Hydromagnetic stability of rotating stratified compressible fluid flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Srinivasan, V; Kandaswamy, P [Dept. of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India; Debnath, L [Dept. of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, USA
1984-09-01
The hydromagnetic stability of a radially stratified compressible fluid rotating between two coaxial cylinders is investigated. The stability with respect to axisymmetric disturbances is examined. The fluid system is found to be thoroughly stable to axisymmetric disturbances provided the fluid rotates very rapidly. The system is shown to be unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances, and the slow amplifying hydromagnetic wave modes propagate against the basic rotation. The lower and upper bounds of the azimuthal phase speeds of the amplifying waves are determined. A quadrant theorem on the slow waves characteristic of a rapidly rotating fluid is derived. Special attention is given to the effects of compressibility of the fluid. Some results concerning the stability of an incompressible fluid system are obtained as special cases of the present analysis.
Effect of wall conductances on hydromagnetic flow and heat transfer in a rotating channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazumder, B.S.
1977-01-01
Wall conductance effects on the hydromagnetic flow and heat transfer between two parallel plates in a rotating frame of reference has been studied when the liquid is permeated by a transverse magnetic field. An exact solution of the governing equation has been obtained. It is found that the velocity current density and the temperature depend only on the sum of the wall conductances phi 1 + phi 2 = phi but magnetic field depends on the individual values of phi 1 and phi 2 where phi 1 and phi 2 are respectively the wall conductance ratios of the upper and lower walls. (Auth.)
Hydromagnetic rotational braking of magnetic stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleck, R.C. Jr.
1980-01-01
It is suggested that the magnetic Ap stars can be rotationally decelerated to long periods by the braking action of the associated magnetic field on time scales of order 10 7 --10 10 years depending on whether the star's dipole field is aligned perpendicular or parallel to the rotation axis. Rotation includes a toroidal magnetic field in the plasma surrounding a star, and the accompanying magnetic stresses produce a net torque acting to despin the star. These results indicate that it is not necessary to postulate mass loss or mass accretion for this purely hydromagnetic braking effect
Combined free and forced convection flow in a rotating channel with ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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free and forced convection flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid in a .... The boundary conditions (10) and (11), in dimensionless form, become ...... On hydromagnetic Flow and heat transfer in a rotating fluid past an infinite porous ... Electrically Conducting Fluid in Non-Rotating and Rotating Media”.
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Sandeep Naramgari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We analyse the effects of aligned magnetic field, radiation, and rotation on unsteady hydromagnetic free convection flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an impulsively moving vertical plate in a porous medium in presence of heat source. An exact solution of the governing equations in dimensionless form is obtained by Laplace transform technique in ramped temperature case. To compare the results obtained in this case with that of isothermal plate, the exact solution of the governing equations is also obtained for isothermal plate and results are discussed graphically in both ramped temperature and isothermal cases.
Hydromagnetic perturbations due to localized flows: An eddy theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bird, J.F.
1979-01-01
The hydromagnetic far-field generated by localized regions of incompressible flow of electrically conducting media in uniform magnetic fields is derived explicitly in terms of the spin angular momentum of the flow. Some applications and a corollary result for bounded media are given
Heat and mass transfer in the unsteady hydromagnetic free ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Heat and mass transfer in the unsteady hydromagnetic free-convection flow in a rotating binary fluid I. ... By imposing a time dependent perturbation on the constant plate temperature and concentration and assuming a differential approximation for the radiative flux, the coupled non linear problem is solved for the ...
Steady hydromagnetic Couette flow in a rotating system with ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Couette flow of class-II of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid in a rotating system ... Heat transfer characteristics of the flow are considered taking viscous and ...
Couette flow of a hydro-magnetic electrically conducting fluid with ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Numerical solution of the problem of Couette flow of a hydromagnetic electrically conducting fluid has been obtained where the temperature of the fluid is assumed to vary exponentially. Results obtained for the flow velocity, temperature, skin friction and rate of heat transfer indicate that the temperature is higher when the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jha, P.K.
1986-01-01
An attempt has been made to study the problem of free convection hydromagnetic flow of an elastico-viscous fluid past a porous vertical plate in a rotating frame of reference taking ohmic and viscous dissipations into account in the presence of Hall current. The nature of velocity profile shows the existence of multiple boundary layers. Their 'thickness' is seen to decrease with increasing values of Ekman, Hartman and Prandtl numbers and Hall parameter. The graphical study reveals that the increasing values of Hall parameter and Ekman number (for a fixed large value of Hall parameter) exert opposite influence on the flow. (author). 11 refs., 2 tables
Thermal radiation effects on hydromagnetic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdelkhalek, M.M.
2005-01-01
Numerical results are presented for the effects of thermal radiation, buoyancy and heat generation or absorption on hydromagnetic flow over an accelerating permeable surface. These results are obtained by solving the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy by a perturbation technique. This qualitatively agrees with the expectations, since the magnetic field exerts a retarding force on the free convection flow. A parametric study is performed to illustrate the influence of the radiation parameter, magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, Grashof number and Schmidt number on the profiles of the velocity components and temperature. The effects of the different parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction and wall heat transfer are presented graphically. Favorable comparisons with previously published work confirm the correctness of numerical results
Steady hydromagnetic Couette flow in a rotating system with non ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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energy equation and numerical values of rate of heat transfer at both plates are ... An investigation of MHD flow of an electrically conducting fluid in a rotating ... bounded by stationary free stream whereas MHD flow past a stationary plate ... induced magnetic field produced by fluid motion is negligible in comparison to the ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isa, Sharena Mohamad; Ali, Anati [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia sharena-ina@yahoo.com, anati@utm.my (Malaysia)
2015-10-22
In this paper, the hydromagnetic flow of dusty fluid over a vertical stretching sheet with thermal radiation is investigated. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. These nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method (RKF45 Method). The behavior of velocity and temperature profiles of hydromagnetic fluid flow of dusty fluid is analyzed and discussed for different parameters of interest such as unsteady parameter, fluid-particle interaction parameter, the magnetic parameter, radiation parameter and Prandtl number on the flow.
Mathematical modeling and exact solutions to rotating flows of a Burgers' fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayat, T.
2005-12-01
The aim of this study is to provide the modeling and exact analytic solutions for hydromagnetic oscillatory rotating flows of an incompressible Burgers' fluid bounded by a plate. The governing time-dependent equation for the Burgers' fluid is different than those from the Navier-Stokes' equation. The entire system is assumed to rotate around an axis normal to the plate. The governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically for two physical problems. The solutions for the three cases, when the two times angular velocity is greater than the frequency of oscillation or it is smaller than the frequency or it is equal to the frequency (resonant case), are discussed in second problem. In Burgers' fluid, it is also found that hydromagnetic solution in the resonant case satisfies the boundary condition at infinity. Moreover, the obtained analytical results reduce to several previously published results as the special cases. (author)
Hydromagnetic waves, turbulence, and collisionless processes in the interplanetary medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, A.
1983-01-01
The solar wind does not flow quietly. It seethes and undulates, fluctuating on time scales that range from the solar rotation period down to fractions of milliseconds. Most of the power in interplanetary waves and turbulence lies at hydromagnetic scales. These fluctuations are normally of large amplitude, containing enough energy to affect solar and galactic cosmic rays, and may be the remnants of a coronal turbulence field powerful enough to play a major role in accelerating the solar wind itself. The origin and evolution of interplanetary hydromagnetic waves and turbulence, and their influence on the large-scale dynamics of the solar wind are among the most fundamental questions of solar-terrestrial physics. First hydrodynamic waves and turbulences in the interplanetary medium are discussed in two sections, respectively. Because the length and time scales for hydromagnetic fluctuations are very much smaller than the corresponding Coulomb collision scales of the plasma ions and electrons, the interplanetary variations are modelled as fluctuations in a magnetohydrodynamic fluid. In the last section, collisionless phenomena are discussed. They are of qualitative significance. (Auth.)
Shear flow stabilization of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roderick, N.F.; Shumlak, U.; Douglas, M.; Peterkin, R.E. Jr.; Ruden, E.
1997-01-01
Numerical simulations have indicated that shear flow may help stabilize the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in imploding plasma z-pinches. A simple extension to a model presented in Chandrasekhar has been developed to study the linear stability of incompressible plasma subjected to both a shear flow and acceleration. The model has been used to investigate the stability plasma implosion schemes using externally imposed velocity shear which develops from the plasma flow itself. Specific parameters were chosen to represent plasma implosions driven by the Saturn and PBFA-Z, pulsed power generators at Sandia National Laboratories. Results indicate a high shear is necessary to stabilize the z-pinch implosions studied
Hydromagnetic theory of solar sectors: slow hydromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suess, S.T.
1975-01-01
Magnetic sectors on the sun are a feature, when the solar dipole field is subtracted, reminiscent of grapefruit sections in terms of the boundaries described by the magnetic field polarity change. One possible suggestion for the origin of these sectors is that they are hydromagnetic waves controlled by the rotation, toroidal magnetic field, and stratification within the convection zone of the sun. The merits of this suggestion are evaluated with respect to the observations and a specific theoretical model. 4 figs, 38 refs. (U.S.)
Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability
Chandrasekhar, S
1981-01-01
Dr. Chandrasekhar's book received high praise when it first appeared in 1961 as part of Oxford University Press' International Series of Monographs on Physics. Since then it has been reprinted numerous times in its expensive hardcover format. This first lower-priced, sturdy paperback edition will be welcomed by graduate physics students and scientists familiar with Dr. Chandrasekhar's work, particularly in light of the resurgence of interest in the Rayleigh-Bénard problem. This book presents a most lucid introduction to the Rayleigh-Bénard problem: it has also been applauded for its thorough, clear coverage of the theory of instabilities causing convection. Dr. Chandrasekhar considers most of the typical problems in hydromagnetic stability, with the exception of viscous shear flow; a specialized domain deserving a book unto itself. Contents include: Rotation; Stability of More General Flows; Bénard Problem; Gravitational Equilibrium and Instability; Stability of a Magnetic Field; Thermal Instability of a L...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyu, L.H.; Kan, J.R.
1989-01-01
Nonlinear one-dimensional constant-profile hydromagnetic wave solutions are obtained in finite-temperature two-fluid collisionless plasmas under adiabatic equation of state. The nonlinear wave solutions can be classified according to the wavelength. The long-wavelength solutions are circularly polarized incompressible oblique Alfven wave trains with wavelength greater than hudreds of ion inertial length. The oblique wave train solutions can explain the high degree of alignment between the local average magnetic field and the wave normal direction observed in the solar wind. The short-wavelength solutions include rarefaction fast solitons, compression slow solitons, Alfven solitons and rotational discontinuities, with wavelength of several tens of ion inertial length, provided that the upstream flow speed is less than the fast-mode speed
Hydromagnetic flow and radiative heat transfer of nanofluid past a vertical plate
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B. Ganga
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Hydromagnetic flow of an incompressible viscous nanofluid past a vertical plate in the presence of thermal radiation is investigated both analytically and numerically. The radiative heat flux is described by the Rosseland diffusion approximation in the energy equation. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations by suitable similarity transformations. The resulting ordinary differential equations are successfully solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method and numerically by the fourth order RungeâKutta method with shooting technique. The effects of various physical parameters are analyzed and discussed in graphical and tabular forms. The effects of some physical parameters such as Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, radiation parameter and magnetic parameter are analyzed on the velocity, temperature and solid volume fraction profiles as well as on the reduced Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number. An excellent agreement is observed between present analytical and numerical results. Keywords: Nanofluid, Hydromagnetic, Homotopy analysis method, Vertical plate and thermal radiation
Hall effects on hydromagnetic flow of an Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between concentric cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rana, M.A.; Siddiqui, A.M.; Qamar, Rashid
2009-01-01
The hydromagnetic flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between two concentric cylinders is investigated. The flow is generated by moving inner cylinder and/or application of the constant pressure gradient. Two non-linear boundary value problems are solved numerically. The effects of material parameters, pressure gradient, magnetic field and Hall parameter on the velocity are studied. The graphical representation of velocity reveals that characteristics for shear thinning/shear thickening behaviour of a fluid is dependent upon the rheological properties
Hall effects on hydromagnetic flow of an Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between concentric cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rana, M.A. [Management Information System, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mafzalrana@yahoo.com; Siddiqui, A.M. [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, York Campus, York, PA 17403 (United States); Qamar, Rashid [Management Information System, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2009-01-15
The hydromagnetic flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between two concentric cylinders is investigated. The flow is generated by moving inner cylinder and/or application of the constant pressure gradient. Two non-linear boundary value problems are solved numerically. The effects of material parameters, pressure gradient, magnetic field and Hall parameter on the velocity are studied. The graphical representation of velocity reveals that characteristics for shear thinning/shear thickening behaviour of a fluid is dependent upon the rheological properties.
Nonlinear radiative peristaltic flow of hydromagnetic fluid through porous medium
Hussain, Q.; Latif, T.; Alvi, N.; Asghar, S.
2018-06-01
The radiative heat and mass transfer in wall induced flow of hydromagnetic fluid through porous medium in an asymmetric channel is analyzed. The fluid viscosity is considered temperature dependent. In the theory of peristalsis, the radiation effects are either ignored or taken as linear approximation of radiative heat flux. Such approximation is only possible when there is sufficiently small temperature differences in the flow field; however, nonlinear radiation effects are valid for large temperature differences as well (the new feature added in the present study). Mathematical modeling of the problems include the complicated system of highly nonlinear differential equations. Semi-analytical solutions are established in the wave reference frame. Results are displayed graphically and discussed in detail for the variation of various physical parameters with the special attention to viscosity, radiation, and temperature ratio parameters.
On the stability of certain collisional configurations of hydromagnetic flows
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Nunez, Manuel, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)
2010-09-06
We study the flow of a hydromagnetic fluid toward an obstacle in two different cases: when this is a rigid wall or when two plasma masses collide with each other. The magnetic field far from the obstacle is assumed to be aligned with the flow. The diffusivity is taken as low, and a boundary layer approach for the stationary MHD system is considered. The relevant equations turn out to be a generalization of the Falkner-Skan ones, and while analytical solutions are impossible to obtain, a qualitative analysis shows that whenever the size of the Alfven speed far from the interface exceeds the size of the fluid velocity, the system has no nontrivial solutions. The interpretation of this is that in this case disturbances occurring in the boundary layer travel upstream and disturb the boundary conditions at the outer layers.
Hydromagnetic flow of third grade nanofluid with viscous dissipation and flux conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussain, T. [Faculty of Computing, Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S. A., E-mail: ali-qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alsaedi, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2015-08-15
This article investigates the magnetohydrodynamic flow of third grade nanofluid with thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects. Energy equation is considered in the presence of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. Rosseland’s approximation is employed for thermal radiation. The heat and concentration flux conditions are taken into account. The governing nonlinear mathematical expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration are converted into dimensionless expressions via transformations. Series solutions of the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration are developed. Convergence of the constructed solutions is checked out both graphically and numerically. Effects of interesting physical parameters on the temperature and concentration are plotted and discussed in detail. Numerical values of skin-friction coefficient are computed for the hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic flow cases.
Nonlinear radiative peristaltic flow of hydromagnetic fluid through porous medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Q. Hussain
2018-06-01
Full Text Available The radiative heat and mass transfer in wall induced flow of hydromagnetic fluid through porous medium in an asymmetric channel is analyzed. The fluid viscosity is considered temperature dependent. In the theory of peristalsis, the radiation effects are either ignored or taken as linear approximation of radiative heat flux. Such approximation is only possible when there is sufficiently small temperature differences in the flow field; however, nonlinear radiation effects are valid for large temperature differences as well (the new feature added in the present study. Mathematical modeling of the problems include the complicated system of highly nonlinear differential equations. Semi-analytical solutions are established in the wave reference frame. Results are displayed graphically and discussed in detail for the variation of various physical parameters with the special attention to viscosity, radiation, and temperature ratio parameters. Keywords: Nonlinear thermal radiation, Variable viscosity, Porous medium, Soret and Dufour effects, Peristalsis
Hydromagnetic nonlinear thermally radiative nanoliquid flow with Newtonian heat and mass conditions
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Muhammad Ijaz Khan
Full Text Available This paper communicates the analysis of MHD three-dimensional flow of Jeffrey nanoliquid over a stretchable surface. Flow due to a bidirectional surface is considered. Heat and mass transfer subject to volume fraction of nanoparticles, heat generation and nonlinear solar radiation are examined. Newtonian heat and mass transportation conditions are employed at surface. Concept of boundary layer is utilized to developed the mathematical problem. The boundary value problem is dictated by ten physical parameters: Deborah number, Hartman number, ratio of stretching rates, thermophoretic parameter, Brownian motion parameter, Prandtl number, temperature ratio parameter, conjugate heat and mass parameters and Lewis number. Convergent solutions are obtained using homotopic procedure. Convergence zone for obtained results is explicitly identified. The obtained solutions are interpreted physically. Keywords: Hydromagnetic flow, Viscoelastic nanofluid, Thermophoretic and Brownian moment, Nonlinear thermal radiation, Heat generation
Childs, Peter R N
2010-01-01
Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics titles offer the essential background but generally include very sparse coverage of rotating flows-which is where this book comes in. Beginning with an accessible introduction to rotating flow, recognized expert Peter Childs takes you through fundamental equations, vorticity and vortices, rotating disc flow, flow around rotating cylinders and flow in rotating cavities, with an introduction to atmospheric and oceanic circul...
Hydromagnetic instabilities and magnetic field amplification in core collapse supernovae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cerda-Duran, P; Obergaulinger, M; Mueller, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-st. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aloy, M A; Font, J A, E-mail: cerda@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)
2011-09-22
Some of the most violent events in the universe, the gamma ray burst, could be related to the gravitational collapse of massive stellar cores. The recent association of long GRBs to some class of type Ic supernova seems to support this view. In such scenario fast rotation, strong magnetic fields and general relativistic effects are key ingredients. It is thus important to understand the mechanism that amplifies the magnetic field under that conditions. I present global simulations of the magneto-rotational collapse of stellar cores in general relativity and semi-global simulations of hydromagnetic instabilities under core collapse conditions. I discuss effect of the magneto-rotational instability and the magnetic field amplification during the collapse, the uncertainties in this process and the dynamical effects in the supernova explosion.
