be vital indicators of cow welfare. Highlighting the relationship between lameness and these welfare indicators could assist in better understanding their role, either as risk factors or as consequences of lameness. Nevertheless, since the conditions predisposing a cow to lameness are multifaceted, it is vital to cite the factors that could influence the on-farm practical application of such welfare indicators in lameness studies. This review begins with the welfare consequences of lameness by comparing normal and abnormal gait as well as the use of LS system in detecting lame cows. Animal-based measures related to cow welfare and links with changes in locomotion as employed in lameness research are discussed. Finally, alterations in lying behaviour are also presented as indicators of lameness with the corresponding welfare implication in lame cows.

  5. Association between Lameness and Indicators of Dairy Cow Welfare Based on Locomotion Scoring, Body and Hock Condition, Leg Hygiene and Lying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanoon, Siti Z.; Shaik Mossadeq, Wan Mastura; Mansor, Rozaihan; Syed-Hussain, Sharifah Salmah

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Lameness is a major welfare issue in dairy cows. Locomotion scoring (LS) is mostly used in identifying lame cows based on gait and postural changes. However, lameness shares some important associations with body condition, hock condition, leg hygiene and behavioral changes such as lying behavior. These measures are considered animal-based indicators in assessing welfare in dairy cows. This review discusses lameness as a welfare problem, the use of LS, and the relationship with the aforementioned welfare assessment protocols. Such information could be useful in depicting the impact on cow welfare as well as in reducing the occurrence of lameness in dairy herds. Abstract Dairy cow welfare is an important consideration for optimal production in the dairy industry. Lameness affects the welfare of dairy herds by limiting productivity. Whilst the application of LS systems helps in identifying lame cows, the technique meets with certain constraints, ranging from the detection of mild gait changes to on-farm practical applications. Recent studies have shown that certain animal-based measures considered in welfare assessment, such as body condition, hock condition and leg hygiene, are associated with lameness in dairy cows. Furthermore, behavioural changes inherent in lame cows, especially the comfort in resting and lying down, have been shown to be vital indicators of cow welfare. Highlighting the relationship between lameness and these welfare indicators could assist in better understanding their role, either as risk factors or as consequences of lameness. Nevertheless, since the conditions predisposing a cow to lameness are multifaceted, it is vital to cite the factors that could influence the on-farm practical application of such welfare indicators in lameness studies. This review begins with the welfare consequences of lameness by comparing normal and abnormal gait as well as the use of LS system in detecting lame cows. Animal-based measures related to

  6. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  7. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research ph...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  8. Hand rub dose needed for a single disinfection varies according to product: a bias in benchmarking using indirect hand hygiene indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Raphaële; Aupee, Martine; Erb, Martine; Bettinger, Anne; Jouve, Alice

    2012-12-01

    The 3ml volume currently used as the hand hygiene (HH) measure has been explored as the pertinent dose for an indirect indicator of HH compliance. A multicenter study was conducted in order to ascertain the required dose using different products. The average contact duration before drying was measured and compared with references. Effective hand coverage had to include the whole hand and the wrist. Two durations were chosen as points of reference: 30s, as given by guidelines, and the duration validated by the European standard EN 1500. Each product was to be tested, using standardized procedures, by three nosocomial infection prevention teams, for three different doses (3, 2 and 1.5ml). Data from 27 products and 1706 tests were analyzed. Depending on the product, the dose needed to ensure a 30-s contact duration in 75% of tests ranging from 2ml to more than 3ml, and to ensure a contact duration exceeding the EN 1500 times in 75% of tests ranging from 1.5ml to more than 3ml. The aftermath interpretation is the following: if different products are used, the volume utilized does not give an unbiased estimation of the HH compliance. Other compliance evaluation methods remain necessary for efficient benchmarking. Copyright © 2012 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The 'My five moments for hand hygiene' concept for the overcrowded setting in resource-limited healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, S; Pittet, D; Sax, H; McLaws, M L

    2015-10-01

    Hand hygiene is a core activity of patient safety for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). To standardize hand hygiene practices globally the World Health Organization (WHO) released Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care and introduced the 'My five moments for hand hygiene' concept to define indications for hand hygiene rooted in an evidence-based model for transmission of micro-organisms by healthcare workers' (HCWs) hands. Central to the concept is the division of the healthcare environment into two geographical care zones, the patient zone and the healthcare zone, that requires the HCW to comply with specific hand hygiene moments. In resource-limited, overcrowded healthcare settings inadequate or no spatial separation between beds occurs frequently. These conditions challenge the HCW's ability to visualize and delineate patient zones. The 'My five moments for hand hygiene' concept has been adapted for these conditions with the aim of assisting hand hygiene educators, auditors, and HCWs to minimize ambiguity regarding shared patient zones and achieve the ultimate goal set by the WHO Guidelines--the reduction of infectious risks. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  11. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  12. Analysis and control of macro - and microorganisms interactions for missions of different duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, L.; Pechurkin, N.

    In developing different t pes of life support systems for use in space or extremey environments Earth, researchers should pay attention to the functional state and stability of such systems. Special attention has been given to the interactions between macro- and microorganisms. Microorganisms are considered the most suitable indicators of a system's health and its component links. We can divide all space missions into types by which the behavior of man microbe interactions may be categorized: short missions and long ones. For short missions sanitary and hygiene procedures can be used to control the microflora of open and / or physico -chemical systems of life support. F r more prolonged missions hygieneo provisions may become inadequate and opportunistic infection occur rapidly. In general we should understand that the task of maintaining the heals of human being under conditions of stress is not only a question of sanitation and hygiene, but also a problem of the ecological balance within the habitat.

  13. Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance is Associated with the Change of Perception toward Hand Hygiene among Medical Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygiene compliance and perceptions toward hand hygiene among medical personnel were compared between the second quarter of 2009 (before the start of a hand hygiene promotion program) and the second quarter of 2012. We assessed adherence to hand hygiene among medical personnel quarterly according to the WHO recommended method for direct observation. Also, we used a modified self-report questionnaire to collect perception data. Results Hand hygiene compliance among physicians and nurses improved significantly from 19.0% in 2009 to 74.5% in 2012 (P Hand hygiene compliance among the medical personnel continued to improve, with a slight decline in 2013. Perceptions toward hand hygiene improved significantly between 2009 and 2012. Specifically, improvements were evident in intention to adhere to hand hygiene, knowledge about hand hygiene methods, knowledge about hand hygiene indications including care of a dirty and a clean body site on the same patient, perceived behavioral and subjective norms, positive attitude toward hand hygiene promotion campaign, perception of difficulty in adhering to hand hygiene, and motivation to improve adherence to hand hygiene. Conclusions The examined hand hygiene promotion program resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. The improved perception increased hand hygiene compliance. Especially, the perception of being a role model for other colleagues is very important to improve hand hygiene

  14. [Investigation of the safety of microbial biotechnological products and their hygienic regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omel'ianets', T H; Kovalenko, N K; Holovach, T M

    2008-01-01

    Peculiarities of influence of microbial preparations based on microorganisms of different taxonomic groups on the warm-blooded organisms are considered, that is necessary to take into account when developing the strategy of toxico-hygienic studying of these preparations and when substanting hygienic standards in industrial objects and in the environment. The possibility to simplify the methodical scheme of the toxicological estimation and the hygienic regulation of microbial preparations on the basis of soil nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is discussed.

  15. Advancing education in dental hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battrell, Ann; Lynch, Ann; Steinbach, Pam; Bessner, Sue; Snyder, Josh; Majeski, Jean

    2014-06-01

    The changing health care environment and societal imperatives indicate the need for transformative change within the dental hygiene profession to serve the emerging needs of the public. The American Dental Hygienists' Association is leading the way toward meaningful change. The American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) has as its vision the integration of dental hygienists into the health care delivery system as essential primary care providers to expand access to oral health care. This article provides data on current dental hygiene education programs and those in development. Also included is a discussion regarding how the dental hygiene profession can better serve the health and wellness needs of society by transforming the way graduates are prepared for the future. ADHA's dental hygiene survey center data, policies and a futuristic analysis plus a review of the professional literature describe the current state of dental hygiene education and the profession. A discussion of societal, health care and educational trends that creates the imperative for transformation of the dental hygiene profession is provided. Ultimately, the purpose of advancing education in dental hygiene is to achieve better oral and overall health for more people. The profession's responsibility to the public includes evaluating its own ability to provide care and taking the steps necessary to ensure its maximum effectiveness. ADHA is leading this process for dental hygienists in diverse ways. It is imperative that the dental hygiene profession understands and embraces the changing health care environment. Through open dialog and the sharing of evidence the professional path will be determined along with forward movement for the benefit of society and the dental hygiene profession. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  17. Dnepropetrovsk hygienic school: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beletskaya E.M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents historical analysis of formation of hygiene school of Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy over the 100 year period - from formation of Katerinoslav province sanitary district council, as a unique self-government social organization in XIX century to the present. The basic stages of its development, including foundation of Hygiene Courses at High Mining School, their transformation into department of general hygiene, social hygiene and hygiene of labor in Katerinoslav Medical Academy in 1922, foundation of separate departments of hygiene in 1940-1948, their reorganization at the end of XX – beginning of XXI centuries are outlined. It is established, that Dnipropetrovsk hygiene school during its existence formed a great number of outstanding scientists, more than 100 dissertations in different directions devoted to hygienic diagnostics of technogenically changing environment, its impact on human health as well as hygienic control levers and health strengthening of population of industrial areas were defended. Scientific contribution of prominent scientists and teachers, their achievements and discoveries in the field of preventive medicine, role in the formation of preventive world outlook of students are estimated. At the XIV hygienic congress 30 hygienists were recognized as leading scientists of Ukraine over XX century, seven of them are from Dnipropetrovsk hygiene school; this indicates its importance in the noble cause of serving public health.

  18. Cleanliness in context: reconciling hygiene with a modern microbial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegrift, Roo; Bateman, Ashley C; Siemens, Kyla N; Nguyen, May; Wilson, Hannah E; Green, Jessica L; Van Den Wymelenberg, Kevin G; Hickey, Roxana J

    2017-07-14

    The concept of hygiene is rooted in the relationship between cleanliness and the maintenance of good health. Since the widespread acceptance of the germ theory of disease, hygiene has become increasingly conflated with sterilization. In reviewing studies across the hygiene literature (most often hand hygiene), we found that nearly all studies of hand hygiene utilize bulk reduction in bacterial load as a proxy for reduced transmission of pathogenic organisms. This treatment of hygiene may be insufficient in light of recent microbial ecology research, which has demonstrated that humans have intimate and evolutionarily significant relationships with a diverse assemblage of microorganisms (our microbiota). The human skin is home to a diverse and specific community of microorganisms, which include members that exist across the ecological spectrum from pathogen through commensal to mutualist. Most evidence suggests that the skin microbiota is likely of direct benefit to the host and only rarely exhibits pathogenicity. This complex ecological context suggests that the conception of hygiene as a unilateral reduction or removal of microbes has outlived its usefulness. As such, we suggest the explicit definition of hygiene as "those actions and practices that reduce the spread or transmission of pathogenic microorganisms, and thus reduce the incidence of disease."

  19. Hygiene habits through time

    OpenAIRE

    Kalan, Petra

    2013-01-01

    In this work I did a research about hygiene habits of people and their home environment. The work presents how the hygiene habits changed in people home environment through time. The work presents changes of the body hygiene standards adopted by people from the middle ages onward. Todays customs are quite different from the ones we had some time ago. Moreover, hygiene of living environment has also changes which resulted into lower death rate and death illness related to bad hygiene among pop...

  20. Evaluation of food storage racks available on the Polish market in the hygienic context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesińska, Wiesława; Tomaszewska, Marzena; Bilska, Beata; Trafiałek, Joanna; Dziadek, Michał

    Providing safe food products to the consumer depends on the material and technology used and adherence to hygienic practices, throughout the production process. The degree of microbial contamination of a surface is an important indicator of equipment cleanliness and effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection. Used material, construction solutions and quality of the applied devices also have an effect on hygienic status. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the design and construction material of selected food storage racks, available on the Polish market, on their hygienic status. The study was based on determination of the capability of microbial growth on the surface of the racks and the effectiveness of their cleaning. Microbiological cleanliness on the surface of the racks was monitored by the contact plates which are able to estimate the total number of icroorganisms. Examination of effectiveness of cleaning was conducted by the use of ATP bioluminescence method. This experiment has proven a significant influence of adopted construction solutions on the hygienic status of the examined racks. Presence of antibacterial layer and a choice of the appropriate construction material characterized by a low surface roughness impedes the microbial growth and increases the effectiveness of cleaning. Design solutions have significant impact on the hygienic status of shelves. Selection of a suitable material for the construction of racks can greatly reduce the possibility of the development of microorganism, despite the low efficiency of the cleaning. The application of antimicrobial coatings inhibits microbial growth.

  1. Prevention of gingivitis: Oral hygiene and dentifrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sälzer, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    At the basis of Oral Health lies daily oral hygiene self-care with the result, if correctly performed, of plaque and gingivitis reduction. Epidemiological studies indicate that the level of oral hygiene in the general population has increased over the last decades. However, there still appears to be

  2. Clothing and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

  3. Hand hygiene strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Yazaji, Eskandar Alex

    2011-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance. Keywords: hand hygiene; healthcare associated infections; multidisciplinary program; system change; accountability; education; feedback(Published: 18 July 2011)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2011, 1: 72...

  4. Hand hygiene in emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Jonathan; Millin, Michael G; Bissell, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) affect millions of patients annually (World Health Organization. Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare. Geneva: WHO Press; 2009). Hand hygiene compliance of clinical staff has been identified by numerous studies as a major contributing factor to HAIs around the world. Infection control and hand hygiene in the prehospital environment can also contribute to patient harm and spread of infections. Emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners are not monitored as closely as hospital personnel in terms of hand hygiene training and compliance. Their ever-changing work environment is less favorable to traditional hospital-based aseptic techniques and education. This study aimed to determine the current state of hand hygiene practices among EMS providers and to provide recommendations for improving practices in the emergency health services environment. This study was a prospective, observational prevalence study and survey, conducted over a 2-month period. We selected participants from visits to three selected hospital emergency departments in the mid-Atlantic region. There were two data components to the study: a participant survey and hand swabs for pathogenic cultures. This study recruited a total sample of 62 participants. Overall, the study revealed that a significant number of EMS providers (77%) have a heavy bacterial load on their hands after patient care. All levels of providers had a similar distribution of bacterial load. Survey results revealed that few providers perform hand hygiene before (34%) or in between patients (24%), as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. This study demonstrates that EMS providers are potential vectors of microorganisms if proper hand hygiene is not performed properly. Since EMS providers treat a variety of patients and operate in a variety of environments, providers may be exposed to potentially pathogenic organisms, serving as vectors for the exposure of

  5. Effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tongue cleaning is an important aspect of oral hygiene maintenance along with other mechanical and chemical aids. These methods have an influence on microorganism count in saliva. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of three different oral hygiene techniques on Viridans streptococci. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial with 45 study subjects aged between 14 and 16 years and were randomly allocated into three groups: Group A - plastic tongue scraper, Group B - chlorhexidine mouthwash along with plastic tongue scraper, and Group C - chlorhexidine mouthwash. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected on the 1st, 7th, and 15th day before routine oral hygiene practices. Saliva samples were collected and incubated for 48 h on itis Salivarius(MS agar. Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus salivarius were counted. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean count of S. mitis, S. mutans, and S. salivarius for Group A, B, and C was found to be significant (P < 0.001 when compared between 1st, 7th, and 15th day. Between-groups comparisons revealed a significant difference between Groups A and C, B and C (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in bacterial count in all the participants indicating that all the three methods are useful in improving oral hygiene. Combination technique was found to be most effective.

  6. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified......Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Conclusions. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt...

  7. Microorganisms in food technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A H

    1981-11-01

    Man has been using microorganisms for thousands of years to make bread, cheese, beer, wine, etc. Today, microorganisms can be specially grown or genetically manipulated so as to synthesize high-quality proteins even from low-grade basic materials.

  8. Rhamnolipids and lactonic sophorolipids: natural antimicrobial surfactants for oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, M; Moya-Ramírez, I; Moens, H; Roelants, S; Soetaert, W; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2017-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of rhamnolipid (mixture of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid congeners), purified monorhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid and lactonic sophorolipid biosurfactants against pathogens important for oral hygiene. Acquired and produced biosurfactants were fully characterized to allow the antimicrobial activity to be assigned to the biosurfactant congeners. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the resazurin-aided microdilution method. Mixed rhamnolipid JBR425 (MR) and lactonic sophorolipids (LSLs) demonstrated the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) which ranged between 100 and 400 μg ml -1 against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Neisseria mucosa and Streptococcus sanguinis. Combining these biosurfactants with standard antimicrobial agents namely chlorhexidine, sodium lauryl sulphate, tetracycline HCl and ciprofloxacin showed a dramatic drop in the MIC values. In addition, in vitro studies demonstrated the biosurfactants' ability to prevent and disrupt oral pathogens biofilms. The increased permeability of microorganisms treated with biosurfactant, as shown using bisbenzimide dye, in part explains the inhibition effect. The results demonstrate that rhamnolipids and LSLs have the ability to inhibit oral pathogens both in planktonic and oral biofilm states. The findings indicate the potential value of biosurfactants for both oral hygiene and the pharmaceutical industries since there is a serious need to reduce the reliance on synthetic antimicrobials and antibiotics. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Microorganisms from hands of traditional Chinese medical doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In a central hospital, the heavy clinical workload makes one to overlook its hazard to health and can to a large extent promote the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. It is not uncommon however, to observe practices that deviate from normal standards of hygiene. Hand contact between doctors of TCM ...

  10. Hand hygiene knowledge and practices of nursing students in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirudeen, A M A; Koh, Josephine W N; Lau, Adeline Lee Chin; Li, Wenjie; Lim, Lay Seng; Ow, Cynthia Yi Xuan

    2012-10-01

    Hand hygiene is an important means of preventing nosocomial infections. Studies have shown a hand hygiene among health care workers. A hand hygiene survey was administered to nursing students in a tertiary institution in Singapore. The results of this survey strongly indicate that nursing students understand the importance of hand hygiene compliance and perceive clinical internship programs and practical laboratory sessions to be effective methods of hand hygiene education. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J., E-mail: rosemarymj@lifecarehll.com

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  12. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  13. Improving the hygienic quality of chicken through radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgby-Tetteh, W.

    2010-06-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological processes for the reduction of microorganisms in food, It can be used to improve the safety of food products, and to extend their shelf lives. The aim of this study was to improve the hygienic quality of chicken through radiation processing. As part of the study a microbial assessment of broiler chicken thighs from three retail outlets (supermarket, local markets and farms) was conducted. The total viable count and total coliform counts were determined. Hygienic quality indicator organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and microbial counts made. Radiation sensitivity test to determine the D 10 (decimal reduction does) of E. coli on chicken at refrigeration and frozen temperature were conducted. D 10 values were 0.22 ± 0.02 and 0.32 ± 0.03 kGy at refrigerated and frozen temperatures respectively. A storage test consisting of an uninoculated pack experiment and a challenge test to explore the effect of irradiation and frozen food storage on the total viable count and survival of E. coli was conducted. Chicken thigh samples were treated with 0 (non irradiated), 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy of gamma irradiation and held frozen for 56 days. The control and irradiated samples were stored at -18 o C and underwent microbial analysis and sensory evaluation at 7 days intervals. It was observed that irradiation and frozen storage reduced microbial loads. There were significant differences in sensory quality characteristics during freezing storage in chicken meat. The combination of irradiation and frozen storage resulted in greater overall reductions on microbial loads thus improving hygienic quality. (au)

  14. Effects of materials containing antimicrobial compounds on food hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    Surfaces with microorganisms may transfer unwanted microorganisms to food through cross-contamination during processing and preparation. A high hygienic status of surfaces that come in contact with food is important in order to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. During the last decade, products containing antimicrobial compounds, such as cutting boards, knives, countertops, kitchen utensils, refrigerators, and conveyor belts, have been introduced to the market, claiming hygienic effects. Such products are often referred to as "treated articles." Here we review various aspects related to treated articles intended for use during preparation and processing of food. Regulatory issues and methods to assess antibacterial effects are covered. Different concepts for treated articles as well as their antibacterial activity are reviewed. The effects of products with antimicrobials on food hygiene and safety are discussed. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  15. Proteolysis in hyperthermophilic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Ward

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are found in every cell, where they recognize and break down unneeded or abnormal polypeptides or peptide-based nutrients within or outside the cell. Genome sequence data can be used to compare proteolytic enzyme inventories of different organisms as they relate to physiological needs for protein modification and hydrolysis. In this review, we exploit genome sequence data to compare hyperthermophilic microorganisms from the euryarchaeotal genus Pyrococcus, the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima. An overview of the proteases in these organisms is given based on those proteases that have been characterized and on putative proteases that have been identified from genomic sequences, but have yet to be characterized. The analysis revealed both similarities and differences in the mechanisms utilized for proteolysis by each of these hyperthermophiles and indicated how these mechanisms relate to proteolysis in less thermophilic cells and organisms.

  16. Kitchen hygiene in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, R.R.; Kusumaningrum, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    More and more data are available indicating that numerous (infectious) diseases are related to the home environment. Airborne microorganisms (bacteria, fungi), mites (in sheets or carpets), and (parts of) insects and beetles may be the cause of respiratory diseases such as asthma. In Europe and

  17. [Hygiene in otorhinolaryngology: Requirements and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, E; Heudorf, U

    2015-12-01

    Considering the physiological contamination of skin and mucous membranes in the ear, nose, and throat region by facultative pathogen microorganisms, as well as the increase in multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO), it is mandatory that hygienic procedures be observed in ENT institutions, in order to prevent transmission of bacteria and infections in patients. General guidelines for hygiene in otorhinolaryngology are presented based on the recommendations published by the German Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO). These encompass hand hygiene, surface disinfection, and reprocessing of medical devices. The correct reprocessing of the various components of ENT treatment units (including endoscopes, water bearing systems) is reported. Although law requires and KRINKO recommends that manufacturers of medical devices publish instructions for reprocessing their products, these reprocessing recommendations are often insufficient. Manufacturers should thus be called upon to improve their recommendations. In this paper, the requirements for handling of ENT treatment units are compared with the observations made by the Public Health Department in 7 ENT clinics and 32 ENT practices in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in 2014.

  18. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spot-checks to measure general hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Ina L; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A variety of hygiene behaviors are fundamental to the prevention of diarrhea. We used spot-checks in a survey of 761 households in Burundi to examine whether something we could call general hygiene practice is responsible for more specific hygiene behaviors, ranging from handwashing to sweeping the floor. Using structural equation modeling, we showed that clusters of hygiene behavior, such as primary caregivers' cleanliness and household cleanliness, explained the spot-check findings well. Within our model, general hygiene practice as overall concept explained the more specific clusters of hygiene behavior well. Furthermore, the higher general hygiene practice, the more likely children were to be categorized healthy (r = 0.46). General hygiene practice was correlated with commitment to hygiene (r = 0.52), indicating a strong association to psychosocial determinants. The results show that different hygiene behaviors co-occur regularly. Using spot-checks, the general hygiene practice of a household can be rated quickly and easily.

  20. Radiation hygiene in photofluorography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welde, F [The state institute of radiation hygiene, Montebello, Oslo (Norway)

    1975-04-01

    This paper comprises measurements and experiences from the surveillance of 36 photofluorographic units in Norway. Measured patient doses are given. Practical means for reducing the doses are emphasized. The radiation hygiene for the personnel in mass chest surveys is discussed.

  1. Magnetotaxy in microorganisms of Rio de Janeiro region: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, H.G. de P.L. de; Esquivel, D.M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Some characteristics of several magnetotactic microorganisms found in sediments collected in Rio de Janeiro region are presented. The study of magnetic characteristics of these microorganisms indicate some general properties of the magnetotaxy phenomenons. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Hygiene assessment of sheep slaughter cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyz-Łukasik Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine microbial contamination of mutton carcass surface with regard to the number of the slaughtered animals. The total bacterial load and Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci counts were determined. Sampling for microbiological analysis as well as detection and enumeration of each microorganism group were performed according to the Polish Standards. No significant effect of the order of the slaughtering animals during the slaughter day on total bacterial count on mutton carcass surfaces was found. The overall bacterial contamination of mutton carcasses were between 1.0 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.0 log - stage I and 2.5 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.4 log - stage III. No significant difference among the slaughter cycles, as indicated by total microbial numbers was observed. The obtained daily mean log values ranged from 4.7 × 102 (2.67 log and 7.6 × 103 (3.88 log cfu/cm2. The daily log mean values were lower than the maximal bacteria count (M set out for hygiene standard of sheep slaughter process by the Commission Regulation 2073/2005. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were recovered from 21 (65.6% samples while enterococci were identified in 28 (87.5% samples. In most cases, significant differences in the level of contamination with bacteria isolated from the carcasses at each stage of a daily slaughter cycle, were not observed. At stage III, significantly higher levels of bacterial contamination (0.86 and 1.31 log cfu/cm2 respectively were established as compared to stage I (0.37 and 0.58 log cfu/cm2 respectively. There were no Salmonella-positive samples determined. Importantly, the number of slaughtered animals during a slaughter day did not influence bacterial contamination on carcass surface if the successful application of HACCP control system was combined with the implementation of optimal sanitary supervision.

  3. Adherence to the five moments for hand hygiene among intensive care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luccas Melo de Souza

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the adherence of health professionals of an intensive care unit to the five moments for hand hygiene. Method: cross-sectional analytical study with a quantitative approach, based on secondary data from a database of a hospital infection control service at an institution in southern Brazil. A total of 793 observations were analyzed from July to December 2012. Results: hand washing was not performed in 446 (56.2% of the observations, and the adherence rate was 43.7%. The greatest adherence to hand hygiene was among the physiotherapists (53.5% and the lowest adherence was among the nursing staff (29.2%. The indications with the lowest adherence rates to hand hygiene were "before touching the patient" (18.4% and "before aseptic procedure" (20.9%. Conclusion: we conclude that adherence to hand washing does not comply with the national and international guidelines, especially when we consider the current scenario of growing infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  4. Ethics instruction in the dental hygiene curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerik, Mark G; Prajer, Renee G; Conrad, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Dental hygiene ethics is an essential component of the dental hygiene curriculum. The accreditation standards for dental hygiene education state that graduates must be competent in applying ethical concepts to the provision and/or support of oral health care services. Although the standards for entry into the profession of dental hygiene emphasize the importance of ethical reasoning, there is little published research specific to ethics instruction in dental hygiene programs. The purpose of this study was to assess how ethics is taught in the dental hygiene curriculum. A 17-item survey was designed and distributed to 261 accredited dental hygiene programs in the United States for a response rate of 56% (N=147). The survey requested that participants provide information on teaching and evaluation methodologies, didactic and clinical hours of instruction, individuals responsible for providing instruction, and the degree of emphasis placed on ethics and integration of ethical reasoning within the dental hygiene curriculum. Results of the survey reflect that dental hygiene programs devote a mean of 20. hours to teaching dental hygiene ethics in the didactic component of the curriculum. With regard to the clinical component of the curriculum, 63% of respondents indicated that 10 or less hours are devoted to ethics instruction. These results show an increase in didactic hours of instruction from previous studies where the mean hours of instruction ranged from 7 to 11.7 hours. Results showed 64% of respondents offered a separate course in ethics; however, 82% of programs surveyed indicated that ethics was incorporated into one or more dental hygiene courses with 98% utilizing dental hygiene faculty to provide instruction. Most programs utilized a variety of instructional methods to teach ethics with the majority employing class discussion and lecture (99% and 97% respectively). The type of institution-technical college, community college, four-year university with a

  5. Association of airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms withbuilding-related symptoms and water damage in 100 U.S. office buildings:Analyses of the U.S. EPA BASE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Lei, Quanhong; Cozen, Myrna O.; Shendell, DerekG.; Macher, Janet M.; Tsai, Feng C.

    2003-10-01

    Metrics of culturable airborne microorganisms for either total organisms or suspected harmful subgroups have generally not been associated with symptoms among building occupants. However, the visible presence of moisture damage or mold in residences and other buildings has consistently been associated with respiratory symptoms and other health effects. This relationship is presumably caused by adverse but uncharacterized exposures to moisture-related microbiological growth. In order to assess this hypothesis, we studied relationships in U.S. office buildings between the prevalence of respiratory and irritant symptoms, the concentrations of airborne microorganisms that require moist surfaces on which to grow, and the presence of visible water damage. For these analyses we used data on buildings, indoor environments, and occupants collected from a representative sample of 100 U.S. office buildings in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (EPA BASE) study. We created 19 alternate metrics, using scales ranging from 3-10 units, that summarized the concentrations of airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms (AMIMOs) as indicators of moisture in buildings. Two were constructed to resemble a metric previously reported to be associated with lung function changes in building occupants; the others were based on another metric from the same group of Finnish researchers, concentration cutpoints from other studies, and professional judgment. We assessed three types of associations: between AMIMO metrics and symptoms in office workers, between evidence of water damage and symptoms, and between water damage and AMIMO metrics. We estimated (as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals) the unadjusted and adjusted associations between the 19 metrics and two types of weekly, work-related symptoms--lower respiratory and mucous membrane--using logistic regression models. Analyses used the original AMIMO metrics and were

  6. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  7. Space for personal hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... into the dwelling, and in many dwellings the bathroom has developed into being the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today's housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of ‘space for hygiene’ in the 20th...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...

  8. Developing and promoting hygiene in the home and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, S F; Signorelli, C; Fara, G

    2010-01-01

    The last two decades have seen infectious diseases (IDs) moving back up the health agenda. If the burden of ID is to be contained, the responsibility must be shared by the public. The International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene (IFH) is working to raise awareness of the role of home hygiene, and promote understanding of hygiene practice. To develop a strategy for home hygiene, IFH has used the available scientific data to formulate a risk-based approach. This "targeted hygiene" approach maximises protection against infection, whilst minimising any impact on the environment from cleaning and disinfection products, minimising any risks associated antimicrobial resistance, and sustaining interaction with the microbial flora of the environment. IFH has developed a comprehensive range of materials which are being promoted through the IFH website and other channels. Analysis of website traffic indicates significant demand for home hygiene information including scientific material and information in "plain language".

  9. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  10. Introduction to radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, Ch.J.

    1978-08-01

    This document is to introduce personnel who come into contact with any radiological activities to different aspects of radiation hygiene. The basic theory of radiation physics is given and units and dose equivalents are discussed. The biological effects of ionizing radiations are described and risk analysis is introduced. The various sources of radiation to which the population is exposed are outlined. Saftey standards and legislation regarding radiation hygiene are described and the various methods and instruments for measuring radiation are given. Dosimetry and safety precautions and measures are finally discussed. (C.F.)

  11. Micro-Organ Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  12. Personal Hygiene and Vulvovaginitis in Prepubertal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemek, Fatıma; Odabaş, Dursun; Şenel, Ünal; Kocaman, Ayşe Tuba

    2016-06-01

    To determine and compare clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls. Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecological problem of childhood. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study involved 45 girls from 2-12 (5.38 ± 2.9) years old; and 26 girls from 3-12 (5.72 ± 3.1) years old as a control group. Anamnesis and physical examination were followed by vaginal smear, urine culture, and stool analyses from both groups, and the personal hygiene status and education level of the mother were determined. The most common symptoms among the patients were vaginal discharge (44.4%, vulvar erythema (37.8%), and vaginal itch (24.4%). Microorganisms, isolated from vaginal smears, were detected in 48.9% of the patients. Escherichia coli was shown in the urine culture of 3 patients with vulvovaginitis (6.70%). In microscopic stool analysis parasites were detected (45.9%). We found some relevant personal hygiene factors, such as wiping back to front (42.9%), cleaning by herself after defecation (89.3%), using toilet paper (60.7%) and wet wipes (21.4%), and bathing standing (14.3%) and sitting (46.4%) among patients. The questionnaire also showed that the children wore tight clothing (35.7%). Our findings suggest that vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls is related not only to microorganisms but also poor personal hygiene, the educational status of mothers, and specific irritants. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hygiene aspects of cosmetic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kukułowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently beauty salons offer a wide range of services, from beauty treatments starting with skin cleansing, peeling or manicure, to permanent makeup and body piercing. During all these treatments, there is a risk of infection with different diseases caused most often by Fungi (Candida albicans, pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and viruses (herpes, hepatitis B and C, and therefore the staff should use disposable equipment and sterilized tools.Aim of research. The aim of the study was to assess the hygiene conditions in a selected beauty salon. Material and methods. The research was carried out in a selected Salon in the Tri-city. The subject of microbiological analysis were the hands of beauticians, the surface of the table, the uniform, the cover of the chair for treatments for the face, clean towels and bowls for soaking feet prior to pedicure treatment. The aim of the research was to establish the total number of microorganisms (OLD, the number of yeasts and moulds, and the presence of staphylococci. Results. In the analysed material, the presence of Staphylococcus aureus was not confirmed. Among the studied samples, only slightly above 8% were free of moulds, while 25% were free of the presence of yeasts. Staphylococci settled on about 14% of the evaluated surfaces, mostly occurring on the hands of beauticians and in bowls for soaking feet. The average number of microorganisms isolated from the tips of 5 fingers amounted to 32 cfu/25 cm2. Staphylococcus epidermidis was present on the hands in more than 60% of the samples. Only about 7% of the samples were found to exceed the limit for class D premises, amounting to 50 cfu/25 cm2, while on over 70% of the analysed surfaces the microorganisms reached the level of 1–25 cfu/25 cm2, which confirms high standard of provided services. Conclusions. 1 In the examined beauty salon the analyzed surfaces were clean and free of Staphylococcus aureus, but Staphylococcus

  14. Hygiene behaviour and hospitalized severe childhood diarrhoea: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Baltazar, J. C.; Tiglao, T. V.; Tempongko, S. B.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between personal and domestic hygiene behaviour and hospitalized childhood diarrhoea was examined in a case-control study of 356 cases and 357 controls from low-income families in metropolitan Manila. Indices of hygiene behaviour were defined for overall cleanliness, kitchen hygiene, and living conditions. Only the indices for overall cleanliness and kitchen hygiene were significantly associated with diarrhoea. An increasing excess risk of hospitalization with severe diarrhoe...

  15. Maintenance of an Adequate Dental Hygiene Education System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Eugene; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)

  16. Dental Hygiene Student Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lynda J.; Fellows, Avis L.

    1981-01-01

    A study to determine differences between graduating and withdrawing students in the University of Minnesota Dental Hygiene program is discussed. The identification of differences may prove useful in the selection process for future classes through identification of students likely to complete their education. (MLW)

  17. Chemical hygiene plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials

  18. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  19. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  20. Monitoring of psychrotrophic microorganisms in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Burdychová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The group of psychrotrophic microorganisms belongs to the microorganisms representing a risk for human health as well as a risk of milk and milk products spoilage. Some genus are considered to be significant producers of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. In this work, we analysed raw milk samples (n = 109 originated from 26 different suppliers from the area of North and Middle Moravia. The screening was performed from March 2007 to February 2008. The total bacterial counts (TBC ranged between 3.2 × 103 to 8.3 × 106 CFU/ml. The psychrotrophic bacterial counts (PBC ranged between 1.0 × 103 to 8.2 × 106 CFU/ml. Total of 48.62 % and 48.62 % of samples exceeded the hygienic limit in raw milk for TBC and PBC, respectively. The correlation between TBC and PBC was highly significant (r = 0.87.Significantly higher (P < 0.05 numbers of psychrotrophic microorganisms were detected in summer months. The identification of isolates was carried out and all strains were sreened for ability to produce proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. The most commonly identified genus in raw milk was of the genus Pseudomonas. The ability to produce proteases or lipases was found at 76 % identified bacterial strains.

