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Sample records for hydrothermally grown zno

  1. Morphology evolution of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures on gallium doping and their defect structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Hernandez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Escobedo-Morales, A., E-mail: alejandroescobedo@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Chigo-Anota, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2012-08-15

    In the present article, the effect of gallium doping on the morphology, structural, and vibrational properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures has been studied. It has been observed that incorporated gallium plays an important role on the growth kinetics and hence on the morphology evolution of the ZnO crystals. Ga doping in high concentration results in the contraction of ZnO unit cell, mainly along c-axis. Although Ga has high solubility in ZnO, heavy doping promotes the segregation of Ga atoms as a secondary phase. Incorporated Ga atoms strongly affect the vibrational characteristics of ZnO lattice and induce anomalous Raman modes. Possible mechanisms of morphology evolution and origin of anomalous Raman modes in Ga doped ZnO nanostructures are discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully grown by hydrothermal chemical route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doping has strong effect on the resulting morphology of ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous vibrational modes in wurtzite ZnO lattice are induced by Ga doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporated Ga atoms accommodate at preferential lattice sites.

  2. Room temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal reaction

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    Iwan, S., E-mail: iwan-sugihartono@unj.ac.id [Jurusan Fisika, FMIPA-UNJ, Rawamangun, Jakarta (Indonesia); Prodi Ilmu Material, Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Fauzia, Vivi [Prodi Ilmu Material, Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Umar, A. A. [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Sun, X. W. [School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue (Singapore)

    2016-04-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were fabricated by a hydrothermal reaction on silicon (Si) substrate at 95 °C for 6 hours. The ZnO seed layer was fabricated by depositing ZnO thin films on Si substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolisis (USP). The annealing effects on crystal structure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were investigated. The post-annealing treatment was performed at 800 °C with different environments. The annealed of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) in order to analyze crystal structure and optical properties, respectively. The results show the orientations of [002], [101], [102], and [103] diffraction peaks were observed and hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO nanorods were vertically grown on Si substrates. The room temperature PL spectra show ultra-violet (UV) and visible emissions. The annealed of ZnO nanorods in vacuum condition (3.8 × 10{sup −3} Torr) has dominant UV emission. Meanwhile, non-annealed of ZnO nanorods has dominant visible emission. It was expected that the annealed of ZnO in vacuum condition suppresses the existence of native defects in ZnO nanorods.

  3. Luminescence properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yatskiv, Roman; Grym, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 99, 1November (2016), s. 214-220 ISSN 0749-6036 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14111; GA ČR GA15-17044S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Photoluminescence * Annealing * ZnO nanorods Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.123, year: 2016

  4. Hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods on self-source substrate and their field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J P; Xu, C X; Zhu, G P; Li, X; Cui, Y P; Yang, Y; Sun, X W

    2007-01-01

    Vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorod arrays were grown directly using a zinc foil as both source and substrate in pure water at low temperature by a simple hydrothermal reaction. The morphology and crystal structure of the ZnO nanorod arrays were examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, respectively. The nanorods grew along the [0 0 0 1] direction and were 80 nm in diameter and almost 2 μm in length. Directly employing the zinc foil substrate as cathode, the field emission (FE) of the ZnO nanorods presented a two-stage slope behaviour in a ln(J/E 2 )-1/E plot according to the Fowler-Nordheim equation. The FE behaviour was investigated by considering the action of the defects in ZnO nanorods based on the measurement of the photoluminescence

  5. Effects of buffer layer annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of hydrothermal grown ZnO

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    Zhao, X.Q.; Kim, C.R.; Lee, J.Y.; Heo, J.H.; Shin, C.M. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.C. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, W.G. [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, 861-1 Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, S.T. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Zhao, J.L. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-02-01

    ZnO was deposited on bare Si(1 0 0), as-deposited, and annealed ZnO/Si(1 0 0) substrates by hydrothermal synthesis. The effects of a ZnO buffer layer and its thermal annealing on the properties of the ZnO deposited by hydrothermal synthesis were studied. The grain size and root mean square (RMS) roughness values of the ZnO buffer layer increased after thermal annealing of the buffer layer. The effect of buffer layer annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties was investigated by photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrothermal grown ZnO deposited on ZnO/Si(1 0 0) annealed at 750 deg. C with the concentration of 0.3 M exhibits the best structural and optical properties.

  6. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

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    Čížek, J., E-mail: jakub.cizek@mff.cuni.cz; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I. [Department of Low-Temperature Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-180 00, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Valenta, J. [Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J. [Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-06-22

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.

  7. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čížek, J.; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I.; Valenta, J.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.

    2015-01-01

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration

  8. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čížek, J.; Valenta, J.; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.

    2015-06-01

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.

  9. Effects of the annealing duration of the ZnO buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process

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    Shin, C.M.; Lee, J.Y.; Heo, J.H.; Park, J.H.; Kim, C.R. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, S.T. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Zhao, J.L. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-07-30

    In this study, the effects of the annealing duration of a zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process are discussed. A ZnO buffer layer was deposited on p-type Si (1 1 1) substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. After that, ZnO rods were grown on the ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) substrate by a hydrothermal process. In order to determine the optimum annealing duration of the buffer layer for the growth of ZnO rods, durations ranging from 0.5 to 30 min were tried. The morphology and crystal structure of the ZnO/ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) were measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurement.

  10. Electron irradiation induced deep centers in hydrothermally grown ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z.-Q.; Claflin, B.; Look, D. C.; Farlow, G. C.

    2007-01-01

    An n-type hydrothermally grown ZnO sample becomes semi-insulating (ρ∼10 8 Ω cm) after 1-MeV electron-irradiation. Deep traps produced by the irradiation were studied by thermally stimulated current spectroscopy. The dominant trap in the as-grown sample has an activation energy of 0.24 eV and is possibly related to Li Zn acceptors. However, the electron irradiation introduces a new trap with an activation energy of 0.15 eV, and other traps of energy 0.30 and 0.80 eV, respectively. From a comparison of these results with positron annihilation experiments and density functional theory, we conclude that the 0.15-eV trap may be related to V Zn

  11. Electrical and structural characterization of as-grown and annealed hydrothermal bulk ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassier, G. H.; Hayes, M.; Auret, F. D.; Mamor, M.; Bouziane, K.

    2007-01-01

    Hall effect measurements in the range 20-370 K on as-grown and annealed hydrothermal bulk ZnO have been performed. The bulk conductivity in the highly resistive as-grown sample was found to decrease and then increase after annealing at 550 deg. C and 930 deg. C, respectively. The conduction in the as-grown material is attributed to a deep donor which is replaced by a much shallower donor after annealing at 930 deg. C. Annealing at both temperatures also produced strong surface conduction effects. Nondegenerate low-mobility surface conduction dominated the electrical properties of the sample annealed at 550 deg. C, while a degenerate surface channel was formed after annealing at 930 deg. C. In addition, Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS/C) was used to assess the effect of annealing on the crystalline quality of the samples. RBS/C measurements reveal that annealing at 930 deg. C leads to significant improvement of the crystalline quality of the material, while annealing at 550 deg. C results in the segregation of a nonchanneling impurity at the surface

  12. Void Structures in Regularly Patterned ZnO Nanorods Grown with the Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The void structures and related optical properties after thermal annealing with ambient oxygen in regularly patterned ZnO nanrorod (NR arrays grown with the hydrothermal method are studied. In increasing the thermal annealing temperature, void distribution starts from the bottom and extends to the top of an NR in the vertical (c-axis growth region. When the annealing temperature is higher than 400°C, void distribution spreads into the lateral (m-axis growth region. Photoluminescence measurement shows that the ZnO band-edge emission, in contrast to defect emission in the yellow-red range, is the strongest under the n-ZnO NR process conditions of 0.003 M in Ga-doping concentration and 300°C in thermal annealing temperature with ambient oxygen. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate that the concentration of hydroxyl groups in the vertical growth region is significantly higher than that in the lateral growth region. During thermal annealing, hydroxyl groups are desorbed from the NR leaving anion vacancies for reacting with cation vacancies to form voids.

  13. ZnO homoepitaxy on the O polar face of hydrothermal and melt-grown substrates by pulsed laser deposition

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    Rogers, D.J. [Nanovation SARL, Orsay (France); Technical Univ. of Troyes (France); CNRS, Troyes (France); Hosseini Teherani, F. [Nanovation SARL, Orsay (France); Largeteau, A.; Demazeau, G. [ICMCB-CNRS, Bordeaux 1 University (Science and Technology), Pessac (France); Moisson, C.; Turover, D. [Novasic, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat. 4, BP 267, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Nause, J. [Cermet Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Garry, G. [Thales Research, Domaine de Corbeville, Orsay (France); Kling, R.; Gruber, T. [Ulm University, Department of Semiconductor Physics, Ulm (Germany); Waag, A. [Braunschweig Technical University, Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Jomard, F.; Galtier, P.; Lusson, A. [LPSC-CNRS, Meudon (France); Monteiro, T.; Soares, M.J.; Neves, A.; Carmo, M.C.; Peres, M. [University of Aveiro, Physics Department, Aveiro (Portugal); Lerondel, G.; Hubert, C. [Technical University of Troyes-CNRS (FRE2671), 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, Troyes (France)

    2007-07-15

    2 cm diameter hydrothermal ZnO crystals were grown and then made into substrates using both mechanical and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP polishing showed superior results with an (0002) {omega} scan full width half maximum (FWHM) of 67 arcsec and an root mean square (RMS) roughness of 2 Aa. In comparison, commercial melt-grown substrates exhibited broader X-ray diffraction (XRD) linewidths with evidence of sub-surface crystal damage due to polishing, including a downward shift of c-lattice parameter. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed strong Li, Fe, Co, Al and Si contamination in the hydrothermal crystals as opposed to the melt-grown substrates, for which glow discharge mass spectroscopy studies had reported high levels of Pb, Fe, Cd and Si. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies indicated that the hydrothermal crystal had high defect and/or impurity concentrations compared with the melt-grown substrate. The dominant bound exciton for the melt-grown substrate was indexed to Al. ZnO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition. The melt-grown substrates gave superior results with XRD (0002) {omega} and 2{theta}/{omega} WHM of 124 and 34 arcsec, respectively. Atomic force microscope measurements indicated a low RMS roughness (1.9 nm) as confirmed by fringes in the XRD 2{theta}/{omega} scan. It was suggested that the improvement in XRD response relative to the substrate might be due to ''healing'' of sub-surface polishing damage due to the elevated T{sub s} used for the growth. Indeed the c-lattice parameter for the homoepitaxial layer on the melt-grown substrate had become that which would be expected for strain-free ZnO. Furthermore, the stability of the PL peak positions relative to bulk ZnO, confirmed that the films appear practically strain free. (orig.)

  14. Effects of ZnO Seed Layers Prepared with Various Precursor Concentrations on Structural and Defect Emission Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown by Hydrothermal Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soaram; Nam, Giwoong; Leem, Jae-Young; Kim, Yangsoo [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ghun Sik; Yoon, Sung Pil [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    ZnO nanorods were grown by a hydrothermal method on ZnO seed layers that had previously been prepared from solutions containing various precursor concentrations. The effects of the ZnO seed layers prepared with various precursor concentrations on the structural and defect emissions of the ZnO nanorods were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the ZnO seed layers changed with an increasing precursor concentration, and the diameters and densities of the ZnO nanorods depended on the morphologies of the ZnO seed layers. The ZnO seed layers prepared with various precursor concentrations affected the residual stress in the nanorods grown on the seed layers, the intensity and full widths at half maximum of the 2-theta angle in the XRD spectra for the nanorods, and the intensity and position of the defect emission peak in deep-level emission (DLE) PL spectra for the ZnO nanorods.

  15. Effects of thermal annealing temperature and duration on hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorod arrays

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    Zhao, X.Q.; Kim, C.R.; Lee, J.Y.; Shin, C.M.; Heo, J.H.; Leem, J.Y. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr; Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.C. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, B.C.; Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, W.G. [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, 861-1, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, S.T. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Zhao, J.L. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, the effects of thermal annealing temperature and duration on ZnO nanorod arrays fabricated by hydrothermal method were investigated. The annealed ZnO/Si(1 1 1) substrate was used for ZnO nanorod array growth. The effects of annealing treatment on the structural and optical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. With the annealing temperature of 750 {sup o}C and the annealing duration of 10 min, both the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanorod arrays improved significantly, as indicated in the X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurement.

  16. Photoluminescence of Hexagonal ZnO Nanorods Hydrothermally Grown on Zn Foils in KOH Solutions with Different Values of Basicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuengruethai Ekthammathat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aligned hexagonal ZnO nanorods on pure Zn foils were hydrothermally synthesized in 30 mL solutions containing 0.05–0.50 g KOH. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. In this research, wurtzite hexagonal ZnO nanorods grown along the [002] direction with green light emission at 541 nm caused by singly ionized oxygen vacancies inside were detected.

  17. Photoelectrocatalytic activity of a hydrothermally grown branched Zno nanorod-array electrode for paracetamol degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin Jung; Liao, Shu-Jun; Kao, Li-Cheng; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2015-06-30

    Hierarchical branched ZnO nanorod (B-ZnR) arrays as an electrode for efficient photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a solution route. The morphologic and structural studies show the ZnO trunks are single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO with a [0001] growth direction and are densely covered by c-axis-oriented ZnO branches. The obvious enhancement in photocurrent response of the B-ZnR electrode was obtained than that in the ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO NP) electrode. For the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol in 20 h, the conversion fraction of the drug increased from 32% over ZnO NP electrode to 62% over B-ZnR arrays with about 3-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The light intensity-dependent photoelectrocatalytic experiment indicated that the superior performance over the B-ZnR electrode was mainly ascribed to the increased specific surface area without significantly sacrificing the charge transport and pollutant diffusion efficiencies. Two aromatic intermediate compounds were observed and eventually converted into harmless carboxylic acids and ammonia. Hierarchical tree-like ZnO arrays can be considered effective alternatives to improve photoelectro degradation rates without the need for expensive additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of reactant concentration on the structural properties of hydrothermally-grown ZnO rods on seed-layer ZnO / polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. I.; Shin, C. M.; Heo, J. H.; Ryu, H. [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. J. [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Son, C. S. [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H. [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The morphology and the structural properties were studied for zinc-oxide (ZnO) rods hydrothermally grown on seed-layer ZnO/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at various reactant concentrations. Dissolved solutions with de-ionized water, zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, ZNH) and hexamethylenetetramine (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}, HMT) were employed as reactants for hydrothermal growth of ZnO. The transparency of the mixtures (ZNH+HMT) with increasing reactant concentration from 0.025 to 0.25 M changed from transparent to translucent to opaque (white colors) due to Zn(OH){sub 2} precipitates. When the concentration was increased, the density of the ZnO rods increased, and the morphology of the ZnO rods changed from a hexagonal flat-end shape to a sharp-end or flake-like structure. The sharp-end rods with increasing concentration from 0.1 to 0.15 M resulted from the etching process at a lower pH condition (less than pH 6) after the ZnO rod growth, and the flake-like structure was due to a high growth rate. The ZnO seed layer might have improved the alignment of ZnO rods and made a high density of ZnO rods. In addition, the structural properties were improved at lower concentrations by inserting a seed layer.

  19. Single crystalline ZnO nanorods grown by a simple hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei1977@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhao, H.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Tan, W. [Henkel Huawei Electronics Co. Ltd., Lian' yungang, Jiangsu 222006 (China); Yu, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Chen, Y.W. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Qianfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Single crystalline ZnO nanorods with wurtzite structure have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal process. The microstructure and composition of the products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) and Raman spectrum. The nanorods have diameters ranging from 100 nm to 800 nm and length of longer than 10 {mu}m. Raman peak at 437.8 cm{sup -1} displays the characteristic peak of wurtzite ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows a blue light emission at 441 nm, which is related to radiative recombination of photo-generated holes with singularly ionized oxygen vacancies.

  20. Single crystalline ZnO nanorods grown by a simple hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Zhao, H.S.; Tan, W.; Yu, H.Y.; Chen, Y.W.; Zhang Qianfeng

    2009-01-01

    Single crystalline ZnO nanorods with wurtzite structure have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal process. The microstructure and composition of the products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) and Raman spectrum. The nanorods have diameters ranging from 100 nm to 800 nm and length of longer than 10 μm. Raman peak at 437.8 cm -1 displays the characteristic peak of wurtzite ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows a blue light emission at 441 nm, which is related to radiative recombination of photo-generated holes with singularly ionized oxygen vacancies.

  1. Selective tuning of enhancement in near band edge emission in hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods coated with gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Tejendra, E-mail: phd12110211@iiti.ac.in [Molecular and Nanoelectronics Research Group (MNRG), Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Palani, I.A., E-mail: palaniia@iiti.ac.in [Mechatronics and Instrumentation Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Centre of Material Science and Engineering, IIT Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Singh, Vipul, E-mail: vipul@iiti.ac.in [Molecular and Nanoelectronics Research Group (MNRG), Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Centre of Material Science and Engineering, IIT Indore, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2016-02-15

    The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods (NRs) coated with Au using dc sputtering and thermal evaporation were systematically investigated. Au coated (via dc sputtering) ZnO NRs were found to exhibit very large near band edge emission enhancement, on the contrary Au coated (via thermal evaporation) ZnO NRs showed suppression in the near band edge emission peak. These observed results were further confirmed by excitation intensity (EI) dependent PL spectra of different samples. Further using Raman spectra it has been observed that the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons exhibit an enhancement and a weakening by the Au coatings, using dc sputtering and thermal evaporation respectively. Finally by controlling the concentration of KMnO{sub 4} as an additive during the hydrothermal growth, selective tuning in the defect density was carried out, which was later utilized to probe the effect of defect density of the Au–ZnO plasmonic coupling. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that the EI dependent PL has a strong dependence on the metal coating technique. The findings presented in this article clearly indicate the dependence of Au–ZnO plasmonic coupling on the overall defect density and the process of Au deposition.

  2. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films grown by using the hydrothermal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Jang, Leewoon; Jeon, Juwon; Kim, Myoung; Kim, Jinsoo; Lee, Inhwan; Kwak, Joonseop; Lee, Jaejin

    2010-01-01

    The photoluminescence properties of zinc-oxide thin films grown by using the hydrothermal technique have been investigated. Zinc-oxide thin films with a wurtzite symmetry and c-axis orientation were grown in aqueous solution at 90 .deg. C on sapphire substrates with a p-GaN buffer layer by using the hydrothermal technique. The low-temperature photoluminescence analysis revealed a sharp bound-exciton-related luminescence peak at 3.366 eV with a very narrow peak width. The temperature-dependent variations of the emission energy and of the integrated intensity were studied. The activation energy of the bound exciton complex was calculated to be 7.35 ± 0.5 meV from the temperature dependent quenching of the integral intensities.

  3. Influence of aspect ratio and surface defect density on hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods towards amperometric glucose biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Dixit, Tejendra; Prakash, Rajiv; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    In this work, hydrothermally grown ZnO Nanorods Array (ZNA) has been synthesized over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate, for biosensing applications. In-situ addition of strong oxidizing agent viz KMnO4 during hydrothermal growth was found to have profound effect on the physical properties of ZNA. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was later immobilized over ZNA by means of physical adsorption process. Further influence of varying aspect ratio, enzyme loading and surface defects on amperometric glucose biosensor has been analyzed. Significant variation in biosensor performance was observed by varying the amount of KMnO4 addition during the growth. Moreover, investigations revealed that the suppression of surface defects and aspect ratio variation of the ZNA played key role towards the observed improvement in the biosensor performance, thereby significantly affecting the sensitivity and response time of the fabricated biosensor. Among different biosensors fabricated having varied aspect ratio and surface defect density of ZNA, the best electrode resulted into sensitivity and response time to be 18.7 mA cm-2 M-1 and <5 s respectively. The observed results revealed that apart from high aspect ratio nanostructures and the extent of enzyme loading, surface defect density also hold a key towards ZnO nanostructures based bio-sensing applications.

  4. Current-transport studies and trap extraction of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanotubes using gold Schottky diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, G.; Hussain, I.; Zaman, S.; Bano, N.; Nur, O.; Willander, M. [Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoeping, Linkoeping University, 60174 Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-03-15

    High-quality zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotubes (NTs) were grown by the hydrothermal technique on n-Si substrate. The room temperature (RT) current-transport mechanisms of Au Schottky diodes fabricated from ZnO NTs and nanorods (NRs) reference samples have been studied and compared. The tunneling mechanisms via deep-level states was found to be the main conduction process at low applied voltage but at the trap-filled limit voltage (V{sub TFL}) all traps were filled and the space-charge-limited current conduction was the dominating current-transport mechanism. The deep-level trap energy and the trap concentration for the NTs were obtained as {proportional_to}0.27 eV and 2.1 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, respectively. The same parameters were also extracted for the ZnO NRs. The deep-level states observed crossponds to zinc interstitials (Zn{sub i}), which are responsible for the violet emission. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods grown on graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide film by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alver, U., E-mail: alver@ksu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, K. Maras 46100 (Turkey); Zhou, W.; Belay, A.B. [Nanoscience and Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States); Krueger, R. [Nanoscience and Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Davis, K.O.; Hickman, N.S. [Nanoscience and Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    ZnO nanorods were grown on graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films with seed layers by using simple hydrothermal method. The GO films were deposited by spray coating and then annealed at 400 Degree-Sign C in argon atmosphere to obtain RGO films. The optical and structural properties of the ZnO nanorods were systematically studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and SEM images show that without a seed layer, no ZnO nanorod deposition occurs on GO or RGO films. Transmittance of ZnO nanorods grown on RGO films was measured to be approximately 83% at 550 nm. Furthermore, while transmittance of RGO films increases with ZnO nanorod deposition, transmittance of GO decreases.

  6. Hydrothermally grown zeolite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.K.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, M.A.; Qazi, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type materials were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150-170 degree C for various periods of time from the mixtures containing colloidal reactive silica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, iron nitrate and organic templates. Organic polycation templates were used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers to enhance relative growth rates. The template was almost completely removed from the zeolite specimens by calcination at 550 degree C for 8h in air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed to study the removal of water molecules and the amount of organic template cations occluded inside the crystal pore of zeolite framework. The 12-13% weight loss in the range of (140-560 degree C) was associated with removal of the (C/sub 3/H/sub 7/)/sub 4/ N+ cation and water molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology and surface features of hydrothermally grown aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type crystals. In order to elucidate the mode of zeolite crystallization the crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by XRD, which are the function of Al and Fe contents of zeolites. (author)

  7. Structural and optical properties of ZnO rods hydrothermally formed on polyethersulfone substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Mi; Jang, Jin Tak; Kim, Chang Yong; Ryu, Hyuk Hyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Ji Ho [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Chang Sik [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hee Lack [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Various unique ZnO morphologies, such as cigar-like and belt-like structures and microrod and nanorod structures, were formed on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates by using a low temperature hydrothermal route. The structural properties of ZnO depended highly on the precursor concentration. The effect of a thin ZnO seed layer deposited the on PES substrate by using atomic layer deposition on the structural and the optical properties of ZnO hydrothermally grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates was studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were employed to analyze the characteristics of hydrothermally-grown ZnO. The diameter of the ZnO nanorods grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates increased with increasing precursor concentration from 0.025 to 0.125 M due to the Ostwald ripening process. ZnO hydrothermally-grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates at a low precursor concentration showed better structural properties than ZnO formed without a seed layer. Well-formed ZnO nanorods deposited on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates showed two PL peaks, one in the ultraviolet and the other in the visible region, whereas horizontally positioned ZnO formed on the PES substrate in the absence of a seed layer emitted only one broad PL peak in the violet region. The ZnO grown on PES substrates in this work can be used as high-quality transparent electrodes for solar cells fabricated on flexible substrates.

  8. Structural and optical properties of ZnO rods hydrothermally formed on polyethersulfone substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Chang Mi; Jang, Jin Tak; Kim, Chang Yong; Ryu, Hyuk Hyun; Lee, Won Jae; Chang, Ji Ho; Son, Chang Sik; Choi, Hee Lack

    2012-01-01

    Various unique ZnO morphologies, such as cigar-like and belt-like structures and microrod and nanorod structures, were formed on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates by using a low temperature hydrothermal route. The structural properties of ZnO depended highly on the precursor concentration. The effect of a thin ZnO seed layer deposited the on PES substrate by using atomic layer deposition on the structural and the optical properties of ZnO hydrothermally grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates was studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were employed to analyze the characteristics of hydrothermally-grown ZnO. The diameter of the ZnO nanorods grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates increased with increasing precursor concentration from 0.025 to 0.125 M due to the Ostwald ripening process. ZnO hydrothermally-grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates at a low precursor concentration showed better structural properties than ZnO formed without a seed layer. Well-formed ZnO nanorods deposited on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates showed two PL peaks, one in the ultraviolet and the other in the visible region, whereas horizontally positioned ZnO formed on the PES substrate in the absence of a seed layer emitted only one broad PL peak in the violet region. The ZnO grown on PES substrates in this work can be used as high-quality transparent electrodes for solar cells fabricated on flexible substrates.

  9. Electrical and photocatalytic properties of boron-doped ZnO nanostructure grown on PET-ITO flexible substrates by hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ai, Taotao; Yu, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Boron-doped zinc oxide sheet-spheres were synthesized on PET-ITO flexible substrates using a hydrothermal method at 90 °C for 5 h. The results of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the B atoms were successfully doped into the ZnO lattice, the incorporation of B led to an increase in the lattice constant of ZnO and a change in its internal stress. The growth mechanism of pure ZnO nanorods and B-doped ZnO sheet-spheres was specifically investigated. The as-prepared BZO/PET-ITO heterojunction possessed obvious rectification properties and its positive turn-on voltage was 0.4 V. The carrier transport mechanisms involved three models such as hot carrier tunneling theory, tunneling recombination, and series-resistance effect were explored. The BZO/PET-ITO nanostructures were more effective than pure ZnO to degrade the RY 15, and the degradation rate reached 41.45%. The decomposition process with BZO nanostructure followed first-order reaction kinetics. The photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the B-doping could promote the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, which was beneficial to enhance the photocatalytic activity. The photocurrent density of B-doped and pure ZnO/PET-ITO were 0.055 mA/cm2 and 0.016 mA/cm2, respectively. The photocatalytic mechanism of the sample was analyzed by the energy band theory.

  10. Point defects in ZnO crystals grown by various techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čížek, J; Vlček, M; Hruška, P; Lukáč, F; Melikhova, O; Anwand, W; Selim, F; Hugenschmidt, Ch; Egger, W

    2017-01-01

    In the present work point defects in ZnO crystals were characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy combined with back-diffusion measurement of slow positrons. Defects in ZnO crystals grown by various techniques were compared. Hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals contain defects characterized by lifetime of ≈181 ps. These defects were attributed to Zn vacancies associated with hydrogen. ZnO crystals prepared by other techniques (Bridgman, pressurized melt growth, and seeded chemical vapour transport) exhibit shorter lifetime of ≈165 ps. Positron back-diffusion studies revealed that hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals contain higher density of defects than the crystals grown by other techniques. The lowest concentration of defects was detected in the crystal grown by seeded chemical vapor transport. (paper)

  11. Effects of Doping with Al, Ga, and In on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown by Hydrothermal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soaram; Nam, Giwoong; Park, Hyunggil; Yoon, Hyunsik; Leem, Jaeyoung; Lee, Sangheon; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sungo

    2013-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of the ZnO, Al-doped ZnO, Ga-doped ZnO, and In-doped ZnO nanorods were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. All the nanorods grew with good alignment on the ZnO seed layers and the ZnO nanorod dimensions could be controlled by the addition of the various dopants. For instance, the diameter of the nanorods decreased with increasing atomic number of the dopants. The ratio between the near-band-edge emission (NBE) and the deep-level emission (DLE) intensities (I NBE /I DLE ) obtained by PL gradually decreased because the DLE intensity from the nanorods gradually increased with increase in the atomic number of the dopants. We found that the dopants affected the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanorods including their dimensions, lattice constants, residual stresses, bond lengths, PL properties, transmittance values, optical band gaps, and Urbach energies

  12. Effects of Doping with Al, Ga, and In on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown by Hydrothermal Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soaram; Nam, Giwoong; Park, Hyunggil; Yoon, Hyunsik; Leem, Jaeyoung [Inje Univ., Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangheon; Kim, Jong Su [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Soo [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sungo [Clemson Univ., Clemson (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The structural and optical properties of the ZnO, Al-doped ZnO, Ga-doped ZnO, and In-doped ZnO nanorods were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. All the nanorods grew with good alignment on the ZnO seed layers and the ZnO nanorod dimensions could be controlled by the addition of the various dopants. For instance, the diameter of the nanorods decreased with increasing atomic number of the dopants. The ratio between the near-band-edge emission (NBE) and the deep-level emission (DLE) intensities (I{sub NBE}/I{sub DLE}) obtained by PL gradually decreased because the DLE intensity from the nanorods gradually increased with increase in the atomic number of the dopants. We found that the dopants affected the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanorods including their dimensions, lattice constants, residual stresses, bond lengths, PL properties, transmittance values, optical band gaps, and Urbach energies.

  13. Efficiency Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells’ Performance with ZnO Nanorods Grown by Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-I Lai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aligned zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods (NRs with various lengths (1.5–5 µm were deposited on ZnO:Al (AZO-coated glass substrates by using a solution phase deposition method; these NRs were prepared for application as working electrodes to increase the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. The results were observed in detail by using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectrophotometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency, and solar simulation. The results indicated that when the lengths of the ZnO NRs increased, the adsorption of D-719 dyes through the ZnO NRs increased along with enhancing the short-circuit photocurrent and open-circuit voltage of the cell. An optimal power conversion efficiency of 0.64% was obtained in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC containing the ZnO NR with a length of 5 µm. The objective of this study was to facilitate the development of a ZnO-based DSSC.

  14. Improved seedless hydrothermal synthesis of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jinghua; Hu Jie; Li Sisi; Zhang Fan; Liu Jun; Shi Jian; Li Xin; Chen Yong; Tian Zhongqun

    2011-01-01

    Seedless hydrothermal synthesis has been improved by introducing an adequate content of ammonia into the nutrient solution, allowing the fabrication of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowire arrays over large areas on a substrate. The presence of ammonia in the nutrient solution facilitates the high density nucleation of ZnO on the substrate which is critical for the nanowire growth. In order to achieve an optimal growth, the growth conditions have been studied systematically as a function of ammonia content, growth temperature and incubation time. The effect of polyethyleneimine (PEI) has also been studied but shown to be of no benefit to the nucleation of ZnO. Ultradense and ultralong ZnO nanowires could be obtained under optimal growth conditions, showing no fused structure at the foot of the nanowire arrays. Due to different reaction kinetics, four growth regimes could be attributed, including the first fast growth, equilibrium phase, second fast growth and final erosion. Combining this simple method with optical lithography, ZnO nanowires could be grown selectively on patterned areas. In addition, the as-grown ZnO nanowires could be used for the fabrication of a piezoelectric nanogenerator. Compared to the device of ZnO nanowires made by other methods, a more than twice voltage output has been obtained, thereby proving an improved performance of our growth method.

  15. Surface potential driven dissolution phenomena of [0 0 0 1]-oriented ZnO nanorods grown from ZnO and Pt seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngmi; Kim, Jung Hyeun

    2011-06-01

    Highly oriented ZnO nanorods are synthesized hydrothermally on ZnO and Pt seed layers, and they are dissolved in KOH solution. The rods grown on ZnO seed layer show uniform dissolution, but those grown on Pt seed layer are rod-selectively dissolved. The ZnO nanorods from both seed layers show the same crystalline structure through XRD and Raman spectrometer data. However, the surface potential analysis reveals big difference for ZnO and Pt seed cases. The surface potential distribution is very uniform for the ZnO seed case, but it is much fluctuated on the Pt seed case. It suggests that the rod-selective dissolution phenomena on Pt seed case are likely due to the surface energy difference.

  16. Low Temperature Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Nanorod Films for Schottky Diode Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shaivalini; Park, Si-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to report on the fabrication and characterizations of Pd/ZnO nanorod-based Schottky diodes for optoelectronic applications. ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on silicon (Si) substrates by a two step hydrothermal method. In the first step, a seed layer of pure ZnO was deposited from a solution of zinc acetate and ethyl alcohol, and then in the second step, the main growth of the ZnO NRs was done over the seed layer. The structural morphology and optical properties of the ZnO NR films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The electrical characterization of the Pd/ZnO NR contacts was studied using a current-voltage (I-V) tool. The ZnO NR films exhibited a wurtzite ZnO structure,and the average length of the ZnO NRs were in the range of 750 nm to 800 nm. The values of ideality factor, turn-on voltage and reverse saturation current were calculated from the I-V characteristics of Pd/ZnO NR-based Schottky diodes. The study demonstrates that Pd/ZnO NR Schottky contacts fabricated by a simple and inexpensive method can be used as a substitute for conventional Schottky diodes for optoelectronic applications.

  17. Photoelectrochemical properties of the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure prepared by hydrothermal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao SUN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the transport channels of the photogenerated electrons and enhance the photosensitizer loading ability of the electrode, a new TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is prepared through two-step hydrothermal process. First, TiO2 nanorod array is grown on the FTO conductive glass substrate by hydrothermal proess. Then, ZnO sol is coated onto the TiO2 nanorods through dip-coating method and inverted to ZnO seed layer by sintering. Finally, the secondary ZnO nanorods are grown onto the TiO2 nanorods by the sencond hydrothermal method to form the designed TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure. A spin-coating assisted successive ionic layer reaction method (SC-SILR is used to deposit the CdS nanocrystals into the TiO2 nanorod array and the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is used to form the CdS/TiO2 and CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanocomposite films. Different methods, such as SEM, TEM, XRD, UV-Vis and transient photocurrent, are employed to characterize and measure the morphologies, structures, light absorption and photoelectric conversion performance of all the samples, respectively. The results indicate that, compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod array, the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure can load more CdS photosensitizer. The light absorption properties and transient photocurrent performance of the CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure composite film are evidently superior to that of the CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films. The excellent photoelctrochemical performance of theTiO2-ZnO hierarchical structure reveales its application prospect in photoanode material of the solar cells.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays: Dependence of morphology and alignment on growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzez, Shrook A., E-mail: shurouq44@yahoo.com [Institutes of Nano-Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Hassan, Z.; Alimanesh, M.; Rasheed, Hiba S.; Sabah, Fayroz A.; Abdulateef, Sinan A. [Institutes of Nano-Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Hassan, J. J. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq)

    2016-07-06

    Highly oriented zinc oxide nanorod were successfully grown on seeded p-type silicon substrate by hydrothermal methode. The morphology and the crystallinty of ZnO c-axis (002) arrays were systematically studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The effect of seed layer pre-annealing on nanorods properties was explained according to the nucleation site of ZnO nanoparticles on silicon substrate. In addition, the variation of the equal molarity of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamine concentrations in the reaction vessel play a crucial role related to the ZnO nanorods.

  19. ZnO nanostructures directly grown on paper and bacterial cellulose substrates without any surface modification layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Saionara V; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S; Zaguete, Maria A; Mazon, Talita; Nogueira, Ana F

    2013-09-21

    In this report, hierarchical ZnO nano- and microstructures were directly grown for the first time on a bacterial cellulose substrate and on two additional different papers by hydrothermal synthesis without any surface modification layer. Compactness and smoothness of the substrates are two important parameters that allow the growth of oriented structures.

  20. Cuprous oxide thin films grown by hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, M.; Biswas, I.; Pujaru, S.; Chakraborty, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Semiconducting cuprous oxide films were grown by a hydrothermal electro-deposition technique on metal (Cu) and glass (ITO) substrates between 60 °C and 100 °C. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the formation of cubic cuprous oxide films in different preferred orientations depending upon the deposition technique used. Film growth, uniformity, grain size, optical band gap and photoelectrochemical response were found to improve in the hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique. - Highlights: • Cu 2 O thin films were grown on Cu and glass substrates. • Conventional and hydrothermal electrochemical deposition techniques were used. • Hydrothermal electrochemical growth showed improved morphology, thickness and optical band gap

  1. Effect of precursor concentration on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestari, Amie; Iwan, S.; Djuhana, Dede; Imawan, Cuk; Harmoko, Adhi; Fauzia, Vivi

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods has attractive properties for nanoscale optoelectronic applications, such as optical sensors, ultraviolet laser diodes, and photodetectors. ZnO nanorods, can be fabricated by simple and low cost chemical approach, such as hydrothermal method. In this method, the morphology, microstructure, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorods are highly determined by process parameters such as solvent, deposition time, deposition temperature as well as annealing condition. In this paper we report the fabrication of ZnO nanorods that were grown on transparent conducting indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Initially, ZnO seed layers were deposited on heated substrates with temperature of 450 °C using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method with frequency of 1.7 MHz and then grown by hydrothermal method with three different precursor concentrations, namely 0.02 M, 0.06 M, and 0.1 M. The surface morphology and structure were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), while the optical properties were observed by photoluminescence (PL) and and UV VIS reflectance spectroscopy.

  2. Quenching and blue shift of UV emission intensity of hydrothermally grown ZnO:Mn nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinod, R. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Junaid Bushiri, M., E-mail: junaidbushiri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Achary, Sreekumar Rajappan; Muñoz-Sanjosé, Vicente [Departamento de FisicaAplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Single crystalline ZnO:Mn nanorods. • Reduced optical active defects. • Quenching and blue shift of UV emission. - Abstract: ZnO:Mn alloyed nanorods (Mn nominal concentration – 3–5 wt%) were synthesized by using hydrothermal process at an optimized growth temperature of 200 °C and a growth time of 3 h. The XRD, SEM and Raman, FTIR investigations reveal that ZnO:Mn (Mn – 3–5 wt%) retained hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with nanorod morphology. The HRTEM and SAED analysis confirm the single crystalline nature of hydrothermally grown ZnO and ZnO:Mn (5 wt%) nanorods. The ZnO:Mn nanorods (Mn – 0–5 wt%) displayed optical band gap in the range 3.23–3.28 eV. The blue shift of UV emission peak (PL) from 393 (ZnO) to 386 nm and quenching of photoluminescence emission in ZnO:Mn is due to the Mn incorporation in ZnO lattice. Relative increase in intensity of Raman band at 660 cm{sup −1} with nominal doping of Mn 3–5 wt% in ZnO indicate that defects are introduced in ZnO:Mn system as a result of doping that leads to the quenching of photoluminescence emission at 393 nm.

  3. Hydrothermal growth and characterization of vertically well-aligned and dense ZnO nanorods on glass and silicon using a simple optimizer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad, Sabah M., E-mail: Sabahaskari14@gmail.com; Ahmed, Naser M.; Abd-Alghafour, Nabeel M. [Institute of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Hassan, Z., E-mail: zai@usm.my [Institute of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); CRI Natural Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Talib, Rawnaq A. [Institute of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Polymer Research Center, University of Basra (Iraq); Omar, A. F. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Vertically, well-aligned and high density ZnO nanorods were successfully hydrothermally grown on glass and silicon substrates using a simple and low cost system. The mechanism of synthesis of ZnO nanorods, generated with our system under hydrothermal conditions, is investigated in this report. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicated that the fabricated ZnO nanorods on both substrates have hexagonal shape with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 70 nm which grew vertically from the substrate. XRD analysis confirms the formation of wurtzite ZnO phase with a preferred orientation along (002) direction perpendicular on the substrate and enhanced crystallinity. The low value of the tensile strain (0.126 %) revealed that ZnO nanorods preferred to grow along the c-axis for both substrates. Photoluminescence spectra exhibited a strong, sharp UV near band edge emission peak with narrow FWHM values for both samples.

  4. Hydrothermal growth and characterization of vertically well-aligned and dense ZnO nanorods on glass and silicon using a simple optimizer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Sabah M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Abd-Alghafour, Nabeel M.; Hassan, Z.; Talib, Rawnaq A.; Omar, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    Vertically, well-aligned and high density ZnO nanorods were successfully hydrothermally grown on glass and silicon substrates using a simple and low cost system. The mechanism of synthesis of ZnO nanorods, generated with our system under hydrothermal conditions, is investigated in this report. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicated that the fabricated ZnO nanorods on both substrates have hexagonal shape with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 70 nm which grew vertically from the substrate. XRD analysis confirms the formation of wurtzite ZnO phase with a preferred orientation along (002) direction perpendicular on the substrate and enhanced crystallinity. The low value of the tensile strain (0.126 %) revealed that ZnO nanorods preferred to grow along the c-axis for both substrates. Photoluminescence spectra exhibited a strong, sharp UV near band edge emission peak with narrow FWHM values for both samples.

  5. A Comparative Study on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Micro-Nanorod Arrays Grown on Seed Layers Using Chemical Bath Deposition and Spin Coating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel MORKOÇ KARADENİZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO seed layers were prepared on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO substrates by using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD method and Sol-gel Spin Coating (SC method. ZnO micro-nanorod arrays were grown on ZnO seed layers by using Hydrothermal Synthesis method. Seed layer effects of structural and optical properties of ZnO arrays were characterized. X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Ultraviolet Visible (UV-Vis Spectrometer were used for analyses. ZnO micro-nanorod arrays consisted of a single crystalline wurtzite ZnO structure for each seed layer. Besides, ZnO rod arrays were grown smoothly and vertically on SC seed layer, while ZnO rod arrays were grown randomly and flower like structures on CBD seed layer. The optical absorbance peaks found at 422 nm wavelength in the visible region for both ZnO arrays. Optical bandgap values were determined by using UV-Vis measurements at 3.12 and 3.15 eV for ZnO micro-nanorod arrays on CBD seed layer and for ZnO micro-nanorod arrays on SC-seed layer respectively.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.13443

  6. Optoelectronic properties of doped hydrothermal ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad J.

    2017-03-10

    Group III impurity doped ZnO thin films were deposited on MgAl2O3 substrates using a simple low temperature two-step deposition method involving atomic layer deposition and hydrothermal epitaxy. Films with varying concentrations of either Al, Ga, or In were evaluated for their optoelectronic properties. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of dopants within the ZnO films. While Al and Ga-doped films showed linear incorporation rates with the addition of precursors salts in the hydrothermal growth solution, In-doped films were shown to saturate at relatively low concentrations. It was found that Ga-doped films showed the best performance in terms of electrical resistivity and optical absorbance when compared to those doped with In or Al, with a resistivity as low as 1.9 mΩ cm and an optical absorption coefficient of 441 cm−1 at 450 nm.

  7. Mechanisms involved in the hydrothermal growth of ultra-thin and high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demes, Thomas [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ternon, Céline, E-mail: celine.ternon@grenoble-inp.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LTM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Morisot, Fanny [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP" 2, IMEP-LaHC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Riassetto, David [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Legallais, Maxime [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP" 2, IMEP-LaHC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Roussel, Hervé; Langlet, Michel [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires are grown on sol-gel ZnO seed layers by hydrothermal synthesis. • Ultra-thin and high aspect ratio nanowires are obtained without using additives. • Nanowire diameter is 20–25 nm regardless of growth time and seed morphology. • A nanowire growth model is developed on the basis of thermodynamic considerations. • The nanowires are intended for integration into electrically conductive nanonets. - Abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanowires (NWs) with tailored dimensions, notably high aspect ratios (AR) and small diameters, is a major concern for a wide range of applications and still represents a challenging and recurring issue. In this work, an additive-free and reproducible hydrothermal procedure has been developed to grow ultra-thin and high AR ZnO NWs on sol-gel deposited ZnO seed layers. Controlling the substrate temperature and using a low reagent concentration (1 mM) has been found to be essential for obtaining such NWs. We show that the NW diameter remains constant at about 20–25 nm with growth time contrary to the NW length that can be selectively increased leading to NWs with ARs up to 400. On the basis of investigated experimental conditions along with thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, a ZnO NW growth mechanism has been developed which involves the formation and growth of nuclei followed by NW growth when the nuclei reach a critical size of about 20–25 nm. The low reagent concentration inhibits NW lateral growth leading to ultra-thin and high AR NWs. These NWs have been assembled into electrically conductive ZnO nanowire networks, which opens attractive perspectives toward the development of highly sensitive low-cost gas- or bio-sensors.

  8. Hydrothermal temperature effect on crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhafina, Wan Almaz; Salleh, Hasiah; Daud, Mohd Zalani; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd

    2017-09-01

    ZnO is an wide direct band gap semiconductor and possess rich family of nanostructures which turned to be a key role in the nanotechnology field of applications. Hydrothermal method was proven to be simple, robust and low cost among the reported methods to synthesize ZnO nanostructures. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanostructures were altered by varying temperatures of hydrothermal process. The changes in term of morphological, crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity were investigated. A drastic change of ZnO nanostructures morphology and decreases of 002 diffraction peak were observed as the hydrothermal temperature increased. The band gap of samples decreased as the size of ZnO nanostructure increased, whereas the electrical conductivity had no influence on the band gap value but more on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures instead.

  9. Hydrothermal Growth of Quasi-Monocrystal ZnO Thin Films and Their Application in Ultraviolet Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chun Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-monocrystal ZnO film grown using the hydrothermal growth method is used for the fabrication of Cu2O/ZnO heterojunction (HJ ultraviolet photodetectors (UV-PDs. The HJ was formed via the sputtering deposition of p-type Cu2O onto hydrothermally grown ZnO film (HTG-ZnO-film. The effect of annealing temperature in the nitrogen ambient on the photoluminescence spectra of the synthesized ZnO film was studied. The optoelectronic properties of Cu2O/ZnO film with various Cu2O thicknesses (250–750 nm under UV light (365 nm; intensity: 3 mW/cm2 were determined. The UV sensitivity of the HTG-ZnO-film-based UV-PDs and the sputtered ZnO-film-based UV-PDs were 55.6-fold (SHTG and 8.8-fold (Ssputter, respectively. The significant gain in sensitivity (SHTG/Ssputter = 630% of the proposed ZnO-film-based device compared to that for the device based on sputtered film can be attributed to the improved photoelectric properties of quasi-monocrystal ZnO film.

  10. Comparison on electrically pumped random laser actions of hydrothermal and sputtered ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Canxing; Jiang, Haotian; Li, Yunpeng; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2013-01-01

    Random lasing (RL) in polycrystalline ZnO films is an intriguing research subject. Here, we have comparatively investigated electrically pumped RL behaviors of two metal-insulator-semiconductor structured devices using the hydrothermal and sputtered ZnO films as the semiconductor components, i.e., the light-emitting layers, respectively. It is demonstrated that the device using the hydrothermal ZnO film exhibits smaller threshold current and larger output optical power of the electrically pumped RL. The morphological characterization shows that the hydrothermal ZnO film is somewhat porous and is much rougher than the sputtered one, suggesting that in the former stronger multiple light scattering can occur. Moreover, the photoluminescence characterization indicates that there are fewer defects in the hydrothermal ZnO film than in the sputtered one, which means that the photons can pick up larger optical gain through stimulated emission in the hydrothermal ZnO film. Therefore, it is believed that the stronger multiple light scattering and larger optical gain contribute to the improved performance of the electrically pumped RL from the device using the hydrothermal ZnO film

  11. Photosensitivity of nanocrystalline ZnO films grown by PLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayouchi, R.; Bentes, L.; Casteleiro, C.; Conde, O.; Marques, C.P.; Alves, E.; Moutinho, A.M.C.; Marques, H.P.; Teodoro, O.; Schwarz, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the properties of ZnO thin films grown by laser ablation of ZnO targets on (0 0 0 1) sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ), under substrate temperatures around 400 deg. C. The films were characterized by different methods including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS analysis revealed that the films are oxygen deficient, and XRD analysis with θ-2θ scans and rocking curves indicate that the ZnO thin films are highly c-axis oriented. All the films are ultraviolet (UV) sensitive. Sensitivity is maximum for the films deposited at lower temperature. The films deposited at higher temperatures show crystallite sizes of typically 500 nm, a high dark current and minimum photoresponse. In all films we observe persistent photoconductivity decay. More densely packed crystallites and a faster decay in photocurrent is observed for films deposited at lower temperature

  12. Effects of growth duration on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on seed-layer ZnO/polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y.I.; Shin, C.M.; Heo, J.H. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Institute of Advanced Materials Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-01

    Well-aligned single crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were successfully grown, by hydrothermal synthesis at a low temperature, on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates with a seed layer. Photoluminescence (PL), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements were used to analyze the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods grown for various durations from 0.5 h to 10 h. Regular and well-aligned ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 62 nm to 127 nm and lengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.65 {mu}m were formed after almost 5 h of growth. The growth rate of ZnO grown on PET substrates is lower than that grown on Si (1 0 0) substrates. Enlarged TEM images show that the tips of the ZnO nanorods grown for 6 h have a round shape, whereas the tips grown for 10 h are sharpened. The crystal properties of ZnO nanorods can be tuned by using the growth duration as a growth condition. The XRD and PL results indicate that the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanorods are most improved after 5 h and 6 h of growth, respectively.

  13. Influence of electron irradiation on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L W; So, C K; Zhu, C Y; Gu, Q L; Fung, S; Ling, C C; Li, C J; Brauer, G; Anwand, W; Skorupa, W

    2008-01-01

    The resistivity of hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals increased from ∼10 3 Ω cm to ∼10 6 Ω cm after 1.8 MeV electron irradiation with a fluence of ∼10 16 cm −2 , and to ∼10 9 Ω cm as the fluence increased to ∼10 18 cm −2 . Defects in samples were studied by thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS). After the electron irradiation with a fluence of 10 18 cm −2 , the normalized TSC signal increased by a factor of ∼100. A Zn vacancy was also introduced by the electron irradiation, though with a concentration lower than expected. After annealing in air at 400 °C, the resistivity and the deep traps concentrations recovered to the levels of the as-grown sample, and the Zn vacancy was removed

  14. Influence of electron irradiation on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L. W.; So, C. K.; Zhu, C. Y.; Gu, Q. L.; Li, C. J.; Fung, S.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Ling, C. C.

    2008-09-01

    The resistivity of hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals increased from ~103 Ω cm to ~106 Ω cm after 1.8 MeV electron irradiation with a fluence of ~1016 cm-2, and to ~109 Ω cm as the fluence increased to ~1018 cm-2. Defects in samples were studied by thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS). After the electron irradiation with a fluence of 1018 cm-2, the normalized TSC signal increased by a factor of ~100. A Zn vacancy was also introduced by the electron irradiation, though with a concentration lower than expected. After annealing in air at 400 °C, the resistivity and the deep traps concentrations recovered to the levels of the as-grown sample, and the Zn vacancy was removed.

  15. Hydrothermal growth and characterizations of dandelion-like ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Rohidas B., E-mail: rb_kale@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Institute of Science, Madam Cama Road, Mumbai 400 032, (M.S.) (India); Lu, Shih-Yuan, E-mail: sylu@nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •The simple, low cost, environmental benign hydrothermal method has been used to synthesize ZnO nanostructure. •The SEM images reveal the interesting 3D dandelion-like morphology of synthesized ZnO nanostructure. The SAED pattern and HRTEM study confirms that the ZnO nanorods are single crystalline. •Change in experimental conditions dramatically changes the morphologies of the synthesized ZnO. •The room temperature PL study reveals strong band edge emission along with much weaker defect related blue emission. •The reaction and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructure is also discussed. -- Abstract: Three dimensional (3D) ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by using a facile low-cost hydrothermal method under mild conditions. Aqueous alkaline ammonia solution of Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} is used to grow 3D ZnO nanostructures. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals the well crystallized hexagonal structure of ZnO. SEM observations depict that the ZnO product grows in the form of nanorods united together to form 3D dandelion-like nanostructures. The elemental analysis using EDAX technique confirms the stoichiometry of the ZnO nanorods. The product exhibits special optical properties with red-shifts in optical absorption peak (376 nm) as compared with those of conventional ZnO nanorods. PL spectra show emission peak (396 nm) at the near band-edge and peak (464 nm) originated from defects states that are produced during the hydrothermal growth. TEM and SAED results reveal single crystalline structure of the synthesized product. The reaction and growth mechanisms on the morphological evolution of the ZnO nanostructures are discussed. The morphology of ZnO product is investigated by varying the reaction time, temperature, and type of complexing reagent.

  16. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-08-19

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c -axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  17. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Hussain Ibupoto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002 peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  18. Hydrothermal growth of upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ruixia; Yang, Ping; Dong, Xiaobin; Jia, Changchao; Li, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals were hydrothermally fabricated. • The ZnO sheets were prepared with sodium oxalate at 70 °C without any surfactant. • The preferable adsorption of oxalate anions causes the formation of ZnO sheet. • The continuous growth in six directions leads to the formation of hexagonal sheets. - Abstract: Large-scale upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals were fabricated on Zn substrate using sodium oxalate as structure-directing agent by a hydrothermal method at low temperature (70 °C) without any surfactant. The sheets are about 3–5 μm in dimension and 100–300 nm in thickness. The strong and narrow diffraction peaks of ZnO indicate that the sample has a good crystallinity and size. The morphology of sheet-like ZnO varied with the concentrations of sodium oxalate and reaction time. The sheet-like ZnO would transform into rod-like ones when sodium oxalate was substituted by equivalent sodium acetate. The formation of sheet-like ZnO is attributed to the preferable adsorption of oxalate anions on (0 0 0 1) face of ZnO, which inhibits the intrinsic growth of ZnO. Additionally, the continuous growth in six (0 1 −1 0) directions that have the lowest surface energy leads to the formation of hexagonal sheets

  19. Controlled synthesis of various ZnO nanostructured materials by capping agents-assisted hydrothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, M. Shaheer; Khan, M. Alam; Yang, O-Bong [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Center for Advanced Radiation Technology, Jeon-Ju (Korea); New and Renewable Energy Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeon-Ju (Korea); Jeon, Myung Seok [Photocatalysis and Photoelectrochemistry Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejon 305-343 (Korea)

    2008-11-15

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO materials could be controlled by changing the capping agent at constant alkali solution in hydrothermal process. ZnO nanomaterials with the structure of flowers, sheet-spheres and plates were obtained with the capping agent of ammonia, citric acid and oxalic acid, respectively. Thus prepared ZnO nanomaterials were characterized and applied as the photo-anode materials for dye-sensitized solar cell. All synthesized ZnO nanomaterials possessed high crystalline wurtzite structures grown in the (001) direction with the size of 2-4{mu}m, which consist of ZnO units around 20-400 nm. Among them, Sheet-sphere ZnO showed the highest crystallinity, surface area and uniform film morphology, resulting in the significantly improved PV performance with the overall conversion efficiency of 2.61% in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated with sheet-sphere ZnO. It is notable that the ZnO materials with sphere structure may be the optimal photo-anode material among various ZnO nanomaterials for DSSC. (author)

  20. Strain modulated defect luminescence in ZnO nanostructures grown on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hung-Ing; Hsiao, Jui-Ju; Huang, Yi-Jen; Wang, Jen-Cheng [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Ya-Fen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, New Taipei 243, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lu, Bing-Yuh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tun Gnan University, Shenkeng, New Taipei 222, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nee, Tzer-En, E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-12-15

    The strain modulated defect green luminescence from ZnO nanostructures grown on silicon substrates has been investigated in-depth. According to the Warren–Averbach Fourier analysis of the X-ray diffraction profiles, both the internal strain and the average crystallite size of the well-ordered nano-size ZnO nanostructures could be subtly modulated by careful adjustment of the aqueous solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and ammonium hydroxide (NH{sub 3}OH) used in the hydrothermal treatment. Visible defect-related and ultraviolet band-to-band emissions were characterized using temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements over a broad temperature range from 20 to 300 K. It was found that the thermal-related tensile strain led to the blueshift of the green emission with increasing temperature, while the violet and ultraviolet emissions were thermally insensitive. These spectral observations were substantially corroborated by the deformation potential theory. - Highlights: • The strain modulated defect green luminescence from ZnO nanostructures. • Visible and ultraviolet emissions were characterized using photoluminescence. • The tensile strain led to the blueshift of the green emission. • The spectral observations were corroborated by the deformation potential theory.