Hydromagnetic wave coupling in the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, D.
1990-01-01
The hydromagnetic wave phenomena in the magnetosphere has been an area of space physics and plasma physics where theory has been successful in explaining many features in satellite experiments and ground-based observations. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, which are composed of transverse Alven waves and compressional waves, are usually coupled in space due to an inhomogeneous plasma density and curved magnetic field lines. In addition to these effects, hot temperature plasmas invoke various ultra low frequency (ULF) wave phenomena via macroscopic wave instabilities or wave particle resonant interactions. These properties of the coupling between the two different MHD waves were analytically and numerically studied in a simplified model such as the box model with straight field lines. However, the real magnetosphere is rather close to a dipole field, even though the night side of the magnetosphere is significantly distorted from dipole geometry. The curvature of field lines plays an important role in understanding hydromagnetic wave coupling in the magnetosphere since the MHD wave propagation depends strongly on the curved magnetic fields. The study of the hydromagnetic wave properties on an inhomogeneous and curved magnetic field system by considering realistic geometry is emphasized. Most of the current theories are reviewed and a number of observations are introduced according to the wave excitation mechanism. Studies are also performed with the development of numerical models such as the two and three dimensional MHD dipole models. An attempt is made to understand and classify the hydromagnetic wave behavior in inhomogeneous and hot plasmas with respect to the energy sources and their frequency band in the magnetosphere. Therefore, various excitation mechanisms for hydromagnetic waves are examined to compare analytical and numerical results with the observations
Potential flow model for the hydromagnetic Rayleigh--Taylor instability in cylindrical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, C.S.; Roderick, N.F.
1987-01-01
A potential flow model has been developed to study the linear behavior of the hydromagnetic equivalent of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability in imploding cylindrical plasmas. Ordinary differential equations are obtained for both (r,z) and (r,θ) disturbances. The model allows the study of the dynamic effects of the moving plasma on the development of the instability. The perturbation equations separate into a geometric part associated with the motion of the interface and a nongeometric part associated with the stability of the interface. In both planes the geometric part shows growth of perturbations for imploding plasmas. The surface is also unstable in both planes for plasmas being imploded by magnetic fields. Analytic solutions are obtained for constant acceleration. These show that the short wavelength perturbations that are most damaging in the (r,z) plane are not affected by the motion of the interface. In the (r,θ) plane the growth of longer wavelength disturbances is affected by the interface motion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.S. Eegunjobi
Full Text Available Numerical analysis of the intrinsic irreversibility of a mixed convection hydromagnetic flow of an electrically conducting couple stress fluid through upright channel filled with a saturated porous medium and radiative heat transfer was carried out. The thermodynamics first and second laws were employed to examine the problem. We obtained the dimensionless nonlinear differential equations and solves numerically with shooting procedure joined with a fourth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration scheme. The temperature and velocity obtained, used to analyse the entropy generation rate together with some various physical parameters of the flow. Our results are presented graphically and talk over. Keywords: MHD channel flow, Couple stress fluid, Porous medium, Thermal radiation, Entropy generation, Injection/suction
Hall effects on MHD flow past an accelerated plate
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Deka R.K.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The simultaneous effects of rotation and Hall current on the hydromagnetic flow past an accelerated horizontal plate relative to a rotating fluid is presented. It is found that for given values of m (Hall parameter, M (Hartmann number and an imposed rotation parameter Ω satisfying Ω = M 2m/(1 + m2, the transverse motion (transverse to the main flow disappears and the fluid moves in the direction of the plate only. The effects of the parameters m, M and Ω on the axial and transverse velocity profiles are shown graphically, whereas the effects of the parameters on the skin-friction components are shown by tabular values.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bestman, A.R.; Adjepong, S.K.
1987-11-01
We study the unsteady free convection flow near a moving infinite flat plate in a rotating medium by imposing a time dependent perturbation on a constant plate temperature. The temperatures involved are assumed to be very large so that radiative heat transfer is significant, which renders the problem very nonlinear even on the assumption of a differential approximation for the radiative flux. When the perturbation is small, the transient flow is tackled by the Laplace transform technique. Complete first order solutions are deduced for an impulsive motion. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs
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M. Das
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The influence of Newtonian heating on heat and mass transfer in unsteady hydromagnetic flow of a Casson fluid past a vertical plate in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction is studied. The Casson fluid model is used to distinguish the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. The fluid flow is induced due to periodic oscillations of the plate along its length and a uniform transverse magnetic field is applied in a direction which is normal to the direction of fluid flow. The partial differential equations governing the flow, heat, and mass transfer are transformed to non-dimensional form using suitable non-dimensional variables which are then solved analytically by using Laplace transform technique. The numerical values of the fluid velocity, fluid temperature, and species concentration are depicted graphically whereas the values of skin-friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are presented in tabular form. It is noticed that the fluid velocity and temperature decrease with increasing values of Casson parameter while concentration decreases with increasing values of chemical reaction parameter and Schmidt number. Such a fluid flow model has several industrial and medical applications such as in glass manufacturing, paper production, purification of crude oil and study of blood flow in the cardiovascular system.
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Bég Anwar O.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model is presented for viscous hydromagnetic flow through a hybrid non-Darcy porous media rotating generator. The system is simulated as steady, incompressible flow through a nonlinear porous regime intercalated between parallel plates of the generator in a rotating frame of reference in the presence of a strong, inclined magnetic field A pressure gradient term is included which is a function of the longitudinal coordinate. The general equations for rotating viscous magnetohydrodynamic flow are presented and neglecting convective acceleration effects, the two-dimensional viscous flow equations are derived incorporating current density components, porous media drag effects, Lorentz drag force components and Hall current effects. Using an appropriate group of dimensionless variables, the momentum equations for primary and secondary flow are rendered nondimensional and shown to be controlled by six physical parameters-Hartmann number (Ha, Hall current parameter (Nh, Darcy number (Da, Forchheimer number (Fs, Ekman number (Ek and dimensionless pressure gradient parameter (Np, in addition to one geometric parameter-the orientation of the applied magnetic field (θ . Several special cases are extracted from the general model, including the non-porous case studied earlier by Ghosh and Pop (2006. A numerical solution is presented to the nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations using both the Network Simulation Method and Finite Element Method, achieving excellent agreement. Additionally very good agreement is also obtained with the earlier analytical solutions of Ghosh and Pop (2006. for selected Ha, Ek and Nh values. We examine in detail the effects of magnetic field, rotation, Hall current, bulk porous matrix drag, second order porous impedance, pressure gradient and magnetic field inclination on primary and secondary velocity distributions and also frictional shear stresses at the plates. Primary velocity is seen to decrease
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bestman, A.R.; Adjepong, S.K.
1987-11-01
This paper investigates transient effect on the flow of a thermally radiating and electrically conducting compressible gas in a rotating medium bounded by a vertical flat plate. The transience is provoked by a time dependent perturbation on a constant plate temperature. The problem particularly focusses on an optically thick gas and a gas of arbitrary optical thickness when the difference between the wall and free stream temperatures is small. Analytical results are possible only for limiting values of time and these results are discussed quantitatively. Indeed the assumption of small temperature difference is more appropriate for plates which are opaque rather than transparent. (author). 3 refs
Stability and instability of hydromagnetic Taylor-Couette flows
Rüdiger, Günther; Gellert, Marcus; Hollerbach, Rainer; Schultz, Manfred; Stefani, Frank
2018-04-01
Decades ago S. Lundquist, S. Chandrasekhar, P. H. Roberts and R. J. Tayler first posed questions about the stability of Taylor-Couette flows of conducting material under the influence of large-scale magnetic fields. These and many new questions can now be answered numerically where the nonlinear simulations even provide the instability-induced values of several transport coefficients. The cylindrical containers are axially unbounded and penetrated by magnetic background fields with axial and/or azimuthal components. The influence of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm on the onset of the instabilities is shown to be substantial. The potential flow subject to axial fields becomes unstable against axisymmetric perturbations for a certain supercritical value of the averaged Reynolds number Rm bar =√{ Re ṡ Rm } (with Re the Reynolds number of rotation, Rm its magnetic Reynolds number). Rotation profiles as flat as the quasi-Keplerian rotation law scale similarly but only for Pm ≫ 1 while for Pm ≪ 1 the instability instead sets in for supercritical Rm at an optimal value of the magnetic field. Among the considered instabilities of azimuthal fields, those of the Chandrasekhar-type, where the background field and the background flow have identical radial profiles, are particularly interesting. They are unstable against nonaxisymmetric perturbations if at least one of the diffusivities is non-zero. For Pm ≪ 1 the onset of the instability scales with Re while it scales with Rm bar for Pm ≫ 1. Even superrotation can be destabilized by azimuthal and current-free magnetic fields; this recently discovered nonaxisymmetric instability is of a double-diffusive character, thus excluding Pm = 1. It scales with Re for Pm → 0 and with Rm for Pm → ∞. The presented results allow the construction of several new experiments with liquid metals as the conducting fluid. Some of them are described here and their results will be discussed together with relevant diversifications of
Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)
1958-07-01
We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)
The effect of lower-hybrid waves on the propagation of hydromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamabata, Hiromitsu; Namikawa, Tomikazu; Mori, Kazuhiro
1988-01-01
Propagation characteristics of hydromagnetic waves in a magnetic plasma are investigated using the two-plasma fluid equations including the effect of lower-hybrid waves propagating perpendicularly to the magnetic field. The effect of lower-hybrid waves on the propagation of hydromagnetic waves is analysed in terms of phase speed, growth rate, refractive index, polarization and the amplitude relation between the density perturbation and the magnetic-field perturbation for the cases when hydromagnetic waves propagate in the plane whose normal is perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves and in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves. It is shown that hydromagnetic waves propagating at small angles to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves can be excited by the effect of lower-hybrid waves and the energy of excited waves propagates nearly parallel to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves. (author)
Stochastic acceleration by hydromagnetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulsrud, R.M.
1979-03-01
A general theory for particle acceleration by weak hydromagnetic turbulence with a given spectrum of waves is described. Various limiting cases, corresponding to Fermi acceleration and magnetic pumping, are discussed and two numerical examples illustrating them are given. An attempt is made to show that the expression for the rate of Fermi acceleration is valid for finite amplitudes
Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.; Shehzad, S. A.; Rauf, A.; Kumar, P. B. Sampath
2018-05-01
This research is made to visualize the nonlinear radiated flow of hydromagnetic nano-fluid induced due to rotation of the disk. The considered nano-fluid is a mixture of water and Ti6Al4V or AA7072 nano-particles. The various shapes of nanoparticles like lamina, column, sphere, tetrahedron and hexahedron are chosen in the analysis. The irregular heat source and nonlinear radiative terms are accounted in the law of energy. We used the heat flux condition instead of constant surface temperature condition. Heat flux condition is more relativistic and according to physical nature of the problem. The problem is made dimensionless with the help of suitable similarity constraints. The Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme is adopted to find the numerical solutions of governing nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The solutions are plotted by considering the various values of emerging physical constraints. The effects of various shapes of nanoparticles are drawn and discussed.
Mittal, Sanjay; Kumar, Bhaskar
2003-02-01
Flow past a spinning circular cylinder placed in a uniform stream is investigated via two-dimensional computations. A stabilized finite element method is utilized to solve the incompressible Navier Stokes equations in the primitive variables formulation. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter and free-stream speed of the flow is 200. The non-dimensional rotation rate, [alpha] (ratio of the surface speed and freestream speed), is varied between 0 and 5. The time integration of the flow equations is carried out for very large dimensionless time. Vortex shedding is observed for [alpha] cylinder. The results from the stability analysis for the rotating cylinder are in very good agreement with those from direct numerical simulations. For large rotation rates, very large lift coefficients can be obtained via the Magnus effect. However, the power requirement for rotating the cylinder increases rapidly with rotation rate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamkha, Ali J.; Al-Rashidi, Seham S.
2010-01-01
This work considers the problem of steady natural convection hydromagnetic flow of a particulate suspension through an infinitely long channel in the presence of heat generation or absorption effects. The channel walls are maintained at isoflux-isothermal condition. That is, the thermal boundary conditions are such that one of the channel walls is maintained at constant heat flux while the other is maintained at a constant temperature. Various closed-form solutions of the governing equations for different special cases are obtained. A parametric study of the physical parameters involved in the problem is done to illustrate the influence of these parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles of both phases.
Hall effects on hydromagnetic Couette flow of Class-II in a rotating ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Couette flow of class-II of a viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid with ... Numerical solution of energy equation and numerical values of rate of heat transfer at ...
Cao, Linlin; Watanabe, Satoshi; Imanishi, Toshiki; Yoshimura, Hiroaki; Furukawa, Akinori
2013-08-01
As a high specific speed pump, the contra-rotating axial flow pump distinguishes itself in a rear rotor rotating in the opposite direction of the front rotor, which remarkably contributes to the energy conversion, the reduction of the pump size, better hydraulic and cavitation performances. However, with two rotors rotating reversely, the significant interaction between blade rows was observed in our prototype contra-rotating rotors, which highly affected the pump performance compared with the conventional axial flow pumps. Consequently, a new type of rear rotor was designed by the rotational speed optimization methodology with some additional considerations, aiming at better cavitation performance, the reduction of blade rows interaction and the secondary flow suppression. The new rear rotor showed a satisfactory performance at the design flow rate but an unfavorable positive slope of the head — flow rate curve in the partial flow rate range less than 40% of the design flow rate, which should be avoided for the reliability of pump-pipe systems. In the present research, to understand the internal flow field of new rear rotor and its relation to the performances at the partial flow rates, the velocity distributions at the inlets and outlets of the rotors are firstly investigated. Then, the boundary layer flows on rotor surfaces, which clearly reflect the secondary flow inside the rotors, are analyzed through the limiting streamline observations using the multi-color oil-film method. Finally, the unsteady numerical simulations are carried out to understand the complicated internal flow structures in the rotors.
Magnetic field dynamos and magnetically triggered flow instabilities
Stefani, F.; Albrecht, T.; Arlt, R.; Christen, M.; Gailitis, A.; Gellert, M.; Giesecke, A.; Goepfert, O.; Herault, J.; Kirillov, O. N.; Mamatsashvili, G.; Priede, J.; Rüdiger, G.; Seilmayer, M.; Tilgner, A.; Vogt, T.
2017-07-01
The project A2 of the LIMTECH Alliance aimed at a better understanding of those magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that are relevant for the generation and the action of cosmic magnetic fields. These comprise the hydromagnetic dynamo effect and various magnetically triggered flow instabilities, such as the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. The project was intended to support the experimental capabilities to become available in the framework of the DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN). An associated starting grant was focused on the dimensioning of a liquid metal experiment on the newly found magnetic destabilization of rotating flows with positive shear. In this survey paper, the main results of these two projects are summarized.
Modelling of convective heat and mass transfer in rotating flows
Shevchuk, Igor V
2016-01-01
This monograph presents results of the analytical and numerical modeling of convective heat and mass transfer in different rotating flows caused by (i) system rotation, (ii) swirl flows due to swirl generators, and (iii) surface curvature in turns and bends. Volume forces (i.e. centrifugal and Coriolis forces), which influence the flow pattern, emerge in all of these rotating flows. The main part of this work deals with rotating flows caused by system rotation, which includes several rotating-disk configurations and straight pipes rotating about a parallel axis. Swirl flows are studied in some of the configurations mentioned above. Curvilinear flows are investigated in different geometries of two-pass ribbed and smooth channels with 180° bends. The author demonstrates that the complex phenomena of fluid flow and convective heat transfer in rotating flows can be successfully simulated using not only the universal CFD methodology, but in certain cases by means of the integral methods, self-similar and analyt...
Experimental studies of rotating exchange flow
Rabe, B.; Smeed, D. A.; Dalziel, S. B.; Lane-Serff, G. F.
2007-02-01
Ocean basins are connected by straits and passages, geometrically limiting important heat and salt exchanges which in turn influence the global thermohaline circulation and climate. Such exchange can be modeled in an idealized way by taking into consideration the density-driven two-layer flow along a strait under the influence of rotation. We use a laboratory model of a lock exchange between two reservoirs of different density through a flat-bottom channel with a horizontal narrows, set up on two different platforms: a 1 m diameter turntable, where density interface position was measured by dye attenuation, and the 14 m diameter turntable at Coriolis/LEGI (Grenoble, France), where correlation imaging velocimetry, a particle imaging technique, allowed us to obtain for the first time detailed measurements of the velocity fields in these flows. The influence of rotation is studied by varying a parameter, Bu, a type of Burger number given by the ratio of the Rossby radius to the channel width at the narrows. In addition, a two-layer version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Model (MICOM) is used, to study the cases with low Burger number. Results from experiments by Dalziel [1988. Two-layer hydraulics: maximal exchange flows. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, see also people/sd103/papers/1988/Thesis_Dalziel.pdf>] are also included for comparison. Time-mean exchange fluxes for any Bu are in close agreement with the inviscid zero-potential vorticity theory of Dalziel [1990. Rotating two-layer sill flows. In: Pratt, L.J. (Ed.), The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 343-371] and Whitehead et al. [1974. Rotating hydraulics of strait and sill flows. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 6, 101-125], who found that fluxes for Bu>1 mainly vary with channel width, similar to non-rotating flow, but for Bu1 a steady, two-layer flow was observed that persisted across the channel at the narrows
Fluid flow and heat transfer in rotating porous media
Vadasz, Peter
2016-01-01
This Book concentrates the available knowledge on rotating fluid flow and heat transfer in porous media in one single reference. Dr. Vadasz develops the fundamental theory of rotating flow and heat transfer in porous media and introduces systematic classification and identification of the relevant problems. An initial distinction between rotating flows in isothermal heterogeneous porous systems and natural convection in homogeneous non-‐isothermal porous systems provides the two major classes of problems to be considered. A few examples of solutions to selected problems are presented, highlighting the significant impact of rotation on the flow in porous media.
Unsteady flow over a decelerating rotating sphere
Turkyilmazoglu, M.