  1. The first step in infection control is hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A dental health care worker (DHCW) has an obligation to prevent the spread of health care associated infections. Adhering to proper hand hygiene procedures, selecting appropriate hand hygiene products and the use of gloves are all important elements of infection control. The CDC Guidelines for Hand Hygiene state that improved hand hygiene practices can reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health care settings. DHCWs must also protect themselves by recognizing pitfalls such as irritants or allergies that may pose obstacles to proper hand hygiene. Occupational irritants and allergies can be caused by frequent hand washing, exposure to hand hygiene products, exposure to chemicals and shear forces associated with wearing or removing gloves. Since the primary defense against infection and transmission of pathogens is healthy, unbroken skin, DHCWs must take steps to ensure that their skin remains healthy and intact. These steps include evaluating different types of hand hygiene products, lotions and gloves for the best compatibility. If the DHCW sees a breakdown of his or her skin barrier, steps should be taken to determine the cause and remedy. Remedies can include the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing emollients and moisturizers and regular use of a medical grade hand lotion. The bottom line: healthy skin protects you at work and at home. Selection and use of appropriate hand hygiene products, including moisturizers, are an essential part ofa dental office infection control program. My coworker lost the use of her thumb for several months due to complications of a staph infection. She was unable to work and found even simple tasks such as closing a button hard to do. Think of how difficult your work would be if something happened to your hands. Injury, irritation or allergies could alter your ability to work or even perform routine tasks. Our hands provide us with the ability to work in clinical dentistry. It makes

  2. Prospectus for Dental Hygiene. April 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    A prospectus providing a rational basis for decision and action in the field of dental hygiene is presented, noting that all occupations are obliged to assess their value to society and take whatever actions are indicated to fulfill their social contract. A philosophical and conceptual foundation for change is examined. Three chapters focus on the…

  3. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  4. Bioplastics from microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, José M; García, Belén; Sandoval, Angel; Naharro, Germán; Olivera, Elías R

    2003-06-01

    The term 'biomaterials' includes chemically unrelated products that are synthesised by microorganisms (or part of them) under different environmental conditions. One important family of biomaterials is bioplastics. These are polyesters that are widely distributed in nature and accumulate intracellularly in microorganisms in the form of storage granules, with physico-chemical properties resembling petrochemical plastics. These polymers are usually built from hydroxy-acyl-CoA derivatives via different metabolic pathways. Depending on their microbial origin, bioplastics differ in their monomer composition, macromolecular structure and physical properties. Most of them are biodegradable and biocompatible, which makes them extremely interesting from the biotechnological point of view.

  5. History of dental hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.

  6. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D 90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms. - Highlights: ► The hygienic efficiency of electron beam against slurry was researched. ► The hygienization efficiency depended on the slurry characteristics and microorganism species. ► In most of the cases 7 kGy dose was sufficient for slurry hygienization. ► Dose below 1 kGy allowed for 90% elimination of microorganism population. ► The radiation hygienization is a good alternative for typical slurry treatment methods

  7. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  8. Hygiene in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp-Schwoerer, A.; Daschner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A survey is given of the hygienic management in radiological departments with special regard to the handling of injections and infusions. It includes prevention of bacterial as well as viral infections. In radiological departments disinfection of X-ray tables is necessary only in exceptional cases. A special proposal for disinfection is added. A safe method of sterilisation of flexible catheders is included, which proved to prevent bacterial infection. (orig.) [de

  9. Immunoassay in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for estimation of nonspecific protection factors, T- and B-immunity system factors, which application is advisable when solving problems of radiation hygiene are described. Data on changes in immunity under chronic low dose irradiation of external and internl radiation by incorporated radiomechides are genralized and analysed. Combined action of ionizing radiation and factors of nonradiation nature is described. 120 refs.; 11 figs.; 33 tabs

  10. Hygienization aspects of composting

    OpenAIRE

    Termorshuizen, A.J.; Alsanius, Beatrix

    2016-01-01

    • Compost use in agriculture always brings about the risk of introducing plant and human pathogens. • The backbone of the hygienization process consists of temperature, moisture content and chemical compounds formed during composting and activity of antagonists. • Compost produced by proper composting, i.e. a process that produces high temperatures during asufficiently long thermophilic phase can be applied safely. • Farmers should invest in good relationships with compost produce...

  11. Motion of magnetotactic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, D.M.S.; Barros, H.G. de P.L. de.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic moments for different magnetotactic microorganisms are obtained by electron microscopy analyses and studies of motion by optical microscopy. The results are analysed in terms of a model due to C.Bean. The considerations presented suggest that magnetotaxy is an efficient mechanism for orientation only if the time for reorientation is smaller than the cycles of environmental perturbations. (Author) [pt

  12. IgG antibodies against microorganisms and atopic disease in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Ostergaard, Christian; Tvede, Michael

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seropositivity to food-borne and orofecal microorganisms (hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori, and Toxoplasma gondii ), which are considered to be markers of poor hygiene, has been reported to be associated with a lower prevalence of atopy. In contrast, colonization of the gut...... with Clostridium difficile, a potential intestinal bacterial pathogen, in early childhood may be associated with a higher prevalence of atopy. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between atopy and exposure to 2 groups of food-borne and orofecal microorganisms: (1) markers...... to microorganisms was assessed as IgG seropositivity to microorganisms. RESULTS: Seropositivity to 2 or 3 markers of poor hygiene (hepatitis A virus, H pylori, and T gondii ) was associated with a lower prevalence of atopy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.8). In contrast, seropositivity to 2 or 3...

  13. Hygienic effects and gas production of plastic bio-digesters under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen-Phi, Vo Thi; Clemens, Joachim; Rechenburg, Andrea; Vinneras, Björn; Lenssen, Christina; Kistemann, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Plastic plug-flow bio-digesters have been promoted as a good option for improved treatment of manure and wastewater in developing countries although minimal information has been published on their hygienic status. This bench-scale study replicates bio-digester conditions to evaluate the reduction of pathogen and indicator microorganisms at three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) in the anaerobic treatment of pig manures at 30 degrees C for 50 days. Results showed that physicochemical values differed between HRTs. Gas production efficiency was better for longer HRTS. The accumulated sludge at the reactor's base increased with longer HRT. Phages and bacteria examined were reduced, but none was completely eliminated. Log10 reduction of bacteria ranged from 0.54 to 2.47. Phages ranged from 1.60 to 3.42. The reduction of organisms at HRT = 30 days was about one log10 unit higher than HRT = 15 days and about two log10 units higher than HRT = 3 days. The results indicate that the reduction of tested organisms increases with HRT. However the hygienic quality of the liquid effluent does not meet required quality values for surface and irrigation water. Longer HRTs are recommended to increase gas yield and achieve higher pathogen reduction. More barriers should be applied while handling bio-digester outputs to minimise risks to environmental and human health.

  14. Hygiene behaviour and hospitalized severe childhood diarrhoea: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, J C; Tiglao, T V; Tempongko, S B

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between personal and domestic hygiene behaviour and hospitalized childhood diarrhoea was examined in a case-control study of 356 cases and 357 controls from low-income families in metropolitan Manila. Indices of hygiene behaviour were defined for overall cleanliness, kitchen hygiene, and living conditions. Only the indices for overall cleanliness and kitchen hygiene were significantly associated with diarrhoea. An increasing excess risk of hospitalization with severe diarrhoea was noted as the ratings for standards of hygiene became lower, and this excess risk persisted even after controlling for confounding variables. The implications of our findings for the control of diarrhoeal disease are discussed.

  15. Assessing Interdisciplinary Education in U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lorie; Bray, Kimberly; Mayberry, Bill; Overman, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 136 of 216 dental hygiene programs indicated that 31% included interdisciplinary activities in the curriculum; only 15% included both clinical and instructional interdisciplinary coursework. However, 74% felt that students would benefit from interdisciplinary experiences. (SK)

  16. Survival of Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms on Cardboard and Plastic Packaging Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Siroli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the interaction of corrugated and plastic materials with pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms frequently associated to fresh produce. The effect of the two packaging materials on the survival during the storage of microorganisms belonging to the species Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Aspergillus flavus was studied through traditional plate counting and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results obtained showed that cardboard materials, if correctly stored, reduced the potential of packaging to cross-contaminate food due to a faster viability loss by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms compared to the plastic ones. In fact, the cell loads of the pathogenic species considered decreased over time independently on the inoculation level and packaging material used. However, the superficial viability losses were significantly faster in cardboard compared to plastic materials. The same behavior was observed for the spoilage microorganisms considered. The SEM microphotographs indicate that the reduction of superficial contamination on cardboard surfaces was due to the entrapping of the microbial cells within the fibers and the pores of this material. In addition, SEM data showed that the entrapped cells were subjected to more or less rapid lyses, depending on the species, due to the absence of water and nutrients, with the exception of molds. The latter spoilers were able to proliferate inside the cardboard fibers only when the absorption of water was not prevented during the storage. In conclusion, the findings of this work showed the reduction of cross-contamination potential of corrugated compared to plastic packaging materials used in fruit and vegetable sector. However, the findings outlined the importance of hygiene and low humidity during cardboard storage to prevent the mold growth on

  17. Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra N.; Schenk, Marcela; Raffellini, Silvia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    Minimal processing techniques for food preservation allow better retention of product flavor, texture, color, and nutrient content than comparable conventional treatments. A wide range of novel alternative physical factors have been intensely investigated in the last two decades. These physical factors can cause inactivation of microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, and ultraviolet light). These technologies have been reported to reduce microorganism population in foods while avoiding the deleterious effects of severe heating on quality. Among technologies, high-energy ultrasound (i.e., intensities higher than 1 W/cm2, frequencies between 18 and 100 kHz) has attracted considerable interest for food preservation applications (Mason et al., 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998).

  18. Properties of thermophilic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Microorganisms are called thermophilic or extreme thermophilic (caldo-active) if they grow and reproduce over 47 0 C and 70 0 C, respectively. A survey of growth characteristics of thermophiles is presented and it includes those which also live at extreme pH. The prevalent but not completely emcompassing theory of the ability of thermophiles to grow at high temperatures is that they have macromolecules and cell organelles with high thermostability. Work on some proteins and cell organelles from thermophiles is reviewed. The thermostabilities of these components are compared with those of the living cells, and factors which may govern optimum as well as minimum growth temperatures of microorganisms are discussed. Examples are from the literature but also include enzymes involved in tetrahydrofolate metabolism and other proteins of acetogenic therhmophilic bacteria which are presently studied in the author's laboratory

  19. Metal-microorganism interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, Y.; Thouand, G.; Redercher, S.; Boualam, M.; Texier, A.Cl.; Hoeffer, R.

    1997-01-01

    The physico-chemical procedures of treating the metalliferous effluents are not always adapted to de polluting the slightly concentrated industrial wastes. An alternative idea was advanced, implying the ability of some microorganisms to fix in considerable amounts the metal ions present in aqueous solutions, possibly in a selective way. This approach has been investigated thoroughly during the last 30 years, particularly from a mechanistic point of view. The advantage of the microorganisms lies mainly in the large diversity of bacteria and in their chemical state dependent interaction with metals, as well as, in the possibilities of developing their selective and quantitative separation properties. A biomass from Mycobacterium smegmatis, an acidic alcoholic resistant bacteria, has been used to prepare a bio-sorption support allowing the preferential sorption of thorium as compared to uranium and lanthanum. These studies have been extended to biological polymers such as chitosan and to studies related to bioaccumulation mechanisms and/or to the microbial resistances towards metals

  20. Can education influence stethoscope hygiene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, Jürgen L; Merchant, Naseema; Lin, Shin; Gupta, Shaili

    2017-07-01

    The importance of stethoscope hygiene has been demonstrated in prior studies, and is acknowledged by guidelines, yet it is rarely done. We implemented a pilot project consisting of provider education, reminder flyers and provision of cleaning supplies at the start of clinical rotations for housestaff, medical students, and attending physicians. Hand hygiene rates did not change significantly with rates between 58% and 63% while stethoscope hygiene remained at zero. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdluli, Fezile; Thamaga-Chitja, Joyce; Schmidt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5–8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains. PMID:24065036

  2. Appraisal of hygiene indicators and farming practices in the production of leafy vegetables by organic small-scale farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdluli, Fezile; Thamaga-Chitja, Joyce; Schmidt, Stefan

    2013-09-13

    During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5-8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains.

  3. Microorganisms of Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kántor Attila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape surface is an unstable habitat that changes greatly according to the stage of grape ripening. Different bacteria and yeasts can colonise the surface of grape berry and the diversity of microorganisms depends on the stage of ripening, pesticide application and health condition. The aim of this study was to study the microflora of the surface of grape berries. Altogether, 19 grape samples from Slovakia were collected. The spread plate method was applied and a 100 μL inoculum of each dilution (10−2, 10−3 was plated on TSA, MEA, and MRS agar for isolation of microorganisms from grapes. Proteins were extracted from cells by ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry was used for identification of microorganisms. In total, 11 genera of Gram-negative bacteria, 11 of Gram-positive bacteria and nine of yeasts were identified. Among 200 isolates, Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts represented 11%, 27% and 62% of the total number of isolates studied. The most common genera of isolated yeasts were Hanseniaspora (37%, Metschnikowia (31%, and Rhodotorula (10%. The most frequently isolated among Gram-negative bacteria were Acinetobacter (22%, Pseudomonas (22% and Sphingomonas (13%. The most common genera of Gram-positive bacteria were Bacillus (20%, Lactobacillus (19%, Leuconostoc and Staphylococcus (11%, respectively.

  4. Optimizing Health Care Environmental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Philip C

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a review and perspectives on aspects of optimizing health care environmental hygiene. The topics covered include the epidemiology of environmental surface contamination, a discussion of cleaning health care patient area surfaces, an overview of disinfecting health care surfaces, an overview of challenges in monitoring cleaning versus cleanliness, a description of an integrated approach to environmental hygiene and hand hygiene as interrelated disciplines, and an overview of the research opportunities and challenges related to health care environmental hygiene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    .1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3). In the perceptions survey, 64.0% of HCWs indicated preference for commercially manufactured hand sanitizer and 71.4% indicated their hand hygiene adherence would improve with commercial hand sanitizer. Conclusions There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among Ethiopian HCWs following the implementation of a WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign. Dissatisfaction with the current WHO-formulation for hand sanitizer was identified as a barrier to hand hygiene adherence in our setting. PMID:24636693

  6. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M

    2014-03-17

    perceptions survey, 64.0% of HCWs indicated preference for commercially manufactured hand sanitizer and 71.4% indicated their hand hygiene adherence would improve with commercial hand sanitizer. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among Ethiopian HCWs following the implementation of a WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign. Dissatisfaction with the current WHO-formulation for hand sanitizer was identified as a barrier to hand hygiene adherence in our setting.

  7. Bioindicative values of microfungi in starch and possible deficiencies of the new Serbian regulation on food hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Ema D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of tests on the presence of yeasts and molds in cornstarch [AD ‘IPOK’ Zrenjanin, 2007-2008, made at the time when previous Regulations were valid] were analyzed in terms of bioindicative values of microfungi as indicators of quality and safety of raw material or final food products. Microbiological analysis was used to detect the presence of a number of microorganisms MMI-0001, and a questionnaire was designed at the Department of Public Health in Zrenjanin town (Republic of Serbia, where the anal­yses were done, regarding the microbiological tests on starch. In order to rationalize the analyses and make them more economical, several areas of product quality control (water, food, raw materials, space were recommended either to be excluded or regarded as optional. Thus, analysis of presence of microfungi as indicators of product quality was categorized as optional. The results obtained from this research suggest a different conclusion because the bacteria in the samples indicated ˮmicrobiologically“, namely bacteriologically, safe samples of food, while, on the contrary, the presence of some microfungi as distinct xerophilous or xerotolerant microorganisms, indicated that the food was mycologically non-safe. The obtained data are crucial for questioning the decision to exclude the earlier required (mycological analysis of the samples (in the production of starch, or end products, etc. and categorize such analyses in new Regulations as optional, depending on the manufacturer’s preference. Bioindicative values of microfungi as indicators of the quality of starch, clearly point to the shortsightedness of the new Regulations on food hygiene and safety, where tests on certain microorganisms (in this case, yeasts and molds are not legally defined as mandatory, but the Law leaves manufacturers a possibility to choose (or not to choose the testing and frequency of testing on the presence (absence of microorganisms, which can be

  8. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack

  9. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al Toufailia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony. These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001, and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008. This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because

  10. Effect of 12-month weekly professional oral hygiene care on the composition of the oral flora in dentate, dependent elderly residents: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Maude; Kareem, Kawa L; Almståhl, Annica; Palmgren, Erika; Lingström, Peter; Wårdh, Inger

    2017-06-01

    To study the effect of weekly professional oral hygiene care on the proportion of micro-organisms associated with good oral health, caries, and periodontal and soft tissue diseases in oral biofilms in dentate, dependent elderly residents. Assisted oral hygiene care reduces the plaque score and number of micro-organisms in the oral biofilms in elderly residents. Less is known about the effect on the quality/composition of the remaining oral flora. Participants comprised 33 residents in the study and 35 in the control group. Dental status (≥10 natural teeth and no removable dentures to be included), plaque score, salivary secretion rate and prescription medicines were recorded. Duplicate samples, collected from supragingival plaque and tongue, were analysed using cultivation technique. Differences between and within groups were analysed using one-way and two-way ANOVA, respectively. At the baseline, the number of teeth in the participants (mean age, 83.7 ± 7.4 years) was 22.0 ± 4.5. The number of prescription medicines was 9.4 ± 4.5. Seventy-six per cent had low salivary secretion rate. Fifty per cent had "visible thick" supragingival plaque. At the 12-month registration, "no visible" or "visible but thin" plaque was recorded in 92% in the study group. The proportions of bacteria associated with good oral health and periodontal diseases were decreased over time, while the frequency and proportions of micro-organisms associated with caries and soft tissue infection were unaffected or increased. The results indicate that assisted oral hygiene care alone is not sufficient to regain an oral microbial flora associated with good oral health in dentate, dependent elderly residents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impact of Gamma Radiation Processing to Improve the Hygienic Quality of some Chicken Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, W.S.; El-Mossalami, I.I.; Nosier, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    For food to be entirely safe from the microbiological viewpoint, it must need to contain the least possible counts of microorganisms of hygienic importance. This investigation aims to study the possible use of gamma radiation for bacterial decontamination of chicken products which are produced in Egypt. One hundred and twenty samples of frozen chicken kofta and burgers (60 each) were purchased from retail markets at Cairo Governorate. They were surveyed for the hygienic quality as well as the effect of gamma radiation (dose levels of 1, 2 and 3 kGy) on the bacterial population, chemical and sensory quality of these products. The results indicated that the total aerobic bacterial counts (APC) ranged from 106 to 107 cfu/g in the examined samples. Moreover, some samples were contaminated with food borne pathogens such as Listeria species and Salmonella species. Gamma irradiation greatly reduced the microbial density of the studied food samples. The microbial reduction increased as the dose level of irradiation increase, whereas irradiation of chicken products at 3 kGy dose reduced aerobic counts and eliminated Salmonella and Listeria species, also it proved to be of great importance in increasing the safety and acceptability of ready to eat frozen chicken products with no adverse effect on their chemical or sensory quality

  12. Dental Hygiene Realpolitik Affecting Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…

  13. Improving Hygiene in Food Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Lukasse, L.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The hygiene aspect of food transport has become an issue for European transport operators. This development started roughly in 1990, when national governments urged transport operators to act on food safety. However, nowadays retailers and food producers are demanding more hygiene measures from

  14. [Hygiene between tradition and implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansis, M L

    2004-04-01

    The basis of evidence for hygiene rules implemented in hospitals is traditionally small. This is not only because there is little theoretical knowledge on the reciprocal influence between a single hygienic mistake/a single microbial input and the manifestation of a nosocomial infection. There are also not enough clinical studies, especially on complex hygiene questions, to determine whether special measures (e.g., septic rooms)can compensate for deficits in hygiene practice. Furthermore, it would be necessary to designate security buffers distinctly. In-house traditions are able to stabilize hygienic behavior in an excellent manner. They should be fostered and not disparaged as myths. Discussions of experts should not be conducted in public; that is disastrous for the everyday work of physicians in hospitals.

  15. Hand hygiene compliance in a universal gloving setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruno, Noriko; Kasahara, Kei; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2017-08-01

    The use of gloves for every patient contact (ie, universal gloving) has been suggested as an infection prevention adjunct and alternative to contact precautions. However, gloves may carry organisms unless they are changed properly. In addition, hand hygiene is required before donning and after removing gloves, and there are scarce data regarding glove changing and hand hygiene in a universal gloving setting. This nonrandomized observational before-after study evaluated the effect of education and feedback regarding hand hygiene. Compliance with hand hygiene and glove use was directly observed in a universal gloving setting at a 10-bed intensive care unit in a Japanese tertiary care university teaching hospital. A total of 6,050 hand hygiene opportunities were identified. Overall, hand hygiene compliance steadily increased from study period 1 (16.1%) to period 5 (56.8%), although there were indication-specific differences in the baseline compliance, the degree of improvement, and the reasons for noncompliance. There were decreases in the compliance with universal gloving and the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It is difficult to properly perform glove use and hand hygiene in a universal gloving setting, given its complexity. Direct observation with specific feedback and education may be effective in improving compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a thermal hygienization reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Borski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For reasons of limiting the spread of serious transmissible diseases, with regard to the requirement for reducing landfill of biodegradable waste (which may or contains animal by-products and thus presents a potential risk to human and animal health and with a focus on supporting its separate collection, there has been created a legal framework for processing and hygienization of materials containing animal by-products. For the above reasons new technologies are being developed and implemented. These technologies are able to ensure the processing of biological waste containing animal by-products. As a practical result of the effort to ensure the hygienization of biowaste, a hygienization unit of own design, which uses the thermal way of hygienization, is presented in this work. The general part of the work defines a legislative framework for the assignment and gives technical parameters and minimum requirements for conversion that hygienization unit should be able to perform, including the limits for digestion residues and compost.In the experimental section there are described operational tests which document the technological process of hygienization depending on the aeration of the contents of the reactor. Experiment III outlines the validation process which uses contamination by indicator organisms, including subsequent checking of their occurrence as well as processing of the results of experiments and evaluation of the process of hygienization.

  17. New micro-organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakuwa, Masayoshi; Hashimoto, Gotaro

    1987-09-12

    Invention relates with a new organism for the coal liquefying desulfurization. This micro-organism conducts a good sporulation on a culture medium which contains a coal as an only carbon source. It belongs to Penicillium and named Penicillium MT-6001 registered at Fermentation Research Institute No. 8463. Coal powder is thrown into a reaction vessel which accommodated a culture solution of this bacteria, and the surface of the solution is covered with liquid paraffin; coal powder is treated of liquefaction for about 5 hours while maintaining the anaerobic condition and slowly agitating to form a transparent solution layer on the surface of the reactor together with liquid paraffin. Liquefied product shows an analysis pattern similar to naphthenic petroleum containing a lipid with polar radical. (2 figs)

  18. Space Station personal hygiene study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  19. Thermophilic microorganisms in biomining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Edgardo Rubén; Castro, Camila; Urbieta, María Sofía

    2016-11-01

    Biomining is an applied biotechnology for mineral processing and metal extraction from ores and concentrates. This alternative technology for recovering metals involves the hydrometallurgical processes known as bioleaching and biooxidation where the metal is directly solubilized or released from the matrix for further solubilization, respectively. Several commercial applications of biomining can be found around the world to recover mainly copper and gold but also other metals; most of them are operating at temperatures below 40-50 °C using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic microorganisms. Although biomining offers an economically viable and cleaner option, its share of the world´s production of metals has not grown as much as it was expected, mainly considering that due to environmental restrictions in many countries smelting and roasting technologies are being eliminated. The slow rate of biomining processes is for sure the main reason of their poor implementation. In this scenario the use of thermophiles could be advantageous because higher operational temperature would increase the rate of the process and in addition it would eliminate the energy input for cooling the system (bioleaching reactions are exothermic causing a serious temperature increase in bioreactors and inside heaps that adversely affects most of the mesophilic microorganisms) and it would decrease the passivation of mineral surfaces. In the last few years many thermophilic bacteria and archaea have been isolated, characterized, and even used for extracting metals. This paper reviews the current status of biomining using thermophiles, describes the main characteristics of thermophilic biominers and discusses the future for this biotechnology.

  20. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate™ total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate™ Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Nero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The SimPlate™ TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate™ TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate™ TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate™ TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo Sim

  1. Radioresistant microorganisms and food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1976-01-01

    This paper deals with Micrococcus radiodurans, Arthrobacter radiotolerance, etc., which were isolated and discovered as radioresistant microorganisms. As for the explanation of the mechanism of radioresistance of these microorganisms, the consideration that these organisms have marked repair power of the damaged DNA and have many opportunity to repair the damaged DNA because of their long fission term were cited. The relationship between the radioresistance of microorganisms and food irradiation was also mentioned.

  2. Automated monitoring: a potential solution for achieving sustainable improvement in hand hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2014-08-01

    Adequate hand hygiene is often considered as the most effective method of reducing the rates of hospital-acquired infections, which are one of the major causes of increased cost, morbidity, and mortality in healthcare. Electronic monitoring technologies provide a promising direction for achieving sustainable hand hygiene improvement by introducing the elements of automated feedback and creating the possibility to automatically collect individual hand hygiene performance data. The results of the multiphase testing of an automated hand hygiene reminding and monitoring system installed in a complex continuing care setting are presented. The study included a baseline Phase 1, with the system performing automated data collection only, a preintervention Phase 2 with hand hygiene status indicator enabled, two intervention Phases 3 and 4 with the system generating hand hygiene reminding signals and periodic performance feedback sessions provided, and a postintervention Phase 5 with only hand hygiene status indicator enabled and no feedback sessions provided. A significant increase in hand hygiene performance observed during the first intervention Phase 3 was sustained over the second intervention Phase 4, with the postintervention phase also indicating higher hand hygiene activity rates compared with the preintervention and baseline phases. The overall trends observed during the multiphase testing, the factors affecting acceptability of the automated hand hygiene monitoring system, and various strategies of technology deployment are discussed.

  3. The relationship between oral hygiene and oral colonisation with Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzurovic, Selma; Babajic, Emina; Masic, Tarik; Smajic, Rubina; Selmanagic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine relationship between oral hygiene and colonisation of Candia species in oral cavity. Maintenance oral hygiene is reducing pathological agents in the mouth and preventing violation of oral health. Study included 140 patients. For oral hygiene assessement were used the dental plaque index, oral hygiene index and dental calculus index. Ph test strips were used to determine pH of saliva. For isolation of Candida species oral swabs were taken to all patients. It was found out that pH of oral cavity does not varies notably, no matter of oral hygiene level. Candida species were identified in 28.6% respondents. The most present were Candida albicans, in 85% cases. The presence of plaque, tartar and high index oral hygiene (IOH) in patients with Candida is statistically significant. It was found that 83.4% of patients with Candida poorly maintained oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene is associated with a significantly higher score in the presence of tartar, plaque and high IOH. In total patient's population 67% has amalgam fillings. Presence of amalgam fillings in patients with identified Candida was statistically significant. This study indicates low level of oral hygiene. Correlation between presence of Candida species and poor oral hygiene was proved. Also Candida was more present among patients with amalgam fillings. Improvement of oral hygiene is necessery for oral health and health in general, as well.

  4. Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: the broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Graham A W

    2009-01-01

    Man has moved rapidly from the hunter-gatherer environment to the living conditions of the rich industrialized countries. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that the resulting changed and reduced pattern of exposure to microorganisms has led to disordered regulation of the immune system, and hence to increases in certain inflammatory disorders. The concept began with the allergic disorders, but there are now good reasons for extending it to autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel disease, neuroinflammatory disorders, atherosclerosis, depression associated with raised inflammatory cytokines, and some cancers. This review discusses these possibilities in the context of Darwinian medicine, which uses knowledge of evolution to cast light on human diseases. The Darwinian approach enables one to correctly identify some of the organisms that are important for the 'Hygiene' or 'Old Friends' hypothesis, and to point to the potential exploitation of these organisms or their components in novel types of prophylaxis with applications in several branches of medicine.

  5. Task of radiation hygiene inspection at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevts, J.; Kunz, Eh.

    1983-01-01

    The task and functions of the radiation-hygiene inspection in Czechoslovakia are presented. The radiation safety related information amounts that are to be presented to the hygiene inspection institutions are determined. The hygiene inspection content and forms at the stages of NPP designing, construction and operation are discussed. The hygiene inspection place is determined within the general radiation safety system [ru

  6. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  7. Polysaccharides from Extremophilic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, B.; Moriello, V. Schiano; Lama, L.; Poli, A.; Gambacorta, A.

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter-1 was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different α-D-mannoses and three different β-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different α-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  8. Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives.

  9. Hygienization performances of innovative sludge treatment solutions to assure safe land spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levantesi, C; Beimfohr, C; Blanch, A R; Carducci, A; Gianico, A; Lucena, F; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    The present research aims at the evaluation of the hygienization performances of innovative sludge treatment processes applied for the separated treatment of secondary sludge. Namely, two digestion pretreatments (sonication and thermal hydrolysis) and two sequential biological processes (mesophilic/thermophilic and anaerobic/aerobic digestion) were compared to the mesophilic (MAD) and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD). Microbial indicators (Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and Clostridium perfringens spores) and pathogens (Salmonella and enteroviruses), which show different resistances to treatment processes, were monitored in untreated and treated sludge. Overall, microbial load in secondary sludge was shown to be similar or lower than previously reported in literature for mixed sludge. Notably, the anaerobic/aerobic digestion process increased the removal of E. coli and somatic coliphages compared to the simple MAD and always achieved the hygienization requirement (2-log-unit removal of E. coli) proposed by EU Commission in the 3rd Working Document on sludge (April 2000) for the use of treated sludges in agriculture with restriction on their application. The microbial quality limits for the unrestricted use of sludge in agriculture (no Salmonella in 50 g wet weight (WW) and E. coli <500 CFU/g) were always met when thermal digestion or pretreatment was applied; however, the required removal level (6-log-unit removal of E. coli) could not be assessed due to the low level of this microorganism in raw sludge. Observed levels of indicator removal showed a higher resistance of viral particles to thermal treatment compared with bacterial cells and confirmed the suitability of somatic coliphages as indicators in thermal treatment processes.

  10. Evaluation of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology specialists' preferences for hand hygiene: analysis using the multi-attribute utility theory and the analytic hierarchy process methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, Aslı; Oruc, Ozlem Ege; Buke, Cagri; Ozkaya, Hacer Deniz; Kitapcioglu, Gul

    2017-08-31

    Hand hygiene is one of the most effective attempts to control nosocomial infections, and it is an important measure to avoid the transmission of pathogens. However, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) with hand washing is still poor worldwide. Herein, we aimed to determine the best hand hygiene preference of the infectious diseases and clinical microbiology (IDCM) specialists to prevent transmission of microorganisms from one patient to another. Expert opinions regarding the criteria that influence the best hand hygiene preference were collected through a questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Afterwards, these opinions were examined with two widely used multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods, the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A total of 15 IDCM specialist opinions were collected from diverse private and public hospitals located in İzmir, Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 49.73 ± 8.46, and the mean experience year of the participants in their fields was 17.67 ± 11.98. The findings that we obtained through two distinct decision making methods, the MAUT and the AHP, suggest that alcohol-based antiseptic solution (ABAS) has the highest utility (0.86) and priority (0.69) among the experts' choices. In conclusion, the MAUT and the AHP, decision models developed here indicate that rubbing the hands with ABAS is the most favorable choice for IDCM specialists to prevent nosocomial infection.

  11. Hand hygiene knowledge and perceptions among anesthesia providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Patrick G; Loftus, Randy W; Dodds, Thomas M; Koff, Matthew D; Reddy, Sundara; Heard, Stephen O; Beach, Michael L; Yeager, Mark P; Brown, Jeremiah R

    2015-04-01

    Health care worker compliance with hand hygiene guidelines is an important measure for health care-associated infection prevention, yet overall compliance across all health care arenas remains low. A correct answer to 4 of 4 structured questions pertaining to indications for hand decontamination (according to types of contact) has been associated with improved health care provider hand hygiene compliance when compared to those health care providers answering incorrectly for 1 or more questions. A better understanding of knowledge deficits among anesthesia providers may lead to hand hygiene improvement strategies. In this study, our primary aims were to characterize and identify predictors for hand hygiene knowledge deficits among anesthesia providers. We modified this previously tested survey instrument to measure anesthesia provider hand hygiene knowledge regarding the 5 moments of hand hygiene across national and multicenter groups. Complete knowledge was defined by correct answers to 5 questions addressing the 5 moments for hand hygiene and received a score of 1. Incomplete knowledge was defined by an incorrect answer to 1 or more of the 5 questions and received a score of 0. We used a multilevel random-effects XTMELOGIT logistic model clustering at the respondent and geographic location for insufficient knowledge and forward/backward stepwise logistic regression analysis to identify predictors for incomplete knowledge. The survey response rates were 55.8% and 18.2% for the multicenter and national survey study groups, respectively. One or more knowledge deficits occurred with 81.6% of survey respondents, with the mean number of correct answers 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 2.78- 2.99). Failure of providers to recognize prior contact with the environment and prior contact with the patient as hand hygiene opportunities contributed to the low mean. Several cognitive factors were associated with a reduced risk of incomplete knowledge including providers responding

  12. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  13. Hygiene at Work: An Engineering Perspective on the Development of Hygiene Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Pityn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the work of contemporary hygiene practitioners. Discussion converges from a broad examination of hygiene at work in our society serving the common good to occupational hygiene in the workplace. The article considers the expanding role of hygiene today, juxtaposed against the lack of awareness and perceptions of hygiene. It considers some of the current social challenges facing hygiene, perceptions of risk and problems specifically encountered by occupational hygienists.

  14. The status of oral hygiene in cleft lip, palate patients after surgical correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleft lip and palate patients usually present a number of problems viz. altered oral anatomy leading to changes in oral physiology diminishing the self-cleansing ability of individual. The handicapped children are unable to maintain their oral hygiene properly. The present study was formulated with the aim that does normalization of oral anatomy have its effect on improvement of oral hygiene? An assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified was performed between preoperative and postoperative values in the same patient at KGMU and KGDU. A total of 50 cases were recorded in two groups of 25 each: (i < 6 years old and (ii > 6 years. The observations are statistically analyzed by paired ′t′ test to get the significance of results. Results: The data analyzed showed the significant decrease in oral hygiene indices observed in both groups. A relative significance in oral hygiene status following surgery was observed. Both groups expressed greater significance when compared pre and postoperatively which is indicative of considerable improvement of oral hygiene after surgical correction. The study concludes that oral hygiene improves more in older cleft lip-palate cases following reconstruction of palatal vault, premaxilla and anterior lip seal by secondary bone grafting method when compared with oral hygiene indices results in primary periosteoplasty cases. The surgical correction of cleft lip palate enhances self-cleaning ability and better compliance to maintain oral hygiene in children as the age advances.

  15. Dynamic size spectrometry of airborne microorganisms: Laboratory evaluation and calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yinge; Willeke, Klaus; Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Donnelly, Jean

    Bioaerosol samplers need to be calibrated for the microorganisms of interest. The Aerosizer, a relatively new aerodynamic size spectrometer, is shown to be a suitable dynamic instrument for the evaluation and calibration of such samplers in the laboratory, prior to their use in the field. It provides the necessary reference count against which the microbiological response of the sampler can be compared. It measures the health-significant aerodynamic diameters of microorganisms down to 0.5 μm, thus including most of the bacteria, fungi and pollen found in outdoor and indoor air environments. Comparison tests with a laser size spectrometer indicate that the suspension of microorganisms needs to be washed several times before aerosolization to avoid coating of the airborne microorganisms with nutrients and microbial slime from the suspension, and to reduce the residue particles to sizes below the lowest size of the aerosolized microorganisms.

  16. Oral hygiene and oral flora evaluation in psychiatric patients in nursing homes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, A Z; Yanik, K; Celenk, P; Unal-Erzurumlu, Z; Yilmaz, H; Bulut, N

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has stated that psychiatric patients are a group of people who have oral and dental illnesses. The aims of this study were to document the oral hygiene of individuals with chronic psychiatric illness, to determine the extraoral and intraoral findings, to detect the dominant microorganisms in oral flora, and to inform clinicians of these findings. The study included 100 patients (69 men and 31 women) with different psychiatric illnesses living in a nursing home. They were 19-96 years old (median, 48 years). The participants completed a questionnaire about patients' oral health. They underwent extraoral and intraoral examinations. Two swab samples were obtained from the oral mucosa of these patients. Gram preparations were analyzed for leukocytes, bacteria, and yeast. Chi-square test and z-test were used. All patients (100%) had the necessary equipment for oral hygiene; however, many (43%) patients had poor oral hygiene. There was a high prevalence of xerostomia (56%) and fissured tongue (61.4%) (among other tongue anomalies). The most commonly isolated microorganisms were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus0 (35.9%), Streptococcus spp. (30.3%), nondiphtheroid Bacilli (16.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (2.3%), Candida spp. (11.8%), and Gram-negative Bacilli (2.8%). The oral hygiene of most patients was insufficient. The presence of Gram-negative Bacilli growth in the oral flora can be explained by poor hand hygiene. These findings suggest that it is useful to educate individuals about oral hygiene and hand hygiene and to inform the staff and families about this issue.