  1. Magnetic and optical properties of Mn-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, J.; Sasmal, I.; Nath, T. K., E-mail: tnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in, E-mail: tapnath@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal, 721302 (India)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper we have reported the synthesis of high quality vertically aligned undoped and Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline nanorods arrays on Si (100) substrates using two steps process, namely, initial slow seed layer formation followed by solution growth employing wet chemical hydrothermal method. The shapes of the as grown single crystalline nanorods are hexagonal. The diameter and length of the as grown undoped ZnO nanorods varies in the range of 80-150 nm and 1.0 - 1.4 μm, respectively. Along with the lattice parameters of the hexagonal crystal structure, the diameter and length of Mn doped ZnO nanorods are found to increase slightly as compared to the undoped ZnO nanorods. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Mn atoms in Mn{sup 2+} state in the single crystalline ZnO nanorods. The recorded photoluminescence spectrum contains two emissions peaks having UV exciton emissions along with a green-yellow emission. The green-yellow emissions provide the evidence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies. The magnetic field dependent magnetization measurements [M (H)] and zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization [M(T)] measurements have been carried out at different isothermal conditions in the temperature range of 5-300 K. The Mn doped ZnO nanorods clearly show room temperature ferromagnetic ordering near room temperature down to 5 K. The observed magnetization may be attributed to the long range ferromagnetic interaction between bound magnetic polarons led by singly charged oxygen vacancies.

  2. Photocatalytic properties of hierarchical ZnO flowers synthesized by a sucrose-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Wei [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Wei Bo [Center for Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xu Lingling, E-mail: xulingling_hit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China) and Center for Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhao Yan, E-mail: zhaoyan516@126.com [Department of Physics, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Gao Hong; Liu Jia [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity mainly due to the improved crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of sucrose content was studied and optimized. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. The thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that sucrose acted as a complexing agent in the synthesis process and assisted combustion during annealing. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated using the degradation of organic dye methyl orange. The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity, which was mainly attributed to the better crystallinity as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The effect of sucrose amount on photocatalytic activity was also studied.

  3. Room temperature growth of ZnO nanorods by hydrothermal synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateyama, Hiroki; Zhang, Qiyan; Ichikawa, Yo

    2018-05-01

    The effect of seed layer morphology on ZnO nanorod growth at room temperature was studied via hydrothermal synthesis on seed layers with different thicknesses and further annealed at different temperatures. The change in the thickness and annealing temperature enabled us to control over a diameter of ZnO nanorods which are attributed to the changing of crystallinity and roughness of the seed layers.

  4. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  5. Y-Doped ZnO Nanorods by Hydrothermal Method and Their Acetone Gas Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and yttrium- (Y- doped (1 at%, 3 at%, and 7 at% ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a hydrothermal process. The crystallography and microstructure of the synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Comparing with pure ZnO nanorods, Y-doped ZnO exhibited improved acetone sensing properties. The response of 1 at% Y-doped ZnO nanorods to 100 ppm acetone is larger than that of pure ZnO nanorods. The response and recovery times of 1 at% Y-doped ZnO nanorods to 100 ppm acetone are about 30 s and 90 s, respectively. The gas sensor based on Y-doped ZnO nanorods showed good selectivity to acetone in the interfere gases of ammonia, benzene, formaldehyde, toluene, and methanol. The formation mechanism of the ZnO nanorods was briefly analyzed.

  6. Properties of ZnO Nano rods Arrays Growth via Low Temperature Hydrothermal Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Syafinaz Ridhuan; Zainovia Lockman; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Khairunisak Abdul Razak; Khairunisak Abdul Razak

    2011-01-01

    This work describes properties of 1- D ZnO nano rods (NRs) arrays growth using low temperature hydrothermal method on seeded substrate. The properties of ZnO seed were studied by varying annealed temperature from 250-450 degree Celsius. The optimum oxidation temperature to produce seeded ZnO template was 400 degree Celsius. The formations of ZnO NRs were further studied by varying hydrothermal reaction growth time from 1 to 24 hours. I-V characteristic of ZnO NRs photodetector in dark, ambient light and UV light were also studied. The change in the photoconductivity under UV illumination was found to be 1 order higher in magnitude compared to dark current and ambient light. With an incident wavelength of 370 nm and applied bias of 3V, the responsivity of photodetector was 5.0 mA/ W, which was higher compared to other reported works. The increase of photosensitivity indicated that the produced ZnO NRs were suitable for UV photodetector applications.(author)

  7. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanoflowers and their photocatalyst ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and photoluminescence. ZnO nanoflowers with star-like morphology were of pure wurtzite phase.

  8. Optoelectronic properties of doped hydrothermal ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad J.; Carberry, Benjamin; Oh, Sang Ho; Myzaferi, Anisa; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    , or In were evaluated for their optoelectronic properties. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of dopants within the ZnO films. While Al and Ga-doped films showed linear incorporation rates

  9. ZnO based nanowires grown by chemical vapour deposition for selective hydrogenation of acetylene alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Protasova, L.N.; Rebrov, E.; Choy, K.L.; Pung, S.Y.; Engels, V.; Cabaj, M.; Wheatley, A.E.H.; Schouten, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) with a length of 1.5–10 µm and a mean diameter of ca. 150 nm were grown by chemical vapour deposition onto a c-oriented ZnO seed layer which was deposited by atomic layer deposition on Si substrates. The substrates were then spin-coated with an ethanol solution

  10. Optimization of CVD parameters for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optimization of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) parameters for long and vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires (NWs) were investigated. Typical ZnO NWs as a single crystal grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate were successfully synthesized. First, the conducted side of ITO–glass substrate was ...

  11. Inhibition of growth of S. epidermidis by hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinaya, C.; Mayandi, J.; Osborne, J.; Frost, M.; Ekstrum, C.; Pearce, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    The antibacterial effect of zinc oxide (ZnO#1) as prepared and annealed (ZnO#2) at 400 °C, Cu doped ZnO (CuZnO), and Ag doped ZnO (AgZnO) nanoplates on Staphylococcus epidermidis was investigated for the inhibition and inactivation of cell growth. The results shows that pure ZnO and doped ZnO samples exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) as compared to tryptic soy broth (TSB). Also it is observed that S. epidermidis was extremely sensitive to treatment with ZnO nanoplates and it is clear that the effect is not purely depend on Cu/Ag. Phase identification of a crystalline material and unit cell dimensions were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides information on sample’s surface topography and the EDX confirms the presence of Zn, O, Cu and Ag. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the elemental composition and electronic state of the elements that exist within the samples. These studies confirms the formation of nanoplates and the presence of Zn, O, Ag, Cu with the oxidation states  +2, -2, 0 and  +2 respectively. These results indicates promising antibacterial applications of these ZnO-based nanoparticles synthesized with low-cost hydrothermal methods.

  12. Investigation of the Optimal Parameters in Hydrothermal Method for the Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a two-step method to deposit the ZnO-based nanostructure films, including nanorods and nanoflowers. In the first step, sputtering method was used to deposit the ZnO films on SiO2/Si substrates as the seed layer. In the second step, Zn(NO32–6H2O and C6H12N4 were used as precursors and hydrothermal process was used as the method to synthesize the ZnO films. After that, the ZnO films were measured by an X-ray diffraction pattern and a FESEM to analyze their crystallization and morphology. We had found that the ZnO films had three different morphologies synthesized on ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates, including irregular-plate structure films, nanorod films, and beautiful chrysanthemum-like clusters (nanoflower films. We would prove that the face direction of ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates in the hydrothermal bottle and deposition time were two important factors to influence the synthesized results of the ZnO films.

  13. Structural and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlazan, P.; Ursu, D.H.; Irina-Moisescu, C.; Miron, I.; Sfirloaga, P.; Rusu, E.

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in two stages: first stage is the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and second stage the obtained ZnO nanoparticles are encapsulated in TiO 2 . The obtained ZnO, TiO 2 and TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller and resistance measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of both, TiO 2 and ZnO phases in TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. According to transmission electron microscopy images, ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal shapes, TiO 2 nanoparticles have a spherical shape, and TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles present agglomerates and the shape of particles is not well defined. The activation energy of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about 101 meV. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of XRD, TEM and BET. • Electrical properties of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated. • The activation energy of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about E a = 101 meV

  14. Electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagni, O. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Somhlahlo, N.N. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Weichsel, C. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Leitch, A.W.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)]. E-mail: andrew.leitch@nmmu.ac.za

    2006-04-01

    We report on the electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by MOCVD on glass and sapphire substrates. After correcting our temperature variable Hall measurements by applying the standard two-layer model, which takes into account an interfacial layer, scattering mechanisms in the ZnO films were studied as well as donor activation energies determined. ZnO films grown at different oxygen partial pressures indicated the importance of growth conditions on the defect structure by means of their conductivities and conductivity activation energies.

  15. Electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagni, O.; Somhlahlo, N.N.; Weichsel, C.; Leitch, A.W.R.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by MOCVD on glass and sapphire substrates. After correcting our temperature variable Hall measurements by applying the standard two-layer model, which takes into account an interfacial layer, scattering mechanisms in the ZnO films were studied as well as donor activation energies determined. ZnO films grown at different oxygen partial pressures indicated the importance of growth conditions on the defect structure by means of their conductivities and conductivity activation energies

  16. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: kh_ed834@stu.um.ac.ir [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakiba, Atefeh [Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reaction temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.

  17. Investigations on photoelectrochemical performance of boron doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by facile hydrothermal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Akash; Chakraborty, Mohua; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    Undoped and 10% Boron (B)-doped Zinc Oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) on Tin doped Indium Oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates were synthesized using facile sol-gel, spin coating and hydrothermal method. The impact of adding Boron on the structural, optical properties, surface morphology and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of the ZnO NRs have been investigated. The XRD pattern confirmed the formation of pure hexagonal phase with space group P63mc (186). The same can also be clearly observed form the FESEM images. The UV-Vis study shows the narrowing in band gap from 3.22 eV to 3.19 eV with incorporation of Boron in ZnO matrix. The B-doped ZnO NRs sample shows an enhanced photocurrent density of 1.31 mA/cm2 at 0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is more than 171% enhancement compared to bare ZnO NRs (0.483 mA/cm2) in 0.1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution. The results clearly indicates that the boron doped ZnO NRs can be used as an efficient photoelectrode material for photoelectrochemical cell.

  18. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanoflowers and their photocatalyst ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JINCHENG FAN1,∗, TENGFEI LI1 and HANG HENG2,3. 1School of Materials ... In this paper, the fabrication of ZnO nanoflowers on Si substrate by the ..... [21] Bae J, Han J B, Zhang X-M, Wei M, Duan X, Zhang Y and. Wang Z L 2009 J. ... 142 570. [31] Sun Y J, Wang L, Yu X G and Chen K Z 2012 CrystEngComm. 14 3199.

  19. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of mn doped ZnO nanopencils for development of amperometric glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Agrawal, Jitesh; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2018-05-01

    Mn doped ZnO nanopencils were synthesized via low temperature hydrothermal process for fabrication of enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The KMnO4 was found to play a dual role in modifying morphology and inducing Mn doping. Interestingly, two different types of morphologies viz nanorods and nanopencils along with Mn doping in the later were obtained. Incorporation of Mn has shown a tremendous effect on the morphological variations, repression of defects and electrochemical charge transfer at electrode electrolyte interface. The possible reason behind obtained morphological changes has been proposed which in turn were responsible for the improvement in the different figure of merits of as fabricated enzymatic electrochemical biosensor. There has been a 17 fold enhancement in the sensitivity of the as fabricated glucose biosensor from ZnO nanorods to Mn doped ZnO nanopencils which can be attributed to morphological variation and Mn doping.

  20. In-situ PXRD studies of ZnO nanoparticle growth: How do various salts influence the hydrothermal growth of ZnO?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjesen, Espen Drath

    ZnO is a material of great scientific and everyday relevance; it is used widely in all sorts of application. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles can be performed by a wide assortment of methods and a tremendous variety of sizes and shapes, it has been suggested that ZnO is the one known compound showing...... the broadest range of nanostructures. Previously many different in-situ characterization methods have been used to investigate the ZnO formation under various synthesis conditions; these include UV-VIS and SAXS. These methods were primarily used to give information on particle size of ZnO formed using soft...... chemical methods and non-aqueous solvents. In our work we have studied the formation of ZnO during hydrothermal syntheses using in-situ powder X-ray diffraction, thus enabling us to extract crystallographic as well as microstructural information. The data was analyzed using Rietveld refinement and whole...

  1. Optical and structural properties of Mn-doped ZnO nanorods grown by aqueous chemical growth for spintronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelchuk, V.V. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 45 Nauky pr., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Nikolenko, A.S., E-mail: nikolenko_mail@ukr.net [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 45 Nauky pr., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kolomys, O.F.; Rarata, S.V.; Avramenko, K.A.; Lytvyn, P.M. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 45 Nauky pr., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronc, P. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Chey, Chan Oeurn; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus [Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, 601 74 Norrköping (Sweden)

    2016-02-29

    The effect of Mn-doping on the structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the ZnO:Mn nanorods (NRs) synthesized by aqueous chemical process is reported. Grown ZnO:Mn NRs are shown to have hexagonal end facets and the diameters increasing with nominal Mn content. Optical absorption measurements show a decrease in optical band gap with increase of Mn concentration. Raman spectroscopy revealed significant modification of the lattice vibrational properties of the ZnO matrix upon Mn doping. The additional Mn-related vibrational mode, intensity of which increases with amount of Mn can be regarded as an evidence of Mn incorporation into the host lattice of the ZnO. At high Mn concentrations, coexistence of hexagonal Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O phase along with the secondary phases of ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cubic spinel is revealed. Magnetic properties of ZnO:Mn NRs are studied by combinatorial atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy imaging, and obtained clear magnetic contrast at room temperature provides a strong evidence of ferromagnetic behavior. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Mn-doped ZnO nanorods by hydrothermal method is demonstrated. • Doping with Mn significantly changes the morphology of ZnO nanorods. • Additional Mn-induced Raman modes evidence incorporation of Mn into ZnO matrix. • Formation of secondary ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase is found at high Mn concentrations. • Contrast MFM images of ZnO:Mn nanorods indicate ferromagnetism at room temperature.

  2. Positron annihilation spectroscopic study of hydrothermal grown n-type zinc oxide single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, C.W.; Zhang, Z.D.; Zhou, T.J.; Ling, C.C.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopic (CDBS) measurements were carried out to study the defects in two hydrothermal (HT) grown ZnO single crystal samples (HT1 and HT2) obtained from two companies. Single component model could offer good fittings to the room temperature spectra of HT1 and HT2, with the positron lifetimes equal to 199 ps and 181 ps respectively. These two lifetime components were associated with saturated positron trapping into two V{sub Zn}-related defects with different microstructures. The positron lifetimes of HT1 was found to be temperature independent. For the HT2 sample, the positron lifetime remained unchanged with T>200 K and decreased with decreasing temperature as T<200 K. This could be explained by the presence of an additional positron trap having similar electronic environment to that of the delocalized state and competing in trapping positrons with the 181 ps component at low temperatures. Positron-electron autocorrelation function, which was the fingerprint of the annihilation site, was extracted from the CDBS spectrum. The obtained autocorrelation functions of HT1 and HT2 at room temperature, and HT2 at 50 K had features consistent with the above postulates that the 181 ps and the 199 ps components had distinct microstructures and the low temperature positron trap existed in HT2. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Optical properties and photocatalytic activities of spherical ZnO and flower-like ZnO structures synthesized by facile hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yongling [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Li, Zhongyu, E-mail: zhongyuli@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Changzhou Expansion New Stuff Technology Limited Company, Changzhou 213122 (China); Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China); Xu, Song [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Han, Dandan; Lu, Dayong [Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Spherical ZnO and flower-like ZnO were prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. •The as-prepared ZnO showed high photocatalytic activity over MO degradation. •The as-prepared ZnO were well crystallized and exhibited good optical properties. -- Abstract: Spherical ZnO and flower-like ZnO were prepared by facile hydrothermal method at 180 °C and 160 °C, respectively. The as-prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) spectra. The optical properties of as-prepared sample, such as photoluminescence (PL) spectra and Raman spectra were studied. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared ZnO particles were investigated by degrading the methyl orange (MO) under UV light irradiation. The photocatalytic studies showed that the organic pollutants have been almost completely degraded and mineralized after irradiation of the UV light. These results indicated that the as-prepared ZnO particles exhibited good optical properties and high photocatalytic activities.

  4. Single fiber UV detector based on hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanorods for wearable computing devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Hoon; Han, Jeong In

    2018-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in zinc oxide (ZnO) based ultraviolet (UV) sensing devices over the last several decades owing to their diverse range of applications. ZnO has extraordinary properties, such as a wide band gap and high exciton binding energy, which make it a beneficial material for UV sensing device. Herein, we show a ZnO UV sensing device fabricated on a cylindrical Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) monofilament. The ZnO active layer was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis and the Cu electrodes were deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Cu thin film was deposited uniformly on a single PET fiber by rotating it inside the sputtering chamber. Various characteristics were investigated by changing the concentration of the seed solution and the growth solution. The growth of ZnO nanorods was confirmed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) to see the surface state and structure, followed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Also, current-voltage (I-V) curves were obtained to measure photocurrent and conductance. Furthermore, falling response time, rising response time, and responsivity were calculated by analyzing current-time (I-t) curves.

  5. Luminescence properties of ZnO layers grown on Si-on-insulator substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Bhupendra; Gong, Hao; Vicknesh, S.; Chua, S. J.; Tripathy, S.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report on the photoluminescence properties of polycrystalline ZnO thin films grown on compliant silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The ZnO thin films on SOI were characterized by micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The observation of E 2 high optical phonon mode near 438 cm -1 in the Raman spectra of the ZnO samples represents the wurtzite crystal structure. Apart from the near-band-edge free exciton (FX) transition around 3.35 eV at 77 K, the PL spectra of such ZnO films also showed a strong defect-induced violet emission peak in the range of 3.05-3.09 eV. Realization of such ZnO layers on SOI would be useful for heterointegration with SOI-based microelectronics and microelectromechanical systems

  6. Control of chemical bonding of the ZnO surface grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, K.; Komuro, T.; Hama, K.; Koike, K.; Sasa, S.; Inoue, M.; Yano, M.

    2004-01-01

    Toward the fabrication of enzyme modified field effect transistors (EnFETs) as one of organic/inorganic hybridized structures, surface bonding of the ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy was controlled by ex situ treatments. Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement revealed that O-H bonds exist at the surface of ZnO. It was found that the number of O-H bond could be changed with reversibility using plasma and thermal treatments

  7. Characteristics of threading dislocations in ZnO grown on facet-controlled epitaxial overgrown GaN templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H L; Chua, S J; Chow, S Y; Pan, H; Zhu, Y W; Feng, Y P; Wang, L S; Zang, K Y; Liu, W; Tripathy, S

    2007-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the authors have investigated the behavior of threading dislocations in ZnO selectively grown on a facet-controlled epitaxial overgrown GaN template. In this case, the ZnO is grown by a vapor transport method. The TEM study in the overgrown regions shows that all the pure-edge type dislocations in ZnO are parallel toward the mask area and vertical propagation of dislocation to the ZnO surface is minimized. Using such a selective growth technique on a faceted semi-polar GaN surface, a reduction of threading dislocation density in ZnO could be achieved

  8. VLS-grown diffusion doped ZnO nanowires and their luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Pushan Guha; Dutta, Amartya; Das, Arpita; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Sen, Sayantani; Pramanik, Pallabi

    2015-01-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowires were deposited by vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) method on to aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) thin films grown by sol-gel technique. For various device applications, current injection into such nanowires is critical. This is expected to be more efficient for ZnO nanowires deposited on to AZO compared to those deposited on to a foreign substrate such as silicon. In this work we compare the morphological and optical properties of nanowires grown on AZO with those grown under similar conditions on silicon (Si) wafers. For nanowires grown on silicon, diameters around 44 nm with heights around 2.2 μm were obtained. For the growth on to AZO, the diameters were around 90 nm while the heights were around 520 nm. Room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) measurements show improved near band-edge emission for nanowires grown on to AZO, indicating higher material quality. This is further established by low temperature photoluminescence (LT-PL) measurements where excitonic transitions with width as small as 14 meV have been obtained at 4 K for such structures. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies indicate the presence of Al in the nanowires, indicating a new technique for introduction of dopants into these structures. These results indicate that ZnO nanowires on sol-gel grown AZO thin films show promise in the development of various optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  9. Growth and characterization of polar and nonpolar ZnO film grown on sapphire substrates by using atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung; Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the electrical and the optical properties of polar and nonpolar ZnO films grown on sapphire substrates with different crystallographic planes. High resolution X-ray results revealed that polar c-plane (0001), nonpolar m-plane (10-10) and a-plane (11-20) ZnO thin films were grown on c-plane, m- and r-sapphire substrates by atomic layer deposition, respectively. Compared with the c-plane ZnO film, nonpolar m-plane and a-plane ZnO films showed smaller surface roughness and anisotropic surface structures. Regardless of ZnO crystal planes, room temperature photoluminescence spectra represented two emissions which consisted of the near bandedge (∼ 380 nm) and the deep level emission (∼ 500 nm). The a-plane ZnO films represented better optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO, while m-plane ZnO films exhibited poorer optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO. - Highlights: • Growth and characterization of a-, c- and m-plane ZnO film by atomic layer deposition. • The a-plane ZnO represented better optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO. • The m-plane ZnO exhibited poorer optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO

  10. Observation of Zn vacancies in ZnO grown by chemical vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, F.; Saarinen, K. [Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 1100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Grasza, K.; Mycielski, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-03-15

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the vacancy defects in ZnO crystals grown by both the conventional and contactless chemical vapor transport (CVT and CCVT). Our results show that Zn vacancies or Zn vacancy related defects are present in as-grown ZnO, irrespective of the growth method. Zn vacancies are observed in CVT-grown undoped ZnO and (Zn,Mn)O. The Zn vacancies present in undoped CCVT-ZnO are the dominant negatively charged point defect in the material. Doping the material with As introduces also Zn vacancy-related defect complexes with larger open volume. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Defects in ZnO nanorods prepared by a hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, K H; Cheung, C K; Leung, Y H; Djurisić, A B; Ling, C C; Beling, C D; Fung, S; Kwok, W M; Chan, W K; Phillips, D L; Ding, L; Ge, W K

    2006-10-26

    ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated using a hydrothermal method. The nanorods were studied by scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy before and after annealing in different environments and at different temperatures. Annealing atmosphere and temperature had significant effects on the PL spectrum, while in all cases the positron diffusion length and PL decay times were increased. We found that, while the defect emission can be significantly reduced by annealing at 200 degrees C, the rods still have large defect concentrations as confirmed by their low positron diffusion length and short PL decay time constants.

  12. Characterization of homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.Q. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: chenzq@taka.jaeri.go.jp; Yamamoto, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kawasuso, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Xu, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Sekiguchi, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    Homo- and heteroepitaxial ZnO films were grown on ZnO (0001) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1-bar 1-bar 2-bar -bar 0) substrates by using pulsed laser deposition. The X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements for these films show good correspondence with the bulk ZnO substrate, which confirms successful growth of c-axis oriented ZnO layer. Strong UV emission was also observed in these films, indicating good optical quality. However, the surface roughness differs very much for the homo- and heteroepitaxial film, that is, much less for the homoepitaxial layer. Positron annihilation measurements reveal a higher vacancy concentration in the homoepitaxial layer.

  13. Structural and optical properties of ZnO films grown on silicon and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. Photoluminescence (PL) properties of undoped ZnO thin films grown by rf magnetron sputtering on silicon .... voluted O1 s and (c) typical Zr 3d spectra of ZrO2/ZnO/Si film. .... strate doping concentration (NB) of ≈ 2⋅5 × 1015 cm–3 is.

  14. Annealing Heat Treatment of ZnO Nanoparticles Grown on Porous Si Substrate Using Spin-Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Eswar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were successfully deposited on porous silicon (PSi substrate using spin-coating method. In order to prepare PSi, electrochemical etching was employed to modify the Si surface. Zinc acetate dihydrate was used as a starting material in ZnO sol-gel solution preparation. The postannealing treatments were investigated on morphologies and photoluminescence (PL properties of the ZnO thin films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM results indicate that the thin films composed by ZnO nanoparticles were distributed uniformly on PSi. The average sizes of ZnO nanoparticle increase with increasing annealing temperature. Atomic force microscopic (AFM analysis reveals that ZnO thin films annealed at 500°C had the smoothest surface. PL spectra show two peaks that completely correspond to nanostructured ZnO and PSi. These findings indicate that the ZnO nanostructures grown on PSi are promising for application as light emitting devices.

  15. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using a hydrothermal method and a study its optical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Dattatraya B; Bharati, A V

    2017-05-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with a granular morphology were synthesized using a hydrothermal method. Structural analysis revealed that ZnO NPs had a single crystal wurtzite hexagonal structure. Solvent polarity was responsible for varying and controlling their size and morphology. The process was very trouble free and scalable. In addition, it could be used for fundamental studies on tunable morphology formation. This hydrothermal method showed different morphology with different co-surfactants such as a floral-like or wire-like belt sheet structures etc. Based on their surface morphology, the same material had different applications as a catalyst in various organic reactions and also could be used as a photocatalyst and fuel cell, solar cell or in semiconductors etc. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence of the resulting product was performed to study its purity, morphology and size, plus its optical properties via measurement of band gap energy and light absorbance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Comparative PL study of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by APMOCVD and CBD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr, E-mail: volkh@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Yakimova, Rositza; Karlsson, Fredrik; Syed, Abdul S.; Holtz, Per-Olof [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Nigussa Urgessa, Zelalem [Department of Physics, P.O Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Samuel Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI 5117 (South Africa); Reinhardt Botha, Johannes [Department of Physics, P.O Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The photoluminescence properties of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCV) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are investigated by means of temperature dependent micro-PL. It was found that the low temperature PL spectra are driven by neutral donor bound exciton emission D{sup 0}X, peaked at 3.359 and 3.363 eV for APMOCVD and CBD ZnO nanorods, respectively. The temperature increase causes a red energy shift of the peaks and enhancement of the free excitonic emission (FX). The FX was found to dominate after 150 K for both samples. It was observed that while APMOCVD ZnO nanorods possess a constant low signal of visible deep level emission with temperature, the ZnO nanorods grown by CBD revealed the thermal activation of deep level emission (DLE) after 130 K. The resulting room temperature DLE was a wide band located at 420-550 nm. The PL properties of individual ZnO nanorods can be of importance for their forthcoming application in future optoelectronics and photonics.

  17. Comparative PL study of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by APMOCVD and CBD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Yakimova, Rositza; Karlsson, Fredrik; Syed, Abdul S.; Holtz, Per-Olof; Nigussa Urgessa, Zelalem; Samuel Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi; Reinhardt Botha, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The photoluminescence properties of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCV) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are investigated by means of temperature dependent micro-PL. It was found that the low temperature PL spectra are driven by neutral donor bound exciton emission D 0 X, peaked at 3.359 and 3.363 eV for APMOCVD and CBD ZnO nanorods, respectively. The temperature increase causes a red energy shift of the peaks and enhancement of the free excitonic emission (FX). The FX was found to dominate after 150 K for both samples. It was observed that while APMOCVD ZnO nanorods possess a constant low signal of visible deep level emission with temperature, the ZnO nanorods grown by CBD revealed the thermal activation of deep level emission (DLE) after 130 K. The resulting room temperature DLE was a wide band located at 420–550 nm. The PL properties of individual ZnO nanorods can be of importance for their forthcoming application in future optoelectronics and photonics.

  18. Sensing performances of ZnO nanostructures grown under different oxygen pressures to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Jin; Peng, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhenbo; Feng, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Surface morphology depends on the oxygen pressure. ► Structural degradation was observed for the ZnO samples when oxygen pressure was overhigh. ► The sensitivity of the ZnO-based sensors increase with grown oxygen pressure. -- Abstract: For extensive use in an industrialized process of individual ZnO nanostructures applied in gas sensors, a simple, inexpensive, and safe synthesis process is required. Here, nanostructured ZnO films were grown by a pulsed laser deposition technique under different oxygen pressures. Scanning electron microscopy images show nanopores, nanotips, and nanoparticles are obtained and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate oxygen concentration of the synthesized samples increases monotonously with oxygen pressure. The sensor based on ZnO with high oxygen concentration has high sensitivity, rapid response (9 s) and recovery (80 s) behavior to 500 ppm hydrogen below 150 °C. Experimental data indicate that high oxygen concentration effectively improves the sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO.

  19. Crystallinity Improvement of ZnO Thin Film on Different Buffer Layers Grown by MBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ying Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The material and optical properties of ZnO thin film samples grown on different buffer layers on sapphire substrates through a two-step temperature variation growth by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The thin buffer layer between the ZnO layer and the sapphire substrate decreased the lattice mismatch to achieve higher quality ZnO thin film growth. A GaN buffer layer slightly increased the quality of the ZnO thin film, but the threading dislocations still stretched along the c-axis of the GaN layer. The use of MgO as the buffer layer decreased the surface roughness of the ZnO thin film by 58.8% due to the suppression of surface cracks through strain transfer of the sample. From deep level emission and rocking curve measurements it was found that the threading dislocations play a more important role than oxygen vacancies for high-quality ZnO thin film growth.

  20. Structural and optical properties of pentacene films grown on differently oriented ZnO surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Helou, M; Lietke, E; Helzel, J; Heimbrodt, W; Witte, G

    2012-01-01

    Pentacene films have been grown on two polar zinc oxide surfaces, i.e., ZnO(0001) and ZnO(0 0 0 1-bar ), as well as on the mixed-terminated ZnO(1 0 1-bar 0) and are characterized by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). In all cases, pentacene aggregates in an upright orientation without any evidence for the formation of an interface stabilized wetting layer. Additional films deposited on a highly-defective, oxygen-depleted ZnO(0 0 0 1-bar ) reveal no altered growth mode. Nearly identical optical absorption spectra have been measured for all films, thus corroborating a weak molecule-substrate interaction. Upon cooling, however, a slightly different relaxation behavior could be resolved for pentacene films on polar ZnO surfaces compared to pentacene on the mixed-terminated ZnO(1 0 1-bar 0) surface.

  1. Acceptor Type Vacancy Complexes In As-Grown ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Zuniga-Perez, J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the many technological areas that ZnO is interesting for is the construction of opto-electronic devices working in the blue-UV range as its large band gap (∼3.4 eV at 10 K) makes them suitable for that purpose. As-grown ZnO shows generally n-type conductivity partially due to the large concentration of unintentional shallow donors, like H, but impurities can also form complexes with acceptor type defects (Zn vacancy) leading to the creation of compensating defects. Recently, Li Zn and Na Zn acceptors have been measured and H could form similar type of defects. Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation spectroscopy experimental results on the observation of Zn related vacancy complexes in ZnO thin films, as-grown, O implanted and Al doped will be presented. Results show that as-grown ZnO film show small Zn vacancy related complexed that could be related to presence of H as a unintentional doping element.

  2. Acceptor Type Vacancy Complexes In As-Grown ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Zuñiga-Pérez, J.

    2010-11-01

    One of the many technological areas that ZnO is interesting for is the construction of opto-electronic devices working in the blue-UV range as its large band gap (˜3.4 eV at 10 K) makes them suitable for that purpose. As-grown ZnO shows generally n-type conductivity partially due to the large concentration of unintentional shallow donors, like H, but impurities can also form complexes with acceptor type defects (Zn vacancy) leading to the creation of compensating defects. Recently, LiZn and NaZn acceptors have been measured and H could form similar type of defects. Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation spectroscopy experimental results on the observation of Zn related vacancy complexes in ZnO thin films, as-grown, O implanted and Al doped will be presented. Results show that as-grown ZnO film show small Zn vacancy related complexed that could be related to presence of H as a unintentional doping element.

  3. In-situ growth of ZnO nanowire arrays on the sensing electrode via a facile hydrothermal route for high-performance NO2 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangxiang; Shen, Yanbai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Wei, Dezhou; Lu, Rui; Zhu, Lijia; Li, Hansen; Shen, Yansong

    2018-03-01

    ZnO nanowire (ZNW) arrays were in-situ grown on the sensing electrode via a facile hydrothermal route for NO2 sensing application. ZNW arrays were prepared by a seed layer deposition on the surface of the sensing electrode using a dipping process in a Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O ethanol solution followed by a seed growth using a hydrothermal route in the Zn(NO3)2·6H2O-HMTA (C6H12N4) system. The microstructural characterizations of the ZNW arrays by means of XRD, FESEM, TEM, FTIR and XPS showed that ZnO nanowires with the diameters of 80-90 nm and the lengths of 0.6-1 μm had a single crystal hexagonal wurtzite structure. Gas sensing properties demonstrated the response of the sensor based on the ZNW arrays was linearly proportional to the NO2 concentration in the range of 1-30 ppm with good reproducibility and selectivity. The maximum sensor response to NO2 was obtained at an operating temperature of 250 °C. The response and recovery times reduced rapidly with increasing the operating temperature. The growth mechanism and sensing mechanism of the ZNW arrays were discussed in accordance with the deposition of the seed layer and the modulation of the depletion layer, respectively.

  4. Biomimetic fabrication and tunable wetting properties of three-dimensional hierarchical ZnO structures by combining soft lithography templated with lotus leaf and hydrothermal treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Shuxi; Zhang, Dianbo; Shi, Qing; Han, Xiao; Wang, Shujie; Du, Zuliang

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional hierarchical ZnO films with lotus-leaf-like micro/nano structures were successfully fabricated via a biomimetic route combining sol-gel technique, soft lithography and hydrothermal treatments. PDMS mold replicated from a fresh lotus leaf was used to imprint microscale pillar structures directly into a ZnO sol film. Hierarchical ZnO micro/nano structures were subsequently fabricated by a low-temperature hydrothermal growth of secondary ZnO nanorod arrays on the micro-structur...

  5. ZnO nanocoral reef grown on porous silicon substrates without catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulgafour, H.I.; Yam, F.K.; Hassan, Z.; AL-Heuseen, K.; Jawad, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Porous silicon (PS) technology is utilized to grow coral reef-like ZnO nanostructures on the surface of Si substrates. → Flower-like aligned ZnO nanorods are fabricated directly onto the silicon substrates through zinc powder evaporation using a simple thermal evaporation method without a catalyst for comparison. → The PL spectra show that for ZnO nanocoral reefs the UV emission shifts slightly towards lower frequency. → This non-catalyst growth technique on the rough surface of substrates may have potential applications in the fabrication of nanoelectronic and nanooptical devices. - Abstract: Porous silicon (PS) technology is utilized to grow coral reef-like ZnO nanostructures on the surface of Si substrates with rough morphology. Flower-like aligned ZnO nanorods are also fabricated directly onto the silicon substrates through zinc powder evaporation using a simple thermal evaporation method without a catalyst for comparison. The characteristics of these nanostructures are investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, grazing-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) measurements of structures grown on both Si and porous Si substrates. The texture coefficient obtained from the XRD spectra indicates that the coral reef-like nanostructures are highly oriented on the porous silicon substrate with decreasing nanorods length and diameter from 800-900 nm to 3.5-5.5 μm and from 217-229 nm to 0.6-0.7 μm, respectively. The PL spectra show that for ZnO nanocoral reefs the UV emission shifts slightly towards lower frequency and the intensity increase with the improvement of ZnO crystallization. This non-catalyst growth technique on the rough surface of substrates may have potential applications in the fabrication of nanoelectronic and nanooptical devices.

  6. ZnO nanocoral reef grown on porous silicon substrates without catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulgafour, H.I., E-mail: hind_alshaikh@yahoo.com [School of Physics, University Sains Malaysia 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Yam, F.K.; Hassan, Z.; AL-Heuseen, K.; Jawad, M.J. [School of Physics, University Sains Malaysia 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-05-05

    Research highlights: > Porous silicon (PS) technology is utilized to grow coral reef-like ZnO nanostructures on the surface of Si substrates. > Flower-like aligned ZnO nanorods are fabricated directly onto the silicon substrates through zinc powder evaporation using a simple thermal evaporation method without a catalyst for comparison. > The PL spectra show that for ZnO nanocoral reefs the UV emission shifts slightly towards lower frequency. > This non-catalyst growth technique on the rough surface of substrates may have potential applications in the fabrication of nanoelectronic and nanooptical devices. - Abstract: Porous silicon (PS) technology is utilized to grow coral reef-like ZnO nanostructures on the surface of Si substrates with rough morphology. Flower-like aligned ZnO nanorods are also fabricated directly onto the silicon substrates through zinc powder evaporation using a simple thermal evaporation method without a catalyst for comparison. The characteristics of these nanostructures are investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, grazing-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) measurements of structures grown on both Si and porous Si substrates. The texture coefficient obtained from the XRD spectra indicates that the coral reef-like nanostructures are highly oriented on the porous silicon substrate with decreasing nanorods length and diameter from 800-900 nm to 3.5-5.5 {mu}m and from 217-229 nm to 0.6-0.7 {mu}m, respectively. The PL spectra show that for ZnO nanocoral reefs the UV emission shifts slightly towards lower frequency and the intensity increase with the improvement of ZnO crystallization. This non-catalyst growth technique on the rough surface of substrates may have potential applications in the fabrication of nanoelectronic and nanooptical devices.

  7. Synthesis of ZnO nanorod–nanosheet composite via facile hydrothermal method and their photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Wai Kian [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia [School of Materials and Mineral Resources, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Matsuda, Atsunori, E-mail: matsuda@ee.tut.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    ZnO composite films consisting of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets were prepared by low-temperature hydrothermal processing at 80 °C on seeded glass substrates. The seed layer was coated on glass substrates by sol–gel dip-coating and pre-heated at 300 °C for 10 min prior to hydrothermal growth. The size of the grain formed after pre-heat treatment was ∼40 nm. A preferred orientation seed layer at the c-axis was obtained, which promoted vertical growth of the ZnO nanorod arrays and formation of the ZnO nanosheets. X-ray diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) images confirmed that the ZnO nanorods and nanosheets consist of single crystalline and polycrystalline structures, respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO nanorod–nanosheet composite films exhibited band-edge ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission (blue and green) indicating the formation of ZnO crystals with good crystallinity and are supported by Raman scattering results. The formation of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorod arrays and two-dimensional (2D) ZnO nanosheet films using seeded substrates in a single low-temperature hydrothermal step would be beneficial for realization of device applications that utilize substrates with limited temperature stability. The ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure demonstrated higher photocatalytic activity during degradation of aqueous methylene blue under visible-light irradiation. -- Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of ZnO nanorod–nanosheet composite structure formation by hydrothermal at low-temperature of 80 °C against time. Highlights: • Novel simultaneous formation of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure. • Facile single hydrothermal step formation at low-temperature. • Photoluminescence showed ultraviolet and visible emission. • Feasible application on substrates with low temperature stability. • Improved photocatalytic activity under visible

  8. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods: The role of KCl in controlling rod morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, Jonathan M.; Ryan, Mary P.; McLachlan, Martyn A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of potassium chloride (KCl) in controlling ZnO nanorod morphology of large area thin films prepared by hydrothermal growth has been extensively investigated. The influence of KCl and growth time on the orientation, morphology and microstructure of the nanorod arrays has been studied with systematic changes in the length, width, density and termination of the nanorods observed. Such changes are attributed to stabilization of the high-energy (002) nanorod surface by the KCl. At low KCl concentrations (< 100 mM) c-axis growth i.e. perpendicular to the polar surface, dominates, leading to nanorods with increased length over the control sample (0 mM KCl). At higher concentrations (> 100 mM) stabilization of the high-energy surface by KCl occurs and planar (002) facets are observed accompanied by increased lateral (100) growth, at the highest KCl concentrations near coalesced (002) terminated rods are observed. Additionally we correlate the KCl concentration with the uniformity of the nanorod arrays; a decrease in polydispersity with increased KCl concentration is observed. The vertical alignment of nanorod arrays was studied using X-ray diffraction, it was found that this parameter increases as growth time and KCl concentration are increased. We propose that the increase in vertical alignment is a result of nanorod–nanorod interactions during the early stages of growth. - Highlights: • Modified hydrothermal growth was used for controlled ZnO nanorod synthesis. • Growth conditions varied to study influence on nanorod morphology and orientation. • A highly controlled and reproducible method is established. • A mechanism for growth and the role of ionic additives is proposed

  9. Effect of Temperature and Growth Time on Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods by Simplified Hydrothermal Technique for Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Fudzi, Laimy; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Lim, Hong Ngee; Chang, Sook-Keng; Holi, Araa Mebdir; Sarif Mohd Ali, Mahanim

    2018-04-29

    Despite its large band gap, ZnO has wide applicability in many fields ranging from gas sensors to solar cells. ZnO was chosen over other materials because of its large exciton binding energy (60 meV) and its stability to high-energy radiation. In this study, ZnO nanorods were deposited on ITO glass via a simple dip coating followed by a hydrothermal growth. The morphological, structural and compositional characteristics of the prepared films were analyzed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Photoelectrochemical conversion efficiencies were evaluated via photocurrent measurements under calibrated halogen lamp illumination. Thin film prepared at 120 °C for 4 h of hydrothermal treatment possessed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with the crystallite size of 19.2 nm. The average diameter of the ZnO nanorods was 37.7 nm and the thickness was found to be 2680.2 nm. According to FESEM images, as the hydrothermal growth temperature increases, the nanorod diameter become smaller. Moreover, the thickness of the nanorods increase with the growth time. Therefore, the sample prepared at 120 °C for 4 h displayed an impressive photoresponse by achieving high current density of 0.1944 mA/cm².

  10. Electrochemical and hydrothermal deposition of ZnO on silicon: from continuous films to nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balucani, M.; Nenzi, P.; Chubenko, E.; Klyshko, A.; Bondarenko, V.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the study of the electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide from the non-aqueous solution based on dimethyl sulfoxide and zinc chloride into the porous silicon matrix. The features of the deposition process depending on the thickness of the porous silicon layer are presented. It is shown that after deposition process the porous silicon matrix is filled with zinc oxide nanocrystals with a diameter of 10–50 nm. The electrochemically deposited zinc oxide layers on top of porous silicon are shown to have a crystalline structure. It is also shown that zinc oxide crystals formed by hydrothermal method on the surface of electrochemically deposited zinc oxide film demonstrate ultra-violet luminescence. The effect of the porous silicon layer thickness on the morphology of the zinc oxide is shown. The structures obtained demonstrated two luminescence bands peaking at the 375 and 600 nm wavelengths. Possible applications of ZnO nanostructures, porous and continuous polycrystalline ZnO films such as gas sensors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and nanopiezo energy generators are considered. Aspects of integration with conventional silicon technology are also discussed.

  11. Mechanisms involved in the hydrothermal growth of ultra-thin and high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demes, Thomas; Ternon, Céline; Morisot, Fanny; Riassetto, David; Legallais, Maxime; Roussel, Hervé; Langlet, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanowires (NWs) with tailored dimensions, notably high aspect ratios (AR) and small diameters, is a major concern for a wide range of applications and still represents a challenging and recurring issue. In this work, an additive-free and reproducible hydrothermal procedure has been developed to grow ultra-thin and high AR ZnO NWs on sol-gel deposited ZnO seed layers. Controlling the substrate temperature and using a low reagent concentration (1 mM) has been found to be essential for obtaining such NWs. We show that the NW diameter remains constant at about 20-25 nm with growth time contrary to the NW length that can be selectively increased leading to NWs with ARs up to 400. On the basis of investigated experimental conditions along with thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, a ZnO NW growth mechanism has been developed which involves the formation and growth of nuclei followed by NW growth when the nuclei reach a critical size of about 20-25 nm. The low reagent concentration inhibits NW lateral growth leading to ultra-thin and high AR NWs. These NWs have been assembled into electrically conductive ZnO nanowire networks, which opens attractive perspectives toward the development of highly sensitive low-cost gas- or bio-sensors.

  12. Influence of different carrier gases on the properties of ZnO films grown by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, Jinzhong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available ZnO films were grown on sapphire (001 substrate by atmospheric MOCVD using diethyl zinc and tertiary butanol precursors. The influence of different carrier gases (H2 and He on the properties was analyzed by their structural (XRD, microstructural (SEM and compositional (SIMS characterization. The intensity of the strongest diffraction peak from ZnO (002 plane was increased by about 2 orders of magnitude when He is used as carrier gas, indicating the significant enhancement in crystallinity. The surface of the samples grown using H2 and He carrier gases was composed of leaf-like and spherical grains respectively. Hydrogen [H] content in the film grown using H2 is higher than that using He, indicating that the [H] was influenced by the H2 carrier gas. Ultraviolet emission dominates the low temperature PL spectra. The emission from ZnO films grown using He show higher optical quality and more emission centers.

    Se depositaron películas de ZnO sobre sustratos de zafiro (001 utilizando dietil zinc y butanol terciario como precursores. La influencia de los diferentes gases portadores (H2 y He sobre las propiedades se estudió mediante la caracterización estructural (XRD, microestructural (SEM y composicional (SIMS. La intensidad del pico de difracción más importante del plano (002 del ZnO aumentó en dos órdenes de magnitud cuando se utiliza He como gas portador indicando un incremento significativo de la cristalinidad. La superficie de las muestras crecidas utilizando H2 y He está formada por granos en forma de hoja y de forma esférica respectivamente. El contenido en hidrógeno (H en la película es mayor cuando se utiliza H2 que cuando se utiliza He, indicando que la cantidad de hidrógeno está influenciada por el H2 del gas portador. La emisión ultravioleta domina el espectro PL de baja temperatura. La emisión de las películas de ZnO utilizando

  13. Structural and Optical Properties of Group III Doped Hydrothermal ZnO Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad J.

    2017-01-11

    In this work, we employ a simple two-step growth technique to deposit impurity doped heteroepitaxial thin films of (0001) ZnO onto (111) MgAl2O4 spinel substrates through a combination of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and hydrothermal growth. The hydrothermal layer is doped with Al, Ga, and In through the addition of their respective nitrate salts. We evaluated the effect that varying the concentrations of these dopants has on both the structural and optical properties of these films. It was found that the epitaxial ALD layer created a ⟨111⟩MgAl2O4∥⟨0001⟩ZnO out-of-plane orientation and a ⟨1¯1¯2⟩MgAl2O4∥∥⟨011¯0⟩ZnO in-plane orientation between the film and substrate. The rocking curve line widths ranged between 0.75° and 1.80° depending on dopant concentration. The optical bandgap determined through the Tauc method was between 3.28 eV and 3.39 eV and showed a Burstein-Moss shift with increasing dopant concentration.

  14. Structural and photoluminescence properties of aligned Sb-doped ZnO nanocolumns synthesized by the hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Xuan [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089-WeiXing Road, Changchun, 130022 (China); Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone Changchun, 130033 (China); Li Jinhua [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089-WeiXing Road, Changchun, 130022 (China); Zhao Dongxu, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone Changchun, 130033 (China); Li Binghui; Zhang Zhenzhong; Shen Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone Changchun, 130033 (China); Wang Xiaohua; Wei Zhipeng [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089-WeiXing Road, Changchun, 130022 (China)

    2010-08-02

    Aligned Sb-doped ZnO nanocolumns were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. Based on the analyses of the X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence result, it could be confirmed that the Sb has successfully doped in the ZnO crystal lattices to form an accepter energy level. At 85 K, the recombination of the acceptor-bound exciton was predominant in PL spectrum, which was attributed to the transition of the (Sb{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn}) complex bound exciton. The acceptor binding energy had been calculated to be 123 meV.

  15. Structural and photoluminescence properties of aligned Sb-doped ZnO nanocolumns synthesized by the hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xuan; Li Jinhua; Zhao Dongxu; Li Binghui; Zhang Zhenzhong; Shen Dezhen; Wang Xiaohua; Wei Zhipeng

    2010-01-01

    Aligned Sb-doped ZnO nanocolumns were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. Based on the analyses of the X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence result, it could be confirmed that the Sb has successfully doped in the ZnO crystal lattices to form an accepter energy level. At 85 K, the recombination of the acceptor-bound exciton was predominant in PL spectrum, which was attributed to the transition of the (Sb Zn -2V Zn ) complex bound exciton. The acceptor binding energy had been calculated to be 123 meV.

  16. Exploring the potential of laser assisted flow deposition grown ZnO for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J., E-mail: joana.catarina@ua.pt [Departamento de Física & I3N, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Cerqueira, A.F.R.; Sousa, M.G.; Santos, N.F. [Departamento de Física & I3N, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pimentel, A.; Fortunato, E. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Cunha, A.F. da; Monteiro, T.; Costa, F.M. [Departamento de Física & I3N, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a widely studied wide band gap semiconductor with applications in several fields, namely to enhance solar cells efficiency. Its ability to be grown in a wide variety of nanostructured morphologies, allowing the designing of the surface area architecture constitutes an important advantage over other semiconductors. Laser assisted flow deposition (LAFD) is a recently developed growth method, based on a vapour-solid mechanism, which proved to be a powerful approach in the production of ZnO micro/nanostructures with different morphologies as well as high crystallinity and optical quality. In the present work we report the use of the LAFD technique to grow functional ZnO nanostructures (nanoparticles and tetrapods) working as nano templates to improve the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) efficiency. The structural and morphological characterization of the as-grown ZnO crystals were performed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy, respectively, and the optical quality was assessed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. DSSCs were produced using a combination of these nanostructures, which were subsequently sensitized with N719 dye. An efficiency of ∼3% was achieved under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions for a dye loading time of 1 h. - Highlights: • Laser assisted flow deposition proved to be an efficient technique to produce high quality ZnO. • Active layer formed by an interconnected network of tetrapods and a small amount of nanoparticles. • Efficiency of ∼3% obtained under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions.

  17. Structural characterization of ZnO thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotný, M; Bulíř, J; Lančok, J; Čížek, J; Kužel, R; Connolly, J; McCarthy, E; Krishnamurthy, S; Mosnier, J-P; Anwand, W; Brauer, G

    2012-01-01

    ZnO thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on three different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0) and fused silica (FS). The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and defect studies were carried out using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). Films deposited on all substrates studied in this work exhibit the wurtzite ZnO structure and are characterized by an average crystallite size of 20-100 nm. However, strong differences in the microstructure of films deposited on various substrates were found. The ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit local epitaxy, i.e. a well-defined relation between film crystallites and the substrate. Domains with different orientation relationships with the substrate were found in both films. On the other hand, the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits fibre texture with random lateral orientation of crystallites. Extremely high compressive in-plane stress of σ ∼ 14 GPa was determined in the film deposited on the MgO substrate, while the film deposited on sapphire is virtually stress-free, and the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits a tensile in-plane stress of σ ∼ 0.9 GPa. SPIS investigations revealed that the concentration of open-volume defects in the ZnO films is substantially higher than that in a bulk ZnO single crystal. Moreover, the ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit a significantly higher density of defects than the film deposited on the amorphous FS substrate. (paper)

  18. Effects of Temperature on the Microstructure and Magnetic Property of Cr-Doped ZnO DMS Prepared by Hydrothermal Route Assisted by Pulsed Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Cr-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor was synthesized by hydrothermal method under pulsed magnetic fields. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, VSM, Raman, and XPS techniques. Results demonstrated that Zn ions in the ZnO crystal lattice were partially displaced by Chromium (III ions. All samples show room temperature ferromagnetism which was enhanced by pulsed magnetic fields. The mechanism of ferromagnetism of Cr-doped ZnO particles was discussed.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Flower-Like Bundles of ZnO Nanosheets by a Surfactant-Free Hydrothermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets have been prepared by using preheating hydrothermal process without any surfactants. The flower-like bundles consist of many thin and uniform hexagonal-structured ZnO nanosheets, with a thickness of 50 nm. The selected area electronic diffraction (SAED and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM images indicate that the ZnO nanosheets are single crystal in nature. The growth mechanism of the flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is discussed based on the morphology evolution with growth times and reaction conditions. It is believed that the formation of flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is related to the shielding effect of OH− ions and the self-assembly process, which is dominated by a preheating time. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra results show that the annealing atmosphere strongly affects the visible emission band, which is sensitive to intrinsic and surface defects, especially oxygen interstitials, in flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets.

  20. Effect of solution chemistry on the characteristics of hydrothermally grown WO_3 for electroactive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, K.; Louloudakis, D.; Vernardou, D.; Savvakis, C.; Katsarakis, N.; Koudoumas, E.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermally grown tungsten trioxide coatings were prepared at 95 °C using different metal sulfates. Morphology of the oxides was altered from grains to flower- and urchin-like structures using potassium sulfate, sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate, respectively. The flower-like structures presented the highest deintercalated charge, 35 mC cm"−"2 with time response of 96 s. In addition, they indicated a charge transfer resistance across the tungsten trioxide–electrolyte interface of 752 Ω. These outcomes imply that they are promising candidates for electroactive applications. - Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown WO_3 coatings with controlled properties. • The choice of metal sulfate is important in determining their properties. • Flower-like hexagonal WO_3 structures for electroactive applications.

  1. The effects of ZnO buffer layers on the properties of phosphorus doped ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K-W; Lugo, F J; Lee, J H; Norton, D P

    2012-01-01

    The properties of phosphorus doped ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition were examined, specifically focusing on the effects of undoped ZnO buffer layers. In particular, buffer layers were grown under different conditions; the transport properties of as-deposited and rapid thermal annealed ZnO:P films were then examined. As-deposited films showed n-type conductivity. After rapid thermal annealing, the film on buffer layer grown at a low temperature showed the conversion of carrier type to p-type for specific growth conditions while the films deposited on buffer layer grown at a high temperature remained n-type regardless of growth condition. The films deposited on buffer layer grown at a low temperature showed higher resistivity and more significant change of the transport properties upon rapid thermal annealing. These results suggest that more dopants are incorporated in films with higher defect density. This is consistent with high resolution x-ray diffraction results for phosphorus doped ZnO films on different buffer layers. In addition, the microstructure of phosphorus doped ZnO films is substantially affected by the buffer layer.

  2. Surface characterization of ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbulanga, C.M., E-mail: crispin.mbulanga@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Urgessa, Z.N.; Tankio Djiokap, S.R.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Duvenhage, M.M.; Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O Box 77000, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    The surface composition of as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods (ZNs) grown by a two-step chemical bath deposition method is investigated by the following surface-sensitive techniques: Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The presence of H on the surface and throughout the entire thickness of ZNs is confirmed by TOF-SIMS. Based on TOF-SIMS results, the O2 XPS peak mostly observable at ~531.5 is assigned to O bound to H. Furthermore, it is found that the near surface region of as-grown ZNs is Zn-rich, and annealing at high temperature (~850 °C) removes H-related defects from the surface of ZNs and affect the balance of zinc and oxygen concentrations.

  3. Field emission from carbon nanotube bundle arrays grown on self-aligned ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chun; Fang Guojia; Yuan Longyan; Liu Nishuang; Ai Lei; Xiang Qi; Zhao Dongshan; Pan Chunxu; Zhao Xingzhong

    2007-01-01

    The field emission (FE) properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle arrays grown on vertically self-aligned ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) are reported. The ZNRs were first synthesized on ZnO-seed-coated Si substrate by the vapour phase transport method, and then the radically grown CNTs were grown directly on the surface of the ZNRs from ethanol flames. The CNT/ZNR composite showed a turn-on field of 1.5 V μm -1 (at 0.1 μA cm -2 ), a threshold field of 4.5 V μm -1 (at 1 mA cm -2 ) and a stable emission current with fluctuations of 5%, demonstrating significantly enhanced FE of ZNRs due to the low work function and high aspect ratio of the CNTs, and large surface-to-volume ratio of the underlying ZNRs

  4. Thermal activation of nitrogen acceptors in ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangbegnon, J.K.; Talla, K.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2010-06-15

    Nitrogen doping in ZnO is inhibited by spontaneous formation of compensating defects. Perfect control of the nitrogen doping concentration is required, since a high concentration of nitrogen could induce the formation of donor defects involving nitrogen. In this work, the effect of post-growth annealing in oxygen ambient on ZnO thin films grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition, using NO as both oxidant and nitrogen dopant, is studied. After annealing at 700 C and above, low-temperature photoluminescence shows the appearance of a transition at {proportional_to}3.23 eV which is interpreted as pair emission involving a nitrogen acceptor. A second transition at {proportional_to}3.15 eV is also discussed. This work suggests annealing as a potential means for p-type doping using nitrogen (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Device quality ZnO grown using a Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzwawi, Salim; Kim, Hyung Suk; Heinhold, Robert; Lynam, Max; Turner, Gary; Partridge, Jim G.; McCulloch, Dougal G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the structural, electrical and optical characteristics of unintentionally doped ZnO films grown on a-plane sapphire substrates using the Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique. The resulting films showed considerable promise for device applications with properties including high transparency, moderate intrinsic carrier concentrations (10 17 -10 19 cm -3 ), electron mobilities up to 30 cm 2 /Vs, low surface roughness (typically <2% of film thickness) and well-structured photoluminescence. Post-annealing in oxygen at temperatures up to 800 °C produced significant improvements in the properties of these films. Silver oxide Schottky diodes fabricated on FCVA ZnO showed ideality factors as low as 1.20 and good sensitivity to ultraviolet light.