2018-03-01
Unsteady flow analysis induced by a decelerating rotating sphere is the main concern of this paper. A revolving sphere in a still fluid is supposed to slow down at an angular velocity rate that is inversely proportional to time. The governing partial differential equations of motion are scaled in accordance with the literature, reducing to the well-documented von Kármán equations in the special circumstance near the pole. Both numerical and perturbation approaches are pursued to identify the velocity fields, shear stresses, and suction velocity far above the sphere. It is detected that an induced flow surrounding the sphere acts accordingly to adapt to the motion of the sphere up to some critical unsteadiness parameters at certain latitudes. Afterward, the decay rate of rotation ceases such that the flow at the remaining azimuths starts revolving freely. At a critical unsteadiness parameter corresponding to s = -0.681, the decelerating sphere rotates freely and requires no more torque. At a value of s exactly matching the rotating disk flow at the pole identified in the literature, the entire flow field around the sphere starts revolving faster than the disk itself. Increasing values of -s almost diminish the radial outflow. This results in jet flows in both the latitudinal and meridional directions, concentrated near the wall region. The presented mean flow results will be useful for analyzing the instability features of the flow, whether of a convective or absolute nature.
Dynamic Characteristics of Rotating Stall in Mixed Flow Pump
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaojun Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Rotating stall, a phenomenon that causes flow instabilities and pressure hysteresis by propagating at some fraction of the impeller rotational speed, can occur in centrifugal impellers, mixed impellers, radial diffusers, or axial diffusers. Despite considerable efforts devoted to the study of rotating stall in pumps, the mechanics of this phenomenon are not sufficiently understood. The propagation mechanism and onset of rotating stall are not only affected by inlet flow but also by outlet flow as well as the pressure gradient in the flow passage. As such, the complexity of these concepts is not covered by the classical explanation. To bridge this research gap, the current study investigated prerotation generated at the upstream of the impeller, leakage flow at the tip clearance between the casing and the impeller, and strong reserve flow at the inlet of the diffuser. Understanding these areas will clarify the origin of the positive slope of the head-flow performance curve for a mixed flow pump. Nonuniform pressure distribution and adverse pressure gradient were also introduced to evaluate the onset and development of rotating stall within the diffuser.
Topographic instability of flow in a rotating fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. I. Patarashvili
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Here are presented the results of experimental and theoretical studies on a stability of zonal geostrophic flows in the rotating layer of the shallow water. In the experiments, a special apparatus by Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory Georgian Academy of Science was used. This apparatus represents a paraboloid of rotation, which can be set in a regulable rotation around the vertical axis. Maximal diameter of the paraboloid is 1.2 m, radius of curvature in the pole is 0.698 m. In the paraboloid, water spreads on walls as a layer uniform on height under the period of rotation 1.677 s. Against a background of the rotating fluid, the zonal flows are formed by the source-sink system. It consists of two concentric circular perforations on the paraboloid bottom (width is 0.3 cm, radiuses are 8.4 and 57.3 cm, respectively; water can be pumped through them with various velocities and in all directions. It has been established that under constant vertical depth of the rotating fluid the zonal flows are stable. There are given the measurements of the radial profiles for the water level and velocity in the stationary regime. It has been found that zonal flows may lose stability under the presence of the radial gradient of full depth formed by a change of angular velocity of paraboloid rotation. An instability origin results in the loss of flow axial symmetry and in the appearance of self-excited oscillations in the zonal flow. At the given angular velocity of rotation, instability is observed only in the definite range of intensities of the source-sink system. The theoretical estimations are performed in the framework of the equations of the shallow water theory, including the terms describing the bottom friction. It has been shown that the instability of zonal flows found experimentally has a topographical nature and is related with non-monotone dependence of the potential vorticity on radius.
Sengupta, Tapan K.; Gullapalli, Atchyut
2016-11-01
Spinning cylinder rotating about its axis experiences a transverse force/lift, an account of this basic aerodynamic phenomenon is known as the Robins-Magnus effect in text books. Prandtl studied this flow by an inviscid irrotational model and postulated an upper limit of the lift experienced by the cylinder for a critical rotation rate. This non-dimensional rate is the ratio of oncoming free stream speed and the surface speed due to rotation. Prandtl predicted a maximum lift coefficient as CLmax = 4π for the critical rotation rate of two. In recent times, evidences show the violation of this upper limit, as in the experiments of Tokumaru and Dimotakis ["The lift of a cylinder executing rotary motions in a uniform flow," J. Fluid Mech. 255, 1-10 (1993)] and in the computed solution in Sengupta et al. ["Temporal flow instability for Magnus-robins effect at high rotation rates," J. Fluids Struct. 17, 941-953 (2003)]. In the latter reference, this was explained as the temporal instability affecting the flow at higher Reynolds number and rotation rates (>2). Here, we analyze the flow past a rotating cylinder at a super-critical rotation rate (=2.5) by the enstrophy-based proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of direct simulation results. POD identifies the most energetic modes and helps flow field reconstruction by reduced number of modes. One of the motivations for the present study is to explain the shedding of puffs of vortices at low Reynolds number (Re = 60), for the high rotation rate, due to an instability originating in the vicinity of the cylinder, using the computed Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) from t = 0 to t = 300 following an impulsive start. This instability is also explained through the disturbance mechanical energy equation, which has been established earlier in Sengupta et al. ["Temporal flow instability for Magnus-robins effect at high rotation rates," J. Fluids Struct. 17, 941-953 (2003)].
Numerical treatment of the unsteady hydromagnetic thermal boundary layer problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drymonitou, M.A.; Geroyannis, V.S.; Goudas, C.L.
1980-01-01
This paper presents a suitable numerical method for the treatment of the unsteady hydromagnetic thermal boundary layer problem for flows past an infinite porous flat plate, the motion of which is governed by a general time-dependent law, under the influence of a transverse externally set magnetic field. The normal velocity of suction/injection at the plate is also assumed to be time-dependent. The results obtained on the basis of numerical approximations seem to compare favourably with earlier results (Pande et al., 1976; Tokis, 1978). Analytical approximations are given for the cases of a plate (i) generally accelerated and (ii) harmonically oscillating. The direct numerical treatment is obviously advantageous since it allows handling of cases where the known methods for analytical approximations are not applicable. This problem is closely related to the motions and heat transfer occurring locally on the surfaces of stars. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anand Rao, J.; Prabhakar Reddy, B.
2010-01-01
The numerical solution of unsteady hydro-magnetic natural convection heat and mass transfer flow of a rotating, incompressible, viscous Boussinesq fluid is presented in this study in the presence of radiative heat transfer and a first order chemical reaction between the fluid and diffusing species. The Rosseland approximation for an optically thick fluid is invoked to describe the radiative flux. The solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration fields have been obtained by using Ritz finite element method. The results obtained are discussed for Grashof number(G r > 0) corresponding to cooling of the plate and (G r r , Sc, M, N, K, G r , G c and t with the help of graphs and tables. The numerical values of skin-friction coefficient entered in the tables. Results obtained show that a decrease in the temperature boundary layer occurs when the Prandtl number and the radiation parameter are increased and the flow velocity approaches steady state as the time parameter t, is increased. These findings are in quantitative agreement with earlier reported studies. (author)
Internal Flow of Contra-Rotating Small Hydroturbine at Off- Design Flow Rates
SHIGEMITSU, Toru; TAKESHIMA, Yasutoshi; OGAWA, Yuya; FUKUTOMI, Junichiro
2016-11-01
Small hydropower generation is one of important alternative energy, and enormous potential lie in the small hydropower. However, efficiency of small hydroturbines is lower than that of large one. Then, there are demands for small hydroturbines to keep high performance in wide flow rate range. Therefore, we adopted contra-rotating rotors, which can be expected to achieve high performance. In this research, performance of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine with 60mm casing diameter was investigated by an experiment and numerical analysis. Efficiency of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine was high in pico-hydroturbine and high efficiency could be kept in wide flow rate range, however the performance of a rear rotor decreased significantly in partial flow rates. Then, internal flow condition, which was difficult to measure experimentally, was investigated by the numerical flow analysis. Then, a relation between the performance and internal flow condition was considered by the numerical analysis result.
Secondary Flow Phenomena in Rotating Radial Straight Pipes
Cheng, K. C.; Wang, Liqiu
1995-01-01
Flow visualization results for secondary flow phenomena near the exit of a rotating radial-axis straight pipe (length ࡁ = 82 cm, inside diameter d = 3.81 cm, ࡁ/d 21.52) are presented to study the stabilizing (relaminarization) and destabilizing (early transition from laminar to turbulent flow) effects of Coriolis forces for Reynolds numbers Re = 500 ∼ 4,500 and rotating speeds n = 0 ∼ 200 rpm. The flow visualization was realised by smoke injection method. The main features of the trans...
Spectroscopic studies of a high Mach-number rotating plasma flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ando, Akira; Ashino, Masashi; Sagi, Yukiko; Inutake, Masaaki; Hattori, Kunihiko; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Imasaki, Atsushi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yagai, Tsuyoshi
2001-01-01
Characteristics of an axially-magnetized rotating plasma are investigated by spectroscopy in the HITOP device of Tohoku University. A He plasma flows our axially and rotates azimuthally near the muzzle region of the MPD arcjet. Flow and rotational velocities and temperature of He ions and atoms are measured by Doppler shift and broadening of the HeII (γ=468.58 nm) and HeI (γ=587.56 nm) lines. Rotational velocity increases with the increase of axially-applied magnetic field strength and discharge current. As discharge current increases and mass flow rate decreases, the plasma flow velocity increases and T i increases. Ion acoustic Mach number of the plasma flow also increases, but tends to saturate at near 1. Radial profile of space potential is calculated from the obtained rotational velocity. The potential profile in the core region is parabolic corresponding to the observed rigid-body rotation of the core plasma. (author)
Spectroscopic studies of a high Mach-number rotating plasma flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ando, Akira; Ashino, Masashi; Sagi, Yukiko; Inutake, Masaaki; Hattori, Kunihiko; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Imasaki, Atsushi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yagai, Tsuyoshi [Tohoku Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)
2001-07-01
Characteristics of an axially-magnetized rotating plasma are investigated by spectroscopy in the HITOP device of Tohoku University. A He plasma flows our axially and rotates azimuthally near the muzzle region of the MPD arcjet. Flow and rotational velocities and temperature of He ions and atoms are measured by Doppler shift and broadening of the HeII ({gamma}=468.58 nm) and HeI ({gamma}=587.56 nm) lines. Rotational velocity increases with the increase of axially-applied magnetic field strength and discharge current. As discharge current increases and mass flow rate decreases, the plasma flow velocity increases and T{sub i} increases. Ion acoustic Mach number of the plasma flow also increases, but tends to saturate at near 1. Radial profile of space potential is calculated from the obtained rotational velocity. The potential profile in the core region is parabolic corresponding to the observed rigid-body rotation of the core plasma. (author)
Low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈华军; 章本照; 苏霄燕
2003-01-01
The low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe was studied by using the method of bi-parameter perturbation. Perturbation solutions up to the second order were obtained and the effects of rotation on the low frequency oscillatory flow were examined in detail. The results indicated that there exists evident difference between the low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe and in a curved pipe without rotation. During a period, four secondary vortexes may exist on the circular cross-section and the distribution of axial velocity and wall shear stress are related to the ratio of the Coriolis force to centrifugal force and the axial pressure gradient.
Hydromagnetic quasi-geostrophic modes in rapidly rotating planetary cores
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canet, E.; Finlay, Chris; Fournier, A.
2014-01-01
The core of a terrestrial-type planet consists of a spherical shell of rapidly rotating, electrically conducting, fluid. Such a body supports two distinct classes of quasi-geostrophic (QG) eigenmodes: fast, primarily hydrodynamic, inertial modes with period related to the rotation time scale...... decreases toward the outer boundary in a spherical shell, QG modes tend to be compressed towards the outer boundary. Including magnetic dissipation, we find a continuous transition from diffusionless slow magnetic modes into quasi-free decay magnetic modes. During that transition (which is controlled......, or shorter than, their oscillation time scale.Based on our analysis, we expect Mercury to be in a regime where the slow magnetic modes are of quasi-free decay type. Earth and possibly Ganymede, with their larger Elsasser numbers, may possess slow modes that are in the transition regime of weak diffusion...
Sources of intrinsic rotation in the low-flow ordering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.
2011-01-01
A low flow, δf gyrokinetic formulation to obtain the intrinsic rotation profiles is presented. The momentum conservation equation in the low-flow ordering contains new terms, neglected in previous first-principles formulations, that may explain the intrinsic rotation observed in tokamaks in the absence of external sources of momentum. The intrinsic rotation profile depends on the density and temperature profiles and on the up-down asymmetry.
Hydromagnetic Rayleigh endash Taylor instability in high-velocity gas-puff implosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roderick, N.F.; Peterkin, R.E. Jr.; Hussey, T.W.; Spielman, R.B.; Douglas, M.R.; Deeney, C.
1998-01-01
Experiments using the Saturn pulsed power generator have produced high-velocity z-pinch plasma implosions with velocities over 100 cm/μs using both annular and uniform-fill gas injection initial conditions. Both types of implosion show evidence of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh endash Taylor instability with the uniform-fill plasmas producing a more spatially uniform pinch. Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations including unsteady flow of gas from a nozzle into the diode region have been used to investigate these implosions. The instability develops from the nonuniform gas flow field that forms as the gas expands from the injection nozzle. Instability growth is limited to the narrow unstable region of the current sheath. For the annular puff the unstable region breaks through the inner edge of the annulus increasing nonlinear growth as mass ejected from the bubble regions is not replenished by accretion. This higher growth leads to bubble thinning and disruption producing greater nonuniformity at pinch for the annular puff. The uniform puff provides gas to replenish bubble mass loss until just before pinch resulting in less bubble thinning and a more uniform pinch. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. D. Makinde
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the unsteady hydromagnetic-free convection of an incompressible electrical conducting Boussinesq’s radiating fluid past a moving vertical plate in an optically thin environment with the Navier slip, viscous dissipation, and Ohmic and Newtonian heating. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the transient problem are obtained and tackled numerically using a semidiscretization finite difference method coupled with Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration technique. Numerical data for the local skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number have been tabulated for various values of parametric conditions. Graphical results for the fluid velocity, temperature, skin friction, and the Nusselt number are presented and discussed. The results indicate that the skin friction coefficient decreases while the heat transfer rate at the plate surface increases as the slip parameter and Newtonian heating increase.
Hydromagnetic thin film flow: Linear stability
Amaouche, Mustapha; Ait Abderrahmane, Hamid; Bourdache, Lamia
2013-01-01
. The linear stability of the problem is investigated, and the influence of electromagnetic field on the flow stability is analyzed. Two cases are considered: the applied magnetic field is either normal or parallel to the fluid flow direction, while
Stokes flow heat transfer in an annular, rotating heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saatdjian, E.; Rodrigo, A.J.S.; Mota, J.P.B.
2011-01-01
The heat transfer rate into highly viscous, low thermal-conductivity fluids can be enhanced significantly by chaotic advection in three-dimensional flows dominated by viscous forces. The physical effect of chaotic advection is to render the cross-sectional temperature field uniform, thus increasing both the wall temperature gradient and the heat flux into the fluid. A method of analysis for one such flow-the flow in the eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger-and a procedure to determine the best heat transfer conditions, namely the optimal values of the eccentricity ratio and time-periodic rotating protocol, are discussed. It is shown that in continuous flows, such as the one under consideration, there exists an optimum frequency of the rotation protocol for which the heat transfer rate is a maximum. - Highlights: → The eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger is studied for periodic Stokes flow. → Counter-rotating the inner tube with a periodic velocity enhances the heat transfer. → The heat-transfer enhancement under such conditions is due to chaotic advection. → For a given axial flow rate there is a frequency that maximizes the heat transfer. → There is also an optimum value of the eccentricity ratio.
Experimental study on flow past a rotationally oscillating cylinder
Gao, Yang-yang; Yin, Chang-shan; Yang, Kang; Zhao, Xi-zeng; Tan, Soon Keat
2017-08-01
A series of experiments was carried out to study the flow behaviour behind a rotationally oscillating cylinder at a low Reynolds number (Re=300) placed in a recirculation water channel. A stepper motor was used to rotate the cylinder clockwise- and- counterclockwise about its longitudinal axis at selected frequencies. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique was used to capture the flow field behind a rotationally oscillating cylinder. Instantaneous and timeaveraged flow fields such as the vorticity contours, streamline topologies and velocity distributions were analyzed. The effects of four rotation angle and frequency ratios F r ( F r= f n/ f v, the ratio of the forcing frequency f n to the natural vortex shedding frequency f v) on the wake in the lee of a rotationally oscillating cylinder were also examined. The significant wake modification was observed when the cylinder undergoes clockwise-and-counterclockwise motion with amplitude of π, especially in the range of 0.6≤ F r≤1.0.
Low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈华军; 章本照; 苏霄燕
2003-01-01
The low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe was studied by using the method of bi-parameter perturbation. Perturbation solutions up to the second order were obtained and the effects of rotationon the low frequency oscillatory flow were examined in detail, The results indicated that there exists evident difference between the low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe and in a curved pipe without ro-tation. During a period, four secondary vortexes may exist on the circular cross-section and the distribution of axial velocity and wall shear stress are related to the ratio of the Coriolis foree to centrifugal foree and the axial pressure gradient.
Hydromagnetic modes in an inhomogeneous collisionless plasma of finite pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimushkin, D.Yu.
2006-01-01
One studied three-dimensional structure and rate of growth of hydromagnetic waves. The mode is shown to be the Alfven modified inhomogeneity, finite pressure and plasma anisotropy. The mode structure transverse the magnetic shells may be of two types. Under some specific conditions one may observe image-drift waves in the magnetosphere. The described modes may be responsible for some types of geomagnetic field oscillations [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, K.G.; Mikerina, N.V.
1977-01-01
A comparison is made between the hydromagnetic structure of the interplanetary plasma flux from the powerful solar flare occurred on 4.08.1972 and the magnetic storm of 4-5.08.1972. The geomagnetic effects of the head impact layer of the interplanetary flux are being considered. The world-wide disturbances being most intensive in the Polar regions corresponded to the elements of the substructure of the impact layer. These disturbances are interpreted as the superposition of magnetic fields from reconnection currents on the magnetopause and in the neutral layer of the magnetosphere trail. The qualitative description of the effects under investigation has been made on the assumption that the magnetopause is a rotational impact wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norimasa Shiomi
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.