  17. Plaque control and oral hygiene methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.

  18. [Comprehensive hygienic assessment of solaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, O K

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data on the positive and negative effects of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). It provides the hygienic characteristics of solaria used to produce an artificial tan. This device has been found to present a high health risk to its users. There are considerable problems in the hygienic assessment of this type of exposure. The ways of solving the arising problems in developing the metrological monitoring of UVR and compiling a document regulating the sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance of solaria are defined.

  19. Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronov, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Review for book by M.P. Zakharchenko, S.A. Lopatin, G.N. Novozhilov, V.I. Zakharov Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions is presented discussing the problem of people health preservation under extreme conditions. Hygienic diagnosis is considered illustrated by cases of hostilities (Afghan War), earthquake response in Armenia (1988) and Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the estimation of radiation doses to people and characteristics of main types of dosimeters. The high scientific level of the book is marked

  20. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene before and after teaching program among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A true experimental study was conducted among 50 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the Bhaniyawala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned into control (n=25 and experimental group (n=25. Adolescent girls from both groups were assessed for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 and on 15th day.  Participants of experimental group were administered educational programme regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 after assessment for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene. Data were analysed statistically by simple proportions. Results: The mean age of the adolescent girl was 13.88± 1.5 and age of menarche 12.74±0.98. Out of 50, 32 (64% mothers’ of adolescent girls were educated at graduate level.  The mean pre-test knowledge and practice in experimental group 8.04±1.54, 3.52±1.0 and control group 8.02±2.0, 3.24±1.0 respectively. The level of knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene of subjects who participated in educational program was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the

  1. Interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance in patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah J; Moralejo, Donna; Drey, Nicholas; Chudleigh, Jane H

    2010-09-08

    Health care-associated infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is regarded as an effective preventive measure. To update the review done in 2007, to assess the short and longer-term success of strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance and to determine whether a sustained increase in hand hygiene compliance can reduce rates of health care-associated infection. We conducted electronic searches of: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group specialised register of trials; MEDLINE; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; and the BNI. Originally searched to July 2006, for the update databases were searched from August 2006 until November 2009. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series analyses meeting explicit entry and quality criteria used by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group were eligible for inclusion. Studies reporting indicators of hand hygiene compliance and proxy indicators such as product use were considered. Self-reported data were not considered a valid measure of compliance. Studies to promote hand hygiene compliance as part of a care bundle approach were included, providing data relating specifically to hand hygiene were presented separately. Studies were excluded if hand hygiene was assessed in simulations, non-clinical settings or the operating theatre setting. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed data quality. Four studies met the criteria for the review: two from the original review and two from the update. Two studies evaluated simple education initiatives, one using a randomized clinical trial design and the other a controlled before and after design. Both measured hand hygiene compliance by direct observation. The other two studies were both interrupted times series studies. One study presented three separate interventions within the

  2. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  3. The Effect of an Extramural Program on the Perceived Clinical Competence of Dental Hygiene Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Janice M.; Vaught, Randall L.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the effect of an extramural rotation on dental-hygiene students' self-perceptions of competence in specific clinical areas. Results indicate student perceptions of competence improved significantly on six of 19 dimensions of dental-hygiene practice over the course of the rotation, suggesting that rotation is a valuable…

  4. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines - significance of measuring fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hand hygiene prior to contact lens handling is problematical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2012-04-01

    To establish guidelines for contact lens wearers' hand hygiene practices which achieve a balance between minimising risk of infection and reasonable expectations on the ability of patients to follow them. Evidence has been obtained from publications via PubMed, Advanced Medline Search, Cochrane Reviews, Google Scholar and using the key words hand hygiene, washing and contact lens. Guidelines for effective hand washing and the bother involved vary according to the level of hygiene required. High levels of non-compliance with hand hygiene practices, even among healthcare workers, gives an indication of how important the level of bother involved when following guidelines can be in contributing to non-compliance. Better patient education to improve hand washing techniques as well as patient attitudes toward hand hygiene are needed to reduce high non-compliance levels. Better hand hygiene techniques and higher frequency of their application give the prospect of reduced risk of infection and of any discomfort that arises from increased lens and ocular bioburden. In order that adoption rates might be maximised, the guidelines which have been distilled from this review attempt to strike a balance between technique redundancy and the associated higher levels of hygiene achieved and the possibility that the perception of too much bother involved could reduce participation rates. The guidelines have been expanded by the inclusion of suggested explanatory information in the expectation that helping patients to understand why the recommendations are made will have the effect of increasing their adoption. Copyright © 2011 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  7. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  8. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.

  9. The Influence of Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis Gel on Hygiene and Oral Microbiota in Patients after Mandible Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielska, Iwona; Puszczewicz, Zbigniew; Mertas, Anna; Niedzielski, Damian; Różanowski, Bartosz; Baron, Stefan; Konopka, Tomasz; Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Paluch, Jarosław; Markowski, Jarosław; Orzechowska-Wylęgała, Bogusława; Król, Wojciech; Morawiec, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of proper oral hygiene by dental plaque elimination is one of the most important factors affecting the healing process in postoperative oral wounds. Propolis is a substance produced by bees. Ethanolic extract of propolis has bactericidal, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties. Moreover, it can scavenge free radicals. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the efficacy of a gel containing 3% of ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B) when used for maintaining oral hygiene in patients with postoperative oral mucosal wounds. The hygiene was assessed using API, OHI, and SBI followed by microbiological examinations. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of those who used a gel containing EEP-B for oral hygiene, and group 2 consisted of those who used a gel without EEP-B. Although improved oral hygiene was noted in both groups, the improvement was markedly greater in the group using gel containing EEP-B. Summing up the results of microbiological examinations, EEP-B has beneficial effect on mouth microflora in postoperative period. Propolis preparations used for oral hygiene allow eliminating microorganisms of pathogenic character and physiological flora microorganisms considered as being opportunistic, with no harmful influence on physiological microflora in oral ecosystem.

  10. The Influence of Ethanolic Extract of Brazilian Green Propolis Gel on Hygiene and Oral Microbiota in Patients after Mandible Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Niedzielska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of proper oral hygiene by dental plaque elimination is one of the most important factors affecting the healing process in postoperative oral wounds. Propolis is a substance produced by bees. Ethanolic extract of propolis has bactericidal, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties. Moreover, it can scavenge free radicals. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the efficacy of a gel containing 3% of ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEP-B when used for maintaining oral hygiene in patients with postoperative oral mucosal wounds. The hygiene was assessed using API, OHI, and SBI followed by microbiological examinations. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of those who used a gel containing EEP-B for oral hygiene, and group 2 consisted of those who used a gel without EEP-B. Although improved oral hygiene was noted in both groups, the improvement was markedly greater in the group using gel containing EEP-B. Summing up the results of microbiological examinations, EEP-B has beneficial effect on mouth microflora in postoperative period. Propolis preparations used for oral hygiene allow eliminating microorganisms of pathogenic character and physiological flora microorganisms considered as being opportunistic, with no harmful influence on physiological microflora in oral ecosystem.

  11. Patient Hand Hygiene at Home Predicts Their Hand Hygiene Practices in the Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Anna; Sethi, Ajay; Shulkin, Emily; Caniza, Rachell; Zerbel, Sara; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    We examine factors associated with hand hygiene practices of hospital patients. Hygiene decreased compared to at home, and home practices were strongly associated with hospital practices. Understanding and leveraging the intrinsic value some patients associate with hand hygiene may be important for improving overall hospital hygiene and decreasing healthcare-associated infections.

  12. A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

  13. 28 CFR 551.6 - Personal hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal hygiene. 551.6 Section 551.6... Grooming § 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make available to an inmate those articles necessary for maintaining personal hygiene. [46 FR 59509, Dec. 4, 1981] ...

  14. A hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schie, M.; Wiesman, R.F.F.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system, comprising: means for detecting the occurrence of an event specified in a hand-hygiene rule, wherein the event involves a person; means for updating behaviour data that is related to acts according to the hand-hygiene rule, wherein

  15. Food hygiene on the wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Walter

    2007-09-13

    A PROBLEM THAT IS OFTEN OVERLOOKED OR SIMPLY NOT GIVEN ENOUGH ATTENTION: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient's room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards:Maintenance of the cold-hot chainNot only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitorsCleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktopsCleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food

  16. Effects of hand hygiene education and individual feedback on hand hygiene behaviour, MRSA acquisition rate and MRSA colonization pressure among intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Park, Ho-Ran

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to increase the frequency and level of thoroughness of hand hygiene practice by nurses, and to assess the influence of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquired incidence rate and the MRSA colonization pressure in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). A total of 24 MICU nurses received hand hygiene education and individual feedback of hand hygiene frequency and method after a session of education, and two posteducation evaluations were followed. The frequency of hand hygiene (P = 0.001) and the methodology score of hand hygiene increased significantly (P = 0.001). The MRSA acquisition rate decreased significantly, from 11.1% before the education to 0% after (P = 0.014). The MRSA colonization pressure decreased significantly from 39.5% to 8.6% after the education sessions (P = 0.001). This indicates that providing individual feedback after hand hygiene education was very effective in increasing nurses' hand hygiene frequency and improving hand hygiene method; furthermore, it was expected to decrease health care-associated infections. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Assessment of tobacco dependence curricula in Italian dental hygiene schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Davis, Joan M; Licata, Maria E; Giuliana, Giovanna

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of tobacco dependence education offered by Italian dental hygiene programs. A fifty-question survey was mailed to the thirty-one active public and private dental hygiene programs in Italy during the 2008-09 academic year. The survey assessed faculty confidence in teaching tobacco treatment, which courses contained tobacco dependence content, the number of minutes spent on specific content areas, and the level of clinical competence that dental hygiene graduates should be able to demonstrate. Surveys were returned by sixteen programs for a response rate of 52 percent. Respondents indicated tobacco dependence education was included in clinic or clinic seminar (56 percent), periodontics (44 percent), oral pathology (31 percent), and prevention (19 percent). All programs reported including the effects of tobacco on general and oral diseases in courses. However, more in-depth topics received less curriculum time; these included tobacco treatment strategies (63 percent) and discussion of cessation medications (31 percent). Interestingly, 62 percent of the respondents indicated they expected dental hygiene graduates to demonstrate a tobacco treatment competency level of a moderate intervention or higher (counseling, discussion of medications, follow-up) rather than a brief intervention in which patients are advised to quit then referred to a quitline. The results of this study indicated that Italian dental hygiene students are not currently receiving adequate instruction in tobacco treatment techniques nor are they being adequately assessed. This unique overview of Italian dental hygiene tobacco dependence education provides a basis for further discussion towards a national competency-based curriculum.

  18. Personal hygiene among primary school children living in a slum of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M

    2013-09-01

    For children, maintenance of personal hygiene helps to improve the quality of life and longevity. This is of particular importance in a slum community with compromised living situation. This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge and practice of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in a slum area, to identify any misconception among them regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene, to find out their morbidity pattern, and also to elicit the relationship between practice of personal hygiene among the children and the literacy status of their mother. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 104 primary school children of a primary school situated in the slum area of Chetla, Kolkata, India with the help of a predesigned, pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance. It was found that the female students were more knowledgeable than the male students regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene. There was a wide gap between practice and knowledge of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in the slum area. Even, misconceptions do exist on certain indicators of personal hygiene among the students. Statistically significant association was observed between practices of personal hygiene among the primary school children and the literacy status of their mother. Future of a society depends considerably on the health of its children. The parents and the school teachers, as constructive shapers of children's health behaviors, should play a responsible role in early education of children on personal hygiene.

  19. [IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASURES FOR OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE AT ENTERPRISES OF BREWING INDUSTRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, G V; Novikova, L V; Chusova, A E

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are considered the legal basics of the occupational hygiene of brewing production: acts, bylaws and normative legal acts. There are characterized types of supervision and control (state, departmental, public) implementing the abidance of the sanitary legislation at the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are presented sanitary and hygienic requirements to the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are designated measures of occupational hygiene of brewing production: a sink, cleaning--removal of various pollutions, and also disinfection--process of the decline in quantity of microorganisms to safe level. There are considered some characteristics of pollutions which are subject to removal at various stages ofproduction of beer and stages of sanitary processing of brewing systems according to chemical properties of substances.

  20. Some totals of hygienic researches of foodstuffs treated by ionizing radiation for extention of storing terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, A.N.; Schillinger, Yu.I.; Kamal'dinova, Z.M.

    1974-01-01

    Some results of hygienic studies of food products exposed to ionizing radiation to prolong their storage life are presented. The study concerned foods treated in order to prevent germination (potato, onion), for disinfection purposes (grain, dry groat concentrates), or to inhibit microorganisms (uncooked and cooked products prepared from beef and pork, chicken carcasses, raw and gamma-ray-preserved fish, fresh fruits and berries). (E.T.)

  1. Impact of Oral Hygiene Discontinuation on Supragingival and Salivary Microbiomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, D; Sembler-Møller, M L; Grande, M A

    2018-01-01

    of oral hygiene. Supragingival and salivary microbiotas were processed by next-generation sequencing (Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing) and microbial community profiles were compared. Microbial composition of supragingival plaque samples collected after 4, 7, and 10 d......The purpose of the present study was to characterize and compare supragingival and salivary microbiotas during a 10-d period of oral hygiene discontinuation. We tested the hypothesis that the composition of the salivary microbiota will reflect local microbial changes associated with accumulated...... biofilm formation and maturation. Pooled supragingival plaque (n = 145) and stimulated saliva (n = 145) samples were collected and plaque and gingival indices were recorded from 29 orally healthy individuals at baseline, during oral hygiene discontinuation (days 4, 7, and 10), and 14 d after resumption...

  2. Sleep hygiene use in a psychiatry outpatient setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, J

    2012-02-01

    Non-pharmacological measures are recommended prior to use of hypnotics in the latest NICE guidance. This study investigated if non-pharmacological measures are utilised prior to hypnotic prescribing in a general adult psychiatry outpatient setting, and further reviewed patient\\'s sleep quality following implementation of sleep hygiene education. Interviews were conducted with 85 patients, and poor adherence with NICE guidance was found among the 74 (87%) patients previously prescribed a hypnotic. Just five (6.8%) patients recalled use of non-pharmacological measures prior to hypnotic prescription, 47 (63.5%) indicated non-pharmacological measures had not been discussed, while a further 22 (29.7%) could not remember. Improvement in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores following implementation of sleep hygiene education was also noted (P = 0.03). These findings suggest that increased awareness of sleep hygiene education for clinicians may be beneficial.

  3. Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5% girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5% girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25% girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75% girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25% girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85% girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.

  4. Production hygiene and training influences on rural small-scale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Data analysis. Questionnaire data were coded using coding sheets. The coding sheets assigned numerical values to the answers, which had been captured on the spread sheets ... equipment was used as a proxy for hygiene practices. Farmers with ..... age as an indicator of life-cycle stage: the case for a farm family age ...

  5. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  6. Oral Streptococcal Endocarditis, Oral Hygiene Habits, and Recent Dental Procedures: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Xavier; Millot, Sarah; Chirouze, Catherine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Moby, Vanessa; Tattevin, Pierre; Strady, Christophe; Euvrard, Edouard; Agrinier, Nelly; Thomas, Daniel; Hoen, Bruno; Alla, François

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to compare oral hygiene habits, orodental status, and dental procedures in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) according to whether the IE-causing microorganism originated in the oral cavity. We conducted an assessor-blinded case-control study in 6 French tertiary-care hospitals. Oral hygiene habits were recorded using a self-administered questionnaire. Orodental status was analyzed by trained dental practitioners blinded to the microorganism, using standardized clinical examination and dental panoramic tomography. History of dental procedures was obtained through patient and dentist interviews. Microorganisms were categorized as oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens using an expert-validated list kept confidential during the course of the study. Cases and controls had definite IE caused either by oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens, respectively. Participants were enrolled between May 2008 and January 2013. Cases (n = 73) were more likely than controls (n = 192) to be aged calculus, and infectious dental diseases did not significantly differ between groups. Patients with IE caused by oral streptococci differ from patients with IE caused by nonoral pathogens regarding background characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and recent dental procedures, but not current orodental status. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance is Associated with the Change of Perception toward Hand Hygiene among Medical Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung Soon; Park, Se Jeong; Chung, Moon Joo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jeong-a; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of hand hygiene compliance is associated with changed perception toward hand hygiene among medical personnel. Materials and Methods Hand hygien...

  8. Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Harsh, John; Tompsett, Carolyn J; Redline, Susan

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19; 17.7 ± 0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness were obtained from adolescent reports, behavior from caretaker reports, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually based factor structure were similar for six of the eight proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α = 0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α = 0.60; behavioural arousal: α = 0.62; cognitive/emotional: α = 0.81; sleep environment: α = 0.61; sleep stability: α = 0.68; daytime sleep: α = 0.78. Sleep hygiene scores were associated positively with sleep duration (r = 0.16) and sleep efficiency (r = 0.12) and negatively with daytime sleepiness (r = -0.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviours provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Amadurecimento de filtros lentos de areia e remoção de microrganismos indicadores de qualidade da água ao longo da profundidade do leito: uma avaliação em instalação piloto Maturation of slow sand filters and removal of microorganisms' indicators of water quality along the media depth: an evaluation in pilot plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Ladeira Alves de Brito

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O potencial da filtração lenta como opção tecnológica para o tratamento de água nos países em desenvolvimento e sua capacidade de remoção de contaminantes, sobretudo patogênicos, são reconhecidos. Contudo, ainda permanece incompleto o conhecimento acerca dos mecanismos que predominantemente atuam na remoção dos microrganismos. Objetivando avançar nessa compreensão, desenvolveu-se uma investigação experimental, em unidades piloto, em filtros lentos de areia com escoamento descendente e ascendente, operados com água sintética e duas taxas de filtração (3 e 6m³/m2.d. A retenção dos microrganismos indicadores foi avaliada em cinco camadas, com 0,15 m de espessura cada, em dois momentos da carreira. A maturidade biológica do leito filtrante foi menos favorecida pela taxa mais alta de filtração e pelo fluxo ascendente. Os 0,45 m iniciais do leito filtrante foram importantes na remoção de microrganismos sob as condições estudadas, mas a remoção não se restringiu a estas camadas, tendo sido observada para todos os indicadores retenção nas camadas de 0,45-0,60 m e de 0,60-0,75 m. A schmutzdecke parece desempenhar papel efetivo na remoção de indicadores microbiológicos apenas quando bem desenvolvida. Há uma indicação de que a camada suporte exerce algum papel na retenção de sólidos e microrganismos no fluxo ascendente.The potential of the slow sand filtration as technological option for drinking-water treatment in developing countries and its capacity of contaminants removal, mainly pathogens, are recognized.However, the knowledge concerning the predominant mechanisms that act in microorganism's removal still remains incomplete. Aiming to advance in the understanding of these themes, an experimental investigation was carried out, working with pilot plants of downflow and upflow slow sand filters, operated with synthetic water and two filtration rates (3 and 6 m³/m².d. The microorganisms indicators removal was

  10. Comparison normal composting with composting using effective microorganisms for poultry carcasses disposal in poultry farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Taher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting offers a convenient and environmentally acceptable safe, effective method for the disposal of carcasses as an alternative method to burning, burial and rendering. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a natural biological products containing an effective microorganisms namily; Lactic acid bacill (Lactobacillus plantarum; L. casei Streptococcus Lactis., Photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides,Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis Toula, Pichia Jadinii, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; S. griseus., and Fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis in the composting activity of poultry carcasses. The composting stacks constitute multi alternative layers of wood shaves, hay, poultry carcasses and then wood shaves and so on. The layers have been bypassed with plastic tubes for oxygen supply. Moreover, a petri dishes of salmonella and E. coli colonies were introduced within poultry carcasses layer. After 8 days of the experimental period this study follows the physical properties of the composting process according to its odor intesity, color and pH level as well as the bacterial reisolation from the stored colonies. Results indicate that the biological products increase the temperature of the composting stack (66-68° C with a minimal odors as the pH meters recording 5.4 as compared to the control composting stack (52-64° C and pH 6.8 with offender odors. On the other hand ,the biological product inhibit the bacterial reisolation offers since the 10the day of the experiment, however, in the normal composting stack that periods will prolonged till the 17 days of the experiment. Interestingly, the biological product induce high and rapid digestable rate for the poultry carcasses which shown within 25 days of the experiment, in comparison to the normal composting stack which induce that effects in 60 days. In conclusion, the addition of effective microorganism to the

  11. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  12. [DEONTOLOGICAL ISSUES IN RAILWAY HYGIENE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsov, V A

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the main ethical and deontological problems encountered in practice and research activities of the hygienist in transport. There is shown the importance of strict compliance with hygienic standards, disregard for the principle of "technical attainability", the necessity of continuous training, improvement of skills of sanitary-educational activity and readiness to solve emerging ethical issues in connection with the development of scientific and technical progress.

  13. Nudging to improve hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caris, M G; Labuschagne, H A; Dekker, M; Kramer, M H H; van Agtmael, M A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

    2018-04-01

    Hand hygiene is paramount to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but improving compliance is challenging. When healthcare workers seldom encounter healthcare-associated infections, they will consider the odds of causing infections through poor hand hygiene negligible. Cognitive biases such as these may induce non-compliance. Nudging, 'a friendly push to encourage desired behaviour', could provide an easily implemented, inexpensive measure to address cognitive biases and thus support hand hygiene interventions. To investigate whether behavioural nudges, displayed as posters, can increase the use of alcohol-based hand rub. We developed nudges based on a systematic review of previously described cognitive biases, and tested these through a cross-sectional survey among the target audience. We then conducted a controlled before-after trial on two hospital wards, to assess the effect of these nudges on the use of alcohol-based hand rub, measured with electronic dispensers. Poisson regression analyses adjusted for workload showed that nudges displayed next to dispensers increased their overall use on one ward [poster 1: relative risk: 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.2); poster 2: 1.7 (1.2-2.5)] and during doctor's rounds on both wards [poster 1: ward A: 1.7 (1.1-2.6); ward B: 2.2 (1.3-3.8)]. Use of dispensers without adjacent nudges did not increase. Nudges based on cognitive biases that play a role in hand hygiene, and displayed as posters, could provide an easy, inexpensive measure to increase use of alcohol-based hand rub. When applying nudges to change behaviour, it is important to identify the right nudge for the right audience. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biofuel production by recombinant microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, James C.; Atsumi, Shota; Cann, Anthony F.

    2017-07-04

    Provided herein are metabolically-modified microorganisms useful for producing biofuels. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing high alcohols including isobutanol, 1-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol from a suitable substrate.

  15. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  16. Establishing Drug Resistance in Microorganisms by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirev, Plamen A.; Hagan, Nathan S.; Antoine, Miquel D.; Lin, Jeffrey S.; Feldman, Andrew B.

    2013-08-01

    A rapid method to determine drug resistance in bacteria based on mass spectrometry is presented. In it, a mass spectrum of an intact microorganism grown in drug-containing stable isotope-labeled media is compared with a mass spectrum of the intact microorganism grown in non-labeled media without the drug present. Drug resistance is determined by predicting characteristic mass shifts of one or more microorganism biomarkers using bioinformatics algorithms. Observing such characteristic mass shifts indicates that the microorganism is viable even in the presence of the drug, thus incorporating the isotopic label into characteristic biomarker molecules. The performance of the method is illustrated on the example of intact E. coli, grown in control (unlabeled) and 13C-labeled media, and analyzed by MALDI TOF MS. Algorithms for data analysis are presented as well.

  17. Environmental factors and their association with emergency department hand hygiene compliance: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eileen J; Wyer, Peter; Giglio, James; Jia, Haomiao; Nelson, Germaine; Kauari, Vepuka E; Larson, Elaine L

    2016-05-01

    Hand hygiene is effective in preventing healthcare-associated infections. Environmental conditions in the emergency department (ED), including crowding and the use of non-traditional patient care areas (ie, hallways), may pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance. We examined the relationship between these environmental conditions and proper hand hygiene. This was a single-site, observational study. From October 2013 to January 2014, trained observers recorded hand hygiene compliance among staff in the ED according to the World Health Organization 'My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene'. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the relationship between environmental conditions and hand hygiene compliance, while controlling for important covariates (eg, hand hygiene indication, glove use, shift, etc). A total of 1673 hand hygiene opportunities were observed. In multivariable analyses, hand hygiene compliance was significantly lower when the ED was at its highest level of crowding than when the ED was not crowded and lower among hallway care areas than semiprivate care areas (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.55; OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.97). Unique environmental conditions pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance in the ED setting and should be considered by ED hand hygiene improvement efforts. Further study is needed to evaluate the impact of these environmental conditions on actual rates of infection transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Hand hygiene in the nursery during diaper changing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, Koh Ni; Maznin, Nur Liyanna; Yip, Wai Kin

    2012-12-01

    This project aimed to improve hand hygiene practice during diaper changing among nurses working in the nursery. This project was conducted in one of the nurseries in a 935-bed acute care hospital with a sample of 15 nurses. A pre- and post-intervention audit was conducted utilising the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice module. A revised written workflow, which specified the occasions and process for hand hygiene during diaper changing, was introduced. Modifications to the baby bassinets and nursery were made after barriers to good hand hygiene were identified. The project was carried out over 4 months, from March to June 2011. The post-intervention audit results show an improvement in performing hand washing after changing diapers (20%) and performing the correct steps of hand rubbing (25%). However, the compliance rates decreased for the other criteria that measured whether hand rubbing or hand washing was performed prior to contacting the infant and after wrapping the infant, and whether hand washing was performed correctly. The improvement in compliance with hand washing--the main focus of the new workflow--after changing diapers was especially significant. The results indicated that having a workflow on the occasions and process for hand hygiene during diaper changing was useful in standardising practice. Pre- and post-implementation audits were effective methods for evaluating the effect of translating evidence into practice. However, this project had limited success in improving compliance with hand hygiene. This suggested that more effort is needed to reinforce the importance of hand hygiene and compliance to the proposed workflow. In addition, this project showed that for change to take place successfully, environmental modifications, increased awareness and adequate communication to every staff member are essential. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence

  19. Contamination Revealed by Indicator Microorganism Levels during Veal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Wang, Rong; Luedtke, Brandon E; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    During site visits of veal processors, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has reported processing deficiencies that likely contribute to increased levels of veal contamination. Here, we report the results of measuring aerobic plate count bacteria (APC), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms (CF), and Escherichia coli during eight sample collections at five veal processors to assess contamination during the harvest of bob veal and formula-fed veal before (n = 5 plants) and after (n = 3 plants) changes to interventions and processing practices. Hides of veal calves at each plant had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 6.02 to 8.07, 2.95 to 5.24, 3.28 to 5.83, and 3.08 to 5.59, respectively. Preintervention carcasses had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 3.08 to 5.22, 1.16 to 3.47, 0.21 to 3.06, and -0.07 to 3.10, respectively, before and 2.72 to 4.50, 0.99 to 2.76, 0.69 to 2.26, and 0.33 to 2.12, respectively, after changes were made to improve sanitary dressing procedures. Final veal carcasses had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 0.36 to 2.84, -0.21 to 1.59, -0.23 to 1.59, and -0.38 to 1.45 before and 0.44 to 2.64, -0.16 to 1.33, -0.42 to 1.20, and 0.48 to 1.09 after changes were made to improve carcass-directed interventions. Whereas the improved dressing procedures resulted in improved carcass cleanliness, the changes to carcass-directed interventions were less successful, and veal processors are urged to use techniques that ensure uniform and consistent delivery of antimicrobials to carcasses. Analysis of results comparing bob veal to formula-fed veal found bob veal hides, preintervention carcasses, and final carcasses to have increased (P 0.05) relative to formula fed veal. When both veal categories were harvested at the same plant on the same day, similar results were observed. Since identification by FSIS, the control of contamination during veal processing has started to improve, but challenges still persist.

  20. Needs assessment for emerging oral microbiome knowledge in dental hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett

    The curricula of dental hygiene education reflect the knowledge gained through research and clinical advances. Emerging knowledge is often complex and tentative. The purpose of this study is to assess dental hygiene students' confidence in their knowledge about the oral microbiome and to conduct a knowledge needs assessment for expanding their exposure to emerging knowledge about the oral microbiome. Sixty dental hygiene students were surveyed, using a Likert-type scale about their confidence and about current and emerging bacteriological research. The majority of students (60%) reported being confident in their knowledge. The mean score for the ten items was 35.2% (standard deviation, 20.6%). The results of this study indicate a need for emphasis on emerging oral microbiome research in dental hygiene education. This is important so that dental hygiene students can properly share information with their patients about advances in dental care.

  1. Oral Hygiene and Dietary Habits in Adolescents with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaripour, Adriano; Willershausen, Ines; Hassan, Muhamed; Ebenezer, Supriya; Willershausen, Brita

    2016-03-01

    Fixed orthodontic appliances (FOAs) may cause a temporary deterioration of oral hygiene with corresponding gingival inflammatory changes. Optimal oral hygiene and dietary changes are essential in order to avoid periodontal inflammation. The present study investigates to what extent the recommendations made by the orthodontist are followed by young patients. A total of 67 adolescent patients with FOA were examined and interviewed. The control group consisted of 70 patients of the same age who had not undergone any orthodontic treatment. A specific questionnaire (assessing dietary habits, oral hygiene measures) was used and comprehensive oral findings along with oral hygiene status were evaluated. The analysis of the data showed that despite intensive oral hygiene and dietary advice in the patients with FOA, there was no change in diet or oral hygiene habits. There were significantly higher signs of gingival inflammation and amount of dental plaque in FOA patients. Nutritional recommendations and oral hygiene measures for young people with FOA were not adequately enforced. The findings indicate that frequent recalls should be scheduled with repeated reinforcement of oral hygiene and dietary modifications in FOA patients.

  2. Nurses' perceptions of reasons for persistent low rates in hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadule-Rios, Nohemi; Aguilera, Graciela

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of reasons for persistent low rates in hand hygiene compliance in the Critical Care Unit and their recommendations for improvement. This study used an exploratory, descriptive survey design to identify critical care nurses' perceptions of barriers to hand hygiene compliance in the unit and their recommendations for improvement. Nurses selected high workload, understaffing and suggested lack of time as the main problems with hand hygiene compliance in the critical care unit. Second to that, they identified difficulty accessing sinks and lack of appropriately located hand sanitisers at the point of care complemented by suggestions of not enough sinks and inconveniently located hand sanitiser as major barriers to hand hygiene compliance. Results of this study indicate that high workload and understaffing added to difficulty accessing hand hygiene resources contribute to low rates of hand hygiene compliance in the critical care unit. Addressing nursing understaffing and workload and making some environmental modifications to allow easy access to sinks and hand sanitisers may facilitate nurses hand hygiene compliance in this setting. Further studies on the relationship between nurses' workload, unit staffing, and hand hygiene compliance rates are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Applying psychological frameworks of behaviour change to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, J A; Corace, K; Hargadon, D P; Yu, D; MacDonald, T; Fabrigar, L; Garber, G

    2015-11-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in preventing transmission of healthcare-associated infections, compliance rates are suboptimal. Hand hygiene is a complex behaviour and psychological frameworks are promising tools to influence healthcare worker (HCW) behaviour. (i) To review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behaviour change to improve HCW hand hygiene compliance; (ii) to determine which frameworks have been used to predict HCW hand hygiene compliance. Multiple databases and reference lists of included studies were searched for studies that applied psychological theories to improve and/or predict HCW hand hygiene. All steps in selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. The search yielded 918 citations; seven met eligibility criteria. Four studies evaluated hand hygiene interventions based on psychological frameworks. Interventions were informed by goal setting, control theory, operant learning, positive reinforcement, change theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the transtheoretical model. Three predictive studies employed the theory of planned behaviour, the transtheoretical model, and the theoretical domains framework. Interventions to improve hand hygiene adherence demonstrated efficacy but studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. For many studies, it was unclear how theories of behaviour change were used to inform the interventions. Predictive studies had mixed results. Behaviour change theory is a promising tool for improving hand hygiene; however, these theories have not been extensively examined. Our review reveals a significant gap in the literature and indicates possible avenues for novel research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microorganisms .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and heat/pH-shift treatments. This technique resulted in 47% enzyme yield with a purification fac- tor of 12. Technique II which involved two extraction steps by' aqueous two - phase system. (APS) coupled with UF resulted in 62 % enzyme ...

  5. [Ecological and hygienic problems of nanotech progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshevskaia, N I; Strekalova, A S

    2012-01-01

    In article necessity of development of new directions of researches--nanoecology (ecology of nanoindustry) and nanohygiene (hygiene of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials) is proved. On the basis of the spent review key ecological and hygienic problems of nanoindustrial development are systematized and also debatable questions are allocated. The conclusion is drawn on necessity of an intensification of studying of ecological and hygienic aspects of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials.

  6. Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Sotnikova; Georgia Fasoi

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene...

  7. Is Cognitive Status Related to Oral Hygiene Level and Appropriate for Determining Need for Oral Hygiene Assistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca; Steinmassl, Otto; Kraus, Gabriela; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Grunert, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    With declining general health, the maintenance of oral health becomes increasingly difficult. Unfortunately, health care resources are limited. An assessment tool for detecting a patient's need for oral health care assistance would promote its adequate distribution. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the Shulman clock-drawing test score is a suitable assessment tool for determining the need for oral hygiene assistance. Data collected from recent dental checkups of 126 inhabitants of five Austrian residential care facilities were analyzed. The Shulman clock-drawing test score was used as a measure for cognitive abilities and related to tooth and denture hygiene indices, which were assessed using the approximal space plaque index (API) and the denture plaque index (DPI). Shulman score values were distributed almost evenly in the study population. The mean API was 83.6% (SD 20.2%) for the maxilla and 94.9% (SD 15.6%) for the mandible. The mean DPI was 43.9% (SD 31.4%). Cognitive impairment was not statistically related to the dental or denture hygiene index. A high Shulman clock-drawing test score indicates the need for oral hygiene assistance, but it is not suitable as a single tool to assess this need. Patients with other disabilities might equally qualify for assistance. Dentures, however, can be cleaned quickly and efficiently independently of patient compliance; therefore, cleaning the patients' dentures should be part of nursing personnel's daily care routine for every patient.

  8. The useful micro-organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Can man survive civilization? Academician Ivan Malek, Director of the Institute of Microbiology in Prague, a member of the Agency's Scientific Advisory Committee and for many years an adviser to the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Health Organization and UNESCO, believes he can, But he also considers that if man is to survive he must study and use all the resources at his disposal - including the micro-organisms of the planet earth. (author)

  9. Hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurov, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Modern state of the problem on hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations is considered. Concepts and principles of the regulation based on risk concept are presented according to ICRP 26 and 27. Two types of risk are designated: ''absolute'' and ''relative'' ones. The concept of acceptable risk on the basis of cost - benefit ratio is substantiated. Special attention is paid to the principle of accounting the complex of health signs, when determining radiation hazard. To determine the level of permissible risk and permissible dose to population the concept of ''inadmissibility of s-tatistically significant risk'' has been developed. Standards, regulating population doses in the USSR, which are valid nowadays, are considered

  10. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelecom, Alphonse

    2002-03-01

    After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  11. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  12. PROBIOTICS BASED ON TRANSGENIC MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. А. Starovoitova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendencies of recombinant microorganisms creation for obtaining on their basis a new effective biopreparations (probiotics with wider spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties were considered. A lot of attention was focused on the main genera of perspective bacteria for creation of recombinant probiotics particularly: Lactococcus, Bifidobac terium,Bacillus, Escherichia. The main created Ukrainian and foreign gene-modified strains, that are widely used today in creation of effective recombinant biopreparations were characterized. Some fundamental directions and methods of gene-modified strains obtaining, which are used in getting effective biopreparations that used for therapy and prophylactic illness were reported, under which this group of pharmaceutical drugs were not used earlier. The safety matters of probiotics using on basis of genemodified strains were examined. Medical and veterinary biopreparations on basis of recombinant microorganisms could be used directly and effectively for therapy and prophylaxis of different illness, beginning from disbacteriosis up to cardiovascular diseases. It is related with some probiotic microorganisms ability for lowering of serum cholesterol at the host organism.