  6. Atomic layer deposition grown composite dielectric oxides and ZnO for transparent electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieraltowska, S.; Wachnicki, L.; Witkowski, B.S.; Godlewski, M.; Guziewicz, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on transparent transistor obtained using laminar structure of two high-k dielectric oxides (hafnium dioxide, HfO 2 and aluminum oxide, Al 2 O 3 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) layer grown at low temperature (60 °C–100 °C) using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technology. Our research was focused on the optimization of technological parameters for composite layers Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 /Al 2 O 3 for thin film transistor structures with ZnO as a channel and a gate layer. We elaborate on the ALD growth of these oxides, finding that the 100 nm thick layers of HfO 2 and Al 2 O 3 exhibit fine surface flatness and required amorphous microstructure. Growth parameters are optimized for the monolayer growth mode and maximum smoothness required for gating.

  7. Structural and morphological characterizations of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agouram, S.; Zuniga Perez, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Universitat de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Burjassot (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    ZnO films were grown on GaAs(100), GaAs(111)A and GaAs(111)B substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). Diethylzinc (DEZn) and tertiarybutanol (t-butanol) were used as Zn and O precursors, respectively. The influence of the growth temperature and GaAs substrate orientation on the crystalline orientation and morphology of the ZnO grown films has been analysed. Crystallinity of grown films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD); thickness and morphology of ZnO films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM results reveal significant differences between morphologies depending on growth temperature but not significant differences were detected on the texture of grown films. (orig.)

  8. Physical and chemical contributions of a plasma treatment in the growth of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.T. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal synthesis. •Oxygen plasma was done on the surface of seed ZnO nanorods. •The ZnO nanorods with and without plasma treatment were characterized. •The results showed that the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods with plasma treatment were enhanced. -- Abstract: We analyzed the enhancement of optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods by using a plasma treatment. In this study, seed ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal synthesis for 1 h on a ZnO buffered Si substrate. The seed ZnO nanorods were then treated with an oxygen plasma. Next, ZnO was grown for an additional 4 h by hydrothermal synthesis. The resultant ZnO nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL). The measurements showed that the plasma treatment of the seed ZnO nanorods increased the roughness of the buffer layer and the concentration of oxygen ions on the surfaces of the seed ZnO nanorods and the buffer layer, leading to improved optical and structural properties. In this study, we found that the plasma treatment on the seed ZnO nanorods enhanced the optical and structural properties of the ZnO nanorods.

  9. Influence of seed layer treatment on low temperature grown ZnO nanotubes: Performances in dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameen, Sadia [Energy Materials and Surface Science Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Akhtar, M. Shaheer [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering and Solar Energy Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); New and Renewable Energy Material Development Center (NewREC), Chonbuk National University, Buan-gun, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Soon [Energy Materials and Surface Science Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, O-Bong [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering and Solar Energy Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyung-Shik, E-mail: hsshin@jbnu.ac.k [Energy Materials and Surface Science Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    Non-aligned and highly densely aligned ZnO nanotube (NTs), synthesized by low temperature solution method were applied as photoanode materials for the fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The crystalline and the morphological analysis revealed that the grown aligned ZnO NTs possessed a typical hexagonal crystal structure of outer and inner diameter {approx}250 nm and {approx}100 nm, respectively. ZnO seeding on FTO substrates is an essential step to achieve the aligned ZnO NTs. A DSSC fabricated with aligned ZnO NTs photoanode achieved high solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency of {approx}2.2% with short circuit current (J{sub SC}) of 5.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.65 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.61. Significantly, the aligned ZnO NTs photoanode showed three times improved solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency than DSSC fabricated with non-aligned ZnO NTs. The enhanced performances were credited to the aligned morphology of ZnO NTs which executed the high charge collection and the transfer of electrons at the interfaces of ZnO NTs and electrolyte layer.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis and magneto-optical properties of Ni-doped ZnO hexagonal columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xingyan; Cao, Chuanbao

    2015-01-01

    Single crystal Zn 1−x Ni x O (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) hexagonal columns have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal route. The hexagonal columns of the products are about 3 μm in diameter and about 2 μm in thickness. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ni K-edge XANES spectra and TEM indicate that the as-prepared samples are single-crystalline wurtzite structure and no metallic Ni or other secondary phases are found in the hexagonal columns. Optical absorption and Raman results further confirm the incorporation of Ni 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice. Magnetic measurements indicate that the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns exhibited obvious ferromagnetic characteristic at room temperature. The coercive fields (H c ) were obtained to be 135.3, 327.79 and 127.29 Oe for x=0.02, 0.04 and 0.06, respectively. The ferromagnetism was assumed to originate from the exchange interaction between free carriers (holes or electrons) from the valence band and the localized d spins on the Ni ions. - Highlights: • Single crystal Zn 1−x Ni x O (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) hexagonal columns were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • The layer-by-layer growth manner of the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns was proposed. • Obvious room-temperature ferromagnetic characteristic of Zn 1−x Ni x O are observed and the coercivity (H c ) are 135.3,327.79 and 127.29 Oe for x=0.02, 0.04 and 0.06, respectively. • The exchange interaction between local-spin polarized electrons and conduction electrons is responsible for the room-temperature ferromagnetism in the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns

  11. Low-Temperature Rapid Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire UV Sensor Array by Laser-Induced Local Hydrothermal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjoon Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate ZnO nanowire based UV sensor by laser-induced hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire. By inducing a localized temperature rise using focused laser, ZnO nanowire array at ~15 μm size consists of individual nanowires with ~8 μm length and 200~400 nm diameter is readily synthesized on gold electrode within 30 min at the desired position. The laser-induced growth process is consecutively applied on two different points to bridge the micron gap between the electrodes. The resultant photoconductive ZnO NW interconnections display 2~3 orders increase in the current upon the UV exposure at a fixed voltage bias. It is also confirmed that the amount of photocurrent can be easily adjusted by changing the number of ZnO NW array junctions. The device exhibits clear response to the repeated UV illumination, suggesting that this process can be usefully applied for the facile fabrication of low-cost UV sensor array.

  12. Origin of green luminescence in ZnO thin film grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Y.W.; Norton, D.P.; Pearton, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    The properties of ZnO films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are reported. The primary focus was on understanding the origin of deep-level luminescence. A shift in deep-level emission from green to yellow is observed with reduced Zn pressure during the growth. Photoluminescence and Hall measurements were employed to study correlations between deep-level/near-band-edge emission and carrier density. With these results, we suggest that the green emission is related to donor-deep acceptor (Zn vacancy V Zn - ) and the yellow to donor-deep acceptor (oxygen vacancy, O i - )

  13. ZnO nanowall network grown by chemical vapor deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Amrita, E-mail: but.then.perhaps@gmail.com; Dhar, Subhabrata [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Network of wedge shaped ZnO nanowalls are grown on c-sapphire by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. Structural studies using x-ray diffraction show much better crystallinity in the nanowall sample as compared to the continuous film. Moreover, the defect related broad green luminescence is found to be suppressed in the nanowall sample. The low temperature photoluminescence study also suggests the quantum confinement of carriers in nanowall sample. Electrical studies performed on the nanowalls show higher conductivity, which has been explained in terms of the reduction of scattering cross-section as a result of 1D quantum confinement of carriers on the tip of the nanowalls.

  14. Optical and Magnetic Properties of Fe Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Obtained by Hydrothermal Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diluted magnetic semiconductors Zn1-xFexO nanoparticles with different doping concentration (x=0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. The crystal structure, morphology, and optical and magnetic properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, Raman scattering spectra (Raman, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The experiment results show that all samples synthesized by this method possess hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with good crystallization, no other impurity phases are observed, and the morphology of the sample shows the presence of ellipsoidal nanoparticles. All the Fe3+ successfully substituted for the lattice site of Zn2+ and generates single-phase Zn1-xFexO. Raman spectra shows that the peak shifts to higher frequency. PL spectra exhibit a slight blue shift and the UV emission is annihilated with the increase of Fe3+ concentration. Magnetic measurements indicated that Fe-doped ZnO samples exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and the saturation magnetization is enhanced with the increase of iron doping content.

  15. Zn-vacancy related defects in ZnO grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, F. C. C.; Luo, C. Q.; Wang, Z. L.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2017-02-01

    Undoped and Ga-doped ZnO (002) films were grown c-sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. Znvacancy related defects in the films were studied by different positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). These included Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) employing a continuous monenergetic positron beam, and positron lifetime spectroscopy using a pulsed monoenergetic positron beam attached to an electron linear accelerator. Two kinds of Znvacancy related defects namely a monovacancy and a divacancy were identified in the films. In as-grown undoped samples grown with relatively low oxygen pressure P(O2)≤1.3 Pa, monovacancy is the dominant Zn-vacancy related defect. Annealing these samples at 900 oC induced Zn out-diffusion into the substrate and converted the monovacancy to divacancy. For the undoped samples grown with high P(O2)=5 Pa irrespective of the annealing temperature and the as-grown degenerate Ga-doped sample (n=1020 cm-3), divacancy is the dominant Zn-vacancy related defect. The clustering of vacancy will be discussed.

  16. Random laser based on Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G doped poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    Full Text Available Random laser based on Rh6G doped PMMA thin films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by a simple hydrothermal oxidation method has been demonstrated. This kind of random laser medium is based on waveguide structure consisting of ZnO nanorods, Rh6G doped PMMA film and air. By controlling the time of hydrothermal oxidation reaction, wheat-like and hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods have been successfully fabricated. The emission spectra of these gain mediums based on different ZnO nanorods are different. The one based on wheat-like ZnO nanorods mainly exhibits amplified spontaneous emission, and the other one based on hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods shows random laser emission. The threshold of the random laser medium is about 73.8 μJ/pulse, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM is around 2.1 nm. The emission spectra measured at different detecting angles reveal that the output direction is strongly confined in ±30° by the waveguide effect. Our experiments demonstrate a promising method to achieve organic random laser medium. Keywords: Random laser, ZnO nanorods, Hydrothermal oxidation, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G, Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA

  17. Structural and room temperature ferromagnetic properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles via low-temperature hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kun; Liu, Changzhen, E-mail: liuchangzhen94@163.com; Chen, Rui; Fang, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Xiuling; Liu, Jie

    2016-12-01

    A series of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O (x=0, 1%, 3%, 5%) nanoparticles have been synthesized via a low-temperature hydrothermal method. Influence of Ni doping concentration on the structure, morphology, optical properties and magnetism of the samples was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometer and vibrating sample magnetometer instruments. The results show that the undoped and doped ZnO nanoparticles are both hexagonal wurtzite structures. The surface analysis was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. The images of SEM reveal that the structure of pure ZnO and Ni doped samples are nanoparticles which intended to form flakes with thickness of few nanometers, being overlain with each one to develop the network with some pores and voids. Based on the ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy analysis, it indicates that the band gap energy decreases with the increasing concentration of Ni. Furthermore, The Ni doped ZnO samples didn't exhibit higher ultraviolet-light-driven photocatalytic activity compared to the undoped ZnO sample. Vibrating sample magnetometer was used for the magnetic property investigations, and the result indicates that room temperature ferromagnetism property of 3% Ni doped sample is attributed to oxygen vacancy and interaction between doped ions.

  18. Polycrystalline ZnO: B grown by LPCVD as TCO for thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, Sylvie; Steinhauser, Jerome; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Conductive zinc oxide (ZnO) grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique possesses a rough surface that induces an efficient light scattering in thin film silicon (TF Si) solar cells, which makes this TCO an ideal candidate for contacting such devices. IMT-EPFL has developed an in-house LPCVD process for the deposition of nanotextured boron doped ZnO films used as rough TCO for TF Si solar cells. This paper is a general review and synthesis of the study of the electrical, optical and structural properties of the ZnO:B that has been performed at IMT-EPFL. The influence of the free carrier absorption and the grain size on the electrical and optical properties of LPCVD ZnO:B is discussed. Transport mechanisms at grain boundaries are studied. It is seen that high doping of the ZnO grains facilitates the tunnelling of the electrons through potential barriers that are located at the grain boundaries. Therefore, even if these potential barriers increase after an exposition of the film to a humid atmosphere, the heavily doped LPCVD ZnO:B layers show a remarkable stable conductivity. However, the introduction of diborane in the CVD reaction induces also a degradation of the intra-grain mobility and increases over-proportionally the optical absorption of the ZnO:B films. Hence, the necessity to finely tune the doping level of LPCVD ZnO:B films is highlighted. Finally, the next challenges to push further the optimization of LPCVD ZnO:B films for thin film silicon solar cells are discussed, as well as some remarkable record cell results achieved with LPCVD ZnO:B as front electrode.

  19. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-?m line width, 9-?m pitch, and 6-?m height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed...

  20. Effects of annealing on the recombination dynamics of low-temperature grown ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilker, B.; Bekeny, C.; Voss, T.; Gutowski, J. [IFP, Universitaet Bremen, 28334 Bremen (Germany); Hauschild, R.; Kalt, H. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Postels, B.; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, A. [IHT, TU Braunschweig, 38023 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    We present systematic temperature and excitation density dependent time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements of as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods fabricated by an aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique at {proportional_to}90 C. The as-grown nanorods show strong nearband-edge and rather weak deep-level emission indicating their already good optical quality. At 4K, we find a broad emission line at 3.36 eV (line width 30 meV) which we attribute to recombination from a donor band formed through the high donor concentration. After annealing in oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres at 600-800 C well-resolved and sharper excitonic transitions are observed. To understand the recombination dynamics in the nanorods we carried out TRPL measurements using a frequency-doubled femtosecond laser and a streak camera. The as-grown sample shows a very fast monoexponential decay time of {proportional_to}10ps independent of temperature and excitation density. In contrast, the annealed samples exhibit a biexponential decay. Each a fast {tau}1 and a slow {tau}2 time constant have been determined for all annealed samples both of them significantly varying depending on the annealing atmosphere and temperature. This will be discussed on the basis of a phenomenological rate-equation model.

  1. Influence of External Gaseous Environments on the Electrical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Obtained by a Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Procek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental investigations of ZnO nanostructures, consisting of a mixture of nanoparticles and nanowires, obtained by the chemical (hydrothermal method. The influences of both oxidizing (NO2 and reducing gases (H2, NH3, as well as relative humidity (RH on the physical and chemical properties of ZnO nanostructures were tested. Carrier gas effect on the structure interaction with gases was also tested; experiments were conducted in air and nitrogen (N2 atmospheres. The effect of investigated gases on the resistance of the ZnO nanostructures was tested over a wide range of concentrations at room temperature (RT and at 200 °C. The impact of near- ultraviolet (UV excitation (λ = 390 nm at RT was also studied. These investigations indicated a high response of ZnO nanostructures to small concentrations of NO2. The structure responses to 1 ppm of NO2 amounted to about: 600% in N2/230% in air at 200 °C (in dark conditions and 430% in N2/340% in air at RT (with UV excitation. The response of the structure to the effect of NO2 at 200 °C is more than 105 times greater than the response to NH3, and more than 106 times greater than that to H2 in the relation of 1 ppm. Thus the selectivity of the structure for NO2 is very good. What is more, the selectivity to NO2 at RT with UV excitation increases in comparison at elevated temperature. This paper presents a great potential for practical applications of ZnO nanostructures (including nanoparticles in resistive NO2 sensors.

  2. Photoluminescence transient study of surface defects in ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagiovanni, E. G.; Strano, V.; Franzò, G.; Crupi, I.; Mirabella, S.

    2015-03-01

    Two deep level defects (2.25 and 2.03 eV) associated with oxygen vacancies (Vo) were identified in ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown by low cost chemical bath deposition. A transient behaviour in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the two Vo states was found to be sensitive to the ambient environment and to NR post-growth treatment. The largest transient was found in samples dried on a hot plate with a PL intensity decay time, in air only, of 23 and 80 s for the 2.25 and 2.03 eV peaks, respectively. Resistance measurements under UV exposure exhibited a transient behaviour in full agreement with the PL transient, indicating a clear role of atmospheric O2 on the surface defect states. A model for surface defect transient behaviour due to band bending with respect to the Fermi level is proposed. The results have implications for a variety of sensing and photovoltaic applications of ZnO NRs.

  3. Optical and Morphological Properties of ZnO- and TiO2-Derived Nanostructures Synthesized via a Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosipho Moloto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to synthesize ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures. The experimental results show that the method resulted in crystalline monodispersed ZnO nanorods that have pointed tips with hexagonal crystal phase. TiO2 nanotubes were also formed with minimum bundles. The mechanism for the formation of the tubes was validated by HRTEM results. The optical properties of both ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures showed characteristics of strong quantum confinement regime. The photoluminescence spectrum of TiO2 nanotubes shows good improvement from previously reported data.

  4. Photoluminescence study of aligned ZnO nanorods grown using chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgessa, Z.N.; Oluwafemi, O.S.; Dangbegnon, J.K.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The photoluminescence study of self-assembled ZnO nanorods grown on a pre-treated Si substrate by a simple chemical bath deposition method at a temperature of 80 °C is hereby reported. By annealing in O 2 environment the UV emission is enhanced with diminishing deep level emission suggesting that most of the deep level emission is due to oxygen vacancies. The photoluminescence was investigated from 10 K to room temperature. The low temperature photoluminescence spectrum is dominated by donor-bound exciton. The activation energy and binding energy of shallow donors giving rise to bound exciton emission were calculated to be around 13.2 meV, 46 meV, respectively. Depending on these energy values and nature of growth environment, hydrogen is suggested to be the possible contaminating element acting as a donor.

  5. Photoluminescence study of aligned ZnO nanorods grown using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgessa, Z.N. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, O.S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI, 5117 (South Africa); Dangbegnon, J.K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Botha, J.R., E-mail: Reinhardt.Botha@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The photoluminescence study of self-assembled ZnO nanorods grown on a pre-treated Si substrate by a simple chemical bath deposition method at a temperature of 80 Degree-Sign C is hereby reported. By annealing in O{sub 2} environment the UV emission is enhanced with diminishing deep level emission suggesting that most of the deep level emission is due to oxygen vacancies. The photoluminescence was investigated from 10 K to room temperature. The low temperature photoluminescence spectrum is dominated by donor-bound exciton. The activation energy and binding energy of shallow donors giving rise to bound exciton emission were calculated to be around 13.2 meV, 46 meV, respectively. Depending on these energy values and nature of growth environment, hydrogen is suggested to be the possible contaminating element acting as a donor.

  6. Investigation of the Influence of the As-Grown ZnO Nanorods and Applied Potentials on an Electrochemical Sensor for In-Vitro Glucose Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Marie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the as-grown zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs on the fabricated electrochemical sensor for in vitro glucose monitoring were investigated. A direct growth of ZnO NRs was performed on the Si/SiO2/Au electrode, using hydrothermal and sol-gel techniques at low temperatures. The structure, consisting of a Si/SiO2/Au/GOx/Nafion membrane, was considered as a baseline, and it was tested under several applied potential 0.1–0.8 V. The immobilized working electrode, with GOx and a nafion membrane, was characterized amperometrically using a source meter Keithely 2410, and an electrochemical impedance Gamry potentiostat. The sensor exhibited the following: a high sensitivity of ~0.468 mA/cm2 mM, a low detection limit in the order of 166.6 µM, and a fast and sharp response time of around 2 s. The highest sensitivity and the lowest limit of detection were obtained at 0.4 volt, after the growth of ZnO NRs. The highest net sensitivity was obtained after subtracting the sensitivity of the baseline, and it was in the order of 0.315 mA/cm2·mM. The device was tested with a range of glucose concentrations from 1–10 mM, showing a linear line from 3–8 mM, and the device was saturated after exceeding high concentrations of glucose. Such devices can be used for in vitro glucose monitoring, since glucose changes can be accurately detected.

  7. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.; Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.

  8. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z 1 ) and nanograins by SILAR (Z 2 ). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10 2 Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10 5 Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method

  9. A prototype Ultraviolet Light Sensor based on ZnO Nanoparticles/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Using Low Temperature Hydrothermal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fandi, M; Oweis, R; Khwailah, H; Al-Hattami, S; Al-Shawwa, E; Albiss, B A; Al-Akhras, M-Ali; Qutaish, H; AlZoubi, T

    2015-01-01

    A new prototype UV nanosensor using ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite (ZnO-NP/GO) on silicon substrate is reported in this paper. The hybrid nanocomposite structure has been developed by an optimized hydrothermal process at low growth temperature (∼50 °C). In this hybrid nanosensor, the ZnO nanoparticles act as UV- absorbing and charge carrier generating material, while graphene with its superior electrical conductivity has been used as a charge transporting material. Various nanostructure characterization techniques were intensively utilized including SEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR and UV-VIS. Also, the I-V measurement was employed to evaluate the prototype sensor. The morphological SEM analysis showed that the ZnO-NPs (average diameter of 20 nm) were dispersed evenly on the GO sheets. As well, the EDX spectra confirmed the exact chemical composition of the intended structure. The room temperature UV-VIS measurement revealed an enhanced optical absorption of UV-light at an absorption band centered on 375 nm. The improved optical and electrical properties were observed at an optimum relative concentration of 1:10. Under UV light illumination, the measured I-V characteristic of the prototype detector exhibited a considerable photocurrent increase of the ZnO-NP/GO nanocomposite compared to pristine ZnO nanostructure. These results can be promising for future enhanced UV- sensing applications. (paper)

  10. Iron (III Ion Sensor Based on the Seedless Grown ZnO Nanorods in 3 Dimensions Using Nickel Foam Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Ali Abbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the seedless, highly aligned and vertical ZnO nanorods in 3 dimensions (3D were grown on the nickel foam substrate. The seedless grown ZnO nanorods were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The characterised seedless ZnO nanorods in 3D on nickel foam were highly dense, perpendicular to substrate, grown along the (002 crystal plane, and also composed of single crystal. In addition to this, these seedless ZnO nanorods were functionalized with trans-dinitro-dibenzo-18-6 crown ether, a selective iron (III ion ionophore, along with other components of membrane composition such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC, 2-nitopentylphenyl ether as plasticizer (NPPE, and tetrabutyl ammonium tetraphenylborate (TBATPB as conductivity increaser. The sensor electrode has shown high linearity with a wide range of detection of iron (III ion concentrations from 0.005 mM to 100 mM. The low limit of detection of the proposed ion selective electrode was found to be 0.001 mM. The proposed sensor also described high storage stability, selectivity, reproducibility, and repeatability and a quick response time of less than 10 s.

  11. Doping properties of ZnO thin films for photovoltaic devices grown by URT-IP (ion plating) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, K.; Sakemi, T.; Yamada, A.; Fons, P.; Awai, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsubara, M.; Tampo, H.; Sakurai, K.; Ishizuka, S.; Niki, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Uramoto-gun with Tanaka magnetic field (URT)-ion plating (IP) method is a novel ion plating technique for thin film deposition. This method offers the advantage of low-ion damage, low deposition temperatures, large area deposition and high growth rates. Ga-doped ZnO thin films were grown using the URT-IP method, and the doping properties were evaluated. The opposing goals of low Ga composition and low resistivity are required for industrial applications of transparent conductive oxide (TCO). We have carried out a comparison between the carrier concentration and Ga atomic concentration in Ga-doped ZnO thin films and found the trade-off point for optimal TCO performance. The optimum growth conditions were obtained using a 3% Ga 2 O 3 content ZnO target

  12. The Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB on the Properties of ZnO Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using different molar ratios of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as structure directing agents. The effect of surfactants on the morphology of the ZnO crystals was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. The results indicate that the mixture of cationic-anionic surfactants can significantly modify the shape and size of ZnO particles. Various structures such as flakes, sheets, rods, spheres, flowers and triangular-like particles sized from micro to nano were obtained. In order to examine the possible changes in other properties of ZnO, characterizations like powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG, FTIR, surface area and porosity and UV-visible spectroscopy analysis were also studied and discussed.

  13. Hydrothermally synthesized PZT film grown in highly concentrated KOH solution with large electromechanical coupling coefficient for resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Lee, Kuan-Yi

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a study of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films hydrothermally grown on a dome-shaped titanium diaphragm. Few articles in the literature address the implementation of hydrothermal PZT films on curved-diaphragm substrates for resonators. In this study, a 50-μm-thick titanium sheet is embossed using balls of designed dimensions to shape a dome-shaped cavity array. Through single-process hydrothermal synthesis, PZT films are grown on both sides of the processed titanium diaphragm with good adhesion and uniformity. The hydrothermal synthesis process involves a high concentration of potassium hydroxide solution and excess amounts of lead acetate and zirconium oxychloride octahydrate. Varied deposition times and temperatures of PZT films are investigated. The grown films are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The 10-μm-thick PZT dome-shaped resonators with 60- and 20-μm-thick supporting layers are implemented and further tested. Results for both resonators indicate that large electromechanical coupling coefficients and a series resonance of 95 MHz from 14 MHz can be attained. The device is connected to a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for analysis of oscillator applications. The oscillator reaches a Q value of 6300 in air. The resonator exhibits a better sensing stability when loaded with water when compared with air.

  14. Construction of 3D Arrays of Cylindrically Hierarchical Structures with ZnO Nanorods Hydrothermally Synthesized on Optical Fiber Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixuan Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With ZnO nanorods hydrothermally synthesized on manually assembled arrays of optical fiber cores, 3D arrays of ZnO nanorod-based cylindrically hierarchical structures with nominal pitch 250 μm or 375 μm were constructed. Based on micrographs of scanning electron microscopy and image processing operators of MATLAB software, the 3D arrays of cylindrically hierarchical structures were quantitatively characterized. The values of the actual diameters, the actual pitches, and the parallelism errors suggest that the process capability of the manual assembling is sufficient and the quality of the 3D arrays of cylindrically hierarchical structures is acceptable. The values of the characteristic parameters such as roughness, skewness, kurtosis, correlation length, and power spectrum density show that the surface morphologies of the cylindrically hierarchical structures not only were affected significantly by Zn2+ concentration of the growth solution but also were anisotropic due to different curvature radii of the optical fiber core at side and front view.

  15. Aloe vera mediated hydrothermal synthesis of reduced graphene oxide decorated ZnO nanocomposite: Luminescence and antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavyashree, D.; Nagabhushana, H.; Ananda Kumari, R.; Basavaraj, R. B.; Suresh, D.; Daruka Prasad, B.; Sharma, S. C.

    2016-05-01

    A zinc oxide/reduced graphene oxide (ZnO/rGO) nanocomposite was fabricated by facile hydrothermal route using Aloe vera gel as surfactant. The PL emission spectrum of the ZnO/rGO composite consists of four peaks at around 380, 394, 449 and 465nm. The PL intensity is found to diminish in ZnO-rGO composites rather than in pure ZnO, which was attributed to electron transfer from ZnO to rGO. A single intense glow curve was recorded in rGo-ZnO for a dose range of 1-8kGy. The TL response curve of rGO-ZnO is found to be a simple glow curve structure, linear dependence over a dose range of 1-8kGy. The obtained ZnO/rGO composite could provide a facile and eco-friendly method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in radiation dosimetry and antioxidant activities.

  16. Effect of ALD surface treatment on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin-Tak [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyukhyun, E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we report on the improvement of the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on seed ZnO nanorods. After the initial growth of ZnO seed nanorods by hydrothermal synthesis for 1 h, a ZnO layer with a thickness of 10 nm was deposited on the initial ZnO seed nanorods using ALD. Then ZnO was further grown by hydrothermal synthesis for 4 h. The samples were characterized using room temperature photoluminescence (PL), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). From this experiment, it was found that the ZnO nanorods with the ALD surface treatment show improved optical and structural properties when compared with the ZnO nanorods grown only by hydrothermal synthesis. The ZnO nanorods with the ALD surface treatment show about 2.7 times higher XRD (0 0 2) peak intensity, about 2.64 times higher PL NBE peak intensity, and about 3.1 times better NBE/DLE ratio than the ZnO nanorods without an ALD surface treatment.

  17. Effects of the aspect ratio on the dye adsorption of ZnO nanorods grown by using a sonochemical method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seok Cheol; Yun, Won Suk; Sohn, Sang Ho; Oh, Sang Jin

    2012-01-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods for the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were grown via a sonochemical method, and the effects of their aspect ratios on the dye adsorption in DSSCs were studied. The control of the aspect ratio of well-aligned ZnO nanorods was performed by tuning the mole concentration of zinc acetate dehydrate in the range of 0.04 ∼ 0.06M. The dye amounts adsorbed in the ZnO nanorods were estimated from the UV-Visible absorbance by using the Beer-Lambert law. The efficiency of DSSCs with ZnO nanorods was measured to investigate the effects of the aspect ratio of the ZnO nanorods on the dye adsorption properties. A change in the aspect ratio of the ZnO nanorods was founded to yield a change in their dye adsorption ability, resulting in a change in the efficiency of the DSSCs.

  18. Optical and morphological properties of ZnO- and TiO2-derived nanostructures synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moloto, N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporation International Journal of Photoenergy Volume 2012, Article ID 189069, 6 pages doi:10.1155/2012/189069 Research Article Optical and Morphological Properties of ZnO- and TiO2-Derived Nanostructures Synthesized via a Microwave... International Journal of Photoenergy the sol-gel, hydrothermal process, and pulse laser deposition [22?24]. Although the sol-gel method is widely accepted for the preparation of both ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures, the calcinations process is essential and can...

  19. Characterization of ZnO thin films grown on different p-Si substrate elaborated by solgel spin-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebil, W., E-mail: Chbil.widad@live.fr [Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Unité de Service Commun de Recherche “High resolution X-ray diffractometer”, Département de Physique, Université de Monastir, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Fouzri, A. [Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Unité de Service Commun de Recherche “High resolution X-ray diffractometer”, Département de Physique, Université de Monastir, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie de Sousse, Université de Sousse (Tunisia); Fargi, A. [Laboratoire de Microélectronique et Instrumentation, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Azeza, B.; Zaaboub, Z. [Laboratoire Micro-Optoélectroniques et Nanostructures, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnO thin films grown on different p-Si substrates were successful obtained by sol–gel process. • PL measurement revealed that ZnO thin film grown on porous Si has the better optical quality. • I–V characteristics for all heterojunctions exhibit successful diode formation. • The diode ZnO/PSi shows a better photovoltaic effect under illumination with a maximum {sub Voc} of 0.2 V. - Abstract: In this study, ZnO thin films are deposited by sol–gel technique on p-type crystalline silicon (Si) with [100] orientation, etched silicon and porous silicon. The structural analyses showed that the obtained thin films were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented along the c-axis direction. Morphological study revealed the presence of rounded and facetted grains irregularly distributed on the surface of all samples. PL spectra at room temperature revealed that ZnO thin film grown on porous Si has a strong UV emission with low defects in the visible region comparing with ZnO grown on plat Si and etched Si surface. The heterojunction parameters were evaluated from the (I–V) under dark and illumination at room temperature. The ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance of heterojunction grown on different p-Si substrates are determined by using different methods. Best electrical properties are obtained for ZnO layer deposited on porous silicon.

  20. Red luminescence from hydrothermally synthesized Eu-doped ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    turally characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy ... II–VI compound semiconductor with large exciton binding .... ions occupy a site with inversion symmetry and 617 nm ... TEM image of Eu-doped ZnO nanoparticles with (a) 1⋅2 at. .... Jacquier B, Lebrasseur E, Guy S, Belarouci A and Menchini F.

  1. Structural characterization of ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire with MgO buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecz, B.; El-Shaer, A.; Bakin, A.; Mofor, A.-C.; Waag, A.; Stoemenos, J.

    2006-01-01

    The structural characteristics of the ZnO film grown on sapphire substrate using a thin MgO buffer layer were studied using transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The growth was carried out in a modified plasma-molecular beam epitaxy system. The observed misfit dislocations were well confined at the sapphire overgrown interface exhibiting domain matching epitaxy, where the integral multiples of lattice constants match across the interface. The main extended defects in the ZnO film were the threading dislocations having a mean density of 4x10 9 cm -2 . The formation of the MgO buffer layer as well as the ZnO growth were monitored in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The very thin ∼1 nm, MgO buffer layer can partially interdiffuse with the ZnO as well as react with the Al 2 O 3 substrate forming an intermediate epitaxial layer having the spinel (MgO/Al 2 O 3 ) structure

  2. Effects of Post Heat Treatments on ZnO Thin-Films Grown on Zn-coated Teflon Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ikhyun; Nam, Giwoong; Lee, Cheoleon; Kim, Dongwhan; Choi, Hyonkwang; Kim, Yangsoo; Leem, Jae-Young [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Soo [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Su [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jeong-Sik [Kyungwoon University, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    ZnO thin films were first grown on Zn-coated Teflon substrates using a spin-coating method, with various post-heating temperatures. The structural and optical properties of the ZnO thin films were then investigated using field-effect scanning-electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The surface morphology of these ZnO thin films exhibited dendritic structures. With increasing post-heating temperature, all samples preferentially exhibited preferential c-axis orientation and increased residual tensile stress. All of the films exhibited preferential c-axis orientation, and the residual tensile stress of those increased with increasing post-heating temperature. The near-band-edge emission (NBE) peaks were red-shifted after post-heating treatment at 400 ℃. The intensity of the deep-level emission (DLE) peaks gradually decreased with increasing post- heating temperature. Moreover, the narrowest ‘full width at half maximum’ (FWHM) and the highest intensity ratio of the NBE to the DLE for thin films, were observed after post-heating at 400 ℃. The ZnO thin films fabricated with the 400 ℃ post-heating process provided the highest crystallinity and optical properties.

  3. Photoluminescence quenching, structures, and photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanostructures decorated plasma grown single walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, Brahim, E-mail: brahim.aissa@mpbc.ca [University of Quebec, Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS-EMT (Canada); Nedil, Mourad [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT (Canada); Belaidi, Abdelhak; Isaifan, Rima J. [Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (Qatar); Bentouaf, Ali [University Hassiba Ben Bouali, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Algeria); Fauteux, Christian; Therriault, Daniel [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Laboratory for Multiscale Mechanics (LM2), Mechanical Engineering Department (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were successfully grown directly on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) template through the CO{sub 2} laser-induced chemical liquid deposition (LCLD) process. Photoluminescence (PL) of the deposited ZnO/SWCNT hybrid composites exhibits, at room temperature, a narrow near UV band located at 390 nm with no emission bands in the visible region, indicating a high degree of crystalline quality of the ZnO nanostructures. Moreover, when the relative SWCNT loads are varied within the composites, the PL intensity and the diffused optical reflectance diminish in comparison with those of ZnO alone, owing to the transfer of photo-excited electrons from ZnO to the SWCNT, and the enhancement of the optical absorbance, respectively. Finally, these ZnO/SWCNT hybrid composites are integrated into a heterojunction photovoltaic-based device, using PEDOT:PSS on ITO/glass substrate. The devices show an evident p–n junction behavior in the dark, and a clear I–V curve shift downward when illuminated with an open-circuit voltage of 1.1 V, a short circuit current density of 14.05 μA cm{sup −2}, and a fill factor of ∼35%. These results indicate that these composites fabricated via LCLD process could be promising for optoelectronic and energy-harvesting devices.

  4. ALD grown nanostructured ZnO thin films: Effect of substrate temperature on thickness and energy band gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnO thin films with high transparency have been grown on glass substrate by atomic layer deposition at various temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 300 °C. Efforts have been made to observe the effect of substrate temperature on the thickness of the deposited thin films and its consequences on the energy band gap. A remarkably high growth rate of 0.56 nm per cycle at a substrate temperature of 200 °C for ZnO thin films have been achieved. This is the maximum growth rate for ALD deposited ZnO thin films ever reported so far to the best of our knowledge. The studies of field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry patterns confirm the deposition of uniform and high quality nanosturtured ZnO thin films which have a polycrystalline nature with preferential orientation along (100 plane. The thickness of the films deposited at different substrate temperatures was measured by ellipsometry and surface profiling system while the UV–visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies have been used to evaluate the optical properties of the respective thin films. It has been observed that the thickness of the thin film depends on the substrate temperatures which ultimately affect the optical and structural parameters of the thin films.

  5. Simulation, fabrication and characterization of ZnO based thin film transistors grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shaivalini; Chakrabarti, P

    2012-03-01

    We report the performance of the thin film transistors (TFTs) using ZnO as an active channel layer grown by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The bottom gate type TFT, consists of a conventional thermally grown SiO2 as gate insulator onto p-type Si substrates. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the ZnO films are preferentially orientated in the (002) plane, with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. A typical ZnO TFT fabricated by this method exhibits saturation field effect mobility of about 0.6134 cm2/V s, an on to off ratio of 102, an off current of 2.0 x 10(-7) A, and a threshold voltage of 3.1 V at room temperature. Simulation of this TFT is also carried out by using the commercial software modeling tool ATLAS from Silvaco-International. The simulated global characteristics of the device were compared and contrasted with those measured experimentally. The experimental results are in fairly good agreement with those obtained from simulation.

  6. Optimization of CVD parameters for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a II–VI compound semiconductor with a wide direct energy .... observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM/JEOL–. JSM 5140) ... SEM images of ZnO NWs growth on ITO–glass at argon to oxygen flow rate = 200/20 ...

  7. Influence of annealing temperature on ZnO thin films grown by dual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    In electrical characterization as well, when annealing temperature was increased .... of ZnO (002) peaks and (c) crystallite size and stress generation on ZnO thin films ... sufficient kinetic energy and surface mobility to occupy stable positions ...

  8. Structural and Optical Properties of Group III Doped Hydrothermal ZnO Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad J.; Carberry, Benjamin; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    . The hydrothermal layer is doped with Al, Ga, and In through the addition of their respective nitrate salts. We evaluated the effect that varying the concentrations of these dopants has on both the structural and optical properties of these films. It was found

  9. Decoration of ZnO Nanorods with Coral Reefs like NiO Nanostructures by the Hydrothermal Growth Method and Their Luminescence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Ali Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO/n-type ZnO were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation shows that the adopted synthesis leads to high crystalline quality nanostructures. The morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures are dominated mainly by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence of the decorated ZnO nanostructures is enhanced by the presence of the NiO.

  10. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, J.; Valenta, J.; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I.; Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 25 (2015), "251902-1"-"251902-4" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0958 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : defects * dependence * acceptor * vacancy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  11. A Systematic Study of the Relationship among the Morphological, Structural and Photoelectrochemical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown Using the Microwave Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sungjin; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were grown on a ZnO seed layer/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate for different growth durations ranging from 5 to 40 min using the microwave chemical bath deposition method. We studied the effect of growth duration on the morphological, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. From this study, we found that the photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were largely affected by their morphological and structural properties. As a result, we obtained the highest photocurrent density of 0.46 mA/cm{sup 2} (at 1.5 V vs. SCE) from the sample grown for 30 min.

  12. The optical properties of ZnO films grown on porous Si templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y L; Liu, Y C; Yang, H; Wang, W B; Ma, J G; Zhang, J Y; Lu, Y M; Shen, D Z; Fan, X W

    2003-01-01

    ZnO films were electrodeposited on porous silicon templates with different porosities. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the samples before and after deposition of ZnO were measured to study the effect of template porosity on the luminescence properties of ZnO/porous Si composites. As-prepared porous Si (PS) templates emit strong red light. The red PL peak of porous Si after deposition of ZnO shows an obvious blueshift, and the trend of blueshift increases with an increase in template porosity. A green emission at about 550 nm was also observed when the porosity of template increases, which is ascribed to the deep-level emission band of ZnO. A model-based band diagram of the ZnO/porous Si composite is suggested to interpret the properties of the composite

  13. Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Sophie; Parize, Romain; Carabetta, Joseph; Cantelli, Valentina; Albertini, David; Gautier, Brice; Brémond, Georges; Fong, Dillon D.; Renevier, Hubert; Consonni, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    The polarity in ZnO nanowires is an important issue since it strongly affects surface configuration and reactivity, nucleation and growth, electro-optical properties, and nanoscale-engineering device performances. However, measuring statistically the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays grown by chemical bath deposition and elucidating its correlation with the polarity of the underneath polycrystalline ZnO seed layer grown by the sol-gel process represents a major difficulty. To address that issue, we combine resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) at Zn K-edge using synchrotron radiation with piezoelectric force microscopy and polarity-sensitive chemical etching to statistically investigate the polarity of more than 107 nano-objects both on the macroscopic and local microscopic scales, respectively. By using high temperature annealing under an argon atmosphere, it is shown that the compact, highly c-axis oriented ZnO seed layer is more than 92% Zn-polar and that only a few small O-polar ZnO grains with an amount less than 8% are formed. Correlatively, the resulting ZnO nanowires are also found to be Zn-polar, indicating that their polarity is transferred from the c-axis oriented ZnO grains acting as nucleation sites in the seed layer. These findings pave the way for the development of new strategies to form unipolar ZnO nanowire arrays as a requirement for a number of nanoscale-engineering devices like piezoelectric nanogenerators. They also highlight the great advantage of resonant XRD as a macroscopic, non-destructive method to simultaneously and statistically measure the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays and of the underneath ZnO seed layer.

  14. Effect of Zn(NO3)2 concentration in hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition on morphology and photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur

    2016-04-01

    Zn(NO3)2 concentration had been reported to be significantly influential on electrodeposition of ZnO structures. In this work, this issue is revisited using hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition (HED). Seedless, cathodic electrochemical deposition of ZnO films is carried out on ITO electrode at 130 °C in a closed glass reactor with varying Zn(NO3)2 concentration. Regardless of the concentration of Zn2+ precursor (0.001-0.1 M) in the deposition solution, vertically aligned 1-D ZnO nanorods are obtained as opposed to electrodepositions at lower temperatures (70-80 °C). We also report the effects of high bath temperature and pressure on the photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO films. Manipulation of precursor concentration in the deposition solution allows adjustment of the aspect ratio of the nanorods and the degree of texturation along the c-axis; hence photoinduced current density. HED is shown to provide a single step synthesis route to prepare ZnO rods with desired aspect ratio specific for the desired application just by controlling the precursor concentration.

  15. Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaikun; Xu, Congkang; Huang, Liwei; Zou, Lianfeng; Wang, Howard

    2011-10-07

    Using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films as the transparent conductive coating, inorganic/organic hybrid nanostructure heterojunction photovoltaic devices have been fabricated through hydrothermal synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and nanotubes (ZnO-NTs) on rGO films followed by the spin casting of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) film. The data show that larger interfacial area in ZnO-NT/P3HT composites improves the exciton dissociation and the higher electrode conductance of rGO films helps the power output. This study offers an alternative to manufacturing nanostructure heterojunction solar cells at low temperatures using potentially low cost materials.

  16. Integrated ZnO nanotube arrays as efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Y., E-mail: yxi6@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Wu, W.Z.; Fang, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Hu, C.G. [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tuning the reaction parameters, we got the best reaction conditions on ITO glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduce ZnO NTs design of photoanode featuring high aspect ratio structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design strategy integrates the optical fibers or ITO with ZnO NTs grown. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconducting material and has been considered as an alternative material in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. A high-performance nanotube (NT) photoanode must have a large surface area for dye adsorption in order to enhance conversion efficiency. In this work, the way of hydrothermally grown ZnO NT arrays on the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate is presented by utilizing a systematic study. By adjusting the hydrothermal reaction parameters, we attained the optimizing reaction conditions on the ITO substrate. Moreover, ZnO NT arrays are introduced as a photoanode on various substrates, such as optical fiber and ITO glass, for DSSCs applications. We took the contrast test with conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on ZnO NT arrays versus ZnO nanowire arrays on the ITO substrate, which the DSSC based on ZnO NT arrays shows significantly enhanced power conversion efficiency. Furthermore, the conversion efficiency of DSSC based on the ZnO NT arrays grown on an optical fiber substrate is enhanced up to 1.44%.

  17. Epitaxial properties of ZnO thin films on SrTiO3 substrates grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, X. H.; Li, Y. R.; Zhu, J.; Huang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Luo, W. B.; Ji, H.

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxial ZnO thin films with different orientations have been grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy on (001)- (011)-, and (111)-orientated SrTiO 3 single-crystal substrates. The growth behavior was in situ monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and the epitaxial orientation relations were reconfirmed by ex situ x-ray diffraction measurements. In the case of ZnO on SrTiO 3 (001), four orthogonal domains coexisted in the ZnO epilayer, i.e., ZnO(110) parallel SrTiO 3 (001) and ZnO[-111] parallel SrTiO 3 . For (011)- and (111)-orientated substrates, single-domain epitaxy with c axial orientation was observed, in which the in-plane relationship was ZnO[110] parallel SrTiO 3 [110] irrespective of the substrate orientations. Additionally, the crystalline quality of ZnO on SrTiO 3 (111) was better than that of ZnO on SrTiO 3 (011) because of the same symmetry between the (111) substrates and (001) films. The obtained results can be attributed to the difference of the in-plane crystallographic symmetry. Furthermore, those alignments can be explained by the interface stress between the substrates and the films

  18. Synthesis of Fe-Doped ZnO Nanorods by Rapid Mixing Hydrothermal Method and Its Application for High Performance UV Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Oeurn Chey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully synthesized Fe-doped ZnO nanorods by a new and simple method in which the adopted approach is by using ammonia as a continuous source of OH- for hydrolysis instead of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectra revealed that the Fe peaks were presented in the grown Fe-doped ZnO nanorods samples and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS results suggested that Fe3+ is incorporated into the ZnO lattice. Structural characterization indicated that the Fe-doped ZnO nanorods grow along the c-axis with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and have single crystalline nature without any secondary phases or clusters of FeO or Fe3O4 observed in the samples. The Fe-doped ZnO nanorods showed room temperature (300 K ferromagnetic magnetization versus field (M-H hysteresis and the magnetization increases from 2.5 μemu to 9.1 μemu for Zn0.99Fe0.01O and Zn0.95Fe0.05O, respectively. Moreover, the fabricated Au/Fe-doped ZnO Schottky diode based UV photodetector achieved 2.33 A/W of responsivity and 5 s of time response. Compared to other Au/ZnO nanorods Schottky devices, the presented responsivity is an improvement by a factor of 3.9.

  19. Facile Hydrothermal Preparation of ZNO/CO3O4 Heterogeneous Nanostructures and its Photovoltaic Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fanan; Jiang, Minlin; Liu, Lianqing

    2015-07-01

    Photovoltaic technology offers great potential in the replacement of fossil fuel resources, but still suffers from high device fabrication cost. Herein, we attempted to provide a solution to these issues with heterogeneous nanostructures. Firstly, Zinc oxide (ZnO)/cobalt oxide (Co3O4) heterojunction nanowires are prepared through facile fabrication methods. By assembling Co(OH)2 nanoplates on ZnO nanowire arrays, the ZnO/Co3O4 heterogeneous nanostructures are uniformly synthesized on ITO coated glass and wafer. Current (I)-voltage (V) measurement through conductive atomic force microscope shows excellent photovoltaic effect. And, the heterojunction nanostructures shows unprecedented high open circuit voltage. Therefore, the potential application of the heterogeneous nanostructures in solar cells is demonstrated.

  20. Performance of inverted polymer solar cells with randomly oriented ZnO nanorods coupled with atomic layer deposited ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, Muhammad; Yun, Ju-Young; Kim, Do-Heyoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods have been successfully adopted as the electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cells. • The addition of atomic layer deposited ZnO on the ZnO nanorods effectively enhance the photovoltaic performances of inverted organic solar cells. • The inverted organic solar cells with 5 nm thick-ALD ZnO showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of approximately 80% compared to the cells without the ALD ZnO layer (PCE = 1.67%). - Abstract: Nanostructuring of the electron transport layer (ETL) in organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) is of great interest because it increases the surface area of the cell and electron transport. In this work, hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been adopted as the ETL, and the effect of adding atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO on the ZnO NRs on the inverted organic solar cell performance has been investigated. The fabricated inverted organic solar cell with 5-nm-thick ALD-ZnO grown on the ZnO NRs showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of 85% from that of the cell without ALD-ZnO (PCE = 1.67%). The ultrathin ALD-ZnO was found to act as a curing layer of the surface defects on the hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs, resulting in an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

  1. Performance of inverted polymer solar cells with randomly oriented ZnO nanorods coupled with atomic layer deposited ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Muhammad [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Youngbong-dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ju-Young [Center for Vacuum, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-ro, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do-Heyoung, E-mail: kdhh@chonnam.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Youngbong-dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods have been successfully adopted as the electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cells. • The addition of atomic layer deposited ZnO on the ZnO nanorods effectively enhance the photovoltaic performances of inverted organic solar cells. • The inverted organic solar cells with 5 nm thick-ALD ZnO showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of approximately 80% compared to the cells without the ALD ZnO layer (PCE = 1.67%). - Abstract: Nanostructuring of the electron transport layer (ETL) in organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) is of great interest because it increases the surface area of the cell and electron transport. In this work, hydrothermally grown, randomly oriented, and low areal density ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been adopted as the ETL, and the effect of adding atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO on the ZnO NRs on the inverted organic solar cell performance has been investigated. The fabricated inverted organic solar cell with 5-nm-thick ALD-ZnO grown on the ZnO NRs showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08%, which is an enhancement of 85% from that of the cell without ALD-ZnO (PCE = 1.67%). The ultrathin ALD-ZnO was found to act as a curing layer of the surface defects on the hydrothermally grown ZnO NRs, resulting in an improvement in photovoltaic performance.

  2. Template-controlled piezoactivity of ZnO thin films grown via a bioinspired approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina J. Blumenstein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials are used as model systems for the deposition of functional inorganic materials under mild reaction conditions where organic templates direct the deposition process. In this study, this principle was adapted for the formation of piezoelectric ZnO thin films. The influence of two different organic templates (namely, a carboxylate-terminated self-assembled monolayer and a sulfonate-terminated polyelectrolyte multilayer on the deposition and therefore on the piezoelectric performance was investigated. While the low negative charge of the COOH-SAM is not able to support oriented attachment of the particles, the strongly negatively charged sulfonated polyelectrolyte leads to texturing of the ZnO film. This texture enables a piezoelectric performance of the material which was measured by piezoresponse force microscopy. This study shows that it is possible to tune the piezoelectric properties of ZnO by applying templates with different functionalities.

  3. ZnO nanorod arrays grown under different pressures and their photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Xiuqing [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhao Dongxu [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China)]. E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.cn; Shen Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China); Zhang Jiying [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China); Li Binghui [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China); Wang Xiaohua [National Key Laboratory of High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and technology, 7089 Weixing Road Changchun (China); Fan Xiwu [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic ZoneChangchun 130033 (China)

    2007-01-15

    The ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized via a simple vapor deposition method on Si (1 1 1) substrates at a low growth temperature of 520 deg. C. By selecting different source materials under different growth pressures, well-aligned hexagonal-shaped ZnO nanorod arrays were obtained under both conditions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the nanorods are c-axis orientated. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis demonstrated the individual nanorod is single crystal. Photoluminescence (PL) analyses show the superior optical properties of the nanorod arrays.

  4. ZnO nanorod arrays grown under different pressures and their photoluminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiuqing; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying; Li Binghui; Wang Xiaohua; Fan Xiwu

    2007-01-01

    The ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized via a simple vapor deposition method on Si (1 1 1) substrates at a low growth temperature of 520 deg. C. By selecting different source materials under different growth pressures, well-aligned hexagonal-shaped ZnO nanorod arrays were obtained under both conditions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the nanorods are c-axis orientated. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis demonstrated the individual nanorod is single crystal. Photoluminescence (PL) analyses show the superior optical properties of the nanorod arrays

  5. Zn(II)-PEG 300 globules as soft template for the synthesis of hexagonal ZnO micronuts by the hydrothermal reaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xixi; Pan, Lingling; Chen, Shuoping; Xiao, Yong; Liu, Qiaoyun; Yuan, Liangjie; Sun, Jutang; Cai, Lintao

    2009-05-19

    Hexagonal ZnO micronuts (HZMNs) have been successfully synthesized with the assistance of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 300 via a hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the HZMNs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). An individual ZnO micronut is revealed as twinned crystals. Time-dependent investigation shows that the growth of HZMNs involves a dissolution-recrystallization process followed by Ostwald ripening, in which is the first formed solid ZnO particles dissolve and transform to HZMNs with hollow structure. PEG 300 has been found to play a crucial role in the growth of this unique hollow structure. TEM observations show that the PEG chains aggregate to globules in water, which then have interaction with the dissolved zinc species to form the globules in a coiled state under hydrothermal conditions. These Zn(II)-PEG 300 globules act as soft template for the growth of HZMNs, and the possible growth mechanism is proposed. The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows red emission around 612 nm with a full width at half-maximum (fwhm) only about 13 nm.

  6. Photoluminescence studies of ZnO thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates grown by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Su [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Soaram [Department of Nano Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Yeob [Holcombe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Lee, Dong-Yul [LED R and D team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Soo [Research Center of Advanced Materials Development (RCAMD), Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-O [Holcombe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Kim, Jong Su [Department of Physics, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jeong-Sik [Department of Visual Optics, Kyungwoon University, Gumi, Gyeongsangbuk-do 730-850 (Korea, Republic of); Leem, Jae-Young, E-mail: jyleem@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates were grown by the sol-gel spin-coating method. The optical properties of the ZnO thin films were investigated using photoluminescence. In the UV range, the asymmetric near-band-edge emission was observed at 300 K, which consisted of two emissions at 3.338 and 3.279 eV. Eight peaks at 3.418, 3.402, 3.360, 3.288, 3.216, 3.145, 3.074, and 3.004 eV, which respectively correspond to the free exciton (FX), bound exciton, transverse optical (TO) phonon replica of FX recombination, and first-order longitudinal optical phonon replica of FX and the TO (1LO+TO), 2LO+TO, 3LO+TO, 4LO+TO, and 5LO+TO, were obtained at 12 K. From the temperature-dependent PL, it was found that the emission peaks at 3.338 and 3.279 eV corresponded to the FX and TO, respectively. The activation energy of the FX and TO emission peaks was found to be about 39.3 and 28.9 meV, respectively. The values of the fitting parameters of Varshni's empirical equation were {alpha}=4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV/K and {beta}=4.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} K, and the S factor of the ZnO thin films was 0.658. With increasing temperature, the exciton radiative lifetime of the FX and TO emissions increased. The temperature-dependent variation of the exciton radiative lifetime for the TO emission was slightly higher than that for the FX emission. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates were grown by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two emission peaks at 3.338 and 3.279 eV were observed at 300 K Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation energies of the two peaks were 39.3 and 28.9 meV,respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exciton radiative lifetime of the two peaks increased with increasing temperature.

  7. Characterization of CBD grown ZnO films with high c-axis orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, S., E-mail: suleymanmku@gmail.com [Physics Department, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Bayansal, F.; Cetinkara, H.A.; Cakmak, H.M.; Gueder, H.S. [Physics Department, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2012-06-15

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO films were deposited on seeded glass substrates. Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and chemical bath deposition (CBD) method were used to obtain seed layers and ZnO films. To see the effects of seed layer and deposition time, structural (e.g. grain size, microstrain and dislocation density), morphological, and electrical (e.g. resistivity, activation energy) properties of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and four point probe method. From the SEM images, resultant structures were found as well defined nanorods nearly perpendicular to the substrate surfaces and densely cover the substrates. The XRD patterns showed that ZnO films have hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred c-axis orientation along (002) plane. C-axis orientation was also supported by texture coefficient calculations. The lattice parameters of the structures were determined as a = 3.2268 A, b = 5.2745 A, {alpha} = {beta} = 90 Degree-Sign and {gamma} = 120 Degree-Sign . From the XRD patterns, it was revealed that, microstrain and dislocation density values of the structures decreased whereas grain size increased. This was attributed to enhancement occurred in lattice structure of the ZnO films. Activation energy values of the films were found in between 0.12 and 0.15 eV from the dark electrical resistivity-temperature characteristics in a temperature range of 300-500 K. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO nanorods (preferred orientation along (002) plane). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical activation energies were calculated in between 0.12 and 0.15 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstrain and dislocation density decreased with increasing deposition time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing deposition time was resulted in an increase in preferred orientation.