Nonlinear travelling waves in rotating Hagen–Poiseuille flow
Pier, Benoît; Govindarajan, Rama
2018-03-01
The dynamics of viscous flow through a rotating pipe is considered. Small-amplitude stability characteristics are obtained by linearizing the Navier–Stokes equations around the base flow and solving the resulting eigenvalue problems. For linearly unstable configurations, the dynamics leads to fully developed finite-amplitude perturbations that are computed by direct numerical simulations of the complete Navier–Stokes equations. By systematically investigating all linearly unstable combinations of streamwise wave number k and azimuthal mode number m, for streamwise Reynolds numbers {{Re}}z ≤slant 500 and rotational Reynolds numbers {{Re}}{{Ω }} ≤slant 500, the complete range of nonlinear travelling waves is obtained and the associated flow fields are characterized.
Rotating thermal flows in natural and industrial processes
Lappa, Marcello
2012-01-01
Rotating Thermal Flows in Natural and Industrial Processes provides the reader with a systematic description of the different types of thermal convection and flow instabilities in rotating systems, as present in materials, crystal growth, thermal engineering, meteorology, oceanography, geophysics and astrophysics. It expressly shows how the isomorphism between small and large scale phenomena becomes beneficial to the definition and ensuing development of an integrated comprehensive framework. This allows the reader to understand and assimilate the underlying, quintessential mechanisms withou
Generation of rotation and shear flow in an imploding liner
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hammer, J H; Ryutov, D D [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)
1997-12-31
There exist several techniques that can set the liner into rotation and/or excite an embedded shear flow at any desired depth of the liner material. A common element of all these techniques is the use of properly used left-right asymmetric structures, situated either on the liner surface or embedded in the shell. Both rotation and shear flow get enhanced in the course of the liner implosion because of the angular momentum conservation. While fast enough rotation should stabilize the Rayleigh-Taylor instability near the turn-around point, the shear flow can also have a stabilizing effect on the interface. The specific model presented in the paper shows that a strong enough shear causes stabilization of a broad class of Rayleigh-Taylor perturbations. Thus, the use of left-right asymmetric structure for generation of rotation and shear flow is an interesting new option for improvement of the quality of the liner implosions. (J.U.). 4 figs., 12 refs.
Bubble Pinch-Off in a Rotating Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergmann, Raymond; Andersen, Anders Peter; van der Meer, Devaraj
2009-01-01
We create air bubbles at the tip of a "bathtub vortex" which reaches to a finite depth. The bathtub vortex is formed by letting water drain through a small hole at the bottom of a rotating cylindrical container. The tip of the needlelike surface dip is unstable at high rotation rates and releases...... bubbles which are carried down by the flow. Using high-speed imaging we find that the minimal neck radius of the unstable tip decreases in time as a power law with an exponent close to 1/3. This exponent was found by Gordillo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 194501 (2005)] to govern gas flow driven pinch...
Oblique propagation of nonlinear hydromagnetic waves: One- and two-dimensional behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malara, F.; Elaoufir, J.
1991-01-01
The one- and two-dimensional behavior of obliquely propagating hydromagnetic waves is analyzed by means of analytical theory and numerical simulations. It is shown that the nonlinear evolution of a one-dimensional MHD wave leads to the formation of a rotational discontinuity and a compressive steepened quasi-linearly polarized pulse whose structure is similar to that of a finite amplitude magnetosonic simple wave. For small propagation angles, the pulse mode (fast or slow) depends on the value of β with respect to unity while for large propagation angles the wave mode is fixed by the sign of the initial density-field correlation. The two-dimensional evolution shows that an MHD wave is unstable against a small-amplitude long-wavelength modulation in the direction transverse to the wave propagation direction. A two-dimensional magnetosonic wave solution is found, in which the density fluctuation is driven by the corresponding total pressure fluctuation, exactly as in the one-dimensional simple wave. Along with the steepening effect, the wave experiences both wave front deformation and a self-focusing effect which may eventually lead to the collapse of the wave. The results compare well with observations of MHD waves in the Earth's foreshock and at comets
Stochastic line motion and stochastic flux conservation for nonideal hydromagnetic models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eyink, Gregory L.
2009-01-01
We prove that smooth solutions of nonideal (viscous and resistive) incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations satisfy a stochastic law of flux conservation. This property implies that the magnetic flux through a surface is equal to the average of the magnetic fluxes through an ensemble of surfaces advected backward in time by the plasma velocity perturbed with a random white noise. Our result is an analog of the well-known Alfven theorem of ideal MHD and is valid for any value of the magnetic Prandtl number. A second stochastic conservation law is shown to hold at unit Prandtl number, a random version of the generalized Kelvin theorem derived by Bekenstein and Oron for ideal MHD. These stochastic conservation laws are not only shown to be consequences of the nonideal MHD equations but are proved in fact to be equivalent to those equations. We derive similar results for two more refined hydromagnetic models, Hall MHD and the two-fluid plasma model, still assuming incompressible velocities and isotropic transport coefficients. Finally, we use these results to discuss briefly the infinite-Reynolds-number limit of hydromagnetic turbulence and to support the conjecture that flux conservation remains stochastic in that limit.
Hydromagnetic thin film flow: Linear stability
Amaouche, Mustapha
2013-08-30
This paper deals with the long wave instability of an electroconductor fluid film, flowing down an inclined plane at small to moderate Reynolds numbers, under the action of electromagnetic fields. A coherent second order long wave model and two simplified versions of it, referred to as first and second reduced models (FRM and SRM), are proposed to describe the nonlinear behavior of the flow. The modeling procedure consists of a combination of the lubrication theory and the weighted residual approach using an appropriate projection basis. A suitable choice of weighting functions allows a significant reduction of the dimension of the problem. The full model is naturally unique, i.e., independent of the particular form of the trial functions. The linear stability of the problem is investigated, and the influence of electromagnetic field on the flow stability is analyzed. Two cases are considered: the applied magnetic field is either normal or parallel to the fluid flow direction, while the electric field is transversal. The numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld (OS) eigenvalue problem and those of the depth averaging model are used to assess the accuracy of the reduced models. It is found that the current models have the advantage of the Benney-like model, which is known to asymptote the exact solution near criticality. Moreover, far from the instability threshold, the current reduced models continue to follow the OS solution up to moderate Reynolds numbers, while the averaging model diverges rapidly. The model SRM gives better results than FRM beyond sufficiently high Reynolds numbers.
Precessing rotating flows with additional shear: stability analysis.
Salhi, A; Cambon, C
2009-03-01
We consider unbounded precessing rotating flows in which vertical or horizontal shear is induced by the interaction between the solid-body rotation (with angular velocity Omega(0)) and the additional "precessing" Coriolis force (with angular velocity -epsilonOmega(0)), normal to it. A "weak" shear flow, with rate 2epsilon of the same order of the Poincaré "small" ratio epsilon , is needed for balancing the gyroscopic torque, so that the whole flow satisfies Euler's equations in the precessing frame (the so-called admissibility conditions). The base flow case with vertical shear (its cross-gradient direction is aligned with the main angular velocity) corresponds to Mahalov's [Phys. Fluids A 5, 891 (1993)] precessing infinite cylinder base flow (ignoring boundary conditions), while the base flow case with horizontal shear (its cross-gradient direction is normal to both main and precessing angular velocities) corresponds to the unbounded precessing rotating shear flow considered by Kerswell [Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 72, 107 (1993)]. We show that both these base flows satisfy the admissibility conditions and can support disturbances in terms of advected Fourier modes. Because the admissibility conditions cannot select one case with respect to the other, a more physical derivation is sought: Both flows are deduced from Poincaré's [Bull. Astron. 27, 321 (1910)] basic state of a precessing spheroidal container, in the limit of small epsilon . A Rapid distortion theory (RDT) type of stability analysis is then performed for the previously mentioned disturbances, for both base flows. The stability analysis of the Kerswell base flow, using Floquet's theory, is recovered, and its counterpart for the Mahalov base flow is presented. Typical growth rates are found to be the same for both flows at very small epsilon , but significant differences are obtained regarding growth rates and widths of instability bands, if larger epsilon values, up to 0.2, are considered. Finally
Liquid metal flow in a finite-length cylinder with a rotating magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelfgat, Yu.M.; Gorbunov, L.A.; Kolevzon, V.
1993-01-01
A liquid metal flow induced by a rotating magnetic field in a cylindrical container of finite height was investigated experimentally. It was demonstrated that the flow in a rotating magnetic field is similar to geophysical flows: the fluid rotates uniformly with depth and the Ekman layer exists at the container bottom. Near the vertical wall the flow is depicted in the form of a confined jet whose thickness determines the instability onset in a rotating magnetic field. It was shown that the critical Reynolds number can be found by using the jet velocity u 0 for Re cr =u 2 0 /ν∂u/∂r. The effect of frequency of a magnetic field on the fluid flow was also studied. An approximate theoretical model is presented for describing the fluid flow in a uniform rotating magnetic field. (orig.)
Hydromagnetic turbulence in the direct interaction approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagarajan, S.
1975-01-01
The dissertation is concerned with the nature of turbulence in a medium with large electrical conductivity. Three distinct though inter-related questions are asked. Firstly, the evolution of a weak, random initial magnetic field in a highly conducting, isotropically turbulent fluid is discussed. This was first discussed in the paper 'Growth of Turbulent Magnetic Fields' by Kraichnan and Nagargian. The Physics of Fluids, volume 10, number 4, 1967. Secondly, the direct interaction approximation for hydromagnetic turbulence maintained by stationary, isotropic, random stirring forces is formulated in the wave-number-frequency domain. Thirdly, the dynamical evolution of a weak, random, magnetic excitation in a turbulent electrically conducting fluid is examined under varying kinematic conditions. (G.T.H.)
Heat Transfer to Pulsatile Slip Flow in a Porous Channel Filled With ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper investigate the effect of slip on the hydromagnetic pulsatile flow through a porous channel filled with saturated porous medium with time dependent boundary condition on the heated wall. Based on the pulsatile flow nature, the dimensionless flow governing equations are resolved to harmonic and non-harmonic ...
Krupp, N.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Maclennan, C. G.
1996-01-01
We report on measurements of energetic particle modulations observed by the HI-SCALE instrument aboard the Ulysses Spacecraft that were associated with the only hydromagnetic wave event measured inside the Jovian magnetosphere by the Ulysses magnetometer investigation.
Inception mechanism and suppression of rotating stall in an axial-flow fan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishioka, T
2013-01-01
Inception patterns of rotating stall at two stagger-angle settings for the highly loaded rotor blades were experimentally investigated in a low-speed axial-flow fan. Rotor-tip flow fields were also numerically investigated to clarify the mechanism behind the rotating stall inception. The stall inception patterns depended on the rotor stagger-angle settings. The stall inception from a rotating instability was confirmed at the design stagger-angle settings. The stall inception from a short length-scale stall cell (spike) was also confirmed at the small stagger-angle setting. The spillage of tip-leakage flow and the tip-leakage vortex breakdown influence the rotating stall inception. An air-separator has been developed based on the clarified inception mechanism of rotating stall. The rotating stall was suppressed by the developed air-separator, and the operating range of fan was extended towards low flow rate. The effect of developed air-separator was also confirmed by application to a primary air fan used in a coal fired power plant. It is concluded from these results that the developed air-separator can provide a wide operating range for an axial-flow fan
Rotating permanent magnet excitation for blood flow measurement.
Nair, Sarath S; Vinodkumar, V; Sreedevi, V; Nagesh, D S
2015-11-01
A compact, portable and improved blood flow measurement system for an extracorporeal circuit having a rotating permanent magnetic excitation scheme is described in this paper. The system consists of a set of permanent magnets rotating near blood or any conductive fluid to create high-intensity alternating magnetic field in it and inducing a sinusoidal varying voltage across the column of fluid. The induced voltage signal is acquired, conditioned and processed to determine its flow rate. Performance analysis shows that a sensitivity of more than 250 mV/lpm can be obtained, which is more than five times higher than conventional flow measurement systems. Choice of rotating permanent magnet instead of an electromagnetic core generates alternate magnetic field of smooth sinusoidal nature which in turn reduces switching and interference noises. These results in reduction in complex electronic circuitry required for processing the signal to a great extent and enable the flow measuring device to be much less costlier, portable and light weight. The signal remains steady even with changes in environmental conditions and has an accuracy of greater than 95%. This paper also describes the construction details of the prototype, the factors affecting sensitivity and detailed performance analysis at various operating conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Rosales-Vera
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of a hydromagnetic hot two-dimensional laminar jet issuing vertically into an otherwise quiescent fluid of a lower temperature is studied. We propose solutions to the boundary layer equations using the classical Fourier series. The method is essentiall to transform the boundary layer equations to a coupled set of nonlinear first-order ordinary differential equations through the Fourier series. The accuracy of the results has been tested by the comparison of the velocity distributions obtained by the Fourier series with those calculated by finite difference method. The results show that the present method, based on the Fourier series, is an efficient method, suitable to solve boundary layer equations applied to plane jet flows with high accuracy.
Subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of rotating turbulent channel flows
Silvis, Maurits H.; Bae, Hyunji Jane; Trias, F. Xavier; Abkar, Mahdi; Moin, Parviz; Verstappen, Roel
2017-11-01
We aim to design subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows. Rotating turbulent flows form a challenging test case for large-eddy simulation due to the presence of the Coriolis force. The Coriolis force conserves the total kinetic energy while transporting it from small to large scales of motion, leading to the formation of large-scale anisotropic flow structures. The Coriolis force may also cause partial flow laminarization and the occurrence of turbulent bursts. Many subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation are, however, primarily designed to parametrize the dissipative nature of turbulent flows, ignoring the specific characteristics of transport processes. We, therefore, propose a new subgrid-scale model that, in addition to the usual dissipative eddy viscosity term, contains a nondissipative nonlinear model term designed to capture transport processes, such as those due to rotation. We show that the addition of this nonlinear model term leads to improved predictions of the energy spectra of rotating homogeneous isotropic turbulence as well as of the Reynolds stress anisotropy in spanwise-rotating plane-channel flows. This work is financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) under Project Number 613.001.212.
LES of turbulent flow in a concentric annulus with rotating outer wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadžiabdić, M.; Hanjalić, K.; Mullyadzhanov, R.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • High rotation up to N = 2 dampens progressively the turbulence near the rotating outer wall. • At 2 2.8, while tending to laminarize, the flow exhibits distinct Taylor-Couette vortical rolls. -- Abstract: Fully-developed turbulent flow in a concentric annulus, r 1 /r 2 = 0.5, Re h = 12,500, with the outer wall rotating at a range of rotation rates N = U θ,wall /U b from 0.5 up to 4 is studied by large-eddy simulations. The focus is on the effects of moderate to very high rotation rates on the mean flow, turbulence statistics and eddy structure. For N up to ∼2, an increase in the rotation rate dampens progressively the turbulence near the rotating outer wall, while affecting only mildly the inner-wall region. At higher rotation rates this trend is reversed: for N = 2.8 close to the inner wall turbulence is dramatically reduced while the outer wall region remains turbulent with discernible helical vortices as the dominant turbulent structure. The turbulence parameters and eddy structures differ significantly for N = 2 and 2.8. This switch is attributed to the centrifuged turbulence (generated near the inner wall) prevailing over the axial inertial force as well as over the counteracting laminarizing effects of the rotating outer wall. At still higher rotation, N = 4, the flow gets laminarized but with distinct spiralling vortices akin to the Taylor–Couette rolls found between the two counter-rotating cylinders without axial flow, which is the limiting case when N approaches to infinity. The ratio of the centrifugal to axial inertial forces, Ta/Re 2 ∝ N 2 (where Ta is the Taylor number) is considered as a possible criterion for defining the conditions for the above regime change
Pattern formation and three-dimensional instability in rotating flows
Christensen, Erik A.; Aubry, Nadine; Sorensen, Jens N.
1997-03-01
A fluid flow enclosed in a cylindrical container where fluid motion is created by the rotation of one end wall as a centrifugal fan is studied. Direct numerical simulations and spatio-temporal analysis have been performed in the early transition scenario, which includes a steady-unsteady transition and a breakdown of axisymmetric to three-dimensional flow behavior. In the early unsteady regime of the flow, the central vortex undergoes a vertical beating motion, accompanied by axisymmetric spikes formation on the edge of the breakdown bubble. As traveling waves, the spikes move along the central vortex core toward the rotating end-wall. As the Reynolds number is increased further, the flow undergoes a three-dimensional instability. The influence of the latter on the previous patterns is studied.
Powerful Swirl Generation of Flow-driven Rotating Mixing Vane for Enhancing CHF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seo, Han; Seo, Seok Bin; Heo, Hyo; Bang, In Cheol
2014-01-01
Mixing vanes are utilized to improve CHF and heat transfer performance in the rod bundle during normal operation. Experimental measurement of the swirling flow from a split vane pair was conducted using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and boroscope. The lateral velocity fields show that the swirling flow was initially centered in the subchannel and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed based on the experiment. To visualize flow patterns in the 5Χ5 subchannel using PIV, matching the refraction between the working fluid and the structure was considered and the experiment aimed to develop the experimental data for providing fundamental information of the CFD analysis. The fixed split vane is the main mixing inducer in the fuel assembly. In a heat exchanger research, propeller type swirl generates at several pitch ratios and different blades angles were used to enhance heat transfer rate. Significant improvements of the heat transfer rate using the propellers were confirmed due to creation of tangential flow. In the present study, the mixing effect of rotation vane which has a shape of propeller was studied using PIV. A split vane was considered in the experiment to show the effect of rotation vane. Vertical and horizontal flow analyses were conducted to show the possible use of rotation vane in a subchannel. In the present work, the study of flow visualization using three types of vanes is conducted to show the mixing effect. The vertical flow and the horizontal flow distributions were analyzed in the two experimental facilities. For the vertical flow facility, flow distributions, flow profiles, and the turbulence kinetic energy are analyzed at the centerline of the channel. The results show that the rotation vane has the highest flow and turbulence kinetic intensity at the centerline of the channel. For the horizontal flow facility, the results indicate that lateral flow of the rotation vane is generated and maintained along with the flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharma B.K.