  13. Microorganisms as sources of oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thevenieau France

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of microorganism belonging to the genera of yeast, fungi, bacteria and microalgae have ability to accumulate substantial amounts of oil, sometimes up to an even in excess of 70% of their biomass weight under specific cultivation conditions. For nearly 100 years, the commercial opportunities of using microorganisms as sources of oils have been continuously examined. Although it was evident that microbial oils could never compete commercially with the major commodity plant oils, there were commercially opportunities for the production of some of the higher valued oils. Today, with the great progress of metabolic and genetic engineering, the developments are focus on the high value oils containing important polyunsaturated or specific fatty acids. Such oils have the potential to be used in different applications area as food, feed and oleochemistry. This review is covering the related researches about different oleaginous microorganisms for lipids production and microbial oils biosynthesis process. In add, the lipid metabolism, metabolic engineering strategies to increase lipid production and the economics of microbial oils production are introduced.

  14. Transformation of the insecticide teflubenzuron by microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkelstein, Z.I.; Baskunov, B.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Vervoort, J.; Golovleva, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Transformation of teflubenzuron, the active component in the insecticide commercialized as Nomolt, by soil microorganisms was studied. It was shown that microorganisms, belonging to Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera are capable to perform the hydrolytic cleavage of the

  15. The validity and reliability study of Hand Hygiene Belief Scale and Hand Hygiene Practices Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlude Karadag

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The adaptation of translated and ldquo;Hand Hygiene Belief Scale and Hand Hygiene Practices Inventory and rdquo; in Turkey is found to be reliable and valid to evaluate hand hygiene belief and practices. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 271-284

  16. Use of a patient empowerment tool for hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastinger, Allison; Gomez, Kayeromi; Manegold, Ellen; Khakoo, Rashida

    2017-08-01

    Patient empowerment is recognized as an important component of a multimodal strategy to improve hand hygiene adherence. We examined the attitudes of adult patients and parents of pediatric patients toward a new patient empowerment tool (PET) at our hospital. We also surveyed physicians to determine their perceptions about the PET. A cross-sectional survey was performed of hospitalized children's parents and adult patients in a 531-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in West Virginia. Surveys were anonymous and self-administered. A separate survey was administered via e-mail to resident and attending physicians from the departments of internal medicine, pediatrics, and family medicine. Most parents and adult patients felt it was their role to speak up if a provider did not perform hand hygiene, but a smaller number actually felt comfortable using the PET. Only 54.9% of physicians felt that patients should be involved in reminding providers to perform hand hygiene. Overall, physicians indicated that they would prefer a patient to use words rather than the PET to remind them to perform hand hygiene. In our study, parents and adult patients supported use of the PET, but physicians were less supportive. As the patient empowerment movement grows, we should work to improve physician acceptance of patient involvement if it is to be successful. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only to...

  18. Current problems of radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotkov, F.G.; Golikov, V.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    Present status of radiation hygiene is considered and prospects of its further development are outlined in connection with the expansion of atomic energy use for peaceful purposes. Transfer to the new system of irradiation level reglamentation which is recommended by ICRP presupposes further investigations and data acquisition. Necessity of data acquisition on the frequency of stochastic effects of the doses not exceeding 100 rem, substantiations of methodical approaches to the assessment of the collective radiation doses of large human population groups at low levels of personal irradiation, obtaining of reliable information on the contribution of different sources into collective radiation doses are pointed out. Further investigations on the problems of radiation safety of patients and also prediction assessment of the existing systems of radioactive waste disposal, forecasting and insurance of radioactive wastes, forecasting and insurance of radiation accidents, connected with the injection of radionuclides into the biosphere deserve special attention. Perspective directions of scientific investigations in the field of occupational radiation hygiene are poined out

  19. Nurses' oral hygiene care practices with hospitalised older adults in postacute settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Esther; Ploeg, Jenny; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Carter, Nancy

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how nurses provide bedtime oral hygiene care, how they decide on interventions provided, and what factors influence their ability to provide oral care. Current evidence links poor oral hygiene to systemic and infectious diseases such as pneumonia. Hospitalised patients, who now retain their teeth into older adulthood, often rely on nurses to provide oral hygiene care. Nurses have the potential to impact oral health outcomes and quality of life by controlling plaque. However, oral hygiene care practices of nurses in postacute hospital settings are relatively unknown. A qualitative, exploratory multiple-case study was conducted with 25 nurses working on five inpatient units at different hospitals. Nurses were accompanied on their evening rounds to observe oral care practices, the physical environment and workflow. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the case study data including transcripts of guided conversations, field notes and documents. Within-case analysis was followed by cross-case analysis. Findings indicate that (i) nurses often convey oral hygiene care to their patients as being optional; (ii) nurses are inclined to preserve patient autonomy in oral hygiene care; (iii) oral hygiene care is often spontaneous and variable, and may not be informed by evidence; and (iv) oral hygiene care is not embedded into bedtime care routines. Oral hygiene care is discretionary and often missed care. Nurses need knowledge of the health benefits of oral care, and skills related to assessment and approaches to oral care. Availability of effective products and supplies facilitates provision of oral care. The evidence for oral hygiene care practices, outcomes of nurse-administered oral care and nursing's role in influencing the oral health literacy of patients require further study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Children's hand hygiene behaviour and available facilities: an observational study in Dutch day care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beeck, A H Elise; Zomer, Tizza P; van Beeck, Eduard F; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Voeten, Helene A C M; Erasmus, Vicki

    2016-04-01

    Children attending day care centres are at increased risk of infectious diseases, in particular gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Hand hygiene of both caregivers and children is an effective prevention measure. This study examined hand hygiene behaviour of children attending day care centres, and describes hygiene facilities at day care centres. Data were collected at 115 Dutch day care centres, among 2318 children cared for by 231 caregivers (August to October 2010). Children's hand hygiene behaviour was observed and data on hand hygiene facilities of the day care centres collected by direct unobtrusive observation. National guidelines indicate hand hygiene is required before eating, after toilet use and after playing outside. Among 1930 observed hand hygiene opportunities for children, overall adherence to hand hygiene guidelines was 31% (95% CI: 29-33%). Adherence after both toilet use and playing outside was 48%. Hands were less frequently washed before eating, where guideline adherence was 15%. In 38% of the playrooms there was no soap within reach of children and 17% had no towel facilities. In over 40% of the playrooms, appropriate hand hygiene facilities for children were lacking. Adequate hand washing facilities were available for children in only half of the participating day care centres in our study and children washed their hands in only 15-48% of the occasions defined by official guidelines. More attention is needed to hand hygiene of children attending day care centres in the prevention of infectious diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of bank filtration as a pretreatment method for the provision of hygienically safe drinking water in Norway: results from monitoring at two full-scale sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitsand, Hanne M. L.; Myrmel, Mette; Fiksdal, Liv; Østerhus, Stein W.

    2017-08-01

    Two case studies were carried out in central Norway in order to assess the performance of bank filtration systems in cold-climate fluvial aquifers relying on recharge from humic-rich surface waters with moderate microbial contamination. Three municipal wells and two surface-water sources at operative bank filtration systems were monitored for naturally occurring bacteriophages, fecal indicators, natural organic matter (NOM) and physico-chemical water quality parameters during a 4-month period. Aquifer passage effectively reduced the microorganism and NOM concentrations at both study sites. Bacteriophages were detected in 13 of 16 (81%) surface-water samples and in 4 of 24 (17%) well-water samples, and underwent 3 ± 0.3 log10 reduction after 50-80-m filtration and 20-30 days of subsurface passage. NOM reductions (color: 74-97%; dissolved organic carbon: 54-80%; very hydrophobic acids: 70%) were similar to those achieved by conventional water-treatment processes and no further treatment was needed. Both groundwater dilution and sediment filtration contributed to the hygienic water quality improvements, but sediment filtration appeared to be the most important process with regard to microbial and NOM reductions. A strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis showed that bank filtration technology has a high potential as a pretreatment method for the provision of hygienically safe drinking water in Norway.

  2. Dental hygiene work in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, H S; Morgado, I; Assunção, V; Bernardo, M F; Leroux, B; Martin, M D; DeRouen, T A; Leitão, J

    2008-08-01

    Dental hygiene activities were developed as part of a randomized clinical trial designed to assess the safety of low-level mercury exposure from dental amalgam restorations. Along with dental-hygiene clinical work, a community programme was implemented after investigators noticed the poor oral hygiene habits of participants, and the need for urgent action to minimize oral health problems in the study population. Clinical and community activity goal was to promote oral health and prevent new disease. Community activities involved participants and their fellow students and were aimed at providing education on oral health in a school environment. Dental hygienists developed clinical work with prophylaxis, sealants application and topical fluoride and implemented the community programme with in-class sessions on oral health themes. Twice a month fluoride mouthrinses and bi-annual tooth brushing instructional activity took place. Participation at dental-hygiene activities, sealed teeth with no need of restoration and dental-plaque-index were measures used to evaluate success of the programme for the participants. Improvement in dental hygiene is shown by the decrease in dental plaque index scores (P dental hygiene activities. Teachers became aware of the problem and included oral-health in school curricula. Dental hygiene activities have shown to be helpful to promote dental hygiene, promote oral health and to provide school-age children with education on habits that will be important for their future good health.

  3. Baccalaureate Dental Hygiene Education: Creating a Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Dona E.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the meaning of baccalaureate dental hygiene education is the offering of upper-division courses in the theory and practice of dental hygiene itself. Restructuring the associate programs as strictly two-year, lower-division programs would require standardization of baccalaureate programs as strictly upper-division curricula. (MLW)

  4. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.

  6. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee hygiene. 416.5 Section 416.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY... Employee hygiene. (a) Cleanliness. All persons working in contact with product, food-contact surfaces, and...

  7. [Hygiene and body odors across time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daich, D C

    1998-06-01

    Since Ancient Times, the Middle Ages and Modern times, there have been references to hygiene and body smells as well. According to each time there is a change in hygienic criteria and methods to avoid or diminish these annoying smells. Several beliefs and also science give their explanation to the different evolutionary stages of this process.

  8. Progress and prospects in labour radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, G.M.; Tarasenko, N.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    Stages of the development of radiation hygiene as a branch of hygienic science from 1940-1950 till now are being analyzed. The results and major research trends are presented. During the period under consideration the sanitary legislation was developed and important activity on setting up safety standards for ionizing raiation carried out

  9. Menstrual hygiene practices among adolescents in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstrual hygiene is vital to the health, well-being, dignity and productivity of women and girls. The study assessed menstrual hygiene practices among adolescents in selected secondary schools around the University of Ibadan. The study was descriptive. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 381 ...

  10. Microorganisms as bioindicators of pollutants in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are the predominant portion of the soil's biological phase and they are indicators of soil health and quality. Soil microorganisms a take part in degradation of organic and inorganic compounds, b their activity, number and diversity may serve as bioindicators of toxic effects on soil biological activity, c some microbial species may be used for soil bioremediation and d some sensitive microbes are used in eco-toxicity tests. The primary microbial population starts to decompose herbicides several days after their arrival into the soil. The secondary population produces induced enzymes and decomposes herbicides after a period of adaptation. Certain microbial groups are indifferent to the applied herbicides. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial activity depends on the element, their concentration, microbial species, as well as physical and chemical soil properties. Toxic level of individual pollutants depends on their origin and composition. However, combined application of chemicals makes room for the occurrence of synergistic toxic effects detrimental for the ecosystem and human health. .

  11. Effects of Atrazine on Soil Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the herbicide atrazine on soil microorganisms was investigated. Trials were set up in laboratory, on a clay loam soil. Atrazine was applied at 8.0, 40.0 and 80.0 mg/kg soil rates. The abundance of total microorganisms, fungi, actinomycetes, cellulolytic microorganisms and amino-heterotrophs was recorded. Soil samples were collected 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days after atrazine treatment for microbiological analyses.The results showed that the intensity of atrazine effect on soil microorganisms depended on treatment rate, exposure time and group of microorganisms. Atrazine had an inhibiting effect on cellulolytic microorganisms and amino-heterotrophs. Initially, it inhibited fungiand actinomycetes but its effect turned into a stimulating one once a population recovered. Atrazine had a stimulating effect on total abundance of microorganisms.

  12. Compliance with hygiene procedures among medical faculty students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawalec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs are transmitted by healthcare workers’ hands, which actively contributes to transferring pathogens from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. Hand hygiene is the easiest and cheapest method for preventing HCAIs. The article presents the compliance with hygiene procedures in a group of medical students of the Wroclaw Medical University. Material and Methods: The anonymous survey was conducted among 112 students. The survey included questions about the frequency of disinfection of hands and stethoscopes, changing clothes into clean ones, compliance with recommendations for healthcare workers, as well as subjective assessment of the availability of disinfectants in the hospital. Results: The results of the survey revealed that 35.7% of students did not disinfect their hands before each patient’s examination, 90% of them indicated limited access to disinfectants as the most important reason. The majority (93.8% of respondents were trained in hand hygiene. In 34.82% the availability of disinfectants in hospitals was assesed as good, 62.5% of respondents drew attention to the fact that the dispensers were often empty. Compliance with recommendations for healthcare workers: 66.9% posessed white coat with short sleeves, 52.68% wore wristwatch or jewelery on their hands, 50% of students laundered white coat less frequently than once a week, 9.82% did not disinfect their stethoscope at all, 15.18% did that before each patient’s examination. Conclusions: Students compliance with hand hygiene now and in their future work as doctors is the easiest method for preventing HCAIs. Providing easy access to disinfectants in the hospital environment and shaping hygiene habits during clinical activities play an essential role. Med Pr 2014;65(5:593–599

  13. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  14. Comparative evaluation of different methods of setting hygienic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, P.V.; Rodionova, L.F.; Mashneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term experiments were carried out on white mice and rats to study the relative importance of various procedures used in setting hygienic standards for exposure to adverse factors. A variety of radionuclides and chemical substances were tested and the sensitivities to them of various indices of the bodily state were determined. For each index, statistically significant minimal effective concentrations of substances were established

  15. Marine microorganisms. Umi no biseibutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, U. (Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Applied Biological Science)

    1992-11-10

    This paper explains properties, interactions, and activities of marine microorganisms. Marine bacteria include bacteria of vibrio family of arteromonas genus, luminous bacteria, and aerobic photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of marine bacteria is halophilic, and many proliferate at 5[degree]C or lower. Some of them can proliferate at 20[degree]C to 30[degree]C, or as high temperature as 80[degree]C and higher. Spongiaria and tumicata have many symbiotic microorganisms, and genes equivalent to luminous bacteria genes were discovered in DNA of light emitting organs in luminous fishes. It was verified that animal groups in upwelling zones are supported by bacteria that assimilate inorganics supplied from ocean bottoms. Marine bacteria decompose almost all of organics brought in from land to sea, and those produced in sea. Marine bacteria engage in complex interrelations with other organisms for competition, antagonism, parasitism, and symbiosis. The bacteria make antibacterial substances, anti-algae bacteria, enzyme inhibitors, toxins, pharmacologically active substances, and such physiologically active substances as deposition promoting substances to undersea structures including shells and barnacles, and deposition blocking substances. 53 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Menstrual Hygiene Management among School Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram Naresh; Joshi, Shrijana; Poudel, Rajesh; Pandeya, Pawan

    2018-01-01

    Menstrual hygiene management remains a taboo in many communities in Nepal. Cultural beliefs about menstruation such as food taboos and untouchability have negative impact on dignity, health and education of adolescent girls. The objective of the study was to assess the current knowledge, attitude and practice of school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management in Doti District in Far-Western Nepal. This cross-sectional study was carried out from October to December 2016 at seven village development committees in Doti district, Nepal. This study was done among 276 students from grade seven and eight of 11 schools. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from school students. Descriptive analysis was done to analyse the knowledge, attitude and practice of school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management. 67.4% respondents had fair knowledge and 26.4% respondents had good knowledge on menstrual hygiene management. However, out of 141 female adolescent respondents, only 56 (40%) were engaged in good menstrual hygiene practices. Around half of the respondents had positive attitude towards menstrual hygiene management related issues. Although knowledge on menstrual hygiene management among school adolescents is fair, still attitude and practice need to improve. Findings indicate the need of behavior change communication campaigns along with frequent reinforcement of school health education programs.

  17. Outcomes of an infection prevention project focusing on hand hygiene and isolation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Daleen; Sole, Mary Lou; Brown, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major health problem for hospitalized patients and their families. Since the 1800s, hand hygiene has been recognized as the single best method to prevent the spread of pathogens and nosocomial infections. Despite this fact, many healthcare workers do not adhere to hand hygiene policies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a guideline for hand hygiene practices in 2002. Multifaceted approaches to improve hand hygiene have been shown to increase compliance among healthcare workers and subsequently reduce infections. A performance improvement project was initiated to implement this guideline and other strategies to prevent nosocomial infection. This article summarizes the performance improvement processes and the preliminary outcomes on adherence to infection prevention policies related to hand hygiene and isolation practices. Clinically and statistically significant increases were noted for hand hygiene prior to patient care and in wearing masks when indicated. Nurses and patient care technicians had the greatest increases in compliance. Increases in hand hygiene after patient contact and wearing of gown and gloves were also noted, but results were not statistically significant. Nosocomial infection rates from antibiotic-resistant organisms decreased in the first surveillance, but rates increased during the 1-year surveillance. Consumption of alcohol-based foam disinfectant doubled from baseline. Findings are consistent with other published studies. The project will continue with further reinforcement and education over the second year.

  18. Characterisation of microorganisms responsible for EBPR in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that micro-organisms were selected by the repeated anaerobic-aerobic process and some non-phosphorus accumulating organisms were eliminated. The cultured strains obtained from acclimated sludges were purified and their DNA was amplified using F27 and R1522 to 1.5 kb; the gene sequences ...

  19. The effect of improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus to newborn infants: the Swedish Hygiene Intervention and Transmission of S aureus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernelius, Sara; Löfgren, Sture; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Blomberg, Marie; Olhager, Elisabeth; Gunnervik, Christina; Lenrick, Raymond; Thrane, Malena Tiefenthal; Isaksson, Barbro; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Newborn infants are often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus originating from health care workers (HCWs). We therefore use colonization with S aureus of newborn infants to determine the effect of an improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on bacterial transmission. Compliance with hygiene guidelines was monitored prior to (baseline) and after (follow-up) a multimodal hygiene intervention in 4 departments of obstetrics and gynecology. spa typing was used to elucidate transmission routes of S aureus collected from newborn infants, mothers, fathers, staff members, and environment. The compliance with hygiene guidelines increased significantly from baseline to follow-up. The transmission of S aureus from HCWs to infants was however not affected. Fathers had the highest colonization rates. Persistent carriage was indicated in 18% of the HCWs. The most commonly isolated spa type was t084, which was not detected in a previous study from the same geographic area. It is possible to substantially improve the compliance with hygiene guidelines, by using multimodal hygiene intervention. The improved compliance did not decrease the transmission of S aureus from sources outside the own family to newborn infants. Furthermore, we show the establishment of a new spa type (t084), which now is very common in our region. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms and their polymer-hidrolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Carolina M.M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms are found as normal inhabitants of continental and submarine volcanic areas, geothermally heated sea-sediments and hydrothermal vents and thus are considered extremophiles. Several present or potential applications of extremophilic enzymes are reviewed, especially polymer-hydrolysing enzymes, such as amylolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. The purpose of this review is to present the range of morphological and metabolic features among those microorganisms growing from 70oC to 100°C and to indicate potential opportunities for useful applications derived from these features.

  1. Short communication: Determination of the ability of Thymox to kill or inhibit various species of microorganisms associated with infectious causes of bovine lameness in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Megan; Zibaee, Fahimeh; Allard, Marianne; Döpfer, Dörte

    2015-11-01

    Infectious claw diseases continue to plague cattle in intensively managed husbandry systems. Poor foot hygiene and constant moist environments lead to the infection and spread of diseases such as digital dermatitis (hairy heel warts), interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital phlegmon (foot rot). Currently, copper sulfate and formalin are the most widely used disinfecting agents in bovine footbaths; however, the industry could benefit from more environmentally and worker friendly substitutes. This study determined the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of Thymox (Laboratoire M2, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada) for a selection of microorganisms related to infectious bovine foot diseases. Thymox is a broad-spectrum agricultural disinfectant that is nontoxic, noncorrosive, and readily biodegradable. The values for minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration indicated that Thymox inhibited growth and killed the various species of microorganisms under study at much lower concentrations compared with the recommended working concentration of a 1% solution. Overall, the values found in this study of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of Thymox show its potential as an alternative antibacterial agent used in bovine footbaths; however, field trials are needed to determine its effectiveness for the control and prevention of infectious claw diseases. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Microorganisms in the Removal of Radionuclides from Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashandy, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to radio nuclides and their accumulation by bacteria is a wide spread phenomenon that can be explored for the improvement of the environment. Metal resistant bacteria have developed very efficient and varying mechanisms for tolerating high levels of. toxic metals and thus hold potential for controlling heavy metal pollution. This property has been successfully applied for metal removal from soil. A total of 59 microorganisms were isolated from 5 locations in Sinai Desert. The microorganisms were examined for resistance to strontium, cobalt and cesium by spot technique on two kinds of media containing metals, Nutrient agar and King B agar. The resistant microorganisms were identified morphologically by Gram stain. The microorganisms were resistant to Sr and Cs at concentrations up to 200 mg/I and while Co proved to be toxic at a concentration of 100 mg/ I. The mechanisms of metal resistance to high concentrations were studied. Evidence show that the isolated microorganisms can uptake high concentrations of the studied elements. The results also, indicated that no binding proteins are released in the environment of the studied isolate

  3. Experimental justification of indicative microbiological values for the safety of water bodies in the recreation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.V. Drozdova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the assessment of the microbiological values of water bodies if they are used for recreational purposes and distinguishes the epidemiologically significant parameters. In order to validate the indicative safety values taking into account the existing conditions of the recreational use of water we conducted the hygienic assessment of water in the water bodies used for recreational purposes under the indicative microbiological values (total microbial count, thermotolerant coliform bacteria, E. coli; enterococcus, spores of sulfite-reducing Clostridia; coliphages; Ps. aeruginosa and the content of pathogenic microorganisms; also the microbiological profile of water was identified. The obtained data will be used to improve the system for monitoring of water bodies in the recreation areas.

  4. Comparative study of presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution versus traditional presurgical hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Martín, M Beatriz; Erice Calvo-Sotelo, Alejo

    To compare presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution following the WHO protocol with traditional presurgical hand hygiene. Cultures of the hands of surgeons and surgical nurses were performed before and after presurgical hand hygiene and after removing gloves at the end of surgery. Cultures were done in 2different days: the first day after traditional presurgical hand hygiene, and the second day after presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution following the WHO protocol. The duration of the traditional hand hygiene was measured and compared with the duration (3min) of the WHO protocol. The cost of the products used in the traditional technique was compared with the cost of the hydroalcoholic solution used. The variability of the traditional technique was determined by observation. Following presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution, colony-forming units (CFU) were detected in 5 (7.3%) subjects, whereas after traditional presurgical hand hygiene CFU were detected in 14 subjects (20.5%) (p < 0.05). After glove removal, the numbers of CFU were similar. The time employed in hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution (3min) was inferior to the time employed in the traditional technique (p < 0.05), its cost was less than half, and there was no variability. Compared with other techniques, presurgical hand hygiene with hydroalcoholic solution significantly decreases CFU, has similar latency time, a lower cost, and saves time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Hand hygiene in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Pargger, Hans; Widmer, Andreas F

    2010-08-01

    Healthcare-associated infections affect 1.4 million patients at any time worldwide, as estimated by the World Health Organization. In intensive care units, the burden of healthcare-associated infections is greatly increased, causing additional morbidity and mortality. Multidrug-resistant pathogens are commonly involved in such infections and render effective treatment challenging. Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of preventing healthcare-associated infections. In addition, it is equally important to stop transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, alcohol-based handrub should be used as the preferred means for routine hand antisepsis. Alcohols have excellent in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a variety of fungi, and most viruses. Some pathogens, however, such as Clostridium difficile, Bacillus anthracis, and noroviruses, may require special hand hygiene measures. Failure to provide user friendliness of hand hygiene equipment and shortage of staff are predictors for noncompliance, especially in the intensive care unit setting. Therefore, practical approaches to promote hand hygiene in the intensive care unit include provision of a minimal number of handrub dispensers per bed, monitoring of compliance, and choice of the most attractive product. Lack of knowledge of guidelines for hand hygiene, lack of recognition of hand hygiene opportunities during patient care, and lack of awareness of the risk of cross-transmission of pathogens are barriers to good hand hygiene practices. Multidisciplinary programs to promote increased use of alcoholic handrub lead to an increased compliance of healthcare

  6. Hand hygiene of medical students and resident physicians: predictors of attitudes and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Violeta; Caceres, Wendy; Loftus, Pooja; Evans, Kambria H; Shieh, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    We measured medical students' and resident trainees' hand hygiene behaviour, knowledge and attitudes in order to identify important predictors of hand hygiene behaviour in this population. An anonymous, web-based questionnaire was distributed to medical students and residents at Stanford University School of Medicine in August of 2012. The questionnaire included questions regarding participants' behaviour, knowledge, attitude and experiences about hand hygiene. Behaviour, knowledge and attitude indices were scaled from 0 to 1, with 1 representing superior responses. Using multivariate regression, we identified positive and negative predictors of superior hand hygiene behaviour. We investigated effectiveness of interventions, barriers and comfort reminding others. 280 participants (111 students and 169 residents) completed the questionnaire (response rate 27.8%). Residents and medical students reported hand hygiene behaviour compliance of 0.45 and 0.55, respectively (p=0.02). Resident and medical student knowledge was 0.80 and 0.73, respectively (p=0.001). The attitude index for residents was 0.56 and 0.55 for medical students. Regression analysis identified experiences as predictors of hand hygiene behaviour (both positive and negative influence). Knowledge was not a significant predictor of behaviour, but a working gel dispenser and observing attending physicians with good hand hygiene practices were reported by both groups as the most effective strategy in influencing trainees. Medical students and residents have similar attitudes about hand hygiene, but differ in their level of knowledge and compliance. Concerns about hierarchy may have a significant negative impact on hand hygiene advocacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-06-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

  8. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder

  9. Main problems of modern radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, L.A.; Buldakov, L.A.; Knizhnikov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of investigations carried out in 1980-81 in the field of radiation hygiene as well as plans for 1981-85 are considered. Three main groups of problems which the radiation hygiene is facing at the present time are discussed. The determination of levels and study of regularities of ionizing radiation dose formation in the population and personnel working with ionizing radiation sources in one of the promissing directions of the investigations. Delayed irradiation aftereffects andcontaminant action ofirradiation and chemical substances are no less important. The third important problem lies in the development of protective measures and arrangements on improving state sanitary inspection in the field of radiation hygiene

  10. Memorandum on standards for environmental hygiene 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document on the influence of the memorandum on Standards for Environmental Hygiene 1976. It is a result of discussions between the Committee for Radiation Hygiene and the Commission for Toxicology. The environmental hygiene standards are defined and the difference between 150 standards and legal standards explained. Comments are given on the concepts that the memorandum covers and advice is given on the enforcement of such standards. This document deals with air and surface water pollution, radiation effects and toxicological standards. The difficulty in fixing maximum permissible doses for specific damaging agents is discussed. (C.F.)

  11. Study of radioresistance of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrichova, D.

    1983-01-01

    Strain radiosensitivity was evaluated on the basis of the determination of inactivation curve parameters and the determination of the D 10 value. The course of curves was investigated for two 60 Co sources, RCHM-gamma-20 (USSR) with an activity of 2.54x10 14 Bq and AECL (type J-6000, Canada) with an activity of 4.92x10 16 Bq. The curve parameters were determined for microorganisms in buffer medium and for cultures in dehydrated condition. Coccus germs were irradiated with doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 kGy and aerobic sporulates with doses of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 kGy. For comparing the resistance of isolated strains the t-test was used. The most resistant of the isolated strains were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megatherium. (E.S.)

  12. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  13. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Correctly identifying nearest “neighbors” of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned

  14. Dental hygiene student experiences in external placements in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jane A; Hayes, Melanie J; Wallace, Linda

    2012-05-01

    While placements in external locations are being increasingly used in dental education globally, few studies have explored the student learning experience at such placements. The purpose of this study was to investigate student experiences while on external placement in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to final-year dental hygiene students (n=77) at the University of Newcastle, Australia, in 2010. The questionnaire included questions regarding the type of placement, experiences offered, supervision, resources available, and lasting impressions. Responding students were generally positive about their external placement experience and indicated that the majority of facilities provided them with the opportunity to provide direct patient care and perform clinical tasks typical of a practicing hygienist. However, there was a statistically significant difference in their opinions about discipline-focused and community placements. Students indicated that their external placement experience provided opportunities to learn more about time and patient management, including hands-on experience with specific clinical tasks. Ongoing evaluations are necessary to ensure that external placements meet both student needs and intended learning outcomes within dental hygiene programs.

  15. Oral Hygiene and Oral Flora Evaluation in Psychiatric Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The oral hygiene of most patients was insufficient. The presence of Gram‑negative Bacilli growth in the oral flora can be explained by poor hand hygiene. These findings suggest that it is useful to educate individuals about oral hygiene and hand hygiene and to inform the staff and families about this issue.

  16. Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  17. Older people, personal hygiene, and skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdell, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Skin health is essential for well being in older people. Personal hygiene is fundamental to skin health, but a lack of evidence exists about effective practices. An evidence base, disseminated through nursing education and patient health promotion, must be developed.

  18. Trends in occupational hygiene in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pääkkönen, Rauno; Koponen, Milja

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate and describe the current status of, and prospects for, the future of occupational hygiene in Finland. The main sources of information include a seminar held in the annual meeting of Finnish Occupational Hygiene Society and interviews with different stakeholders. Nanotechnology and other new materials, changing work environments, circular economy including green jobs, new medical methods and advances of construction methods were recognized as future challenges. Future work opportunities for occupational hygiene experts included exposure assessments in indoor air surveys, private consulting and entrepreneurship in general, international activities and product safety issues. Unclear topics needing more attention in the future were thought to be in new exposures, sensitive persons, combined effects, skin exposures and applicability of personal protective equipment. Occupational hygiene should broaden its view; occupational hygienists should have to cooperate with other specialists and grasp new challenges.

  19. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Page Content Article ... and lead to future dental problems. Teaching Good Dental Habits The best way to protect your child's ...

  20. Daily Tips for Good Oral Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this article Daily Tips for Good Oral Hygiene Bacteria can live in your mouth in the form of plaque, causing cavities and gingivitis, which can lead to periodontal (gum) disease. In order to keep your mouth ...

  1. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The process of institutionalization of hygiene: the State, healt and hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Gutiérrez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to set out the process by which national elites made major efforts to the hygiene apparatus in Colombia a responsibility of the national state. The motivations behind this were a mix of racial, medical and social reasons. During this period, Colombian doctors, thanks to a racial ideology, built a pro-hygiene narrative in which they argued for the importance of institutionalizing the hygiene apparatus. The paper’s analysis is based upon legislation, reports to the National Congress and medical conferences. The sources have been studied from the perspective of discourse analysis. Key words: hygienism, institutionalization, racial theories. I

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-01

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 6/19/2008.

  4. Growth inhibition of selected microorganisms by an association of dairy starter cultures and probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several growth curves for selected pathogens and hygiene indicators alone and vs selected dairy starter cultures (LAB and commercial probiotics have been performed. All strains for LAB and commercial probiotics were inoculated as pure cultures into skim milk to get an initial cocci:bacilli:enterocci ratio of 2:1:1 and a concentration of approximately 107 cfu mL–1 until challenge vs selected pathogens and hygiene indicators. Selected pathogens came from the collection of the Laboratorio di Ispezione degli Alimenti di O.A. or were reference strains (Escherichia coli, CSH26 K12, Staphylococcus aureus 27R, Salmonella Derby 27, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090. Each strain was inoculated into skim milk to get an initial concentration of approximately 106 cfu mL–1. Growth curves in skim milk for the following challenges were studied: i sterility control; ii association LAB; iii association of LAB vs each selected pathogen or hygiene indicator; iv selected pathogen or hygiene indicator alone. The challenges were carried out in BHI broth and in skim milk at 37°C. The highest reduction was observed in milk but in general the association of LAB and the probiotic was able to limit the growth of pathogens and hygiene indicators.

  5. [Historical materials of Chinese food hygiene (1927-1949)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Wang, X

    1997-01-01

    The author discusses the situation on the work of food hygiene from 1928 to 1949 in China. During this period, the Health and Epidemic Prevention Bureau under the Ministry of Health were all in charge of food hygiene work. They formulated a series of standards, laws and rules on food hygiene which were carried out by hygienic policemen of the Bureau of Public Security. There were two ways for the education of food hygiene: Short-term course teaching class for food hygiene in medical college. The inspection and research work of food hygiene were performed by the Central Testing House of Hygiene, The Central Experimental Office of Hygienic Facilities and the Central Office of Epidemic Prevention and Nutritional Institute of the Health Office. After anti-Japanese war was broken out in 1937, food hygiene work were carried out mainly in the service in the war.

  6. ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

  7. Biofilm formation on materials into contact with water: hygienic and technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonadonna, L; Memoli, G.; Chiaretti, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biofilm formation in man-made water systems has a hygienic concern when it is considered that the continuous detachment of this structure in the water flow, condition representing a potential source of contamination of plumbing and a risk for health, allows also pathogen microorganisms to reach consumers. The trend of biofilm formation was evaluated through series of microbiological analyses performed, under controlled conditions, on pipes made of materials that come into contact with drinking water according to the Decree of Ministry of Health n. 174. The investigation showed that, respect to the other materials, the reticulated polyethylene allows to sustain higher microorganisms concentrations. This characteristic was also observed in biofilms developed in condition of water stagnation compared to biofilm risen on surfaces of pipes under water flow [it

  8. Coping with hygiene in South Africa, a water scarce country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duse, A G; da Silva, M P; Zietsman, I

    2003-06-01

    The burden of infectious diseases may be reduced by adopting effective infection control measures. Some of these are dependent on the provision of adequate and safe water supplies for maintenance of basic standards of personal, domestic and healthcare hygiene. Consequences of scarce, and sometimes unsafe, waters supplies in South Africa are highlighted with reference to healthcare-associated infections, community acquired infectious intestinal diseases and domestic practices as infection sources. Availability of water in more than 67% of South African municipal hospitals and primary health care facilities (delivered by water tanker in 12.5% of satellite clinics, 5% from river or dam sources, 12.4% relying on rainwater) does not necessarily guarantee that it's quality is safe for utilisation. In the Northern Province and Mpumalanga, water needs to be purified prior to usage in 14.4 and 33% of satellite clinics respectively. Simple, low maintenance and low-cost interventions to maximise use and safety of limited water resources may be implemented: micro-organism (S. dysenteriae) inactivation by direct UV-exposure in sunlight abundant environments, water purification by filtration mechanisms and making use of iron pots in the community for pasteurisation, decontamination and boiling procedures. Education is paramount in promoting healthy domestic food handling practices, changing cultural perceptions of hygiene, hand-washing technique and mechanisms of domestic environmental decontamination. Water provision cannot be separated from other inter-related factors such as sanitation. Although the present government has taken initiatives to reduce the number of people not having access to water by 50% in 2002, provision of sanitation has been slower (>38% inadequate sanitation in 2002). Adoption of integrated environmental management approaches in conjunction with community participation (WASH Campaign--2002), by the government, aims to address the sanitation problems.

  9. Cultivating professional responsibility in a dental hygiene curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Christine M

    2013-08-01

    To prepare dental hygienists for future roles in the health care system, dental hygiene education must prepare graduates with skills, ethics, and values that align with professional responsibility. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of curricular changes designed to develop professional identity and responsibility over the entire span of the dental hygiene curriculum. Twenty-four dental hygiene students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed about their attitudes toward access to dental care, society's and health professionals' responsibility to care for the underserved, and their personal efficacy to provide care for the underserved. Surveys were conducted at three time points in the curriculum. The Attitudes Toward Health Care instrument adapted by Holtzman for dental use was used to survey the students. The findings indicate that this institution's curricular changes were effective in cultivating professional responsibility among these students. Their attitude scores increased across the six-semester curriculum, and students in their last semester of the program believed that all individuals have a right to dental care and that society has an obligation to provide dental care. These students' sense of obligation to care for the needy became stronger and their perceptions of their own ability to impact the community and act as an agent of change also increased.