  8. Structural, optical, and hydrogenation properties of ZnO nanowall networks grown on a Si (1 1 1) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.C.; Lu, Y.M.; Zhang, Z.Z.; Li, B.H.; Shen, D.Z.; Yao, B.; Zhang, J.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Fan, X.W.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO nanowall networks were grown on a Si (1 1 1) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (P-MBE) without using catalysts. Scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM) confirmed the formation of nanowalls with a thickness of about 10-20 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the ZnO nanowall networks were crystallized in a wurtzite structure with their height parallel to the direction. Photoluminescence (PL) of the ZnO nanowall networks exhibited free excitons (FEs), donor-bound exciton (D 0 X), donor-acceptor pair (DAP), and free exciton to acceptor (FA) emissions. The growth mechanism of the ZnO nanowall networks was discussed, and their hydrogenation was also studied

  9. Effect of different sol concentrations on the properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on FTO substrates by sol-gel spin-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ikhyun; Kim, Younggyu; Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Dongwan; Park, Minju; Kim, Haeun; Lee, Wookbin; Leem, Jaeyoung; Kim, Jongsu; Kim, Jin Soo

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on fluorine-doped tinoxide (FTO) substrates were fabricated using the spin-coating method. The structural and the optical properties of the ZnO thin films prepared using different sol concentrations were investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurements, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry. The surface morphology of the ZnO thin films, as observed in the SEM images, exhibited a mountain-chain structure. XRD results indicated that the thin films were preferentially orientated along the direction of the c-axis and that the grain size of the ZnO thin films increased with increasing sol concentration. The PL spectra showed a strong ultraviolet emission peak at 3.22 eV and a broad orange emission peak at 2.0 eV. The intensities of deep-level emission (DLE) gradually increased with increasing sol concentration from 0.4 to 1.0 M. The transmittance spectra of the ZnO thin films showed that the ZnO thin films were transparent (∼85%) in the visible region and exhibited sharp absorption edges at 375 nm. Thus, The Urbach energy of ZnO thin films decreased with increasing sol concentration.

  10. Evolution of ZnO architecture on a nanoporous TiO{sub 2} film by a hydrothermal method and the photoelectrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yinhua; Wu Xiaoli; Zhang Wenli; Ni Liang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Sun Yueming, E-mail: yms418@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2011-03-15

    The synthesis of ZnO architecture on a fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) conducting glass pre-coated with nanoporous TiO{sub 2} film has been achieved by a one-step hydrothermal method at a temperature of 70 deg. C. The effect of the reaction time on the morphology of the ZnO architecture has been investigated, and a possible growth mechanism for the formation of the ZnO architecture is discussed in detail. The morphology and phase structures of the as-obtained composite films have been investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the growth time greatly affects the morphology of the obtained ZnO architecture. The photoelectrochemical performances of as-prepared composite films are measured by assembling them into dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSC based on the as-prepared composite film (2 h) has obtained the best power conversion efficiency of 1.845%. (semiconductor materials)

  11. Hydrothermal Growth and Application of ZnO Nanowire Films with ZnO and TiO2Buffer Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Chunhua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports the effects of the seed layers prepared by spin-coating and dip-coating methods on the morphology and density of ZnO nanowire arrays, thus on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The nanowire films with the thick ZnO buffer layer (~0.8–1 μm thick can improve the open circuit voltage of the DSSCs through suppressing carrier recombination, however, and cause the decrease of dye loading absorbed on ZnO nanowires. In order to further investigate the effect of TiO2buffer layer on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs, compared with the ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs without a compact TiO2buffer layer, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency and open circuit voltage of the ZnO DSSCs with the compact TiO2layer (~50 nm thick were improved by 3.9–12.5 and 2.4–41.7%, respectively. This can be attributed to the introduction of the compact TiO2layer prepared by sputtering method, which effectively suppressed carrier recombination occurring across both the film–electrolyte interface and the substrate–electrolyte interface.

  12. Effect of oxygen vacancy induced by pulsed magnetic field on the room-temperature ferromagnetic Ni-doped ZnO synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Min [Shanghai University, Laboratory for Microstructures, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 149 Yanchang Road, 200072 Shanghai (China); Li, Ying, E-mail: liying62@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Laboratory for Microstructures, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 149 Yanchang Road, 200072 Shanghai (China); Tariq, Muhammad; Hu, Yemin; Li, Wenxian; Zhu, Mingyuan; Jin, Hongmin [Shanghai University, Laboratory for Microstructures, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 149 Yanchang Road, 200072 Shanghai (China); Li, Yibing [School of Chemistry, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia)

    2016-08-05

    Room temperature ferromagnetic 2% Ni doped ZnO rods were synthesized by high pulsed magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal method. A detailed study on the effect of high pulsed magnetic field on morphology, structural and magnetic properties of the ZnO rods has been carried out systematically by varying the intensity of field from 0 to 4 T. X-ray diffraction, Energy-dispersive spectroscopy measurements, and Raman spectra analysis suggest that all the samples have hexagonal wurtzite structure without detectable impurity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images indicate that the particle size of samples decrease with increasing intensity of field. High resolution transmission electron microscopy observation ensures that the Ni ions addition do not change the wurtzite host matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the incorporation of Ni elements as divalent state and the dominant presence of oxygen vacancies in samples fabricated under 4 T pulsed magnetic field. Hysteresis loops demonstrate that the saturation magnetization increased regularly with the mounting magnetic field. On the framework of bound magnetic polaron model, the rising content of oxygen vacancies, as donor defect, lead to the stronger ferromagnetism in samples with pulsed magnetic field. Our findings provide a new insight for tuning the defect density by precisely controlling the intensity of field in order to get the desired magnetic behavior at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the magnetization versus magnetic field curves for 2%Ni doped ZnO as prepared with 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 T pulsed magnetic field at 290 K. For 0 T sample, no ferromagnetic response is observed. But all the samples synthesized with field were well-defined hysteresis loops. The saturation magnetization estimated from the hysteresis loop come out to be ∼0.0024, 0.0023, 0.0036 and 0.0061 emu/g for 1 T, 2 T, 3 T and 4 T samples, respectively. As shown in the curves, the room

  13. Sb-related defects in Sb-doped ZnO thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Caiqin; Ho, Lok-Ping; Azad, Fahad; Anwand, Wolfgang; Butterling, Maik; Wagner, Andreas; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Zhu, Hai; Su, Shichen; Ling, Francis Chi-Chung

    2018-04-01

    Sb-doped ZnO films were fabricated on c-plane sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition method and characterized by Hall effect measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and positron annihilation spectroscopy. Systematic studies on the growth conditions with different Sb composition, oxygen pressure, and post-growth annealing were conducted. If the Sb doping concentration is lower than the threshold ˜8 × 1020 cm-3, the as-grown films grown with an appropriate oxygen pressure could be n˜4 × 1020 cm-3. The shallow donor was attributed to the SbZn related defect. Annealing these samples led to the formation of the SbZn-2VZn shallow acceptor which subsequently compensated for the free carrier. For samples with Sb concentration exceeding the threshold, the yielded as-grown samples were highly resistive. X-ray diffraction results showed that the Sb dopant occupied the O site rather than the Zn site as the Sb doping exceeded the threshold, whereas the SbO related deep acceptor was responsible for the high resistivity of the samples.

  14. Evolution of microstructure and related optical properties of ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib Abou Chaaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of transmittance and photoluminescence spectra on the growth of oxygen-rich ultra-thin ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition is reported. The structural transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline state is observed upon increasing the thickness. The unusual behavior of the energy gap with thickness reflected by optical properties is attributed to the improvement of the crystalline structure resulting from a decreasing concentration of point defects at the growth of grains. The spectra of UV and visible photoluminescence emissions correspond to transitions near the band-edge and defect-related transitions. Additional emissions were observed from band-tail states near the edge. A high oxygen ratio and variable optical properties could be attractive for an application of atomic layer deposition (ALD deposited ultrathin ZnO films in optical sensors and biosensors.

  15. An efficient BTX sensor based on ZnO nanoflowers grown by CBD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, D.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, sensing performance of ZnO nanoflower like structures derived by chemical bath deposition method (CBD), towards Benzene Toluene and Xylene (BTX) vapors is reported. Relatively higher bath temperature (110 °C) and high pH value (pH: 11) of solution escort to higher growth rate along [0 0 0 1] plane of ZnO, which eventually resulted in pointed edge nanorod based flower like structures after 3 h. After detailed structural characterizations (field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)), existence of different defect states (viz. oxygen vacancy (Vo), Zinc vacancy (VZn) and Zinc interstitials (Zni)) were authenticated by Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. BTX sensing performance, employing the nanoflowers as the sensing layer, was carried out in resistive mode with two Pd lateral electrodes. The sensor study was performed at different temperatures (150-350 °C) in the concentration range of 0.5-700 ppm of the respective vapors. The highest normalized resistance response (NRR%) was achieved at 200 °C. At this optimum temperature, normalized resistance responses (39.3/92.6%, 45.8/96.9%, and 47.8/99% respectively) were found to be promising towards 0.5/700 ppm of benzene, toluene and xylene. The response time of the sensor towards the target species were also found to be appreciably fast (15 s, 6 s, and 5 s) towards 700 ppm of benzene, toluene and xylene respectively. Detailed sensing mechanism for BTX with such flower like ZnO structures was explained with the help of interaction of band structures (of ZnO) with the corresponding highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the target species.

  16. Effects of Doping Concentration on the Structural and Optical Properties of Spin-Coated In-doped ZnO Thin Films Grown on Thermally Oxidized ZnO Film/ZnO Buffer Layer/Mica Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byunggu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2017-01-01

    ZnO buffer layers were deposited on mica substrates using a sol-gel spin coating method. Then, a thin film of metallic Zn was deposited onto the ZnO buffer layer/mica substrate using a thermal evaporator, and the deposited Zn thin films were then thermally oxidized in a furnace at 500 ℃ for 2 h in air. Finally, In-doped ZnO (IZO) thin films with different In concentrations were grown on the oxidized ZnO film/ZnO buffer layer/mica substrates using the sol-gel spin-coating method. All the IZO films showed ZnO peaks with similar intensities. The full width at half maximum values of the ZnO (002) peak for the IZO thin films decreased with an increase in the In concentration to 1 at%, because the crystallinity of the films was enhanced. However, a further increase in the In concentration caused the crystal quality to degrade. This might be attributed to the fact that the higher In doping resulted in an increase in the number of ionized impurities. The Urbach energy (EU) values of the IZO thin film decreased with an increase in the In concentration to 1 at % because of the enhanced crystal quality of the films. The EU values for the IZO thin films increased with the In concentration from 1 at%to 3 at%, reflecting the broadening of localized band tail state near the conduction band edge of the films.

  17. Effects of Doping Concentration on the Structural and Optical Properties of Spin-Coated In-doped ZnO Thin Films Grown on Thermally Oxidized ZnO Film/ZnO Buffer Layer/Mica Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byunggu; Leem, Jae-Young [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    ZnO buffer layers were deposited on mica substrates using a sol-gel spin coating method. Then, a thin film of metallic Zn was deposited onto the ZnO buffer layer/mica substrate using a thermal evaporator, and the deposited Zn thin films were then thermally oxidized in a furnace at 500 ℃ for 2 h in air. Finally, In-doped ZnO (IZO) thin films with different In concentrations were grown on the oxidized ZnO film/ZnO buffer layer/mica substrates using the sol-gel spin-coating method. All the IZO films showed ZnO peaks with similar intensities. The full width at half maximum values of the ZnO (002) peak for the IZO thin films decreased with an increase in the In concentration to 1 at%, because the crystallinity of the films was enhanced. However, a further increase in the In concentration caused the crystal quality to degrade. This might be attributed to the fact that the higher In doping resulted in an increase in the number of ionized impurities. The Urbach energy (EU) values of the IZO thin film decreased with an increase in the In concentration to 1 at % because of the enhanced crystal quality of the films. The EU values for the IZO thin films increased with the In concentration from 1 at%to 3 at%, reflecting the broadening of localized band tail state near the conduction band edge of the films.

  18. Annealing and surface conduction on Hydrogen peroxide treated bulk melt-grown, single crystal ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtangi, W.; Nel, J.M.; Auret, F.D.; Chawanda, A.; Diale, M.; Nyamhere, C.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the studies carried out on hydrogen peroxide treated melt-grown, bulk single crystal ZnO samples. Results show the existence of two shallow donors in the as-received ZnO samples with energy levels (37.8±0.3) meV that has been suggested as Zn i related and possibly H-complex related and (54.5±0.9) meV, which has been assigned to an Al-related donor. Annealing studies performed on the hydrogen peroxide treated samples reveal the existence of a conductive channel in the samples in which new energy levels have been observed, Zn vacancies, related to the Group I elements, X Zn . The surface donor volume concentration of the conductive channel was calculated from a theory developed by Look (2007) . Results indicate an increase in the surface volume concentration with increasing annealing temperature from 60×10 17 cm −3 at 200 °C to 4.37×10 18 cm -3 at 800 °C.

  19. Annealing and surface conduction on Hydrogen peroxide treated bulk melt-grown, single crystal ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mtangi, W., E-mail: wilbert.mtangi@up.ac.za [University of Pretoria, Physics Department, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Nel, J.M.; Auret, F.D.; Chawanda, A.; Diale, M. [University of Pretoria, Physics Department, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Nyamhere, C. [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    We report on the studies carried out on hydrogen peroxide treated melt-grown, bulk single crystal ZnO samples. Results show the existence of two shallow donors in the as-received ZnO samples with energy levels (37.8{+-}0.3) meV that has been suggested as Zn{sub i} related and possibly H-complex related and (54.5{+-}0.9) meV, which has been assigned to an Al-related donor. Annealing studies performed on the hydrogen peroxide treated samples reveal the existence of a conductive channel in the samples in which new energy levels have been observed, Zn vacancies, related to the Group I elements, X{sub Zn}. The surface donor volume concentration of the conductive channel was calculated from a theory developed by Look (2007) . Results indicate an increase in the surface volume concentration with increasing annealing temperature from 60 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} at 200 Degree-Sign C to 4.37 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} at 800 Degree-Sign C.

  20. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO films grown on InP by thermally oxidizing metallic Zn films

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S J; Zhang, J Y; Lu, Y M; Shen, D Z; Fan, X W

    2003-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnO films grown on (001) InP substrates by thermal oxidization of metallic Zn films, in which oxygen vacancies and interstitial Zn ions are compensated by P ions diffusing from (001) InP substrates, are investigated. X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that P ions have diffused into the Zn films and chemically combined with Zn ions to form Zn sub 3 P sub 2. Intense free exciton emission dominates the PL spectra of ZnO films with very weak deep-level emission. Low-temperature PL spectra at 79 K are dominated by neutral-donor bound exciton emission at 3.299 eV (I sub 4) with a linewidth of 17.3 meV and neutral-acceptor bound exciton emission at 3.264 eV. The free exciton emission increases with increasing temperature and eventually dominates the emission spectrum for temperature higher than 170 K. Furthermore, the visible emission around 2.3 eV correlated with oxygen deficiencies and interstitial Zn defects was quenched to a remarkable degree by P diffusing from InP substrate...

  1. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO films grown on InP by thermally oxidizing metallic Zn films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S J; Liu, Y C; Zhang, J Y; Lu, Y M; Shen, D Z; Fan, X W

    2003-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnO films grown on (001) InP substrates by thermal oxidization of metallic Zn films, in which oxygen vacancies and interstitial Zn ions are compensated by P ions diffusing from (001) InP substrates, are investigated. X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that P ions have diffused into the Zn films and chemically combined with Zn ions to form Zn 3 P 2 . Intense free exciton emission dominates the PL spectra of ZnO films with very weak deep-level emission. Low-temperature PL spectra at 79 K are dominated by neutral-donor bound exciton emission at 3.299 eV (I 4 ) with a linewidth of 17.3 meV and neutral-acceptor bound exciton emission at 3.264 eV. The free exciton emission increases with increasing temperature and eventually dominates the emission spectrum for temperature higher than 170 K. Furthermore, the visible emission around 2.3 eV correlated with oxygen deficiencies and interstitial Zn defects was quenched to a remarkable degree by P diffusing from InP substrates

  2. RETRACTED: Growth behavior and microstructure evolution of ZnO nanorods grown on Si in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Sz-Chian; Hsiao, Chi-Sheng; Chen, San-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Two papers published in the Journal of Crystal Growth are being retracted due to a case of misrepresentation and reuse of data. A reader of the Journal has brought to our attention the reuse of data within two published papers: Growth behavior and microstructure evolution of ZnO nanorods grown on Si in aqueous solution, Sz-Chian Liou, Chi-Sheng Hsiao, San-Yuan Chen, Journal of Crystal Growth 274 (2005) 438-446. Nucleation and growth behavior of well-aligned ZnO nanorods on organic substrates in aqueous solutions, Chin-Ching Lin, San-Yuan Chen, and Syh-Yuh Cheng, Journal of Crystal Growth 283 (2005) 141-146. In these papers the same transmission electron micrograph was used to describe two different experimental situations and results bringing into question the content of these papers. The reuse of data without proper attribution is not acceptable within the scientific publishing community. In the present case, this is compounded by the attribution of the micrograph to a different experimental situation and drawing, as a result, new conclusions from data obtained from different samples. Such behavior undermines the integrity of the scientific publishing endeavor and is not acceptable. The authors are responsible for the content of their papers.

  3. Growth and Properties of Cl- Incorporated ZnO Nanofilms Grown by Ultrasonic Spray-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingfang; Wang, Aiji; Kong, Lingrui; Li, Yongliang; Wang, Yinshu

    2016-04-01

    Pure and Cl- incorporated ZnO nanofilms were grown by the ultrasonic spray-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The properties of the nanofilms were investigated. The effects of growth temperature and Cl- concentration on the crystal structure, morphology, and optical properties of the nanofilms were studied. Temperature plays an important role in the growth mode and morphology of the pure nanofilms. Preferential growth along the c-axis occurs only at modulating temperature. Lower temperature suppresses the preferential growth, and higher temperature suppresses the growth of the nanofilms. The morphologies of the nanofilms change from lamellar and spherical structures into hexagonal platelets, then into separated nanoparticles with an increase in the temperature. Incorporating Cl- results in the lattice contracting gradually along with c-axis. Grains composing the nanofilms refine, and the optical gap broadens with increasing of Cl- concentration in growth precursor. Incorporating Cl- could reduce oxygen vacancies and passivate the non-irradiated centers, thus enhancing the UV emission and suppressing the visible emission of ZnO nanofilms.

  4. XAFS study on ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhihao; Zhou Yinxue; Zhang Xinyi; Fudan Univ., Shanghai; Yu Gencai; Wei Shiqiang; Chen Dongliang

    2004-01-01

    Effects of growth conditions including lattice mismatch and growth temperature on the local structures of ZnO films prepared by MBE have been investigated using fluorescence EXAFS at Zn K edge. The ZnO films were deposited on the Si substrate at 200 degree C and on sapphire substrate at 200 degree C or 300 degree C respectively. The coordination number N in the first shell (number of O atoms immediately surrounding a central Zn atom) remains constant 4 or so for all samples. However, the degree of disorder σ 2 (mean squared displacement) of the local structure is varied with the growth conditions. At the same growth temperature 200 degree C, the degree of disorder is reduced from 0.0080 (Angstrom) 2 to 0.0054 (Angstrom) 2 as the substrate is changed from Si to sapphire; on the same sapphire substrate, the degree of disorder decreases from 0.0054 (Angstrom) 2 to 0.0039 (Angstrom) 2 when the growth temperature is increased from 200 degree C to 300 degree C. Therefore, the higher growth temperature and smaller lattice mismatch can improve the disorder of local structures; the crystal quality of ZnO film will be improved as well . (authors)

  5. Effect of deposition conditions on the growth rate and electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roro, K.T.; Botha, J.R.; Leitch, A.W.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    ZnO thin films have been grown on glass substrates by MOCVD. The effect of deposition conditions such as VI/II molar ratio, DEZn flow rate and total reactor pressure on the growth rate and electrical properties of the films was studied. It is found that the growth rate decreases with an increase in the VI/II molar ratio. This behaviour is ascribed to the competitive adsorption of reactant species on the growth surface. The growth rate increases with an increase in DEZn flow rate, as expected. It is shown that the carrier concentration is independent of the DEZn flow rate. An increase in the total reactor pressure yields a decrease in growth rate. This phenomenon is attributed to the depletion of the gas phase due to parasitic prereactions between zinc and oxygen species at high pressure. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. The defect passivation effect of hydrogen on the optical properties of solution-grown ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgessa, Z.N., E-mail: zelalem.urgessa@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Mbulanga, C.M.; Tankio Djiokap, S.R.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Duvenhage, M.M.; Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of annealing environment on both low temperature and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of ZnO nanorods, grown in solution, is presented. Particular attention is given to the effect of hydrogen defect passivation and its PL related line. It is shown that, irrespective of annealing ambient, an optimum annealing temperature of 300 °C suppresses the defect related emission and significantly improves the UV emission. By considering the stability of hydrogen impurities, the observed results in the PL spectra are analyzed. There is an observed asymmetric broadening on the low energy side of the bound exciton luminescence in the low temperature annealed samples which is explained by a high concentration of ionized impurities related to hydrogen. This has been attributed primarily to the conversion of hydrogen molecule to substitutional hydrogen on the oxygen site (H{sub O}) as a result of annealing.

  7. The defect passivation effect of hydrogen on the optical properties of solution-grown ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgessa, Z.N.; Mbulanga, C.M.; Tankio Djiokap, S.R.; Botha, J.R.; Duvenhage, M.M.; Swart, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of annealing environment on both low temperature and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of ZnO nanorods, grown in solution, is presented. Particular attention is given to the effect of hydrogen defect passivation and its PL related line. It is shown that, irrespective of annealing ambient, an optimum annealing temperature of 300 °C suppresses the defect related emission and significantly improves the UV emission. By considering the stability of hydrogen impurities, the observed results in the PL spectra are analyzed. There is an observed asymmetric broadening on the low energy side of the bound exciton luminescence in the low temperature annealed samples which is explained by a high concentration of ionized impurities related to hydrogen. This has been attributed primarily to the conversion of hydrogen molecule to substitutional hydrogen on the oxygen site (H_O) as a result of annealing.

  8. Solution-Grown ZnO Films toward Transparent and Smart Dual-Color Light-Emitting Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shijie; Chi, Dongzhi; Chua, Soo Jin

    2016-06-22

    An individual light-emitting diode (LED) capable of emitting different colors of light under different bias conditions not only allows for compact device integration but also extends the functionality of the LED beyond traditional illumination and display. Herein, we report a color-switchable LED based on solution-grown n-type ZnO on p-GaN/n-GaN heterojunction. The LED emits red light with a peak centered at ∼692 nm and a full width at half-maximum of ∼90 nm under forward bias, while it emits green light under reverse bias. These two lighting colors can be switched repeatedly by reversing the bias polarity. The bias-polarity-switched dual-color LED enables independent control over the lighting color and brightness of each emission with two-terminal operation. The results offer a promising strategy toward transparent, miniaturized, and smart LEDs, which hold great potential in optoelectronics and optical communication.

  9. Evolution of Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown on Vacuum Annealed Seed Crystallites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ambient condition for the as-coated seed layer (SL annealing at 350 °C is varied from air or nitrogen to vacuum to examine the evolution of structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs. The NR crystals of high surface density (~240 rods/μm2 and aspect ratio (~20.3 show greatly enhanced (002 degree of orientation and crystalline quality, when grown on the SLs annealed in vacuum, compared to those annealed in air or nitrogen ambient. This is due to the vacuum-annealed SL crystals of a highly preferred orientation toward (002 and large grain sizes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also reveals that the highest O/Zn atomic ratio of 0.89 is obtained in the case of vacuum-annealed SL crystals, which is due to the effective desorption of hydroxyl groups and other contaminants adsorbed on the surface formed during aqueous solution-based growth process. Near band edge emission (ultra violet range of 360–400 nm of the vacuum-annealed SLs is also enhanced by 44% and 33% as compared to those annealed in air and nitrogen ambient, respectively, in photoluminescence with significant suppression of visible light emission associated with deep level transition. Due to this improvement of SL optical crystalline quality, the NR crystals grown on the vacuum-annealed SLs produce ~3 times higher ultra violet emission intensity than the other samples. In summary, it is shown that the ZnO NRs preferentially grow along the wurtzite c-axis direction, thereby producing the high crystalline quality of nanostructures when they grow on the vacuum-annealed SLs of high crystalline quality with minimized impurities and excellent preferred orientation. The ZnO nanostructures of high crystalline quality achieved in this study can be utilized for a wide range of potential device applications such as laser diodes, light-emitting diodes, piezoelectric transducers and generators, gas sensors, and ultraviolet detectors.

  10. Effects of Chromium Dopant on Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of ZnO Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, S.; Safa, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2017-07-01

    Structural and optical properties of bare ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods have been investigated. Encapsulated ZnO nanorods were grown using a simple two-stage method in which ZnO nanorods were first grown on a glass substrate directly from a hydrothermal bath, then encapsulated with a thin layer of Cr-doped ZnO by dip coating. Comparative study of x-ray diffraction patterns showed that Cr was successfully incorporated into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods. Moreover, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed presence of Cr in this sample. It was observed that the thickness of the shell layer around the core of the ZnO nanorods was at least about 20 nm. Transmission electron microscopy of bare ZnO nanorods revealed single-crystalline structure. Based on optical results, both the encapsulation process and addition of Cr dopant decreased the optical bandgap of the samples. Indeed, the optical bandgap values of Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and bare ZnO nanorods were 2.89 eV, 3.15 eV, and 3.34 eV, respectively. The ultraviolet (UV) parameters demonstrated that incorporation of Cr dopant into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods considerably facilitated formation and transportation of photogenerated carriers, optimizing their performance as a practical UV detector. As a result, the photocurrent of the Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods was the highest (0.6 mA), compared with ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods and bare ZnO nanorods (0.21 mA and 0.06 mA, respectively).

  11. Electrical, photoelectrical and morphological properties of ZnO nanofiber networks grown on SiO{sub 2} and on Si nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Nadia Celeste; Comedi, David [Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (FACET/UNT), (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica del Solido; Audebert, Fernando [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Tirado, Monica, E-mail: mtirado@herrera.unt.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (FACET/UNT), (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Nanomateriales y de Propiedades Dielectricas; Rodriguez, Andres; Rodriguez, Tomas [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (ETSIT/UPM), Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomucacion. Tecnologia Electronica; Hughes, Gareth M.; Grovenor, Chris R.M. [University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    2013-11-01

    ZnO nanofibre networks (NFNs) were grown by vapour transport method on Si-based substrates. One type of substrate was SiO{sub 2} thermally grown on Si and another consisted of a Si wafer onto which Si nanowires (NWs) had been grown having Au nanoparticles catalysts. The ZnO-NFN morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy on samples grown at 600 Degree-Sign C and 720 Degree-Sign C substrate temperature, while an focused ion beam was used to study the ZnO NFN/Si NWs/Si and ZnO NFN/SiO{sub 2} interfaces. Photoluminescence, electrical conductance and photo conductance of ZnO-NFN was studied for the sample grown on SiO{sub 2}. The photoluminescence spectra show strong peaks due to exciton recombination and lattice defects. The ZnO-NFN presents quasi-persistent photoconductivity effects and ohmic I-V characteristics which become nonlinear and hysteretic as the applied voltage is increased. The electrical conductance as a function of temperature can be described by a modified three dimensional variable hopping model with nanometer-ranged typical hopping distances. (author)

  12. Three-dimensional mesoscale heterostructures of ZnO nanowire arrays epitaxially grown on CuGaO2 nanoplates as individual diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forticaux, Audrey; Hacialioglu, Salih; DeGrave, John P; Dziedzic, Rafal; Jin, Song

    2013-09-24

    We report a three-dimensional (3D) mesoscale heterostructure composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanowire (NW) arrays epitaxially grown on two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates. Specifically, three facile syntheses are developed to assemble vertical ZnO NWs on CuGaO2 (CGO) nanoplates in mild aqueous solution conditions. The key to the successful 3D mesoscale integration is the preferential nucleation and heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO NWs on the CGO nanoplates. Using transmission electron microscopy, heteroepitaxy was found between the basal planes of CGO nanoplates and ZnO NWs, which are their respective (001) crystallographic planes, by the observation of a hexagonal Moiré fringes pattern resulting from the slight mismatch between the c planes of ZnO and CGO. Careful analysis shows that this pattern can be described by a hexagonal supercell with a lattice parameter of almost exactly 11 and 12 times the a lattice constants for ZnO and CGO, respectively. The electrical properties of the individual CGO-ZnO mesoscale heterostructures were measured using a current-sensing atomic force microscopy setup to confirm the rectifying p-n diode behavior expected from the band alignment of p-type CGO and n-type ZnO wide band gap semiconductors. These 3D mesoscale heterostructures represent a new motif in nanoassembly for the integration of nanomaterials into functional devices with potential applications in electronics, photonics, and energy.

  13. Properties of In–N codoped p-type ZnO nanorods grown through a two-step chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duta, M.; Mihaiu, S.; Munteanu, C. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Anastasescu, M., E-mail: manastasescu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Osiceanu, P.; Marin, A.; Preda, S. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Nicolescu, M., E-mail: mnicolescu2006@yahoo.com [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College, Cork (Ireland); Zaharescu, M.; Gartner, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • p-Type ZnO film codoped with In, N on glass substrate was obtained. • The films were prepared by sol–gel followed by hydrothermal method. • Influence of annealing regimes on opto-electrical properties was studied. • Thin films morphology consists of interconnected, randomly oriented nanorods. • 3.31 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}carrier concentration and 85% transmission were obtained at 500 °C. - Abstract: By codoping with a donor–acceptor pair through a two-step chemical method we have succeed to obtain p-type ZnO thin films on glass. Firstly, a thin undoped ZnO seed layer was deposited by sol–gel method followed by the deposition of In–N codoped ZnO film obtained through the hydrothermal technique. The influence of post-deposition annealing temperature (100 °C, 300 °C and 500 °C) on the samples was investigated from a structural, chemical, morphological and optoelectrical point of view. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), infrared ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses have confirmed the codoped nature of the ZnO thin films. The XRD pattern analysis has established the films have wurtzite nanocrystalline structure, the crystallite sizes varying between 10 nm and 13 nm with the annealing temperature. Continuous and homogenous films with nanorods surface morphology has been obtained, as visualized by scanning electron microscopy measurements. Hall Effect measurements have established that all samples, regardless of annealing temperature, showed p-type conduction due to the successful incorporation of nitrogen in the film, with the highest carrier concentration registered at 500 °C. This is in good correlation with the nitrogen content in the films as revealed from XPS. In all samples, the XPS depth profiling has shown a nitrogen gradient with higher elemental concentration at the surface.

  14. Structural characterization of ZnO thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Čížek, J.; Kužel, R.; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 22 (2012), 1-12 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0958; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : ZnO thin film * pulsed laser deposition * x-ray diffraction positron implantation spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.528, year: 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/45/22/225101

  15. Characterization of ZnO film grown on polycarbonate by atomic layer deposition at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyeong Beom; Han, Gwon Deok; Shim, Joon Hyung; Choi, Byoung-Ho, E-mail: bhchoi@korea.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    ZnO is an attractive material for use in various technological products such as phosphors, gas sensors, and transparent conductors. Recently, aluminum-doped zinc oxide has received attention as a potential replacement for indium tin oxide, which is one of the transparent conductive oxides used in flat panel displays, organic light-emitting diodes, and organic solar cells. In this study, the characteristics of ZnO films deposited on polycarbonate (PC) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are investigated for various process temperatures. The growth mechanism of these films was investigated at low process temperatures using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD and XPS were used to determine the preferred orientation and chemical composition of the films, respectively. Furthermore, the difference of the deposition mechanisms on an amorphous organic material, i.e., PC substrate and an inorganic material such as silicon was discussed from the viewpoint of the diffusion and deposition of precursors. The structure of the films was also investigated by chemical analysis in order to determine the effect of growth temperature on the films deposited by ALD.

  16. Study of the pH effect on the properties of the hydrothermally grown V_2O_5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolopoulou, M.; Louloudakis, D.; Vernardou, D.; Katsarakis, N.; Koudoumas, E.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2015-01-01

    Vanadium pentoxide coatings were prepared by hydrothermal process at a temperature as low as 95 °C. It was demonstrated that the structure and morphology of the coatings depend on the pH solution employed during growth. Only for pH 3.5, adhesive coating growth was observed, with a substantial enhancement in the electrochemical performance in terms of charge density magnitude. The amount of lithium charge interchanged between the vanadium pentoxide and the electrolyte reached 220 mC cm"−"2. This is a value among the best reported for low temperature growth and free of templates pentoxide with a prolonged stability up to 250 continuous charge intercalation/deintercalation scans. - Highlights: • Low temperature and free of templates grown electroactive V_2O_5 coatings • Electrochemical properties are dependent on the pH. • Continuous and adhesive coatings with high crystalline quality

  17. Al-doped ZnO seed layer-dependent crystallographic control of ZnO nanorods by using electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung [Department of Nano-Optical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung 429-793 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Bo [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Inha Technical College, Incheon 402-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moojin [Department of Renewable Energy, Jungwon University, Goesan-gun, Chungbuk 367-805 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Nam, E-mail: snlee@kpu.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Optical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung 429-793 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Polar and semipolar ZnO NRs were successfully achieved by hydrothermal synthesis. • Semipolar and polar ZnO NRs were grown on ZnO and AZO/m-sapphire, respectively. • Al % of AZO/m-sapphire enhanced the lateral growth rate of polar ZnO NRs. - Abstract: We investigated the effect of an Al-doped ZnO film on the crystallographic direction of ZnO nanorods (NRs) using electrochemical deposition. From high-solution X-ray diffraction measurements, the crystallographic plane of ZnO NRs grown on (1 0 0) ZnO/m-plane sapphire was (1 0 1). The surface grain size of the (100) Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film decreased with increasing Al content in the ZnO seed layer, implying that the Al dopant accelerated the three-dimensional (3D) growth of the AZO film. In addition, it was found that with increasing Al doping concentration of the AZO seed layer, the crystal orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on the AZO seed layer changed from [1 0 1] to [0 0 1]. With increasing Al content of the nonpolar (1 0 0) AZO seed layer, the small surface grains with a few crystallographic planes of the AZO film changed from semipolar (1 0 1) ZnO NRs to polar (0 0 1) ZnO NRs due to the increase of the vertical [0 0 1] growth rate of the ZnO NRs owing to excellent electrical properties.

  18. Photoluminescence study of ZnO structures grown by aqueous chemical growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenanakis, G.; Androulidaki, M.; Vernardou, D.; Katsarakis, N.; Koudoumas, E.

    2011-01-01

    ZnO micro-structures were deposited by aqueous chemical growth on Si (100) substrates, their morphology and size depending on the growth period. Characterization of the structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectra recorded at 18 and 295 K for 325 nm CW excitation indicated that these are strongly affected by the morphology of the structures. Rods and tubes emit stronger UV radiation, in contrast to stronger yellow-green emission observed for flower-like structures. A red shift of the UV emission was found for increasing input power, while, thermal annealing of the samples induced stimulated emission for quite high excitation intensities.

  19. Strain-free GaN thick films grown on single crystalline ZnO buffer layer with in situ lift-off technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Minegishi, T.; Lee, W. H.; Goto, H.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Ha, J. S.; Goto, T.; Hanada, T.; Cho, M. W.; Yao, T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain-free freestanding GaN layers were prepared by in situ lift-off process using a ZnO buffer as a sacrificing layer. Thin Zn-polar ZnO layers were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates, which was followed by the growth of Ga-polar GaN layers both by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The MBE-grown GaN layer acted as a protecting layer against decomposition of the ZnO layer and as a seeding layer for GaN growth. The ZnO layer was completely in situ etched off during growth of thick GaN layers at low temperature by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Hence freestanding GaN layers were obtained for the consecutive growth of high-temperature GaN thick layers. The lattice constants of freestanding GaN agree with those of strain-free GaN bulk. Extensive microphotoluminescence study indicates that strain-free states extend throughout the high-temperature grown GaN layers

  20. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical behavior of Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Cheng, Kui, E-mail: chengkui@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Weng, Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Du, Piyi; Han, Gaorong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film was fabricated by a carboxylate ion assisted hydrothermal route coupled with a post-calcination process. The structure, chemical composition and optical band gap of the Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively couple plasma optical emission spectroscopy and UV–visible spectrophotometry, and compared with the un-doped ZnO microsphere film. The results suggest that the formation of zinc–antimony tartrate complex species during hydrothermal growth is the key to realize Sb-doped ZnO microstructures, and the present hydrothermal method with post-calcination is an effective way to dope Sb into ZnO. Furthermore, the Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film based electrochemical biosensor exhibits a good sensing performance for the detection of hydrogen peroxide, with a sensitivity of 271 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} which is more than three times higher than that of the un-doped ZnO biosensor. - Highlights: • Sb-doped ZnO microsphere (SZM) films were grown by hydrothermal deposition. • Carboxylate ions were used to form complex during hydrothermal growth. • The formation of Zn–Sb tartrate complex is the key to realize SZM. • The biosensors based on SZM film are feasible and sensitive to detect H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The Sb doping could improve the electrochemical property of ZnO.

  1. Role of low O 2 pressure and growth temperature on electrical transport of PLD grown ZnO thin films on Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Ch.; Brilis, N.; Tsamakis, D.; Ali, H. A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Iliadis, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    Undoped ZnO thin films have been grown on (100) Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of growth parameters such as temperature, O 2 partial pressure and laser fluence on the structural and electrical properties of the films has been investigated. It is shown that the well-known native n-type conductivity, attributed to the activation of hydrogenic donor states, exhibits a conversion from n-type to p-type when the O 2 partial pressure is reduced from 10 -4 to 10 -7 Torr at growth temperatures lower than 400 °C. The p-type conductivity could be attributed to the dominant role of the acceptor Zn vacancies for ZnO films grown at very low O 2 pressures.

  2. Temperature-dependent Hall effect studies of ZnO thin films grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roro, K T; Dangbegnon, J K; Sivaraya, S; Westraadt, J E; Neethling, J H; Leitch, A W R; Botha, J R; Kassier, G H

    2008-01-01

    The electrical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of various thicknesses (0.3–4.4 µm) grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition on glass substrates have been studied by using temperature-dependent Hall-effect (TDH) measurements in the 18–300 K range. The high quality of the layers has been confirmed with x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence techniques. TDH measurements indicate the presence of a degenerate layer which significantly influences the low-temperature data. It is found that the measured mobility generally increases with increasing layer thickness, reaching a value of 120 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at room temperature for the 4.4 µm thick sample. The lateral grain size of the layers is also found to increase with thickness indicating a clear correlation between the size of the surface grains and the electrical properties of corresponding films. Theoretical fits to the Hall data suggest that the bulk conduction of the layers is dominated by a weakly compensated donor with activation energy in the 33–41 meV range and concentration of the order of 10 17 cm −3 , as well as a total acceptor concentration of mid-10 15 cm −3 . Grain boundary scattering is found to be an important limiting factor of the mobility throughout the temperature range considered

  3. Effect of substrates and thickness on optical properties in atomic layer deposition grown ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dipayan; Singhal, Jaya; Mathur, Aakash; Singh, Ajaib; Dutta, Surjendu; Zollner, Stefan; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-11-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition technique was used to grow high quality, very low roughness, crystalline, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon (Si) and fused quartz (SiO2) substrates to study the optical properties. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results of ZnO/Si system, staggered type-II quantum well, demonstrate that there is a significant drop in the magnitudes of both the real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric constants and in near-band gap absorption along with a blue shift of the absorption edge with decreasing film thickness at and below ∼20 nm. Conversely, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy of ZnO/SiO2, thin type-I quantum well, consisting of a narrower-band gap semiconductor grown on a wider-band gap (insulator) substrate, shows the similar thickness dependent blue-shift of the absorption edge but with an increase in the magnitude of near-band gap absorption with decreasing film thickness. Thickness dependent blue shift, energy vs. 1/d2, in two different systems, ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2, show a difference in their slopes. The observed phenomena can be consistently explained by the corresponding exciton (or carrier/s) deconfinement and confinement effects at the ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2 interface respectively, where Tanguy-Elliott amplitude pre-factor plays the key role through the electron-hole overlap factor at the interface.

  4. Structural, Optical Constants and Photoluminescence of ZnO Thin Films Grown by Sol-Gel Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Sattar Gadallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report manufacturing and characterization of low cost ZnO thin films grown on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. For structural properties, X-ray diffraction measurements have been utilized for evaluating the dominant orientation of the thin films. For optical properties, reflectance and transmittance spectrophotometric measurements have been done in the spectral range from 350 nm to 2000 nm. The transmittance of the prepared thin films is 92.4% and 88.4%. Determination of the optical constants such as refractive index, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant in this wavelength range has been evaluated. Further, normal dispersion of the refractive index has been analyzed in terms of single oscillator model of free carrier absorption to estimate the dispersion and oscillation energy. The lattice dielectric constant and the ratio of free carrier concentration to free carrier effective mass have been determined. Moreover, photoluminescence measurements of the thin films in the spectral range from 350 nm to 900 nm have been presented. Electrical measurements for resistivity evaluation of the films have been done. An analysis in terms of order-disorder of the material has been presented to provide more consistency in the results.

  5. Enhanced photochemical catalysis of TiO2 inverse opals by modification with ZnO or Fe2O3 using ALD and the hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiatong; Sun, Cuifeng; Fu, Ming; Long, Jie; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng

    2018-02-01

    The development of porous materials exhibiting photon regulation abilities for improved photoelectrochemical catalysis performance is always one of the important goals of solar energy harvesting. In this study, methods to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 inverse opals were discussed. TiO2 inverse opals were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using colloidal crystal templates. In addition, TiO2 inverse opal heterostructures were fabricated using colloidal heterocrystals by repeated vertical deposition using different colloidal spheres. The hydrothermal method and ALD were used to prepare ZnO- or Fe2O3-modified TiO2 inverse opals on the internal surfaces of the TiO2 porous structures. Although the photonic reflection band was not significantly varied by oxide modification, the presence of Fe2O3 in the TiO2 inverse opals enhanced their visible absorption. The conformally modified oxides on the TiO2 inverse opals could also form energy barriers and avoid the recombination of electrons and holes. The fabrication of the TiO2 photonic crystal heterostructures and modification with ZnO or Fe2O3 can enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 inverse opals.

  6. Effect of Sn doping on structural, mechanical, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanoarrays prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Manish Baboo; Sharma, Akash; Malaidurai, M.; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    Undoped and Sn doped Zinc oxide nanorods were prepared by two step process: initially growth of seed layers by sol-gel spin coating technique and then zinc oxide nanorods by hydrothermal process using the precursors zinc nitrate hexahydrate, hexamine and tin chloride. The effects on the electrical, optical, mechanical and structural properties for various Sn concentrations were studied. The crystalline phase determination from X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that Sn doped ZnO nanorods have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The variations of stress and strain with different doping concentration of Sn in ZnO nanorods were studied. The doping effect on electrical properties and optical bandgap is estimated by current voltage characteristics and absorbance spectra respectively. The surface morphology was studied with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), which shows that the formation of hexagonal nanorods arrays with increasing Sn concentration. The calculated value of Young's modulus of elasticity (Y) for all the samples remains same. These results can be used in optoelectronic devices.

  7. Microwave assisted facile hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide flower grown on graphene oxide sheets for enhanced photodegradation of dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashinath, L.; Namratha, K.; Byrappa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of hybrid ZnO–GO nanocomposite via microwave assisted facile hydrothermal method. • The in situ flower like ZnO nano particles are densely decorated and anchored on the surfaces of graphene oxide sheets. • They exhibited high adsorption measurement, increase in surface area and meso/micro porous in nature. • The structure and morphology plays a vital role in enhancing the photo response activities of degradation of dyes. - Abstract: Microwave assisted hydrothermal process of synthesis of ZnO–GO nanocomposite by using ZnCl 2 and NaOH as precursors is being reported first time. In this investigation, a novel route to study on synthesis, interaction, kinetics and mechanism of hybrid zinc oxide–graphene oxide (ZnO–GO) nanocomposite using microwave assisted facile hydrothermal method has been reported. The results shows that the ZnO–GO nanocomposite exhibits an enhancement and acts as stable photo-response degradation performance of Brilliant Yellow under the UV light radiation better than pure GO and ZnO nanoparticles. The microwave exposure played a vital role in the synthesis process, it facilitates with well define crystalline structure, porosity and fine morphology of ZnO/GO nanocomposite. Different molar concentrations of ZnO precursors doped to GO sheets were been synthesized, characterized and their photodegradation performances were investigated. The optical studies by UV–vis and Photo Luminescence shows an increase in band gap of nanocomposite, which added an advantage in photodegradation performance. The in situ flower like ZnO nano particles are were densely decorated and anchored on the surfaces of graphene oxide sheets which aids in the enhancement of the surface area, adsorption, mass transfer of dyes and evolution of oxygen species. The nanocomposite having high surface area and micro/mesoporous in nature. This structure and morphology supports significantly in increasing photo catalytic

  8. Study of the Morphological, Structural and Photoelectrochemical Properties of TiO{sub 2} Nanorods grown by Hydrothermal Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hayoung; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    We investigated the effects of growth duration on the morphological, structural, and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} nanorods grown on a TiO{sub 2}-buffered fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using the hydrothermal method. From the study, we found that the photoelectrochemical properties were mainly dependent on the nanorod length and (002) XRD peak intensity, which indicates vertical growth of the TiO{sub 2}. The morphological and structural properties of the TiO{sub 2} nanorods largely affect their photoelectrochemical properties. The photocurrent density was increased when the growth duration was increased from 1 hour to 4 hours, and then changed little above 4 hours. Consequently, the highest photocurrent density, 0.897 mA/cm{sup 2} (at 1.0 V vs. SCE), was obtained from the 8 hour-sample which had good morphological and structural properties. We used field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) for analysis of the morphological properties, x-ray diffraction (XRD) for structural properties, and three-electrode potentiostat for photoelectrochemical properties.

  9. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of ZnO nanorod-based dye-sensitized solar cells by using Ga doped ZnO seed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Yuanyao [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Wu, Fang, E-mail: fang01234@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Mao, Caiying [Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Fang, Liang, E-mail: lfang@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Guo, Shengchun [Department of Applied Physics, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Zhou, Miao [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorods were grown on Ga-doped ZnO seed layers using hydrothermal method. • Using the ZnO nanorods as photoanodes for fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells. • The highest η of 1.23% can be achieved in a DSSC with 3 at.% Ga-doped in seeds. • The effects of ZnO seed layers on electron transport properties were investigated. • The enhancement performance of DSSCs contributed to higher dye loading and η{sub cc}. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were grown on FTO substrates with a Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) seed layer by a hydrothermal method. GZO seed layers were obtained via sol–gel technology with Ga concentration in the range of 0–4 at.%. The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using ZnO nanorod arrays as the photoanode layers were prepared. The effect of Ga dopant concentrations in ZnO seed layer on the morphology features of ZnO nanorod arrays and the performance of DSSCs were systematically investigated. Results indicate that the average diameter and density of ZnO nanorod arrays decrease with increasing Ga concentration, but their length shows an opposite trend. The photocurrent density–voltage (J–V) characteristics reveal that the DSSCs with GZO seed layer exhibit significantly improved photovoltaic performance. In particular, the highest energy conversion efficiency (η) of 1.23% can be achieved in a DSSC with 3 at.% Ga doping, which is increased by 86.36% compared with that of the undoped DSSC. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectra and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to explore the photon-to-electron conversion process in DSSCs. It is demonstrated that the performance enhancement of DSSCs based on GZO seed layer can be attributed to higher amount of dye loading, more efficient electron transportation and better electrons collection efficiency.

  10. Improving ultraviolet photodetection of ZnO nanorods by Cr doped ZnO encapsulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, S.; Mokhtari, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2018-04-01

    Encapsulated ZnO nanorods (NRs) with different Cr concentration (0-4.5 at.%) were prepared in two different steps. First, ZnO NRs were grown by hydrothermal method. Then, they were encapsulated by dip coating method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer analyses. XRD analysis proved that Cr incorporated into the ZnO structure successfully. Based on optical analysis, band gap changes in the range of 2.74-3.84 eV. Finally, UV responses of all samples were deeply investigated. It revealed 0.5 at.% Cr doped sample had the most photocurrent (0.75 mA) and photoresponsivity (0.8 A/W) of all which were about three times greater than photocurrent and photoresponsivity of the undoped sample.

  11. MOVPE gallium-nitride nanostructures fabricated on ZnO nanorod templates grown from aqueous chemical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuendling, Soenke; Li Shunfeng; Postels, Bianca; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas, E-mail: s.fuendling@tu-bs.de [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, 38096 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Concerning optoelectronic devices fabricated by epitaxial methods, the combination of ZnO and GaN has promising aspects regarding their good optical properties and a relatively good lattice matching between both as compared to other foreign substrates like sapphire or silicon. Moreover ZnO nanopillar arrays may serve as a template for GaN nanopillar fabrication or for high quality GaN layers by lateral overgrowth of the ZnO nanopillars. In this work, we investigate the combination of two very different growth methods - aqueous chemical low temperature growth (ACG) for the ZnO nanopillar templates on silicon substrates and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) for the GaN overgrowth - in order to show to which extent the very cost efficient ZnO templates suit the high demands of GaN MOVPE. By a combination of annealing and photoluminescence experiments we show that the properties of the heterostructures change significantly with temperature.

  12. Comparative study of ZnO nanorods and thin films for chemical and biosensing applications and the development of ZnO nanorods based potentiometric strontium ion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, K.; Ibupoto, Z. H.; Chey, C. O.; Lu, Jun.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the comparative study of ZnO nanorods and ZnO thin films were performed regarding the chemical and biosensing properties and also ZnO nanorods based strontium ion sensor is proposed. ZnO nanorods were grown on gold coated glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth method and the ZnO thin films were deposited by electro deposition technique. ZnO nanorods and thin films were characterised by field emission electron microscopy [FESEM] and X-ray diffraction [XRD] techniques and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform and exhibited good crystal quality. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy [TEM] was used to investigate the quality of ZnO thin film and we observed that ZnO thin film was comprised of nano clusters. ZnO nanorods and thin films were functionalised with selective strontium ionophore salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [ST] membrane, galactose oxidase, and lactate oxidase for the detection of strontium ion, galactose and L-lactic acid, respectively. The electrochemical response of both ZnO nanorods and thin films sensor devices was measured by using the potentiometric method. The strontium ion sensor has exhibited good characteristics with a sensitivity of 28.65 ± 0.52 mV/decade, for a wide range of concentrations from 1.00 × 10-6 to 5.00 × 10-2 M, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and fast response time of 10.00 s. The proposed strontium ion sensor was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of strontium ion versus ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid [EDTA]. This comparative study has shown that ZnO nanorods possessed better performance with high sensitivity and low limit of detection due to high surface area to volume ratio as compared to the flat surface of ZnO thin films.

  13. Passivation of ZnO Nanowire Guests and 3D Inverse Opal Host Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Labouchere, Philippe

    2014-04-23

    A hierarchical host-guest nanostructured photoanode is reported for dye-sensitized solar cells. It is composed of ZnO nanowires grown in situ into the macropores of a 3D ZnO inverse opal structure, which acts both as a seed layer and as a conductive backbone host. Using a combination of self-assembly, hydrothermal or electrodeposition of single crystalline ZnO nanowires and TiO2 passivation, a novel photoanode with scattering capability for optimal light harvesting is fabricated. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Optical and electro-catalytic properties of bundled ZnO nanowires grown on a ITO substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Cao; Wang Ning; Wang Long

    2010-01-01

    Bundled wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were fabricated in a facile manner on an ITO-conducting substrate via a microemulsion route without using any hard template or external electric/magnetic field. Structure and properties of the as-prepared ZnO electrode were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, as well as electrochemical tests. The ZnO electrode shows excellent optical and electrocatalytic ability, which may find further applications such as optoelectronics or as sensors as well as other modern industrial areas.

  15. Characterization of n and p-type ZnO thin films grown by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavak, H.; Erdogan, E.N.; Ozsahin, I.; Esen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Semiconductor ZnO thin films with wide band gap attract much interest due to their properties such as chemical stability in hydrogen plasma, high optical transparency in the visible and nearinfrared region. Due to these properties ZnO oxide is a promising materials for electronic or optoelectronic applications such as solar cell (as an antireflecting coating and a transparent conducting material), gas sensors, surface acoustic wave devices. The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of n and p-type ZnO thin films for device applications. Polycrystalline ZnO is naturally n-type and very difficult to dope to make p-type. Therefore nowadays hardly produced p-type ZnO attracts a lot of attention. Nitrogen considered as the best dopant for p-type ZnO thin films.The transparent, conductive and very precise thickness controlled n and p-type semiconducting nanocrystalline ZnO thin films were prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (PFCVAD) method. Structural, optical and electrical properties of these films were investigated. And also photoluminescence properties of these films were investigated. Transparent p-type ZnO thin films were produced by oxidation of PFCVAD deposited zinc nitride. Zinc nitride thin films were deposited with various thicknesses and under different oxygen pressures on glass substrates. Zinc nitride thin films, which were deposited at room temperatures, were amorphous and the optical transmission was below 70%. For oxidation zinc nitride, the sample was annealed in air starting from 350 degrees Celsium up to 550 degrees Celsium for one hour duration. These XRD patterns imply that zinc nitride thin films converted to zinc oxide thin films with the same hexagonal crystalline structures of ZnO. The optical measurements were made for each annealing temperature and the optical transmissions of ZnO thin films were found better than 90 percent in visible range after annealing over 350 degrees Celsium. By

  16. Ultra-high sensitive hydrazine chemical sensor based on low-temperature grown ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.; Singh, Kulvinder; Umar, Ahmad; Chaudhary, G.R.; Singh, Sukhjinder

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Systematic representation of the fabricated amperometric hydrazine chemical sensor based on ZnO NPs/Au modified electrode. Highlights: ► Synthesis of well-crystalline ZnO NPs has been achieved in aqueous solution. ► ZnO NPs act as efficient electron mediators for hydrazine sensor. ► Extremely high sensitivity and low-detection limit have been obtained. - Abstract: Using well-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), an ultra high sensitive hydrazine amperometric sensor has been fabricated and reported in this paper. The ZnO NPs have been synthesized by very simple aqueous solution process at 90 °C and characterized in detail in terms of their morphological, compositional, structural and optical properties. The detailed investigations reveal that the synthesized products are well-crystalline NPs, possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase and exhibit good optical properties. The fabricated amperometric hydrazine sensor exhibits ultra-high sensitivity of ∼97.133 μA cm −2 μM −1 and very low-detection limit of 147.54 nM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which an ultra-high sensitivity and low-detection limit have been obtained for the hydrazine chemical sensor based on ZnO nanostructures.

  17. Effect of ZnO decoration on the photovoltaic performance of TiO{sub 2} based dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Long; Zhai, Bao-gai [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Ma, Qing-lan [School of Electronics and Information, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China); Huang, Yuan Ming, E-mail: dongshanisland@126.com [School of Electronics and Information, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China)

    2014-08-25

    Highlights: • Various ZnO morphologies coated TiO{sub 2} photoanodes are formed and applied to DSSCs. • The effect of photoanode morphology on performance of DSSCs was studied. • ZnO NRs@TiO{sub 2} electrode provides more dye absorption and fast transfer pathway. • The η of DSSC with ZnO NRs@TiO{sub 2} is increased over fourfold than other DSSCs. - Abstract: ZnO nanoparticles and one-dimensional vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the TiO{sub 2} layers in the photoanodes via the hydrothermal method at 60 and 90 °C, respectively. The effect of ZnO decoration on the photovoltaic performance of TiO{sub 2} based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was investigated. The morphologies, crystalline structures and optical properties of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO nanorods were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer and photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. The photocurrent–voltage curves of the fabricated DSSCs showed that the ZnO nanorods decorated DSSCs exhibited better photovoltaic performance than the ZnO nanoparticles decorated DSSCs. The improved performance of the ZnO nanorods decorated DSSCs can be ascribed to the fact that the vertically aligned ZnO nanorods provide high specific surface area for dye adsorption and the efficient pathway for electron transportation.