2017-08-01
Full Text Available An analysis is presented to describe the hydromagnetic mixed convection flow of an electrically conducting micropolar fluid past a vertical plate through a porous medium with radiation and slip flow regime. A uniform magnetic field has been considered in the study which absorbs the micropolar fluid with a varying suction velocity and acts perpendicular to the porous surface of the above plate. The governing non-linear partial differential equations have been transformed into linear partial differential equations, which are solved numerically by applying the explicit finite difference method. The numerical results are presented graphically in the form of velocity, micro-rotation, concentration and temperature profiles, the skin-friction coefficient, the couple stress coefficient, the rate of heat and mass transfers at the wall for different material parameters.
Three-dimensional rotational plasma flows near solid surfaces in an axial magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorshunov, N. M., E-mail: gorshunov-nm@nrcki.ru; Potanin, E. P., E-mail: potanin45@yandex.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
A rotational flow of a conducting viscous medium near an extended dielectric disk in a uniform axial magnetic field is analyzed in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach. An analytical solution to the system of nonlinear differential MHD equations of motion in the boundary layer for the general case of different rotation velocities of the disk and medium is obtained using a modified Slezkin–Targ method. A particular case of a medium rotating near a stationary disk imitating the end surface of a laboratory device is considered. The characteristics of a hydrodynamic flow near the disk surface are calculated within the model of a finite-thickness boundary layer. The influence of the magnetic field on the intensity of the secondary flow is studied. Calculations are performed for a weakly ionized dense plasma flow without allowance for the Hall effect and plasma compressibility. An MHD flow in a rotating cylinder bounded from above by a retarding cap is considered. The results obtained can be used to estimate the influence of the end surfaces on the main azimuthal flow, as well as the intensities of circulating flows in various devices with rotating plasmas, in particular, in plasma centrifuges and laboratory devices designed to study instabilities of rotating plasmas.
Reynolds-Stress and Triple-Product Models Applied to a Flow with Rotation and Curvature
Olsen, Michael E.
2016-01-01
Turbulence models, with increasing complexity, up to triple product terms, are applied to the flow in a rotating pipe. The rotating pipe is a challenging case for turbulence models as it contains significant rotational and curvature effects. The flow field starts with the classic fully developed pipe flow, with a stationary pipe wall. This well defined condition is then subjected to a section of pipe with a rotating wall. The rotating wall introduces a second velocity scale, and creates Reynolds shear stresses in the radial-circumferential and circumferential-axial planes. Furthermore, the wall rotation introduces a flow stabilization, and actually reduces the turbulent kinetic energy as the flow moves along the rotating wall section. It is shown in the present work that the Reynolds stress models are capable of predicting significant reduction in the turbulent kinetic energy, but triple product improves the predictions of the centerline turbulent kinetic energy, which is governed by convection, dissipation and transport terms, as the production terms vanish on the pipe axis.
Effects of rotation on flow in an asymmetric rib-roughened duct: LES study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borello, D.; Salvagni, A.; Hanjalić, K.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Ribbed duct reproduces most of the phenomena occurring in internal cooling channels of blade turbines (rotor and stator). • LES analysis of the flow in a ribbed duct was carried out aiming at detecting the influence of rotation on the turbulence. • In destabilizing conditions, rotation enhances turbulence close to the ribbed duct thus enhancing removal of fluid from the wall and improving mixing. • In stabilizing conditions, turbulence is suppressed by rotation close to the ribbed wall. - Abstract: We report on large-eddy simulations (LES) of fully-developed asymmetric flow in a duct of a rectangular cross-section in which square-sectioned, equally-spaced ribs oriented perpendicular to the flow direction, were mounted on one of the walls. The configuration mimics a passage of internal cooling of a gas-turbine blade. The duct flow at a Reynolds number Re = 15,000 (based on hydraulic diameter D_h and bulk flow velocity U_0) was subjected to clock-wise (stabilising) and anti-clock-wise (destabilising) orthogonal rotation at a moderate rotational number Ro = ΩD_h/U_0 = 0.3, where Ω is the angular velocity. The LES results reproduced well the available experimental results of Coletti et al. (2011) (in the mid-plane adjacent to the ribbed wall) and provided insight into the whole duct complementing the reference PIV measurement. We analyzed the effects of stabilising and destabilising rotation on the flow, vortical structures and turbulence statistics by comparison with the non-rotating case. The analysis includes the identification of depth of penetration of the rib-effects into the bulk flow, influence of flow three-dimensionality and the role of secondary motions, all shown to be strongly affected by the rotation and its direction.
Rotation induced flow suppression around two tandem circular cylinders at low Reynolds number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chatterjee, Dipankar [Advanced Design and Analysis Group, CSIR—Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur-713209 (India); Gupta, Krishan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhai National Institute of Technology Surat, Surat-395007 (India); Kumar, Virendra [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Patna-800013 (India); Varghese, Sachin Abraham, E-mail: d_chatterjee@cmeri.res.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, Durgapur-713209 (India)
2017-08-15
The rotation to a bluff object is known to have a stabilizing effect on the fluid dynamic transport around the body. An unsteady periodic flow can be degenerated into a steady flow pattern depending on the rate of rotation imparted to the body. On the other hand, multiple bodies placed in tandem arrangement with respect to an incoming flow can cause destabilization to the flow as a result of the complicated wake interaction between the bodies. Accordingly, the spacing between the bodies and the rate of rotation have significant impact on the overall fluid dynamic transport around them. The present work aims to understand how these two competing factors are actually influencing the fluidic transport across a pair of identical rotating circular cylinders kept in tandem arrangement in an unconfined medium. The cylinders are subjected to a uniform free stream flow and the gaps between the cylinders are varied as 0.2, 0.7, 1.5 and 3.0. Both the cylinders are made to rotate in the clockwise sense. The Reynolds number based on the free stream flow is taken as 100. A two-dimensional finite volume based transient computation is performed for a range of dimensionless rotational speeds of the cylinders (0 ≤ Ω ≤ 2.75). The results show that the shedding phenomena can be observed up to a critical rate of rotation (Ω{sub cr}) depending on the gap spacing. Beyond Ω{sub cr}, the flow becomes stabilized and finally completely steady as Ω increases further. Increasing the gap initially causes a slight decrease in the critical rotational speed, however, it increases at a rapid rate for larger gap spacing. (paper)
Numerical simulation of fluid flow in a rotational bioreactor
Ganimedov, V. L.; Papaeva, E. O.; Maslov, N. A.; Larionov, P. M.
2017-10-01
Application of scaffold technology for the problem of bone tissue regeneration has great prospects in modern medicine. The influence of fluid shear stress on stem cells cultivation and its differentiation into osteoblasts is the subject of intensive research. Mathematical modeling of fluid flow in bioreactor allowed us to determine the structure of flow and estimate the level of mechanical stress on cells. The series of computations for different rotation frequencies (0.083, 0.124, 0.167, 0.2 and 0.233 Hz) was performed for the laminar flow regime approximation. It was shown that the Taylor vortices in the gap between the cylinders qualitatively change the distribution of static pressure and shear stress in the region of vortices connection. It was shown that an increase in the rotation frequency leads to an increase of the unevenness in distribution of the above mentioned functions. The obtained shear stress and static pressure dependence on the rotational frequency make it possible to choose the operating mode of the reactor depending on the provided requirements. It was shown that in the range of rotation frequencies chosen in this work (0.083 < f < 0.233 Hz), the shear stress does not exceed the known literature data (0.002 - 0.1 Pa).
Flow produced in a conical container by a rotating endwall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Escudier, M.P.; O'Leary, J.; Poole, R.J.
2007-01-01
Numerical calculations have been carried out for flow in a truncated cone generated by rotation of one endwall. For both convergent (radius increasing with approach to the rotating endwall) and divergent geometries, vortex breakdown is suppressed beyond a certain angle of inclination of the sidewall. At the same time Moffat eddies of increasing strength and extent appear in the corner between the sidewall and the non-rotating endwall. For the divergent geometry, a zone of recirculation appears on the sidewall and eventually merges with the Moffat eddies. The flow phenomena identified from streamline patterns are consistent with the calculated variation of pressure around the periphery of the computational domain
Experimental Studies of Acoustics in a Spherical Couette Flow
Gowen, Savannah; Adams, Matthew; Stone, Douglas; Lathrop, Daniel
2016-11-01
The Earth, like many other astrophysical bodies, contains turbulent flows of conducting fluid which are able to sustain magnetic field. To investigate the hydromagnetic flow in the Earth's outer core, we have created an experiment which generates flows in liquid sodium. However, measuring these flows remains a challenge because liquid sodium is opaque. One possible solution is the use of acoustic waves. Our group has previously used acoustic wave measurements in air to infer azimuthal velocity profiles, but measurements attempted in liquid sodium remain challenging. In the current experiments we measure acoustic modes and their mode splittings in both air and water in a spherical Couette device. The device is comprised of a hollow 30-cm outer sphere which contains a smaller 10-cm rotating inner sphere to drive flow in the fluid in between. We use water because it has material properties that are similar to those of sodium, but is more convenient and less hazardous. Modes are excited and measured using a speaker and microphones. Measured acoustic modes and their mode splittings correspond well with the predicted frequencies in air. However, water modes are more challenging. Further investigation is needed to understand acoustic measurements in the higher density media.
Possibilities of heating a TFR plasma by absorption of the fast hydromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, J.
The prospects of TFR heating by fast hydromagnetic waves are considered by an examination of the following topics: (1) characteristics of the dispersion relation, (2) the charge impedance of an antenna capable of exciting these modes, and (3) the heating effects which would be caused by dissipation of these waves around ω = ω/sub ci/ and ω = 2ω/sub ci/
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.M.; Al-Lawatia, M.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.; Al-Salti, N.
2012-01-01
Heat transfer characteristics of a two-dimensional steady hydromagnetic slip flow of water based nano-fluids (TiO 2 -water, Al 2 O 3 -water, and Cu-water) over a wedge with convective surface taking into account the effects of heat generation (or absorption) has been investigated numerically. The local similarity solutions are obtained by using very robust computer algebra software MATLAB and presented graphically as well as in a tabular form. The results show that nano-fluid velocity is lower than the velocity of the base fluid and the existence of the nano-fluid leads to the thinning of the hydrodynamic boundary layer. The rate of shear stress is significantly influenced by the surface convection parameter and the slip parameter. It is higher for nano-fluids than the base fluid. The results also show that within the boundary layer the temperature of the nano-fluid is higher than the temperature of the base fluid. The rate of heat transfer is found to increase with the increase of the surface convection and the slip parameters. Addition of nano-particles to the base fluid induces the rate of heat transfer. The rate of heat transfer in the Cu-water nano-fluid is found to be higher than the rate of heat transfer in the TiO 2 -water and Al 2 O 3 -water nano-fluids. (authors)
Flow visualization around a rotating body in a wind tunnel
Hiraki, K.; Zaitsu, D.; Yanaga, Y.; Kleine, H.
2017-02-01
The rotational behavior of capsule-shaped models is investigated in the transonic wind tunnel of JAXA. A special support is developed to allow the model to rotate around the pitch, yaw and roll axes. This 3-DOF free rotational mounting apparatus achieves the least frictional torque from the support and the instruments. Two types of capsule models are prepared, one is drag type (SPH model) and the other is lift type (HTV-R model). The developed mounting apparatus is used in the wind tunnel tests with these capsule models. In a flow of Mach 0.9, the SPH model exhibits oscillations in pitch and yaw, and it rolls half a turn during the test. Similarly, the HTV-R model exhibits pitch and yaw oscillations in a flow of Mach 0.5. Moreover, it rolls multiple times during the test. In order to investigate the flow field around the capsule, the combined technique of color schlieren and surface tufts is applied. This visualization clearly shows the flow reattachment on the back surface of a capsule, which is suspected to induce the rapid rolling motion.
Jets of an electroconducting fluid in rotating flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorbachev, L P; Kalyakin, A N; Potanin, E P; Tubin, A A
1976-04-01
A study was made of weak-intensity jets of an electroconducting incompressible fluid in rotating flows, caused by the action of a uniform axial magnetic field B and a radial electric field E =E/sub 0/r. The induced magnetic field is neglected. Hydrodynamic characteristics were obtained for flows during conservation of the jet flow rate or momentum. The presence of a counterflow in the jet and the weak dependence of the flow parameters on the linear coordinate were demonstrated. 7 references, 1 figure.
Weak rotating flow disturbances in a centrifugal compressor with a vaneless diffuser
Moore, F. K.
1988-01-01
A theory is presented to predict the occurrence of weak rotating waves in a centrifugal compression system with a vaneless diffuser. As in a previous study of axial systems, an undisturbed performance characteristic is assumed known. Following an inviscid analysis of the diffuser flow, conditions for a neutral rotating disturbance are found. The solution is shown to have two branches; one with fast rotation, the other with very slow rotation. The slow branch includes a dense set of resonant solutions. The resonance is a feature of the diffuser flow, and therefore such disturbances must be expected at the various resonant flow coefficients regardless of the compressor characteristic. Slow solutions seem limited to flow coefficients less than about 0.3, where third and fourth harmonics appear. Fast waves seem limited to a first harmonic. These fast and slow waves are described, and effects of diffuser-wall convergence, backward blade angles, and partial recovery of exit velocity head are assessed.
Destabilization of hydromagnetic drift-Alfven waves in a finite pressure collisional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, J.T.
1974-01-01
In a finite beta (β = 8πn 0 kT 0 /B 0 2 ) plasma, where the plasma pressure n 0 kT 0 is an appreciable fraction of the confining magnetic field energy-density B 0 2 /8π, density-gradient driven drift waves couple with Alfven waves when the phase velocities of the two waves become comparable. The resulting hydromagnetic drift-Alfven waves separate into two branches--a drift mode and an Alfven mode, with both modes exhibiting magnetic field and localized density fluctuations near the coupling point. The dispersion relation of the collisional drift-Alfven wave is derived by using a slab-geometry, two-fluid model which includes finite beta, electron-ion collisions, ion-ion collisions, finite ion larmar radius, temperature fluctuations, and an axial electron current. A hydromagnetic drift mode is found to be unstable in a moderately dense plasma. A localized ''Alfven'' mode is destabilized only with the passage of an axial current along the plasma column. In order to check the theoretical predictions an experiment is performed in a finite-beta plasma of density n 0 = 10 13 -10 15 cm -3 and temperature T/sub e/ approximately T/sub i/ = 1-7 eV. (U.S.)
Contribution to the study of rotating disc induced MHD flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herve, P.
1983-01-01
Influence of a magnetic field on electroconductor viscous fluid flow generated by disks in rotation is studied here. Flow in rectilinear conduct is first studied, together with velocity, force and current line repartition. Then a case more general is dealt with a toroidal conduct with disk drive. The influence of electric conductivity and of the thickness of the mobile disk are detailed. Couple study leads to think to a transmission by fluid variable by magnetic field variations. At last, a radial flow with a source in the middle of it is studied with a disk rotation. Analysis of velocity and pressure evolution shows a pump effect [fr
Steady particulate flows in a horizontal rotating cylinder
Yamane, K.; Nakagawa, M.; Altobelli, S. A.; Tanaka, T.; Tsuji, Y.
1998-06-01
Results of discrete element method (DEM) simulation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments are compared for monodisperse granular materials flowing in a half-filled horizontal rotating cylinder. Because opacity is not a problem for MRI, a long cylinder with an aspect ratio ˜7 was used and the flow in a thin transverse slice near the center was studied. The particles were mustard seeds and the ratio of cylinder diameter to particle diameter was approximately 50. The parameters compared were dynamic angle of repose, velocity field in a plane perpendicular to the cylinder axis, and velocity fluctuations at rotation rates up to 30 rpm. The agreement between DEM and MRI was good when the friction coefficient and nonsphericity were adjusted in the simulation for the best fit.
Hydrodynamic instabilities in the developing region of an axially rotating pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miranda-Barea, A; Fabrellas-García, C; Parras, L; Pino, C del, E-mail: cpino@uma.es [Universidad de Málaga, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Industrial, Ampliación Campus de Teatinos, 29071, Málaga, España (Spain)
2015-06-15
We conduct experiments in a rotating Hagen–Poiseuille flow (RHPF) through flow visualizations when the flow becomes convectively and absolutely unstable at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers, Re. We characterize periodic patterns at a very high swirl parameter, L, when the flow overcomes the absolutely unstable region. These non-steady helical filaments wrapped around the axis appear in the developing region of the pipe. Experimentally, we compute the onset of these oscillations in the (L, Re)-plane finding that the rotation rate decreases as the Reynolds number increases in the process of achieving the time-dependent state. Additionally, we report information regarding frequencies and wavelengths that appear downstream of the rotating pipe for convectively and absolutely unstable flows, even for very high swirl parameters at which the flow becomes time-dependent in the developing region. We do not observe variations in the trends of these parameters, so these hydrodynamic instabilities in the developing region do not affect the unstable travelling waves downstream of the pipe. (paper)
Tokamak turbulence in self-regulated differentially rotating flow and L-H transition dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Carreras, B.A.; Sidikman, K.
1992-01-01
An analytical study of turbulence in the presence of turbulently generated differentially rotating flow is presented as a paradigm for fluctuation dynamics in L- and H-mode plasmas. Using a drift wave model, the role of both flow shear and flow curvature (second radial derivative of the poloidal ExB flow) is detailed in linear and saturated turbulence phases. In the strong turbulence saturated state, finite amplitude-induced modification of the fluctuation structure near low order rational surfaces strongly inhibits flow shear suppression. Suppression by curvature is not diminished, but it occurs through a frequency shift. A description of L-H mode transition dynamics based on the self-consistent linking of turbulence suppression by differentially rotating flow and generation of flow by turbulent momentum transport is presented. In this model, rising edge temperature triggers a transition characterized by spontaneous generation of differentially rotating flow and decreasing turbulence intensity
On effects of topography in rotating flows
Burmann, Fabian; Noir, Jerome; Jackson, Andrew
2017-11-01
Both, seismological studies and geodynamic arguments suggest that there is significant topography at the core mantle boundary (CMB). This leads to the question whether the topography of the CMB could influence the flow in the Earth's outer core. As a preliminary experiment, we investigate the effects of bottom topography in the so-called Spin-Up, where motion of a contained fluid is created by a sudden increase of rotation rate. Experiments are performed in a cylindrical container mounted on a rotating table and quantitative results are obtained with particle image velocimetry. Several horizontal length scales of topography (λ) are investigated, ranging from cases where λ is much smaller then the lateral extend of the experiment (R) to cases where λ is a fraction of R. We find that there is an optimal λ that creates maximum dissipation of kinetic energy. Depending on the length scale of the topography, kinetic energy is either dissipated in the boundary layer or in the bulk of the fluid. Two different phases of fluid motion are present: a starting flow in the from of solid rotation (phase I), which is later replaced by meso scale vortices on the length scale of bottom topography (phase II).