  10. Effective Microorganisms: Myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal F. Cóndor_Golec

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Th e increase in population has lead to intensifi cation of agricultural systems. Due to the use of pesticides the productivity of agricultural systems has increased but environmental deterioration and unsustainable systems are the consequences of these ways of management. Th e environmentally friendly Eff ective Microorganisms (EM technology claims an enormous amount of benefi ts (claimed by the companies. Th e use of EM as an addictive to manure or as a spray directly in the fi elds may increase the microfauna diversity of the soil and many benefi ts are derived from that increase. It seems that suffi cient information is available about this new technology. Th e aim of this project is to make an analysis of the literature about EM and answer the following questions: 1 how much is known about EM?, 2 how much research is done on EM?, 3 what are the principals of EM?, what are the socio-economic implications of EM?. We want to answer these questions in order to publish the facts about EM and its socio-economic implications.

  11. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  12. [Genome editing of industrial microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Genome editing is defined as highly-effective and precise modification of cellular genome in a large scale. In recent years, such genome-editing methods have been rapidly developed in the field of industrial strain improvement. The quickly-updating methods thoroughly change the old mode of inefficient genetic modification, which is "one modification, one selection marker, and one target site". Highly-effective modification mode in genome editing have been developed including simultaneous modification of multiplex genes, highly-effective insertion, replacement, and deletion of target genes in the genome scale, cut-paste of a large DNA fragment. These new tools for microbial genome editing will certainly be applied widely, and increase the efficiency of industrial strain improvement, and promote the revolution of traditional fermentation industry and rapid development of novel industrial biotechnology like production of biofuel and biomaterial. The technological principle of these genome-editing methods and their applications were summarized in this review, which can benefit engineering and construction of industrial microorganism.

  13. Should the definition of "sleep hygiene" be antedated of a century? A historical note based on an old book by Paolo Mantegazza, rediscovered. To place in a new historical context the development of the concept of sleep hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, Gian Luigi; Valente, Mariarosaria

    2013-05-01

    The article contains a historical note on the concept of sleep hygiene, developed in 1977 by Peter Hauri, who developed a set of sleep-promoting rules, considered the fundament for sleep-hygiene techniques. Somnologists, unanimously ascribed to Hauri the fatherhood of the lucky term, while numerous books included at least a section on sleep hygiene. "Inadequate sleep hygiene" was included as a nosological entity in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. This article intends to demonstrate that the concept of sleep hygiene was developed many years before, thanks to the pioneering work of Paolo Mantegazza, a scientist and a professor in the Medical School of the University of Pavia, Italy. After presenting briefly the history of the University of Pavia and illustrating the profile of Paolo Mantegazza, the article presents the original book published by Mantegazza in 1864 (second edition in 1865). The authors report extensive citations of Mantegazza's original book dealing with sleep hygiene. Mantegazza's indications, compared with Hauri's rules show important similarities. The authors support the view that the fatherhood of sleep hygiene should be acknowledged to Mantegazza and antedated to 1864. Hauri keeps the merit of giving more solid scientific roots to the concept of sleep hygiene and of inserting it in the frame of modern sleep medicine.

  14. The importance of hygiene in the domestic kitchen: implications for preparation and storage of food and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-03-01

    Public concerns relating to food safety remain high with most attention focused on manufactured foods and those served in catering operations. However, previous data have suggested that the home may be the main location for cases of food-borne disease. The aim of this paper is to review the microbiological risks associated with hygiene in the domestic kitchen related to food and infant formula safety. Compared to other food sectors, research on consumer food hygiene, domestic food-handling and preparation of infant formula is relatively understudied. Behavioural and microbiological studies of consumer hygiene and the domestic kitchen have been reviewed to incorporate research relating to the safety of infant formula. Incidence data identify the home as an important location for acquiring food-borne disease. The domestic kitchen can be used for a variety of purposes and is often contaminated with potentially harmful micro-organisms such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. Consumer hygiene habits have frequently been found to be inadequate and relate both to microbial growth, survival and cross-contamination. Due to the reduced immune response of infants, the activities associated with the preparation of infant formula and associated bottles and equipment are of particular concern. Cumulatively, the data suggest that more effort should be made to educate the consumer in food hygiene, especially when the kitchen is used to reconstitute infant formula. This information needs to be provided in a form appropriate for use by consumers.

  15. The effectiveness of a promotion programme on hand hygiene compliance and nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picheansathian, Wilawan; Pearson, Alan; Suchaxaya, Prakin

    2008-08-01

    This quasi-experimental study aimed to identify the impact of a promotion programme on hand hygiene practices and its effect on nosocomial infection rates in a neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital in Thailand. The study populations were 26 nursing personnel. After implementing a hand hygiene promotion programme, compliance with hand hygiene among nursing personnel improved significantly from 6.3% before the programme to 81.2% 7 months after the programme. Compliance rate did not correlate with the intensity of patient care. Nosocomial infection rate did not decrease after the intervention, probably because of the multifactorial nature of infections. All participants agreed that promotion programme implemented in this project motivated them to practise better hand hygiene. This study indicated that multiple approaches and persistent encouragement are key factors leading to a sustained high level of appropriate hand hygiene practices among nursing personnel.

  16. Collaborative learning in pre-clinical dental hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Joseph, Laura J; Nappo-Dattoma, Luisa

    2013-04-01

    Dental hygiene education continues to move beyond mastery of content material and skill development to learning concepts that promote critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of collaborative learning and determine the growth in intellectual development of 54 first-year dental hygiene students. The control group used traditional pre-clinical teaching and the experimental group used collaborative pedagogy for instrument introduction. All students were subjected to a post-test evaluating their ability to apply the principles of instrumentation. Intellectual development was determined using pre- and post-tests based on the Perry Scheme of Intellectual Development. Student attitudes were assessed using daily Classroom Assessment Activities and an end-of-semester departmental course evaluation. Findings indicated no significant difference between collaborative learning and traditional learning in achieving pre-clinical competence as evidenced by the students' ability to apply the principles of instrumentation. Advancement in intellectual development did not differ significantly between groups. Value added benefits of a collaborative learning environment as identified by the evaluation of student attitudes included decreased student reliance on authority, recognition of peers as legitimate sources of learning and increased self-confidence. A significant difference in student responses to daily classroom assessments was evident on the 5 days a collaborative learning environment was employed. Dental hygiene students involved in a pre-clinical collaborative learning environment are more responsible for their own learning and tend to have a more positive attitude toward the subject matter. Future studies evaluating collaborative learning in clinical dental hygiene education need to investigate the cost/benefit ratio of the value added outcomes of collaborative learning.

  17. Biofouling of marbles by oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Zeki; Öztürk, Ayten; Çolak, Emel

    2015-08-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms disfigure the surfaces of different types of stone. Stone structure is damaged by the activity of photoautotrophic and other microorganisms. However, to date few, investigations have been undertaken into the relationship between microorganisms and the properties of different types of marble. In this study, biological activity of photoautotrophic microorganisms on three types of marble (Yatagan White, Giallo Anticato and Afyon White) was investigated under laboratory conditions over a short period of time. The three types of marble supported the growth of phototrophic microbial communities on their outer and inner layers, turning their original colour from white to a yellowish green colour. The porosity of the marble types facilitated filamentous microbial growth in the presence of water. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the accumulation of aggregates such as small spherical, fibrillar, calcified globular bodies on the inner surfaces of the marbles. This suggests that the microscopic characteristics of particular marble types may stimulate the growth of certain types of microorganisms.

  18. Food hygiene control in school canteens of La Spezia municipality: years 2003-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ercolini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The school canteens are public catering services of great interest as they provide meals to a high number of consumers who are particularly susceptible to health risks, therefore surveillance and health control are very important to ensure food safety. To this purpose, a convention between the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale of Piemonte Liguria e Valle d’Aosta, and La Spezia municipality was established for the health control of school canteens. In this article we report the results of analysis performed on food and swab surfaces samples collected during the period 2003-2012 in 22 school canteens and 3 cooking centers. From a total of 1187 samples: 313 raw foods were analyzed for chemical and microbiological parameters to verify compliance with legislation, 71 food preparations were analyzed for bacteria indicators to assess the good manufacturing practices, and 803 surface swabs were tested for total mesophilic count (TMC, Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. to control cleaning/disinfection conditions. The results show that only 1.3% of raw food samples did not respect the limits imposed by legislation, and 1.4% of food preparations was positive for pathogens. In environmental swabs, pathogenic microorganisms were never isolated and TMC exceeded the limits of acceptability in no more than 27% of cases. The most contaminated surfaces were those in contact with food and the equipment difficult to clean. The results demonstrate that potential hazards are kept to acceptable levels in school canteens and cooking centers investigated. In fact, during the period considered no foodborne diseases were reported among users. However, data obtained may be useful to better define control measures to be adopted to improve the hygienic level production in these structures and to prevent foodborne infections.

  19. Activities of daily living and oral hygiene status of older Korean patients in a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H-Y; Jeon, J-E; Chung, W-G; Kim, N-H

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between oral hygiene conditions, activities of daily living (ADL) and cognitive ability in older Korean patients in long-term care facilities. Ninety older persons (65+) were randomly sampled from a possible 112 residents in a single facility. They participated in a 2-month-long survey. The Korean Modified Barthel Index was used to measure the ADL, and cognitive ability was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Korean version. Oral hygiene status was measured using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and the Tongue Coating Index (TCI). Older participants with complete dependence manifested significantly poorer oral hygiene (P oral hygiene (P oral hygiene on tooth surfaces, while participants with partial dependence had poor tongue hygiene. In addition, dentulous older participants had poorer tongue hygiene than edentulous ones. This indicates the need to assess tooth status and provide oral care services via ADL in long-term care facilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An oral hygiene protocol improves oral health for patients in inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joanne; Scholten, Ingrid

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether a simple oral hygiene protocol improves the oral health of inpatients in stroke rehabilitation. Poor oral health can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia. The comorbidities associated with stroke, such as dysphagia, hemiparesis and cognitive impairment, can further impede independent oral care. International stroke guidelines recommend routine oral care but stop short of detailing specific regimes. The oral health assessment tool (OHAT) was conducted by speech-language pathologists with 100 patients with and without dysphagia in three metropolitan inpatient stroke rehabilitation facilities. A simple nurse-led oral hygiene regime was then implemented with all participants, which included twice daily tooth brushing and mouth rinsing after lunch, and oral health was measured again one week later. Initially, dysphagia was negatively associated with OHAT scores, and independence for oral hygiene was positively associated with oral health. After one week of a simple oral hygiene regime, the OHAT scores available for 89 participants indicated an improvement on average for all participants. In particular, 59% of participants with dysphagia had an improvement of 1 or more points. None of the participants developed pneumonia. A simple, inexpensive oral hygiene regime resulted in positive outcomes for patients with and without dysphagia in inpatient stroke rehabilitation settings. Oral health assessments and oral hygiene regimes that are simple to implement by the interdisciplinary team can be incorporated into standard stroke care with positive effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Perspectives on the delegation of hygienic care in the context of home nursing: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Irina; Vliegher, Kristel De; Cordyn, Sam; Maigre, Audrey; Peters, Edgard; Putzeys, Dominique

    2018-05-02

    In light of current trends and healthcare evolutions, delegation of patient care from home nurses to health care assistants (HCAs) is increasingly important. Hygienic care is an essential component of nursing education and practice, yet it has rarely been the subject of scientific literature. To understand the opinions and experiences of home nurses and policy makers with regard to the meaning of hygienic care and the delegation of these acts in the context of home nursing. A descriptive qualitative study (six focus groups with home nurses and two with policy makers from the Belgian home nursing sector). Content analysis of the data and the use of NVivo 11.0 software. Hygienic care is a cyclical care process of continuously investing in a trusting relationship with a patient, assessing their care needs and ability for self-care and taking action and evaluating care as situations change. All of this must be mutally agreed with the patient and should consider their environment and lifestyle. The decision to delegate hygienic care is based on patient assessments and the patient's specific care needs using nursing diagnoses and indicators. Finally, barriers and facilitating factors for both delegating and providing hygienic care were addressed. Hygienic care is a crucial component of nursing care, that can be delegated to HCAs with the necessary supervision.

  2. Hygiene and mental health among middle school students in India and 11 other countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamika Ranasinghe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS collects data from early adolescents who are approximately 13–15 years old and enrolled in middle schools (also known as junior secondary schools. We used logistic regression models to examine the associations between self-reported hygiene practices and mental health status as assessed by the 2007 India GSHS. Then, we used meta-analysis to compare the results from India with those from 11 other GSHS-participating countries in Asia and Africa (Djibouti, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Myanmar, the Philippines, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, and the United Arab Emirates. Among 7904 middle school students in India, 25.5% reported symptoms of depression, 8.6% reported loneliness, and 7.8% reported anxiety-related insomnia. Both males and females who reported symptoms of depression had an increased likelihood of poor hand and oral hygiene, including washing their hands rarely or never and brushing their teeth less than daily. The meta-analysis for this association yielded statistically significant pooled odds ratios for both boys and girls. In girls, loneliness was also associated with poor hand and oral hygiene. Reduced mental health status in adolescents may lead to worse hygiene behaviors and an increased risk of infections. Teachers, parents, healthcare workers, and other adults who observe suboptimal hygiene status in an adolescent should consider whether this indicates a mental health issue that requires clinical services. Keywords: Adolescents, Hygiene behavior, India, Mental health

  3. Hand Hygiene Improvement and Sustainability: Assessing a Breakthrough Collaborative in Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Anthony; Amherdt, Isabelle; Lécureux, Estelle; Petignat, Christiane; Eggimann, Philippe; Schwab, Marcos; Pittet, Didier

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess hand hygiene improvement and sustainability associated with a Breakthrough Collaborative. DESIGN Multicenter analysis of hand hygiene compliance through direct observation by trained observers. SETTING A total of 5 publicly funded hospitals in 14 locations, with a total of 1,152 beds, in the County of Vaud, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS Clinical staff. INTERVENTIONS In total, 59,272 opportunities for hand hygiene were monitored for the duration of the study, for an average of 5,921 per audit (range, 5,449-6,852). An 18-month Hand Hygiene Breakthrough Collaborative was conducted to implement the WHO multimodal promotional strategy including improved access to alcohol-based hand rub, education, performance measurement and feedback, reminders and communication, leadership engagement, and safety culture. RESULTS Overall hand hygiene compliance improved from 61.9% to 88.3% (Pstrategy for content and measurement was associated with significant and substantial improvement in compliance across all professions, all hand hygiene indications, and all participating hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1420-1427.

  4. Computer screen saver hand hygiene information curbs a negative trend in hand hygiene behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, Onno K.; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Waarsenburg, Daniël C. J.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Brug, Johannes; Kornelisse, René F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Appropriate hand hygiene among health care workers is the most important infection prevention measure; however, compliance is generally low. Gain-framed messages (ie, messages that emphasize the benefits of hand hygiene rather than the risks of noncompliance) may be most effective, but

  5. Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…

  6. Computer screen saver hand hygiene information curbs a negative trend in hand hygiene behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Helder MScN (Onno); J.W.M. Weggelaar-Jansen (Anne Marie); D.J.C. Waarsenburg (Daniël); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Brug (Hans); R.F. Kornelisse (René)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abtract__ Background: Appropriate hand hygiene among health care workers is the most important infection prevention measure; however, compliance is generally low. Gain-framed messages (ie, messages that emphasize the benefits of hand hygiene rather than the risks of

  7. Relationship Between Dental Hygiene Students' Performance in an Oral Radiology Course and the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; DeWald, Janice P; Solomon, Eric S

    2018-02-01

    Dental hygiene students' performance in oral radiology courses may give an early indication of their readiness prior to taking the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dental hygiene students' performance in an oral radiology lecture course and their performance on the NBDHE. Data were collected for all 117 dental hygiene students at Texas A&M University College of Dentistry from 2006 to 2009 who took the NBDHE during their second year of the program. Their final grades and scores on three written section examinations in an oral radiology course taken in their first year were compared with their overall NBDHE scores and raw scores on the oral radiology and case study sections. Moderate correlations (0.3radiology course, with the strongest correlation with the final grade (r=0.488, pradiology, followed by scores in anatomic sciences; the weakest relationship was with scores in pharmacology. This relationship can help identify students who may need extra support in the oral radiology course and other courses to prepare them to succeed when they take the NBDHE. This study also contributes to understanding of the general relationship between dental hygiene program courses and students' success on the clinical licensing exam and will hopefully encourage other programs to assess their students' performance in this way.

  8. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  9. Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation. PMID:24945613

  10. Decomposition of diesel oil by various microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, A; Netzsch-Lehner, A

    1969-01-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated the decomposition of diesel oil in different soils. In this experiment the decomposition of /sup 14/C-n-Hexadecane labelled diesel oil by special microorganisms was studied. The results were as follows: (1) In the experimental soils the microorganisms Mycoccus ruber, Mycobacterium luteum and Trichoderma hamatum are responsible for the diesel oil decomposition. (2) By adding microorganisms to the soil an increase of the decomposition rate was found only in the beginning of the experiments. (3) Maximum decomposition of diesel oil was reached 2-3 weeks after incubation.

  11. Effect of photocatalytic and hydrophobic coatings on brewery surface microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priha, O; Laakso, J; Tapani, K; Levänen, E; Kolari, M; Mäntylä, T; Storgårds, E

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether process hygiene in the beverage industry could be improved by applying new coating techniques to process surfaces. Photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and hydrophobic coatings applied to stainless steel with or without added antimicrobial compounds were studied in laboratory attachment tests and in a 15-month process study. No clear reductions in numbers of attached microbes were obtained with photocatalytic coatings, except for coatings to which silver had been added. These TiO(2)+Ag coatings reduced microbial coverage in laboratory studies and in some process samples. Hydrophobic coatings reduced the area coverage of microorganisms in 4-h laboratory studies but did not affect colony counts in laboratory or process studies. The surfaces had changed from hydrophobic into hydrophilic during the process study. The coatings did not mechanically fully withstand process conditions; part of the hydrophobic coatings had peeled off, most of the precipitated Ag had dissolved, and some of the TiO(2) coatings were damaged. In conclusion, functional coatings have potential for reducing microbial loads on beverage industry surfaces, but these coatings need further development.

  12. Does nanobiotechnology create new tools to combat microorganisms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinska-Górska, Marlena K.; Sawosz, Ewa; Górski, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is still a crucial global problem related to the overuse of antibiotics and natural microorganism capability for rapid horizontal evolution. Even new generations of drugs are not able to overcome bacterial defence mechanisms. A novel solution for this immense medical...... challenge can be nanomaterials. Researchers indicate that modern nanoforms can effectively support and perhaps in the long-term replace traditional bactericidal agents. Because of their unique physicochemical properties, nanotechnology products can exert multiple actions against bacteria, which might...

  13. Sleep hygiene among veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.

  14. Physiologie foundations of radiation hygiene of work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, G.M.; Kopaev, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The book deals with the physiological foundations of labour hygiene in handling sources of ionizing radiations. The main principles of radiation protection of personnel, questions of providing optimum hygienic working conditions, which ensure the maintenance of the working capacity of the personnel and their health are considered. Extensive factual material on estimation of the factors of professional effects on personnel is generalized. Particular attention is given to the functional reactions of the organism and extension of the physiological mechanisms of development of production fatigue in various forms of labour activity (when using sources of ionizing radiations in isotope laboratories and on nuclear reactors). A physiological substantiation of the hygienic requirements imposed on the equipment for handling radioactive materials is presented

  15. Hand hygiene posters: motivators or mixed messages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-07-01

    Poster campaigns regarding hand hygiene are commonly used by infection control teams to improve practice, yet little is known of the extent to which they are based on established theory or research. This study reports on the content analysis of hand hygiene posters (N=69) and their messages (N=75) using message-framing theory. The results showed that posters seldom drew on knowledge about effective ways to frame messages. Frequently, they simply conveyed information 'telling' rather than 'selling' and some of this was confusing. Most posters were not designed to motivate, and some conveyed mixed messages. Few used fear appeals. Hand hygiene posters could have a greater impact if principles of message framing were utilized in their design. Suggestions for gain-framed messages are offered, but these need to be tested empirically.

  16. Readily Identifiable Risk Factors of Nursing Home Residents' Oral Hygiene: Dementia, Hospice, and Length of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Austin, Sophie; Cohen, Lauren; Reed, David; Poole, Patricia; Ward, Kimberly; Sloane, Philip D

    2017-11-01

    The poor oral hygiene of nursing home (NH) residents is a matter of increasing concern, especially because of its relationship with pneumonia and other health events. Because details and related risk factors in this area are scant and providers need to be able to easily identify those residents at most risk, this study comprehensively examined the plaque, gingival, and denture status of NH residents, as well as readily available correlates of those indicators of oral hygiene, including items from the Minimum Data Set (MDS). Oral hygiene assessment and chart abstract conducted on a cross-section of NH residents. NHs in North Carolina (N = 14). NH residents (N = 506). Descriptive data from the MDS and assessments using three standardized measures: the Plaque Index for Long-Term Care (PI-LTC), the Gingival Index for Long-Term Care (GI-LTC), and the Denture Plaque Index (DPI). Oral hygiene scores averaged 1.7 (of 3) for the PI-LTC, 1.5 (of 4) for the GI-LTC, and 2.2 (of 4) for the DPI. Factors most strongly associated with poor oral hygiene scores included having dementia, being on hospice care, and longer stay. MDS ratings of gingivitis differed significantly from oral hygiene assessments. The findings identify resident subgroups at especially high risk of poor oral health who can be targeted in quality improvement efforts related to oral hygiene; they also indicate need to improve the accuracy of how MDS items are completed. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. How a smiley protects health: A pilot intervention to improve hand hygiene in hospitals by activating injunctive norms through emoticons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivrikos, Dimitrios; Dollinger, Daniel; Lermer, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Hand hygiene practice in hospitals is unfortunately still widely insufficient, even though it is known that transmitting pathogens via hands is the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections. Previous research has shown that improving knowledge, providing feedback on past behaviour and targeting social norms are promising approaches to improve hand hygiene practices. The present field experiment was designed to direct people on when to perform hand hygiene and prevent forgetfulness. This intervention is the first to examine the effect of inducing injunctive social norms via an emoticon-based feedback system on hand hygiene behaviour. Electronic monitoring and feedback devices were installed in hospital patient rooms on top of hand-rub dispensers, next to the doorway, for a period of 17 weeks. In the emoticon condition, screens at the devices activated whenever a person entered or exited the room. Before using the alcohol-based hand-rub dispenser, a frowny face was displayed, indicating that hand hygiene should be performed. If the dispenser was subsequently used, this picture changed to a smiley face to positively reinforce the correct behaviour. Hand hygiene behaviour in the emoticon rooms significantly outperformed the behaviour in three other tested conditions. The strong effect in this field experiment indicates that activating injunctive norms may be a promising approach to improve hand hygiene behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:29782516

  18. Turbulence from a microorganism's perspective: Does the open ocean feel different than a coral reef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Rachel; Variano, Evan; Koehl, M. A. R.

    2012-11-01

    Microorganisms in the ocean live in turbulent flows. Swimming microorganisms navigate through the water (e.g. larvae land on suitable substrata, predators find patches of prey), but the mechanisms by which they do so in turbulent flow are poorly understood as are the roles of passive transport versus active behaviors. Because microorganisms are smaller than the Kolmagorov length (the smallest scale of eddies in turbulent flow), they experience turbulence as a series of linear gradients in the velocity that vary in time. While the average strength of these gradients and a timescale can be computed from some typical characteristics of the flow, such as the turbulent kinetic energy or the dissipation rate, there are indications that organisms are disproportionally affected by rare, extreme events. Understanding the frequency of such events in different environments will be critical to understanding how microorganisms respond to and navigate in turbulence. To understand the hydrodynamic cues that microorganisms experience in the ocean we must measure velocity gradients in realistic turbulent flow on the spatial and temporal scales encountered by microorganisms. We have been exploring the effect of the spatial resolution of PIV and DNS of turbulent flow on the presence of velocity gradients of different magnitudes at the scale of microorganisms. Here we present some results of PIV taken at different resolutions in turbulent flow over rough biological substrata to illustrate the challenges of quantifying the fluctuations in velocity gradients encountered by aquatic microorganisms.

  19. Peat soils stabilization using Effective Microorganisms (EM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N. Z.; Samsuddin, N. S.; Hanif, M. F.; Syed Osman, S. B.

    2018-04-01

    Peat soil is known as geotechnical problematic soil since it is the softest soil having highly organic and moisture content which led to high compressibility, low shear strength and long-term settlement. The aim of this study was to obtain the stabilized peat soils using the Effective Microorganisms (EM). The volume of EM added and mixed with peat soils varied with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% and then were cured for 7, 14 and 21 days. The experiment was done for uncontrolled and controlled moisture content. Prior conducting the main experiments, the physical properties such as moisture content, liquid limit, specific gravity, and plastic limit etc. were measure for raw peat samples. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) test was performed followed by regression analysis to check the effect of EM on the soil strength. Obtained results have shown that the mix design for controlled moisture contents showed the promising improvement in their compressive strength. The peat soil samples with 10% of EM shows the highest increment in UCS value and the percentage of increments are in the range of 44% to 65% after curing for 21 days. The regression analysis of the EM with the soil compressive strength showed that in controlled moisture conditions, EM significantly improved the soil stability as the value of R2 ranged between 0.97 – 0.78. The results have indicated that the addition of EM in peat soils provides significant improving in the strength of the soil as well as the other engineering properties.

  20. An automated hand hygiene compliance system is associated with improved monitoring of hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Saungi; Reilly, Maggie; Thomas, Rowena; McSpedon-Rai, Dawn

    2017-05-01

    Consistent hand hygiene is key to reducing health care-associated infections (HAIs) and assessing compliance with hand hygiene protocols is vital for hospital infection control staff. A new automated hand hygiene compliance system (HHCS) was trialed as an alternative to human observers in an intensive care unit and an intensive care stepdown unit at a hospital facility in the northeastern United States. Using a retrospective cohort design, researchers investigated whether implementation of the HHCS resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and a reduction in common HAI rates. Pearson χ 2 tests were used to assess changes in compliance, and incidence rate ratios were used to test for significant differences in infection rates. During the study period, the HHCS collected many more hand hygiene events compared with human observers (632,404 vs 480) and ensured that the hospital met its compliance goals (95%+). Although decreases in multidrug-resistant organisms, central line-associated bloodstream infections, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates were observed, they represented nonsignificant differences. Human hand hygiene observers may not report accurate measures of compliance. The HHCS is a promising new tool for fine-grained assessment of hand hygiene compliance. Further study is needed to examine the association between the HHCS and HAI rate reduction. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving the hygienic design of closed equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of proper hygiene in closed process equipment is in many ways a complex task. The interaction between the physical design and the nature of fluid flow is of main concern. During cleaning the main performance of the flow is to bring cleaning agents in the right doses to all parts of th...... computational fluid dynamics models to be able to predict the cleaning efficiency in especially complex parts of process plants has excellent potentials for desktop improvements and computer pre-validation of the hygienic performance of process plants....

  2. Tapping uncultured microorganisms through metagenomics for drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Microorganisms are major source of bioactive natural products, and several ... This review highlights the recent methodologies, limitations, and applications of metagenomics for the discovery of new drugs.

  3. Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2015-09-18

    Sep 18, 2015 ... microorganisms with all three enzymatic activities, thereby establishing these techniques as ... supplemented at 1% with vegetable oils, including olive (OLI) ..... cepacia lipase for biodiesel fuel production from soybean oil.

  4. Microorganisms' mediated reduction of β-ketoesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Whole cells usually express a multitude of enzymatic activities; therefore an ... Each microorganism was cultivated for the biomass development on specific medium ..... Ketoester reductase for conversion of keto acid esters to ...

  5. Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms isolated from waste vegetable oil contaminated soil using plate methodologies. Eugenia G. Ortiz Lechuga, Isela Quintero Zapata, Katiushka Arévalo Niño ...

  6. Defensive properties of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the selection factors that drive chemical diversification of secondary metabolites of constitutive defence systems in plants, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), is still incomplete. Historically, plants always have been confronted with microorganisms. Long before herbivores

  7. Genetic fingerprint of microorganisms associated with the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inviting range of elements which microorganisms use in their ... ization and degradation of organic binders leading to struc- tural damage (Herrera et al. 2004). Microbial solubilization of materials involves the produc- ... architectural cement.

  8. Retrospective study on the hygienic quality of fresh ricotta cheeses produced in Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Scatassa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to investigate the microbiological profile of Sicilian ewes’ ricotta cheeses during fifteen years of investigations (2002-2016. The samples were collected between those conferred to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia (IZSSi Adelmo Mirri, Palermo (Italy, by the competent authority during official control, by food business operator in HACCP systems and in research projects. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS were found only in some samples. Bacillus cereus was detected in c.a. 16% of samples but the level of contaminations did not reach the threshold that leads to significant toxin production. Pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Brucella spp. were never detected. Furthermore, a total of 47 of lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were identified at species level by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene, resulting in the identification of 10 species belonging to four genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc, commonly employed as starter and non starter cultures in different traditional cheese. Results of this study highlighted an improvement of the hygienic conditions of the Sicilian ewes’ ricotta cheeses during the last ten years of investigation. This observation was confirmed from reduction of undesired microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and CPS, used to define the process hygiene criteria. However, in order to improve the final quality of this product are needed further strategy such as the dairy makers training, with the aim to apply a good hygienic practices during the production.

  9. [Street food: analysis of hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Giovanna Carbonera; dos Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Andrade, Anderson Assunção; Alves, Luciene

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of street food is an economical and practical alternative for the population. However, concerns regarding the safety of these foods are increasing. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the street food trade in Uberaba in the State of Minas Gerais. For this purpose, 30 street vending sites were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and microbiological analysis of food handlers' hands and food contact recipients and surfaces. The findings showed low adequacy of street food regarding hand hygiene and food contact surfaces. With respect to surfaces, the results for mesophilic aerobic microorganisms revealed that only 23.3% had satisfactory sanitary conditions. The level of contamination of hands by fecal thermotolerant coliforms and/or Coagulase positive Staphylococci was unsatisfactory in approximately 47% of food handlers. The conclusion drawn is that the hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers in Uberaba are poor. It is therefore necessary to adopt effective and permanent training programs on food safety for food handlers urgently.

  10. The role of oral hygiene in head and neck cancer: results from International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, D; Sartori, S; Brennan, P; Curado, M P; Wünsch-Filho, V; Divaris, K; Olshan, A F; Zevallos, J P; Winn, D M; Franceschi, S; Castellsagué, X; Lissowska, J; Rudnai, P; Matsuo, K; Morgenstern, H; Chen, C; Vaughan, T L; Hofmann, J N; D'Souza, G; Haddad, R I; Wu, H; Lee, Y-C; Hashibe, M; Vecchia, C La; Boffetta, P

    2016-08-01

    Poor oral hygiene has been proposed to contribute to head and neck cancer (HNC) risk, although causality and independency of some indicators are uncertain. This study investigates the relationship of five oral hygiene indicators with incident HNCs. In a pooled analysis of 8925 HNC cases and 12 527 controls from 13 studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium, comparable data on good oral hygiene indicators were harmonized. These included: no denture wear, no gum disease (or bleeding), oral hygiene indicator and cumulative score on HNC risk, adjusting for tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Inverse associations with any HNC, in the hypothesized direction, were observed for cancer sites, especially for tooth brushing and dentist visits. The population attributable fraction for ≤ 2 out of 5 good oral hygiene indicators was 8.9% (95% CI 3.3%, 14%) for oral cavity cancer. Good oral hygiene, as characterized by few missing teeth, annual dentist visits, and daily tooth brushing, may modestly reduce the risk of HNC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological co...

  12. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  13. Oral hygiene, periodontal status and treatment needs among 12-year-old students, Castro, Chile, 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Wauters

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the level of oral hygiene, periodontal status and treatment needs, indicating if there are differences between men and women, in 12-year-old students from Castro, Los Lagos region, during March and April of 2014. A cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 242 12-year-old students from municipal and subsidized private schools in Castro were selected through a stratified random sample representative of each school. Students were evaluated by a calibrated examiner to determine the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN. Data were transferred to a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and statistically analyzed to calculate the amount and percentage of the variables. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparison between genders. From the total, 59.5% of the students have regular hygiene. Also, 86.4% of the assessed adolescents have gingivitis and 13.6% of them have periodontitis. The periodontal treatment need indicates that 58% of the students require oral hygiene instructions and scaling. No statistically significant differences were found for gender. There is a higher prevalence of periodontal diseases associated with regular oral hygiene than the regional and national reference in 12-year-old adolescents in Castro. Then, it is necessary to teach and promote specific public health strategies based on epidemiological data

  14. A Community Based Study on Menstrual Hygiene among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women in South Asia are uncomfortable discussing in public. ... hygiene and safe practices are less vulnerable to RTI ..... places. Privacy for washing, changing, or cleaning purpose is something very important for proper menstrual hygiene.

  15. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam. It is b......-based hygiene promotion is also recommended to curb dependency and spark initiatives in ethnic minority communities. Finally, interventions should focus on hygiene "software"--promoting hygiene behaviour changes known to effectively prevent hygiene related diseases.......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...

  16. Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates Among Medical Teams in a Resource Limited Setting. Results of a Hand Hygiene Quality Improvement Project Conducted At University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Chuk), Kigali, Rwanda.

  17. Brief introduction about radiation hygiene in Russian navy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yu; Min Rui; Pan Zhen

    2005-01-01

    During long-time radiation working practice, there have been established comprehensive radiation hygiene system of technique and regulation in Russian navy. Brief introduction about radiation hygiene in Russian navy are as follows. (authors)

  18. The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

  19. Effect of oral hygiene education and motivation on removable partial denture wearers: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniela Garcia; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Machado, Ana Lucia; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Garcia, Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two different preventive oral hygiene education and motivation programmes on the plaque and gingival index, as well as denture hygiene of patients provided with removable partial denture (RPD) during a 12-month follow-up. A total of 53 partially edentulous patients were recruited for this study. The presence or absence of plaque and gingival bleeding by gentle probing was scored on all tooth surfaces at the preliminary visit. The plaque and gingival indexes were measured using the Löe index. Following treatment, the patients were randomly divided into three groups. In Control Group I, subjects were instructed to continue their personal oral hygiene routine. In Group II, participants were given verbal instructions and a self-educational manual on oral hygiene without illustrations. In Group III, oral hygiene guidance was delivered using a combination of verbal instructions and a self-teaching manual. To evaluate the effect of the different modes of instruction, the presence or absence of plaque and gingival bleeding was scored on all tooth surfaces (day zero examination) and re-examined 7, 15 and 30 days, 3, 6 and 12 months following RPD placement. The state of denture hygiene was evaluated 7, 15 and 30 days and 3, 6 and 12 months following rehabilitation. Parametric statistics was applied to dental plaque and gingival indexes. For accumulation of plaque and calculus on the RPD, non-parametric statistic was applied. The frequency of plaque found during the preliminary visit was higher than that found in the other periods. With regard to gingival index, significant difference was found between the preliminary visit examination and other periods. There was a significant difference in the plaque accumulation on the denture surface between groups I and III. The different methods of oral hygiene instruction used in this study indicate that the type of education was not of significant importance.

  20. Social and cultural dimensions of hygiene in Cambodian health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faurand-Tournaire Anne-Laure

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of bloodborne pathogen healthcare-associated infections is thought to be high in developing Southeast Asian Countries. The underlying social-cultural logics contributing to the risks of transmission are rarely studied. This report provides some insights on the social and cultural factors that shape hygiene practices in Cambodian health care settings. Methods We conducted qualitative surveys in various public and private health facilities in Phnom Penh, the capital city and in provinces. We observed and interviewed 319 participants, health care workers and patients, regarding hygiene practices and social relationships amongst the health care staff and with patients. We also examined the local perceptions of hygiene, their impact on the relationships between the health care staff and patients, and perceptions of transmission risks. Data collection stem from face to face semi-structured and open-ended interviews and focus group discussions with various health care staffs (i.e. cleaners, nurses, midwives and medical doctors and with patients who attended the study health facilities. Results Overall responses and observations indicated that hygiene practices were burdened by the lack of adequate materials and equipements. In addition, many other factors were identified to influence and distort hygiene practices which include (1 informal and formal social rapports in hospitals, (2 major infection control roles played by the cleaners in absence of professional acknowledgment. Moreover, hygiene practices are commonly seen as an unessential matter to be devoted to low-ranking staff. Conclusion Our anthropological findings illustrate the importance of comprehensive understanding of hygiene practices; they need to be considered when designing interventions to improve infection control practices in a Cambodian medical setting.