  18. Polarized Raman scattering of single ZnO nanorod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J. L.; Lai, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Z.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    Polarized Raman scattering measurement on single wurtzite c-plane (001) ZnO nanorod grown by hydrothermal method has been performed at room temperature. The polarization dependence of the intensity of the Raman scattering for the phonon modes A 1 (TO), E 1 (TO), and E 2 high in the ZnO nanorod are obtained. The deviations of polarization-dependent Raman spectroscopy from the prediction of Raman selection rules are observed, which can be attributed to the structure defects in the ZnO nanorod as confirmed by the comparison of the transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectra as well as the polarization dependent Raman signal of the annealed and unannealed ZnO nanorod. The Raman tensor elements of A 1 (TO) and E 1 (TO) phonon modes normalized to that of the E 2 high phonon mode are |a/d|=0.32±0.01, |b/d|=0.49±0.02, and |c/d|=0.23±0.01 for the unannealed ZnO nanorod, and |a/d|=0.33±0.01, |b/d|=0.45±0.01, and |c/d|=0.20±0.01 for the annealed ZnO nanorod, which shows strong anisotropy compared to that of bulk ZnO epilayer

  19. Observation of dopant-profile independent electron transport in sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} stacked ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Das, Gangadhar [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2016-01-18

    Dopant-profile independent electron transport has been observed through a combined study of temperature dependent electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements on a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films with varying degree of static-disorder. These films were grown by atomic layer deposition through in-situ vertical stacking of multiple sub-monolayers of TiO{sub x} in ZnO. Upon decreasing ZnO spacer layer thickness, electron transport smoothly evolved from a good metallic to an incipient non-metallic regime due to the intricate interplay of screening of spatial potential fluctuations and strength of static-disorder in the films. Temperature dependent phase-coherence length as extracted from the magnetotransport measurement revealed insignificant role of inter sub-monolayer scattering as an additional channel for electron dephasing, indicating that films were homogeneously disordered three-dimensional electronic systems irrespective of their dopant-profiles. Results of this study are worthy enough for both fundamental physics perspective and efficient applications of multi-stacked ZnO/TiO{sub x} structures in the emerging field of transparent oxide electronics.

  20. Improvement of stoichiometry in (ZnO)1-x(GaN)x thin films grown by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, N.; Shin, B.C.; Bhuvana, K.P.; Elanchezhiyan, J.; Balasubramanian, T.

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of pure and GaN (1 mol%) doped ZnO thin films by KrF excimer laser have been addressed. The fabricated films on Si(1 1 1) substrates have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to investigate the structural, optical and morphological properties, respectively. The XRD analysis shows that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ZnO film is found to be decreased as doped with GaN due to the improvement of the stoichiometery between Zn and O. The PL spectra reveal that the deep level emissions due to native donor defects in pure ZnO are suppressed upon doping with GaN. The images of AFM show that the RMS surface roughness of pure ZnO, 27 nm is reduced to18 nm while doped with 1 mol% GaN. The incorporation of nitrogen in the film is confirmed by glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS). The improved structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO by GaN dopant due to enhancement of stoichiometry have been discussed in detail

  1. Structural and Morphological Properties of Nanostructured ZnO Particles Grown by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method with Horizontal Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flores-Carrasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized in a horizontal furnace at 500°C using different zinc nitrate hexahydrate concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 M as reactive solution by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The physical-chemical properties of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. With the TGA is has optimized the temperature at which the initial reactive (Zn(NO32·6H2O, is decomposed completely to give way to its corresponding oxide, ZnO. SEM revealed secondary particles with a quasispherical shape that do not change significantly with the increasing of precursor solution concentration as well as some content of the broken spheres. Increasing the precursor solution concentration leads to the increase in the average size of ZnO secondary particles from 248±73 to 470±160 nm; XRD reveals the similar tendency for the crystallite size which changes from 23±4 to 45±4 nm. HRTEM implies that the secondary particles are with hierarchical structure composed of primary nanosized subunits. These results showed that the precursor concentration plays an important role in the evolution on the size, stoichiometry, and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles.

  2. Annealing Temperature Dependence of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Facile Chemical Bath Deposition for EGFET pH Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazilah Rosli, Aimi; Awang, Zaiki; Sobihana Shariffudin, Shafinaz; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were deposited using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique in water bath at 95 °C for 4 h. Post-deposition heat treatment in air ambient at various temperature ranging from 200-600 °C for 30 min was applied in order to enhance the electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) pH sensor. The as-deposited sample was prepared for comparison. The samples were characterized in terms of physical and sensing properties. FESEM images showed that scattered ZnO nanorods were formed for the as-deposited sample, and the morphology of the ZnO nanorods changed to ZnO nanoflowers when the heat treatment was applied from 200-600 °C. For sensing properties, the samples heated at 300 °C showed the higher sensitivity which was 39.9 mV/pH with the linearity of 0.9792. The sensing properties was increased with the increasing annealing treatment temperature up to 300 °C before decreased drastically.

  3. Investigations of p-type signal for ZnO thin films grown on (100)GaAs substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.J. [Nanovation SARL, Orsay (France); Univ. de Technologie de Troyes, Troyes (France); Hosseini Teherani, F. [Nanovation SARL, Orsay (France); Monteiro, T.; Soares, M.; Neves, A.; Carmo, M.; Correia, M.R. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, S. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Aveiro (Portugal); Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Lusson, A. [Inst. d' Electronique Fondamentale, Orsay Univ. (France); LPSC - CNRS, Meudon (France); Alves, E.; Barradas, N.P. [Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Morrod, J.K.; Prior, K.A. [Physics Dept., Heriot Watt Univ., Edinburgh Scotland (United Kingdom); Kung, P.; Yasan, A.; Razeghi, M. [Center for Quantum Devices, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2006-03-15

    In this work we investigated ZnO films grown on semi-insulating (100)GaAs substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Samples were studied using techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, temperature dependent photoluminescence, C-V profiling and temperature dependent Hall measurements. The Hall measurements showed a clear p-type response with a relatively high mobility ({proportional_to}260 cm{sup 2}/Vs) and a carrier concentration of {proportional_to}1.8 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. C-V profiling confirmed a p-type response. XRD and Raman spectroscopy indicated the presence of (0002) oriented wurtzite ZnO plus secondary phase(s) including (101) oriented Zn{sub 2}As{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The results suggest that significant atomic mixing was occurring at the film/substrate interface for films grown at substrate temperatures of 450 C (without post-annealing). (orig.)

  4. Resistivity of atomic layer deposition grown ZnO: The influence of deposition temperature and post-annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laube, J., E-mail: laube@imtek.de; Nübling, D.; Beh, H.; Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.

    2016-03-31

    Conductive zinc oxide (ZnO) films deposited by atomic layer deposition were studied as function of post-annealing treatments. Effusion experiments were conducted on ZnO films deposited at different temperatures. The influence of different annealing atmospheres on the resistivity of the films was investigated and compared to reference samples. It was found that the influence of the deposition temperature on the resistivity is much higher than that of subsequent annealings. This leads to the conclusion that reduction of the resistivity by diffusion of different gases, such as oxygen and hydrogen, into annealed ZnO films is unlikely. - Highlights: • Conformal growth of ZnO-ALD over a temperature range of 25 °C up to 300 °C. • Post-annealing in different atmospheres (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, vacuum) and temperatures. • Analysis of film-conductivity and effusion characteristic.

  5. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O_2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  6. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  7. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunj, Saurabh, E-mail: saurabhkunj22@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O{sub 2}/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  8. Variation of microstructural and optical properties in SILAR grown ZnO thin films by thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanarasu, S; Dhanasekaran, V; Chandramohan, R; Kulandaisamy, I; Sakthivelu, A; Mahalingam, T

    2013-08-01

    The influence of thermal treatment on the structural and morphological properties of the ZnO films deposited by double dip Successive ionic layer by adsorption reaction is presented. The effect of annealing temperature and time in air ambient is presented in detail. The deposited films were annealed from 200 to 400 degrees C in air and the structural properties were determined as a function of annealing temperature by XRD. The studies revealed that films were exhibiting preferential orientation along (002) plane. The other structural parameters like the crystallite size (D), micro strain (epsilon), dislocation density (delta) and stacking fault (alpha) of as-deposited and annealed ZnO films were evaluated and reported. The optical properties were also studied and the band gap of the ZnO thins films varied from 3.27 to 3.04 eV with the annealing temperature. SEM studies revealed that the hexagonal shaped grains with uniformly distributed morphology in annealed ZnO thin films. It has been envisaged using EDX analysis that the near stoichiometric composition of the film can be attained by thermal treatment during which microstructural changes do occur.

  9. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Co-doped ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayani, Zohra Nazir; Shah, Iqra; Zulfiqar, Bareera; Sabah, Aneeqa [Lahore College for Women Univ., Lahore (Pakistan); Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad [Univ. of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics

    2018-04-01

    Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited using a sol-gel route by changing the number of coats on the substrate from 6 to 18. This project deals with various film thicknesses by increasing the number of deposited coats. The effect of thickness on structural, magnetic, surface morphology and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin film was studied. The crystal structure of the Co-doped ZnO films was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The films have polycrystalline wurtzite hexagonal structures. A Co{sup 2+} ion takes the place of a Zn{sup 2+} ion in the lattice without creating any distortion in its hexagonal wurtzite structure. An examination of the optical transmission spectra showed that the energy band gap of the Co-doped ZnO films increased from 3.87 to 3.97 eV with an increase in the number of coatings on the substrate. Ferromagnetic behaviour was confirmed by measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The surface morphology of thin films was assessed by scanning electron microscope. The grain size on the surface of thin films increased with an increase in the number of coats.

  10. Electrical conduction and NO{sub 2} gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şahin, Yasin [Council of Forensic Medicine, Bahçelievler, 34196 Istanbul (Turkey); Öztürk, Sadullah, E-mail: sadullahozturk@gyte.edu.tr [Gebze Institute of Technology, Science Faculty, Department of Physics, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kılınç, Necmettin [Gebze Institute of Technology, Science Faculty, Department of Physics, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Koc University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Sariyer, 34450 Istanbul (Turkey); Kösemen, Arif [Gebze Institute of Technology, Science Faculty, Department of Physics, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Mus Alparslan University, Department of Physics, 49100 Mus (Turkey); Erkovan, Mustafa [SAKARYA University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Öztürk, Zafer Ziya [Gebze Institute of Technology, Science Faculty, Department of Physics, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); TÜBİTAK-Marmara Research Center, Materials Institute, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2014-06-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC), photoresponse and gas sensing properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were investigated depending on heating rates, illumination and dark aging times with using sandwich type electrode system. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by hydrothermal process. TSC measurements were performed at different heating rates under constant potential. Photoresponse and gas sensing properties were investigated in dry air ambient at 200 °C. For gas sensing measurements, ZnO nanorods were exposed to NO{sub 2} (100 ppb to 1 ppm) in dark and illuminated conditions and the resulting resistance transient was recorded. It was found from dark electrical measurements that the dependence of the dc conductivity on temperature followed Mott's variable range hopping (VRH) model. In addition, response time and recovery times of ZnO nanorods to NO{sub 2} gas decreased by exposing to white light.

  11. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles: phytotoxicity, metal speciation, and induction of oxidative stress in sand-grown wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimkpa, Christian O., E-mail: cdimkpa@usu.edu [Utah State University, Department of Biological Engineering (United States); McLean, Joan E. [Utah State University, Utah Water Research Laboratory (United States); Latta, Drew E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division (United States); Manangon, Eliana [University of Utah, Department of Geology and Geophysics (United States); Britt, David W. [Utah State University, Department of Biological Engineering (United States); Johnson, William P. [University of Utah, Department of Geology and Geophysics (United States); Boyanov, Maxim I. [Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division (United States); Anderson, Anne J. [Utah State University, Department of Biological Engineering (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are reported to impact plant growth in hydroponic systems. This study describes the impact of commercial CuO (<50 nm) and ZnO (<100 nm) NPs on wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in a solid matrix, sand. The NPs contained both metallic and non-metallic impurities to different extents. Dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy (AFM) assessments confirmed aggregation of the NPs to submicron sizes. AFM showed transformation of ZnO NPs from initial rhomboid shapes in water to elongated rods in the aqueous phase of the sand matrix. Solubilization of metals occurred in the sand at similar rates from CuO or ZnO NPs as their bulk equivalents. Amendment of the sand with 500 mg Cu and Zn/kg sand from the NPs significantly (p = 0.05) reduced root growth, but only CuO NPs impaired shoot growth; growth reductions were less with the bulk amendments. Dissolved Cu from CuO NPs contributed to their phytotoxicity but Zn release did not account for the changes in plant growth. Bioaccumulation of Cu, mainly as CuO and Cu(I)-sulfur complexes, and Zn as Zn-phosphate was detected in the shoots of NP-challenged plants. Total Cu and Zn levels in shoot were similar whether NP or bulk materials were used. Oxidative stress in the NP-treated plants was evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione in roots and decreased chlorophyll content in shoots; higher peroxidase and catalase activities were present in roots. These findings correlate with the NPs causing increased production of reactive oxygen species. The accumulation of Cu and Zn from NPs into edible plants has relevance to the food chain.

  12. Controlled synthesis of MoO3 microcrystals by subsequent calcination of hydrothermally grown pyrazine–MoO3 nanorod hybrids and their photodecomposition properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, S.; Nataraj, D.; Khyzhun, O.Y.; Djaoued, Yahia; Robichaud, Jacques; Kim, Chang-Koo

    2013-01-01

    We present our results on successful synthesis of pyrazine–MoO 3 nanorod hybrids by using pyrazine and MoO 3 nanorods. On the first stage, MoO 3 nanorods were grown hydrothermally and, on the second stage, their mixture with pyrazine was again involved in a hydrothermal reaction to produce organic–inorganic hybrids. To understand the growth mechanism of the hybrids we varied time and temperature of the hydrothermal process. Intercalation of pyrazine was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy methods. Upon calcinations, pyrazine was deintercalated, i.e. removed from the MoO 3 hybrid system, and the MoO 3 nanorods were found to bind together resulting in formation of MoO 3 microslabs with increased surface area. Photodecomposition performance of the MoO 3 nanorods, pyrazine–MoO 3 hybrids and MoO 3 microcrystals was studied against Procion Red MX-5B textile dye. A high photodecomposition performance was found to decrease when going from MoO 3 nanorods to MoO 3 microcrystal and, further, to pyrazine–MoO 3 hybrids. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • High aspect ratio MoO 3 nanorods were prepared through a new hydrothermal method. • Hybrids of pyrazine–MoO 3 were formed by intercalating pyrazine into MoO 3 nanorods. • Intercalation of pyrazine was confirmed in X-ray spectroscopic analysis. • After calcinations, MoO 3 crystal was retained by binding MoO 3 nanorods together. • High photodegradation performance was noticed from MoO 3 nanorods

  13. Atomic absorption photometry of excess Zn in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, K.; Shinkarenko, S.; Tuern, L. [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Kirsanova, T.; Grebennik, A.; Vishnjakov, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, D. Mendelejev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya Sq. 9, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Zn excess in ZnO is built up automatically at high temperatures. Excess Zn in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals were investigated by the atomic absorption photometry (AAP) method. To determine the excess zinc in ZnO samples, the AAP of zinc vapour was used in the conditions of solid-vapour equilibrium. Zn AAP allowed to eliminate excess Zn connected differentially in ZnO samples. To fix Zn non-stoichiometry, all the ZnO samples tested were previously heat treated at temperature interval from 850 to 900 C and at fixed Zn vapour pressures from 0.1 to 0.9 of saturated zinc vapour pressure at given treatment temperature. The analysis of temperature dependence of zinc vapour pressure indicated that the impurity metals take active role in the determination of non-stoichiometric zinc. The impurities Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu form oxides which will reduce during annealing in Zn vapor up to metals form. During AAP measurement in optical cuvette, these metals react with ZnO and give additional Zn vapor pressure. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Bipolar resistive switching characteristics of low temperature grown ZnO thin films by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian; Yang Hui; Zhang Qilong; Dong Shurong; Luo, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) have been used to investigate resistive memory behavior. The bipolar resistance switching properties were observed in the Al/PEALD-ZnO/Pt devices. The resistance ratio for the high and low resistance states (HRS/LRS) is more than 10 3 , better than ZnO devices deposited by other methods. The dominant conduction mechanisms of HRS and LRS are trap-controlled space charge limited current and Ohmic behavior, respectively. The resistive switching behavior is induced upon the formation/disruption of conducting filaments. This study demonstrated that the PEALD-ZnO films have better properties for the application in 3D resistance random access memory.

  15. Study of structural, morphological, optical and electroluminescent properties of undoped ZnO nanorods grown by a simple chemical precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods were obtained by a simple chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD result indicates that the synthesized undoped ZnO nanorods have hexagonal wurtzite structure without any impurities. It has been observed that the growth direction of the prepared ZnO nanorods is [1 0 1]. XRD analysis revealed that the nanorods have the crystallite size of 49 nm. Crystallite size is calculated by Debye-Scherrer formula and lattice strain is calculated by Williomson-Hall equation. Cell volume, Lorentz factor, Lorentz polarization factor, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density have also been studied. We also compared the interplanar spacings and relative peak intensities with their standard values at different angles. The scanning electron microscope (SEM images confirmed the size and shape of these nanorods. It has been found that the diameter of the nanorods ranges from 1.52 μm to 1.61 μm and the length is about 4.89 μm. It has also been observed that at room temperature ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis absorption band is around 355 nm (blue shifted as compared to the bulk. The average particle size has also been calculated by mathematical model of effective mass approximation equation, using UV-Vis absorption peak. Finally, the bandgap has been calculated using UV-absorption peak. Electroluminescence (EL studies show that emission of light is possible at very small threshold voltage and it increases rapidly with increasing applied voltage. It is seen that smaller ZnO nanoparticles give higher electroluminescence brightness starting at lower threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  16. Intensity dependence and transient dynamics of donor-acceptor pair recombination in ZnO thin films grown on (001) silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bing; Qiu, Z. R.; Wong, K. S.

    2003-04-01

    We report room-temperature time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements on a nominally undoped wurtzite ZnO thin film grown on (001) silicon. A linear and sublinear excitation intensity Iex dependence of the PL intensity were observed for the 379.48-nm exciton line and the weak broad green band (˜510 nm), respectively. The green luminescence was found to decay as hyperbolic t-1, and its peak energy was observed to increase nearly logarithmically with increased Iex. These results are in an excellent agreement with the tunnel-assisted donor-deep-acceptor pair (DAP) model so that its large blueshifts of about 25 meV per decade increase in Iex can be accounted for by the screening of the fluctuating impurity potential. Also, the 30-ps fast decay of the exciton emission was attributed to the rapid trapping of carriers at luminescent impurities, while the short lifetime of τ1/e=200 ps for the green luminescence may be due to an alternative trapping by deeper centers in the ZnO. Finally, singly ionized oxygen and zinc vacancies have been tentatively invoked to act as donor-deep-acceptor candidates for the DAP luminescence, respectively.

  17. Tuning of Ag doped core−shell ZnO NWs/Cu2O grown by electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Houssin; Messaoudi, Olfa; Souissi, Ahmed; Ben Assaker, Ibtissem; Oueslati, Mihrez; Bechelany, Mikhael; Chtourou, Radhouane

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanowires (NWs)/Cu 2 O–Ag core–shell nanostructures (NSs) have been synthesized by electrochemical deposition method on ITO-coated glass substrates in order to improve the efficiency of the type-II transition of core–shell ZnO NWs/Cu 2 O–Ag NSs. The morphologies of the obtained NSs were studied by scanning electron microscopy confirming the presence of core–shell NSs. The crystalline proprieties were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and micro-Raman measurement: wurtzite ZnO and cuprit Cu 2 O phase were founded. The presence of Ag content in core–shell NS was detected by EDX. Optical measurement reveals an additional contribution δE at about 1.72 eV attributed to the type-II interfacial transition between the valance band of cuprit−Cu 2 O and the conduction band of W−ZnO. The effect of the Ag doping into the type-II transition was investigated. A red shift of the type-II transition was detected according to the Ag concentration. These materials could have potential applications in photocatalytic and photovoltaic fields. (paper)

  18. Annealing effects of ZnO nanorods on dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jooyoung; Lee, Juneyoung [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangwoo, E-mail: swlim@yonsei.ac.k [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using ZnO nanorod arrays vertically grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass using a low-temperature hydrothermal method. When the ZnO seed layer was annealed, greater DSSC efficiency was obtained. This may be attributed to the improvement of adhesion between the FTO and the seed layer and the corresponding effective growth of the ZnO nanorods. The DSSCs fabricated using ZnO nanorods which underwent annealing were more efficient than those that did not undergo annealing. The ZnO nanorods which were annealed in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} or O{sub 2} had increased dye loadings due to higher OH concentrations on the hydrophilic surface, which contributed to the improved DSSC efficiency. The fill factor increased after the annealing of the ZnO nanorods, potentially due to the improved crystallinity of the ZnO nanorods. In this study, annealing of both the seed layer and the ZnO nanorods resulted in the greatest DSSC efficiency.

  19. Hybrid Organic/ZnO p-n Junctions with n-Type ZnO Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuka, G.; Krajewski, T.; Szczerbakow, A.; Łusakowska, E.; Kopalko, K.; Guziewicz, E.; Wachnicki, Ł.; Szczepanik, A.; Godlewski, M.; Fidelus, J. D.

    2008-11-01

    We report on fabrication of hybrid inorganic-on-organic thin film structures with polycrystalline zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition technique. ZnO films were deposited on two kinds of thin organic films, i.e. pentacene and poly(dimethylosiloxane) elastomer with a carbon nanotube content (PDMS:CNT). Surface morphology as well as electrical measurements of the films and devices were analyzed. The current density versus voltage (I-V) characteristics of ITO/pentacene/ZnO/Au structure show a low-voltage switching phenomenon typical of organic memory elements. The I-V studies of ITO/PDMS:CNT/ZnO/Au structure indicate some charging effects in the system under applied voltages.

  20. Intersubband spectroscopy of ZnO/ZnMgO quantum wells grown on m-plane ZnO substrates for quantum cascade device applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Patrick; Jollivet, Arnaud; Isac, Nathalie; Bousseksou, Adel; Ariel, Frédéric; Tchernycheva, Maria; Julien, François H.; Montes Bajo, Miguel; Tamayo-Arriola, Julen; Hierro, Adrián.; Le Biavan, Nolwenn; Hugues, Maxime; Chauveau, Jean-Michel

    2017-03-01

    Quantum cascade (QC) lasers opens new prospects for powerful sources operating at THz frequencies. Up to now the best THz QC lasers are based on intersubband emission in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well (QW) heterostructures. The maximum operating temperature is 200 K, which is too low for wide-spread applications. This is due to the rather low LO-phonon energy (36 meV) of GaAs-based materials. Indeed, thermal activation allows non-radiative path through electron-phonon interaction which destroys the population inversion. Wide band gap materials such as ZnO have been predicted to provide much higher operating temperatures because of the high value of their LO-phonon energy. However, despite some observations of intersubband absorption in c-plane ZnO/ZnMgO quantum wells, little is known on the fundamental parameters such as the conduction band offset in such heterostructures. In addition the internal field inherent to c-plane grown heterostuctures is an handicap for the design of QC lasers and detectors. In this talk, we will review a systematic investigation of ZnO/ZnMgO QW heterostructures with various Mg content and QW thicknesses grown by plasma molecular beam epitaxy on low-defect m-plane ZnO substrates. We will show that most samples exhibit TM-polarized intersubband absorption at room temperature linked either to bound-to-quasi bound inter-miniband absorption or to bound-to bound intersubband absorption depending on the Mg content of the barrier material. This systematic study allows for the first time to estimate the conduction band offset of ZnO/ZnMgO heterostructures, opening prospects for the design of QC devices operating at THz frequencies. This was supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement #665107.

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition of ZnO on Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Its Use for Synthesis of CNT–ZnO Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, direct coating of ZnO on PECVD-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD. Transmission electron microscopy investigation shows that the deposited ZnO shell is continuous and uniform, in contrast to the previously reported particle morphology. The ZnO layer has a good crystalline quality as indicated by Raman and photoluminescence (PL measurements. We also show that such ZnO layer can be used as seed layer for subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods, resulting in branched CNT–inorganic hybrid nanostructures. Potentially, this method can also apply to the fabrication of ZnO-based hybrid nanostructures on other carbon nanomaterials.

  2. Growth, Structural and Optical Characterization of ZnO Nanotubes on Disposable-Flexible Paper Substrates by Low-Temperature Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Soomro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes (NTs on paper substrates by low-temperature hydrothermal method. The growth of ZnO NTs on the paper substrate is discussed; further, the structural and optical properties are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and cathodoluminescence (CL, and it was found that the ZnO NTs on paper substrate fulfill the structural and optical properties of ZnO NTs grown on other conventional substrates. This will be more beneficial in future usage of ZnO NTs in different fields and applications. Particularly, this approach opens the ways in research and development for high volume manufacturing of low-cost, flexible optoelectronics devices on disposable paper substrates and can be used in the future miniaturization trends.

  3. Enrichment of bio-oil after hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae C. vulgaris grown in wastewater: Bio-char and post HTL wastewater utilization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Jayaseelan; Varshini, Padmanabhan; Prithvinath, P Kamath; Priyadarshini, Venkataramani; Gopinath, Kannappan Panchamoorthy

    2018-08-01

    In this study, bio-oil was produced through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of C. vulgaris biomass cultivated in wastewater and was enriched into transportation fuels. Bio-oil yield was 29.37% wt at 300 °C, 60 min, at 15 g/200 mL biomass loading rate with 3% wt nano ZnO catalyst loading. Applying catalyst reduced oxygen and nitrogen content in bio-oil and increased its calorific value (19.6 ± 0.8 MJ/Kg). Bio-oil was enriched through liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and higher yield was obtained at 30 °C for dichloromethane solvent (18.2% wt). Compounds of enriched oil were within the petro-diesel range (C 8 -C 21 ). Bio-char after HTL process was activated and used as adsorbent in wastewater treatment process to remove organic pollutants (COD, NO 3 , NH 3 and PO 4 ). Treated wastewater can be supplied as growth medium for microalgae cultivation in further experiments. Nearly 3-4 times the nanocatalyst can be reused in the HTL process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdad, R.; Lemée, N.; Lamura, G.; Zeinert, A.; Hadj-Zoubir, N.; Bousmaha, M.; Bezzerrouk, M. A.; Bouyanfif, H.; Allouche, B.; Zellama, K.

    2017-04-01

    Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films with several different percentage of Co from 0 up to 15 at% were synthesized via a cheap, simple and versatile method i.e. ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at atmospheric pressure and a substrate temperature of 350 °C. The structure of the as-prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and FTIR. The Co-doping effect is revealed by the presence of three additional peaks around 235, 470 and 538 cm-1 respect to the Raman spectra of the unsubstituted film. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) put in evidence the decrease of the bond force constant f with increasing Co-doping. By ultra-violet visible near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectroscopy on Co-doped samples it was possible to show the presence of additional absorption bands at approximately 570, 620 and 660 nm suggesting that Co2+ ions do not change their oxidation when substituted to zinc and the ZnO lattice does not change its wurtzite structure as well. Finally, all our samples exhibit a paramagnetic behavior without any trace of intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism.

  5. Study of the pH effect on the properties of the hydrothermally grown V{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolopoulou, M. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, 710 03 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Louloudakis, D. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, 710 03 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Vernardou, D., E-mail: dimitra@iesl.forth.gr [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katsarakis, N. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Electrical Engineering Department, School of Applied Technology, Technological and Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research & Technology-Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Koudoumas, E. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Electrical Engineering Department, School of Applied Technology, Technological and Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Kiriakidis, G. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, 710 03 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research & Technology-Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2015-11-02

    Vanadium pentoxide coatings were prepared by hydrothermal process at a temperature as low as 95 °C. It was demonstrated that the structure and morphology of the coatings depend on the pH solution employed during growth. Only for pH 3.5, adhesive coating growth was observed, with a substantial enhancement in the electrochemical performance in terms of charge density magnitude. The amount of lithium charge interchanged between the vanadium pentoxide and the electrolyte reached 220 mC cm{sup −2}. This is a value among the best reported for low temperature growth and free of templates pentoxide with a prolonged stability up to 250 continuous charge intercalation/deintercalation scans. - Highlights: • Low temperature and free of templates grown electroactive V{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings • Electrochemical properties are dependent on the pH. • Continuous and adhesive coatings with high crystalline quality.

  6. Spectral properties of hydrothermally-grown Nd:LuAG, Yb:LuAG, and Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} laser materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David C., E-mail: DBrown@snakecreeklasers.com [Snake Creek Lasers LLC, Friendsville, PA 18818 (United States); McMillen, Colin D.; Moore, Cheryl; Kolis, Joseph W. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States); Envid, Victoria [Snake Creek Lasers LLC, Friendsville, PA 18818 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    We have investigated the hydrothermal growth of, and spectrally characterized, the lutetium based laser materials Nd:LuAG, Yb:LuAG, and Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Absorption cross-section data are presented for Nd:LuAG at 83, 175, and 295 K. Absorption cross-section data was also obtained for Yb:LuAG at 83, 175, and 295 K; the 295 K data was used to generate emission cross-sections using the method of reciprocity. For Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, we present absorption cross-sections at 295 K as well as emission cross-sections derived using reciprocity. -- Highlights: • We present spectral properties for hydrothermally-grown laser crystals. • Absorption cross-section data are presented for Nd:LuAG and Yb:LuAG at 83, 175, and 295 K. • Emission cross-sections are presented for Yb:LuAG at 295 K derived by reciprocity. • We present absorption cross-sections at 295 K as well as emission cross-sections derived using reciprocity for the laser material Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  7. Ultra-Fast Microwave Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods on Cellulose Substrates for UV Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pimentel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, tracing and Whatman papers were used as substrates to grow zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures. Cellulose-based substrates are cost-efficient, highly sensitive and environmentally friendly. ZnO nanostructures with hexagonal structure were synthesized by hydrothermal under microwave irradiation using an ultrafast approach, that is, a fixed synthesis time of 10 min. The effect of synthesis temperature on ZnO nanostructures was investigated from 70 to 130 °C. An Ultra Violet (UV/Ozone treatment directly to the ZnO seed layer prior to microwave assisted synthesis revealed expressive differences regarding formation of the ZnO nanostructures. Structural characterization of the microwave synthesized materials was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The optical characterization has also been performed. The time resolved photocurrent of the devices in response to the UV turn on/off was investigated and it has been observed that the ZnO nanorod arrays grown on Whatman paper substrate present a responsivity 3 times superior than the ones grown on tracing paper. By using ZnO nanorods, the surface area-to-volume ratio will increase and will improve the sensor sensibility, making these types of materials good candidates for low cost and disposable UV sensors. The sensors were exposed to bending tests, proving their high stability, flexibility and adaptability to different surfaces.

  8. Quantitative Characterization of Aqueous Byproducts from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Municipal Wastes, Food Industry Wastes, and Biomass Grown on Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, Balakrishna; Panisko, Ellen; Wietsma, Thomas; Lemmon, Teresa; Swita, Marie; Albrecht, Karl; Howe, Daniel

    2017-01-27

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a viable thermochemical process for converting wet solid wastes into biocrude which can be hydroprocessed to liquid transportation fuel blendstocks and specialty chemicals. The aqueous byproduct from HTL contains significant amounts (20 to 50%) of the feed carbon, which must be used to enhance economic sustainability of the process on an industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from HTL of industrial and municipal waste were characterized using a wide variety of analytical approaches. Organic chemical compounds present in these aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were employed to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species, in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of these aqueous byproducts, also were quantified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported, and the significance of these results is discussed in detail.

  9. Magnetic nanoparticles as a seed layer for growing ZnO nanowires for optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSalhi, M S; Atif, M; Ansari, Anees A; Khun, K; Ibupoto, Z H; Willander, M

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, cerium oxide CeO 2 nanoparticles were synthesised by sol-gel method and used for the growth of ZnO nanorods. The synthesised nanoparticles were studied by x-ray diffraction technique [XRD]. Furthermore, these nanoparticles were used as seed layer for the growth of ZnO nanorods by following the hydrothermal growth method. The structural study of ZnO nanorods was carried out by using field emission scanning electron microscopy [FESEM], and x-ray diffraction [XRD] techniques. This study demonstrated that the grown ZnO nanorods are well align, uniform, good in crystal quality and possess diameter of less than 200 nm. Energy dispersive x-rays [EDX] revealed that the ZnO nanorods are only composed of zinc, cerium as seed atom and oxygen atoms and no any other impurity in the grown nanorods. Moreover, photoluminescence [PL] approach was applied for the optical characterisation and it was observed that the near-band-edge emission [NBE] was same to that of zinc acetate seed layer, however the green emission and orange/red emission peaks were slightly raised due to possible higher level of defects in the cerium oxide seeded ZnO nanorods. This study provides an alternative approach for the synthesis of controlled ZnO nanorods using cerium oxide nanoparticles as seed nucleation layer which in reverse describe the application of these nanoparticles as well as due to controlled morphology of ZnO nanorods the performance of nanodevices based on ZnO can be increased using these particles as seed.

  10. Controllable synthesis of ZnO nanograss with different morphologies and enhanced performance in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shibu; Chen Xiangnan; Zuo Feibiao; Jiang Man [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhou Zuowan, E-mail: zwzhou@at-c.net [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Hui, David [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    A series of ZnO nanograss films grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates were synthesized via hydrothermal method by using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as adjusting agent. The films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the PEI not only affected the aspect ratios of ZnO nanograss but also changed the geometrical shape of ZnO nanograss. A possible mechanism based on PEI adsorbed on the non-polar facets of ZnO that governed the growth rate of different directions were proposed to elucidate the effect of PEI on morphology of ZnO. The ZnO nanograss films were applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The results showed that the photocurrent density significantly enhanced, and the power conversion efficiency increased by 55% based on ZnO nanograss synthesized in a growth solution containing 7 mmol/L PEI, resulting from the dye loading properties related to the different morphologies. - Graphical abstract: Effect of PEI on ZnO nanograss: controlling the aspect ratio and morphology of ZnO and enhancing their photovoltaic performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanograss with different aspect ratios were synthesized by adjusting PEI content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEI affects both on the aspect ratios and geometrical shapes of ZnO nanograss. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanograss with high aspect ratio and needle-like tip was advantageous for improved photovoltaic conversion performance.

  11. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160?nm and an average length of 2??m. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255?nm...

  12. Hydrogen-Induced Plastic Deformation in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukáč, F.; Čížek, J.; Vlček, M.; Procházka, I.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Traeger, F.; Rogalla, D.; Becker, H.-W.

    In the present work hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals covered with Pd over-layer were electrochemically loaded with hydrogen and the influence of hydrogen on ZnO micro structure was investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) was employed for determination of depth profile of hydrogen concentration in the sample. NRA measurements confirmed that a substantial amount of hydrogen was introduced into ZnO by electrochemical charging. The bulk hydrogen concentration in ZnO determined by NRA agrees well with the concentration estimated from the transported charge using the Faraday's law. Moreover, a subsurface region with enhanced hydrogen concentration was found in the loaded crystals. Slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) investigations of hydrogen-loaded crystal revealed enhanced concentration of defects in the subsurface region. This testifies hydrogen-induced plastic deformation of the loaded crystal. Absorbed hydrogen causes a significant lattice expansion. At low hydrogen concentrations this expansion is accommodated by elastic straining, but at higher concentrations hydrogen-induced stress exceeds the yield stress in ZnO and plastic deformation of the loaded crystal takes place. Enhanced hydrogen concentration detected in the subsurface region by NRA is, therefore, due to excess hydrogen trapped at open volume defects introduced by plastic deformation. Moreover, it was found that hydrogen-induced plastic deformation in the subsurface layer leads to typical surface modification: formation of hexagonal shape pyramids on the surface due to hydrogen-induced slip in the [0001] direction.

  13. Reduced defect densities in the ZnO epilayer grown on Si substrates by laser-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy using a ZnS epitaxial buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, T.; Chichibu, S.F.; Uedono, A.; Yoo, Y.-Z.; Chikyow, T.; Sota, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Koinuma, H.

    2004-01-01

    Nonradiative photoluminescence (PL) lifetime (τ nr ) and point defect density in the (0001) ZnO epilayer grown on (111) Si substrates by laser-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy (L-MBE) using a (0001) ZnS epitaxial buffer layer were compared with those in the ZnO films on (111) and (001) Si substrates prepared by direct transformation of ZnS epilayers on Si by thermal oxidation [Yoo et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 616 (2001)]. Both the ZnO films exhibited excitonic reflectance anomalies and corresponding PL peaks at low temperature, and the density or size of vacancy-type point defects (Zn vacancies), which were measured by the monoenergetic positron annihilation measurement, in the L-MBE epilayer was lower than that in the films prepared by the oxidation transformation. The ZnO epilayer grown on a (0001) ZnS epitaxial buffer on (111) Si exhibited longer τ nr of 105 ps at room temperature

  14. Hydrogen in ZnO - a challenge to experiments and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Gerhard [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Kuriplach, Jan [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    Positron lifetime spectroscopy, nuclear reaction analysis and X-ray diffraction have been combined to investigate various, nominally undoped, ZnO single crystals. Hydrogen is detected in all crystals in a bound state (0.3-0.8 at.-%), and in some cases also in an unbound state (0.7-1.9 at.-%), which can be removed by annealing. A single positron lifetime of 180-182 ps and 165-167 ps is measured for all hydrothermally and melt grown crystals, respectively. These lifetimes are attributed to zinc vacancy-hydrogen complexes, as deduced from ab initio studies of various vacancy-hydrogen defect configurations in ZnO and related positron calculations. In addition, various defect studies of hydrothermally grown (0001) oriented ZnO crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen are presented. It is demonstrated that a very high amount of hydrogen (up to {proportional_to}30 at.-%) can be introduced into the crystals by electrochemical doping. It is found that more than half of this amount is chemically bound, i.e. incorporated into the ZnO crystal lattice.

  15. Electrical and mechanical stability of aluminum-doped ZnO films grown on flexible substrates by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luka, G.; Witkowski, B.S.; Wachnicki, L.; Jakiela, R.; Virt, I.S.; Andrzejczuk, M.; Lewandowska, M.; Godlewski, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transparent and conductive ZnO:Al films were grown by atomic layer deposition. • The films were grown on flexible substrates at low growth temperatures (110–140 °C). • So-obtained films have low resistivities, of the order of 10 −3 Ω cm. • Bending tests indicated a critical bending radius of ≈1.2 cm. • Possible sources of the film resistivity changes upon bending are proposed. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low deposition temperatures (110–140 °C). The films have low resistivities, ∼10 −3 Ω cm, and high transparency (∼90%) in the visible range. Bending tests indicated a critical bending radius of ≈1.2 cm, below which the resistivity changes became irreversible. The films deposited on PET with additional buffer layer are more stable upon bending and temperature changes

  16. Photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanorods/p-type Si heterojunction structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Pietruszka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Selected properties of photovoltaic (PV structures based on n-type zinc oxide nanorods grown by a low temperature hydrothermal method on p-type silicon substrates (100 are investigated. PV structures were covered with thin films of Al doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition acting as transparent electrodes. The investigated PV structures differ in terms of the shapes and densities of their nanorods. The best response is observed for the structure containing closely-spaced nanorods, which show light conversion efficiency of 3.6%.

  17. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire Based Piezoelectric Generators and Related Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku, Charles; Dahiya, Abhishek Singh; Oshman, Christopher; Cayrel, Frederic; Poulin-Vittrant, Guylaine; Alquier, Daniel; Camara, Nicolas

    Using vertically grown hydrothermal ZnO nanowires, we demonstrate the assembly of fully functional piezoelectric energy harvesters on plastics substrates. A seedless hydrothermal process is employed for the growth of single crystalline vertically orientated ZnO NWs at around 100oC. Flexible NG are assembled using ∼7 μm thick PDMS polymer matrix on a 3x3cm substrate. A representative device with an active area of 4cm2 is characterised revealing average output voltage generation of ∼22mV (±1.2) and -32mV (±0.16) in the positive and negative cycles after 3-4mm periodic deflection at 20Hz. A power density of ∼288nW/cm3 is estimated for the device. It is envisaged that such energy scavengers may find potential applications targeting self-powered systems, sensors and on-body charging of electronics.

  18. Photoelectrochemical and Raman characterization of nanocrystalline CdS grown on ZnO by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozytskiy, A.V. [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Stroyuk, O.L., E-mail: stroyuk@inphyschem-nas.kiev.ua [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kuchmiy, S.Ya. [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Mazanik, A.V.; Poznyak, S.K. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Streltsov, E.A., E-mail: streltea@bsu.by [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kulak, A.I., E-mail: kulak@igic.bas-net.by [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Surganova str., 9/1, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Korolik, O.V. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Dzhagan, V.M., E-mail: dzhagan@isp.kiev.ua [V.E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 41 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Properties of CdS nanoparticles (NPs) grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on the surface of electrodeposited ZnO films were studied by Raman, photocurrent and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopies. The CdS nanoparticles deposited at a SILAR cycle number (N) from 5 to 10 exhibit a broadening of the band gap (E{sub g}) by 0.17–0.31 eV as compared with that of the CdS particles grown at N = 30. The size quantization of the interband transition energy in CdS nanoparticles is in accordance with the Raman spectroscopic data demonstrating a considerable increase in the LO peak intensity with increasing the N from 5 to 10 as a result of transition to resonant light scattering. The spectral width of the LO peak decreases from 50 to 15 cm{sup −1} as the N increases from 5 to 30 reflecting a less pronounced effect of the nanoparticle surface on the phonon scattering. A large spectral width of the Raman peaks is assumed to originate from a complex structure of the CdS nanoparticles comprising crystallinity domains that can affect the phonon confinement. The photocurrent spectroscopy of ZnO/CdS heterostructures showed that the band gap of CdS NPs deposited at N > 20 is smaller by ∼ 0.08 eV than that of bulk cadmium sulfide. It was concluded that this effect is not associated with photoexcitation of structural defects but rather reflects intrinsic electronic properties of SILAR-deposited CdS nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Visible-light-sensitive ZnO/CdS heterostructures were prepared by SILAR. • A large Raman peak width originates from a complex structure of CdS nanoparticles. • Vibrational properties of CdS nanoparticles depend on SILAR cycle number.

  19. Photoelectrochemical and Raman characterization of nanocrystalline CdS grown on ZnO by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozytskiy, A.V.; Stroyuk, O.L.; Kuchmiy, S.Ya.; Mazanik, A.V.; Poznyak, S.K.; Streltsov, E.A.; Kulak, A.I.; Korolik, O.V.; Dzhagan, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Properties of CdS nanoparticles (NPs) grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on the surface of electrodeposited ZnO films were studied by Raman, photocurrent and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopies. The CdS nanoparticles deposited at a SILAR cycle number (N) from 5 to 10 exhibit a broadening of the band gap (E g ) by 0.17–0.31 eV as compared with that of the CdS particles grown at N = 30. The size quantization of the interband transition energy in CdS nanoparticles is in accordance with the Raman spectroscopic data demonstrating a considerable increase in the LO peak intensity with increasing the N from 5 to 10 as a result of transition to resonant light scattering. The spectral width of the LO peak decreases from 50 to 15 cm −1 as the N increases from 5 to 30 reflecting a less pronounced effect of the nanoparticle surface on the phonon scattering. A large spectral width of the Raman peaks is assumed to originate from a complex structure of the CdS nanoparticles comprising crystallinity domains that can affect the phonon confinement. The photocurrent spectroscopy of ZnO/CdS heterostructures showed that the band gap of CdS NPs deposited at N > 20 is smaller by ∼ 0.08 eV than that of bulk cadmium sulfide. It was concluded that this effect is not associated with photoexcitation of structural defects but rather reflects intrinsic electronic properties of SILAR-deposited CdS nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Visible-light-sensitive ZnO/CdS heterostructures were prepared by SILAR. • A large Raman peak width originates from a complex structure of CdS nanoparticles. • Vibrational properties of CdS nanoparticles depend on SILAR cycle number

  20. Post-growth annealing induced change of conductivity in As-doped ZnO grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Su, S. C.; Ling, C. C.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic-doped ZnO films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at a relatively low substrate temperature of 200 deg. C. Post-growth annealing in air was carried out up to a temperature of 1000 deg. C. The samples were characterized by Hall measurement, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and cathodoluminescence (CL). The as-grown sample was of n-type and it converted to p-type material after the 400 deg. C annealing. The resulting hole concentration was found to increase with annealing temperature and reached a maximum of 6 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} at the annealing temperature of 600 deg. C. The origin of the p-type conductivity was consistent with the As{sub Zn}(V{sub Zn}){sub 2} shallow acceptor model. Further increasing the annealing temperature would decrease the hole concentration of the samples finally converted the sample back to n-type. With evidence, it was suggested that the removal of the p-type conductivity was due to the dissociation of the As{sub Zn}(V{sub Zn}){sub 2} acceptor and the creation of the deep level defect giving rise to the green luminescence.

  1. Post-growth annealing induced change of conductivity in As-doped ZnO grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Su, S. C.; Ling, C. C.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic-doped ZnO films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at a relatively low substrate temperature of 200 °C. Post-growth annealing in air was carried out up to a temperature of 1000 °C. The samples were characterized by Hall measurement, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and cathodoluminescence (CL). The as-grown sample was of n-type and it converted to p-type material after the 400 °C annealing. The resulting hole concentration was found to increase with annealing temperature and reached a maximum of 6 × 1017 cm-3 at the annealing temperature of 600 °C. The origin of the p-type conductivity was consistent with the AsZn(VZn)2 shallow acceptor model. Further increasing the annealing temperature would decrease the hole concentration of the samples finally converted the sample back to n-type. With evidence, it was suggested that the removal of the p-type conductivity was due to the dissociation of the AsZn(VZn)2 acceptor and the creation of the deep level defect giving rise to the green luminescence.

  2. Post-growth annealing induced change of conductivity in As-doped ZnO grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Su, S. C.; Ling, C. C.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic-doped ZnO films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at a relatively low substrate temperature of 200 deg. C. Post-growth annealing in air was carried out up to a temperature of 1000 deg. C. The samples were characterized by Hall measurement, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and cathodoluminescence (CL). The as-grown sample was of n-type and it converted to p-type material after the 400 deg. C annealing. The resulting hole concentration was found to increase with annealing temperature and reached a maximum of 6 x 10 17 cm -3 at the annealing temperature of 600 deg. C. The origin of the p-type conductivity was consistent with the As Zn (V Zn ) 2 shallow acceptor model. Further increasing the annealing temperature would decrease the hole concentration of the samples finally converted the sample back to n-type. With evidence, it was suggested that the removal of the p-type conductivity was due to the dissociation of the As Zn (V Zn ) 2 acceptor and the creation of the deep level defect giving rise to the green luminescence.

  3. Epitaxially grown zinc-blende structured Mn doped ZnO nanoshell on ZnS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, Mukta V.; Singh, Shashi B.; Date, Sadgopal K.; Gholap, R.S.; Kulkarni, Sulabha K.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide in the bulk as well as in the nanocrystalline form is thermodynamically stable in the wurtzite structure. However, zinc oxide in the zinc-blende structure is more useful than that in the wurtzite structure due to its superior electronic properties as well as possibility of efficient doping. Therefore, zinc oxide shell is grown epitaxially on zinc sulphide core nanoparticles having zinc-blende structure. It is shown that doping of manganese could be achieved in zinc oxide nanoshell with zinc-blende structure

  4. Study of annealing effect on the growth of ZnO nanorods on ZnO seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannakashappanavar, Basavaraj S.; Pattanashetti, Nandini A.; Byrareddy, C. R.; Yadav, Aniruddh Bahadur

    2018-04-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer was deposited on the SiO2/Si substrate by RF sputtering. To study the effect of annealing, the seed layers were classified into annealed and unannealed thin films. Annealing of the seed layers was carried at 450°C. Surface morphology of the seed layers were studied by Atomic force microscopy. ZnO nanorods were then grown on both the types of seed layer by hydrothermal method. The morphology and the structural properties of the nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. The effect of seed layer annealing on the growth and orientation of the ZnO nanorods were clearly examined on comparing with the nanorods grown on unannealed seed layer. The nanorods grown on annealed seed layers were found to be well aligned and oriented. Further, the I-V characteristic study was carried out on these aligned nanorods. The results supports positively for the future work to further enhance the properties of developed nanorods for their wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Template-Assisted Hydrothermal Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Canlin; Sanchez-Jimenez, Pedro E; Datta, Anuja; Boughey, Francesca L; Whiter, Richard A; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2016-06-08

    A flexible and robust piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) based on a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite structure has been successfully fabricated via a cost-effective and scalable template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method. Vertically aligned arrays of dense and uniform zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with high aspect ratio (diameter ∼250 nm, length ∼12 μm) were grown within nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) templates. The energy conversion efficiency was found to be ∼4.2%, which is comparable to previously reported values for ZnO NWs. The resulting NG is found to have excellent fatigue performance, being relatively immune to detrimental environmental factors and mechanical failure, as the constituent ZnO NWs remain embedded and protected inside the polymer matrix.

  6. Development of ZnO based charged particle monitor for processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, we describe the development of an α-ray imaging detector based on a ZnO single crystalline scintillator and a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The ZnO crystal was grown by the hydrothermal synthesis method with 2-in.-φ in diameter. The ZnO specimen was polished but to be 0.5 mm in thickness. After optically coupling with PSPMT, the crystal was irradiated with, 241 Am α-ray for evaluation of both spatial resolution and pulse height spectrum. Using the charge center of the gravity method, two-dimensional α-ray images were successfully obtained. The efficiency of the energy window in terms of imaging quality was also examined. (author)

  7. Pr3+ doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays grown on activated carbon fibers: Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Praseodymium-doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays (Pr-TiO2 NRAs) were successfully prepared via a two-step hydrothermal reaction on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) which pre-coated with TiO2 nanoparticles at first step. The bicrystalline arrays grown on ACFs are primarily constructed by the well-aligned TiO2 nanorods growing along [0 0 1] direction, which were indicated by the results of SEM and XRD. The nanorods are uniform in diameter and length with about 250 nm and 2.5 μm. The composite photocatalyst with high specific surface area and well-aligned nanostructure are beneficial to enhance the adsorption capacity and even help to suppress electron-hole recombination effectively, which consequently revealed much better (2 times) catalytic performance than that of commercially available P25 TiO2 on methylene blue(MB) photodegradation. In addition, the existence of praseodymium in TiO2 gives rise to shift of absorption edge towards long wavelength, which was indicated by the results of UV-vis DRS. Photodegradation results reveal that Pr-doping significantly improves the activity of TiO2, which was 20% higher than that of undoped TiO2 NRAs for the photodegradation of MB in aqueous medium under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the doped amount of Pr had a tiny influence on the photocatalytic performance of the composites. In our experiment, 3% Pr-doped molar concentration was proven to be the relatively optimal dopant concentration for the doping of TiO2 NRAs. Moreover, the photocatalyst grown on ACFs substrates is favorable to reuse and photodegradation rate kept on 76% even after 4 times of reuse.

  8. Revelation of rutile phase by Raman scattering for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of hydrothermally-grown anatase TiO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hsun-Wei; Liao, Kuo-Lun; Yang, Jih-Sheng; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2018-05-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of the anatase TiO2 films hydrothermally grown on the seeded fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates are examined in this work. Structural characterizations of the TiO2 films were conducted using Raman scattering spectroscopy. Although there is no obvious rutile peak appearing, an asymmetrical peak centered at ∼399 cm-1 was observed in the Raman spectra of the TiO2 films deposited either on the low-temperature-formed seed layers or with low concentrations of Ti precursor. The asymmetrical Raman shift can be deconvoluted into the B1g mode of anatase and Eg mode of rutile TiO2 peaks centered at ∼399 cm-1 and ∼447 cm-1, respectively. Therefore, a minute quantity of rutile phase was inspected in the anatase film using Raman scattering spectroscopy. With the same light harvesting ability, we found that the PEC performance of the anatase TiO2 film was significantly enhanced as the minute quantity of rutile phase existing in the film. It is ascribed to the formation of the anatase/rutile heterojunction which is beneficial to the charge separation in the photoanode.

  9. Interface-defect-mediated photocatalysis of mesocrystalline ZnO assembly synthesized in-situ via a template-free hydrothermal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Cuicui; Chen, Qifeng; Ren, Baosheng; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xiaopeng; Duan, Ran

    2017-08-01

    Both architecture construction and defects engineering of photocatalysts are highly vital in the photocatalytic activity. We report herein that the interface-defect-mediated photocatalytic activity of pompon-like ZnO (P-ZnO) mesocrystal photocatalyst synthesized via an aqueous approach, in the presence of sodium citrate without any other organic templates. The microstructure and defects of the diverse ZnO photocatalysts were examined with various techniques. The results indicated that the P-ZnO assemblies were composed of mesocrystal nanosheets exposed high energy (002) facet with high crystallinity. More importantly, the defects located at the interfaces among the nanocrystals in ZnO mesocrystals played an important role in the photocatalytic activity than that of interstitial zinc vacancies in bulk, which was confirmed by photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, such as methylene blue (MB) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The results showed that the P-ZnO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of the nanosized ZnO (N-ZnO), which could be attributed to not only the unique mesocrystal structure and high energy (002) facet exposed, but also the defects located at interfaces among nanocrystals in ZnO mesocrystals. In addition, the formation mechanism of the P-ZnO was investigated via a time-dependent method. It was found that the formation of P-ZnO hierarchical architecture assembled with ZnO mesocrystals involved a nonclassical crystallization growth and Ostwald Ripening process. This study provides a perspective on the improvement in photocatalytic activity via adjusting the bulk and interface defects and construction of hierarchical architectures of semiconductors.

  10. Patterned Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Assisted with Polystyrene Monolayer by Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Choi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide is known as a promising material for sensing devices due to its piezoelectric properties. In particular, the alignment of ZnO nanostructures into ordered nanoarrays is expected to improve the device sensitivity due to the large surface area which can be utilized to capture significant quantities of gas particles. However, ZnO nanorods are difficult to grow on the quartz substrate with well-ordered shape. So, we investigated nanostructures by adjusting the interval distance of the arranged ZnO nanorods using polystyrene (PS spheres of various sizes (800 nm, 1300 nm and 1600 nm. In addition, oxygen plasma treatment was used to specify the nucleation site of round, patterned ZnO nanorod growth. Therefore, ZnO nanorods were grown on a quartz substrate with a patterned polystyrene monolayer by the hydrothermal method after oxygen plasma treatment. The obtained ZnO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM.

  11. Flexible Al-doped ZnO films grown on PET substrates using linear facing target sputtering for flexible OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin-A; Shin, Hyun-Su; Choi, Kwang-Hyuk; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-01-01

    We report the characteristics of flexible Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films prepared by a plasma damage-free linear facing target sputtering (LFTS) system on PET substrates for use as a flexible transparent conducting electrode in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The electrical, optical and structural properties of LFTS-grown flexible AZO electrodes were investigated as a function of dc power. We obtained a flexible AZO film with a sheet resistance of 39 Ω/□ and an average transmittance of 84.86% in the visible range although it was sputtered at room temperature without activation of the Al dopant. Due to the effective confinement of the high-density plasma between the facing AZO targets, the AZO film was deposited on the PET substrate without plasma damage and substrate heating caused by bombardment of energy particles. Moreover, the flexible OLED fabricated on the AZO/PET substrate showed performance similar to the OLED fabricated on a ITO/PET substrate in spite of a lower work function. This indicates that LFTS is a promising plasma damage-free and low-temperature sputtering technique for deposition of flexible and indium-free AZO electrodes for use in cost-efficient flexible OLEDs.

  12. Enhanced photoelectric performance in self-powered UV detectors based on ZnO nanowires with plasmonic Au nanoparticles scattered electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yiyu; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Bin; Dai, Wei; Pan, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a fluorine-doped tin-oxide-coated glass substrate by a hydrothermal method. Au nanoparticles were well dispersed in the mixed solution of ethanol and deionized water. A simple self-powered ultraviolet detector based on solid-liquid heterojunction was fabricated, utilizing ZnO NWs as active photoanode and such prepared mixed solution as electrolyte. The introduction of Au nanoparticles results in considerable improvements in the responsivity and sensitivity of the device compared with the one using deionized water as electrolyte, which is attributed to the enhanced light harvesting by Au nanoparticles.

  13. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  14. Zno Micro/Nanostructures Grown on Sapphire Substrates Using Low-Temperature Vapor-Trapped Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition: Structural and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Sheng Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the Zn(C5H7O22·xH2O-based growth of ZnO micro/nanostructures in a low temperature, vapor-trapped chemical vapor deposition system was attempted to optimize structural and optical properties for potential biomedical applications. By trapping in-flow gas molecules and Zinc vapor inside a chamber tube by partially obstructing a chamber outlet, a high pressure condition can be achieved, and this experimental setup has the advantages of ease of synthesis, being a low temperature process, and cost effectiveness. Empirically, the growth process proceeded under a chamber condition of an atmospheric pressure of 730 torr, a controlled volume flow rate of input gas, N2/O2, of 500/500 Standard Cubic Centimeters per Minute (SCCM, and a designated oven temperature of 500 °C. Specifically, the dependence of structural and optical properties of the structures on growth duration and spatially dependent temperature were investigated utilizing scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL, and ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that the grown thin film observed with hexagonal structures and higher structural uniformity enables more prominent structural and optical signatures. XRD spectra present the dominant peaks along crystal planes of (002 and (101 as the main direction of crystallization. In addition, while the structures excited with laser wavelength of 325 nm emit a signature radiation around 380 nm, an ultraviolet lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm revealed distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 363.96 nm and 403.52 nm, elucidating different degrees of structural correlation as functions of growth duration and the spatial gradient of temperature. Transmittance spectra of the structures illustrate typical variation in the wavelength range of 200 nm to 400 nm, and its structural correlation is less significant when compared with PL.