Coupled hydromagnetic wave excitation and ion acceleration upstream of the earth's bow shock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, M.A.
1982-01-01
A self-consistent theory is presented for the excitation of hydromagnetic waves and the acceleration of diffuse ions upstream of the earth's bow shock in the quasi-equilibrium that results when the solar wind velocity and the interplanetary magnetic field are nearly parallel. For the waves the quasi-equilibrium results from a balance between excitation by the ions, which stream relative to the solar wind plasma, and convective loss to the magnetosheath. For the diffuse ions the quasi-equilibrium results from a balance between injection at the shock front, confinement to the foreshock by pitch angle scattering on the waves, acceleration by compression at the shock front, loss to the magnetosheath, loss due to escape upstream of the foreshock, and loss via diffusion perpendicular to the average magnetic field onto field lines that do not connect to the shock front. Diffusion equations describing the ion transport and wave kinetic equations describing the hydromagnetic wave transport are solved self-consistently to yield analytical expressions for the differential wave intensity spectrum as a function of frequency and distance from the bow shock z and for the ion omnidirectional distribution functions and anisotropies as functions of energy and z, In quantitative agreement with observations, the theory predicts (1) exponential spectra at the bow shock in energy per charge, (2) a decrease in intensity and hardening of the ion spectra with increasing z, (3) a 30-keV proton anisotropy parallel to z increasing from -0.28 at the bow shock to +0.51 as z→infinity (4) a linearly polarized wave intensity spectrum with a minimum at approx.6 x 10 -3 Hz and a maximum at approx.2--3 x 10 -2 Hz, (5) a decrease in the wave intensity spectrum with increasing z, (6) a total energy density in protons with energies >15 keV about eight times that in the hydromagnetic waves
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of viscoelastic flow past a confined free rotating cylinder
Xia, Yi; Zhang, Peijie; Lin, Jianzhong; Ku, Xiaoke; Nie, Deming
2018-05-01
To study the dynamics of rigid body immersed in viscoelastic fluid, an Oldroyd-B fluid flow past an eccentrically situated, free rotating cylinder in a two-dimensional (2D) channel is simulated by a novel lattice Boltzmann method. Two distribution functions are employed, one of which is aimed to solve Navier-Stokes equation and the other to the constitutive equation, respectively. The unified interpolation bounce-back scheme is adopted to treat the moving curved boundary of cylinder, and the novel Galilean invariant momentum exchange method is utilized to obtain the hydrodynamic force and torque exerted on the cylinder. Results show that the center-fixed cylinder rotates inversely in the direction where a cylinder immersed in Newtonian fluid do, which generates a centerline-oriented lift force according to Magnus effect. The cylinder’s eccentricity, flow inertia, fluid elasticity and viscosity would affect the rotation of cylinder in different ways. The cylinder rotates more rapidly when located farther away from the centerline, and slows down when it is too close to the wall. The rotation frequency decreases with increasing Reynolds number, and larger rotation frequency responds to larger Weissenberg number and smaller viscosity ratio, indicating that the fluid elasticity and low solvent viscosity accelerates the flow-induced rotation of cylinder.
On the propagation of hydromagnetic waves in a plasma of thermal and suprathermal components
Kumar, Nagendra; Sikka, Himanshu
2007-12-01
The propagation of MHD waves is studied when two ideal fluids, thermal and suprathermal gases, coupled by magnetic field are moving with the steady flow velocity. The fluids move independently in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field but gets coupled along the field. Due to the presence of flow in suprathermal and thermal fluids there appears forward and backward waves. All the forward and backward modes propagate in such a way that their rate of change of phase speed with the thermal Mach number is same. It is also found that besides the usual hydromagnetic modes there appears a suprathermal mode which propagates with faster speed. Surface waves are also examined on an interface formed with composite plasma (suprathermal and thermal gases) on one side and the other is a non-magnetized plasma. In this case, the modes obtained are two or three depending on whether the sound velocity in thermal gas is equal to or greater than the sound velocity in suprathermal gas. The results lead to the conclusion that the interaction of thermal and suprathermal components may lead to the occurrence of an additional mode called suprathermal mode whose phase velocity is higher than all the other modes.
Sudjai, W.; Juntasaro, V.; Juttijudata, V.
2018-01-01
The accuracy of predicting turbulence induced secondary flows is crucially important in many industrial applications such as turbine blade internal cooling passages in a gas turbine and fuel rod bundles in a nuclear reactor. A straight square duct is popularly used to reveal the characteristic of turbulence induced secondary flows which consists of two counter rotating vortices distributed in each corner of the duct. For a rotating duct, the flow can be divided into the pressure side and the suction side. The turbulence induced secondary flows are converted to the Coriolis force driven two large circulations with a pair of additional vortices on the pressure wall due to the rotational effect. In this paper, the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulence induced secondary flows in a straight square duct is performed using the ANSYS FLUENT CFD software. A dynamic kinetic energy subgrid-scale model is used to describe the three-dimensional incompressible turbulent flows in the stationary and the rotating straight square ducts. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and the hydraulic diameter is 300 with the various rotation numbers for the rotating cases. The flow is assumed fully developed by imposing the constant pressure gradient in the streamwise direction. For the rotating cases, the rotational axis is placed perpendicular to the streamwise direction. The simulation results on the secondary flows and the turbulent statistics are found to be in good agreement with the available Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data. Finally, the details of the Coriolis effects are discussed.
Flow in Rotating Serpentine Coolant Passages With Skewed Trip Strips
Tse, David G.N.; Steuber, Gary
1996-01-01
Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in serpentine turbine blade cooling passages with skewed trip strips. The measurements were obtained at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of 25,000 and 0.24 to assess the influence of trips, passage curvature and Coriolis force on the flow field. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by skewed trips with the passage rotation produces a swirling vortex and a corner recirculation zone. With trips skewed at +45 deg, the secondary flows remain unaltered as the cross-flow proceeds from the passage to the turn. However, the flow characteristics at these locations differ when trips are skewed at -45 deg. Changes in the flow structure are expected to augment heat transfer, in agreement with the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. The present results show that trips are skewed at -45 deg in the outward flow passage and trips are skewed at +45 deg in the inward flow passage maximize heat transfer. Details of the present measurements were related to the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. to relate fluid flow and heat transfer measurements.
Unsteady flow of fractional Oldroyd-B fluids through rotating annulus
Tahir, Madeeha; Naeem, Muhammad Nawaz; Javaid, Maria; Younas, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Sadiq, Naeem; Safdar, Rabia
2018-04-01
In this paper exact solutions corresponding to the rotational flow of a fractional Oldroyd-B fluid, in an annulus, are determined by applying integral transforms. The fluid starts moving after t = 0+ when pipes start rotating about their axis. The final solutions are presented in the form of usual Bessel and hypergeometric functions, true for initial and boundary conditions. The limiting cases for the solutions for ordinary Oldroyd-B, fractional Maxwell and Maxwell and Newtonian fluids are obtained. Moreover, the solution is obtained for the fluid when one pipe is rotating and the other one is at rest. At the end of this paper some characteristics of fluid motion, the effect of the physical parameters on the flow and a correlation between different fluid models are discussed. Finally, graphical representations confirm the above affirmation.
A numerical study on the flow development around a rotating square-sectioned U-Bend( II )
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Gong Hee; Baek, Je Hyun
2002-01-01
The present study investigates in detail the combined effects of the Coriolis force and centrifugal force on the development of turbulent flows in a square-sectioned U-bend rotating about an axis parallel to the center of bend curvature. When a viscous fluid flows through a curved region of U-bend, two types of secondary flow occur. One is caused by the Coriolis force due to the rotation of U-bend and the other by the centrifugal force due to the curvature of U-bend. For positive rotation, where the rotation is in the same direction as that of the main flow, both the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force act radially outwards. Therefore, the flow structure is qualitatively similar to that observed in a stationary curved duct. On the other hand, under negative rotation, where these two forces act in opposite direction, more complex flow fields can be observed depending on the relative magnitudes of the forces. Under the condition that the value of Rossby number and curvature ratio is large, the flow field in a rotating U-bend can be represented by two dimensionless parameters : K LC = Re 1/4 / √ λ and a body force ratio F= λ/Ro. Here, K TC has the same dynamical meaning as K LC = Re/√ λ for laminar flow
Bingham liquid flow between two cylinders induced by inner ring rotation
Jaroslav, Štigler; Simona, Fialová
2017-09-01
This paper deals with the fluid flow between two cylinders induced by inner ring rotation. The gap width between the cylinders, in case that they are both concentric, is 1mm, the gap and inner ring radius ratio 0.013 and the radius ratio 0.987. Attention is focused on rotation speed and eccentricity influence on the flow. Calculations were done for both Newtonian liquid and Bingham plastic liquid with the yield stress threshold 50 Pa.
On field line resonances of hydromagnetic Alfven waves in dipole magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Liu; Cowley, S.C.
1989-07-01
Using the dipole magnetic field model, we have developed the theory of field line resonances of hydromagnetic Alfven waves in general magnetic field geometries. In this model, the Alfven speed thus varies both perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field. Specifically, it is found that field line resonances do persist in the dipole model. The corresponding singular solutions near the resonant field lines as well as the natural definition of standing shear Alfven eigenfunctions have also been systematically derived. 11 refs
Granular flow in a rotating drum: Experiments and theory
Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Li, L.; Smith, B.; Grinspun, E.
2015-12-01
Erosion at the base of a debris flow fundamentally controls how large the flow will become and how far it will travel. Experimental observations of this important phenomenon are rather limited, and this lack has led theoretical treatments to making ad hoc assumptions about the basal process. In light of this, we carried out a combination of laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis of granular flow in a rotating drum, a canonical example of steady grain motion in which entrainment rates can be precisely controlled. Our main result is that basal sediment is entrained as the velocity profile adjusts to imbalance in the flow of kinetic energy.Our experimental apparatus consisted of a 40cm-diameter drum, 4cm-deep, half-filled with 2.3mm grains. Rotation rates varied from 1-70 rpm. We varied the effective scale by varying effective gravity from 1g to 70g on a geotechnical centrifuge. The field of grain motion was recorded using high-speed video and mapped using particle tracking velocimetry. In tandem we developed a depth-averaged theory using balance equations for mass, momentum and kinetic energy. We assumed a linearized GDR Midi granular rheology [da Cruz, 2005] and a Coulomb friction law along the sidewalls [Jop et al., 2005]. A scaling analysis of our equations yields a dimensionless "entrainment number" En, which neatly parametrizes the flow geometry in the drum for a wide range of variables, e.g., rotation rate and effective gravity. At low En, the flow profile is planar and kinetic energy is balanced locally in the flow layer. At high En, the flow profile is sigmoidal (yin-yang shaped) and the kinetic energy is dominated by longitudinal, streamwise transfer. We observe different scaling behavior under each of these flow regimes, e.g., between En and kinetic energy, surface slope and flow depth. Our theory correctly predicts their scaling exponents and the value of En at which the regime transition takes place. We are also able to make corrections for
Wang, Chunze; Tang, Fei; Li, Qi; Wang, Xiaohao
2018-03-01
The flow characteristics of microscale rotor-stator cavity flow and the drag reduction mechanism of the superhydrophobic surface with high shearing stress were investigated. A microscale rotating flow testing system was established based on micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV), and the flow distribution under different Reynolds numbers (7.02 × 103 ≤ Re ≤ 3.51 × 104) and cavity aspect ratios (0.013 ≤ G ≤ 0.04) was measured. Experiments show that, for circumferential velocity, the flow field distributes linearly in rotating Couette flow in the case of low Reynolds number along the z-axis, while the boundary layer separates and forms Batchelor flow as the Reynolds number increases. The separation of the boundary layer is accelerated with the increase of cavity aspect ratio. The radial velocities distribute in an S-shape along the z-axis. As the Reynolds number and cavity aspect ratio increase, the maximum value of radial velocity increases, but the extremum position at rotating boundary remains at Z* = 0.85 with no obvious change, while the extremum position at the stationary boundary changes along the z-axis. The model for the generation of flow disturbance and the transmission process from the stationary to the rotating boundary was given by perturbation analysis. Under the action of superhydrophobic surface, velocity slip occurs near the rotating boundary and the shearing stress reduces, which leads to a maximum drag reduction over 51.4%. The contours of vortex swirling strength suggest that the superhydrophobic surface can suppress the vortex swirling strength and repel the vortex structures, resulting in the decrease of shearing Reynolds stress and then drag reduction.
Near-Wall Turbulence Modelling of Rotating and Curved Shear Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pettersson, Bjoern Anders
1997-12-31
This thesis deals with verification and refinement of turbulence models within the framework of the Reynolds-averaged approach. It pays special attention to modelling the near-wall region, where the turbulence is strongly non-homogeneous and anisotropic. It also studies in detail the effects associated with an imposed rotation of the reference frame or streamline curvature. The objective with near-wall turbulence closure modelling is to formulate a set of equations governing single point turbulence statistics, which can be solved in the region of the flow which extends to the wall. This is in contrast to the commonly adopted wall-function approach in which the wall-boundary conditions are replaced by matching conditions in the logarithmic region. The near-wall models allow more flexibility by not requiring any such universal behaviour. Assessment of the novel elliptic relaxation approach to model the proximity of a solid boundary reveals an encouraging potential used in conjunction with second-moment and eddy-viscosity closures. The most natural level of closure modelling to predict flows affected by streamline curvatures or an imposed rotation of the reference frame is at the second-moment closure (SMC) level. Although SMCs naturally accounts for the effects of system rotation, the usual application of a scalar dissipation rate equation is shown to require ad hoc corrections in some cases in order to give good results. The elliptic relaxation approach is also used in conjunction with non-linear pressure-strain models and very encouraging results are obtained for rotating flows. Rotational induced secondary motions are vital to predicting the effects of system rotation. Some severe weaknesses of non-linear pressure-strain models are also indicated. Finally, a modelling methodology for anisotropic dissipation in nearly homogeneous turbulence are proposed. 84 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs.
Heat transfer in rotating serpentine passages with trips normal to the flow
Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Graziani, R. A.; Yeh, F. C.
1991-01-01
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. The experiments were conducted with a large scale, multipass, heat transfer model with both radially inward and outward flow. Trip strips on the leading and trailing surfaces of the radial coolant passages were used to produce the rough walls. An analysis of the governing flow equations showed that four parameters influence the heat transfer in rotating passages: coolant-to-wall temperature ratio, Rossby number, Reynolds number, and radius-to-passage hydraulic diameter ratio. The first three of these four parameters were varied over ranges which are typical of advanced gas turbine engine operating conditions. Results were correlated and compared to previous results from stationary and rotating similar models with trip strips. The heat transfer coefficients on surfaces, where the heat increased with rotation and buoyancy, varied by as much as a factor of four. Maximum values of the heat transfer coefficients with high rotation were only slightly above the highest levels obtained with the smooth wall model. The heat transfer coefficients on surfaces, where the heat transfer decreased with rotation, varied by as much as a factor of three due to rotation and buoyancy. It was concluded that both Coriolis and buoyancy effects must be considered in turbine blade cooling designs with trip strips and that the effects of rotation were markedly different depending upon the flow direction.
Similarity flows between a rotating and a stationary disk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmann, J.H.; Qassim, R.Y.
1981-07-01
The radial distribution of fluid pressure on a stationary disk coaxial with a rotating disk is determined experimentally for various inter-disc spacings. The results show that similarity flows are only possible for both small and large values of this distance. In the former case, the flow faraway from the stationary disk appears to be that suggested by Batchelor, while in the latter case, the flow turns out to be in accordance with the assumption of Stewartson. (Author) [pt
Fomichev, V. P.; Yadrenkin, M. A.
2017-12-01
This Letter presents a systematization of the effects observed in experiments on the magnetogasdynamic interaction near the surface of a plate in a high-speed gas flow. Ranges of the hydromagnetic-interaction parameter determining various levels of influence on the shock-wave structure of the flow are established.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Abdullah, Z. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2016-01-01
This research work addresses the three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles. Flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. The effects of thermal radiation and internal heat generation are encountered in energy expressions. More realistic convective boundary conditions at the surface are employed instead of constant surface temperature and mass species conditions. Boundary layer assumptions lead to the governing non-linear mathematical model. Resulting equations through momentum, energy and mass species are made dimensionless using suitable variables. The solution expressions of dimensionless velocities, temperature and nanoparticle concentration have been computed for the convergent series solutions. The impacts of interesting parameters on the dimensionless quantities are displayed and interpreted. The values of physical quantities are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid is considered. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are encountered. • Heat transfer analysis is performed with thermal radiation. • Results are plotted and visualized.
The sound field of a rotating dipole in a plug flow.
Wang, Zhao-Huan; Belyaev, Ivan V; Zhang, Xiao-Zheng; Bi, Chuan-Xing; Faranosov, Georgy A; Dowell, Earl H
2018-04-01
An analytical far field solution for a rotating point dipole source in a plug flow is derived. The shear layer of the jet is modelled as an infinitely thin cylindrical vortex sheet and the far field integral is calculated by the stationary phase method. Four numerical tests are performed to validate the derived solution as well as to assess the effects of sound refraction from the shear layer. First, the calculated results using the derived formulations are compared with the known solution for a rotating dipole in a uniform flow to validate the present model in this fundamental test case. After that, the effects of sound refraction for different rotating dipole sources in the plug flow are assessed. Then the refraction effects on different frequency components of the signal at the observer position, as well as the effects of the motion of the source and of the type of source are considered. Finally, the effect of different sound speeds and densities outside and inside the plug flow is investigated. The solution obtained may be of particular interest for propeller and rotor noise measurements in open jet anechoic wind tunnels.