  1. Outcomes Assessment in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Ellen B.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 22 dental-hygiene-program directors found that programs routinely and effectively assess student outcomes and use the information for program improvements and to demonstrate accountability. Both policy and faculty/administrative support were deemed important to implementation. Time constraints were a major barrier. Outcomes-assessment…

  2. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  3. The Inquiry Approach in Dental Hygiene Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ruth Lois; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study to assess the impact of an inquiry-oriented curriculum in a dental hygiene program is described. Two instruments, designed to measure student perception of personal and faculty inquiry and disinquiry behavior, were administered. The implications of the findings are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  4. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook. 1988 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state are presented. In addition, the requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist in New York are discussed. The following chapters are provided: (1)…

  5. Medical Emergency Education in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stach, Donna J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 169 dental hygiene training programs investigated the curriculum content and instruction concerning medical emergency treatment, related clinical practice, and program policy. Several trends are noted: increased curriculum hours devoted to emergency care; shift in course content to more than life-support care; and increased emergency…

  6. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  7. A reformulation of the hygiene hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between allergic respiratory diseases and the number of siblings. It was hypothesized that the lower prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in large sibships was due to cross-infections between siblings. According to this hygiene...

  8. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...

  9. Aspects of control measures in occupational hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumens, M.

    1997-01-01


    This thesis focuses on two aspects which are of major importance in the broad field of control measures in occupational hygiene: the selection of control measures in a structured way and the impact of factors modifying the effectiveness of these control measures.

    The main

  10. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  11. Epidemiology, occupational hygiene and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of radiation protection practices to the practice of occupational medicine and hygiene is discussed. For example, accurate studies of a number of biological systems were stimulated. It is suggested that an accurate epidemiological assessment of workers exposed at or below the recommended radiation dose limits be undertaken. (H.K.)

  12. Space for Hygiene in Housing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene—the bathroom. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time, urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well into the dwelling,...... by analyzing the spatial organization of dwellings....

  13. Hygiene and Industrial Security Program: General aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Venezuelan standard establishes the aspects that must be included in the elaboration and monitoring of an Hygiene and Industrial Security Program (Prevention of Accidents and Occupational Diseases Program). It is applicable to any type of exploitation company, or any kind of task (in nature or importance) where people work, no matter the number workers [es

  14. Experimental studies of biodegradation of asphalt by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Tatsuya; Mihara, Morihiro; Ooi, Takao; Lin, Kong-hua; Kawakami, Yasushi

    2000-04-01

    On the geological disposal system of the radioactive wastes, the activities of the microorganisms that could degrade the asphalt might be significant for the assessment of the system performance. As the main effects of the biodegradation of the asphalt, the fluctuation of leaching behavior of the nuclides included in asphalt waste has been indicated. In this study, the asphalt biodegradation test was carried out. The microorganism of which asphalt degradation ability was comparatively higher under aerobic condition and anaerobic condition was used. The asphalt biodegradation rate was calculated and it was evaluated whether the asphalt biodegradation in this system could occur. The results show that the asphalt biodegradation rate under anaerobic and high alkali condition will be 300 times lower than under aerobic and neutral pH. (author)

  15. Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824 of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (hygiene behaviour. As a conclusion, the cross-national data on oral and hand hygiene behaviour from four Southeast Asian countries found sub-optimal hygiene behaviour. Several determinants of sub-optimal hygiene behaviour were identified that can inform programmes in order to improve oral and hand hygiene behaviour of this adolescent population.

  16. Promoting Critical Thinking among Dental Hygiene Students: Strategies for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…

  17. Menstrual hygiene management: education and empowerment for girls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, D.; Buit, G.; González-Botero, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent attention of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector to resolving the menstrual hygiene crisis for young girls in developing countries. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) interventions, including the use of sanitary pads, education, and awareness, and where

  18. A person-oriented approach to hand hygiene behaviour: Emotional empathy fosters hand hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Diefenbacher, Svenja; Siegel, André; Keller, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a social-psychological approach, this research examines whether emotional empathy, an affective reaction regarding another's well-being, fosters hand hygiene as this affects other's health-related well-being extensively. Three studies tested this notion: (a) a cross-sectional study involving a sample of health care workers at a German hospital, (b) an experiment testing the causal effect of empathy on hand hygiene behaviour and (c) an 11-week prospective study testing whether an empathy induction affected disinfectant usage frequency in two different wards of a hospital. Self-reported hand hygiene behaviour based on day reconstruction method was measured in Study 1, actual hand sanitation behaviour was observed in Study 2 and disinfectant usage frequency in two different hospital wards was assessed in Study 3. Study 1 reveals an association of empathy with hand hygiene cross-sectionally, Study 2 documents the causal effect of empathy on increased hand sanitation. Study 3 shows an empathy induction increases hand sanitiser usage in the hospital. Increasing emotional empathy promotes hand hygiene behaviour, also in hospitals. Besides providing new impulses for the design of effective interventions, these findings bear theoretical significance as they document the explanatory power of empathy regarding a distal explanandum (hand hygiene).

  19. Perceived stressors of oral hygiene students in the dental environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisleen Rayner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. University students are exposed to a multitude of stressors that may impact on their performance. The nature of health sciences education generally involves early engagement with patients and communities, which may add to the stressors inherent to university life. There is sparse information on stressors in the oral hygiene educational environment. Objective. To determine perceived stressors and the level of burnout among oral hygiene students at the University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. Method. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used. The study sample included all students in the Bachelor of Oral Health (BOH degree during 2012 (N=89. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data. Three parameters were measured, i.e. (i demographic characteristics; (ii perceived sources of stress, using a modified Dental Environment Stress (DES questionnaire; and (iii burnout, using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. Results. Respondents were mostly female (74% and primarily in the 18 - 25-year age group (92%. First- and 2nd-year students identified fear of failing and study load as major stressors. Stressors related to a lack of basic needs were identified as major stressors by 25% of 1st-year students. Third-year students identified clinical quotas, supervision and patients being late as major stressors. MBI scores indicated that students were not at risk for burnout; however, most students (66.2% scored high on emotional exhaustion (EE. Conclusion. Oral hygiene students identified stressors in their learning environment. There was a progressive increase in EE across academic years. The results suggest that interventions should be tailored for specific academic year groups.

  20. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  1. Application of thermotolerant microorganisms for biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yann-Shying; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2007-12-01

    Intensive agriculture is practised in Taiwan, and compost application is very popular as a means of improving the soil physical properties and supplying plant nutrition. We tested the potential of inoculation with thermotolerant microorganisms to shorten the maturity and improve the quality of biofertilizer prepared by composting. Thermotolerant microorganisms were isolated from compost and reinoculated for the preparation of biofertilizer. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the biofertilizer were determined during composting. The effects of biofertilizer application on the growth and yield of rape were also studied. Among 3823 colonies of thermotolerant microorganisms, Streptomyces thermonitrificans NTU-88, Streptococcus sp. NTU-130 and Aspergillus fumigatus NTU-132 exhibited high growth rates and cellulolytic and proteolytic activities. When a mixture of rice straw and swine manure were inoculated with these isolates and composted for 61 days, substrate temperature increased initially and then decreased gradually during composting. Substrate pH increased from 7.3 to 8.5. Microbial inoculation enhanced the rate of maturity, and increased the content of ash and total and immobilized nitrogen, improved the germination rate of alfalfa seed, and decreased the content of total organic carbon and the carbon/nitrogen ratio. Biofertilizer application increased the growth and yield of rape. Inoculation of thermotolerant and thermophilic microorganisms to agricultural waste for biofertilizer preparation enhances the rate of maturity and improves the quality of the resulting biofertilizer. Inoculation of appropriate microorganisms in biofertilizer preparation might be usefully applied to agricultural situations.

  2. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers–Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  3. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-08-01

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers-Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  4. Hygiene and mental health among middle school students in India and 11 other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Shamika; Ramesh, Swathi; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2016-01-01

    The Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) collects data from early adolescents who are approximately 13-15 years old and enrolled in middle schools (also known as junior secondary schools). We used logistic regression models to examine the associations between self-reported hygiene practices and mental health status as assessed by the 2007 India GSHS. Then, we used meta-analysis to compare the results from India with those from 11 other GSHS-participating countries in Asia and Africa (Djibouti, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Myanmar, the Philippines, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, and the United Arab Emirates). Among 7904 middle school students in India, 25.5% reported symptoms of depression, 8.6% reported loneliness, and 7.8% reported anxiety-related insomnia. Both males and females who reported symptoms of depression had an increased likelihood of poor hand and oral hygiene, including washing their hands rarely or never and brushing their teeth less than daily. The meta-analysis for this association yielded statistically significant pooled odds ratios for both boys and girls. In girls, loneliness was also associated with poor hand and oral hygiene. Reduced mental health status in adolescents may lead to worse hygiene behaviors and an increased risk of infections. Teachers, parents, healthcare workers, and other adults who observe suboptimal hygiene status in an adolescent should consider whether this indicates a mental health issue that requires clinical services. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour change: A case study from mid-western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia; Robinson, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    Behaviour change is central to the prevention of many population health problems, yet it is typically difficult to initiate and sustain. This paper reports on an evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in mid-western Nepal, with particular focus on the drivers and barriers for handwashing with soap/ash and elimination of open defecation. The research was conducted during October-November 2014, two and half years following the intervention's end-point. Qualitative data were collected from the target community (n = 112) via group discussions, interviews and drawings/stories of 'most significant change'. Households' handwashing/water facilities and toilets were observed. Analysis was informed by a model that highlights environmental, psychosocial and technological factors that shape hygiene behaviours across multiple levels, from the habitual to the structural (Dreibelbis et al. 2013). Findings indicate the intervention has supported development of new norms around hygiene behaviours. Key drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour were habit formation, emotional drivers (e.g. disgust, affiliation), and collective action and civic pride; key constraints included water scarcity and socio-economic disadvantage. Identifying and responding to the drivers and constraints of hygiene behaviour change in specific contexts is critical to sustained behaviour change and population health impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral hygiene habits, denture plaque, presence of yeasts and stomatitis in institutionalised elderly in Lothian, Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Cumming, C

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between oral hygiene habits, denture plaque, presence of yeasts and stomatitis in institutionalised elderly. A sample of 201 residents, 48-99 yr of age (mean age 82 yr), was selected from four different institutions in Lothian, Scotland....... Clinical recordings were carried out under standardised circumstances using well recognised indices. Information about oral hygiene habits was obtained through structured interviews conducted immediately before the clinical examination. A multivariate analysis, principal component, was carried out...

  7. Industrial hygiene in geological exploration. Okhrana truda na geologo-razvedochnykg rabotakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This collection covers scientific research work of the VITR on work safety and industrial hygiene. Main requirements are presented for study of the design documents for safety of geological exploration equipment, diagnosing the technical state of the transmission of drilling machines, methods of normalizing the microclimate in the drilling buildings, sanitary-hygienic characteristics of the emulsion flushing fluids. Results are presented of studies of additional modes of work of the drilling brigades and sociopsychological prerequisites for production injury and differentiated evaluation of economic consequences of accidents in geological exploration are indicated.

  8. Variation in thermoluminescence of irradiated brands of foodstuffs: a test for hygienic quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoon, A.; Zaheer, A.; Abu-Abdullah, S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermoluminescence of irradiated foodstuffs such as herbs and spices, is mostly due to attached dust or soil particles. Different brands of the same foodstuff sometimes give thermoluminescent signals of different intensities, apparently due to different degrees of dust contamination. It is of obvious importance to choose brands of foodstuffs that appear to have less dust contamination, i.e. of better hygienic quality. Several food items were investigated with respect to their thermoluminescent (TL) emission in order to assess TL usefulness as an indicator of hygienic quality for foods prone to contamination by dust. In this regard some foodstuff were artificially contaminated with a soil sample and their thermoluminescent emission was obtained. (author)

  9. Variation in thermuluminescence of irradiated brands of foodstuffs: A test for hygienic quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoon, A.; Zaheer, A.; Abu-Abdullah, S.

    1996-11-01

    Thermoluminescence of irradiated foodstuffs such as herbs and spices, is mostly due to attached dust or soil particles. Different brands of the same foodstuff sometimes give thermoluminescent signals of different intensities, apparently due to different degrees of dust contamination. It is of obvious importance to choose brands of foodstuffs that appear to have less dust contamination, i.e. of better hygienic quality. Several food items were investigated with respect to their thermoluminescent (TL) emission in order to assess TL usefulness as an indicator of hygienic quality for foods prone to contamination by dust. In this regard some foodstuffs were artificially contaminated with a soil sample and their thermoluminescent emission was obtained.

  10. Role of parents in the promotion of hand hygiene in the paediatric setting: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F; Pires, D; Zingg, W; Pittet, D

    2016-06-01

    When a child is hospitalized, parents have to share their role to protect the child with the hospital, and establish a partnership with healthcare workers to deliver safe care to the child, including undertaking good hand hygiene practices. To review the scientific evidence about the participation of parents in the promotion of hand hygiene in paediatric settings. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and SciELO databases was undertaken using the following terms: ('hand hygiene'[MeSH] OR 'hand hygiene' OR 'hand disinfection'[MeSH] OR hand disinf* OR hand wash* OR handwash* OR hand antisep*) AND (parent OR caregiver OR mother OR father OR family OR families OR relatives). The Integrated Quality Criteria for Review of Multiple Study Designs tool was used for quality assessment. The literature search yielded 1645 articles, and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria for the final analysis. Most studies were observational, and were based on questionnaires or interviews. Most parents had little knowledge about the indications to perform hand hygiene, but recognized hand hygiene as a relevant tool for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Their willingness to remind healthcare workers about a failed opportunity to perform hand hygiene was variable and, overall, rather low. Parents felt more comfortable about reminding healthcare workers about hand hygiene if they had previously been invited to do so. Literature on the subject is scarce. The promotion of hand hygiene by parents should be further explored by research as a potential intervention for enhancing patient safety in paediatric settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A framework for designing hand hygiene educational interventions in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Harris, Muriel J; Newton, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hygiene education appears to be the commonest school-based intervention for preventing infectious diseases, especially in the developing world. Nevertheless, there remains a gap in literature regarding a school-specific theory-based framework for designing a hand hygiene educational...... (normative beliefs and motivation to comply). CONCLUSIONS: A framework underpinned by formalized psychosocial theories has relevance and could enhance the design of hand hygiene educational interventions, especially in schools....... of school-based hand hygiene educational interventions is summarized narratively. RESULTS: School-based hand hygiene educational interventions seeking to positively influence behavioural outcomes could consider enhancing psychosocial variables including behavioural capacity, attitudes and subjective norms...

  12. Strategies for service-learning assessment in dental hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Sharlee

    2013-10-01

    A large body of literature exists on the instructional pedagogy known as service-learning. Service-learning is a teaching and learning approach characterized by the dental hygiene student's practical application of academic studies and occurs within a community setting, to the benefit of both the student and community. Dental hygiene educators use service-learning to enhance student knowledge and application of oral health curriculum. This manuscript reports on the importance of service-learning assessment to the National Dental Hygiene Research Agenda as well as the future of the profession of dental hygiene and the successful strategies in service-learning evaluation available for utilization by dental hygiene educators.

  13. The Impact of Long-Term Dental Health Education on Oral Hygiene Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Bonnie A.

    1982-01-01

    A study evaluated the impact of five years' exposure to a dental health curriculum on the oral hygiene of fifth-grade students. Findings of the study indicate that a well-designed dental health curriculum based on cognitive and behavioral objectives can result in a greater accumulation of dental health knowledge. (JN)

  14. The effect of a water-hygiene educational programme on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated whether a water-handling hygiene education programme could improve the health-related microbiological quality of container water stored and used in households in a dense urban settlement in the Free State Province. Previous studies in the area indicated that stored container water became ...

  15. Hygiene quality and presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in raw food diets for dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Nilsson

    2015-10-01

    CMY-2 group and only one of them was also resistant to a non-beta-lactam antibiotic. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that raw food diets could be a source of ESC-resistant E. coli to dogs and highlight the need for maintaining good hygiene when handling these products to prevent infection.

  16. Assessment of relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Lalani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.

  17. Microorganism identification technique using radioactive and fluorescent agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silman, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A method for identifying microorganisms is claimed. An emissive agent is added to a specimen of microorganisms to produce a mix of emissive products. These products are detected and characteristic pattern functioning as an identifier for the microorganisms is derived. The identifier is then compared with identifiers representing known microorganisms

  18. Food fermentations: Microorganisms with technological beneficial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh

    2012-01-01

    Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on “the history of use”, “traditional food”, or “general recognition of safety”. Authoritative lists of microorganism......, legumes, cereals, beverages, and vinegar). We have also reviewed and updated the taxonomy of the microorganisms used in food fermentations in order to bring the taxonomy in agreement with the current standing in nomenclature....... cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables...

  19. Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Chopade, Balu A

    2010-01-01

    Marine biosphere offers wealthy flora and fauna, which represents a vast natural resource of imperative functional commercial grade products. Among the various bioactive compounds, biosurfactant (BS)/bioemulsifiers (BE) are attracting major interest and attention due to their structural and functional diversity. The versatile properties of surface active molecules find numerous applications in various industries. Marine microorganisms such as Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Myroides, Corynebacteria, Bacillus, Alteromonas sp. have been studied for production of BS/BE and exopolysaccharides (EPS). Due to the enormity of marine biosphere, most of the marine microbial world remains unexplored. The discovery of potent BS/BE producing marine microorganism would enhance the use of environmental biodegradable surface active molecule and hopefully reduce total dependence or number of new application oriented towards the chemical synthetic surfactant industry. Our present review gives comprehensive information on BS/BE which has been reported to be produced by marine microorganisms and their possible potential future applications.

  20. The interplay between alcohol consumption, oral hygiene, ALDH2 and ADH1B in the risk of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sen-Tien; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Ou, Chun-Yen; Fang, Sheen-Yie; Chen, Ken-Chung; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Lee, Wei-Ting; Lo, Hung-I; Huang, Jehn-Shyun; Wu, Jiunn-Liang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Yang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Forn-Chia; Chang, Jang-Yang; Chang, Kwang-Yu; Wu, Shang-Yin; Liao, Hsiao-Chen; Lin, Chen-Lin; Wang, Yi-Hui; Weng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Han-Chien; Chang, Jeffrey S

    2014-11-15

    Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). The major carcinogen from alcohol is acetaldehyde, which may be produced by humans or by oral microorganisms through the metabolism of ethanol. To account for the different sources of acetaldehyde production, the current study examined the interplay between alcohol consumption, oral hygiene (as a proxy measure for the growth of oral microorganisms), and alcohol-metabolizing genes (ADH1B and ALDH2) in the risk of HNC. We found that both the fast (*2/*2) and the slow (*1/*1+ *1/*2) ADH1B genotypes increased the risk of HNC due to alcohol consumption, and this association differed according to the slow/non-functional ALDH2 genotypes (*1/*2+ *2/*2) or poor oral hygiene. In persons with the fast ADH1B genotype, the HNC risk associated with alcohol drinking was increased for those with the slow/non-functional ALDH2 genotypes. For those with the slow ADH1B genotypes, oral hygiene appeared to play an important role; the highest magnitude of an increased HNC risk in alcohol drinkers occurred among those with the worst oral hygiene. This is the first study to show that the association between alcohol drinking and HNC risk may be modified by the interplay between genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B and ALDH2 and oral hygiene. Although it is important to promote abstinence from or reduction of alcohol drinking to decrease the occurrence of HNC, improving oral hygiene practices may provide additional benefit. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Detection of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane Beatriz Vermelho

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available We present herein an improved assay for detecting the presence of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates. Using different substrates (gelatin, BSA, hemoglobin incorporated into the agar and varying the culture medium composition, we were able to detect proteolytic activities from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus and Serratia marcescens as well as the influence that these components displayed in the expression of these enzymes. For all microorganisms tested we found that in agar-BHI or yeast extract medium containing gelatin the sensitivity of proteinase detection was considerably greater than in BSA-agar or hemoglobin-agar. However, when BSA or hemoglobin were added to the culture medium, there was an increase in growth along with a marked reduction in the amount of proteinase production. In the case of M. luteus the incorporation of glycerol in BHI or yeast extract gelatin-agar induced protease liberation. Our results indicate that the technique described here is of value for detecting extracellular proteases directly in the culture medium, by means of a qualitative assay, simple, inexpensive, straight forward method to assess the presence of the proteolytic activity of a given microorganism colony with great freedom in substrate selection.

  2. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH MELLIAWATI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong-Bogor were used. The selection step was carried out based on their capability of starch hydrolysis to reducing sugar. The best result indicates that the production of reducing sugar reached the highest 18.485 ppm and amyloglucosidase activities was 3.583 units by KTU-1 strain. The highest total acid obtained was 5.85 mg/mL by Rhizopus IFO.R5442. The cell biomass was obtained between 0.5 to 1.74 g dry weight/100 mL and pH of the final fermentation (72 h were 3.57 to 8.38.

  3. Toxicity of fluoride to microorganisms in biological wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Banihani, Qais; León, Glendy; Khatri, Chandra; Field, James A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2009-07-01

    Fluoride is a common contaminant in a variety of industrial wastewaters. Available information on the potential toxicity of fluoride to microorganisms implicated in biological wastewater treatment is very limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of fluoride towards the main microbial populations responsible for the removal of organic constituents and nutrients in wastewater treatment processes. The results of short-term batch bioassays indicated that the toxicity of sodium fluoride varied widely depending on the microbial population. Anaerobic microorganisms involved in various metabolic steps of anaerobic digestion processes were found to be very sensitive to the presence of fluoride. The concentrations of fluoride causing 50% metabolic inhibition (IC(50)) of propionate- and butyrate-degrading microorganisms as well as mesophilic and thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogens ranged from 18 to 43 mg/L. Fluoride was also inhibitory to nitrification, albeit at relatively high levels (IC(50)=149 mg/L). Nitrifying bacteria appeared to adapt rapidly to fluoride, and a near complete recovery of their metabolic activity was observed after only 4d of exposure to high fluoride levels (up to 500 mg/L). All other microbial populations evaluated in this study, i.e., glucose fermenters, aerobic glucose-degrading heterotrophs, denitrifying bacteria, and H(2)-utilizing methanogens, tolerated fluoride at very high concentrations (>500 mg/L).

  4. Growth response of microorganisms to different molecular fractions of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polman, J.K.; Breckenridge, C.R.; Dugan, P.R.; Quigley, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Our research is primarily concerned with isolating and characterizing microbes which are able to dissimilate coal and convert it to other useful chemicals. This quarter, general growth responses of microorganisms cultivated in the presence of different molecular weight fractions of lignite coal were examined. Aerobic and anaerobic environmental samples from a variety of ecological niches were used as inocula. Growth of the microorganisms in these samples on the following types of media was tested: COAL medium, containing alkali-solubilized whole coal; THFI medium, containing the alkali-solubilized, tetrahydrofuran-insoluble, macromolecular portion of whole coal; THFS medium, containing the THF-soluble, low molecular weight portion of whole coal; and CON medium, void of any coal constituent. Overall results indicated that the presence of the THF-soluble, low molecular weight coal fraction enhanced the growth yield and the variety of aerobic microorganisms compared to the other coal fractions or the control medium. Conversely, anaerobic microbes grew best on media which contained the macromolecular fraction. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Hygiene monitoring of textiles used in the food industry Monitoramento da higiene de têxteis usados na indústria de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Fijan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Protective clothing is required in the food-processing industry, to protect workers from contamination by bacteria, fungi, viruses, prions etc. contained in the secretions and raw meat of slaughtered animals, and to protect the meat from being contaminated by microorganisms carried by the workers. It is well-understood that textiles are a control point (CP, and must be appropriately cleaned and disinfected in order to prevent biocontamination. Although the laundering procedure itself is important for achieving disinfection, it is also essential to maintain an appropriate hygiene level in the laundry, in order to prevent recontamination of textiles by environmental viable microorganisms. In this study, a sanitary-microbiological analysis was carried out in selected CPs in two laundries. Chemo-thermal washing efficiency was determined by evaluating the anti-bacterial effect against Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. The hygienic state of the laundries was determined by evaluating the number and type of microorganisms at selected CPs throughout the whole laundering procedure. The results indicated that the sanitary condition of both laundries did not reach the required levels and that several microbes were resistant to cleaning and disinfecting agents. It is obvious from the results that achievement of an appropriate hygiene level during laundering textiles from the food processing industry requires the implementation of appropriate corrective monitoring measures.Na indústria de alimentos é necessário o uso de roupas de proteção, para proteger os trabalhadores da contaminação por bactérias, fungos, virus, prions, etc, encontrados nas secreções e carne dos animais abatidos, assim como proteger a carne da contaminação com microrganismos carreados pelos trabalhadores. Os têxteis são um Ponto de Controle (PC, e devem ser limpos e desinfetados de forma adequada para prevenir a biocontaminação. Embora o processo de lavagem

  6. Analysis of hygienic critical control points in boar semen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M

    2015-02-01

    The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P = 0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P = 0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P = 0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3) colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen

  7. Hygiene Knowledge of Food Staff in Catering Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Yardımcı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out to determine the hygiene knowledge of the staff (N = 317 employed in kitchen and service departments of catering firms in Ankara. It was found that the mean scores of the staff with regard to personal hygiene, food hygiene, and kitchen and equipment hygiene were 10.7 ± 1.6, 19.8 ± 4.0, and 13.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Male staff achieved higher mean scores in personal hygiene knowledge test compared with female staff (p < .01. The staff receiving a hygiene training were determined to have higher mean scores in terms of hygiene knowledge tests compared with those who have not received, and the production staff had higher knowledge as to hygiene than the other groups (p < .01. The mean scores for hygiene knowledge tests were found to be increasing with age. Hygiene knowledge scores of the staff were quite lower than what must be taken. For that reason, periodical training programs should be organized to increase the awareness of the staff about hygiene.

  8. An educational intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Hang Thi; Tran, Hang Thi Thuy; Tran, Hanh Thi My; Dinh, Anh Pham Phuong; Ngo, Ha Thanh; Theorell-Haglow, Jenny; Gordon, Christopher J

    2018-03-07

    Hand hygiene compliance is the basis of infection control programs. In developing countries models to improve hand hygiene compliance to reduce healthcare acquired infections are required. The aim of this study was to determine hand hygiene compliance following an educational program in an obstetric and gynecological hospital in Vietnam. Health care workers from neonatal intensive care, delivery suite and a surgical ward from Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam undertook a 4-h educational program targeting hand hygiene. Compliance was monitored monthly for six months following the intervention. Hand hygiene knowledge was assessed at baseline and after six months of the study. There were 7124 opportunities over 370 hand hygiene recording sessions with 1531 opportunities at baseline and 1620 at 6 months following the intervention. Hand hygiene compliance increased significantly from baseline across all sites (43.6% [95% Confidence interval CI: 41.1-46.1] to 63% [95% CI: 60.6-65.3]; p hygiene compliance increased significantly after intervention (p hygiene compliance for an extended period of time. Hand hygiene knowledge increased during the intervention. This hand hygiene model could be used in developing countries were resources are limited.

  9. Improving oral hygiene in the long-term care of the elderly--a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenthöfer, Andreas; Dieke, Reinhard; Dieke, Anke; Wege, Karl-Christian; Rammelsberg, Peter; Hassel, Alexander J

    2013-06-01

    Oral hygiene and health of the institutionalized elderly are frequently described as inadequate. This randomized and single-blinded (outcome evaluation) study compared three types of intervention for improving oral hygiene with a control. The purpose was to investigate whether there were any significant differences between the intervention and control groups. One hundred and six participants living in long-term care homes in South-West Germany were recruited and randomly divided into four groups-three therapy groups and one control group. For all three therapy groups, teeth and dentures were cleaned professionally and individual instruction was given. One of these groups was also re-instructed and remotivated by a dentist (n = 27). One also received help from, and was remotivation by, staff educated in dental hygiene (n = 26). The third therapy group was not remotivated after professional cleaning of teeth and dentures (n = 26). For the control group, there was no intervention (n = 23). The main target clinical data were mean plaque (plaque-control record, O'Leary), gingival bleeding (Ainamo/Bay), and denture hygiene indices. For assessment of the difference between being in an intervention group and in a control group, mixed-model analysis for repeated measurements was performed for each main target variable. In addition, target clinical data were evaluated in long-term follow-up after 3 years. Compared with controls, denture hygiene, plaque, and gingival bleeding indices were significantly lower in the intervention groups over a twelve-week period (mixed model for repeated measurements; P hygiene. However, the effect decreases over time and renewal of the intervention is necessary. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The effect of improved hand hygiene on nosocomial MRSA control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Kalisvar; Pittet, Didier; Harbarth, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine studies that have assessed the association between hand hygiene enhancement and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates and to explore controversies surrounding this association. Many studies have been published confirming the link between improved hand hygiene compliance and reduction in MRSA acquisition and infections, including bacteremia. These studies have also shown the cost-beneficial nature of these programmes. Despite considerable research some issues remain unanswered still, including the temporal relationship between hand hygiene enhancement strategies and decrease in MRSA rates, association between hand hygiene enhancement and MRSA-related surgical site infections, diminishing effect of hand hygiene compliance on MRSA rates after reaching a threshold and the role of instituting contact precautions in the setting of low MRSA rates and sufficient hand hygiene compliance. In conclusion, enhancement of hand hygiene compliance has been shown to reduce MRSA rates; however, some open issues warrant further investigation.

  11. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  12. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences......The rapid development of recombinant DNA techniques for food organisms urges for an ongoing discussion on the risk assessment of both new as traditional use of microorganisms in food production. This report, supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is the result of a workshop where people from...... with risk assessment of these organisms in each Nordic country....

  13. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  14. Oral Hygiene in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Leonardo M; Portela de Oliveira, Millena Teles; Magalhaes, Wilrama B; Bastos, Poliana Lima

    2015-11-02

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The symptoms are characterized by motor disorders - tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability, which hinder oral hygiene. Oral and dental health in Parkinson's disease has been under-documented and findings are conflicting. Moreover, a number of dentists have limited experience regarding the management of these patients. This article reviews literature published within the last fifteen years, to better understand the impact of this disease in oral health. A literature search (MEDLINE and PUBMED), using keywords Parkinson Disease and Oral Hygiene, yielded 27 articles, from which 20 were selected. All of the articles were published in English in the last 15 years.

  15. Hand hygiene posters: selling the message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-02-01

    This literature review was undertaken to determine the established theory and research that might be utilized to inform the construction of persuasive messages on hand hygiene posters. It discusses the principles of message framing and the use of fear appeals. Current theory suggests that the most effective messages for health promotion behaviours should be framed in terms of gains rather than losses for the individual. However, as clinical hand hygiene is largely for the benefit of others (i.e. patients), messages should also invoke a sense of personal responsibility and appeal to altruistic behaviour. The use of repeated minimal fear appeals have their place. Posters that simply convey training messages are not effective persuaders.

  16. [The application of Delphi method in improving the score table for the hygienic quantifying and classification of hotels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-yun; Liu, Yong-quan; Wang, Hong-bo; Zheng, Yang; Wu, Qi; Yang, Xia; Wu, Yong-wei; Zhao, Yi-ming

    2009-04-01

    By means of Delphi method and expert panel consultations, to choose suitable indicators and improve the score table for classifying the hygienic condition of hotels so that it can be widely used at nationwide. A two-round Delphi consultation was held to choose suitable indicators among 78 experts from 18 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The suitable indicators were selected according to the importance recognized by experts. The average length of service in public health of the experts was (21.08 +/- 5.78) years and the average coefficient of experts' authorities C(r) was 0.89 +/- 0.07. The response rates of the two-round consultation were 98.72% (77/78) and 100.00% (77/77). The average feedback time were (8.49 +/- 4.48) d, (5.86 +/- 2.28) d, and the difference between two rounds was statistically significant (t = 4.60, P hotels was composed of three first-class indicators (hygienic management, hygienic facilities and hygienic practices) and 36 second-class indicators. The weight coefficients of the three first-class indicators were 0.35, 0.34, 0.31. Delphi method might be used in a large-scale consultation among experts and be propitious to improve the score table for the hygienic quantifying and classification.

  17. Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-10-01

    Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium

  18. Evaluation of the level of domestic hygiene in household kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, A; Carraro, V; Sanna, C; Cabiddu, C; Brandas, V; Coroneo, V

    2014-01-01

    Each year in industrialized countries, 30-40% or more cases of food poisoning occur in the household. The aims of this study are to describe the aspects related to food safety in households by carrying out a microbiological characterization of the kitchens in residential dwellings and to increase consumers' awareness concerning the importance of good hygienic practices, which are required for preventing foodborne diseases at household level. The collection of data involved taking 760 analytical samples of kitchen-counter tops and food from 80 kitchens of private dwellings; the manner in which food was treated was evaluated from the moment of purchase to its transformation and storage by means of a checklist; the questionnaire enabled us to determine the extent of consumers' knowledge concerning the food sector. Overall, the results showed a good level of hygiene concerning both food and kitchen-counter top food surfaces. The respondents of the questionnaire did not appear to be aware of various health risks especially concerning the management of the temperature and compartments of refrigerators as well as food storage times and the cooking or heating of food. The data indicate that final consumers should take more care when cleaning kitchen-counter tops and washing salad; special training programmes should be included in school curricular in order to increase citizens' awareness and knowledge concerning food risks within the household.

  19. Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.

  20. State of oral hygiene and identification of the main risk factors for inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenko M.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A high percentage of prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in young age causes urgency of treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissue in young age. Therefore, the research purpose was to investigate the hygienic condition and identification of the main risk factors for gingivitis in patients aged 18-30 years. 286 people aged from 18 to 30 years were observed in the study. To assess hygienic condition of the oral cavity and to determine the thickness of plaque indices OHI-S (simplified oral hygiene index Green Vermilyona and Silness Loe were used. Studies of oral hygiene status suggests that in patients with different etiologies of periodontal tissue inflammation, oral hygienic condition ranged from "satisfactory" to "poor." Therefore the results of study of hygiene and periodontal indices and samples confirmed presence of moderately expressed inflammation in the gums in young adults with chronic catarrhal gingivitis. Most often inflammation in the gums, namely, chronic catarrhal gingivitis was determined in patients with fixed prosthesis designs in the mouth or in violation of the bite, related to the major risk factors for periodontal disease occurring in young adults aged from 18 to 30 years.

  1. Evaluation of social interaction, task management, and trust among dental hygiene students in a collaborative learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Catherine D; Keselyak, Nancy T; Simmer-Beck, Melanie; Tira, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of collaborative learning on the development of social interaction, task management, and trust in dental hygiene students. These three traits were assessed with the Teamwork Assessment Scale in two different learning environments (traditional lecture/lab and collaborative learning environment). A convenience sample of fifty-six entry-level dental hygiene students taking an introductory/preclinic course at two metropolitan area dental hygiene programs provided comparable experimental and control groups. Factor scores were computed for the three traits, and comparisons were conducted using the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsh multiple comparison procedure among specific cell comparisons generated from a two-factor repeated measures ANOVA. The results indicate that the collaborative learning environment influenced dental hygiene students positively regarding the traits of social interaction, task management, and trust. However, comparing dental hygiene students to undergraduate students overall indicates that dental hygiene students already possess somewhat higher levels of these traits. Future studies on active learning strategies should examine factors such as student achievement and explore other possible active learning methodologies.

  2. [Hygiene, safety and occupational medicine in Niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, F; Sékou, H

    1997-01-01

    The laws and rules governing hygiene, safety and medicine in the workplace in Niger were evaluated in this study. We used labour administration, health service and Social Security Department reports to review each type of professional activity and the risks associated with it. This enabled us to make recommendations to the authorities and to the organizations representing employers and staff, concerning the prevention of risks at work.