  15. Structural and optical properties of nano-structured tungsten-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngom, B.D. [African Laser Centre, CSIR campus, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); Groupes de Laboratoires de physique des Solides et Sciences des Materiaux, Faculte des sciences et Techniques Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), B.P. 25114 Dakar-Fann Dakar (Senegal); NANO-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa)], E-mail: bdngom@tlabs.ac.za; Mpahane, T. [NANO-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Manyala, N. [Department of Physics and Electronics National University of Lesotho (Lesotho); Nemraoui, O. [NANO-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Buttner, U. [Engineering Department, University of Stellenbosch (South Africa); Kana, J.B. [Department of Physique University of Yaounde 1 (Cameroon); Fasasi, A.Y. [Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State (Nigeria); Maaza, M. [African Laser Centre, CSIR campus, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); NANO-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Beye, A.C. [African Laser Centre, CSIR campus, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); Groupes de Laboratoires de physique des Solides et Sciences des Materiaux, Faculte des sciences et Techniques Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), B.P. 25114 Dakar-Fann Dakar (Senegal)

    2009-01-15

    Novel highly c-oriented tungsten-doped zinc oxide (WZO) thin films with 1 wt% were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on corning 1737F glass substrate. The effects of laser energy on the structural, morphological as well as optical transmission properties of the films were studied. The films were highly transparent with average transmittance exceeding 87% in the wavelength region lying between 400 and 2500 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) results indicated that the WZO films had c-axis preferred orientation with wurtzite structure. Film thickness and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the (0 0 2) peaks of the films were found to be dependent on laser fluence. The composition determined through Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) appeared to be independent of the laser fluence. By assuming a direct band gap transition, the band gap values of 3.36, 3.34 and 3.31 eV were obtained for corresponding laser fluence of 1, 1.7 and 2.7 J cm{sup -2}, respectively. Compared with the reported undoped ZnO band gap value of 3.37 eV, it is conjectured that the observed low band gap values obtained in this study may be attributable to tungsten incorporation in the films as well as the increase in laser fluence. The high transparency makes the films useful as optical windows while the high band gap values support the idea that the films could be good candidates for optoelectronic applications.

  16. Defects in N{sup +} ion-implanted ZnO single crystals studied by positron annihilation and Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kuriplach, J.; Melikhova, O.; Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I. [Department of Low Temperature Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Wenckstern, H. von; Brandt, M.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    High quality ZnO single crystals of dimensions 10 x 10 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}, grown by a hydrothermal approach, have been implanted by 40 keV N{sup +} ions to a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} at room temperature. Their properties revealed by positron annihilation and Hall effect measurements are given in the as-grown and as-irradiated states, and after post-implantation annealing in an oxygen ambient at 200 C and 500 C. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Growth and characterization of ZnO nanowires for optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSalhi, M S; Atif, M; Ansari, A A; Khun, K; Ibupoto, Z H; Willander, M

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, cerium oxide CeO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol–gel method and used for the growth of ZnO nanorods. The synthesized nanoparticles were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore, these nanoparticles were used as the seed layer for the growth of ZnO nanorods by following the hydrothermal growth method. The structural study of ZnO nanorods was carried out by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and XRD techniques. This study demonstrated that the grown ZnO nanorods are well aligned, uniform, of good crystal quality and have diameters of less than 200 nm. Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis revealed that the ZnO nanorods are composed only of zinc, cerium as the seed atom, and oxygen atoms, with no other impurities in the grown nanorods. Moreover, a photoluminescence (PL) approach was applied for the optical characterization, and it was observed that the near-band-edge (NBE) emission was the same as that of the zinc acetate seed layer, however the green and orange/red emission peaks were slightly raised due to possibly higher levels of defects in the cerium oxide seeded ZnO nanorods. This study provides an alternative approach for the controlled synthesis of ZnO nanorods using cerium oxide nanoparticles as the seed nucleation layer, improving both the morphology of the nanorods and the performance of devices based upon them. (paper)

  18. ZnO Film Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosi Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized high-quality, nanoscale ultrathin ZnO films at relatively low temperature using a facile and effective hydrothermal approach. ZnO films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The products demonstrated 95% photodegradation efficiency with Congo red (CR after 40 min irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation experiments of methyl orange (MO and eosin red also were carried out. The results indicate that the as-obtained ZnO films might be promising candidates as the excellent photocatalysts for elimination of waste water.

  19. A study on the sensing of NO(sub2) and O(sub2) utilizing ZnO films grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the preparation and characterization of ZnO nanostructured thin films obtained using aerosol spray pyrolysis method at different deposition periods. Aiming at understanding the chemical composition, structural...

  20. ZnO Rods with Exposed {100} Facets Grown via a Self-Catalyzed Vapor-Solid Mechanism and Their Photocatalytic and Gas Sensing Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vallejos, S.; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Gracia, I.; Sotelo-Vazquez, C.; Cechal, J.; Blackman, C.; Parkin, I.; Cane, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 48 (2016), s. 33335-33342 ISSN 1944-8244 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ZnO * rods * AACVD * gas sensing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  1. Effect of Ag doping on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ZnO grown by MOCVD at different substrate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ievtushenko, A.; Karpyna, V.; Eriksson, J.; Tsiaoussis, I.; Shtepliuk, I.; Lashkarev, G.; Yakimova, R.; Khranovskyy, V.

    2018-05-01

    ZnO films and nanostructures were deposited on Si substrates by MOCVD using single source solid state zinc acetylacetonate (Zn(AA)) precursor. Doping by silver was realized in-situ via adding 1 and 10 wt. % of Ag acetylacetonate (Ag(AA)) to zinc precursor. Influence of Ag on the microstructure, electrical and optical properties of ZnO at temperature range 220-550 °C was studied by scanning, transmission electron and Kelvin probe force microscopy, photoluminescence and four-point probe electrical measurements. Ag doping affects the ZnO microstructure via changing the nucleation mode into heterogeneous and thus transforming the polycrystalline films into a matrix of highly c-axis textured hexagonally faceted nanorods. Increase of the work function value from 4.45 to 4.75 eV was observed with Ag content increase, which is attributed to Ag behaviour as a donor impurity. It was observed, that near-band edge emission of ZnO NS was enhanced with Ag doping as a result of quenching deep-level emission. Upon high doping of ZnO by Ag it tends to promote the formation of basal plane stacking faults defect, as it was observed by HR TEM and PL study in the case of 10 wt.% of Ag. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that NS deposition at lower temperatures (220-300 °C) is more favorable for p-type doping of ZnO.

  2. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H F; Chi, D Z; Liu, W; Guo, S

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [–4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al 2 O 3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings. (paper)

  3. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. F.; Liu, W.; Guo, S.; Chi, D. Z.

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [-4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al2O3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings.

  4. Enhancement of UV photodetector properties of ZnO nanorods/PEDOT:PSS Schottky junction by NGQD sensitization along with conductivity improvement of PEDOT:PSS by DMSO additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Saurab; Majumder, Tanmoy; Chakraborty, Pinak; Mondal, Suvra Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Schottky junction ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was fabricated by spin coating a hole conducting polymer, poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays. The UV detector performance was significantly improved two step process. Firstly, ZnO nanorods were modified by sensitizing N doped grapheme quantum dots (NGQDs) for better photoresponce behavior. Afterwards, the junction properties as well as photoresponse was enhanced by modifying electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS layer with organic solvent (DMSO). Our NGQD decorated ZnO NRs/DMSO-PEDOT:PSS Schottky junction device demonstrated superior external quantum efficiency (EQE ˜ 90063 %) and responsivity (Rλ˜247 A/W) at 340 nm wavelength and -1V external bias. The response and recovery times of the final photodetector device was very fast compared to GQD as well as NGQD modified and pristine ZnO nanorod based detectors.

  5. Electroluminescence dependence on the organic thickness in ZnO nano rods/Alq3 heterostructure devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pengzhi; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Dawei

    2011-04-01

    ZnO nanorods are synthesised by a hydrothermal method on ITO glass. Their crystallization and morphology are detected by XRD and SEM, respectively. The results show that the ZnO nanorod array has grown primarily along a direction aligned perpendicular to the ITO substrate. The average height and diameter of the nanorods is about 130 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Then ZnO nano rods/Alq3 heterostructure LEDs are prepared by thermal evaporation of Alq3 molecules. The thicknesses of the Alq3 layers are 130 nm, 150 nm, 170 nm and 190 nm, respectively. The electroluminescence of the devices is detected under different DC bias voltages. The exciton emission of Alq3 is detected in all devices. When the thickness of Alq3 is 130 nm, the UV electroluminescence of ZnO is around 382 nm, and defect emissions around 670 nm and 740 nm are detected. Defect emissions of ZnO nanorods are prominent. When the thickness of Alq3 increases to over 170 nm, it is difficult to observe defect emissions from the ZnO nano rods. In such devices, the exciton emission of Alq3 is more prominent than other emissions under different bias voltage.

  6. Anomalous diffusion of Ga and As from semi-insulating GaAs substrate into MOCVD grown ZnO films as a function of annealing temperature and its effect on charge compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion behavior of arsenic (As and gallium (Ga atoms from semi-insulating GaAs (SI-GaAs into ZnO films upon post-growth annealing vis-à-vis the resulting charge compensation was investigated with the help of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The films, annealed at 600 ºC and 700 ºC showed p-type conductivity with a hole concentration of 1.1 × 1018 cm−3 and 2.8 × 1019 cm−3 respectively, whereas those annealed at 800 ºC showed n-type conductivity with a carrier concentration of 6.5 × 1016 cm−3. It is observed that at lower temperatures, large fraction of As atoms diffused from the SI-GaAs substrates into ZnO and formed acceptor related complex, (AsZn–2VZn, by substituting Zn atoms (AsZn and thereby creating two zinc vacancies (VZn. Thus as-grown ZnO which was supposed to be n-type due to nonstoichiometric nature showed p-type behavior. On further increasing the annealing temperature to 800 ºC, Ga atoms diffused more than As atoms and substitute Zn atoms thereby forming shallow donor complex, GaZn. Electrons from donor levels then compensate the p-type carriers and the material reverts back to n-type. Thus the conversion of carrier type took place due to charge compensation between the donors and acceptors in ZnO and this compensation is the possible origin of anomalous conduction in wide band gap materials.

  7. A Regrowth Method for the Fabrication of High-Quality ZnO Films and Their Application in Fast-Response UV Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Sungsu; Jo, Euije; Kim, Gyeongjae; Leem, Jae-Young [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jeong-Sik [Kyungwoon University, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-O [Kansas State University, Manhattan (United States)

    2017-07-15

    In this study, we fabricated high-quality ZnO films using hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods and a spin-coated Al-doped ZnO film by using regrowth method. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity ratios of the near-band-edge (NBE) to deep-level (DL) emission peaks (I{sub NBE}/I{sub DL}) for ZnO nanorods (samples 1) and ZnO film (sample 2) were 2.13 and 24.3, respectively. The redshift from 3.288 (sample 2) to 3.278 eV (sample 1) and low I{sub NBE}/I{sub DL} ratio in PL spectra were attributed to large mismatch between ZnO and Si substrate, resulting in a residual stress and the low optical properties. In case of sample 2, the photocurrent was sharply increased without the exponential rise because of enhanced optical properties of ZnO film by regrowth. The regrowth method is expected to represent a possible route for fast-response ultraviolet sensors.

  8. Aqueous chemical growth of free standing vertical ZnO nanoprisms, nanorods and nanodiskettes with improved texture co-efficient and tunable size uniformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, S.D.G. [Bharath Niketan Engineering College, Department of Physics, Aundipatti (India); Ravi, G.; Mahalingam, T. [Alagappa University, Department of Physics, Karaikudi (India); Athimoolam, A. [Fatima Michael College of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics, Madurai (India); Kulandainathan, M.A. [Central Electro Chemical Research Institute, Karaikudi (India)

    2011-12-15

    Tuning the morphology, size and aspect ratio of free standing ZnO nanostructured arrays by a simple hydrothermal method is reported. Pre-coated ZnO seed layers of two different thicknesses ({approx}350 nm or 550 nm) were used as substrates to grow ZnO nanostructures for the study. Various parameters such as chemical ambience, pH of the solution, strength of the Zn{sup 2+} atoms and thickness of seed bed are varied to analyze their effects on the resultant ZnO nanostructures. Vertically oriented hexagonal nanorods, multi-angular nanorods, hexagonal diskette and popcorn-like nanostructures are obtained by altering the experimental parameters. All the produced nanostructures were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and found to be grown in the (002) orientation of wurtzite ZnO. The texture co-efficient of ZnO layer was improved by combining a thick seed layer with higher cationic strength. Surface morphological studies reveal various nanostructures such as nanorods, diskettes and popcorn-like structures based on various preparation conditions. The optical property of the closest packed nanorods array was recorded by UV-VIS spectrometry, and the band gap value simulated from the results reflect the near characteristic band gap of ZnO. The surface roughness profile taken from the Atomic Force Microscopy reveals a roughness of less than 320 nm. (orig.)

  9. Crystalline nanostructured Cu doped ZnO thin films grown at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition technique and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmosh, Qasem A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Rao, Saleem G.; Yamani, Zain H. [Laser Research Group, Department of Physics, Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gondal, Mohammed A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Laser Research Group, Department of Physics, Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-04-01

    We report structural and optical properties of Cu doped ZnO (ZnO:Cu) thin films deposited on glass substrate at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method without pre and post annealing contrary to all previous reports. For preparation of (ZnO:Cu) composites pure Zn and Cu targets in special geometrical arrangements were exposed to 248 nm radiations generated by KrF exciter laser. The laser energy was 200 mJ with 10 Hz frequency and 20 ns pulse width. The effect of Cu concentration on crystal structure, morphology, and optical properties were investigated by XRD, FESEM and photoluminescence spectrometer respectively. A systematic shift in ZnO (0 0 2) peak with Cu concentration observed in XRD spectra demonstrated that Cu ion has been incorporated in ZnO lattice. Uniform film with narrow size range grains were observed in FESEM images. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra measured at room temperature revealed a systematic red shift in ZnO emission peak and decrease in the band gap with the increase in Cu concentration. These results entail that PLD technique can be realized to deposit high quality crystalline ZnO and ZnO:Cu thin films without pre and post heat treatment which is normally practiced worldwide for such structures.

  10. Studies of surface morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on different molarities of TiO_2 seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) seed layer was prepared by using sol-gel spin-coating technique, followed by growth of 0.01 M of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures by solution-immersion. The molarities of TiO_2 seed layer were varied from 1.1 M to 0.100 M on glass substrates. The nanostructures thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electrons Microscope (FESEM), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FESEM images demonstrate that needle-like ZnO nanostructures are formed on all TiO_2 seed layer. The smallest diameter of needle-like ZnO nanostructures (90.3 nm) were deposited on TiO_2 seed layer of 0.100 M. PL spectra of the TiO_2: ZnO nanostructures thin films show the blue shifted emissions in the UV regions compared to the ZnO thin film. Meanwhile, UV-vis spectra of films display high absorption in the UV region and high trasparency in the visible region. The highest absorbance at UV region was recorded for sample which has 0.100 M of TiO_2 seed layer.

  11. Sonochemical assisted hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO: Cr nanoparticles loaded activated carbon for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of ternary toxic organic dye: Derivative spectrophotometric, optimization, kinetic and isotherm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, M; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Bazrafshan, A A

    2016-09-01

    Chromium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO: Cr-NPs) was synthesized by ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by FE-SEM, XRD and TEM analysis. Subsequently, this composite ultrasonically assisted was deposited on activated carbon (ZnO: Cr-NPs-AC) and used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of three toxic organic dye namely of malachite green (MG), eosin yellow (EY) and Auramine O (AO). Dyes spectra overlap in mixture (major problem for simultaneous investigation) of this systems was extensively resolved by derivative spectrophotometric method. The magnitude of variables like initial dyes concentration, adsorbent mass and sonication time influence on dyes removal was optimized using small central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF) approach, while pH was studied by one-a-time approach. The maximized removal percentages at desirability of 0.9740 was set as follow: pH 6.0, 0.019g ZnO: Cr-NPs-AC, 3.9min sonication at 4.5, 4.8 and 4.7mgL(-1) of MG, EY and AO, respectively. Above optimized points lead to achievement of removal percentage of 98.36%, 97.24%, and 99.26% correspond to MG, EY and AO, respectively. ANOVA for each dyes based p-value less than (<0.0001) suggest highly efficiency of CCD model for prediction of data concern to simultaneous removal of these dyes within 95% confidence interval, while their F-value for MG, EY and AO is 935, 800.2, and 551.3, respectively, that confirm low participation of this them in signal. The value of multiple correlation coefficient R(2), adjusted and predicted R(2) for simultaneous removal of MG is 0.9982, 0.9972 and 0.9940, EY is 0.9979, 0.9967 and 0.9930 and for AO is 0.9970, 0.9952 and 0.9939. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order and Langmuir model via high, economic and profitable adsorption capacity of 214.0, 189.7 and 211.6mgg(-1) for MG, EY and AO, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wafer-Scale High-Throughput Ordered Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Yaguang

    2010-09-08

    This article presents an effective approach for patterned growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with high throughput and low cost at wafer scale without using cleanroom technology. Periodic hole patterns are generated using laser interference lithography on substrates coated with the photoresist SU-8. ZnO NWs are selectively grown through the holes via a low-temperature hydrothermal method without using a catalyst and with a superior control over orientation, location/density, and as-synthesized morphology. The development of textured ZnO seed layers for replacing single crystalline GaN and ZnO substrates extends the large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays on substrates of other materials, such as polymers, Si, and glass. This combined approach demonstrates a novel method of manufacturing large-scale patterned one-dimensional nanostructures on various substrates for applications in energy harvesting, sensing, optoelectronics, and electronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Defect evolution and impurity migration in Na-implanted ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuvonen, Pekka T.; Vines, Lasse; Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan; Zubiaga, Asier; Tuomisto, Filip; Hallén, Anders; Svensson, Bengt G.; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.

    2011-11-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to study impurity migration and open volume defect evolution in Na+ implanted hydrothermally grown ZnO samples. In contrast to most other elements, the presence of Na tends to decrease the concentration of open volume defects upon annealing and for temperatures above 600∘C, Na exhibits trap-limited diffusion correlating with the concentration of Li. A dominating trap for the migrating Na atoms is most likely Li residing on Zn site, but a systematic analysis of the data suggests that zinc vacancies also play an important role in the trapping process.

  14. Piezoelectric coupling in a field-effect transistor with a nanohybrid channel of ZnO nanorods grown vertically on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang Dang, Vinh; Kim, Do-Il; Thai Duy, Le; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Jang, Mi; Shin, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2014-12-21

    Piezoelectric coupling phenomena in a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) with a nano-hybrid channel of chemical-vapor-deposited Gr (CVD Gr) and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) under mechanical pressurization were investigated. Transfer characteristics of the hybrid channel GFET clearly indicated that the piezoelectric effect of ZnO NRs under static or dynamic pressure modulated the channel conductivity (σ) and caused a positive shift of 0.25% per kPa in the Dirac point. However, the GFET without ZnO NRs showed no change in either σ or the Dirac point. Analysis of the Dirac point shifts indicated transfer of electrons from the CVD Gr to ZnO NRs due to modulation of their interfacial barrier height under pressure. High responsiveness of the hybrid channel device with fast response and recovery times was evident in the time-dependent behavior at a small gate bias. In addition, the hybrid channel FET could be gated by mechanical pressurization only. Therefore, a piezoelectric-coupled hybrid channel GFET can be used as a pressure-sensing device with low power consumption and a fast response time. Hybridization of piezoelectric 1D nanomaterials with a 2D semiconducting channel in FETs enables a new design for future nanodevices.

  15. Photocatalytic Activity and Stability of Porous Polycrystalline ZnO Thin-Films Grown via a Two-Step Thermal Oxidation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Moore

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity and stability of thin, polycrystalline ZnO films was studied. The oxidative degradation of organic compounds at the ZnO surface results from the ultraviolet (UV photo-induced creation of highly oxidizing holes and reducing electrons, which combine with surface water to form hydroxyl radicals and reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the efficiency of the electron-hole pair formation is of critical importance for self-cleaning and antimicrobial applications with these metal-oxide catalyst systems. In this study, ZnO thin films were fabricated on sapphire substrates via direct current sputter deposition of Zn-metal films followed by thermal oxidation at several annealing temperatures (300–1200 °C. Due to the ease with which they can be recovered, stabilized films are preferable to nanoparticles or colloidal suspensions for some applications. Characterization of the resulting ZnO thin films through atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence indicated that decreasing annealing temperature leads to smaller crystal grain size and increased UV excitonic emission. The photocatalytic activities were characterized by UV-visible absorption measurements of Rhodamine B dye concentrations. The films oxidized at lower annealing temperatures exhibited higher photocatalytic activity, which is attributed to the increased optical quality. Photocatalytic activity was also found to depend on film thickness, with lower activity observed for thinner films. Decreasing activity with use was found to be the result of decreasing film thickness due to surface etching.

  16. Selective Thallium (I Ion Sensor Based on Functionalised ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Ibupoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Well controlled in length and highly aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the gold-coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. ZnO nanorods were functionalised with selective thallium (I ion ionophore dibenzyldiaza-18-crown-6 (DBzDA18C6. The thallium ion sensor showed wide linear potentiometric response to thallium (I ion concentrations ( M to  M with high sensitivity of 36.87 ± 1.49 mV/decade. Moreover, thallium (I ion demonstrated fast response time of less than 5 s, high selectivity, reproducibility, storage stability, and negligible response to common interferents. The proposed thallium (I ion-sensor electrode was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration, and it has shown good stoichiometric response for the determination of thallium (I ion.

  17. Fabrication of a Miniaturized ZnO Nanowire Accelerometer and Its Performance Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Chan Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a miniaturized piezoelectric accelerometer suitable for a small haptic actuator array. The accelerometer is made with zinc oxide (ZnO nanowire (NW grown on a copper wafer by a hydrothermal process. The size of the accelerometer is 1.5 × 1.5 mm2, thus fitting the 1.8 × 1.8 mm2 haptic actuator array cell. The detailed fabrication process of the miniaturized accelerometer is illustrated. Performance evaluation of the fabricated accelerometer is conducted by comparing it with a commercial piezoelectric accelerometer. The output current of the fabricated accelerometer increases linearly with the acceleration. The miniaturized ZnO NW accelerometer is feasible for acceleration measurement of small and lightweight devices.

  18. ZnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on soda lime glass substrates for the ultraviolet inactivation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Mosnier, Richard J O'Haire, Enda McGlynn, Martin O Henry, Stephen J McDonnell, Maria A Boyle and Kevin G McGuigan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We found that a ZnO film of 2 μm thickness which was laser-deposited at room temperature onto a plain soda lime glass substrate, exhibits notable antibacterial activity against a biofilm of Staphylococcus epidermidis when back-illuminated by a UVA light source with a peak emission wavelength of about 365 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS were used to characterize the ZnO films before and after the interactions with the biofilm and the ultraviolet light, respectively. The as-deposited film was highly textured with the wurtzite (0002 in-plane orientation (c-axis perpendicular to ZnO surface and had a surface rms roughness of 49.7 nm. In the as-deposited film, the Zn to O ratio was 1 to 0.95. After the UV and biofilm treatments, the ZnO film surface had become rougher (rms roughness 68.1 nm and presented uniform micron-sized pitting randomly distributed, while the zinc to oxygen ratio had become 1 to 2.2. In this case, both the UV-visible and Raman spectra pointed to degradation of the structural quality of the material. On the strength of these data, we propose a model for the mediation of the bactericidal activity in which the photogeneration of highly oxidizing species and the presence of active surface defect sites both play an important role. This study is of particular interest for the acute problem of disinfection of pathogenic biofilms which form on medical device/implant surfaces.

  19. Different defect levels configurations between double layers of nanorods and film in ZnO grown on c-Al2O3 by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yuantao; Shi, Zhifeng; Li, Xiang; Cui, Xijun; Zhuang, Shiwei; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2014-01-01

    Epitaxial ZnO structures with inherent two layers of nanorods layer on film layer were fabricated on c-Al 2 O 3 by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and studied by photoluminescence. Specially, photoluminescence spectra for the film layer were obtained by rendering the excitation from the substrate side. Different defect levels configurations between nanorods and film were revealed. Zinc vacancies tend to form in top nanorods layer, whereas abundant zinc–oxygen divacancies accumulate in bottom film layer. An acceptor state with activation energy of ∼200 meV is exclusive to the film layer. The stacking fault related acceptor and Al introduced donor are present in both layers. Besides, two other defect related donors contained in the nanorods layer perhaps also exist within the film layer. - Highlights: • Inherent double layer ZnO of nanorods on film layer were studied by PL. • V Zn tend to form in the nanorods layer, and V ZnO accumulate in the film layer. • An acceptor with activation energy of ∼200 meV is exclusive to the film layer. • Pure NBE emission without DLE in RT PL spectrum does not mean good crystallinity

  20. Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2009), solar cells (Yuan et al 2011), transparent elec- trodes (Kim et al ... increasing the peak width, intensity and shifting the 2θ peak position. ... Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain measurement of ZnO nanorods. 399.

  1. Improving the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Growing Longer ZnO Nanorods on TiO2 Photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-gai Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By increasing the temperature of hydrothermal reactions from 70 to 100°C, vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the TiO2 thin film in the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs as the blocking layer to reduce the electron back recombinations at the TiO2/electrolyte interfaces. The length effects of ZnO nanorods on the photovoltaic performances of TiO2 based DSSCs were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, photoluminescence spectrophotometer, and the photocurrent-voltage measurement. Under the illumination of 100 mW/cm2, the power conversion efficiency of DSSC with ZnO nanorods decorated TiO2 thin film as its photoanode can be increased nearly fourfold from 0.27% to 1.30% as the length of ZnO nanorods increases from 300 to 1600 nm. The enhanced efficiency of DSSC with ZnO nanorods decorated TiO2 thin film as the photoanode can be attributed to the larger surface area and the lower defect density in longer ZnO nanorods, which are in favor of more dye adsorption and more efficient transport in the photoanode.

  2. Microwave-assisted Facile and Ultrafast Growth of ZnO Nanostructures and Proposition of Alternative Microwave-assisted Methods to Address Growth Stoppage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The time constraint in the growth of ZnO nanostructures when using a hydrothermal method is of paramount importance in contemporary research, where a long fabrication time rots the very essence of the research on ZnO nanostructures. In this study, we present the facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures in a domestic microwave oven within a pressurized environment in just a few minutes. This method is preferred for the conventional solution-based method because of the ultrafast supersaturation of zinc salts and the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures. The study of the effect of seed layer density, growth time, and the solution’s molar concentration on the morphology, alignment, density, and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is explored. It is found in a microwave-assisted direct growth method that ~5 mins is the optimum time beyond which homogeneous nucleation supersedes heterogeneous nucleation, which results in the growth stoppage of ZNRs. To deal with this issue, we propound different methods such as microwave-assisted solution-replacement, preheating, and PEI-based growth methods, where growth stoppage is addressed and ZNRs with a high aspect ratio can be grown. Furthermore, high-quality ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanowalls are fabricated via ammonium hydroxide treatment in a very short time.

  3. Identification of Zn-vacancy-hydrogen complexes in ZnO single crystals: A challenge to positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Grenzer, J.; Skorupa, W.; Čížek, J.; Kuriplach, J.; Procházka, I.; Ling, C. C.; So, C. K.; Schulz, D.; Klimm, D.

    2009-03-01

    A systematic study of various, nominally undoped ZnO single crystals, either hydrothermally grown (HTG) or melt grown (MG), has been performed. The crystal quality has been assessed by x-ray diffraction, and a comprehensive estimation of the detailed impurity and hydrogen contents by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis, respectively, has been made also. High precision positron lifetime experiments show that a single positron lifetime is observed in all crystals investigated, which clusters at 180-182 ps and 165-167 ps for HTG and MG crystals, respectively. Furthermore, hydrogen is detected in all crystals in a bound state with a high concentration (at least 0.3at.% ), whereas the concentrations of other impurities are very small. From ab initio calculations it is suggested that the existence of Zn-vacancy-hydrogen complexes is the most natural explanation for the given experimental facts at present. Furthermore, the distribution of H at a metal/ZnO interface of a MG crystal, and the H content of a HTG crystal upon annealing and time afterward has been monitored, as this is most probably related to the properties of electrical contacts made at ZnO and the instability in p -type conductivity observed at ZnO nanorods in literature. All experimental findings and presented theoretical considerations support the conclusion that various types of Zn-vacancy-hydrogen complexes exist in ZnO and need to be taken into account in future studies, especially for HTG materials.

  4. Optical and scintillation properties of bulk ZnO crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Takayuki [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu 808-0196 (Japan); Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kurosawa, Shunsuke [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yamanoi, Kohei; Sarukura, Nobuhiko [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kano, Masataka; Wakamiya, Akira [Daishinku Corporation, 1389 Shinzaike, Hiraoka-cho, Kakogawa, Hyogo 675-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Single crystal bulk ZnO scintillator grown by the hydrothermal method was tested on its scintillation performances. In X-ray induced radio luminescence spectrum, it exhibited two intense emission peaks at 400 and 550 nm. The former was ascribed to the free and bound exciton related luminescence and the latter to oxygen vacancy related one, respectively. X-ray induced scintillation decay time of the exciton related emission measured by the pulse X-ray streak camera system resulted {proportional_to} 4 ns. Finally, the light yield under {sup 241}Am 5.5 MeV {alpha}-ray was examined and it resulted {proportional_to} 500 ph/5.5 MeV-{alpha}.(copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Synthesis and physical properties of zinc-oxide textured films by using a filtered preheated hydrothermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Jijun; Shin, Dongmyeong; He, Weizhen; Kim, Hyungkook; Hwang, Yoonhwae; Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Axially (c-axis)-oriented ZnO thick films with a ∼8.1 μm thickness were fabricated on ZnO seed layer coated substrates by using a filtered preheated hydrothermal solution. The thick films composed of single-crystal ZnO microrods with various diameters were formed by coalescing each nanorod together along their side surfaces. From the X-ray diffraction result a biaxial stress exists was found to exist in the as-grown thick films, and the stress gradually increased with increasing annealing temperatures from 200 to 550 .deg. C due to a degradation in the crystalline quality. The biaxial stress is responsible for the red-shift of the optical band gap of the ZnO thick films. Photoluminescence and Hall results revealed that the optical and the electrical properties of the thick films were degenerated after high-temperature annealing (> 200 .deg. C), which was due to the introduction of point defects, such as oxygen interstitials and zinc vacancies.

  6. Synthesis and physical properties of zinc-oxide textured films by using a filtered preheated hydrothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jijun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongmyeong; He, Weizhen; Kim, Hyungkook; Hwang, Yoonhwae [Pusan National University, Miryang (Korea, Republic of); Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Xiangdong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2014-11-15

    Axially (c-axis)-oriented ZnO thick films with a ∼8.1 μm thickness were fabricated on ZnO seed layer coated substrates by using a filtered preheated hydrothermal solution. The thick films composed of single-crystal ZnO microrods with various diameters were formed by coalescing each nanorod together along their side surfaces. From the X-ray diffraction result a biaxial stress exists was found to exist in the as-grown thick films, and the stress gradually increased with increasing annealing temperatures from 200 to 550 .deg. C due to a degradation in the crystalline quality. The biaxial stress is responsible for the red-shift of the optical band gap of the ZnO thick films. Photoluminescence and Hall results revealed that the optical and the electrical properties of the thick films were degenerated after high-temperature annealing (> 200 .deg. C), which was due to the introduction of point defects, such as oxygen interstitials and zinc vacancies.

  7. Superhydrophobic surface based on a coral-like hierarchical structure of ZnO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces has attracted much interest in the past decade. The fabrication methods that have been studied are chemical vapour deposition, the sol-gel method, etching technique, electrochemical deposition, the layer-by-layer deposition, and so on. Simple and inexpensive methods for manufacturing environmentally stable superhydrophobic surfaces have also been proposed lately. However, work referring to the influence of special structures on the wettability, such as hierarchical ZnO nanostructures, is rare.This study presents a simple and reproducible method to fabricate a superhydrophobic surface with micro-scale roughness based on zinc oxide (ZnO hierarchical structure, which is grown by the hydrothermal method with an alkaline aqueous solution. Coral-like structures of ZnO were fabricated on a glass substrate with a micro-scale roughness, while the antennas of the coral formed the nano-scale roughness. The fresh ZnO films exhibited excellent superhydrophilicity (the apparent contact angle for water droplet was about 0°, while the ability to be wet could be changed to superhydrophobicity after spin-coating Teflon (the apparent contact angle greater than 168°. The procedure reported here can be applied to substrates consisting of other materials and having various shapes.The new process is convenient and environmentally friendly compared to conventional methods. Furthermore, the hierarchical structure generates the extraordinary solid/gas/liquid three-phase contact interface, which is the essential characteristic for a superhydrophobic surface.

  8. Power generation from base excitation of a Kevlar composite beam with ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-04-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes with piezoelectric properties have gained interest in the fabrication of small scale power harvesting systems. However, the practical applications of the nanoscale materials in structures with true mechanical strengths have not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, piezoelectric ZnO nanowires are integrated into the fiber reinforced polymer composites serving as an active phase to convert the induced strain energy from ambient vibration into electrical energy. Arrays of ZnO nanowires are grown vertically aligned on aramid fibers through a low-cost hydrothermal process. The modified fabrics with ZnO nanowires whiskers are then placed between two carbon fabrics as the top and the bottom electrodes. Finally, vacuum resin transfer molding technique is utilized to fabricate these multiscale composites. The fabricated composites are subjected to a base excitation using a shaker to generate charge due to the direct piezoelectric effect of ZnO nanowires. Measuring the generated potential difference between the two electrodes showed the energy harvesting application of these multiscale composites in addition to their superior mechanical properties. These results propose a new generation of power harvesting systems with enhanced mechanical properties.

  9. Mechanical transfer of ZnO nanowires for a flexible and conformal piezotronic strain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kory; Yang, Rusen

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a truly conformal and flexible piezotronic strain sensor using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires. Well-aligned, vertical ZnO nanowires are grown by chemical vapor deposition on a silicon wafer with a hydrothermally grown ZnO seed layer. The nanowires are infiltrated with polydimethylsiloxane and mechanically transferred from the silicon substrate. Plasma etching exposes the top surface of the nanowires before deposition of a gold (Au) top electrode. The bottom electrode is formed by silver paint which also adheres the sensor to the measured structure. To demonstrate the sensor’s ability to conform to complex surfaces, a stepped shaft with a shoulder fillet is used. The sensor is attached to the shoulder fillet of the stepped shaft, conforming to both the circumference of the shaft, and the radius of the fillet. A periodic bending displacement is applied to the end of the shaft. The strain induces a piezoelectric potential in the ZnO nanowires which controls the barrier height and conductivity at the gold/ZnO interface, by what is known as the piezotronic effect. The conductivity change is measured for periodically applied strains. The nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) response of the device is due to the Schottky contact between the ZnO nanowires and gold electrode. The geometry of the stepped shaft corresponds to a known stress concentration factor, and the strain experienced by the shaft is estimated with a COMSOL FEA study. The conformal nature of the strain sensor makes it suitable for structural monitoring applications involving complex geometries and stress concentrators.

  10. Controlling growth rate anisotropy for formation of continuous ZnO thin films from seeded substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R H; Slamovich, E B; Handwerker, C A

    2013-01-01

    Solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are promising candidates for low-temperature-processable active layers in transparent thin film electronics. In this study, control of growth rate anisotropy using ZnO nanoparticle seeds, capping ions, and pH adjustment leads to a low-temperature (90 ° C) hydrothermal process for transparent and high-density ZnO thin films. The common 1D ZnO nanorod array was grown into a 2D continuous polycrystalline film using a short-time pure solution method. Growth rate anisotropy of ZnO crystals and the film morphology were tuned by varying the chloride (Cl − ) ion concentration and the initial pH of solutions of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA), and the competitive adsorption effects of Cl − ions and HMTA ligands on the anisotropic growth behavior of ZnO crystals were proposed. The lateral growth of nanorods constituting the film was promoted by lowering the solution pH to accelerate the hydrolysis of HMTA, thereby allowing the adsorption effects from Cl − to dominate. By optimizing the growth conditions, a dense ∼100 nm thickness film was fabricated in 15 min from a solution of [Cl − ]/[Zn 2+ ] = 1.5 and pH= 4.8 ± 0.1. This film shows >80% optical transmittance and a field-effect mobility of 2.730 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at zero back-gate bias. (paper)

  11. Synthesis and oxygen vacancy related NO{sub 2} gas sensing properties of ZnO:Co nanorods arrays gown by a hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Changwei, E-mail: qingyihaiyanas@163.com; Liang, Feng; Xue, Shuwen

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Co doped ZnO:Co nanorods were grown by hydrothermal method. • The NO{sub 2} response reaches a maximum value of 88 at 210 °C. • The stability of NO{sub 2} on ZnO is enhanced with the presence of V{sub O}. - Abstract: Highly ordered Co doped ZnO:Co nanorods arrays with Co concentrations of 1.6, 1.9 and 3.1 at% were uniformly grown on FTO glass substrate by hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the undoped and Co doped ZnO nanorods revealed characteristic peaks of (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1), (1 0 3) and (1 1 2), corresponding to the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO. For ZnO:Co nanorods with Co concentrations of 3.1 at%, the NO{sub 2} response reached a maximum value of 88 at temperature of 210 °C. However, the response of ZnO:Co nanorods with Co concentrations of 3.1 at% decreased from 82 to 29 with the increasing of O{sub 2} annealing temperature from 0 to 700 °C. As confirmed by the XPS, PL, Raman and I–V results, the oxygen vacancies and electron concentrations were the dominating effects and an oxygen vacancy mediated NO{sub 2} sensing mechanism was presented and discussed.

  12. Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydrothermally-grown single-crystal and ceramic absorption spectra obtained between 298 and 80 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Cheryl A. [Snake Creek Lasers LLC, 26741 State Route 267, Friendsville, PA 18818 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States); Brown, David C., E-mail: dbrown@snakecreeklasers.com [Snake Creek Lasers LLC, 26741 State Route 267, Friendsville, PA 18818 (United States); Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; McMillen, Colin D.; Kolis, Joseph W. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The hydrothermal growth, doping, and low temperature spectral characterization of Yb doped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated. The absorption of the lutetia-based sesquioxide laser material Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} at temperatures of 80, 150, 200, 250, and 298 K, in the wavelength range of 850–1100 nm are reported. Data for both single crystal and ceramic Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} were obtained. The resulting absorption cross-section data will enable the further evaluation of Yb:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a very promising high power cryogenic laser material.

  13. Low temperature growth and properties of ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiang; Zheng, Yufeng; Chen, Huibo; Gong, Lihong; Qu, Fengyu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, well aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal route at a low temperature. The diameters of the as-synthesized products were 20–60 nm and the lengths were as much as several micrometers. The surfaces and tops of the nanorods were smooth. The as-grown nanorod arrays were investigated by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and contact angle (CA) analysis. The as-grown nanorods were single crystalline structures with a wurtzite phase, and grew along the [0001] direction. The PL spectrum with only one strong peak at 383 nm shows good intrinsic emission

  14. Studies on morphology, electrical and optical characteristics of Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Xinliang; Zhou, Zhongxin; Guo, Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2018-03-01

    Al doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited on glass substrates through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique are investigated with various temperatures from 100 to 250 °C and different Zn : Al cycle ratios from 20 : 0 to 20 : 3. Surface morphology, structure, optical and electrical properties of obtained AZO films are studied in detail. The Al composition of the AZO films is varied by controlling the ratio of Zn : Al. We achieve an excellent AZO thin film with a resistivity of 2.14 × 10‑3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance deposited at 150 °C with 20 : 2 Zn : Al cycle ratio. This kind of AZO thin films exhibit great potential for optoelectronics device application. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2011CBA00706, 2011CBA00707) and the Tianjin Applied Basic Research Project and Cutting-Edge Technology Research Plan (No. 13JCZDJC26900).

  15. Deposition of stress free c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film grown on (002) ZnO coated Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2012-01-01

    C-axis oriented lithium niobate thin films have been deposited on Si substrate using RF sputtering technique. A thin buffer layer of c-axis (002) oriented ZnO on Si substrate has been used as a nucleating layer to promote the growth of (006) oriented LiNbO 3 film. The processing gas composition and pressure are found to be very critical in obtaining stress free LiNbO 3 film having desired (006) orientation. The LiNbO 3 films deposited under unique combination of sputtering pressure (10 mTorr) and argon percentage (80%) in reactive gas (Ar + O 2 ) composition become almost stress free having lattice parameter (1.3867 A) close to the bulk value. The observed variation in the structural properties and optical phonon modes observed by Raman spectroscopic studies of the oriented LiNbO 3 thin film with stress has been correlated with growth kinetics.

  16. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meléndrez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100 substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of ZnO nanowires array electrodes with high photocurrent densities: Effects of the seed layer calcination time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yi-Jing; Liu, Ching-Fang; Hu, Chi-Chang, E-mail: cchu@che.nthu.edu.tw; Kuo, Jen-Hou; Boddula, Rajender

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that vertically grown ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays of the wurzite phase were successfully fabricated on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates via a hydrothermal method. The coating of a seed layer onto the FTO substrates was found to favor the growth of a uniform ZnO NWs array which shows saturation in the photocurrent density with a relatively low potential bias. Furthermore, prolonging the calcination time of the seed layer makes the ZnO NWs behave the better charge separation and improve the photo-electrochemical performance. Under the irradiation at a 75 mW cm{sup −2} from a simulated sunlight source, the ZnO NWs array electrode prepared from the seed layer with calcination at 350 °C for 5 h shows a saturated photocurrent density of 514 μA cm{sup −2} and a maximum half-cell solar-to-hydrogen (HC-STH) efficiency of 0.26% was obtained at 0.6 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) in neutral electrolyte. - Highlights: • The seed layer annealing time strongly influences the textural and photo-activity of ZnO NWs. • The average diameter and density of ZnO NWs were controlled to 47–70 nm and 46–70 NWs μm{sup −2}, respectively. • ZnO NWs show promising application potential in solar-electrocatalytic water splitting under potential bias. • The ZnO NWs with SL annealing time = 5 h achieve the highest HC-STH efficiency of 0.26% at 0.6 V.

  18. Sulfur and Nitrogen co-doped graphene quantum dot decorated ZnO nanorod/polymer hybrid flexible device for photosensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hmar, Jehova Jire L.; Majumder, Tanmoy; Dhar, Saurab; Mondal, Suvra Prakash, E-mail: suvraphy@gmail.com

    2016-08-01

    S and N co-doped graphene quantum dots (S,N-GQDs) have been synthesized by a hydrothermal process. S,N-GQDs are made up of 1–5 monolayer of graphene with average diameter 13.3 nm. The absorption peaks at 336 and 621 nm, are attributed to n → Π{sup ⁎} transitions of electrons in C=O and S=O bonds, respectively. S,N-GQDs are highly luminescent and showed excitation dependent emission behaviors. Hybrid photosensing device has been fabricated with S,N-GQD sensitized ZnO nanorods and a conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). S,N-GQD decorated ZnO nanorod demonstrated higher photoresponse compared to pristine ZnO nanorod based device. S,N-GQD/ZnO nanorod hybrid device showed superior incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE), photoresponsivity and detectivity compared to the control samples. The flexibility study of the samples has been monitored by measuring current-voltage characteristics at different bending angles. - Highlights: • S and N co-doped graphene quantum dots (S,N-GQDs) were synthesized. • ZnO nanorods were grown on ITO coated flexible PET substrates. • S,N-GQDs were attached with ZnO nanorods and used as a green sensitizer. • Photosensing properties of S,N-GQD/ZnO and P3HT polymer hybrid device was studied.

  19. The effect of O2 partial pressure on the photoluminescence of ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.M.; Li, X.P.; Su, S.C.; Cao, P.J.; Jia, F.; Han, S.; Zeng, Y.X.; Liu, W.J.; Zhu, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, photoluminescence (PL) of ZnO thin films prepared on c-Al 2 O 3 substrates by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method at different O 2 partial pressures is investigated. For all samples, a narrow ultraviolet (UV) emission and a broad visible emission can be observed at room-temperature (RT). With increasing O 2 partial pressures from 0.2 to 5 Pa, the intensity ratio of the UV to visible emissions increases, and the energy positions of the UV emission band shift to the high energy side. It is noted that the visible part includes two emission bands of green luminescence (GL) and yellow luminescence (YL), in which the GL emission is strong at low oxygen pressure and the YL emission becomes dominant at high O 2 partial pressures. The temperature-dependent PL spectra show that the UV emission is composed of two bands labeled FX and FA. The dependences and possible assignments of these PL bands are briefly discussed. - Highlights: • We confirmed that the RT UV emission band is due to two transitions of the FX and FA. • The intensity of the FX and FA emission bands strongly depends on oxygen partial pressures. • We deduced that the acceptor-like defects located in the grain boundaries are responsible for the FA emission. • The visible emission includes the GL related to V O and the YL related to V Zn or O i . • The GL emission strongly affects the UV emission

  20. Growth mechanisms and thickness effect on the properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films grown on polymeric substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koidis, Christos; Logothetidis, Stergios; Kassavetis, Spiridon; Laskarakis, Argiris [Lab for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology (LTFN), Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Hastas, Nikolaos A.; Valassiades, Odisseas [Solid State Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering under various target power on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated. In situ and real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (1.5-6.5 eV) has been employed to study the optical properties of the AZO films as well as the growth mechanisms taking place. With X-ray diffraction technique under grazing-incidence geometry, the structural characteristics profiles of the AZO films have been depicted. Nanoindentation measurements revealed information about the mechanical properties of the films and have been correlated to the conductivity measurements towards growth insights understanding. As results have shown, the increase of target power led to the increase of the carrier density as well as the hardness of the AZO films possibly both ascribed to dislocations induced. The stress during the deposition of AZO film under high target power favoured the island growth which is possibly both connected to the formation of defects as electron traps and dislocations as electron sources. Finally, the increase of AZO film thickness led to the increase of the resistivity possibly due to the enrichment of grain boundaries with defects as electron traps. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Doping effect on SILAR synthesized crystalline nanostructured Cu-doped ZnO thin films grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaygude, H. D.; Shinde, S. K.; Velhal, Ninad B.; Takale, M. V.; Fulari, V. J.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a novel chemical route is used to synthesize the undoped and Cu-doped ZnO thin films in aqueous solution by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The synthesized thin films are characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), contact angle goniometer and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. XRD study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure. The change in morphology for different doping is observed in the studies of FE-SEM. EDAX spectrum shows that the thin films consist of zinc, copper and oxygen elements. Contact angle goniometer is used to measure the contact angle between a liquid and a solid interface and after detection, the nature of the films is initiated from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The optical band gap energy for direct allowed transition ranging between 1.60-2.91 eV is observed.

  2. Deposition of stress free c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin film grown on (002) ZnO coated Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandilya, Swati; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2012-05-15

    C-axis oriented lithium niobate thin films have been deposited on Si substrate using RF sputtering technique. A thin buffer layer of c-axis (002) oriented ZnO on Si substrate has been used as a nucleating layer to promote the growth of (006) oriented LiNbO{sub 3} film. The processing gas composition and pressure are found to be very critical in obtaining stress free LiNbO{sub 3} film having desired (006) orientation. The LiNbO{sub 3} films deposited under unique combination of sputtering pressure (10 mTorr) and argon percentage (80%) in reactive gas (Ar + O{sub 2}) composition become almost stress free having lattice parameter (1.3867 A) close to the bulk value. The observed variation in the structural properties and optical phonon modes observed by Raman spectroscopic studies of the oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin film with stress has been correlated with growth kinetics.

  3. Effect of Al-doped on physical properties of ZnO Thin films grown by spray pyrolysis on SnO2: F/glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castagné M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting thin films of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al have been deposited on SnO2:F/glass by the chemical spray technique, starting from zinc acetate (CH3CO22Zn.2H2O and aluminum chloride AlCl3. The effect of changing the aluminum-to-zinc ratio y from 0 to 3 at.%, has been thoroughly investigated. It was found that the optical and electrical properties of Al doped ZnO films improved with the addition of aluminum in the spray solution until y=2%. At this Al doping percentage, the thin layers have a resistivity equal to 4.1 × 10−4 Ω.cm and a transmittance of about 90 % in the region [600-1000] nm. XRD patterns confirm that the films have polycristalline nature and a wurtzite (hexagonal structure which characterized with (100, (002 and (101 principal orientations. The undoped films have (002 as the preferred orientation but Al doped ones have (101 as the preferred orientation. Beyond y= 1%, peak intensities decrease considerably.

  4. A High-Sensitivity Gas Sensor Toward Methanol Using ZnO Microrods: Effect of Operating Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Mondal, B.; Ghosh, R.

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, zinc oxide (ZnO) microrods with the average diameter of 350 nm have been synthesized on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using a hydrothermal reaction process at a low temperature of 90°C. The methanol gas sensing behaviour of as-synthesized ZnO microrods have been studied at different operating temperatures (100-300°C). The gas sensing results show that the ZnO microrods exhibit excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and stability toward methanol gas at 300°C. The as-grown ZnO microrods sensor also shows the good sensitivity for methanol even at a low operating temperature of 100°C. The ultra-high sensitivity of 4.41 × 104% [gas sensitivity, S g = ( I g - I a)/ I a × 100%] and 5.11 × 102% to 100 ppm methanol gas at a temperature of 300°C and 100°C, respectively, has been observed. A fast response time of 200 ms and 270 ms as well as a recovery time of 120 ms and 1330 ms to methanol gas have also been found at an operating temperature of 300°C and 100°C, respectively. The response and recovery time decreases with increasing operation temperature of the sensor.

  5. Catalyst growth of single crystal aligned ZnO nanorods on ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Andreazza, Caroline; Andreazza, Pascal [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2005-02-01

    One dimensional ZnO nanorods were successfully fabricated on Si substrates via a simple physical vapor-phase transport method at 950 C. A ZnO shell covered Au/Zn alloy is assumed as the nucleation site, then ZnO nanorods grow following a vapor-solid (VS) process. In order to guide the nanorod growth a c-axis oriented ZnO thin film and Au catalyst were first deposited on Si (100) surface. SEM images show nanorods grown on this substrate are vertical to the substrate surface. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Band-gap and sub-band-gap photoelectrochemical processes at nanocrystalline CdS grown on ZnO by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malashchonak, M.V.; Streltsov, E.A.; Mazanik, A.V.; Kulak, A.I.; Poznyak, S.K.; Stroyuk, O.L.; Kuchmiy, S.Ya.; Gaiduk, P.I.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide nanoparticle (NP) deposition by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on the surface of mesoporous ZnO micro-platelets with a large specific surface area (110 ± 10 m 2 g −1 ) results in the formation of ZnO/CdS heterostructures exhibiting a high incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (Y) not only within the region of CdS fundamental absorption (Y max = 90%; 0.1 M Na 2 S + 0.1 M Na 2 SO 3 ), but also in the sub-band-gap (SBG) range (Y max = 25%). The onset potentials of SBG photoelectrochemical processes are more positive than the band-gap (BG) onset potential by up to 100 mV. A maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency value for SBG processes is observed at larger amount of deposited CdS in comparison with the case of BG ones. The Urbach energy (E U ) of CdS NPs determined from the photocurrent spectra reaches a maximal value on an early deposition stage (E U = 93 mV at SILAR cycle number N = 5), then lowers somewhat (E U = 73 mV at N = 10) and remains steady in the range of N from 20 to 300 (E U = 67 ± 1 mV). High efficiency of the photoelectrochemical SBG processes are interpreted in terms of light scattering in the ZnO/CdS heterostructures. - Highlights: • ZnO/CdS films demonstrate high quantum efficiency (25%) for sub-band-gap transitions. • Onset photocurrent potentials for sub-band-gap processes differ than those for band-gap ones. • Sub-band-gap transitions are caused by band-tail states in CdS nanoparticles

  7. Band-gap and sub-band-gap photoelectrochemical processes at nanocrystalline CdS grown on ZnO by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malashchonak, M.V., E-mail: che.malasche@gmail.com [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Streltsov, E.A., E-mail: streltea@bsu.by [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Mazanik, A.V. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kulak, A.I., E-mail: kulak@igic.bas-net.by [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Surganova str., 9/1, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Poznyak, S.K. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Stroyuk, O.L., E-mail: stroyuk@inphyschem-nas.kiev.ua [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 prosp. Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kuchmiy, S.Ya. [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 prosp. Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gaiduk, P.I. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus)

    2015-08-31

    Cadmium sulfide nanoparticle (NP) deposition by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on the surface of mesoporous ZnO micro-platelets with a large specific surface area (110 ± 10 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}) results in the formation of ZnO/CdS heterostructures exhibiting a high incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (Y) not only within the region of CdS fundamental absorption (Y{sub max} = 90%; 0.1 M Na{sub 2}S + 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}), but also in the sub-band-gap (SBG) range (Y{sub max} = 25%). The onset potentials of SBG photoelectrochemical processes are more positive than the band-gap (BG) onset potential by up to 100 mV. A maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency value for SBG processes is observed at larger amount of deposited CdS in comparison with the case of BG ones. The Urbach energy (E{sub U}) of CdS NPs determined from the photocurrent spectra reaches a maximal value on an early deposition stage (E{sub U} = 93 mV at SILAR cycle number N = 5), then lowers somewhat (E{sub U} = 73 mV at N = 10) and remains steady in the range of N from 20 to 300 (E{sub U} = 67 ± 1 mV). High efficiency of the photoelectrochemical SBG processes are interpreted in terms of light scattering in the ZnO/CdS heterostructures. - Highlights: • ZnO/CdS films demonstrate high quantum efficiency (25%) for sub-band-gap transitions. • Onset photocurrent potentials for sub-band-gap processes differ than those for band-gap ones. • Sub-band-gap transitions are caused by band-tail states in CdS nanoparticles.

  8. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H+ irradiated ZnO single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D.; Bhowmick, D.; Dechoudhury, S.; Chakrabarti, A.; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S. K.

    2012-08-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H+ ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a ‘hydrogen at oxygen vacancy’ type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ˜4 × 1017 cm-3 (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ˜175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed.

  9. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H+ irradiated ZnO single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, A; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D; Bhowmick, D; Dechoudhury, S; Chakrabarti, A; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S K

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H + ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a ‘hydrogen at oxygen vacancy’ type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ∼4 × 10 17 cm -3 (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ∼175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed. (paper)

  10. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H(+) irradiated ZnO single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D; Bhowmick, D; Dechoudhury, S; Chakrabarti, A; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S K

    2012-08-15

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H(+) ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a 'hydrogen at oxygen vacancy' type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ∼4 × 10(17) cm(-3) (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ∼175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed.

  11. A selective potentiometric copper (II) ion sensor based on the functionalized ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, K; Ibupoto, Z H; Liu, X; Nur, O; Willander, M; Danielsson, B

    2014-09-01

    In this work, ZnO nanorods were hydrothermally grown on the gold-coated glass substrate and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The ZnO nanorods were functionalized by two different approaches and performance of the sensor electrode was monitored. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out for the confirmation of interaction between the ionophore molecules and ZnO nanorods. In addition to this, the surface of the electrode was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showing the chemical and electronic state of the ionophore and ZnO nanorod components. The ionophore solution was prepared in the stabilizer, poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and additives, and then functionalized on the ZnO nanorods that have shown the Nernstian response with the slope of 31 mV/decade. However, the Cu2+ ion sensor was fabricated only by immobilizing the selective copper ion ionophore membrane without the use of PVC, plasticizers, additives and stabilizers and the sensor electrode showed a linear potentiometric response with a slope of 56.4 mV/decade within a large dynamic concentration range (from 1.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-1) M) of copper (II) nitrate solutions. The sensor showed excellent repeatability and reproducibility with response time of less than 10 s. The negligible response to potentially interfering metal ions such as calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), potassium (K+), iron (Fe3+), zinc (Zn2+), and sodium (Na+) allows this sensor to be used in biological studies. It may also be used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration.