Secondary flows and particle centrifugation in slightly tilted rotating pipes
Brouwers, J.J.H.
1995-01-01
A theoretical analysis is presented of viscous incompressible laminar flow in a pipe which rotates around an axis held at small angle with respect to its symmetry-axis. Analogous to the results of Barua and Benton [1, 2], solutions in closed-form are given for circulatory flows in the
Thomas, S.; Faghri, A.; Hankey, W.
1990-01-01
The mean thickness of a thin liquid film of deionized water with a free surface on a stationary and rotating horizontal disk has been measured with a nonobtrusive capacitance technique. The measurements were taken when the rotational speed was 0-300 RPM and the flow rate was 7.0-15.0 LPM. A flow visualization study of the thin film was also performed to determine the characteristics of the waves on the free surface. When the disk was stationary, a circular hydraulic jump was present on the disk. Surface waves were found in the supercritical and subcritical regions at all flow rates studied. When the rotational speed of the disk is low, a standing wave at the edge of the disk was present. As the rotational speed increased, the surface waves changed from the wavy-laminar region to a region in which the waves ran nearly radially across the disk on top of a thin substrate of fluid.
Parallel computation of rotating flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundin, Lars Kristian; Barker, Vincent A.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
1999-01-01
This paper deals with the simulation of 3‐D rotating flows based on the velocity‐vorticity formulation of the Navier‐Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates. The governing equations are discretized by a finite difference method. The solution is advanced to a new time level by a two‐step process...... is that of solving a singular, large, sparse, over‐determined linear system of equations, and the iterative method CGLS is applied for this purpose. We discuss some of the mathematical and numerical aspects of this procedure and report on the performance of our software on a wide range of parallel computers. Darbe...
Unsteady flow simulations of Pelton turbine at different rotational speeds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minsuk Choi
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This article presents numerical simulations of a small Pelton turbine suitable for desalination system. A commercial flow solver was adopted to resolve difficulties in the numerical simulation for Pelton turbine such as the relative motion of the turbine runner to the injector and two-phase flow of water and air. To decrease the numerical diffusion of the water jet, a new topology with only hexagonal mesh was suggested for the computational mesh around the complex geometry of a bucket. The predicted flow coefficient, net head coefficient, and overall efficiency showed a good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validation of the numerical results, the pattern of wet area on the bucket inner surface has been analyzed at different rotational speeds, and an attempt to find the connection between rotational speeds, torque, and efficiency has been made.
Flow control by combining radial pulsation and rotation of a cylinder in uniform flow
Oualli, H.; Hanchi, S.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.
2008-11-01
Flow visualizations and hot-wire measurements are carried out to study a circular cylinder undergoing simultaneous radial pulsation and rotation and placed in a uniform flow. The Reynolds number is in the range of 1,000--22,000, for which transition in the shear layers and near wake is expected. Our previous experimental and numerical investigations in this subcritical flow regime have established the existence of an important energy transfer mechanism from the mean flow to the fluctuations. Radial pulsations cause and enhance that energy transfer. Certain values of the amplitude and frequency of the pulsations lead to negative drag (i.e. thrust). The nonlinear interaction between the Magnus effect induced by the steady rotation of the cylinder and the near-wake modulated by the bluff body's pulsation leads to alteration of the omnipresent Kármán vortices and the possibility of optimizing the lift-to-drag ratio as well as the rates of heat and mass transfer. Other useful applications include the ability to enhance or suppress the turbulence intensity, and to avoid the potentially destructive lock-in phenomenon in the wake of bridges, electric cables and other structures.
Elastic fingering in rotating Hele-Shaw flows
Carvalho, Gabriel D.; Gadê lha, Hermes; Miranda, José A.
2014-01-01
The centrifugally driven viscous fingering problem arises when two immiscible fluids of different densities flow in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell. In this conventional setting an interplay between capillary and centrifugal forces makes the fluid-fluid interface unstable, leading to the formation of fingered structures that compete dynamically and reach different lengths. In this context, it is known that finger competition is very sensitive to changes in the viscosity contrast between the fluids. We study a variant of such a rotating flow problem where the fluids react and produce a gellike phase at their separating boundary. This interface is assumed to be elastic, presenting a curvature-dependent bending rigidity. A perturbative weakly nonlinear approach is used to investigate how the elastic nature of the interface affects finger competition events. Our results unveil a very different dynamic scenario, in which finger length variability is not regulated by the viscosity contrast, but rather determined by two controlling quantities: a characteristic radius and a rigidity fraction parameter. By properly tuning these quantities one can describe a whole range of finger competition behaviors even if the viscosity contrast is kept unchanged. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Elastic fingering in rotating Hele-Shaw flows
Carvalho, Gabriel D.
2014-05-21
The centrifugally driven viscous fingering problem arises when two immiscible fluids of different densities flow in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell. In this conventional setting an interplay between capillary and centrifugal forces makes the fluid-fluid interface unstable, leading to the formation of fingered structures that compete dynamically and reach different lengths. In this context, it is known that finger competition is very sensitive to changes in the viscosity contrast between the fluids. We study a variant of such a rotating flow problem where the fluids react and produce a gellike phase at their separating boundary. This interface is assumed to be elastic, presenting a curvature-dependent bending rigidity. A perturbative weakly nonlinear approach is used to investigate how the elastic nature of the interface affects finger competition events. Our results unveil a very different dynamic scenario, in which finger length variability is not regulated by the viscosity contrast, but rather determined by two controlling quantities: a characteristic radius and a rigidity fraction parameter. By properly tuning these quantities one can describe a whole range of finger competition behaviors even if the viscosity contrast is kept unchanged. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Couple stress fluid flow in a rotating channel with peristalsis
Abd elmaboud, Y.; Abdelsalam, Sara I.; Mekheimer, Kh. S.
2018-04-01
This article describes a new model for obtaining closed-form semi-analytical solutions of peristaltic flow induced by sinusoidal wave trains propagating with constant speed on the walls of a two-dimensional rotating infinite channel. The channel rotates with a constant angular speed about the z - axis and is filled with couple stress fluid. The governing equations of the channel deformation and the flow rate inside the channel are derived using the lubrication theory approach. The resulting equations are solved, using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM), for exact solutions to the longitudinal velocity distribution, pressure gradient, flow rate due to secondary velocity, and pressure rise per wavelength. The effect of various values of physical parameters, such as, Taylor's number and couple stress parameter, together with some interesting features of peristaltic flow are discussed through graphs. The trapping phenomenon is investigated for different values of parameters under consideration. It is shown that Taylor's number and the couple stress parameter have an increasing effect on the longitudinal velocity distribution till half of the channel, on the flow rate due to secondary velocity, and on the number of closed streamlines circulating the bolus.
A Variable Thermal Conductivity Flow of A Micropolar Fluid Over A ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We revisited the paper of Mahmoud et al, on the hydromagnetic boundary layer micropolar fluid flow over a stretching surface embedded in a non-Darcian porous medium with radiation.We show that even when the thermal conductivity depends linearly or quadratically on temperature the problem still has a unique solution.
Hall effects on unsteady MHD flow between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, R.N., E-mail: barik.rabinarayan@rediffmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Trident Academy of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Dash, G.C., E-mail: gcdash@indiatimes.com [Department of Mathematics, S.O.A. University, Bhubaneswar (India); Rath, P.K., E-mail: pkrath_1967@yahoo.in [Department of Mathematics, B.R.M. International Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)
2013-01-15
Hall effects on the unsteady MHD rotating flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes have been studied. There exists an axisymmetric solution to this problem. The governing equations are solved by applying Laplace transform method. It is found that the torque experienced by the disks decreases with an increase in either the Hall parameter, m or the rotation parameter, S{sup 2}. Further, the axis of rotation has no effect on the fluid flow. (author)
Hall effects on unsteady MHD flow between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, R.N.; Dash, G.C.; Rath, P.K.
2013-01-01
Hall effects on the unsteady MHD rotating flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes have been studied. There exists an axisymmetric solution to this problem. The governing equations are solved by applying Laplace transform method. It is found that the torque experienced by the disks decreases with an increase in either the Hall parameter, m or the rotation parameter, S 2 . Further, the axis of rotation has no effect on the fluid flow. (author)
Ouazib, Nabila; Salhi, Yacine; Si-Ahmed, El-Khider; Legrand, Jack; Degrez, G.
2017-07-01
Numerical methods for solving convection-diffusion-reaction (CDR) scalar transport equation in three-dimensional flow are used in the present investigation. The flow is confined between two concentric cylinders both the inner cylinder and the outer one are allowed to rotate. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) have been achieved to study the effects of the gravitational and the centrifugal potentials on the stability of incompressible Taylor-Couette flow. The Navier-Stokes equations and the uncoupled convection-diffusion-reaction equation are solved using a spectral development in one direction combined together with a finite element discretization in the two remaining directions. The complexity of the patterns is highlighted. Since, it increases as the rotation rates of the cylinders increase. In addition, the effect of the counter-rotation of the cylinders on the mass transfer is pointed out.
The Rolling Transition in a Granular Flow along a Rotating Wall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aurélie Le Quiniou
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The flow of a dry granular material composed of spherical particles along a rotating boundary has been studied by the discrete element method (DEM. This type of flow is used, among others, as a process to spread particles. The flow consists of several phases. A compression phase along the rotating wall is followed by an elongation of the flow along the same boundary. Eventually, the particles slide or roll independently along the boundary. We show that the main motion of the flow can be characterized by a complex deformation rate of traction/compression and shear. We define numerically an effective friction coefficient of the flow on the scale of the continuum and show a strong decrease of this effective friction beyond a certain critical friction coefficient μ*. We correlate this phenomenon with the apparition of a new transition from a sliding regime to a rolling without sliding regime that we called the rolling transition; this dynamic transition is controlled by the value of the friction coefficient between the particle and the wall. We show that the spherical shape for the particles may represent an optimum for the flow in terms of energetic.
Parallel computation of rotating flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundin, Lars Kristian; Barker, Vincent A.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
1999-01-01
This paper deals with the simulation of 3‐D rotating flows based on the velocity‐vorticity formulation of the Navier‐Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates. The governing equations are discretized by a finite difference method. The solution is advanced to a new time level by a two‐step process....... In the first step, the vorticity at the new time level is computed using the velocity at the previous time level. In the second step, the velocity at the new time level is computed using the new vorticity. We discuss here the second part which is by far the most time‐consuming. The numerical problem...
Ekman effects in a rotating flow over bottom topography
Zavala Sansón, L.; Heijst, van G.J.F.
2002-01-01
This paper presents a general two-dimensional model for rotating barotropic flows over topography. The model incorporates in a vorticity–stream function formulation both inviscid topography effects, associated with stretching and squeezing of fluid columns enforced by their motion over variable
Reynolds-Stress and Triple-Product Models Applied to Flows with Rotation and Curvature
Olsen, Michael E.
2016-01-01
Predictions for Reynolds-stress and triple product turbulence models are compared for flows with significant rotational effects. Driver spinning cylinder flowfield and Zaets rotating pipe case are to be investigated at a minimum.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharf Abdusalam M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In the oil and gas industries, understanding the behaviour of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates, is a significantly important issue in drilling wells. The main emphasis is placed on experimental (using an available rig and computational (employing CFD software investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The measured axial velocity profiles, in the cases of low axial flow, show that the axial velocity is influenced by the rotation speed of the inner pipe in the region of almost 33% of the annulus near the inner pipe, and influenced inversely in the rest of the annulus. The position of the maximum axial velocity is shifted from the centre to be nearer the inner pipe, by increasing the rotation speed. However, in the case of higher flow, as the rotation speed increases, the axial velocity is reduced and the position of the maximum axial velocity is skewed towards the centre of the annulus. There is a reduction of the swirl velocity corresponding to the rise of the volumetric flow rate.
Anomalous scaling of passive scalars in rotating flows.
Rodriguez Imazio, P; Mininni, P D
2011-06-01
We present results of direct numerical simulations of passive scalar advection and diffusion in turbulent rotating flows. Scaling laws and the development of anisotropy are studied in spectral space, and in real space using an axisymmetric decomposition of velocity and passive scalar structure functions. The passive scalar is more anisotropic than the velocity field, and its power spectrum follows a spectral law consistent with ~ k[Please see text](-3/2). This scaling is explained with phenomenological arguments that consider the effect of rotation. Intermittency is characterized using scaling exponents and probability density functions of velocity and passive scalar increments. In the presence of rotation, intermittency in the velocity field decreases more noticeably than in the passive scalar. The scaling exponents show good agreement with Kraichnan's prediction for passive scalar intermittency in two dimensions, after correcting for the observed scaling of the second-order exponent.
On Stationary Navier-Stokes Flows Around a Rotating Obstacle in Two-Dimensions
Higaki, Mitsuo; Maekawa, Yasunori; Nakahara, Yuu
2018-05-01
We study the two-dimensional stationary Navier-Stokes equations describing the flows around a rotating obstacle. The unique existence of solutions and their asymptotic behavior at spatial infinity are established when the rotation speed of the obstacle and the given exterior force are sufficiently small.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nemati Hasan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the two-dimensional laminar flow and heat transfer a rotating circular cylinder with uniform planar shear, where the free-stream velocity varies linearly across the cylinder using Multi-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann method is conducted. The effects of variation of Reynolds number, rotational speed ratio at shear rate 0.1, blockage ratio 0.1 and Prandtl number 0.71 are studied. The Reynolds number changing from 50 to 160 for three rotational speed ratios of 0, 0.5, 1 is investigated. Results show that flow and heat transfer depends significantly on the rotational speed ratio as well as the Reynolds number. The effect of Reynolds number on the vortex-shedding frequency and period-surface Nusselt numbers is overall very strong compared with rotational speed ratio. Flow and heat conditions characteristics such as lift and drag coefficients, Strouhal number and Nusselt numbers are studied.
Polygon formation and surface flow on a rotating fluid surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergmann, Raymond; Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild; Homan, T. A. M.
2011-01-01
We present a study of polygons forming on the free surface of a water flow confined to a stationary cylinder and driven by a rotating bottom plate as described by Jansson et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 96, 2006, 174502). In particular, we study the case of a triangular structure, either completely...... there the symmetry breaking proceeds like a low-dimensional linear instability. We show that the circular state and the unstable manifold connecting it with the polygon solution are universal in the sense that very different initial conditions lead to the same circular state and unstable manifold. For a wet triangle......, we measure the surface flows by particle image velocimetry (PIV) and show that there are three vortices present, but that the strength of these vortices is far too weak to account for the rotation velocity of the polygon. We show that partial blocking of the surface flow destroys the polygons and re...
Precession of a rapidly rotating cylinder flow: traverse through resonance
Lopez, Juan; Marques, Francisco
2014-11-01
The flow in a rapidly rotating cylinder that is titled and also rotating around another axis can undergo sudden transitions to turbulence. Experimental observations of this have been associated with triadic resonances. The experimental and theoretical results are well-established in the literature, but there remains a lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms at play in the sudden transition from laminar to turbulent flow with very small variations in the governing parameters. Here, we present direct numerical simulations of a traverse in parameter space through an isolated resonance, and describe in detail the bifurcations involved in the sudden transition. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1336410 and Spanish Ministry of Education and Science Grant (with FEDER funds) FIS2013-40880.
Magnetohydrodynamics near a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, J.R.
1975-01-01
A numerical computer study of hydromagnetic flow near a black hole is presented. First, the equations of motion are developed to a form suitable for numerical computations. Second, the results of calculations describing the magnetic torques exerted by a rotating black hole on a surrounding magnetic plasma and the electric charge that is induced on the surface of the black hole are presented. (auth)
Rotating turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection subject to harmonically forced flow reversals
Geurts, B.J.; Kunnen, R.P.J.
2014-01-01
The characteristics of turbulent flow in a cylindrical Rayleigh–B´enard convection cell which can be modified considerably in case rotation is included in the dynamics. By incorporating the additional effects of an Euler force, i.e., effects induced by nonconstant rotation rates, a remarkably strong
Rotating turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection subject to harmonically forced flow reversals
Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kunnen, Rudie P.J.
2014-01-01
The characteristics of turbulent flow in a cylindrical Rayleigh–Bénard convection cell which can be modified considerably in case rotation is included in the dynamics. By incorporating the additional effects of an Euler force, i.e., effects induced by non-constant rotation rates, a remarkably strong
Modeling dynamic stall on wind turbine blades under rotationally augmented flow fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guntur, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schreck, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sorensen, N. N. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bergami, L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)
2015-04-22
It is well known that airfoils under unsteady flow conditions with a periodically varying angle of attack exhibit aerodynamic characteristics different from those under steady flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as dynamic stall. It is also well known that the steady aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils in the inboard region of a rotating blade differ from those under steady two-dimensional (2D) flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as rotational augmentation. This paper presents an investigation of these two phenomena together in the inboard parts of wind turbine blades. This analysis is carried out using data from three sources: (1) the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase VI experimental data, including constant as well as continuously pitching blade conditions during axial operation, (2) data from unsteady Delayed Detached Eddy Simulations (DDES) carried out using the Technical University of Denmark’s in-house flow solver Ellipsys3D, and (3) data from a simplified model based on the blade element momentum method with a dynamic stall subroutine that uses rotationally augmented steady-state polars obtained from steady Phase VI experimental sequences, instead of the traditional 2D nonrotating data. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the blade loads estimated by the DDES simulations are compared to three select cases of the N sequence experimental data, which serves as a validation of the DDES method. Results show reasonable agreement between the two data in two out of three cases studied. Second, the dynamic time series of the lift and the moment polars obtained from the experiments are compared to those from the dynamic stall subroutine that uses the rotationally augmented steady polars. This allowed the differences between the stall phenomenon on the inboard parts of harmonically pitching blades on a rotating wind turbine and the classic dynamic stall representation in 2D flow to be
MHD rotating flow and heat transfer through a channel with Hall effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Sushil Kumar
2016-01-01
The present investigation is the flow and heat transfer of a viscous fluid through a rotating channel about the vertical axis under the influence of transverse magnetic field. The linear temperature dependent density has been introduced along with the induced magnetic field in horizontal directions. To study the temperature distribution, the energy equation consisting of viscous dissipation and joule heating term is solved analytically. The velocity distribution in axial and vertical directions is found to be interesting such as the magnetic Reynolds number and the parameter appears due to buoyancy forces have a substantial contribution to influence the flow pattern. Also the results obtained in the study for magnetic induction variables as well as temperature distribution put forward some significant insight in the fluid flow and heat transfer. The important observation of the present study is that the temperature distribution takes the higher values in the vicinity of the upper wall and this happens due to the fact of buoyancy force and channel rotation. This is a key parameter to worm up or cool down the fluid in a useful purposes. - Highlights: • The important observation of the present study is that the temperature distribution takes the higher values in the vicinity of the upper wall and this happens due to the fact of buoyancy force and channel rotation. • Buoyancy is a key parameter to worm up or cool down the fluid in useful purposes. • It may be predicted that the effect of buoyancy force and magnetic induction force suppress the flow at the lower wall and the effect of the forces lost its potential at the layers near to the upper walls. • It may suggest that the bouncy effect has more prominent role in the fluid flow phenomena as well as heat transfer than magnetic induction and Lorentz force. • The rotation enhances the advantage of circulation of fluid in up and down and tries to make the heat balance within the layers. Our result is true
Viscosity estimation utilizing flow velocity field measurements in a rotating magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshimura, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.