  3. Implementation of directly observed patient hand hygiene for hospitalized patients by hand hygiene ambassadors in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Tai, Josepha W M; Li, W S; Chau, P H; So, Simon Y C; Wong, Lisa M W; Ching, Radley H C; Ng, Modissa M L; Ho, Sara K Y; Lee, Doris W Y; Lee, W M; Wong, Sally C Y; Yuen, K Y

    2016-06-01

    The importance of compliance with hand hygiene by patients is increasingly recognized to prevent health care-associated infections. This descriptive study observed the effects of an education campaign, targeted to increase patients' self-initiated hand hygiene, and a hand hygiene ambassador-initiated directly observed hand hygiene program on patients' hand hygiene compliance in a university-affiliated hospital. The overall audited compliance of patients' self-initiated hand hygiene was only 37.5%, with a rate of 26.9% (112/416 episodes) before meals and medications, 27.5% (19/69 episodes) after using a urinal or bedpan, and 89.7% (87/97 episodes) after attending toilet facilities. Patients referred from a residential care home for older adults had significantly lower hand hygiene compliance (P = .007). Comparatively, the overall audited compliance of ambassador-initiated directly observed hand hygiene was 97.3% (428/440 episodes), which was significantly higher than patients' self-initiated hand hygiene via a patient education program (37.5%, 218/582 episodes, P hand hygiene can play an important role in improving compliance with hand hygiene by hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurasova, O.I.

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology

  5. Hand hygiene knowledge of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Kyle; Basco, Roselyne; Zaied, Aya; Ward, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to evaluate hygiene habits of students with fields of study, gender, and understanding of hygiene at a university in Alabama. One hundred students were randomly observed in ten restrooms on campus to determine whether or not students washed their hands. The study was divided into an observational stage, a quiz to ascertain student's knowledge of hygiene and the spread of pathogens, and a survey of self-reported illness rates. Females had a tendency to wash their hands more often than males while visiting the bathroom (p = 0.02, chi2 = 11.6). Science majors were more likely to wash their hands than non-science majors (p < or = 0.001, chi2 = 5.2). Females (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 21.5) and science majors (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 81.4) scored significantly higher on the survey than males and nonscience majors, and that those observed not washing their hands reported being sick more often than those observed washing their hands (chi2 = 155.0, df= 3, p < 0.001, Fisher's exact p < 0.001).

  6. Using radioactive tracer technique in municipal hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurasova, O I [Institut Obshchej i Kommunal' noj Gigieny, Moscow (USSR)

    1974-01-01

    Work of the A. N. Syrsin Institute of General and Municiapl Hygiene using raidoactive tracers is reviewed. The studies include research on protein metabolism in the living organism following action of unfavorable factors of the environment; determination of the paths of introduction into the organism of substances with an alien composition; and study of the rate of resorption of subcutaneous papuli. Results are shown of radioactive-tracer studies on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the living organism and of migration of alien chemical compounds in the organism and in objects in the environment. It is concluded that the radioactive tracer method has wide application in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology. The absence of laborious operations, economy of time, precision of the experiments, and the possibility of obtaining additional information on the mechanism of action of poisonous substances on the organism and the low cost of such studies compared with other methods makes the radioactive tracer method economically attractive. The studies made show the various types of use of the method in municipal hygiene and sanitary microbiology.

  7. Hubungan Supervisi Kepala Ruangan Dengan Pelaksanaan Five Moments Hand Hygiene Perawat di RSUP Haji Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Heppy Delpia

    2016-01-01

    Five moments hand hygiene is an action to wash hands by nurses in five types of situation which is aimed to decrease microorganism transmission and to ward off infection. It good implementation involves ward heads as the spearheads of the goal for good nursing care in a hospital; they have to have the capacity to supervise in managing nursing care. The objective of the research was to find out the correlation of ward heads’ supervision with the implementation of nurses’ five moments hand hygi...

  8. Hospitalisation impacts on oral hygiene: an audit of oral hygiene in a metropolitan health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, Rachael; Ryan, Anna; Plummer, Virginia; Williams, Cylie

    2016-03-01

    Poor oral health has been associated with systemic diseases, morbidity and mortality. Many patients in hospital environments are physically compromised and rely upon awareness and assistance from health professionals for the maintenance or improvement of their oral health. This study aimed to identify whether common individual and environment factors associated with hospitalisation impacted on oral hygiene. Data were collected during point prevalence audits of patients in the acute and rehabilitation environments on three separate occasions. Data included demographic information, plaque score, presence of dental hygiene products, independence level and whether nurse assistance was documented in the health record. Data were collected for 199 patients. A higher plaque score was associated with not having a toothbrush (p = 0.002), being male (p = 0.007), being acutely unwell (p = 0.025) and requiring nursing assistance for oral hygiene (p = 0.002). There was fair agreement between the documentation of requiring assistance for oral care and the patient independently able to perform oral hygiene (ICC = 0.22). Oral hygiene was impacted by factors arising from hospitalisation, for those without a toothbrush and male patients of acute wards. Establishment of practices that increase awareness and promote good oral health should be prioritised. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. [DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS TO POLYHEXAMETHYLENEGUANIDINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysytsya, A V; Mandygra, Y M; Bojko, O P; Romanishyna, O O; Mandygra, M S

    2015-01-01

    Factors identified that affect the sensitivity of microorganisms to polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG). Salts of PHMG chloride, valerate, maleate, succinate was to use. Test strains of Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Leptospira interrogans, Paenibacillus larvae, Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium, M. fortuitum, Aspergillus niger and some strains of viruses are taken as objects of research. We have determined that the cytoplasm membrane phospholipids is main "target" for the polycation molecules of PHMG. A differential sensitivity of the microorganisms to this drug is primarily determined by relative amount of lipids in membrane and their accessibility. Such trends exist: increase the relative contents of anionic lipids and more negative surface electric potential of membrane, and reduction of the sizes fat acid remainder of lipids bring to increase of microorganism sensitivity. Types of anion salt PHMG just have a certain value. Biocide activity of PHMG chloride is more, than its salts with organic acid. Feasibility of combining PHMG with other biocides in the multicomponent disinfectants studied and analyzed. This combination does not lead to a significant increase in the sensitivity of microorganisms tested in most cases. Most species of pathogenic bacteria can be quickly neutralized by aqueous solutions of PHMG in less than 1% concentrations.

  10. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of microorganisms isolated from smoked and frozen fishes sold in Benin and Warri metropolis were investigated. Adopting microbiological standard techniques, the results of the bacterial counts and fungal counts ranged from 5.4 x 106 (Ekpan market) to 25.1 x 106 (Ekpan market) and 1.1 x 105 ...

  11. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  12. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological concern. To date, the mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms and higher eukaryotes are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize nickel homeostasis processes used by microorganisms and highlight in vivo and in vitro effects of exposure to elevated concentrations of nickel. On the basis of this evidence we propose four mechanisms of nickel toxicity: 1) nickel replaces the essential metal of metalloproteins, 2) nickel binds to catalytic residues of non-metalloenzymes; 3) nickel binds outside the catalytic site of an enzyme to inhibit allosterically, and 4) nickel indirectly causes oxidative stress. PMID:21799955

  13. False identification of other microorganisms as Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 507 microorganisms which have been previously identified as S. aureus in 8 States in Southern Nigeria through characteristic morphology on blood agar, Gram staining, growth and fermentation on Mannitol Salt Agar and coagulase formation were collected. All the isolates were identified in this study through ...

  14. Host Defense against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Guide for Laboratory Animal, Resources, National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council. I ii t ___ ii A- KNOWLEDMENT The investigators express...and Candida albicans are the microorganisms which are most frequently associated with septic complica- tions in thermally injured patients. Management

  15. Atmospheric Sampling of Microorganisms with UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, D. G., III

    2017-12-01

    Many microorganisms relevant to crops, domestic animals, and humans are transported over long distances through the atmosphere. Some of these atmospheric microbes catalyze the freezing of water at higher temperatures and facilitate the onset of precipitation. A few have crossed continents. New technologies are needed to study the movement of microorganisms in the atmosphere. We have used unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to study the transport of microorganisms tens to hundreds of meters above the ground. These UAS are equipped with unique devices for collecting microbes in the atmosphere during flight. Autonomous systems enable teams of UAS to perform complex atmospheric sampling tasks, and coordinate flight missions with one another. Data collected with UAS can be used to validate and improve disease forecasting models along highways in the sky, connecting transport scales across farms, states, and continents. Though terrestrial environments are often considered a major contributor to atmospheric microbial aerosols, little is known about aquatic sources of microbial aerosols. Droplets containing microorganisms can aerosolize from the water surface, liberating them into the atmosphere. We are using teams of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) and UAS to study the aerosolization of microbes from aquatic environments. Controlled flume studies using highspeed video have allowed us to observe unique aerosolization phenomena that can launch microbes out of the water and into the air. Unmanned systems may be used to excite the next generation of biologists and engineers, and raise important ethical considerations about the future of human-robot interactions.

  16. Ecophysiology of microorganisms in microbial elctrolysis cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croese, E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for improvement of the microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been the reduction of the cost of the cathode catalyst. As catalyst at the cathode, microorganisms offer great possibilities. Previous research has shown the principle possibilities for the biocathode for H2

  17. Ecology and metagenomics of soil microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Head, I. M.; Prosser, J. I.; Schloter, M.; Smalla, K.; Tebbe, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-2 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk(CZ) LA10001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microorganism * bioremediation * biogenesis of soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2011

  18. Novel genome alteration system for microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daran, J.G.; Geertman, J.M.; Bolat, I.

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a set of targeting constructs, comprising a first construct comprising a recognition site for an endonuclease, a first region of homology with a target gene of a microorganism, and a first part of a selection marker, and a second construct comprising a second part of the

  19. The influence of selected nanomaterials on microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brandeburová, P.; Birošová, L.; Vojs, M.; Kromka, Alexander; Gál, M.; Tichý, J.; Híveš, J.; Mackul´ak, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 3 (2017), s. 525-530 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanomaterials * nanotechnologies * microorganisms * toxicity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  20. Artifical Microorganism Infection in Aviation Kerosene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Vallo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fuel used in the aviation engineering has to be clean and dry, it may not contain mechanical impurities and water. Water inaviation kerosene may occur in soluble and insoluble form. The danger inheres in the insoluble form, which may drop out in the crystallineform and cause various failures, such as those caused by mechanical impurities. The water assists in the biological matter formation createdby various species of microorganisms (bacteria, mould fungi and yeast. The microorganisms, present in water phase occurring on thebottom of tanks or on the interface water phase – kerosene, grow and reproduce and subsequently may pollute (impair the fuel by thebiomass or by the products of their metabolism. There is a possibility to infect the fuel artificially by a selected reference microorganismstrain, which usually occur in contaminated fuel, or by microorganisms which cause a biological contamination of aviation kerosene.Out of the selected reference strains used in the experiments, the reference strains of Proteus vulgaris, Sacharamyces cerevisiae andClostridium perfringens were not cultivated in the sterile aviation kerosene and the propagating nutrient medium. The aviation kerosene actsas a biocide medium for the presented reference microorganism strains.

  1. Novel Industrial Enzymes from Uncultured Arctic Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede

    , and reduce the risk of contaminations. Cold- and alkaline-active enzymes can be found in microorganisms adapted to living in natural environments with these conditions, which are extremely rare but found in the unique ikaite columns from SW Greenland (4-6 °C, pH >10). It is estimated that less than 1...

  2. [Sorption of microorganisms by fiber materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikovskaia, G N; Gordienko, A S; Globa, L I

    1986-01-01

    Candida guilliermondii and Escherichia coli cells were adsorbed on glass and basalt fibres with a similar specific surface, but with a different charge. The quantity of adsorbed microorganisms did not depend on the type and charge of a fibre surface. However, cells were adsorbed faster and more firmly on positively charged and uncharged fibres than on negatively charged fibres.

  3. Effects of soil microorganisms on uptake of 89Sr by ryegrass and bahia grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Weiliang; Liu Kexing

    2006-01-01

    In present study, 60 Co γ-rays was used to irradiate soil with doses of 3.0 kGy and 25.0 kGy, respectively, to discriminate between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other soil microorganisms, while soil without irradiation was used as control to study the effects of soil microorganisms on uptake of 89 Sr by ryegrass and bahia grass. The results showed that the AM infection rates in ryegrass and bahia grass were 48.0% and 28.0% in the control soil, respectively which indicated that both grass species were prone to forming AM symbiosis with AM fungi. Although AM fungi and other soil microorganisms had no significant effect on above ground biomass in ryegrass and bahia grass, both AM fungi and other soil microorganisms decreased the uptake of 89 Sr in the two grass species, though to a more or less extant. (authors)

  4. Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkov, F.; Tuleushev, A.; Lisitsyn, V.; Kim, S.; Tuleushev, Yu.

    1996-01-01

    Objective of Investigations: Development and creation of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms which allows to evaluate, in a real temporal scale, variations in the state of water suspension of micro-organisms under the effect of chemical, physical and other external actions. Statement of the Problem The main problem is absence of reliable, accessible for users and simple, in view of application, Doppler speedometers for micro-organisms. Nevertheless, correlation Doppler spectrometry in the regime of heterodyning the supporting and cell-scattered laser radiation is welt known. The main idea is that the correlation function of photo-current pulses bears an information on the averages over the assembly of cell velocities. For solving the biological problems, construction of auto-correlation function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, nearly, 100 me (10 khz) or higher is needed. Computers of high class manage this problem using but the program software. Due to this, one can simplify applications of the proposed techniques provided he creates the Doppler speedometer for micro-organism on a base of the P entium . Expected Result Manufactured operable mock-up of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms in a form of the auxiliary computer block which allows to receive an information, in the real time scale, on the results of external effects of various nature on the cell assembly in transparent medium with a small volume of the studied cell suspension

  5. Hand-hygiene practices and observed barriers in pediatric long-term care facilities in the New York metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løyland, Borghild; Wilmont, Sibyl; Cohen, Bevin; Larson, Elaine

    2016-02-01

    To describe hand-hygiene practices in pediatric long-term care (pLTC) facilities and to identify observed barriers to, and potential solutions for, improved infection prevention. Observational study using (i) the World Health Organization's '5 Moments for Hand Hygiene' validated observation tool to record indications for hand hygiene and adherence; and (ii) individual logs of subjective impressions of behavioral and/or systemic barriers witnessed during direct observation. Staff in three pLTC facilities (284 beds total) were observed by two trained nurses 1 day a week for 3 weeks in February and March 2015. Direct providers of health, therapeutic and rehabilitative care, and other staff responsible for social and academic activities for children with complex, chronic medical conditions. Hand-hygiene indications, adherence and barriers. Hand hygiene was performed for 40% of the 847 indications observed and recorded. Adherence increased at one site and decreased in the other two sites during the study period. Adherence appeared to be influenced by individuals' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and work setting. Poor hand-hygiene adherence was observed overall. Specific barriers were identified, which suggest a contextual approach to the interpretation of results indicated in this uniquely challenging setting. We offer some practical suggestions for overcoming those barriers or mitigating their effect. Ultimately, an adaptation of the '5 Moments for Hand Hygiene' may be necessary to improve infection prevention in pLTC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  6. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurki

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The somatic cell count (SCC and total bacterial count (TBC as well as the presence of major food-borne pathogens and udder pathogens in reindeer raw milk were studied. Two groups of 4 female reindeer were milked on alternate days for six weeks. A milk sample from each quarter was taken before milking and of the bulk milk at the end of milking. Micrococcus sp. was observed in one, Staphylococcus aureus in one and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five of the quarter samples (n=318. In the bulk milk (n=19 TBC varied between 700 and 1 700 000 cfu (colony forming units/ml and SCC between 52 000 and 183 000 cells/ml. No Bacillus cereus, S. aureus or Listeria monocytogenes were detected in the bulk milk, but Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 bulk milk samples. According to the bacteriological examination the udder health of the reindeer was good. Indicative information on the SCC of healthy reindeer was obtained. None of the common potential food-poisoning bacteria were found in raw milk. There was great variation in the bulk milk TBC and the average TBC was rather high (ca. 300 000 cfu/ml. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk makes it well suited for food manufacture. However, the results indicate that the milking conditions may be crucial for the quality of raw milk.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto:Tutkimuksen kohteena oli poron raakamaidon solupitoisuus ja kokonaispesäkeluku sekä tärkeimpien elintarvike- ja utarepatogeenien esiintyminen raakamaidossa. Kaksi 4 vaatimen ryhmää lypsettiin vuoropäivinä 6 viikon ajan. Ennen lypsyä vaatimista otettiin vedinkohtaiset näytteet ja lypsyn päätyttyä näyte yhteismaidosta. Micrococcus sp. todettiin yhdessä, Staphylococcus aureus yhdessä ja koagulaasinegatiivisia stafylokokkeja viidessä vedinkohtaisessa näytteessä (n=318. Yhteismaitonäytteiden (n=19 kokonaispesäkeluvut vaihtelivat välillä 700-1 700 000 pmy (pesäkkeitä muodostava yksikkö/ml ja somaattisten

  7. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Concentration on Survival of Foodborne Pathogens in Deciduous Fruit Processing Environments for Effective Hygiene Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2016-11-01

    Temperature and good sanitation practices are important factors for controlling growth of microorganisms. Fresh produce is stored at various temperatures to ensure quality and to prolong shelf life. When foodborne pathogens survive and grow on fresh produce at storage temperatures, then additional control strategies are needed to inactivate these pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine how temperatures associated with deciduous fruit processing and storage facilities (0.5, 4, and 21°C) affect the growth and/or survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus under different nutrient conditions (nutrient rich and nutrient poor) and on simulated contact surfaces (vinyl coupons). Information on the growth and survival of foodborne pathogens at specific deciduous fruit processing and storage temperatures (0.5°C) is not available. All pathogens except E. coli O157:H7 were able to survive on vinyl coupons at all temperatures. L. monocytogenes proliferated under both nutrient conditions independent of temperature. S. aureus was the pathogen least affected by nutrient conditions. The survival of foodborne pathogens on the vinyl coupons, a model system for studying surfaces in fruit preparation and storage environments, indicates the potential for cross-contamination of deciduous fruit products under poor sanitation conditions. Foodborne pathogens that can proliferate and survive at various temperatures under different nutrient conditions could lead to fruit cross-contamination. Temperature mismanagement, which could allow pathogen proliferation in contaminated fruit packing houses and storage environments, is a concern. Therefore, proper hygiene and sanitation practices, removal of possible contaminants, and proper food safety management systems are needed to ensure food safety.

  8. Mental hygiene in early Francoism: from racial hygiene to the prevention of mental illness (1939-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ricardo; Novella, Enric

    In this paper, we study the ideological bases of mental hygiene, understood as racial and moral hygiene, during the first years of Franco's regime and their evolution until 1960. First, we discuss the conceptualization of mental hygiene in the 1940s and its role as a tool for the legitimization of dictatorship, revealing the involvement of orthodox Catholicism and its links with moral and racial hygiene. Second, we assess the transformation of mental hygiene during the 1950s towards modernization and a stronger linkage with the dominant trends of contemporary psychiatry without ever leaving the ideological background of Catholicism. For this purpose, we will focus on analysis of the activities of the Mental Hygiene Week held in Barcelona in 1954 and on the creation in 1955 of the National Board of Psychiatric Care, which took on mental hygiene as one of its functions. This paper shows the close relationship of mental hygiene during the early years of Francoism with the political principles of the Dictatorship. The 1940s witnessed the deployment of a harsh discourse in which mental hygiene was a tool for the (moral and spiritual) education of the Spanish people in the political principles of the "New State", pathologizing political dissent and ideologically purifying the country. In the 1950s, Francoist mental hygiene underwent a process of aggiornamento marked by international political events following the defeat of fascism in World War II, advancing a project for (authoritarian) modernization in an international context already directed towards mental health.

  9. Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, L M; Unicomb, L; Alam, M-U; Halder, A K; Shoab, A K; Ghosh, P K; Opel, A; Islam, M K; Luby, S P

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. More than 96% of facilities had 'improved' water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78-92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4-30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Saniya; Pannu, Parampreet; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Galhotra, Virat; Ahluwalia, Pooja; Sofat, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of oral hygiene practices, smoking habits and halitosis among undergraduate dental students and correlating the oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions to the prevalence of self perceived oral malodour. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 277 male and female students. A questionnaire was developed to assess the self-reported perception of oral breath, awareness of bad breath, timing of bad breath, oral hygiene practices, caries and bleeding gums, dryness of the mouth, smoking and tongue coating. The results indicate female students had better oral hygiene practices. Significantly less self-reported oral bad breath (P = 0.007) was found in female dental students (40%) as compared to their male counterparts (58%). It was found that smoking and dryness of mouth had statistically significant correlation with halitosis (P = 0.026, P = 0.001). Presence of other oral conditions such as tongue coating and dental caries and bleeding gums also showed higher prevalence of halitosis in dental students. A direct correlation exists between oral hygiene practices and oral health conditions with halitosis. Females exhibited better oral hygiene practices and less prevalence of halitosis as compared to male students.

  11. Are better sleepers more engaged workers? A self-regulatory approach to sleep hygiene and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa; Grawitch, Matthew J; Munz, David C

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has emphasized facets of both the organizational environment and individual differences as predictors of work engagement. This study explored sleep hygiene as another important behavioural factor that may be related to work engagement. With a sample of 328 adult workers, we tested a multiple mediator model in which sleep hygiene predicts work engagement through one's appraisals of resource depletion stemming from demands (psychological strain) and general self-regulatory capacity (self-control). Results indicated that individuals who frequently engaged in poor sleep hygiene behaviours had lower self-regulatory capacity, experienced higher subjective depletion and were less engaged at work. Additionally, the path from poor sleep hygiene to decreased work engagement was attributed to perceptions of personal resources that are needed to exert self-regulatory energy at work. This is consistent with current self-regulatory theories suggesting that individuals have a limited amount of resources to allocate to demands and that the depletion of these resources can lead to stress and lower self-regulatory functioning in response to other demands. Specifically, poor sleep hygiene results in the loss of self-regulatory resources needed to be engaged in work tasks by impairing the after-work recovery process. Practical and research implications regarding sleep hygiene interventions for well-being and productivity improvement are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 10 2 to l.4 x 10 8 per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 10 2 to 4.3 x 10 6 per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 10 1 to 1.9 x 10 5 per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 kGy irradiation. (author)

  13. Distribution of microorganisms in herb medicines and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Sekita, Setuko [National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Herb medicines are traditional medicine in Japan and have been used for medical treatment. These herb medicines are contaminating frequently by microorganisms which has possibility to cause opportunistic diseases. Recently, hygienic standard of herb medicines become more strict than before, and it needs to decontaminate microorganisms by some treatments. However, chemical treatments such as by ethylene oxide fumigation leave toxic residues in the herbs while steam sterilization decease medicinal components. From study on the distribution of microorganisms in 31 samples of selected herb medicines, colony forming units of total aerobic bacteria were determined to be l.9 x 10{sup 2} to l.4 x 10{sup 8} per gram in 30 samples. Coliforms were also determined to be 6.9 x 10{sup 2} to 4.3 x 10{sup 6} per gram in 16 samples. The main aerobic bacteria were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, Erwinia, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter, whereas consisted mainly of Enterobacter in coliform counts. Molds were determined to be 6.3 x 10{sup 1} to 1.9 x 10{sup 5} per gram which consisted mainly Aspergillus glaucus group, A. restrictus group, A. flavus group, A. ostianus, A. phoenicis, Penicillium, Tricoderma, Rhizopus and Alternaria in 25 samples. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms at sample No. S18 showed that a gamma-irradiation dose of 20 kGy was required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms below a detectable level, while radiation-resistant bacteria were survived at high doses more than 10 kGy consisted with Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Molds were inactivated below 8 kGy except Alternaria. However, a dose of 10 kGy should be effective for the sample No. S18 to reduce the spore-forming bacteria, the fecal coliforms and the molds below a detectable level per gram. On the study of inactivation of microorganisms in many samples except the No. 18, all kinds of microorganism were inactivated below a detectable level at 10 k

  14. Sludge hygienization: Helminth eggs destruction by lime treatment Ascaris eggs as model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, S.; Schwartzbrod, J. [Lab. de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Nancy (France); Remy, M. [Lhoist, on behalf of the European Lime Assoication (EuLA), Bruessel (Germany); Boehm, R. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Verfuerden, M. [Fels-Werke GmbH, im Namen des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Kalkindustrie (BVK), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Most pathogens in the raw sewage are concentrated into the sewage sludge. They can be separated into four categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and larger parasites such as human roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes. Such micro-organisms can cause disease in humans, the transmission occurring in several ways e.g. by inhaling sludge aerosols or dust, by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by sludge, drinking water contaminated by run-off or by eating meat from livestock infected by grazing pastures fertilised with sludge. The presence of helminth eggs in urban sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. To avoid any contamination, the efficiency of a certain number of sludge hygienization processes must be tested. One of these involves decontamination with quicklime. The Ascaris egg inactivation by liming with lime milk, slaked lime and quicklime is studied in a series of sludges coming from slaughterhouses. (orig.)

  15. [Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression.

  16. Personal hygiene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002-2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygiene factors individually and as a composite hygiene score; potential confounding factors were controlled. Selected MRSA isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). MRSA infection was significantly associated with a low composite hygiene score. Transmission among prison inmates appeared to be responsible for this outbreak. PFGE analysis showed that isolates were indistinguishable and associated with community-onset MRSA infections in other US prisons. Improving hygiene practices and environmental conditions may help prevent and interrupt future MRSA outbreaks in prison settings.

  17. Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Holanda da Cunha

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression.

  18. Impact of oral hygiene on the development of oropharyngeal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kiparisova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the impact of oral hygiene on the development of oropharyngeal malignancies.Subjects and methods. The data of a prospective study of dental health indicators were analyzed in 586 patients (there were 76.4 % men and 23.6 % women with oropharyngeal malignancies. In the examinees, the sites of oropharyngeal neoplasms were as follows: the tongue in 195 (33 % cases, mouth floor in 147 (25 %, oropharynx in 139 (24 %, maxilla in 36 (6 %, buccal mucosa in 21 (4 %, soft palate in 18 (3 %, retromolar area in 14 (2 %, mandibula in 12 (2 %, and nose in 4 (1 %. The patients, examination employed routine dental examinations, determination of oral hygiene index, CFE index (a sum of carious, filled, and extracted teeth, and assessment of a patient, s skill and desire to perform individual oral hygiene. The patient hygiene performance (PHP index (Podshadley, Haley, 1968 was used to estimate his/her baseline ability. The rates of initial visits made by patients with oropharyngeal tumors to physicians of different specialties were also analyzed.Results. In the patients with oropharyngeal malignancies, the CFE index was high and amounted to 15 ± 0.4 с with a preponderance of carious and extracted teeth in the pattern; the PHP index was 1.4 ± 0.1, which corresponded to a satisfactory index. Thus, among the comparison group patients, satisfactory oral cavity sanitation was noted in only 4.8 % of the patients having a sanitation certificate. Consequently, 95.2 % of the patients were unready for specialized treatment. Out of the examinees, 176 (30 % made an initial visit for complaints to a dentist, 155 (26.5 % to an oncologist, 107 (18.3 % to an ENT doctor, 103 (17.7 % to a local therapist, and 43 (7.5 % to a surgeon. The collected history data also revealed that 59.2 % of the patients had self-treatment before going to specialists (according to them. Self-treatment or treatment by a noncancer specialist was ascertained to take an average of

  19. Radiation safety and protection in US dental hygiene programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farman, A.G.; Hunter, N.; Grammer, S.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively

  20. Oral hygiene in primary schoolchildren in Benin City, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Alakija, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral hygiene was assessed in children from two primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Good oral hygiene was not related to the socioeconomic class of the children but to the method of cleaning the teeth. Girls had better oral hygiene than boys. It is suggested that the local method of using chewing sticks should be encouraged, and emphasis placed on frequency and thoroughness of use.

  1. Personal Hygiene Practices among Urban Homeless Persons in Boston, MA

    OpenAIRE

    Leibler, Jessica H.; Nguyen, Daniel D.; Le?n, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M.; Perez, Debora

    2017-01-01

    Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston,...

  2. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate han...

  3. Identification of Microorganisms by Modern Analytical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszewski, Bogusław; Rogowska, Agnieszka; Pomastowski, Paweł; Złoch, Michał; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica

    2017-11-01

    Rapid detection and identification of microorganisms is a challenging and important aspect in a wide range of fields, from medical to industrial, affecting human lives. Unfortunately, classical methods of microorganism identification are based on time-consuming and labor-intensive approaches. Screening techniques require the rapid and cheap grouping of bacterial isolates; however, modern bioanalytics demand comprehensive bacterial studies at a molecular level. Modern approaches for the rapid identification of bacteria use molecular techniques, such as 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing based on polymerase chain reaction or electromigration, especially capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing. However, there are still several challenges with the analysis of microbial complexes using electromigration technology, such as uncontrolled aggregation and/or adhesion to the capillary surface. Thus, an approach using capillary electrophoresis of microbial aggregates with UV and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS detection is presented.

  4. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H. [Research and Development Centre for Oil and Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  5. Costing the Australian National Hand Hygiene Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, K; Barnett, A G; Campbell, M; Brain, D; Martin, E; Fulop, N; Graves, N

    2014-11-01

    The Australian National Hand Hygiene Initiative (NHHI) is a major patient safety programme co-ordinated by Hand Hygiene Australia (HHA) and funded by the Australian Commission for Safety and Quality in Health Care. The annual costs of running this programme need to be understood to know the cost-effectiveness of a decision to sustain it as part of health services. To estimate the annual health services cost of running the NHHI; the set-up costs are excluded. A health services perspective was adopted for the costing and collected data from the 50 largest public hospitals in Australia that implemented the initiative, covering all states and territories. The costs of HHA, the costs to the state-level infection-prevention groups, the costs incurred by each acute hospital, and the costs for additional alcohol-based hand rub are all included. The programme cost AU$5.56 million each year (US$5.76, £3.63 million). Most of the cost is incurred at the hospital level (65%) and arose from the extra time taken for auditing hand hygiene compliance and doing education and training. On average, each infection control practitioner spent 5h per week on the NHHI, and the running cost per annum to their hospital was approximately AU$120,000 in 2012 (US$124,000, £78,000). Good estimates of the total costs of this programme are fundamental to understanding the cost-effectiveness of implementing the NHHI. This paper reports transparent costing methods, and the results include their uncertainty. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lateral gene exchanges shape the genomes of amoeba-resisting microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eBertelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on Darwin’s concept of the tree of life, vertical inheritance was thought to be dominant, and mutations, deletions and duplication were streaming the genomes of living organisms. In the current genomic era, increasing data indicated that both vertical and lateral gene inheritance interact in space and time to trigger genome evolution, particularly among microorganisms sharing a given ecological niche. As a paradigm to their diversity and their survival in a variety of cell types, intracellular microorganisms, and notably intracellular bacteria, were considered as less prone to lateral genetic exchanges. Such specialized microorganisms generally have a smaller gene repertoire because they do rely on their host’s factors for some basic regulatory and metabolic functions. Here we review events of lateral gene transfer (LGT that illustrate the genetic exchanges among intra-amoebal microorganisms or between the microorganism and its amoebal host. We tentatively investigate the functions of laterally transferred genes in the light of the interaction with their host as they should confer a selective advantage and success to the amoeba-resisting microorganisms.

  7. [Intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrequés, Jordi; Espuñes, Jordi; Bañeres, Joaquim

    2014-07-01

    Hand hygiene (HM) is the single most important measure and effective in reducing the risk of Healthcare acquired infections (IRAS). Although HM is an effective, simple and cheap measure, it is usual to find results of low compliance among health professionals. The main objective of this strategy has been to give new force to the promotion of HM in hospitals and educate professionals about the importance of this single action. The strategy was planned as a multicenter intervention study to promote HM in health centers of Catalonia in 2009-2010. The intervention is based on 4 main areas: a survey of barriers and facilitators, distribution of graphic material, training at different levels and measure of quality indicators. With this strategy a total of 57% of the number of acute beds in the concerted public and private network of hospitals were reached. The survey revealed that training was perceived as the main facilitator of the HM action. 15,376 professionals registered to the on-line training. The overall compliance with HM indications (based on "five moments for HM") was 56.45% in the acute areas. The campaigns and programs to promote HM carried out in the last four years in Catalonia has helped to achieve an increasing number of hospitals associated to the strategy of the Alliance for Patient Safety in Catalonia. The on-line curse acceptance was very high and seems a powerful tool to improve hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among health professionals. The compliance of HM seems to increase in the hospitals of Catalonia evaluated. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  8. Dental hygiene habits and oral health status of seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Sibilio, Fabio; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This study has assessed the dental hygiene habits and problems of seafarers and their attitudes/ perceptions regarding oral hygiene using a dental hygiene/habits questionnaire. A research questionnaire on oral hygiene habits was prepared along with a summary of all the questions and sent to ships via e-mail by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) networks. CIRM, is the Italian Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS), and represents the Centre with the largest number of seafarers assisted on board ships worldwide. CIRM proposed the questionnaire to all ships (n = 1,198) asking for medical advice from 1 July 2014 till 31 October 2014. Two dental professionals were involved in the development and analysis of the questionnaire. Seafarers are at risk of several dental health problems due to their oral hygiene and dietary habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, poor oral hygiene knowledge and motivation. Dietary habits during voyages were also questionable and seafarers consume food rich in fermentable carbohydrates, which is a major risk factor for dental caries. Seafarers need better oral hygiene education and care to enable them to manage their oral health in a better way. Life at the sea, under challenging circumstances is not without stress, that is why it is important that seafarers are given complete information about correct oral hygiene protocols and dental hygiene and the advantages for their health of keeping a healthy mouth.

  9. Hygiene Knowledge of Food Staff in Catering Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya Yardımcı; Gülperi Hakli; Funda Pinar Çakiroğlu; Ayşe Özfer Özçelik

    2015-01-01

    This study, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out to determine the hygiene knowledge of the staff (N = 317) employed in kitchen and service departments of catering firms in Ankara. It was found that the mean scores of the staff with regard to personal hygiene, food hygiene, and kitchen and equipment hygiene were 10.7 ± 1.6, 19.8 ± 4.0, and 13.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Male staff achieved higher mean scores ...

  10. A multifaceted hospital-wide intervention increases hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Engelbrecht, H; McDonald, H; Morris, V; Smythe, W

    2016-03-07

    Hand hygiene is an important and basic practice that should be used by all healthcare staff to protect both themselves and their patients against infection. Unfortunately hand hygiene compliance remains poor. To show an improvement in hand hygiene compliance using a multifaceted approach. This was a quasiexperimental pre-post intervention study design with a number of standardised interventions to promote hand hygiene. The World Health Organization hand hygiene multimodal (five-step) intervention approach was used. The study ran from June 2015 to August 2015 in 11 selected wards of a 975-bed tertiary and quaternary care public hospital (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa). The outcome was to assess improvement in hand hygiene compliance monthly over the 3 months, compared with non-intervention wards and compared with the wards' own performance measured in 2014. The study included both descriptive and analytical components. Post intervention, hand hygiene compliance showed a statistically significant improvement for before patient contact from 34% in 2014 to 76% in 2015 (p<0.05) and for after patient contact from 47% in 2014 to 82% in 2015 (p<0.05). The intervention improved hand hygiene compliance and can easily be replicated in other wards, resulting in sustaining a culture of hand hygiene improvement and behavioural change throughout the hospital.

  11. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Waldorf School - the Strategy of Education of Mental Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    HORÁKOVÁ, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the question, what is the strategy of mental hygiene education at the Waldorf school. The aim was to find out how mental hygiene at the Waldorf school is educated and then compare this strategy with the strategy of mental hygiene education at the school of traditional education system. Another aim of this study was to show whether the correct strategy of mental hygiene education in elementary schools has some influence on the development of the child. The research was m...

  13. Influence of near ultraviolet light on microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraikin, G.Y.A.; Rubin, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    Our results and the recent literature data on the biological action of near ultraviolet light (300-380 nm) are examined in the review. Factual material is presented on the principles governing the manifestation of the following effects of near ultraviolet light in microorganisms: inactivation, delayed growth, photoreactivation, photoprotection, photoinduced sporulation (in fungi), and carotene synthesis. The mature and possible mechanisms of the effects examined are discussed

  14. Chemosensing in microorganisms to practical biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Surya K.; Kundu, Tapanendu; Sain, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms like bacteria can sense concentration of chemo-attractants in its medium very accurately. They achieve this through interaction between the receptors on their cell surface and the chemo-attractant molecules (like sugar). But the physical processes like diffusion set some limits on the accuracy of detection which was discussed by Berg and Purcell in the late seventies. We have a re-look at their work in order to assess what insight it may offer towards making efficient, practica...