  12. On the growth and photocatalytic activity of the vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grafted by CdS shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirak, M. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradlou, O. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Alzahra University, P.O. Box 1993893973, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bayati, M.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Nien, Y.T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei District, Taiwan (China); Moshfegh, A.Z., E-mail: moshfegh@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-8969, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    We have studied systematically photocatalytic properties of the vertically aligned ZnO@CdS core–shell nanorods where the features were grown through a multistep procedure including sol–gel for the formation of ZnO seed layer, hydrothermal process to grow ZnO nanorods, and successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process to deposit CdS nanoshells onto the ZnO nanorods. Formation of the ZnO seed layer and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (d ∼ 40 nm) with a hexagonal cross-section was confirmed by AFM and SEM imaging. Successful capping of ZnO nanorods with homogeneous CdS nanocrystallites (∼5 nm) was ascertained by HRTEM diffraction and imaging. Optical properties of the samples were also studied using UV–vis spectrophotometry. It was found that the absorption edge of the CdS shell has a red shift when its thickness increases. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was examined by photodecomposition of methylene blue under UV and visible lights where the maximum reaction rate constant was found to be 0.012 min{sup −1} under UV illumination and 0.007 min{sup −1} under visible light. The difference in catalytic activities of the ZnO@CdS core–shell nanorods under UV and visible irradiations was explained based upon the electronic structure as well as the arrangement of the energy levels in the ZnO@CdS core–shells. It is shown that the structure and photocatalytic efficiency of the samples can be tuned by manipulating the SILAR variables.

  13. On the growth and photocatalytic activity of the vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grafted by CdS shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, M.; Moradlou, O.; Bayati, M. R.; Nien, Y. T.; Moshfegh, A. Z.

    2013-05-01

    We have studied systematically photocatalytic properties of the vertically aligned ZnO@CdS core-shell nanorods where the features were grown through a multistep procedure including sol-gel for the formation of ZnO seed layer, hydrothermal process to grow ZnO nanorods, and successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process to deposit CdS nanoshells onto the ZnO nanorods. Formation of the ZnO seed layer and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (d ∼ 40 nm) with a hexagonal cross-section was confirmed by AFM and SEM imaging. Successful capping of ZnO nanorods with homogeneous CdS nanocrystallites (∼5 nm) was ascertained by HRTEM diffraction and imaging. Optical properties of the samples were also studied using UV-vis spectrophotometry. It was found that the absorption edge of the CdS shell has a red shift when its thickness increases. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was examined by photodecomposition of methylene blue under UV and visible lights where the maximum reaction rate constant was found to be 0.012 min-1 under UV illumination and 0.007 min-1 under visible light. The difference in catalytic activities of the ZnO@CdS core-shell nanorods under UV and visible irradiations was explained based upon the electronic structure as well as the arrangement of the energy levels in the ZnO@CdS core-shells. It is shown that the structure and photocatalytic efficiency of the samples can be tuned by manipulating the SILAR variables.

  14. On the growth and photocatalytic activity of the vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grafted by CdS shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirak, M.; Moradlou, O.; Bayati, M.R.; Nien, Y.T.; Moshfegh, A.Z.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied systematically photocatalytic properties of the vertically aligned ZnO@CdS core–shell nanorods where the features were grown through a multistep procedure including sol–gel for the formation of ZnO seed layer, hydrothermal process to grow ZnO nanorods, and successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process to deposit CdS nanoshells onto the ZnO nanorods. Formation of the ZnO seed layer and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (d ∼ 40 nm) with a hexagonal cross-section was confirmed by AFM and SEM imaging. Successful capping of ZnO nanorods with homogeneous CdS nanocrystallites (∼5 nm) was ascertained by HRTEM diffraction and imaging. Optical properties of the samples were also studied using UV–vis spectrophotometry. It was found that the absorption edge of the CdS shell has a red shift when its thickness increases. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was examined by photodecomposition of methylene blue under UV and visible lights where the maximum reaction rate constant was found to be 0.012 min −1 under UV illumination and 0.007 min −1 under visible light. The difference in catalytic activities of the ZnO@CdS core–shell nanorods under UV and visible irradiations was explained based upon the electronic structure as well as the arrangement of the energy levels in the ZnO@CdS core–shells. It is shown that the structure and photocatalytic efficiency of the samples can be tuned by manipulating the SILAR variables.

  15. Earth-Abundant Oxygen Evolution Catalysts Coupled onto ZnO Nanowire Arrays for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoran; Moniz, Savio J A; Khraisheh, Majeda; Tang, Junwang

    2014-01-01

    ZnO has long been considered as a model UV-driven photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting, but its performance has been limited by fast charge-carrier recombination, extremely poor stability in aqueous solution, and slow kinetics of water oxidation. These issues were addressed by applying a strategy of optimization and passivation of hydrothermally grown 1D ZnO nanowire arrays. The length and diameter of bare ZnO nanowires were optimized by varying the growth time and precursor concentration to achieve optimal photoelectrochemical performance. The addition of earth-abundant cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi) and nickel borate (Ni-B) oxygen evolution catalysts onto ZnO nanowires resulted in substantial cathodic shifts in onset potential to as low as about 0.3 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) for Ni-B/ZnO, for which a maximum photocurrent density of 1.1 mA cm−2 at 0.9 V (vs. RHE) with applied bias photon-to-current efficiency of 0.4 % and an unprecedented near-unity incident photon-to-current efficiency at 370 nm. In addition the potential required for saturated photocurrent was dramatically reduced from 1.6 to 0.9 V versus RHE. Furthermore, the stability of these ZnO nanowires was significantly enhanced by using Ni-B compared to Co-Pi due to its superior chemical robustness, and it thus has additional functionality as a stable protecting layer on the ZnO surface. These remarkable enhancements in both photocatalytic activity and stability directly address the current severe limitations in the use of ZnO-based photoelectrodes for water-splitting applications, and can be applied to other photoanodes for efficient solar-driven fuel synthesis. PMID:25156820

  16. Au-coated ZnO nanorods on stainless steel fiber for self-cleaning solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo; Shi, Yu-e; Cui, Jingcheng; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhan, Jinhua, E-mail: jhzhan@sdu.edu.cn

    2016-06-07

    Solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SPME–SERS), combining the pretreatment and determination functions, has been successfully used in environmental analysis. In this work, Au-coated ZnO nanorods were fabricated on stainless steel fiber as a self-cleaning SERS-active SPME fiber. The ZnO nanorods grown on stainless steel fiber were prepared via a simple hydrothermal approach. Then the obtained nanostructures were decorated with Au nanoparticles through ion-sputtering at room temperature. The obtained SERS-active SPME fiber is a reproducible sensitivity sensor. Taking p-aminothiophenol as the probe molecule, the RSD value of the SERS-active SPME fiber was 8.9%, indicating the fiber owned good uniformity. The qualitative and quantitative detection of crystal violet and malachite green was also achieved. The log–log plot of SERS intensity to crystal violet and malachite green concentration showed a good linear relationship. Meanwhile, this SERS-active SPME fiber can achieve self-cleaning owning to the excellent photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanorods. Crystal violet was still successfully detected even after five cycles, which indicated the high reproducibility of this SERS-active SPME fiber. - Graphical abstract: Au-coated ZnO NRs on stainless steel fiber were used as SERS-active SPME fiber with good extraction effect, high SERS sensitivity. Self-cleaning function of the fiber was achieved based on the photocatalytic degradation property of ZnO nanorods by UV irradiation. - Highlights: • Au-coated ZnO nanorods on stainless steel fiber as a SERS-active SPME fiber was fabricated. • The SERS-active SPME fiber can directly extract and detect the crystal violet and malachite green. • The SERS-active SPME fiber owns good extraction effect, and high SERS sensitivity. • Self-cleaning property of the fiber were achieved based on the photocatalytic degradation property of ZnO.

  17. Au-coated ZnO nanorods on stainless steel fiber for self-cleaning solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Shi, Yu-e; Cui, Jingcheng; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhan, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SPME–SERS), combining the pretreatment and determination functions, has been successfully used in environmental analysis. In this work, Au-coated ZnO nanorods were fabricated on stainless steel fiber as a self-cleaning SERS-active SPME fiber. The ZnO nanorods grown on stainless steel fiber were prepared via a simple hydrothermal approach. Then the obtained nanostructures were decorated with Au nanoparticles through ion-sputtering at room temperature. The obtained SERS-active SPME fiber is a reproducible sensitivity sensor. Taking p-aminothiophenol as the probe molecule, the RSD value of the SERS-active SPME fiber was 8.9%, indicating the fiber owned good uniformity. The qualitative and quantitative detection of crystal violet and malachite green was also achieved. The log–log plot of SERS intensity to crystal violet and malachite green concentration showed a good linear relationship. Meanwhile, this SERS-active SPME fiber can achieve self-cleaning owning to the excellent photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanorods. Crystal violet was still successfully detected even after five cycles, which indicated the high reproducibility of this SERS-active SPME fiber. - Graphical abstract: Au-coated ZnO NRs on stainless steel fiber were used as SERS-active SPME fiber with good extraction effect, high SERS sensitivity. Self-cleaning function of the fiber was achieved based on the photocatalytic degradation property of ZnO nanorods by UV irradiation. - Highlights: • Au-coated ZnO nanorods on stainless steel fiber as a SERS-active SPME fiber was fabricated. • The SERS-active SPME fiber can directly extract and detect the crystal violet and malachite green. • The SERS-active SPME fiber owns good extraction effect, and high SERS sensitivity. • Self-cleaning property of the fiber were achieved based on the photocatalytic degradation property of ZnO.

  18. Effect of Different Seed Solutions on the Morphology and Electrooptical Properties of ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kashif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and electrooptical properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized on monoethanolamine-based seed layer and KOH-based seed layer were compared. The seed solutions were prepared in monoethanolamine in 2-methoxyethanol and potassium hydroxide in methanol, respectively. Zinc acetate dihydrate was as a common precursor in both solutions. The nanorod-ZnOs were synthesized via the spin coating of two different seed solutions on silicon substrates followed by their hydrothermal growth. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL, and Raman studies revealed that the ZnO nanorods obtained from monoethanolamine-based seed layer had fewer defects, better crystals, and better alignment than those realized via KOH-based seed layer. However, the current-voltage (I-V characteristics demonstrated better conductivity of the ZnO nanorods obtained via KOH-based seed layer. The current measured in forward bias was 4 mA and 40 μA for ZnO-nanorods grown on KOH-based seed layer and monoethanolamine-based with the turn on voltage of approximately 1.5 V and 2.5 V, respectively, showing the feasibility of using both structures in optoelectric devices.

  19. Characterisation of irradiation-induced defects in ZnO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, I; Cizek, J; Lukac, F; Melikhova, O; Valenta, J; Havranek, V; Anwand, W; Skuratov, V A; Strukova, T S

    2016-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) combined with optical methods was employed for characterisation of defects in the hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals irradiated by 167 MeV Xe 26+ ions to fluences ranged from 3×10 12 to 1×10 14 cm -2 . The positron lifetime (LT), Doppler broadening as well as slow-positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) techniques were involved. The ab-initio theoretical calculations were utilised for interpretation of LT results. The optical transmission and photoluminescence measurements were conducted, too. The virgin ZnO crystal exhibited a single component LT spectrum with a lifetime of 182 ps which is attributed to saturated positron trapping in Zn vacancies associated with hydrogen atoms unintentionally introduced into the crystal during the crystal growth. The Xe ion irradiated ZnO crystals have shown an additional component with a longer lifetime of ≈ 360 ps which comes from irradiation-induced larger defects equivalent in size to clusters of ≈10 to 12 vacancies. The concentrations of these clusters were estimated on the basis of combined LT and SPIS data. The PAS data were correlated with irradiation induced changes seen in the optical spectroscopy experiments. (paper)

  20. Defect studies of ZnO single crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čížek, J.; Žaludová, N.; Vlach, M.; Daniš, S.; Kuriplach, J.; Procházka, I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Gemma, R.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

    2008-03-01

    Various defect studies of hydrothermally grown (0001) oriented ZnO crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen are presented. The hydrogen content in the crystals is determined by nuclear reaction analysis and it is found that already 0.3at.% H exists in chemically bound form in the virgin ZnO crystals. A single positron lifetime of 182ps is detected in the virgin crystals and attributed to saturated positron trapping at Zn vacancies surrounded by hydrogen atoms. It is demonstrated that a very high amount of hydrogen (up to ˜30at.%) can be introduced into the crystals by electrochemical doping. More than half of this amount is chemically bound, i.e., incorporated into the ZnO crystal lattice. This drastic increase of the hydrogen concentration is of marginal impact on the measured positron lifetime, whereas a contribution of positrons annihilated by electrons belonging to O-H bonds formed in the hydrogen doped crystal is found in coincidence Doppler broadening spectra. The formation of hexagonal shape pyramids on the surface of the hydrogen doped crystals by optical microscopy is observed and discussed.

  1. Characterisation of irradiation-induced defects in ZnO single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, I.; Cizek, J.; Lukac, F.; Melikhova, O.; Valenta, J.; Havranek, V.; Anwand, W.; Skuratov, V. A.; Strukova, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) combined with optical methods was employed for characterisation of defects in the hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals irradiated by 167 MeV Xe26+ ions to fluences ranged from 3×1012 to 1×1014 cm-2. The positron lifetime (LT), Doppler broadening as well as slow-positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) techniques were involved. The ab-initio theoretical calculations were utilised for interpretation of LT results. The optical transmission and photoluminescence measurements were conducted, too. The virgin ZnO crystal exhibited a single component LT spectrum with a lifetime of 182 ps which is attributed to saturated positron trapping in Zn vacancies associated with hydrogen atoms unintentionally introduced into the crystal during the crystal growth. The Xe ion irradiated ZnO crystals have shown an additional component with a longer lifetime of ≈ 360 ps which comes from irradiation-induced larger defects equivalent in size to clusters of ≈10 to 12 vacancies. The concentrations of these clusters were estimated on the basis of combined LT and SPIS data. The PAS data were correlated with irradiation induced changes seen in the optical spectroscopy experiments.

  2. Unusual electrochemical response of ZnO nanowires-decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Guangquan; Ye Jianshan; Zhang Weide

    2009-01-01

    A novel type of ZnO nanowires-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposite (ZnO-NWs/MWCNTs) has been prepared by a hydrothermal process. The ZnO-NWs/MWCNTs nanocomposite has a uniform surface distribution and large coverage of ZnO nanowires onto MWCNTs with 3D configuration, which was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were applied to investigate the electrochemical properties of ZnO-NWs/MWCNTs nanocomposite. Surprisingly, unlike the conventional n-type semiconducting ZnO nanowires grown on Ta substrate, the ZnO-NWs/MWCNTs nanocomposite exhibits excellent electron transfer capability and gives a pair of well-defined symmetric redox peaks towards ferricyanide probe. What's more, the ZnO-NWs/MWCNTs nanocomposite shows remarkable electrocatalytic activity (current response increased 4 folds at 0.3 V) towards H 2 O 2 by comparing with bare MWCNTs. The ZnO-NWs/MWCNTs nanocomposite could find applications in novel biosensors and other electronic devices.

  3. 3D Interconnected V6O13 Nanosheets Grown on Carbonized Textile via a Seed-Assisted Hydrothermal Process as High-Performance Flexible Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shixing; Cen, Dingcheng; Gao, Peibo; Tang, Huang; Bao, Zhihao

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) free-standing nanostructured materials have been proven to be one of the most promising electrodes for energy storage due to their enhanced electrochemical performance. And they are also widely studied for the wearable energy storage systems. In this work, interconnected V6O13 nanosheets were grown on the flexible carbonized textile (c-textile) via a seed-assisted hydrothermal method to form a 3D free-standing electrode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The electrode exhibited a specific capacity of 170 mA h g-1 at a specific current of 300 mA g-1. With carbon nanotube (CNT) coating, its specific capacities further increased 12-40% at the various current rates. It could retain a reversible capacity of 130 mA h g-1, 74% of the initial capacity after 300 cycles at the specific current of 300 mA g-1. It outperformed most of the mixed-valence vanadium oxides. The improved electrochemical performance was ascribed to the synergistic effect of the 3D nanostructure of V6O13 for feasible Li+ diffusion and transport and highly conductive hierarchical conductive network formed by CNT and carbon fiber in c-textile.

  4. An Al-doped ZnO electrode grown by highly efficient cylindrical rotating magnetron sputtering for low cost organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Hyuk; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Park, Kang-Il; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-03-01

    We report the characteristics of Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films prepared by a highly efficient cylindrical rotating magnetron sputtering (CRMS) system for use as a transparent conducting electrode in cost-efficient bulk hetero-junction organic solar cells (OSCs). Using a rotating cylindrical type cathode with an AZO target, whose usage was above 80%, we were able to obtain a low cost and indium free AZO electrode with a low sheet resistance of ~4.59 Ω/sq, a high transparency of 85% in the visible wavelength region and a work function of 4.9 eV at a substrate temperature of 230 °C. Moreover, the neutral poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrenesulfonate) based OSC fabricated on the CRMS-grown AZO electrode at 230 °C showed an open circuit voltage of 0.5 V, a short circuit current of 8.94 mA cm-2, a fill factor of 45% and power conversion efficiency of 2.01%, indicating that CRMS is a promising cost-efficient AZO deposition technique for low cost OSCs.

  5. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Zr-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 4 at. % zirconium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 350 to 950 °C. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of rapid thermal annealing (RTA treated ZnO:Zr films have been evaluated to find out the stability limit. It was found that the grain size increased at 350 °C and decreased between 350 and 850 °C, while creeping up again at 850 °C. UV–vis characterization shows that the optical band gap shifts towards larger wavelengths. The Hall measurement shows that the resistivity almost keeps constant at low annealing temperatures, and increases rapidly after treatment at 750 °C due to the effect of both the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility. The best annealing temperature is found in the range of 350–550 °C. The ZnO:Zr film-coated glass substrates show good optical and electrical performance up to 550 °C during superstrate thin film solar cell deposition.

  6. Effects of O2 plasma post-treatment on ZnO: Ga thin films grown by H2O-thermal ALD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Chuang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ho, Chong-Long; Wu, Meng-Chyi

    2013-03-01

    Transparent conducting oxides have been widely employed in optoelectronic devices using the various deposition methods such as sputtering, thermal evaporator, and e-gun evaporator technologies.1-3 In this work, gallium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ga) thin films were grown on glass substrates via H2O-thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) at different deposition temperatures. ALD-GZO thin films were constituted as a layer-by-layer structure by stacking zinc oxides and gallium oxides. Diethylzinc (DEZ), triethylgallium (TEG) and H2O were used as zinc, gallium precursors and oxygen source, respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the influences of O2 plasma post-treatment power on the surface morphology, electrical and optical property of ZnO:Ga films. As the result of O2 plasma post-treatment, the characteristics of ZnO:Ga films exhibit a smooth surface, low resistivity, high carrier concentration, and high optical transmittance in the visible spectrum. However, the transmittance decreases with O2 plasma power in the near- and mid-infrared regions.

  7. Origin of the 2.45 eV luminescence band observed in ZnO epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saroj, R K; Dhar, S

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide epitaxial layers have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. A structural study shows (0001)-oriented films with good crystalline quality. The temperature and excitation power dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of these layers is studied as a function of various growth parameters, such as the growth temperature, oxygen flow rate and Zn flux, which suggest that the origin of the broad visible luminescence (VL), which peaks at 2.45 eV, is the transition between the conduction band and the Zn vacancy acceptor states. A bound excitonic transition observed at 3.32 eV in low temperature PL has been identified as an exciton bound to the neutral Zn vacancy. Our study also reveals the involvement of two activation processes in the dynamics of VL, which has been explained in terms of the fluctuation of the capture barrier height for the holes trapped in Zn vacancy acceptors. The fluctuation, which might be a result of the inhomogeneous distribution of Zn vacancies, is found to be associated with an average height of 7 and 90 meV, respectively, for the local and global maxima. (paper)

  8. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, R. Raj [Department of ECE, Gojan School of Business and Technology, Chennai (India); Rajendran, K. [Department of Electronics, Government Arts College for Women, Ramanathapuram, TN (India); Sambath, K. [Department of ECS, Sri Krishna Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, TN (India)

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  9. Fabrication of high responsivity deep UV photo-detector based on Na doped ZnO nanocolumns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jitesh; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Singh, Vipul

    2018-05-01

    We report a variety of the hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanostructures with a significant suppression in defect-related emission and huge enhancement in the photo-current to the dark current ratio (approximately six orders of magnitude) upon UV light illumination. Interestingly, the photo-detector shows lower dark current of 1.6 nA with high responsivity of 507 A W‑1 at 254 nm. Here, a systematic analysis of the growth process as well as the physical, chemical and electrical properties of as-grown ZnO nanostructures has been performed. We have utilized the duo effect of both the inorganic (KMnO4) and organic (Na3C6H5O7) additives, which has facilitated the precise tuning of the morphology and intrinsic defects in nanostructures that have made an impact on the photo-responsivity, photoluminescence (PL) and adhesivity of the film on to the underlying substrate. PL analysis of as-grown ZnO nanostructures has suggested 11 times improvement in the near band emission (NBE) to defect level emission (DLE) ratio. Interestingly, thermal annealing of the samples has shown a dramatic change in the morphology with significant improvement in the crystallinity. Notably, the band gap was observed to be modulated from 3.3 eV to 3.1 eV after annealing. In addition to UV photo-detector based applications, the work presented here has provided a subtle solution towards the rectification of various problems pertaining to hydrothermal processes like poor adhesivity, feeble UV emission and problem in precise tuning of the morphology along with the bandgap in one go. Therefore, these investigations assume critical significance towards the development of next-generation optoelectronic devices.

  10. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Cu doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasir; Singh, Budhi; Khan, Zaheer Ahmed; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-05-01

    We report the room temperature ferromagnetism in 2% Cu doped ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to ascertain the oxidation states of Cu in ZnO. The presence of defects within Cu-doped ZnO films can be revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance. It has been observed that saturated magnetic moment increase as we increase the zinc vacancies during deposition.

  11. Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available . These materials were synthesized in a shape-selective manner using simple microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated the as-synthesized ZnO nanostructures to be stable and of high purity. Structural analyses showed...

  12. Piezoelectric Nanogenerator Using p-Type ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Ming-Pei; Song, Jinhui; Lu, Ming-Yen; Chen, Min-Teng; Gao, Yifan; Chen, Lih-Juann; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    Using phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays grown on silicon substrate, energy conversion using the p-type ZnO NWs has been demonstrated for the first time. The p-type ZnO NWs produce positive output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive

  13. Variable range hopping in ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasir; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-04-01

    We report the variable range hopping in ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. It has been found that Mott variable range hopping dominant over Efros variable range hopping in all ZnO films. It also has been found that hopping distance and energy increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure.

  14. Structural characterization of H plasma-doped ZnO single crystals by positron annihilation spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwand, Wolfgang; Brauer, Gerhard; Cowan, Thomas E. [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Grambole, Dieter; Skorupa, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Cizek, Jakub; Kuriplach, Jan; Prochazka, Ivan [Department of Low Temperature Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Egger, Werner; Sperr, Peter [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Fakultaet fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Universitaet der Bundeswehr, Heisenbergweg 39, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Nominally undoped, hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals have been investigated before and after exposure to remote H plasma. Structural characterizations have been made by various positron annihilation spectroscopies (continuous and pulsed slow positron beams, conventional lifetime). The content of bound hydrogen (H-b) before and after the remote H plasma treatment at the polished side of the crystals was determined at depths of 100 and 600 nm, respectively, using nuclear reaction analysis. At a depth of 100 nm, H-b increased from (11.8{+-}2.5) to (48.7{+-}7.6) x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} after remote H plasma treatment, whereas at 600 nm no change in H-b was observed. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Nonenzymetic glucose sensing using carbon functionalized carbon doped ZnO nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Pinak; Majumder, Tanmoy; Dhar, Saurab; Mondal, Suvra Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Fabrication of highly sensitive, long stability and low cost glucose sensors are attractive for biomedical applications and food industries. Most of the commercial glucose sensors are based on enzymatic detection which suffers from problems underlying in enzyme activities. Development of high sensitive, enzyme free sensors is a great challenge for next generation glucose sensing applications. In our study Zinc oxide nanorod sensing electrodes have been grown using low cost hydrothermal route and their nonenzymatic glucose sensing properties have been demonstrated with carbon functionalized, carbon doped ZnO nanorods (C-ZnO NRs) in neutral medium (0.1M PBS, pH 7.4) using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements. The C-ZnO NRs electrodes demonstrated glucose sensitivity˜ 13.66 µAmM-1cm-2 in the concentration range 0.7 - 14 mM.

  16. Hydrogen absorption in thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhova, O.; Čížek, J.; Lukáč, F.; Vlček, M.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thin ZnO films and high quality ZnO crystal were electrochemically doped with hydrogen. ► Hydrogen absorbed in ZnO causes plastic deformation both in ZnO crystal and thin films. ► In ZnO crystal a sub-surface region with very high density of defects was formed. ► Moreover, plastic deformation causes specific surface modification of ZnO crystal. ► In ZnO films hydrogen-induced plastic deformation introduced defects in the whole film. -- Abstract: ZnO films with thickness of ∼80 nm were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on MgO (1 0 0) single crystal and amorphous fused silica (FS) substrates. Structural studies of ZnO films and a high quality reference ZnO single crystal were performed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). It was found that ZnO films exhibit significantly higher density of defects than the reference ZnO crystal. Moreover, the ZnO film deposited on MgO substrate exhibits higher concentration of defects than the film deposited on amorphous FS substrate most probably due to a dense network of misfit dislocations. The ZnO films and the reference ZnO crystal were subsequently loaded with hydrogen by electrochemical cathodic charging. SPIS characterizations revealed that absorbed hydrogen introduces new defects into ZnO

  17. Hydrogen absorption in thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melikhova, O., E-mail: oksivmel@yahoo.com [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Čížek, J.; Lukáč, F.; Vlček, M. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Anwand, W.; Brauer, G. [Institut für Strahlenphysik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PO Box 510 119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Thin ZnO films and high quality ZnO crystal were electrochemically doped with hydrogen. ► Hydrogen absorbed in ZnO causes plastic deformation both in ZnO crystal and thin films. ► In ZnO crystal a sub-surface region with very high density of defects was formed. ► Moreover, plastic deformation causes specific surface modification of ZnO crystal. ► In ZnO films hydrogen-induced plastic deformation introduced defects in the whole film. -- Abstract: ZnO films with thickness of ∼80 nm were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on MgO (1 0 0) single crystal and amorphous fused silica (FS) substrates. Structural studies of ZnO films and a high quality reference ZnO single crystal were performed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). It was found that ZnO films exhibit significantly higher density of defects than the reference ZnO crystal. Moreover, the ZnO film deposited on MgO substrate exhibits higher concentration of defects than the film deposited on amorphous FS substrate most probably due to a dense network of misfit dislocations. The ZnO films and the reference ZnO crystal were subsequently loaded with hydrogen by electrochemical cathodic charging. SPIS characterizations revealed that absorbed hydrogen introduces new defects into ZnO.

  18. Hydrogen absorption in thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Meilkhova, O.; Čížek, J.; Lukáč,, F.; Vlček, M.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO films with thickness of ~80 nm were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on MgO (1 0 0) single crystal and amorphous fused silica (FS) substrates. Structural studies of ZnO films and a high quality reference ZnO single crystal were performed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). It was found that ZnO films exhibit significantly higher density of defects than the reference ZnO crystal. Moreover, the ZnO film deposited on MgO substrate exhibits higher concentration of defects...

  19. ZnO nanoparticle as catalyst for efficient green one-pot synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles functions as highly effective catalyst for the reactions of various o-hydroxy ... the synthesis of relatively large and complex molecules .... of ethylene diamine in hydrothermal ZnO nanorod syn- thesis. Di- and ...

  20. Room-temperature ferromagnetic properties of Cu-doped ZnO rod ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have investigated properties of the Cu-doped ZnO crystalline film synthesized by the hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction and X-ray ... DMSs are semiconducting alloys whose lattice is made up in part of substitutional magnetic ... investigate Cu-doped ZnO system (Hou et al 2007a, b), as. Cu is a potential magnetic ion ...

  1. Synthetic and effect of annealing on the luminescent properties of ZnO nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Zhao-Jun, E-mail: mzjmzj163@163.com [Institute of Material Physics, Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices of Ministry of Education of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Hao, Zhi-Hong [Tianjin Vocational Institute, Tianjin (China); Wu, Hai-Zhen; Yang, Qing; Zhuo, Ping; Yang, Hui; Xu, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Song [Institute of Material Physics, Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices of Ministry of Education of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Li, Lan, E-mail: lilan2000us@126.com [Institute of Material Physics, Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices of Ministry of Education of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China)

    2016-07-15

    ZnO nanowires were successfully fabricated by using the hydrothermal method in the existence of the poly ethylene glycol (PEG) with the molecular weight of 200. The experimental results exhibit that the ZnO nanowires with the diameter of ~30 nm and the length of ten micrometers. PL spectra show a weak ultraviolet emission and an intense broad visible emission band for as-grown and annealed samples. These visible emission bands exhibit red-shifts from green (545 nm) to yellow (580 nm) and blue-shifts from yellow (580 nm) to green (520 nm) by annealing at aerobic or anaerobic environment, it indicates that the defect types are changed by annealed at different environment. Additionally, the red-shifts (520 nm) and blue-shifts (580) can match up the bimodal lorentzian fitting (520 nm and 583 nm) of as-growth, which suggest that the visible emission band (545 nm) is closely related to oxygen defects. The oxygen atomic can enter into the crystal lattice of ZnO and decrease the oxygen vacancy in air or oxygen, whereas, more oxygen vacancy defects is gave rise in vacuum annealed. We guess the energy levels of the intrinsic defects in ZnO nanowire maybe like that: the electrons of Zn{sub i} defects compound with holes of V{sub Zn}, O{sub i} and O{sub Zn} levels and conform to the yellow emission, and the green emission corresponds to the electron transition from the association defects deep donor level to the valence band.

  2. Hydrothermal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater

  3. Positron Spectroscopy of Hydrothermally Grown Actinide Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    actinide oxides . The work described here is an attempt to characterize the quality of crystals using positron annihilation spectroscopy (PALS). The...Upadhyaya, R. V. Muraleedharan, B. D. Sharma and K. G. Prasad, " Positron lifetime studies on thorium oxide powders," Philosohical Magazine A, vol. 45... crystals . A strong foundation for actinide PALS studies was laid, but further work is required to build a more effective system. Positron Spectroscopy

  4. Synthesis of ZnO nanowire arrays on ZnO−TiO{sub 2} mixed oxide seed layer for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, T. [Advanced Materials and Thin Film Physics Lab, Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi (India); Anandhan, N., E-mail: anandhan_kn@rediffmail.com [Advanced Materials and Thin Film Physics Lab, Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi (India); Thangamuthu, R. [Electrochemical Materials Science Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi (India); Mummoorthi, M. [Advanced Materials and Thin Film Physics Lab, Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi (India); Ravi, G. [Photonic Crystal Lab, Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi (India)

    2016-08-25

    ZnO nanowire arrays (NWAs) were synthesized on ZnO−TiO{sub 2} mixed oxide seeded FTO conducting glass plate by two-step sol-gel and hydrothermal method, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the presence of mixed and hexagonal phases in seed layer and NWAs, respectively. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the FTO glass plate is uniformly covered with grains and a few nanorods in seed layer and dense NWAs are vertically grown on the seed layer. The hexagonal structure and high crystal quality have been confirmed by micro Raman spectra. Photoluminescence spectra also present that NWAs have high crystal quality and less atomic defects. UV spectra indicate that NWAs are absorbed more dye molecules and it has the band gap equal to bulk material. The efficiency of ZnO−TiO{sub 2} mixed oxide seed layer and ZnO NWAs is found to be 0.56 and 0.84% respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra reveal that NWAs DSSC has high charge transfer recombination resistance than the seed layer DSSC. - Highlights: • ZnO nanowire arrays were synthesized by two-step sol-gel and hydrothermal method. • The crystal structure and crystalline quality of films are confirmed by Raman spectra. • The emission properties of films are investigated by photoluminescence spectra. • ZnO nanowire arrays (NWAs) have higher charge transfer recombination resistance. • The conversion efficiency of the seed layer and NWAs is to be 0.56 and 0.84%.

  5. Controllable synthesis of periodic flower-like ZnO nanostructures on Si subwavelength grating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2011-01-01

    We report on the periodic well-defined flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs) self-assembled through a simple hydrothermal method using silicon (Si) subwavelength grating (SWG) structures. The Si SWGs serve as building blocks for constructing a two-dimensional (2D) periodic architecture to integrate the one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NSs. Various controlled morphologies of ZnO NSs with high crystallinity are obtained by changing the growth conditions. For 1D ZnO NSs integrated on periodic hexagonal Si SWG structures, the reflection characteristics are investigated in comparison with the conventional ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays. For a three-dimensional (3D) flower-like ZnO NS on Si SWGs, a relatively low total reflectance of < 8% at wavelengths of 300-1050 nm is achieved compared to the ZnO NRs on Si substrate.

  6. Identification of substitutional Li in n-type ZnO and its role as an acceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, K. M.; Zubiaga, A.; Makkonen, I.; Tuomisto, F.; Neuvonen, P. T.; Knutsen, K. E.; Monakhov, E. V.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G.

    2011-06-01

    Monocrystalline n-type zinc oxide (ZnO) samples prepared by different techniques and containing various amounts of lithium (Li) have been studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry. A distinct PAS signature of negatively charged Li atoms occupying a Zn-site (LiZn-), so-called substitutional Li, is identified and thus enables a quantitative determination of the content of LiZn. In hydrothermally grown samples with a total Li concentration of ~2×1017cm-3,LiZn is found to prevail strongly, with only minor influence, by other possible configurations of Li. Also in melt grown samples doped with Li to a total concentration as high as 1.5×1019cm-3, a considerable fraction of the Li atoms (at least 20%) is shown to reside on the Zn-site, but despite the corresponding absolute acceptor concentration of ⩾(2-3)×1018cm-3, the samples did not exhibit any detectable p-type conductivity. The presence of LiZn is demonstrated to account for the systematic difference in positron lifetime of 10-15 ps between Li-rich and Li-lean ZnO materials as found in the literature, but further work is needed to fully elucidate the role of residual hydrogen impurities and intrinsic open volume defects.

  7. Synthesis and microstructural characterization of growth direction controlled ZnO nanorods using a buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Dong Chan; Lee, Jeong Yong; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2006-01-01

    The growth direction and morphology of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) were modulated by changing the growth temperature of previously deposited ZnO buffer layers that were used as a template. The ZnO nanorods grown on the low-temperature deposited buffer layer were regularly inclined with respect to the substrate surface and show in-plane alignment with azimuthally six-fold symmetry. In contrast, deposition of the buffer layer at higher growth temperature led to the formation of vertically well-aligned ZnO nanorods. In addition, the ZnO nanorods grown on the buffer layer deposited at low growth temperature show a growth direction of [1 0 1-bar 0], unlike the conventional ZnO nanorods showing a growth direction of [0001]. The microstructural analysis and atomic modelling of the formation of regularly inclined nanorods using transmission electron microscopy are presented

  8. Enhanced fluorescence imaging performance of hydrophobic colloidal ZnO nanoparticles by a facile method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Zhigang; Tang, Xiaosheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dual phase hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles. • ZnO nanoparticles show a stability and solubility in the aqueous environment. • ZnO nanoparticles with a blue emission wavelength at around 420 nm and small size (30 nm). • ZnO nanoparticles as biological labeling agent was also shown. - Abstract: A facile synthesis method for the formation of ZnO nanoparticles by using a double-phase reaction was demonstrated in this paper. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles shows a flower-shape. Hydrogen peroxide was used as a unique oxygenic source to promote the formation of ZnO in the presence of organic zinc precursor. The as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles also show a stability and solubility in the aqueous environment. The structure and properties of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The as-prepared hydrophobic colloidal ZnO nanoparticles could be modified to become water-soluble via ligand exchange with amineothanethiol⋅HCl while retaining the photoluminescence properties. In addition, the potential application for biological label of water-soluble ZnO nanoparticles were also demonstrated. These results not only have applications towards using colloidal ZnO nanoparticles effectively in biological fluorescence imaging, but also promote its application in the field of targeted drug delivery

  9. Green method for producing hierarchically assembled pristine porous ZnO nanoparticles with narrow particle size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo-Morales, A.; Téllez-Flores, D.; Ruiz Peralta, Ma. de Lourdes; Garcia-Serrano, J.; Herrera-González, Ana M.; Rubio-Rosas, E.; Sánchez-Mora, E.; Olivares Xometl, O.

    2015-01-01

    A green method for producing pristine porous ZnO nanoparticles with narrow particle size distribution is reported. This method consists in synthesizing ZnO 2 nanopowders via a hydrothermal route using cheap and non-toxic reagents, and its subsequent thermal decomposition at low temperature under a non-protective atmosphere (air). The morphology, structural and optical properties of the obtained porous ZnO nanoparticles were studied by means of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurements. It was found that after thermal decomposition of the ZnO 2 powders, pristine ZnO nanoparticles are obtained. These particles are round-shaped with narrow size distribution. A further analysis of the obtained ZnO nanoparticles reveals that they are hierarchical self-assemblies of primary ZnO particles. The agglomeration of these primary particles at the very early stage of the thermal decomposition of ZnO 2 powders provides to the resulting ZnO nanoparticles a porous nature. The possibility of using the synthesized porous ZnO nanoparticles as photocatalysts has been evaluated on the degradation of rhodamine B dye. - Highlights: • A green synthesis method for obtaining porous ZnO nanoparticles is reported. • The obtained ZnO nanoparticles have narrow particle size distribution. • This method allows obtaining pristine ZnO nanoparticles avoiding unintentional doping. • A growth mechanism for the obtained porous ZnO nanoparticles is proposed

  10. Effect of high temperature annealing on defects and optical properties of ZnO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, M.; Wang, D.D.; Zou, B.; Chen, Z.Q.; Kawasuso, A.; Sekiguchi, T.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal grown ZnO single crystals were annealed in N 2 or O 2 between 900 and 1300 C. Positron lifetime measurements reveal a single lifetime in all the ZnO samples before and after annealing. The positron lifetime is about 181 ps after annealing at 900 C in either N 2 or O 2 atmosphere. However, increase of the positron lifetime is observed after further annealing the sample at higher temperatures up to 1300 C, and it has a faster increase in O 2 ambient. Temperature dependence measurements show that the positron lifetime has very slight increase with temperature for the 900 C annealed sample, while it shows notable variation for the sample annealed at 1300 C. This implied that annealing at high temperature introduces additional defects. These defects are supposed to be Zn vacancy-related defects. Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements indicates enhancement of both UV and green emission after annealing, and the enhancement of green emission is much stronger for the samples annealed in O 2 ambient. The possible origin of green emission is tentatively discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. H passivation of Li on Zn-site in ZnO: Positron annihilation spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, K. M.; Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Monakhov, E. V.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G.

    2011-09-01

    The interaction of hydrogen (H) with lithium (Li) and zinc vacancies (VZn) in hydrothermally grown n-type zinc oxide (ZnO) has been investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Li on Zn-site (LiZn) is found to be the dominant trap for migrating H atoms, while the trapping efficiency of VZn is considerably smaller. After hydrogenation, where the LiZn acceptor is passivated via formation of neutral LiZn-H pairs, VZn occurs as the prime PAS signature and with a concentration similar to that observed in nonhydrogenated Li-poor samples. Despite a low efficiency as an H trap, the apparent concentration of VZn in Li-poor samples decreases after hydrogenation, as detected by PAS, and evidence for formation of the neutral VZnH2 complex is presented.

  12. 2D Sn-doped ZnO ultrathin nanosheet networks for enhanced acetone gas sensing application

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hadeethi, Yas; Umar, Ahmad; Al-Heniti, Saleh. H.; Kumar, Rajesh; Kim, S.H.; Zhang, Xixiang; Raffah, Bahaaudin M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterizations and gas sensing application of 2D Sn-doped ZnO ultrathin nanosheet networks synthesized by a simple and facile hydrothermal process. The synthesized nanosheets were characterized using several techniques in terms of their morphological, structural, optical and compositional properties. The detailed characterizations confirmed that the nanosheets are pure, grown in high-density, possessing well-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phase and exhibiting good optical properties. Further, the synthesized nanosheets were used as functional material to develop nanosensor device by coating it on the alumina substrate with suitable electrodes. The fabricated sensor device was tested towards acetone gas which exhibited a maximum sensitivity of 5.556 (Ra/Rg) for 200 ppm of acetone at 320 °C.

  13. 2D Sn-doped ZnO ultrathin nanosheet networks for enhanced acetone gas sensing application

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hadeethi, Yas

    2016-11-10

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterizations and gas sensing application of 2D Sn-doped ZnO ultrathin nanosheet networks synthesized by a simple and facile hydrothermal process. The synthesized nanosheets were characterized using several techniques in terms of their morphological, structural, optical and compositional properties. The detailed characterizations confirmed that the nanosheets are pure, grown in high-density, possessing well-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phase and exhibiting good optical properties. Further, the synthesized nanosheets were used as functional material to develop nanosensor device by coating it on the alumina substrate with suitable electrodes. The fabricated sensor device was tested towards acetone gas which exhibited a maximum sensitivity of 5.556 (Ra/Rg) for 200 ppm of acetone at 320 °C.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Antireflective ZnO Nanoparticles Coatings Used for Energy Improving Efficiency of Silicone Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîslaru-Dǎnescu, Lucian; Chitanu, Elena; El-Leathey, Lucia-Andreea; Marinescu, Virgil; Marin, Dorian; Sbârcea, Beatrice-Gabriela

    2018-03-01

    The paper proposes a new and complex process for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for antireflective coating corresponding to silicone solar cells applications. The process consists of two major steps: preparation of seed layer and hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanoparticles. Due to the fact that the seed layer morphology influences the ZnO nanoparticles proprieties, the process optimization of the seed layer preparation is necessary. Following the hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanoparticles, antireflective coating of silicone solar cells is achieved. After determining the functional parameters of the solar cells provided either with glass or with ZnO, it is concluded that all the parameters values are superior in the case of solar cells with ZnO antireflection coating and are increasing along with the solar irradiance.

  15. Defect-induced magnetic order in pure ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, M.; Ziese, M.; Setzer, A.; Esquinazi, P.; Lorenz, M.; Hochmuth, H.; Grundmann, M.; Spemann, D.; Butz, T.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Fischer, G.; Adeagbo, W. A.; Hergert, W.; Ernst, A.

    2009-07-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of pure ZnO thin films grown under N2 pressure on a -, c -, and r -plane Al2O3 substrates by pulsed-laser deposition. The substrate temperature and the N2 pressure were varied from room temperature to 570°C and from 0.007 to 1.0 mbar, respectively. The magnetic properties of bare substrates and ZnO films were investigated by SQUID magnetometry. ZnO films grown on c - and a -plane Al2O3 substrates did not show significant ferromagnetism. However, ZnO films grown on r -plane Al2O3 showed reproducible ferromagnetism at 300 K when grown at 300-400°C and 0.1-1.0 mbar N2 pressure. Positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements as well as density-functional theory calculations suggest that the ferromagnetism in ZnO films is related to Zn vacancies.

  16. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Feng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Liu, Hongfeng [School of Basic Medical Sciences, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Qu, Fengyu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Cai, Xue, E-mail: xuecai@mail.sdu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Wu, Xiang, E-mail: wuxiang@hrbnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.

  17. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongfeng; Qu, Fengyu; Cai, Xue; Wu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment

  18. Role of work function in field emission enhancement of Au island decorated vertically aligned ZnO nanotapers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Avanendra [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER), HBNI, Bhubaneswar 752050, Odisha (India); Senapati, Kartik, E-mail: kartik@niser.ac.in [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER), HBNI, Bhubaneswar 752050, Odisha (India); Kumar, Mohit; Som, Tapobrata [SUNAG Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005, Odisha (India); Sinha, Anil K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India); Sahoo, Pratap K., E-mail: pratap.sahoo@niser.ac.in [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER), HBNI, Bhubaneswar 752050, Odisha (India)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Hydrothermally synthesized nanotapers were decorated by gold corrugation using simple evaporation techniques for large area applications. • A significantly enhanced field emission properties of nanotapers were achieved. • The metal induced midgap states formed at the ZnO-Au interface and the reduced effective work function are responsible for low turn-on field. • TUNA measurements revealed a very uniform spatial emission profile in the Au decorated nanotapers. - Abstract: In this report, we demonstrate significantly enhanced field emission properties of ZnO nanotapers achieved via a corrugated decoration of Au. Field emission experiments on these Au-decorated ZnO nanotapers showed emission current densities comparable to the best results in the literature. Au decoration of 5 nm also reduced the effective turn-on field to ∼0.54 V/μm, compared to the as grown ZnO nanotapers, which showed a turn-on field of ∼1.1 V/μm. Tunneling atomic force microscopy measurements revealed a very uniform spatial emission profile in the 5 nm Au decorated nanotapers, which is a basic requirement for any large scale application. We believe that metal induced mid-gap states formed at the ZnO–Au interface are responsible for the observed low turn-on field because such interface states are known to reduce the effective work function. A direct measurement of effective work function using Kelvin probe force microscopy indeed showed more than 1.1 eV drop in the case of 5 nm Au decorated ZnO nanotapers compared to the pristine nanotapers, supporting the above argument.

  19. UV irradiation assisted growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Bo; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Li, Xiaoping; Huang, Jie; Zhou, Temgyuan; Tang, Zirong, E-mail: zirong@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new fabrication process combined a hydrothermal process with UV irradiation from optical fiber is developed. • The growth of ZnO nanowires is efficient in the utilization of UV light. • A novel hybrid structure which integrates ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface is synthesized. • The UV assisted growth of ZnO nanowires shows preferred orientation and better quality. • A mechanism of growing ZnO nanowires under UV irradiation is proposed. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel approach was developed for the enhanced growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface. The method combined a hydrothermal process with the efficient UV irradiation from the fiber core, and the effects of UV irradiation on the growth behavior of ZnO nanowires were investigated. The results show that UV irradiation had great effects on the preferred growth orientation and the quality of the ZnO nanowires. The crystallization velocity along the c-axis would increase rapidly with the increase of the irradiation power, while the growth process in the lateral direction was marginally affected by the irradiation. The structure of ZnO nanowires also shows less oxygen vacancy with UV irradiation of higher power. The developed approach is applicable for the efficient growth of nanowires on the fiber surface, and the ZnO nanowires/optical fiber hybrid structures have great potentials for a wide variety of applications such as optical fiber sensors and probes.

  20. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees A; Willander, Magnus

    2013-09-30

    In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

  1. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees A. Ansari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

  2. Investigation of the pulsed electrochemical deposition of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkel, Christian; Lüttich, Franziska; Graaf, Harald; Oekermann, Torsten; Wark, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The influence of pulse parameters on the morphology of ZnO prepared by pulsed cathodic electrodeposition from oxygen-saturated aqueous ZnCl 2 solution on ITO (indium tin oxide)/glass substrates was investigated. It was found that the ratio between the pulse and the pause duration has a crucial influence on the crystal growth, reaching the highest density of the films with pause/pulse-ratios between 0.25 and 1. Longer pauses cause an Ostwald-like ripening of the ZnO crystals and therewith a strong change in the crystal morphology from roundly shaped to hexagonal. Also the hydrophilicity of the substrate resulting from pre-treatment has a crucial influence on the deposited films, leading to films only consisting of few large and separately grown ZnO crystals for highly hydrophilic substrates and an increasing fraction of small densely grown ZnO crystals with increasing hydrophobicity.

  3. Controlled Synthesis of Hierarchically Assembled Porous ZnO Microspheres with Enhanced Gas-Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengsheng You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ZnO microspheres constructed by porous nanosheets were successfully synthesized by calcinating zinc hydroxide carbonate (ZHC microspheres obtained by a sample hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized in detail with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC. The results indicated that the prepared ZnO microspheres were well crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The effects of reaction time, temperature, the amount of trisodium citrate, and urea on the morphology of ZnO microspheres were studied. The formation mechanism of porous ZnO microspheres was discussed. Furthermore, the gas-sensing properties for detection of organic gas of the prepared porous ZnO microspheres were investigated. The results indicated that the prepared porous ZnO microspheres exhibited high gas-sensing properties for detection of ethanol gas.

  4. Argentine hydrothermal panorama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    An attempt is made to give a realistic review of Argentine thermal waters. The topics discussed are the characteristics of the hydrothermal resources, classification according to their mineral content, hydrothermal flora and fauna, uses of hydrothermal resources, hydrothermal regions of Argentina, and meteorology and climate. A tabulation is presented of the principal thermal waters. (JSR)

  5. Nanostructured porous ZnO film with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lina; Zheng Yingying; Li Xiaoyun; Dong Wenjun; Tang Weihua; Chen Benyong; Li Chaorong; Li Xiao; Zhang Tierui

    2011-01-01

    Well-defined ZnO nanostructured films have been fabricated directly on Zn foil via hydrothermal synthesis. During the fabrication of the ZnO nanostructured films, the Zn foil serves as the Zn source and also the substrate. Porous nanosheet-based, nanotube-based and nanoflower-based ZnO films can all be easily prepared by adjusting the alkali type, reaction time and reaction temperature. The composition, morphology and structure of ZnO films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The porous ZnO nanosheet-based film exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity in the degradation of Rhodamine B under UV light irradiation. This can be attributed to the high surface area of the ZnO nanosheet and the large percentage of the exposed [001] facet. Moreover, the self-supporting, recyclable and stable ZnO photocatalytic film can be readily recovered and potentially applied for pollution disposal.

  6. Electrical characterization of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, E.; Bakin, A.; Postels, B.; Mofor, A.C.; Wehmann, H.H.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Weimann, T.; Hinze, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were grown by a wet chemical approach and by vapor phase transport. To explore the electrical properties of individual nanostructures current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were obtained by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a conductive tip or by detaching the nanorods from the growth substrate, transferring them to an isolating substrate and contacting them with evaporated Ti/Au electrodes patterned by electron-beam lithography. The AFM-approach only yields a Schottky diode behavior, while the Ti/Au forms ohmic contacts to the ZnO. For the latter method the obtained I-V curves reveal a resistivity of the nanorods in the order of 10{sup -5} {omega} cm which is unusually low for undoped ZnO. We therefore assume the existence of a highly conductive surface channel. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Photoluminescence measurements of ZnO heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Isao; Ohashi, Naoki; Haneda, Hajime; Ryoken, Haruki; Takenaka, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    ZnO thin films were grown on TbAlO 3 single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements, strong emissions from TbAlO 3 were observed with the emission from ZnO when the film thickness was less than 100 nm. The relationship between the ZnO film thickness and the emission intensity from TbAlO 3 was investigated in order to determine the penetration depth of excitation light. Information on the heterostructures ranging from the surface to a depth of 300 nm was obtained by PL measurements in this study, and the absorption coefficient for a wavelength of 325 nm was estimated to be 1.31x10 5 cm -1 . (author)

  8. Preparation of Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays on Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films by Sonicated Sol-Gel Immersion Fabricated for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Saurdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aligned ZnO Nanorod arrays are deposited on the Sn-doped ZnO thin film via sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Sn-doped ZnO thin films were investigated. Results show that the Sn-doped ZnO thin films with small grain size (~20 nm, high average transmittance (96% in visible region, and good resistivity 7.7 × 102 Ω·cm are obtained for 2 at.% Sn doping concentration. The aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with large surface area were also obtained for 2 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin film. They were grown on sol-gel derived Sn-doped ZnO thin film, which acts as a seed layer, via sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The grown aligned ZnO nanorod arrays show high transmittance at visible region. The fabricated dye-sensitised solar cell based on the 2.0 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin film with aligned ZnO nanorod arrays exhibits improved current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and conversion efficiency compared with the undoped ZnO and 1 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin films.

  9. Preparation and electrochemical performance of bramble-like ZnO array as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Junfeng; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ruan, Xiongfei; Zhao, Wu; Yun, Jiangni; Xu, Manzhang

    2015-01-01

    A bramble-like ZnO array with a special three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure was successfully fabricated on Zn foil through a facile two-step hydrothermal process. A possible growth mechanism of the bramble-like ZnO array was proposed. In the first step of hydrothermal process, the crystal nucleus of Zn(OH) 4 2− generated by the zinc atoms and OH − ions fold together preferentially along the positive polar (0001) to form the needle-like ZnO array. In the second step of hydrothermal process, the crystal nuclei of Zn(OH) 4 2− adjust their posture to keep their c-axes vertical to the perching sites due to the sufficient environmental force and further grow preferentially along the (0001) direction so as to form bramble-like ZnO array. The electrochemical properties of the needle- and bramble-like ZnO arrays as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared. The results show that the bramble-like ZnO material exhibits much better lithium storage properties than the needle-like ZnO sample. Reasons for the enhanced electrochemical performance of the bramble-like ZnO material were investigated

  10. Influence of Dopants in ZnO Films on Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Xiao; Weng, Hui-Min; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Xing-Ping; Ye, Bang-Jiao

    2008-12-01

    The influence of dopants in ZnO films on defects is investigated by slow positron annihilation technique. The results show S that parameters meet SAl > Sun > SAg for Al-doped ZnO films, undoped and Ag-doped ZnO films. Zinc vacancies are found in all ZnO films with different dopants. According to S parameter and the same defect type, it can be induced that the zinc vacancy concentration is the highest in the Al-doped ZnO film, and it is the least in the Ag-doped ZnO film. When Al atoms are doped in the ZnO films grown on silicon substrates, Zn vacancies increase as compared to the undoped and Ag-doped ZnO films. The dopant concentration could determine the position of Fermi level in materials, while defect formation energy of zinc vacancy strongly depends on the position of Fermi level, so its concentration varies with dopant element and dopant concentration.

  11. Modulating the size of ZnO nanorods on SiO2 substrates by incorporating reduced graphene oxide into the seed layer solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yi Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, reduced graphene oxide was incorporated into the ZnO seed layer to modulate the rod diameter of ZnO nanorods (NRs during solgel/hydrothermal growth. To characterize the reduced graphene oxide incorporated ZnO NRs, multiple material analysis techniques including field-emission scanning electron microscopy, surface contact angle measurements, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence were used to explore distinct properties of these size modulatable NRs. Results indicate ZnO NRs with smaller diameters could be observed with more reduced graphene oxide added into the ZnO seed layer. Furthermore, better crystallinity, higher hydrophobicity and lower defect concentration could be obtained with more amount of reduced graphene oxide added into the ZnO seed layer. The modulatable reduced graphene oxide-incorporated ZnO NRs growth is promising for future ZnO NRs based nanodevice applications.

  12. Studies on nonvolatile resistance memory switching in ZnO thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Six decades of research on ZnO has recently sprouted a new branch in the domain of resistive random access memories. Highly resistive and c-axis oriented ZnO thin films were grown by us using d.c. discharge assisted pulsed laser deposition on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at room temperature. The resistive switching ...

  13. High quality ZnO layers with adjustable refractive indices for integrated optics applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Thin (approx. 1 μm) crystalline ZnO films with a good optical quality and a good (0002) texture are grown under two considerably different process parameter sets using a r.f. planar magnetron sputtering unit. The optical parameters of the two corresponding ZnO layers are distinctly different: high

  14. Oxidant-Dependent Thermoelectric Properties of Undoped ZnO Films by Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyunho; Wang, Zhenwei; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wehbe, Nimer; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    , the maximum power factor for the water-based ZnO film is only 2.89 × 10 W m K at 746 K. Materials analysis results indicate that the oxygen vacancy levels in the water- and ozone-grown ZnO films are essentially the same, but the difference comes from Zn

  15. Growth of compact arrays of optical quality single crystalline ZnO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the synthesis and optical properties of compact and aligned ZnO nanorod arrays (dia, ∼ 50–200 nm) grown on a glass substrate with varying seed particle density. The suspension of ZnO nanoparticles (size, ∼ 15 nm) of various concentrations are used as seed layer for the growth of nanorod arrays via ...

  16. ZnO nanoneedle/H2O solid-liquid heterojunction-based self-powered ultraviolet detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays were grown vertically on a fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass by hydrothermal method at a relatively low temperature. A self-powered photoelectrochemical cell-type UV detector was fabricated using the ZnO nanoneedles as the active photoanode and H2O as the electrolyte. This solid-liquid heterojunction offers an enlarged ZnO/water contact area and a direct pathway for electron transport simultaneously. By connecting this UV photodetector to an ammeter, the intensity of UV light can be quantified using the output short-circuit photocurrent without a power source. High photosensitivity, excellent spectral selectivity, and fast photoresponse at zero bias are observed in this UV detector. The self-powered behavior can be well explained by the formation of a space charge layer near the interface of the solid-liquid heterojunction, which results in a built-in potential and makes the solid-liquid heterojunction work in photovoltaic mode. PMID:24103153

  17. A Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering View of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nano wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavcevic, M.L.; Silovic, L.; Dubcek, P.; Pavlovic, M.; Bernstorff, S.

    2013-01-01

    We report a grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering study of ZnO films with vertically aligned and randomly distributed nano wires, grown through a hydrothermal growth process on nano structured ZnO seeding coatings and deposited by electron beam evaporation on silicon and glass, respectively. The comparison of the scattering patterns of seeding coatings and nano wires showed that the scattering of vertically aligned nano wires exhibited a specific feature: the dominant characteristic of their scattering patterns is the appearance of fine structure effects around the specular peak. These effects were clarified by the combined reflection and scattering phenomena, suggested for the aligned nano wires-substrate system. Furthermore, they enabled the calculation of the average gyration radius of nano wires in horizontal direction. The calculated value was in good agreement with the radii of nano wires estimated by surface electron microscopy. Therefore, the observed feature in the scattering pattern can serve as evidence of the aligned growth of nano wires.

  18. A versatile light-switchable nanorod memory: Wurtzite ZnO on perovskite SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Anup Bera

    2013-04-25

    Integrating materials with distinct lattice symmetries and dimensions is an effective design strategy toward realizing novel devices with unprecedented functionalities, but many challenges remain in synthesis and device design. Here, a heterojunction memory made of wurtzite ZnO nanorods grown on perovskite Nb-doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) is reported, the electronic properties of which can be drastically reconfigured by applying a voltage and light. Despite of the distinct lattice structures of ZnO and NSTO, a consistent nature of single crystallinity is achieved in the heterojunctions via the low-temperature solution-based hydrothermal growth. In addition to a high and persistent photoconductivity, the ZnO/NSTO heterojunction diode can be turned into a versatile light-switchable resistive switching memory with highly tunable ON and OFF states. The reversible modification of the effective interfacial energy barrier in the concurrent electronic and ionic processes most likely gives rise to the high susceptibility of the ZnO/NSTO heterojunction to external electric and optical stimuli. Furthermore, this facile synthesis route is promising to be generalized to other novel functional nanodevices integrating materials with diverse structures and properties. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. High photocurrent gain in NiO thin film/M-doped ZnO nanorods (M=Ag, Cd and Ni) heterojunction based ultraviolet photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echresh, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadechresh@gmail.com [Department of Science and Technology, Physical Electronics and Nanotechnology Division, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping (Sweden); Echresh, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Sanati Hoveizeh University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khranovskyy, Volodymyr [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-5818358183 Linköping (Sweden); Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus [Department of Science and Technology, Physical Electronics and Nanotechnology Division, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping (Sweden)

    2016-10-15

    The thermal evaporation method has been used to deposit p-type NiO thin film, which was combined with hydrothermally grown n-type pure and M-doped ZnO nanorods (M=Ag, Cd and Ni) to fabricate a high performance p-n heterojunction ultraviolet photodiodes. The fabricated photodiodes show high rectification ratio and relatively low leakage current. The p-NiO/n-Zn{sub 0.94}Ag{sub 0.06}O heterojunction photodiode displays the highest photocurrent gain (~1.52×10{sup 4}), a photoresponsivity of ~4.48×10{sup 3} AW{sup −1} and a photosensitivity of ~13.56 compared with the other fabricated photodiodes. The predominated transport mechanisms of the p-n heterojunction ultraviolet photodiodes at low and high applied forward bias may be recombination-tunneling and space charge limited current, respectively.

  20. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2009-05-07

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO{sub 3} films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm{sup -1} was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO{sub 3} film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO{sub 3} films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO{sub 3} single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO{sub 3} film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  1. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO 3 films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm -1 was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO 3 film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO 3 films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO 3 single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO 3 film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  2. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Swati; Tomar, Monika; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-05-01

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO3 films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO3 films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm-1 was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO3 film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO3 films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO3 single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO3 film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  3. Vertically grown zinc oxide nanorods functionalized with ferric oxide for in vivo and non-enzymatic glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Mohammed; Manoharan, Anishkumar; Kuchuk, Andrian; Ang, Simon; Manasreh, M. O.

    2018-03-01

    An enzyme-free glucose sensor based on vertically grown zinc oxide nanorods (NRs) functionalized with ferric oxide (Fe2O3) is investigated. The well-aligned and high density ZnO NRs were synthesized on an FTO/glass substrate by a sol-gel and hydrothermal growth method. A dip-coating technique was utilized to modify the surface of the as-grown ZnO NRs with Fe2O3. The immobilized surface was coated with a layer of nafion membrane. The fabricated glucose sensor was characterized amperometrically at room temperature using three electrodes stationed in the phosphate buffer solution, where ZnO NRs/Fe2O3/nafion membrane was the sensing or working electrode, and platinum plate and silver/silver chloride were used as the counter and reference electrodes, respectively. The proposed non-enzymatic and modified glucose sensor exhibited a high sensitivity in the order of 0.052 μA cm-2 (mg/dL)-1, a lower detection limit of around 0.95 mmol L-1, a sharp and fast response time of ˜1 s, and a linear response to changes in glucose concentrations from 100-400 mg dL-1. The linear amperometric response of the sensor covers the physiological and clinical interest of glucose levels for diabetic patients. The device continues to function accurately after multiple measurements with a good reproducibility. The proposed glucose sensor is expected to be used clinically for in vivo monitoring of glucose.

  4. ZnO nanorods for simultaneous light trapping and transparent electrode application in solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2011-10-01

    Efficacy of using vertically grown ZnO nanorod array in enhancing electromagnetic field intensity and serving as the top contact layer (transparent electrodes) for solar cells was investigated. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Photoelectrochemical and structural properties of TiO.sub.2./sub. nanotubes and nanorods grown on FTO substrate: Comparative study between electrochemical anodization and hydrothermal method used for the nanostructures fabrication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmentová, H.; Kment, Š.; Wang, L.; Paušová, Š.; Václavů, Tereza; Kužel, R.; Han, H.; Hubička, Z.; Zlámal, M.; Olejníček, J.; Čada, M.; Krysa, J.; Zbořil, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 287, Jun (2016), s. 130-136 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : 1D nanostructures * nanorods * nanotubes * hydrothermal method * self-organized anodization * photoelectrochemical water splitting * photocurrents * electron lifetime Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.636, year: 2016

  6. Low-Cost and High-Productivity Three-Dimensional Nanocapacitors Based on Stand-Up ZnO Nanowires for Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Liu, Qi-Xuan; Zhu, Bao; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Lu, Hong-Liang; Jiang, Anquan; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-12-01

    Highly powered electrostatic capacitors based on nanostructures with a high aspect ratio are becoming critical for advanced energy storage technology because of their high burst power and energy storage capability. We report the fabrication process and the electrical characteristics of high capacitance density capacitors with three-dimensional solid-state nanocapacitors based on a ZnO nanowire template. Stand-up ZnO nanowires are grown face down on p-type Si substrates coated with a ZnO seed layer using a hydrothermal method. Stacks of AlZnO/Al2O3/AlZnO are then deposited sequentially on the ZnO nanowires using atomic layer deposition. The fabricated capacitor has a high capacitance density up to 92 fF/μm(2) at 1 kHz (around ten times that of the planar capacitor without nanowires) and an extremely low leakage current density of 3.4 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at 2 V for a 5-nm Al2O3 dielectric. Additionally, the charge-discharge characteristics of the capacitor were investigated, indicating that the resistance-capacitance time constants were 550 ns for both the charging and discharging processes and the time constant was not dependent on the voltage. This reflects good power characteristics of the fabricated capacitors. Therefore, the current work provides an exciting strategy to fabricate low-cost and easily processable, high capacitance density capacitors for energy storage.

  7. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  8. Studies of optical emission in the high intensity pumping regime of top-down ZnO nanostructures and thin films grown on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divay, L.; Kostcheev, S.; McMurtry, S.; Lerondel, G. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, ICD CNRS (FRE2848), Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Troyes (France); Rogers, D.J.; Teherani, F.H. [Nanovation SARL, Versailles, 91400 Orsay (France); Lusson, A. [GEMaC, CNRS - Universite de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines,Meudon (France)

    2008-07-01

    We report on the emission of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) under high intensity excitation. In order to clarify the origin of the emission bands, we compared results for high quality thin films (75 nm) before and after 'top-down' nanopatterning. A nanopattering technique was developed for this purpose. The technique combined Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) and lift-off techniques and Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP RIE). The emission spectra of the two types of samples were found to have a difference in their fine structure that was attributed, in part, to the existence of guided emission in the thin films and exciton weak confinement effects in the nanostructures. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Xiaoqing, E-mail: wangxq@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Forestry New Technology, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorod arrays were deposited on the wood surface via a hydrothermal process. • The assembled ZnO nanorod arrays greatly enhanced the photostability of wood. • The treated wood can sustain direct exposure to flame with only minor smoldering. • The ZnO-coated wood modified with stearic acid showed a superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  10. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorod arrays were deposited on the wood surface via a hydrothermal process. • The assembled ZnO nanorod arrays greatly enhanced the photostability of wood. • The treated wood can sustain direct exposure to flame with only minor smoldering. • The ZnO-coated wood modified with stearic acid showed a superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  11. Facile Synthesis of Rambutan-Like ZnO Hierarchical Hollow Microspheres with Highly Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jian Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan-like ZnO hierarchical hollow microspheres (ZnO HHMs were constructed under hydrothermal conditions, using carboxyl methyl starch (CMS as a soft template. The resulting products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The experimental parameters and growth mechanism of rambutan-like ZnO HHMs were discussed in some detail. The as-prepared samples displayed improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under ultraviolet (UV irradiation.

  12. Controllable growth and magnetic properties of nickel nanoclusters electrodeposited on the ZnO nanorod template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yang; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying; Wang Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    The ZnO nanorods were used as a template to fabricate nickel nanoclusters by electrodeposition. The ZnO nanorod arrays act as a nano-semiconductor electrode for depositing metallic and magnetic nickel nanoclusters. The growth sites of Ni nanoclusters could be controlled by adjusting the applied potential. Under -1.15 V the Ni nanoclusters could be grown on the tips of ZnO nanorods. On increasing the potential to be more negative the ZnO nanorods were covered by Ni nanoclusters. The magnetic properties of the electrodeposited Ni nanoclusters also evolved with the applied potentials.

  13. Controllable growth and magnetic properties of nickel nanoclusters electrodeposited on the ZnO nanorod template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Yang; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Wang Xiaohua, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.c [National Key Laboratory of High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089 WeiXing Road, ChangChun 130022 (China)

    2009-12-09

    The ZnO nanorods were used as a template to fabricate nickel nanoclusters by electrodeposition. The ZnO nanorod arrays act as a nano-semiconductor electrode for depositing metallic and magnetic nickel nanoclusters. The growth sites of Ni nanoclusters could be controlled by adjusting the applied potential. Under -1.15 V the Ni nanoclusters could be grown on the tips of ZnO nanorods. On increasing the potential to be more negative the ZnO nanorods were covered by Ni nanoclusters. The magnetic properties of the electrodeposited Ni nanoclusters also evolved with the applied potentials.

  14. The structural properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar, Kevin Alvin; Suhaimi, Mohd Husairi Fadzillah; Guliling, Muliyadi; Mohamad, Maryam; Khusaimi, Zuraida; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, Saifollah

    2018-05-01

    The flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) were successfully synthesized on porous silicon (PSi) via hydrothermal method. The characteristic of ZnO nanostructures was investigated using field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (X-Ray). The FESEM images show the flower-like ZnO nanostructures composed ZnO nanoparticles. The X-ray diffraction shows that strong intensity of (100), (002) and (101) peaks. The structural analysis revealed that the peaks angles were shifted due to the stress or imperfection of the crystalline of ZnO nanostructures. The crystalline sizes in range of 42.60 to 54.09 nm were produced.

  15. SnO2/ZnO composite structure for the lithium-ion battery electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mashkoor; Yingying, Shi; Sun, Hongyu; Shen, Wanci; Zhu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    In this article, SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures have been synthesized by two steps hydrothermal method and investigated their lithium storage capacity as compared with pure ZnO. It has been found that these composite structures combining the large specific surface area, stability and catalytic activity of SnO 2 micro-crystals, demonstrate the higher initial discharge capacity of 1540 mA h g −1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 68% at a rate of 120 mA h g −1 between 0.02 and 2 V and found much better than that of any previously reported ZnO based composite anodes. In addition, a significantly enhanced cycling performance, i.e., a reversible capacity of 497 mA h g −1 is retained after 40 cycles. The improved lithium storage capacity and cycle life is attributed to the addition of SnO 2 structure, which act as good electronic conductors and better accommodation of the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process. - Graphical abstract: SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures demonstrate the improved lithium storage capacity and cycle life as compared with pure ZnO nanostructure. Highlights: ► Synthesis of SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures by two steps hydrothermal approach. ► Investigation of lithium storage capacity. ► Excellent lithium storage capacity and cycle life of SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures.

  16. Epitaxial GaN around ZnO nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fikry, Mohamed; Scholz, Ferdinand [Institut fuer Optoelektronik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Madel, Manfred; Tischer, Ingo; Thonke, Klaus [Institut fuer Quantenmaterie, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We report on an investigation of the epitaxial quality of GaN layers overgrown coaxially around ZnO nanopillars. In a first step, regularly arranged ZnO nanopillars were grown using pre-patterning by e-beam lithography or self-organized hexagonal polystyrene sphere masks. Alternatively, ZnO pillars were also successfully grown on top of GaN pyramids. In a second step, GaN layers were grown around the ZnO pillars by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy. At growth temperatures above 800 C, the ZnO pillars are dissolved by the hydrogen carrier gas leaving hollow GaN nanotubes. Characterization involved photoluminescence (PL), scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence. The fair quality of the deposited GaN layers is confirmed by a sharp low temperature PL peak at 3.48 eV attributed to the donor bound exciton emission. Further peaks at 3.42 eV and 3.29 eV show the possible existence of basal plane and prismatic stacking faults.

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays via Inverted Monolayer Colloidal Crystals Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Ding, Taotao; Qi, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Juan; Chen, Jingwen; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2018-04-01

    The periodically ordered ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays have been successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal approach on the silicon substrates by templating of the TiO2 ring deriving from the polystyrene (PS) nanosphere monolayer colloidal crystals (MCC). With the inverted MCC mask, sol-gel-derived ZnO seeds could serve as the periodic nucleation positions for the site-specific growth of ZnO NRs. The large-scale patterned arrays of single ZnO NR with good side-orientation can be readily produced. According to the experimental results, the as-integrated ZnO NR arrays showed an excellent crystal quality and optical property, very suitable for optoelectronic applications such as stimulated emitters and ZnO photonic crystal devices.

  18. Hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers with ultra-high ethanol gas-sensing at low concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liming; Yue, He; Li, Haiying; Liu, Li; Li, Yu; Du, Liting; Duan, Haojie; Klyui, N. I.

    2018-05-01

    Hierarchical porous and non-porous ZnO microflowers have been successfully fabricated by hydrothermal method. Their crystal structure, morphology and gas-sensing properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical gas sensing intelligent analysis system (CGS). Compared with hierarchical non-porous ZnO microflowers, hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers exhibited ultra-high sensitivity with 50 ppm ethanol at 260 °C and the response is 110, which is 1.8 times higher than that of non-porous ZnO microflowers. Moreover, the lowest concentration limit of hierarchical porous ZnO microflowers (non-porous ZnO microflowers) to ethanol is 0.1 (1) ppm, the response value is 1.6 (1).

  19. Giant negative photoresistance of ZnO single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzola-Quiquia, Jose; Esquinazi, Pablo [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, University of Leipzig (Germany); Heluani, Silvia [Laboratorio de Fisica del Solido, FCEyT, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, 4000 S. M. de Tucuman (Argentina); Villafuerte, Manuel [Dept. de Fisica, FCEyT, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina); CONICET, Tucuman (Argentina); Poeppl, Andreas [Division of Magnetic Resonance of Complex Quantum Solids, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    ZnO is a wide band gap semiconductor exhibiting the largest charge-carrier mobility among oxides. ZnO is a material with potential applications for short-wavelength optoelectronic devices, as a blue light emitting diodes and in spintronics. In this contribution we have measured the temperature dependence (30 K < T < 300 K) of the electrical resistance of ZnO single crystals prepared by hydrothermal method in darkness and under the influence of light in the ultraviolet range. The resistance decreases several orders of magnitude at temperatures T < 200 K after illumination. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies under illumination reveal that the excitation of Li acceptor impurities is the origin for the giant negative photoresistance effect. Permanent photoresistance effect is also observed, which remains many hours after leaving the crystal in darkness.

  20. Nanosheet-Assembled ZnO Microflower Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale ZnO microflowers assembled by numerous nanosheets are synthesized through a facile and effective hydrothermal route. The structure and morphology of the resultant products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Photocatalytic properties of the as-synthesized products are also investigated. The results demonstrate that eosin red aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 110 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, methyl orange (MO and Congo red (CR aqueous solution degradation experiments also are conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that nanosheet-assembled ZnO microflowers represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 91% for CR with 90 min of irradiation and 90% for MO with 60 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.

  1. ZnO nanodisk based UV detectors with printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Mohammad R; Alshammari, Abdullah S; Alzanki, Talal H; Jarowski, Peter; Henley, Simon John; Silva, S Ravi P

    2014-04-08

    The fabrication of highly functional materials for practical devices requires a deep understanding of the association between morphological and structural properties and applications. A controlled hydrothermal method to produce single crystal ZnO hexagonal nanodisks, nanorings, and nanoroses using a mixed solution of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) without the need of catalysts, substrates, or templates at low temperature (75 °C) is introduced. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet (UV) detectors were fabricated based on individual and multiple single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) hexagonal nanodisks. High quality single crystal individual nanodisk devices were fabricated with inkjet-printed silver electrodes. The detectors fabricated show record photoresponsivity (3300 A/W) and external quantum efficiency (1.2 × 10(4)), which we attribute to the absence of grain boundaries in the single crystal ZnO nanodisk and the polarity of its exposed surface.

  2. Fast vertical growth of ZnO nanorods using a modified chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae-hyun [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyukhyun, E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • We grew vertical ZnO nanorods by a modified CBD process with a fast growth rate. • We studied the effects of the CBD process by varying growth temperature, time, and concentration. • The ZnO nanorods grown by the modified CBD showed good morphological and structural properties. - Abstract: In this study, we grew vertical ZnO nanorods on seeded Si (1 0 0) substrates using a modified chemical bath deposition (CBD). We investigated the effects of the growth temperature, growth time and concentration on the morphological and structural properties of the ZnO nanorods using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and X-ray diffraction. This modified CBD method shows improved results over conventional CBD. ZnO nanorods with good structural XRD properties were grown with a very fast growth rate in a wide range of growth conditions and did not require post-growth annealing.

  3. Synthesis of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nano rods on Various Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, J.J.; Hassan, Z.; Abu Hassan, H.; Mahdi, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We successfully synthesized vertically aligned ZnO nano rods on Si, GaN, Sic, Al 2 O 3 , ITO, and quartz substrates using microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MA-CBD) method. All these types of substrates were seeded with PVA-ZnO nano composites layer prior to the nano rods growth. The effect of substrate type on the morphology of the ZnO nano rods was studied. The diameter of grown ZnO nano rods ranged from 50 nm to 200 nm. Structural quality and morphology of ZnO nano rods were determined by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed hexagonal wurtzite structures perpendicular to the substrate along the z-axis in the direction of (002). Photoluminescence measurements of grown ZnO nano rods on all substrates exhibited high UV peak intensity. Raman scattering studies were conducted to estimate the lattice vibration modes. (author)

  4. Effect of polar and non-polar surfaces of ZnO nanostructures on photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinghai; Wang Jian; Li Xiuyan; Lang Jihui; Liu Fuzhu; Yang Lili; Zhai Hongju; Gao Ming; Zhao Xiaoting

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Large-scale arrayed ZnO nanocrystals including ZnO hexagonal platforms and hamburger-like samples have been successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. ► ZnO with hexagonal platform-like morphology exhibited higher photocatalytic activity compared with that of the hamburger-like ZnO nanostructures. ► The theories of expose surfaces and oxygen vacancies were utilized to explain the photocatalytic mechanism. - Abstract: Large-scale arrayed ZnO nanocrystals with two different expose surfaces, including ZnO hexagonal nanoplatforms with the major expose plane of (0 0 0 1) and hamburger-like samples with the nonpolar planes of {101 ¯ 0} mainly exposed, were successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. Mechanisms for compare the photocatalytic activity of two typical ZnO nanostructures were systematic explained as the key point in the paper. Compared with the hamburger-like ZnO nanostructures, the ZnO with hexagonal platform-like morphology exhibited improved ability on the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution under UV radiation. The relative higher photocatalytic activity of the ZnO hexagonal nanoplatforms was attributed to the exposed polar surfaces and the content of oxygen vacancy on the nanostructures surface. The Zn-terminated (0 0 0 1) polar face and the surface defects are facile to adsorb O 2− and OH − ions, resulting in a greater production rate of O 2 · − and OH· − , hence promoting the photocatalysis reaction.

  5. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C.S. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Moura, Ana P. de [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Freire, Poliana G. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Silva, Luis F. da; Longo, Elson [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Lima, Renata C., E-mail: rclima@iqufu.ufu.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn{sub 1−2x}Co{sub x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green–orange–red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemical experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO. - Graphical abstract: Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical and electrochemical properties. Co, Ni co-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles with optical and electrocatalytic properties were successfully prepared for the first time using a microwave hydrothermal method at mild conditions. - Highlights: • Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} into ZnO lattice obtained a mild and environmentally friendly process. • The heating method strongly influences in the growth and shape of the particles. • Short-range defects generated by the ions insertion affects the photoluminescence. • Doped ZnO nanoparticles improve the electrocatalytic properties of pure oxide.

  6. Characterization of donor states in ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seghier, D.; Gislason, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    We performed electrical and optical measurements on as-grown ZnO which exhibits n-type conductivity. So far, neither the origin of the residual conductivity nor the electrical properties of the responsible defects is fully understood. We investigated shallow and deep donors in ZnO materials grown with pulsed laser injection using admittance spectroscopy. We identifed shallow donors with ionization energies as low as 15 meV which may be attributed to native defects. Annealing in nitrogen ambient enhances the conductivity by further lowering the ionization energy of the shallow donors. Using optically excited admittance spectroscopy we also found deep defects. They are strongly metastable and account for a significant part of the persistent photoconductivity in our ZnO materials

  7. III-nitrides on oxygen- and zinc-face ZnO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Burnham, Shawn; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Trybus, Elaissa; Doolittle, W. Alan; Losurdo, Maria; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni; Nemeth, Bill; Nause, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of III-nitrides grown on zinc- and oxygen-face ZnO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern indicates formation of a cubic phase at the interface between III-nitride and both Zn- and O-face ZnO. The polarity indicates that Zn-face ZnO leads to a single polarity, while O-face ZnO forms mixed polarity of III-nitrides. Furthermore, by using a vicinal ZnO substrate, the terrace-step growth of GaN was realized with a reduction by two orders of magnitude in the dislocation-related etch pit density to ∼10 8 cm -2 , while a dislocation density of ∼10 10 cm -2 was obtained on the on-axis ZnO substrates

  8. Site-specific growth of Au particles on ZnO nanopyramids under ultraviolet illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Kexin

    2011-01-01

    In this work, wurtzite ZnO nanocrystals with unique "pyramid" morphology were firstly prepared via solvothermal synthesis. It was determined that the ZnO nanopyramids are grown along the polar c-axis with the vertexes pointing to the [001] direction. When the mixture of ZnO nanopyramids and Au precursor (HAuCl4) was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) illumination, Au particles were site-specifically formed on the vertexes of ZnO nanopyramids. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposite showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to the bare ZnO nanopyramids. First-principles based calculations well explained the formation of ZnO nanopyramids as well as the site-specific growth of Au, and revealed that during the photocatalysis process the Au particles can accommodate photoelectrons and thus facilitate the charge separation. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Interpretation of the two-components observed in high resolution X-ray diffraction {omega} scan peaks for mosaic ZnO thin films grown on c-sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, O., E-mail: olivier.durand@insa-rennes.fr [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR 6082, 20 avenue des Buttes de Coesmes, F-35708 RENNES (France); Letoublon, A. [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR 6082, 20 avenue des Buttes de Coesmes, F-35708 RENNES (France); Rogers, D.J. [Nanovation SARL, 103 bis rue de Versailles, 91400 Orsay (France); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hosseini Teherani, F. [Nanovation SARL, 103 bis rue de Versailles, 91400 Orsay (France)

    2011-07-29

    X-ray scattering methods were applied to the study of thin mosaic ZnO layers deposited on c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates using Pulsed Laser Deposition. High Resolution (HR) studies revealed two components in the {omega} scans (transverse scans) which were not resolved in conventional 'open-detector' {omega} rocking curves: a narrow, resolution-limited, peak, characteristic of long-range correlation, and a broad peak, attributed to defect-related diffuse-scattering inducing a limited transverse structural correlation length. Thus, for such mosaic films, the conventional {omega} rocking curve Full Width at Half Maximum linewidth was found to be ill-adapted as an overall figure-of-merit for the structural quality, in that the different contributions were not meaningfully represented. A 'Williamson-Hall like' integral breadth (IB) metric for the HR (00.l) transverse-scans was thus developed as a reliable, fast, accurate and robust alternative to the rocking curve linewidth for routine non-destructive testing of such mosaic thin films. For a typical ZnO/c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film, the IB method gave a limited structural correlation length of 110 nm {+-} 9 nm. The results are coherent with a thin film containing misfit dislocations at the film-substrate interface.

  10. Effect of shallow donors on Curie–Weiss temperature of Co-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shuxia, E-mail: gsx0391@sina.com [Department of Physics, Jiaozuo Teachers College, Jiaozuo 454001 (China); Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Li, Jiwu [Department of Physics, Jiaozuo Teachers College, Jiaozuo 454001 (China); Du, Zuliang [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Co-doped ZnO and Al, Co co-doped ZnO polycrystalline powders were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The magnetization curves measured at 2 K show no hysteresis neither remanence for all samples. ZnO:Co grown at low temperature has a positive Curie–Weiss temperature Θ, and ZnO:Co grown at high temperature has a negative Θ. But Al-doped ZnO:Co grown at high temperature has a positive Θ. Positive Curie–Weiss temperature Θ was considered to have relation to the presence of shallow donors in the samples. - Highlights: • Co-doped ZnO and Al, Co co-doped ZnO polycrystalline powders were synthesized. • No hysteresis is observed for all samples. • The Curie–Weiss temperature Θ changes its sign by Al doping. • Positive Θ should be related to shallow donors.

  11. Heterojunction oxide thin-film transistors with unprecedented electron mobility grown from solution

    KAUST Repository

    Faber, Hendrik; Das, Satyajit; Lin, Yen-Hung; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Zhao, Kui; Kehagias, Thomas; Dimitrakopulos, George; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    with the extrinsic electron transport properties of the often defect-prone oxides. We overcome this limitation by replacing the single-layer semiconductor channel with a low-dimensional, solution-grown In2O3/ZnO heterojunction. We find that In2O3/ZnO transistors

  12. Structural interpretation of chemically synthesized ZnO nanorod and its application in lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Samapti; Sain, Sumanta; Yoshio, Masaki; Kar, Tanusree; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Pradhan, Swapan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route. • Growth direction of ZnO nanorods has been determined along 〈0 0 2〉. • ZnO nanorods constructed anode shows a high discharge capacity in first cycle. • It retains good reversible capacity compared to other ZnO morphologies. - Abstract: ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route without using any template or capping agent and its importance is evaluated as a suitable candidate for anode material in lithium ion battery. Structural and microstructure characterizations of these nanorods are made by analyzing the X-ray diffraction data employing the Rietveld method of powder structure refinement. It reveals that the ZnO nanorods are grown up with a preferred orientation and elongated along 〈0 0 2〉. FESEM images reveal that these uniform cylindrical shaped nanorods are of different lengths and diameters. These synthesized ZnO nanorods are tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The nano grain size of the ZnO rods results in less volume expansion and/or contraction during the alloying/de-alloying process and causes in good cyclability. In addition, synthesized ZnO nanorods deliver high charge/discharge capacities compared to other reported ZnO materials

  13. Structural interpretation of chemically synthesized ZnO nanorod and its application in lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Samapti; Sain, Sumanta [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research and Education Centre, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Kar, Tanusree [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Gunawardhana, Nanda, E-mail: nandagunawardhana@pdn.ac.lk [International Research Centre, Senate Building, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Pradhan, Swapan Kumar, E-mail: skpradhan@phys.buruniv.ac.in [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route. • Growth direction of ZnO nanorods has been determined along 〈0 0 2〉. • ZnO nanorods constructed anode shows a high discharge capacity in first cycle. • It retains good reversible capacity compared to other ZnO morphologies. - Abstract: ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route without using any template or capping agent and its importance is evaluated as a suitable candidate for anode material in lithium ion battery. Structural and microstructure characterizations of these nanorods are made by analyzing the X-ray diffraction data employing the Rietveld method of powder structure refinement. It reveals that the ZnO nanorods are grown up with a preferred orientation and elongated along 〈0 0 2〉. FESEM images reveal that these uniform cylindrical shaped nanorods are of different lengths and diameters. These synthesized ZnO nanorods are tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The nano grain size of the ZnO rods results in less volume expansion and/or contraction during the alloying/de-alloying process and causes in good cyclability. In addition, synthesized ZnO nanorods deliver high charge/discharge capacities compared to other reported ZnO materials.

  14. Electrical and optical properties of a n-type ZnO thin film deposited on a Si substrate by using a double RF Co-sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonghyun; Choi, Wonjoon; Kim, Chaeok; Hong, Jinpyo; Nahm, Tschanguh [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hyeonsik [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Outstanding n-type ZnO thin films were prepared on Si substrates by utilizing a double RF cosputtering method. Our unique double RF technique has many attractive merits for synthesizing ZnO thin films with excellent optoelectronic properties at various temperatures. The ZnO thin films were also post-annealed at various temperatures. The X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated well-grown ZnO films with a (002) orientation and with gorgeous chemically bond states, respectively. In addition, photoluminescence measurements indicated a band-gap of 3.4 eV in the ZnO films. The scanning electron microscopy images showed that the as-grown ZnO thin film had hexagonal column shapes, such as hexagonal rods. The ZnO film exhibited an UV light response with a cut-off wavelength of {approx}370 nm at room temperature.

  15. Catalyst free growth of ZnO nanowires on graphene and graphene oxide and its enhanced photoluminescence and photoresponse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biroju, Ravi K; Giri, P K; Tilak, Nikhil; Rajender, Gone; Dhara, S

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the graphene assisted catalyst free growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) and chemically processed graphene buffer layers at a relatively low growth temperature (580 °C) in the presence and absence of ZnO seed layers. In the case of CVD graphene covered with rapid thermal annealed ZnO buffer layer, the growth of vertically aligned ZnO NWs takes place, while the direct growth on CVD graphene, chemically derived graphene (graphene oxide and graphene quantum dots) without ZnO seed layer resulted in randomly oriented sparse ZnO NWs. Growth mechanism was studied from high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of the hybrid structure. Further, we demonstrate strong UV, visible photoluminescence (PL) and enhanced photoconductivity (PC) from the CVD graphene–ZnO NWs hybrids as compared to the ZnO NWs grown without the graphene buffer layer. The evolution of crystalinity in ZnO NWs grown with ZnO seed layer and graphene buffer layer is correlated with the Gaussian line shape of UV and visible PL. This is further supported by the strong Raman mode at 438 cm −1 significant for the wurtzite phase of the ZnO NWs grown on different graphene substrates. The effect of the thickness of ZnO seed layers and the role of graphene buffer layers on the aligned growth of ZnO NWs and its enhanced PC are investigated systematically. Our results demonstrate the catalyst free growth and superior performance of graphene–ZnO NW hybrid UV photodetectors as compared to the bare ZnO NW based photodetectors. (paper)

  16. Interfacial effects in ZnO nanotubes/needle-structured graphitic diamond nanohybrid for detecting dissolved acetone at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiravan, Deepa; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Saravanan, Adhimoorthy; Yeh, Chien-Jui; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I.-Nan

    2017-12-01

    A high-performance ZnO nanotubes (ZNTs)/needle-structured graphitic diamond (NGD) nanohybrid material was prepared and observed the electrochemical sensing properties of liquid acetone in water. Initially, we synthesized NGD film using bias-enhanced growth (BEG) process. Afterwards, a well-etched ZNTs were spatially grown on the NGD film using simple hydrothermal method, and utilized as sensing material for assemble an electrochemical sensor (via EGFET configuration) operating at room temperature. The systematic investigations depict the ultra-high sensing properties attained from ZNTs grown on NGD film. The NGD film mostly have needle or wire shaped diamond grains, which contributes extremely high electrical conductivity. Furthermore, needle shaped diamond grains cover with multi-layer graphitic material generates conduction channels for ZNTs and leads to enhance the oxygen residuals and species. The material stability and conductivity of NGD as well the defects exist with oxygen vacancies in ZNTs offers superior sensing properties. Thus, the interesting combination of these wide band gap semiconductor materials exhibit high sensor response (89 mV/mL), high stability and long-term reliability (tested after 60 days).

  17. Passivation of ZnO Nanowire Guests and 3D Inverse Opal Host Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Labouchere, Philippe; Chandiran, Aravind Kumar; Moehl, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Chavhan, Sudam; Tena-Zaera, Ramon; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Graetzel, Michael; Tetreault, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    A hierarchical host-guest nanostructured photoanode is reported for dye-sensitized solar cells. It is composed of ZnO nanowires grown in situ into the macropores of a 3D ZnO inverse opal structure, which acts both as a seed layer and as a conductive

  18. Temperature-dependent Photoluminescence of Boron-doped ZnO Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soaram; Park, Hyunggil; Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Leem, Jaeyoung [Inje Univ., Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Su; Lee, Sangheon [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Soo [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jeongsik [Kyungwoon Univ., Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Boron-doped ZnO (BZO) nanorods were grown on quartz substrates using hydrothermal synthesis, and the temperature-dependence of their photoluminescence (PL) was measured in order to investigate the origins of their PL properties. In the UV range, near-band-edge emission (NBE) was observed from 3.1 to 3.4 eV; this was attributed to various transitions including recombination of free excitons and their longitudinal optical (LO) phonon replicas, and donor-acceptor pair (DAP) recombination, depending on the local lattice configuration and the presence of defects. At a temperature of 12 K, the NBE produces seven peaks at 3.386, 3.368, 3.337, 3.296, 3.258, 3.184, and 3.106 eV. These peaks are, respectively, assigned to free excitons (FX), neutral-donor bound excitons (D{sup o}X), and the first LO phonon replicas of D{sup o}X, DAP, DAP-1LO, DAP-2LO, and DAP-3LO. The peak position of the FX and DAP were also fitted to Varshni's empirical formula for the variation in the band gap energy with temperature. The activation energy of FX was about ∼70 meV, while that of DAP was about ∼38 meV. We also discuss the low temperature PL near 2.251 eV, related to structural defects.

  19. Vacancy clustering and acceptor activation in nitrogen-implanted ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børseth, Thomas Moe; Tuomisto, Filip; Christensen, Jens S.; Monakhov, Edouard V.; Svensson, Bengt G.; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The role of vacancy clustering and acceptor activation on resistivity evolution in N ion-implanted n -type hydrothermally grown bulk ZnO has been investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy, resistivity measurements, and chemical profiling. Room temperature 220keV N implantation using doses in the low 1015cm-2 range induces small and big vacancy clusters containing at least 2 and 3-4 Zn vacancies, respectively. The small clusters are present already in as-implanted samples and remain stable up to 1000°C with no significant effect on the resistivity evolution. In contrast, formation of the big clusters at 600°C is associated with a significant increase in the free electron concentration attributed to gettering of amphoteric Li impurities by these clusters. Further annealing at 800°C results in a dramatic decrease in the free electron concentration correlated with activation of 1016-1017cm-3 acceptors likely to be N and/or Li related. The samples remain n type, however, and further annealing at 1000°C results in passivation of the acceptor states while the big clusters dissociate.

  20. On quantum efficiency of photoluminescence in ZnO layers and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshchikov, M.A., E-mail: mreshchi@vcu.ed [Physics Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, 701 W. Grace St., Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); El-Shaer, A.; Behrends, A.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Braunschweig D-38106 (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In this work we studied PL in ZnO layers and nanostructures, including ZnO homoepitaxial layers on ZnO substrate and ZnO-Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O single quantum well (SQW) structures grown on sapphire substrates by MBE, and ZnO nanowires grown on sapphire by MOCVD. The external quantum efficiency (QE) of PL in O-face ZnO layers exceeded that in Zn-face ZnO layers by two orders of magnitude at low temperatures. In a sample with SQW the combined external QE from the 4.6-nm-wide SQW and 50-nm-thick Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O barriers achieved 28% at 15 K. The highest external QE was observed in one of the samples with ZnO nanowires-52% at 15 K and 2% at 300 K. Contribution of defect-related PL bands in ZnO nanowires samples was extremely low.

  1. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on porous silicon substrates: Effect of growth time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shabannia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on porous silicon (PS substrates by chemical bath deposition at a low temperature. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL analyses were carried out to investigate the effect of growth duration (2 h to 8 h on the optical and structural properties of the aligned ZnO nanorods. Strong and sharp ZnO (0 0 2 peaks of the ZnO nanorods proved that the aligned ZnO nanorods were preferentially fabricated along the c-axis of the hexagonal wurtzite structure. FESEM images demonstrated that the ZnO nanorod arrays were well aligned along the c-axis and perpendicular to the PS substrates regardless of the growth duration. The TEM image showed that the top surfaces of the ZnO nanorods were round with a smooth curvature. PL spectra demonstrated that the ZnO nanorods grown for 5 h exhibited the sharpest and most intense PL peaks within the ultraviolet range among all samples.

  2. Understanding the defect structure of solution grown zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, Laura-Lynn [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sankar, Gopinathan, E-mail: g.sankar@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Handoko, Albertus D. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Goh, Gregory K.L., E-mail: g-goh@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconducting oxide with many potential applications in various optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Much effort has been made to understand the ZnO structure and its defects. However, one major issue in determining whether it is Zn or O deficiency that provides ZnO its unique properties remains. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an ideal, atom specific characterization technique that is able to probe defect structure in many materials, including ZnO. In this paper, comparative studies of bulk and aqueous solution grown ({<=}90 Degree-Sign C) ZnO powders using XAS and x-ray pair distribution function (XPDF) techniques are described. The XAS Zn-Zn correlation and XPDF results undoubtedly point out that the solution grown ZnO contains Zn deficiency, rather than the O deficiency that were commonly reported. This understanding of ZnO short range order and structure will be invaluable for further development of solid state lighting and other optoelectronic device applications. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO powders have been synthesized through an aqueous solution method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defect structure studied using XAS and XPDF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn-Zn correlations are less in the ZnO powders synthesized in solution than bulk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn vacancies are present in the powders synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EXAFS and XPDF, when used complementary, are useful characterization techniques.

  3. Photoluminescence and lasing properties of ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Lee, Young Pak; Min, Sun Ki; Han, Sung Hwan; Lim, Hwan Hong; Cha, Myoung Sik; Kim, Sung Soo; Cheong, Hyeon Sik

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the structures, photoluminescence (PL), and lasing characteristics of the ZnO nanorods prepared by using chemical bath deposition. The continuous-wave HeCd laser excited PL spectra of the ZnO nanorods exhibited two emission bands, one in the UV region and the other in the visible region. The UV emission band has its peak at 3.25 eV with a bandwidth of 160 meV. However, the PL spectra under 355-nm, 35-ps pulse excitation exhibited a spectrally-narrowed UV emission band with a peak at 3.20 eV and a spectral width of 35 meV. The lasing phenomena were ascribed to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) caused by coupling of the microcavity effect of ZnO nanorods and the high-intensity excitation. Above the lasing threshold, the ASE peak intensity exhibited a superlinear dependence on the excitation intensity. For an excitation pulse energy of 3 mJ, the ASE peak intensity was increased by enlarging the length of the ZnO nanorods from 1 μm to 4 μm. In addition, the PL spectrum under 800-nm femtosecond pulse excitation exhibited second harmonic generation, as well as the multiphoton absorption-induced UV emission band. In this research, ZnO nanorods were grown on seed layers by using chemical bath deposition in an aqueous solution of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 and hexamethyltetramine. The seed layers were prepared on conducting glass substrates by dip coating in an aqueous colloidal dispersion containing 50% 70-nm ZnO nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed that ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on the seed layers.

  4. Influence of the Hydrothermal Method Growth Parameters on the Zinc Oxide Nanowires Deposited on Several Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Mejía-García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of ZnO nanowires grown on several substrates (PET, glass, and Si using a two-step process: (a preparation of the seed layer on the substrate by spin coating, from solutions of zinc acetate dihydrate and 1-propanol, and (b growth of the ZnO nanostructures by dipping the substrate in an equimolar solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine. Subsequently, films were thermally treated with a commercial microwave oven (350 and 700 W for 5, 20, and 35 min. The ZnO nanowires obtained were characterized structurally, morphologically, and optically using XRD, SEM, and UV-VIS transmission, respectively. XRD patterns spectra revealed the presence of Zn(OH2 on the films grown on glass and Si substrates. A preferential orientation along c-axis directions for films grown on PET substrate was observed. An analysis by SEM revealed that the growth of the ZnO nanowires on PET and glass is better than the growth on Si when the same growth parameters are used. On glass substrates, ZnO nanowires less than 50 nm in diameter and between 200 nm and 1200 nm in length were obtained. The ZnO nanowires band gap energy for the films grown on PET and glass was obtained from optical transmission spectra.

  5. Growth of novel ZnO nanostructures by soft chemical routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravana Kumar, R.; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Matheswaran, P.; Sudhagar, P.; Kang, Yong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: Fabrication of diverse ZnO nanostructures through soft chemical routes is both fundamentally interesting and technologically important. Accordingly, in the present work novel ZnO nanostructures namely nanorods/nanospines were grown on glass substrate by integrating SILAR and CBD techniques. This simple approach not only would lead to the development of an effective and commercial growth process for diverse ZnO nanostructures, but also lead to the large-scale preparation of other nanomaterials for many important applications in nanotechnology. - Abstract: We explore a facile route to prepare one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures including nanorods/nanospines on glass substrates by integrating inexpensive successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) methods. The effect of seed layer on the growth and morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was investigated. Accordingly, the surface modification of the seed layer prepared by SILAR was carried out by employing two different drying processes namely (a) allowing the hot substrate to cool for certain period of time before immersing in the ion-exchange bath, and (b) immediate immersion of the hot substrate into the ion-exchange bath. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the ZnO films revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along c-axis, while the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the dart-like and spherical shaped ZnO seed particles. ZnO nanostructures grown by CBD over the dart-like and spherical shaped ZnO seed particles resulted in the hierarchical and aligned ZnO nanospines/nanorods respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) study exhibited highly intense UV emission with weak visible emissions in the visible region. The growth mechanism and the role of seed layer morphology on the formation of ZnO nanostructures were discussed.

  6. Growth of novel ZnO nanostructures by soft chemical routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravana Kumar, R. [PG and Research, Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu (India); Sathyamoorthy, R., E-mail: rsathya59@gmail.co [PG and Research, Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu (India); Matheswaran, P. [PG and Research, Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu (India); Sudhagar, P.; Kang, Yong Soo [Energy Materials Laboratory, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: Fabrication of diverse ZnO nanostructures through soft chemical routes is both fundamentally interesting and technologically important. Accordingly, in the present work novel ZnO nanostructures namely nanorods/nanospines were grown on glass substrate by integrating SILAR and CBD techniques. This simple approach not only would lead to the development of an effective and commercial growth process for diverse ZnO nanostructures, but also lead to the large-scale preparation of other nanomaterials for many important applications in nanotechnology. - Abstract: We explore a facile route to prepare one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures including nanorods/nanospines on glass substrates by integrating inexpensive successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) methods. The effect of seed layer on the growth and morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was investigated. Accordingly, the surface modification of the seed layer prepared by SILAR was carried out by employing two different drying processes namely (a) allowing the hot substrate to cool for certain period of time before immersing in the ion-exchange bath, and (b) immediate immersion of the hot substrate into the ion-exchange bath. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the ZnO films revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along c-axis, while the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the dart-like and spherical shaped ZnO seed particles. ZnO nanostructures grown by CBD over the dart-like and spherical shaped ZnO seed particles resulted in the hierarchical and aligned ZnO nanospines/nanorods respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) study exhibited highly intense UV emission with weak visible emissions in the visible region. The growth mechanism and the role of seed layer morphology on the formation of ZnO nanostructures were discussed.

  7. Determination of reactive oxygen species from ZnO micro-nano structures with shape-dependent photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Weiwei; Zhao, Hongxiao; Jia, Huimin [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Yin, Jun-Jie [Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Zheng, Zhi, E-mail: zhengzhi99999@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with shape dependent photocatalytic activity were prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were identified precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Highlights: • ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies were prepared by solvothermal reaction. • Multi-pod like ZnO structures exhibited superior photocatalytic activity. • The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were characterized precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. • The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies have been prepared by the changing solvents used during their synthesis by solvothermal reaction. Three typical shapes of ZnO structures including hexagonal, bell bottom like and multi-pod formed and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Multi pod like ZnO structures exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity toward degradation of methyl orange. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled with spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate an effective way to identify precisely the generation of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide and singlet oxygen from the irradiated ZnO multi pod structures. The type of reactive oxygen species formed was predictable from the band gap structure of ZnO. These results indicate that the shape of micro-nano structures significantly affects the photocatalytic activity of ZnO, and demonstrate the value of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for characterizing the type of reactive oxygen species formed during photoexcitation of semiconductors.

  8. Determination of reactive oxygen species from ZnO micro-nano structures with shape-dependent photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weiwei; Zhao, Hongxiao; Jia, Huimin; Yin, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with shape dependent photocatalytic activity were prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were identified precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Highlights: • ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies were prepared by solvothermal reaction. • Multi-pod like ZnO structures exhibited superior photocatalytic activity. • The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were characterized precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. • The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies have been prepared by the changing solvents used during their synthesis by solvothermal reaction. Three typical shapes of ZnO structures including hexagonal, bell bottom like and multi-pod formed and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Multi pod like ZnO structures exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity toward degradation of methyl orange. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled with spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate an effective way to identify precisely the generation of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide and singlet oxygen from the irradiated ZnO multi pod structures. The type of reactive oxygen species formed was predictable from the band gap structure of ZnO. These results indicate that the shape of micro-nano structures significantly affects the photocatalytic activity of ZnO, and demonstrate the value of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for characterizing the type of reactive oxygen species formed during photoexcitation of semiconductors

  9. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Lerose, Damiana [MPI fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bochmann, Arne [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Christiansen, Silke H. [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); MPI fuer die Physik des Lichts, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Nietzsche, Sandor [Zentrum fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Ziegelmuehlenweg 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Ion beams can be used to bend or re-align nanowires permanently, after they have been grown. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with ions of different species and energy, achieving bending and alignment in various directions. We study the bending of single nanowires as well as the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires in detail. Computer simulations show that the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Dislocations are identified to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent and resistant against annealing procedures.

  10. Surface roughness of sputtered ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y S [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Rd. Shou-Feng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsu, K C [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y M [Institute of Electronics Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, 1 Nan-Tai Street, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-01

    ZnO films are grown on Si and glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structures are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the roughness characteristics of the films are examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). All films exhibit strong (002) preferential orientation. The influence of the RF power and target-to-substrate distance (D{sub ts}) on the properties of ZnO is studied. Under the optimized conditions of the RF power and D{sub ts}, root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughnesses of <0.8 nm are achieved.

  11. Surface roughness of sputtered ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y S; Hsu, K C; Huang, Y M

    2006-01-01

    ZnO films are grown on Si and glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structures are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the roughness characteristics of the films are examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). All films exhibit strong (002) preferential orientation. The influence of the RF power and target-to-substrate distance (D ts ) on the properties of ZnO is studied. Under the optimized conditions of the RF power and D ts , root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughnesses of <0.8 nm are achieved

  12. Nature of native defects in ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, F A; Weber, M H; Solodovnikov, D; Lynn, K G

    2007-08-24

    This study revealed the nature of native defects and their roles in ZnO through positron annihilation and optical transmission measurements. It showed oxygen vacancies are the origin for the shift in the optical absorption band that causes the red or orange coloration. It also revealed experimental evidence that the donor nature of oxygen vacancy is approximately 0.7 eV. In addition, this work showed the Zn interstitial was not the donor in the as-grown ZnO and supported recent calculations that predicted hydrogen in an oxygen vacancy forms multicenter bonds and acts as a shallow donor.

  13. Oxidant-Dependent Thermoelectric Properties of Undoped ZnO Films by Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyunho

    2017-02-27

    Extraordinary oxidant-dependent changes in the thermoelectric properties of undoped ZnO thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been observed. Specifically, deionized water and ozone oxidants are used in the growth of ZnO by ALD using diethylzinc as a zinc precursor. No substitutional atoms have been added to the ZnO films. By using ozone as an oxidant instead of water, a thermoelectric power factor (σS) of 5.76 × 10 W m K is obtained at 705 K for undoped ZnO films. In contrast, the maximum power factor for the water-based ZnO film is only 2.89 × 10 W m K at 746 K. Materials analysis results indicate that the oxygen vacancy levels in the water- and ozone-grown ZnO films are essentially the same, but the difference comes from Zn-related defects present in the ZnO films. The data suggest that the strong oxidant effect on thermoelectric performance can be explained by a mechanism involving point defect-induced differences in carrier concentration between these two oxides and a self-compensation effect in water-based ZnO due to the competitive formations of both oxygen and zinc vacancies. This strong oxidant effect on the thermoelectric properties of undoped ZnO films provides a pathway to improve the thermoelectric performance of this important material.

  14. Effect of Mg doping in ZnO buffer layer on ZnO thin film devices for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Pushpa; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown on p-silicon (Si) substrate using magnesium doped ZnO (Mg: ZnO) buffer layer by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering method. In this paper, we have optimized the concentration of Mg (0-5 atomic percent (at. %)) ZnO buffer layer to examine its effect on ZnO thin film based devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The crystalline nature, morphology and topography of the surface of the thin film have been characterized. The optical as well as electrical properties of the active ZnO film can be tailored by varying the concentration of Mg in the buffer layer. The crystallite size in the active ZnO thin film was found to increase with the Mg concentration in the buffer layer in the range of 0-3 at. % and subsequently decrease with increasing Mg atom concentration in the ZnO. The same was verified by the surface morphology and topography studies carried out with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic electron microscopy (AFM) respectively. The reflectance in the visible region was measured to be less than 80% and found to decrease with increase in Mg concentration from 0 to 3 at. % in the buffer region. The optical bandgap was initially found to increase from 3.02 eV to 3.74 eV by increasing the Mg content from 0 to 3 at. % but subsequently decreases and drops down to 3.43 eV for a concentration of 5 at. %. The study of an Au:Pd/ZnO Schottky diode reveals that for optimum doping of the buffer layer the device exhibits superior rectifying behavior. The barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio, reverse saturation current and series resistance of the Schottky diode were extracted from the measured current voltage (I-V) characteristics.

  15. Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation of Malachite Green in Seawater by the Hybrid of Zinc-Oxide Nanorods Grown on Three-Dimensional (3D Reduced Graphene Oxide(RGO/Ni Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid of ZnO nanorods grown onto three-dimensional (3D reduced graphene oxide (RGO@Ni foam (ZnO/RGO@NF is synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared hybrid material is physically characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. When the as-prepared 3D hybrid is investigated as a photocatalyst, it demonstrates significant high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB, rhodamine (RhB, and mixed MB/RhB as organic dye pollutants. In addition, the practical application and the durability of the as-prepared catalyst to degradation of malachite green (MG in seawater are firstly assessed in a continuous flow system. The catalyst shows a high degradation efficiency and stable photocatalytic activity for 5 h continuous operation, which should be a promising catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in seawater.

  16. Surfactant-assisted carbon doping in ZnO nanowires using Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanullah, Malik; Javed, Qurat-ul-Ain, E-mail: Quratulain@sns.nust.edu.pk; Rizwan, Syed

    2016-09-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) provides unique properties owing to its wide bandgap, large resistivity range and possibility to tune the physical properties. The surfactant assisted carbon doping was made possible due to the lowering of surface energy. The ZnO and carbon doped ZnO (C-ZnO) nanowires fabricated by hydrothermal process, Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) is used as surfactant in hydrothermal synthesis followed by post growth annealing treatment at 600 °C–700 °C. At 5%–10% of diluted PEG carbon is doped in ZnO. The crystallinity, structural morphology and elemental composition analysis for ZnO and C-ZnO nanowires were carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques respectively. Carbon doping in ZnO nanowires in the presence of different percentage of surfactant is explained by calculating the change in surface energy with respect to change in PEG molecule concentration. It was found that the surface energy per molecule modulates from 3.92 × 10{sup −8} J/m{sup 2} to 8.16 × 10{sup −7} J/m{sup 2} in the PEG concentration range between 5% and 10%. Our results provides a new theoretical calculations, implemented on real system, to observe the details of PEG-assisted Carbon doping in II-VI semiconductor nanowires. - Highlights: • ZnO and C-ZnO was synthesized by PEG assisted post growth annealing process. • At 5% and 10% of PEG successful synthesis of C-ZnO was found. • XRD, SEM and EDX characterizations confirm the successful synthesis of ZnO and C-ZnO. • Change in surface energy with respect to PEG molecule concentration was calculated.

  17. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.co [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Nataraj, D. [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India)

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  18. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  19. Effect of growth temperature on the epitaxial growth of ZnO on GaN by ALD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkijärvi, Suvi; Sintonen, Sakari; Tuomisto, Filip; Bosund, Markus; Suihkonen, Sami; Lipsanen, Harri

    2014-07-01

    We report on the epitaxial growth of ZnO on GaN template by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Diethylzinc (DEZn) and water vapour (H2O) were used as precursors. The structure and the quality of the grown ZnO layers were studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurements and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The ZnO films were confirmed epitaxial, and the film quality was found to improve with increasing deposition temperature in the vicinity of the threshold temperature of two dimensional growth. We conclude that high quality ZnO thin films can be grown by ALD. Interestingly only separate Zn-vacancies were observed in the films, although ZnO thin films typically contain fairly high density of surface pits and vacancy clusters.

  20. Structural characterization of one-dimensional ZnO-based nanostructures grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallet, Vincent; Falyouni, Farid; Marzouki, Ali; Haneche, Nadia; Sartel, Corinne; Lusson, Alain; Galtier, Pierre [Groupe d' Etude de la Matiere Condensee (GEMAC), CNRS-Universite de Versailles St-Quentin, Meudon (France); Agouram, Said [SCSIE, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Enouz-Vedrenne, Shaima [Thales Research and Technology France, Palaiseau (France); Munoz-Sanjose, Vicente [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Various one-dimensional (1D) ZnO-based nanostructures, including ZnO nano-wires (NWs) grown using vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) process, ZnO/ZnSe core/shell, nitrogen-doped ZnO and ZnMgO NWs were grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis is presented. For all the samples, a high crystalline quality is observed. Some features are emphasized such as the gold contamination of ZnO wires grown under the metal droplets in the VLS process. It is concluded that MOCVD is a suitable technique for the realization of original ZnO nanodevices. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. ZnO film for application in surface acoustic wave device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, X Y; Fu, Y Q; Tan, S C; Luo, J K; Flewitt, A J; Maeng, S; Kim, S H; Choi, Y J; Lee, D S; Park, N M; Park, J; Milne, W I

    2007-01-01

    High quality, c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were grown on silicon substrate using RF magnetron sputtering. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices were fabricated with different thickness of ZnO ranging from 1.2 to 5.5 μmUm and the frequency responses were characterized using a network analyzer. Thick ZnO films produce the strongest transmission and reflection signals from the SAW devices. The SAW propagation velocity is also strongly dependent on ZnO film thickness. The performance of the ZnO SAW devices could be improved with addition of a SiO 2 layer, in name of reflection signal amplitude and phase velocity of Rayleigh wave