  15. Improved Method for Direct Detection of Environmental Microorganisms Using an Amplification of 16S rDNA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, M.; Akutsu, J.; Zhang, Z.; Sasaki, M.; Tajima, H.; Kawarabayasi, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The thermostable proteins or enzymes were expected to be capable to be utilized in many areas of industries. Many thermophilic microorganisms, which possess the thermostable proteins or enzymes, were identified from the extreme environment. However, many unidentified and uncultivable microorganisms are still remaining in the environment on the earth. It is generally said that the cultivable microorganisms are less than 1% of entire microorganisms living in the earth, remaining over 99% are still uncultivable. As an approach to the uncultivable microorganisms, the PCR amplification of 16S rDNA region using primer sets designed from the conserved region has been generally utilized for detection and community analysis of microorganism in the environment. However, the facts, that PCR amplification introduces the mutation in the amplified DNA fragment and efficiency of PCR amplification is depend on the sequences of primer sets, indicated that the improving of PCR analysis was necessary for more correct detection of microorganisms. As the result of evaluation for the quality of DNA polymerases, sequences of primers used for amplification and conditions of PCR amplification, the DNA polymerase, the primer set and the conditions for amplification, which did not amplify the DNA fragment from the DNA contaminated within the DNA polymerase itself, were successfully selected. Also the rate of mutation in the DNA fragment amplified was evaluated using this conditions and the genomic DNA from cultivable microbes as a template. The result indicated the rate of mutation introduced by PCR was approximately 0.1% to 0.125%. The improved method using these conditions and error rate calculated was applied for the analysis of microorganisms in the geothermal environment. The result indicated that four kinds of dominant microorganisms, including both of bacteria and archaea, were alive within soil in the hot spring in Tohoku Area. We would like to apply this improved method to detection

  16. The State Institute of Radiation Hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The history and organisation of Statens Institutt for Straalehygiene (State Institute for Radiation Hygiene) are briefly described. The main tasks in the medical and industrial sectors are outlined, and the laboratory facilities at the Institute are described. The Institute's work load in personnel dosimetry and monitoring, both medical and industrial is presented and the dosimetry methods used are outlined. Finally the textbook published by the Institute (INIS RN 116369,117419, 117829,124801,117418,118223,117385,117389,117387,117388,117386,117391, 117201,117197,117198,117199,117200) is mentioned. (JIW)

  17. Teledosimetry and its application in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, J.

    1975-01-01

    The principle and application is dealt with of teledosimetry, a new method of telemetric transfer of data on the flux density of ionizing radiation. A teledosimetric apparatus is described consisting of a transmitter with a halogen GM tube and a receiver with an evaluation device. Two cases of the application of teledosimetry in radiation hygiene practice are reported. The new method makes possible the monitoring of personnel working with radiation, the testing of the efficiency of radiation protection, and a reduction of doses to personnel in the process studied. (author)

  18. [Branches of the National Institute of Hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromulska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    National Epidemiological Institute (National Institute of Hygiene, from 7th September 1923) was established in 1918 in Warsaw and acted at national level. Its actions in the field of diseases combat were supported by bacteriological stations and vaccine production in voivodeship cities, which were taken charge of by the state, and names "National Epidemiological Institutes". According to the ministers resolution from 6th July 1921,Epidemiological Institutes were merged to National Central Epidemiological Institutes (PZH), the epidemiological institutes outside Warsaw were named branches, which were to be located in every voivodeship city, according to the initial organizational resolutions. There were country branches of NCEI in: Cracow, Lwów, Lódź, Toruń, Lublin, and Wilno in the period 1919-1923. New branches in Poznań (1925), Gdynia(1934), Katowice (Voivodeship Institute of Hygiene (1936), Luck (1937), Stanisławów (1937), Kielce(1938), and Brześć/Bug (Municipal Station acting as branch of National Central Epidemiological Institute. Branches were subordinated to NCEI-PZH) in Warsaw where action plans and unified research and diagnostic method were established and annual meeting of the country branches managers took place. All branches cooperated with hospitals, national health services, district general practitioners and administration structure in control of infectious diseases. In 1938, the post of branch inspector was established, the first of whom was Feliks Przesmycki PhD. Branches cooperated also with University of Cracow, University of Lwów and University of Wilno. In 1935, National Institutes of Food Research was incorporated in PZH, Water Department was established, and these areas of activity began to develop in the branches accordingly. In 1938 there were 13 branches of PZH, and each had three divisions: bacteriological, food research and water research. Three branches in Cracow, Kielce and Lublin worked during World War II under German

  19. Urgency of changing paradigms in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.; Karpov, V.I.; Georgievskij, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A problem has been raised on the necessity to substitute the linear-nonthreshold hypothesis as a paradigm of radiation hygiene for the hypothesis of the biological effectiveness of ionizing irradiations. A comparison of the methodological substantiation for both hypotheses and a conception of 'acceptable risk' has been carried out. It is suggested that the possibility of theoretical substantiation of safety standards for the radiational factor on the basis of adatational hypothesis be acknowledged instead of the linear - nonthreshold conception which has lost its historic significance

  20. [Succession of chitinolytic microorganisms in chernozem soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucharova, N A; Belova, E V; Vorob'ev, A V; Polianskaia, L M; Stepanov, A L

    2005-01-01

    The chitinolytic prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial complex of chernozem soil has been investigated in the course of a succession initiated by the introduction of chitin and humidification. The dynamics of the cell numbers of chitinolytic microorganisms and of their biomass was assessed by fluorescent microscopy and by inoculation of selective media. Emission of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, as well as dinitrogen fixation, was assessed by gas chromatography. It was found that, when the succession was initiated by the introduction of both chitin and humidification, it resulted in greater cell numbers and biomass of chitinolytic microorganisms and higher levels of CO2 and N2O emission and of nitrogen fixation than when the succession was initiated by humidification alone. As compared to the control samples, a significant (twofold) increase in the prokaryote cell number and biomass was found on the fourth day of the succession initiated by humidification and introduction of chitin. One week after the initiation of succession, the fungal biomass and length of mycelium were twice as high as those in the control samples. These results led to the conclusion that chitin utilization in chernozem soil starts during the initial stages of succession and is performed by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms.

  1. Selection of mesophilic microorganisms with biodesulfuration capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madero, A; Mogollon, L. I; Mora, A.L; Osorio, L.F

    1998-01-01

    The development of bio desulfurization (BDS) processes for hydrocarbons requires fast and reliable methods for the screening of microorganisms. This work shows the results of the screening process for indigenous Colombian strains with a BDS potential capacity. The main criteria for the screening were the qualitative and quantitative determination of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) as the typical metabolite of the 4S specific pathway. Microorganisms were cultured by two methodologies, A and B, using DBT as the model compound. The quantitative determination of metabolites was made by HPLC. Thirteen strains were evaluated, including the strain Rhodococcus rhodocrous IGTS8, by methods A and B. In method A, the inoculum was exposed to DBT since the beginning of the culture. Method B, employed two stages: (i) Growth period under limiting sulfur conditions, (ii) Transforming period, in which the pre-grown inoculum was exposed to the organic sulfur substrate. The culture of mesophilic microorganisms isolated by method B, served to find a mechanism for the organic sulfur metabolism, and the evaluation of the sulfur removal capability of five indigenous strains. In the cultures of these strains, 2- hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) was detected as a byproduct of DBT metabolism, both qualitatively and quantitatively

  2. Dental Hygiene Program Directors' Perceptions of Graduate Dental Hygiene Education and Future Faculty Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Rebecca S.; Mann, Ginger; Tishk, Maxine

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 161 dental-hygiene-program directors investigated perceived future needs for faculty, preferences for type of faculty degree for selection and promotion, the extent to which master's programs are meeting those needs in both numbers and skills, and how the programs can better prepare graduates for the millennium. (MSE)

  3. Compliance with hand hygiene: reference data from the national hand hygiene campaign in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzker, W; Bunte-Schönberger, K; Walter, J; Pilarski, G; Gastmeier, P; Reichardt, Ch

    2016-04-01

    Hand hygiene is a key measure to prevent healthcare-associated infection. To promote hand hygiene nationally the German campaign 'Aktion Saubere Hände' was launched in January 2008, based on the World Health Organization's 'Clean Care is Safer Care' initiative. We report the first results from a full year of data collection on hand hygiene compliance recorded with the help of a renewed observation tool. Data were based on submissions from 109 participating hospitals collected from 576 wards between January 1st and December 31st, 2014. The overall median compliance was 73%, ranging from 55% (10th percentile) to 89% (90th percentile). The results demonstrated only small differences between adult and non-adult intensive care units (ICUs) with neonatal ICUs and paediatric non-ICUs maintaining higher compliance than adult care units. Performance among nurses was better than physicians, and overall rates of hand hygiene performance were significantly higher after patient contact than before. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An automated hand hygiene training system improves hand hygiene technique but not compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Yen Lee Angela; Callard, Michelle; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-08-01

    The hand hygiene technique that the World Health Organization recommends for cleansing hands with soap and water or alcohol-based handrub consists of 7 poses. We used an automated training system to improve clinicians' hand hygiene technique and test whether this affected hospitalwide hand hygiene compliance. Seven hundred eighty-nine medical and nursing staff volunteered to participate in a self-directed training session using the automated training system. The proportion of successful first attempts was reported for each of the 7 poses. Hand hygiene compliance was collected according to the national requirement and rates for 2011-2014 were used to determine the effect of the training system on compliance. The highest pass rate was for pose 1 (palm to palm) at 77% (606 out of 789), whereas pose 6 (clean thumbs) had the lowest pass rate at 27% (216 out of 789). One hundred volunteers provided feedback to 8 items related to satisfaction with the automated training system and most (86%) expressed a high degree of satisfaction and all reported that this method was time-efficient. There was no significant change in compliance rates after the introduction of the automated training system. Observed compliance during the posttraining period declined but increased to 82% in response to other strategies. Technology for training clinicians in the 7 poses played an important education role but did not affect compliance rates. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Surveillance of nosocomial infections: a preliminary study on hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, L; Santoro, E; De Caro, F; Cavallo, P; Boccia, G; Capunzo, M; Motta, O

    2006-06-01

    The observance of hand hygiene compliance is important to reduce cross-infection by micro-organisms. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the level of hand hygiene in healthcare workers from different departments, with particular emphasis on transient flora. The study was conducted in three departments (Surgery, Intensive Care Unit, Obstetrics and Gynecology) of a hospital in Campania, southern Italy. Over a six-month period, 50 healthcare workers were randomly tested. Imprints of palms and fingertips were taken monthly during the morning shift. The number of colonies per plate was counted and transient pathogens were identified. Risk factors for hand contamination were determined. Total flora was found in the following CFU means per palm and per five fingertips (95% CI): Obstetrics and Gynecology [palms 130 CFUs (95% CI 85-180); fingertips 125 CFUs (95% CI 92-160)]; ICU [palms 80 CFUs (95% CI 58-99); fingertips 62 CFUs (95% CI 45-82)]; Surgery [palms 75 CFUs (95% CI 41-120); fingertips 70 CFUs (95% CI 52-90)] Transient flora was found on 39% of healthcare workers' hands. The only factor associated with hand contamination by transient flora was the absence of gloving during healthcare procedure (P = 0.02).

  6. Hygiene perception changes during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany: incorporating the results of two cross-sectional telephone surveys 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilicke, Gerald; Riedmann, Klaus; Biederbick, Walter; Müller, Ute; Wierer, Traugott; Bartels, Cornelius

    2013-10-16

    The federal campaign Wir gegen Viren [Us against viruses] promoted hygiene in Germany during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009. The intervention aimed to encourage people to protect themselves against respiratory infections by simple means of hygiene behaviour. Quantitative research was carried out to outline changes in hygiene perception of the population over time, and to find out whether the potential hygiene perception changes were consistent to the federal campaign about hygiene or not. To determine changes in the hygiene perception of the population, two cross-sectional telephone surveys were held, each one with n = 2006 participants. The initial survey was carried out before the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in calendar week 49-51 in 2008 and the second in week 48 in 2009 directly after the peak of the pandemic in Germany. The questionnaire contained indicators about perceived hand hygiene efficacy, preference for coughing into the sleeve, propensity for presenteeism while showing symptoms of a cold and acceptance of hygiene masks. The proportion of people who perceive the efficacy of hand washing as "very good" increased significantly from 50.9% in 2008 to 61.1% in 2009. The proportion of people who perceive coughing into the sleeve as the best way to cough increased even more dramatically from 4.8% in 2008 to 38.3% in 2009. In contrast the propensity for presenteeism decreased significantly: The proportion of people who state that they always report to work while they show symptoms of a cold decreased from 50.8% in 2008 to 40.9% in 2009. Acceptance of hygiene masks has not changed significantly from 2008 to 2009. The results revealed changes in hygiene perception during influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany. The changes we found are in accordance with the hygiene recommendations given by the federal campaign Wir gegen Viren [Us against viruses]. Results can constitute a practical benchmark for future research about hygiene perception and hygiene promotion

  7. A Study of Visible Tattoos in Entry-Level Dental Hygiene Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search, Kathryn R; Tolle, Susan L; McCombs, Gayle B; Arndt, Aaron

    2018-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey entry-level dental hygiene program directors in the United States (U.S.) to assess their perceptions of dental hygienists with visible tattoos as well as to determine current policies related to dress codes in U.S. dental hygiene programs. Methods: Data was collected with an online survey emailed to 340 dental hygiene program directors yielding a 43% (n=141) response rate. Participants indicated their opinions of visible tattoos on the basis of professionalism and school policy satisfaction. Results: Eighty percent of respondents reported their program as having dress code policies on visible tattoos, with the majority (97%) requiring visible tattoos to be covered. Results revealed both students (M=5.57, phygiene faculty should discuss the impact of visible tattoos on future employment opportunities, and that the community would view the school as less professional if students had visible tattoos (pPersonal tolerance toward tattoos (phygiene program dress code included policy on visible tattoos. Conclusion: Study results showed that visible tattoos were not perceived favorably and that personal perceptions of dental hygiene program directors may have influenced school dress code polices regarding visible tattoos. These findings provide evidence based information for dental hygienists, students, faculty, administrators and hiring managers for formulating policies relating to body art. Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  8. Food and drinking water hygiene and intestinal protozoa in deployed German soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert G; Wiemer, Dorothea F; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L; Müller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M

    2013-03-01

    This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8-12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls.

  9. High-Fidelity Simulation: Preparing Dental Hygiene Students for Managing Medical Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilich, Lisa A; Jackson, Sarah C; Bray, Brenda S; Willson, Megan N

    2015-09-01

    Medical emergencies can occur at any time in the dental office, so being prepared to properly manage the situation can be the difference between life and death. The entire dental team must be properly trained regarding all aspects of emergency management in the dental clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new educational approach using a high-fidelity simulator to prepare dental hygiene students for medical emergencies. This study utilized high-fidelity simulation (HFS) to evaluate the abilities of junior dental hygiene students at Eastern Washington University to handle a medical emergency in the dental hygiene clinic. Students were given a medical emergency scenario requiring them to assess the emergency and implement life-saving protocols in a simulated "real-life" situation using a high-fidelity manikin. Retrospective data were collected for four years from the classes of 2010 through 2013 (N=114). The results indicated that learning with simulation was effective in helping the students identify the medical emergency in a timely manner, implement emergency procedures correctly, locate and correctly utilize contents of the emergency kit, administer appropriate intervention/treatment for a specific patient, and provide the patient with appropriate follow-up instructions. For dental hygiene programs seeking to enhance their curricula in the area of medical emergencies, this study suggests that HFS is an effective tool to prepare students to appropriately handle medical emergencies. Faculty calibration is essential to standardize simulation.

  10. The effect of hand hygiene on illness rate among students in university residence halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha; Dolan, Mike; Ali, Yusuf; Cline, Mojee

    2003-10-01

    Several studies have indicated a connection between hand sanitization and infection control in numerous settings such as extended care facilities, schools, and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of both a hand-hygiene message campaign and the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in decreasing the incidence of upper-respiratory illness among students living in university residence halls. This study involved a total of 430 students recruited from 4 residence halls during the fall semester at the University of Colorado at the Boulder campus. Dormitories were paired into control and product groups. In the product groups, alcohol gel hand-sanitizer dispensers were installed in every room, bathroom, and dining hall. The data were statistically analyzed for the differences between product and control groups in reported symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism from classes. The overall increase in hand-hygiene behavior and reduction in symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism between the product group and control group was statistically significant. Reductions in upper respiratory-illness symptoms ranged from 14.8% to 39.9%. Total improvement in illness rate was 20%. The product group had 43% less missed school/work days. Hand-hygiene practices were improved with increased frequency of handwashing through increasing awareness of the importance of hand hygiene, and the use of alcohol gel hand sanitizer in university dormitories. This resulted in fewer upper respiratory-illness symptoms, lower illness rates, and lower absenteeism.

  11. Comparison of human and electronic observation for the measurement of compliance with hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Miguel Almeida O; Marra, Alexandre R; Magnus, Thyago Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Dias; Prado, Marcelo; de Souza Santini, Tales Roberto; da Silva Victor, Elivane; Ishibe, Eder Issao; Pavão Dos Santos, Oscar Fernando; Edmond, Michael B

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring of hand hygiene is an important part of the improvement of hospital quality indicators. This study was prospectively performed over a 14-week (electronic observer) period from December 3, 2013-March 9, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in an adult step-down unit. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (RFID - ZigBee; i-Healthsys, São Carlos, Brazil) (electronic observer), which counts each activation of the alcohol gel dispenser to direct observation (human observer) using the iScrub application. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, we found that the electronic observer identified 414 hand hygiene episodes, whereas the human observers identified 448 episodes. Therefore, we found 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90%-95%) overall concordance (414/448), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.92). Our RFID (ZigBee) system showed good accuracy (92%) and is a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Perceptual Signs of Voice before and after Vocal Hygiene Program in Adults with Dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Maryam khoddami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vocal abuse and misuse are the most frequent causes of voice disorders. Consequently some therapy is needed to stop or modify such behaviors. This research was performed to study the effectiveness of vocal hygiene program on perceptual signs of voice in people with dysphonia.Methods: A Vocal hygiene program was performed to 8 adults with dysphonia for 6 weeks. At first, Consensus Auditory- Perceptual Evaluation of Voice was used to assess perceptual signs. Then the program was delivered, Individuals were followed in second and forth weeks visits. In the last session, perceptual assessment was performed and individuals’ opinions were collected. Perceptual findings were compared before and after the therapy.Results: After the program, mean score of perceptual assessment decreased. Mean score of every perceptual sign revealed significant difference before and after the therapy (p≤0.0001. «Loudness» had maximum score and coordination between speech and respiration indicated minimum score. All participants confirmed efficiency of the therapy.Conclusion: The vocal hygiene program improves all perceptual signs of voice although not equally. This deduction is confirmed by both clinician-based and patient-based assessments. As a result, vocal hygiene program is necessary for a comprehensive voice therapy but is not solely effective to resolve all voice problems.

  13. [Guidelines for hygienic classification of learning technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R; Teksheva, L M; Milushkina, O Iu

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of the educational environment under the present-day conditions has been in progress, by using learning techwares (LTW) without fail. To organize and regulate an academic process in terms of the safety of applied LTW, there is a need for their classification. The currently existing attempts to structure LTW disregard hygienically significant aspects. The task of the present study was to substantiate a LTW safety criterion ensuring a universal approach to working out regulations. This criterion may be the exposure intensity determined by the form of organization of education and its pattern, by the procedure of information presentation, and the age-related peculiarities of a pupil, i.e. by the actual load that is presented by the product of the intensity exposure and its time. The hygienic classification of LTW may be used to evaluate their negative effect in an educational process on the health status of children and adolescents, to regulate hazardous factors and training modes, to design and introduce new learning complexes. The structuring of a LTW system allows one to define possible deleterious actions and the possibilities of preventing this action on the basis of strictly established regulations.

  14. Hand hygiene compliance rates: Fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaws, Mary-Louise; Kwok, Yen Lee Angela

    2018-05-16

    The mandatory national hand hygiene program requires Australian public hospitals to use direct human auditing to establish compliance rates. To establish the magnitude of the Hawthorne effect, we compared direct human audit rates with concurrent automated surveillance rates. A large tertiary Australian teaching hospital previously trialed automated surveillance while simultaneously performing mandatory human audits for 20 minutes daily on a medical and a surgical ward. Subtracting automated surveillance rates from human audit rates provided differences in percentage points (PPs) for each of the 3 quarterly reporting periods for 2014 and 2015. Direct human audit rates for the medical ward were inflated by an average of 55 PPs in 2014 and 64 PPs in 2015, 2.8-3.1 times higher than automated surveillance rates. The rates for the surgical ward were inflated by an average of 32 PPs in 2014 and 31 PPs in 2015, 1.6 times higher than automated surveillance rates. Over the 6 mandatory reporting quarters, human audits collected an average of 255 opportunities, whereas automation collected 578 times more data, averaging 147,308 opportunities per quarter. The magnitude of the Hawthorne effect on direct human auditing was not trivial and produced highly inflated compliance rates. Mandatory compliance necessitates accuracy that only automated surveillance can achieve, whereas daily hand hygiene ambassadors or reminder technology could harness clinicians' ability to hyperrespond to produce habitual compliance. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-07-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  16. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  17. Analysis of growth behavior of survived microorganisms from decontaminated spices within meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Ishikawa, Etsuko; Hoshina, Miyuki; Tomii, Enami; Koike, Kazuko; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the condition of microbial growth recovery from the damage of killing stresses such as heating and 60 Co-gamma irradiation especially within the processed meat products. Black pepper powder treated by each process in which less than 1000 microbial loads was enumerated by aerobic counts was mixed with minced sausage and incubated at 30degC for several days. Outgrowth of microorganism was monitored according to the procedure described by Japanese Food Hygiene Law. Sausage samples containing the treated black pepper powder showed the similar microbial growth from less than 1000 CFU/g of the sample to approximately the order of 10 9 CPU/g of the sample during the incubation at 30degC, irrespective of gamma-irradiation or superheated-steam treatment. There were no significant differences between gamma-irradiation and superheated-steam treatment in outgrowth of the surviving microorganisms when the treated black pepper or sage was mixed and pulverized with sausage. In case paprika, growth delay of the super-steamed survivors was observed within 1 day after incubation. (author)

  18. Experimental modeling of aerosols produced by microorganisms in working area air as risk factor exerting hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dudchik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific foundation and practices in the sphere of hygienic and ecological standardization concerning biological factors of the environment have a number of peculiarities and are methodically less developed than chemical factors standardization. Efficient industrial control over maximum permissible concentrations of standardized microorganisms-producers in working area air is based on validated instrumental techniques of quantitative assessment. Our goal was to create experimental models for microorganisms-producers' aerosols of a multi-component microbe specimen in working area air as a risk factor causing impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production; another task was to work out a procedure for measuring Pseudomonas aurantiaca B-162/255.17concentration and cells and spores of Bacillus sp. BB58-3 strain in working area air. We gave grounds for a technology aimed at quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers in working area air in a modeling experiment; it was based on conventional stages and tech-niques accepted in microbiological practices, namely air samples taking via aspiration technique allowing for a volume taken; cultivation under conditions which are optimal for examined microorganisms-producers in a nutrient medium with reduced composition; calculation of evolved colonies with specific morphological features; morphologic identification of microorganisms and colonies; calculation of microorganisms' quantity on dishes with recalculation per 1 m3 of air. Bas-ing on the detected regular concentration dependences of microbe contamination dynamics in air we worked out a proce-dure for quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers; we also performed metrological estimate of opera-tional properties for assessing microorganisms-producers of a multi-component microbe specimen as a risk factor caus-ing hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production. We validated our

  19. Disinfectants - bacterial cells interactions in the view of hygiene and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Książczyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of biocides has increased rapidly. One common example is triclosan, with wide application in households as well as medical and industrial fields, especially food industry and animal husbandry. Chemical disinfection is a major mean to control and eliminate pathogenic bacteria, particularly those with multidrug resistance (MDR phenotype. However, exposition to biocides results in an adaptive response in microorganisms, causing them to display a wide range of resistance mechanisms. Numerous microorganisms are characterized by either natural resistance to chemical compounds or an ability to adapt to biocides using various strategies, such as: modification of cell surface structures (lipopolisaccharide, membrane fatty acids, over-expression of efflux pumps (a system for active transport of toxic compounds out of bacterial cell, enzymatic inactivation of biocides or altering biocide targets. For instance, it was shown that in vitro exposition of Salmonella Typhimurium to subinhibitory concentration of biocides (triclosan, quaternary ammonium compounds [QACs] resulted in selection of variants resistant to tested biocides and, additionally, to acridine dyes and antibiotics. Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus strains isolated from chlorine dioxide containing disinfection devices were found to be resistant to chlorine dioxide and also to other oxidizing compounds, such as peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Interaction between chemical compounds, including disinfectants and microbial cells, can create a serious threat to public health and sanitary-hygienic security. This phenomenon is connected with factor risk that intensify the probability of selection and dissemination of multidrug resistance among pathogenic bacteria.

  20. an assessment of the hygiene level in animal product processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    Keywords: Hygiene, animal product processing plants, checklists ... Changing lifestyles have brought new demands on the food industry; the ... Inspection is an aspect that needs to be revamped to ensure hygienic ... processing can affect a large number of people. .... trolled and equipment well designed; basic system.

  1. Dental Hygiene Curriculum Model for Transition to Future Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarmann, Carlene S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of the baccalaureate degree as the minimum entry level for dental hygiene practice centers around three main concerns: changes in health care delivery, awarding of a degree commensurate with students' educational background, and the credibility of dental hygiene as a profession. A curriculum model is discussed. (MLW)

  2. Requirements and Guidelines for Dental Hygiene Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Dental Education.

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a guide for dental hygiene education program development, and to serve as a stimulus for improving established programs. The first section of the report discusses the function of the Council on Dental Education and the trends in hygiene program development. In section II the requirements for an accredited…

  3. Use of Case-Based Learning in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.

    1998-01-01

    A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…

  4. The Effect of Recent Trends on Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Chester W.

    1991-01-01

    Six trends affecting dental hygiene practice are discussed: demographic changes; disease pattern changes; higher societal expectations; financing and delivery system changes; technological advancement; and regulatory and legislative trends. It is argued that, though the trends reflect positively on dental hygiene, practitioners need to increase…

  5. Changes in Generic and Degree Completion Dental Hygiene Student Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sandra; Rubinstein, Linda

    1989-01-01

    A study compared the characteristics of dental hygiene students in two programs (bachelor's degree and two-year professional dental hygiene training) in 1978 and 1987 to assess changes over time. Results are presented and the implications for enrollment management are discussed. (MSE)

  6. Efficiency of Motivation Development Models for Hygienic Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Tscymbalystov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The combined influence of a family and a state plays an important role in the development of an individual. This study is aimed at the model effectiveness evaluation concerning the development of oral hygiene skills among children living in families (n = 218 and being under the care of a state (n = 229. The groups were created among the children who took part in the study: the preschoolers of 5-7 years, schoolchildren of 8-11 years and adolescents of 12-15 years. During the initial examination, the hygienic status of the oral cavity before and after tooth brushing was evaluated. After that, subgroups were formed in each age group according to three models of hygienic skills training: 1 computer presentation lesson; 2 one of the students acted as a demonstrator of the skill; 3 an individual training by a hygienist. During the next 48 hours children did not take hygienic measures. Then the children were invited for a control session to demonstrate the acquired skills of oral care and evaluate the effectiveness of a model developing the skills of individual oral hygiene. During the control examination, the hygienic status was determined before and after the tooth cleaning, which allowed to determine the regimes of hygienic measure performance for children with different social status and the effectiveness of hygiene training models.

  7. Denture hygiene knowledge and practice amongst patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess patients' knowledge on denture hygiene and the hygiene methods used for cleaning removable partial dentures. Methods: This was a ... Other information obtained were the duration of denture use, frequency of denture cleaning and type of material used for denture cleaning. Results: The age of the ...

  8. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Kaluska, I.; Gluszewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    During the 9 School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  9. A multifaceted hospital-wide intervention increases hand hygiene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital-acquired infections remain a global concern, with prevalence .... precautionary measures such as hand washing. A baseline audit in. 2014 on hand hygiene at GSH reflected an average performance of. 34% for the hospital. ..... hand hygiene intervention based on WHO and continuous improvement methodology.

  10. Knowledge, attitude towards and practice of oral hygiene among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Oral hygiene involves the prevention of oral diseases which have been found to be common in pregnancy. Dental care in pregnancy aims at achieving healthy oral environment. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude towards and practice of oral hygiene among antenatal clinic attendees in public ...

  11. Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

  12. Oral hygiene profile of inmates in a correctional home | Braimoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prisoners are a vulnerable and socially deprived group requiring dental care intervention. They are often neglected with little or no access to health care and poor oral hygiene may be an additional burden. Objectives: To assess the oral hygiene status of prison inmates and investigate its relationship to ...

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video (Short Version)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.

  14. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.27 Hygiene facilities and practices. (a) General. The responsible employer must assure that in...

  15. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No person...

  16. The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there…

  17. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel facilities...

  18. BATHROOM TRANSFORMATION: FROM HYGIENE TO WELL-BEING?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Western bathroom standards, which have long been dominated by ideas of hygiene, seem to be in the process of change. Whereas transformations of kitchens have been well studied, little attention has been directed towards the contemporary development of bathrooms. This article provides a case study....... In particular, the notion of well-being is highlighted as challenging existing hygiene ideas....

  19. Quality approach in hygiene in a nuclear medicine service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plogin, J.

    1998-01-01

    The activities of nuclear medicine, by their constraints of radiation protection, present difficulties for rules of hygiene protocols. Considering the particular risks of certain techniques, the approach brings to the fore the compromise between radiation protection and hygiene and to adapt the recommendations to local specificities. (N.C.)

  20. The dangers of dirt : household hygiene and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtis, V.

    1998-01-01

    Encouraging changes in hygiene practices are potentially one of the mosteffective means of reducing the global impact of diarrhoeal diseases, whichkill an estimated 3.3 million children a year. However, efforts to improve hygiene in the developing world have met with limited success. Some

  1. Personal hygienic concerns in long term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Data from numerous experiments and hardware inventories were scanned for Skylab personal hygiene use. A computer program was formulated for predicting the degree of man's involvement with personal hygiene needs. A tabulation was kept for such events as water intake, frequency of urination and defecation, accidents or events requiring clean-up, methods of clean-up, microbiological environment and shower water contamination.

  2. Outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Zul; Sunell, Susanne; Boschma, Geertje; Imai, Pauline; Craig, Bonnie J

    2011-03-01

    There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice.

  3. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

  4. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates at hospital entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidotas, Marina; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Gysi, Deisy Morselli; Leal, Flavio; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Edmond, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in the health care setting, there are no studies evaluating hand hygiene compliance at hospital entrances. The study was prospectively performed over a 33-week period from March 30, 2014-November 15, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 hospital reception areas. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (GOJO SMARTLINK) (electronic observer) that counts each activation of alcohol gel dispensers to direct observation (human observer) via remote review of video surveillance. We found low hand hygiene compliance rates of 2.2% (99/4,412) and 1.7% (140/8,277), respectively, at reception areas A and D, detected by direct observation. Using the electronic observer, we measured rates of 17% (15,624/91,724) and 7.1% (51,605/730,357) at reception areas A and D, respectively. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, the human observer captured 1% of the hand hygiene episodes detected by the electronic observer. Our study showed very low hand hygiene compliance in hospital reception areas, and we found an electronic hand hygiene system to be a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Are hospitals too clean to trigger good hand hygiene?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, D.S. van der; Voss, A.

    2009-01-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene in the healthcare setting is generally low. The aim of the present study was to investigate the degree of compliance with hand hygiene after toilet visits inside and outside the hospital. We observed hospital/laboratory staff, participants of the European Congress of

  6. Hand hygiene practices among community Health Officers in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health care associated infections are most commonly transmitted by the hands of Health care workers and other hospital personnel. Objective: To investigate compliance with hand hygiene guidelines and methods of hand hygiene practice among community health officers in Rivers State Nigeria. Methods: Self ...

  7. Occupational Safety. Hygiene Safety. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on hygiene safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with the different types of airborne contaminants--including noise--which may be health hazards and with the proper hygienic measures for dealing with them. The…

  8. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Kaluska, I.; Gluszewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    During the 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  9. Environmental Control Plan for the Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the Hanford Site's Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility, located in the 100-N Area. This facility is used for the maintenance and storage of respirators, respiratory equipment and testing, calibration and testing of industrial hygiene equipment, and asbestos fiber counting

  10. Personal Hygiene Practices among Urban Homeless Persons in Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibler, Jessica H; Nguyen, Daniel D; León, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M; Perez, Debora

    2017-08-18

    Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA ( n = 194) to identify hygiene-related self-care practices and risk factors for reduced hygiene in this population. Most participants (72%) reported taking a daily shower. More than 60% reported hand washing with soap five or more times each day, and use of hand sanitizer was widespread (89% reported using sanitizer in the last week). A majority (86%) used a laundromat or laundry machine to wash clothing, while 14% reported washing clothing in the sink. Heavy drinking, injection drug use, and sleeping outdoors were identified as significant risk factors for reduced hygiene practices. People experiencing homelessness who also engage in these activities may be among the most difficult to reach for intervention, yet targeted efforts may decrease illness risk associated with reduced hygiene. Housed friends and family play a critical role in assisting homeless individuals maintain hygiene by providing showers and laundry facilities.

  11. FOOD safety and hygiene - Systematic layout planning of food processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, DP; Gaalman, G

    2004-01-01

    Hygiene and food safety have been dealt with from different fields of science such as biology and health, and from different angles such as HACCP and GMP. Little systematically ordered knowledge is available for the analysis of a layout, taking hygienic factors into account. HACCP and GMP are

  12. Determinants of good oral hygiene among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in ...

  13. A multifaceted hospital-wide intervention increases hand hygiene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multifaceted hospital-wide intervention increases hand hygiene compliance. B Patel, H Engelbrecht, H McDonald, V Morris, W Smythe. Abstract. Background. Hand hygiene is an important and basic practice that should be used by all healthcare staff to protect both themselves and their patients against infection.

  14. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  15. Microorganisms and methods for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2017-12-26

    Microorganisms comprising modifications for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds. The microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate activity of one or more of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, acetate kinase, pyruvate oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, cytochrome terminal oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, pyruvate formate lyase, pyruvate formate lyase activating enzyme, and isocitrate lyase. The microorganisms optionally comprise modifications that enhance expression or activity of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The microorganisms are optionally evolved in defined media to enhance specific production of one or more compounds. Methods of producing compounds with the microorganisms are provided.

  16. Extracellular electron transfer mechanisms between microorganisms and minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Dong, Hailiang; Reguera, Gemma; Beyenal, Haluk; Lu, Anhuai; Liu, Juan; Yu, Han-Qing; Fredrickson, James K.

    2016-08-30

    Electrons can be transferred from microorganisms to multivalent metal ions that are associated with minerals and vice versa. As the microbial cell envelope is neither physically permeable to minerals nor electrically conductive, microorganisms have evolved strategies to exchange electrons with extracellular minerals. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that underlie the ability of microorganisms to exchange electrons, such as c-type cytochromes and microbial nanowires, with extracellular minerals and with microorganisms of the same or different species. Microorganisms that have extracellular electron transfer capability can be used for biotechnological applications, including bioremediation, biomining and the production of biofuels and nanomaterials.

  17. Dispersal of micro-organisms in commercial defeathering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, V M; Tinker, D B; Hinton, M H; Wathes, C M

    2003-03-01

    1. The extent of cross contamination between carcases and the dispersal of micro-organisms to the environs during defeathering was measured in a commercial processing plant. 2. Defeathering reduced the numbers of a marker organism, a nalidixic acid-resistant strain of Escherichia coli K12, on inoculated carcases but dispersed the organism on to preceding and following carcases. 3. The pattern of microbial dispersal during defeathering was similar for naturally occurring bacteria on the carcase, for example, total aerobic counts and counts of presumptive coliforms, suggesting that the marker organism mimics the natural situation realistically. 4. The majority of feathers, together with micro-organisms, were removed during the first 10 s of the defeathering process, which was completed in 45 s, indicating that control measures to minimise cross contamination would be most effective if applied in the early stages of the process. 5. The method of defeathering used by the machine influenced the pattern of microbial dispersal and the extent of cross contamination to other carcases on the same processing line.

  18. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREICE H.S. PEIL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r. Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  19. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peil, Greice H S; Kuss, Anelise V; Rave, Andrés F G; Villarreal, José P V; Hernandes, Yohana M L; Nascente, Patrícia S

    2016-01-01

    The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r)). Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml) however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  20. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918