2008-01-01
The importance of viscosity in determining plasma flow structures has been widely recognized. In laboratory plasmas, however, viscosity measurements have been seldom performed so far. In this paper we present and discuss an estimation method of effective plasma kinematic viscosity utilizing flow velocity field measurements. Imposing steady and axisymmetric conditions, we derive the expression for radial flow velocity from the azimuthal component of the ion fluid equation. The expression contains kinematic viscosity, vorticity of azimuthal rotation and its derivative, collision frequency, azimuthal flow velocity and ion cyclotron frequency. Therefore all quantities except the viscosity are given provided that the flow field can be measured. We applied this method to a rotating magnetized argon plasma produced by the Hyper-I device. The flow velocity field measurements were carried out using a directional Langmuir probe installed in a tilting motor drive unit. The inward ion flow in radial direction, which is not driven in collisionless inviscid plasmas, was clearly observed. As a result, we found the anomalous viscosity, the value of which is two orders of magnitude larger than the classical one. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armellini, A.; Casarsa, L.; Mucignat, C.
2011-01-01
The flow field inside a modern internal cooling channel specifically designed for the trailing edge of gas turbine blades has been experimentally investigated under static and rotating conditions. The passage is characterized by a trapezoidal cross-section of high aspect-ratio and coolant discharge at the blade tip and along the wedge-shaped trailing edge, where seven elongated pedestals are also installed. The tests were performed under engine similar conditions with respect to both Reynolds (Re = 20,000) and Rotation (Ro = 0, 0.23) numbers, while particular care was put in the implementation of proper pressure conditions at the channel exits to allow the comparison between data under static and rotating conditions. The flow velocity was measured by means of 2D and Stereo-PIV techniques applied in the absolute frame of reference. The relative velocity fields were obtained through a pre-processing procedure of the PIV images developed on purpose. Time averaged flow fields inside the stationary and rotating channels are analyzed and compared. A substantial modification of the whole flow behavior due to rotational effects is commented, nevertheless no trace of rotation induced secondary Coriolis vortices has been found because of the progressive flow discharge along the trailing edge. For Ro = 0.23, at the channel inlet the high aspect-ratio of the cross section enhances inviscid flow effects which determine a mass flow redistribution towards the leading edge side. At the trailing edge exits, the distortion of the flow path observed in the channel central portion causes a strong reduction in the dimensions of the 3D separation structures that surround the pedestals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Ming-Han [Ta-Hwa Institute of Technology, Department of Automation Engineering, Hsinchu (Taiwan); Chen, Chin-Tai [Ta-Hwa Institute of Technology, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Hsinchu (Taiwan)
2006-01-01
This paper presents a numerical study of the effect of rotation on the formation of longitudinal vortices in mixed convection flow over a flat plate. The criterion on the position of marking the onset of longitudinal vortices is defined in this paper. The onset position characterized by the Goertler number G{sub {delta}} depends on the Grashof number, the rotation number Ro, the Prandtl number Pr and the wave number. The results show that negative rotation stabilizes the boundary layer flow on the surface. On the contrary, positive rotation destabilizes the flow. The numerical data are compared with the experimental results. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nigro, G; Carbone, V
2015-01-01
Conventional surveys on the existence of singularities in fluid systems for vanishing dissipation have hitherto tried to infer some insight by searching for spatial features developing in asymptotic regimes. This approach has not yet produced a conclusive answer. One of the difficulties preventing us from getting a definitive answer is the limitations of direct numerical simulations which do not yet have a high enough resolution so far as to properly describe spatial fine structures in asymptotic regimes. In this paper, instead of searching for spatial details, we suggest seeking a principle, that would be able to discriminate between singular or not-singular behavior, among the integral and purely dynamical properties of a fluid system. We investigate the singularities developed by a hydromagnetic shell model during the magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade. Our results show that when the viscosity is equal to the magnetic diffusivity (unit magnetic Prandtl number) singularities appear in a finite time. A complex behavior is observed at extreme magnetic Prandtl numbers. In particular, the singularities persist in the limit of vanishing viscosity, while a complete regularization is observed in the limit of vanishing diffusivity. This dynamics is related to differences between the magnetic and the kinetic energy cascades towards small scales. Finally a comparison between the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional cases leads to conjecture that the existence of singularities may be related to the conservation of different ideal invariants. (paper)
Large eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer by the lattice Boltzmann method
Liou, Tong-Miin; Wang, Chun-Sheng
2018-01-01
Due to its advantage in parallel efficiency and wall treatment over conventional Navier-Stokes equation-based methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has emerged as an efficient tool in simulating turbulent heat and fluid flows. To properly simulate the rotating turbulent flow and heat transfer, which plays a pivotal role in tremendous engineering devices such as gas turbines, wind turbines, centrifugal compressors, and rotary machines, the lattice Boltzmann equations must be reformulated in a rotating coordinate. In this study, a single-rotating reference frame (SRF) formulation of the Boltzmann equations is newly proposed combined with a subgrid scale model for the large eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer. The subgrid scale closure is modeled by a shear-improved Smagorinsky model. Since the strain rates are also locally determined by the non-equilibrium part of the distribution function, the calculation process is entirely local. The pressure-driven turbulent channel flow with spanwise rotation and heat transfer is used for validating the approach. The Reynolds number characterized by the friction velocity and channel half height is fixed at 194, whereas the rotation number in terms of the friction velocity and channel height ranges from 0 to 3.0. A working fluid of air is chosen, which corresponds to a Prandtl number of 0.71. Calculated results are demonstrated in terms of mean velocity, Reynolds stress, root mean square (RMS) velocity fluctuations, mean temperature, RMS temperature fluctuations, and turbulent heat flux. Good agreement is found between the present LBM predictions and previous direct numerical simulation data obtained by solving the conventional Navier-Stokes equations, which confirms the capability of the proposed SRF LBM and subgrid scale relaxation time formulation for the computation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer.
Evaluation of Flow Accelerated Corrosion of Carbon Steel with Rotating Cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Tae Jun; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Hong Pyo
2012-01-01
Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of the carbon steel piping in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been major issue in nuclear industry. Rotating cylinder FAC test facility was designed and fabricated and then performance of the facility was evaluated. The facility is very simple in design and economic in fabrication and can be used in material and chemistry screening test. The facility is equipped with on line monitoring of pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen(DO), and temperature. Fluid velocity is controlled with rotating speed of the cylinder with a test specimen. FAC test of SA106 Gr. B carbon steel under 4 m/s flow velocity was performed with the rotating cylinder at DO concentration of less than 1 ppb and of 1.3 ppm. Also a corrosion test of the carbon steel at static condition, that is at zero fluid velocity, of test specimen and solution was performed at pH from 8 to 10 for comparison with the FAC data. For corrosion test in static condition, the amount of non adherent corrosion product was almost constant at pH ranging from 8 to 10. But adherent corrosion product decreased with increasing pH. This trend is consistent with decrease of Fe solubility with an increase in pH. For FAC test with rotating cylinder FAC test facility, the amount of non adherent corrosion product was also almost same for both DO concentrations. The rotating cylinder FAC test facility will be further improved by redesigning rotating cylinder and FAC specimen geometry for future work
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G Rana
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The thermosolutal instability of compressible Walters' (model B' elastico-viscous rotating fluid permeated with suspended particles (fine dust in the presence of vertical magnetic field in porous medium is considered. By applying normal mode analysis method, the dispersion relation has been derived and solved analytically. It is observed that the rotation, magnetic field, suspended particles and viscoelasticity introduce oscillatory modes. For stationary convection the Walters' (model B' fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid and it is observed that the rotation and stable solute gradient has stabilizing effects and suspended particles are found to have destabilizing effect on the system, whereas the medium permeability has stabilizing or destabilizing effect on the system under certain conditions. The magnetic field has destabilizing effect in the absence of rotation, whereas in the presence of rotation, magnetic field has stabilizing or destabilizing effect under certain conditions.
Modeling dynamic stall on wind turbine blades under rotationally augmented flow fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, Scott
2016-01-01
a reduced order dynamic stall model that uses rotationally augmented steady-state polars obtained from steady Phase VI experimental sequences, instead of the traditional two-dimensional, non-rotating data. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the blade loads estimated by the DDES simulations are compared...... Experiment Phase VI experimental data, including constant as well as continuously pitching blade conditions during axial operation; (2) data from unsteady delayed detached eddy simulations (DDES) carried out using the Technical University of Denmark’s in-house flow solver Ellipsys3D; and (3) data from...... with those from the dynamic stall model. This allowed the differences between the stall phenomenon on the inboard parts of harmonically pitching blades on a rotating wind turbine and the classic dynamic stall representation in two-dimensional flow to be investigated. Results indicated a good qualitative...
Lattice gas automaton scheme with stochastic particle movement for a rotated fluid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishiguro, Misako
2002-01-01
Lattice gas automaton (LGA) models developed so far are just for Cartesian geometries, and no direct approach to rotated fluid flows is found. In this paper, LGA method is applied to model a two-dimensional rotated flow. Several problems specific to the rotated flow are to be solved: hexagonal lattice geometry to effectively identify the neighbors, boundary condition for irregular walls, multi-speed scheme to represent angular-oriented fluid velocity υ θ ≅γω, shape of macroscopic domain for statistics, formula to obtain macroscopic quantities such as density and mean fluid velocities, application method of Fermi-Dirac function to the initial particle arrangement. For this purpose, FHP-I type hexagonal lattice model is revised and a new LGA model with stochastic particle movement is proposed. The results of the trial calculation are shown. It is also investigated whether or not the underlying microscopic Boolean equations newly introduced leads to Navier-Stokes equation. (author)
Lawless, Patrick B.; Fleeter, Sanford
1991-01-01
A mathematical model is developed to analyze the suppression of rotating stall in an incompressible flow centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser, thereby addressing the important need for centrifugal compressor rotating stall and surge control. In this model, the precursor to to instability is a weak rotating potential velocity perturbation in the inlet flow field that eventually develops into a finite disturbance. To suppress the growth of this potential disturbance, a rotating control vortical velocity disturbance is introduced into the impeller inlet flow. The effectiveness of this control is analyzed by matching the perturbation pressure in the compressor inlet and exit flow fields with a model for the unsteady behavior of the compressor. To demonstrate instability control, this model is then used to predict the control effectiveness for centrifugal compressor geometries based on a low speed research centrifugal compressor. These results indicate that reductions of 10 to 15 percent in the mean inlet flow coefficient at instability are possible with control waveforms of half the magnitude of the total disturbance at the inlet.
Direct numerical simulation of moderate-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres
Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih
2015-07-01
Direct numerical simulations with an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method are used to investigate the effects of particle rotation on flows past random arrays of mono-disperse spheres at moderate particle Reynolds numbers. This study is an extension of a previous study of the authors [Q. Zhou and L.-S. Fan, "Direct numerical simulation of low-Reynolds-number flow past arrays of rotating spheres," J. Fluid Mech. 765, 396-423 (2015)] that explored the effects of particle rotation at low particle Reynolds numbers. The results of this study indicate that as the particle Reynolds number increases, the normalized Magnus lift force decreases rapidly when the particle Reynolds number is in the range lower than 50. For the particle Reynolds number greater than 50, the normalized Magnus lift force approaches a constant value that is invariant with solid volume fractions. The proportional dependence of the Magnus lift force on the rotational Reynolds number (based on the angular velocity and the diameter of the spheres) observed at low particle Reynolds numbers does not change in the present study, making the Magnus lift force another possible factor that can significantly affect the overall dynamics of fluid-particle flows other than the drag force. Moreover, it is found that both the normalized drag force and the normalized torque increase with the increase of the particle Reynolds number and the solid volume fraction. Finally, correlations for the drag force, the Magnus lift force, and the torque in random arrays of rotating spheres at arbitrary solids volume fractions, rotational Reynolds numbers, and particle Reynolds numbers are formulated.
Aerodynamic structures and processes in rotationally augmented flow fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schreck, S.J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Robinson, M.C.
2007-01-01
. Experimental measurements consisted of surface pressure data statistics used to infer sectional boundary layer state and to quantify normal force levels. Computed predictions included high-resolution boundary layer topologies and detailed above-surface flow field structures. This synergy was exploited...... to reliably identify and track pertinent features in the rotating blade boundary layer topology as they evolved in response to varying wind speed. Subsequently, boundary layer state was linked to above-surface flow field structure and used to deduce mechanisms; underlying augmented aerodynamic force...
Flows about a rotating circular cylinder by the discrete-vortex method
Kimura, Takeyoshi; Tsutahara, Michihisa
1987-01-01
A numerical study has been conducted for flows past a rotating circular cylinder at high Reynolds numbers, using the discrete-vortex method. It is noted that the reverse Magnus effect is caused by the retreat of the separation point on the acceleration side. At high rotating speed, the nascent vortices of opposite directions are mixed faster, the wake becomes narrower, and predominating frequencies in the lift force disappear.
A study on heat-flow analysis of friction stir welding on a rotation affected zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Sung Wook; Jang, Beom Seon; Kim, Jae Woong
2014-01-01
In recent years, as interest in environmental protection and energy conservation rose, technological development for lightweight efficiency of transport equipment, such as aircrafts, railcars, automobiles and vessels, have been briskly proceeding. This has led to an expansion of the application of lightweight alloys such as aluminum and magnesium. For the welding of these lightweight alloys, friction stir welding has been in development by many researchers. Heat-flow analysis of friction stir welding is one such research. The flow and energy equation is solved using the computational fluid dynamic commercial program 'Fluent'. In this study, a rotation affected zone concept is imposed. The rotation affected zone is a constant volume. In this volume, flow is rotated the same as the tool rotation speed and so plastic dissipation occurs. Through this simulation, the temperature distribution results are calculated and the simulation results are compared with the experimental results.
Controlling the structure of forced convective flow by means of rotating magnetic-field inductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorkin, M.Z.; Mozgirs, O.Kh.
1993-01-01
The forced convective flow generated by a rotating magnetic-field inductor is used in a melt as a means of controlling the transfer of mass and heat in the case of directed crystallization. An obvious advantage in using a rotating field is the generation of azimuthal twisting of the fluid, this providing for an evening out of the crystallization conditions in the azimuthal direction under nonsymmetrical boundary conditions in an actual technological process. From the standpoint of affecting the crystallization processes it would be preferable to use an inductor which would allow alteration of the intensity and of the direction of the meridional flow. Mixing in the form of velocity pulsations generated by the inductor within the melt would be if interest from the standpoint of affecting the crystallization processes, in particular to intensify the crystallization purification. The authors propose the use of a double magnetohydrodynmic rotator which consists of two rotating magnetic-field inductors, separated in altitude, with separate power supplies. The supply of power to the inductors with various current loads allows the generation of a controllable nonuniformity in field distribution and in the azimuthal velocity through the altitude and thus allows control of both the intensity and configuration of the meridional flows. The dual rotator makes it possible to purposefully control the structure of the meridional flows and the pulsation component of velocity and can be recommended for use in processes of directed crystallization as well as in crystallization purification. 4 refs., 3 figs
Model for the saturation of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh--Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roderick, N.F.; Hussey, T.W.
1984-01-01
The saturation of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh--Taylor instability is caused by the reduction of driving current in the bubble region between the spikes formed as the instability develops. For short wavelengths linear magnetic field diffusion provides the necessary smoothing of the magnetic field to reduce the driving force. For wavelengths longer than the magnetic field diffusion length, the current is shorted through material which expands into the bubble region. This initially low density accumulates in the bubble and eventually provides a source of sufficiently high conductivity plasma which reduces the magnetic field penetration to the front of the bubble. Simple analytic models have been developed to verify and and quantify these predictions. These models have been compared with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic calculations for imploding plasma shells and give good agreement with these more detailed simulations
Vortex and Sink Flows in Eruptive Flares as a Model for Coronal Implosions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuccarello, F. P. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Aulanier, G.; Démoulin, P.; Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit’e, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Dudík, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Gilchrist, S. A., E-mail: francesco.zuccarello@wis.kuleuven.be, E-mail: dudik@asu.cas.cz [NorthWest Research Associates, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)
2017-03-10
Eruptive flares are sudden releases of magnetic energy that involve many phenomena, several of which can be explained by the standard 2D flare model and its realizations in 3D. We analyze a 3D magnetohydrodynamics simulation, in the framework of this model, that naturally explains the contraction of coronal loops in the proximity of the flare sites, as well as the inflow toward the region above the cusp-shaped loops. We find that two vorticity arcs located along the flanks of the erupting magnetic flux rope are generated as soon as the eruption begins. The magnetic arcades above the flux rope legs are then subjected to expansion, rotation, or contraction depending on which part of the vortex flow advects them. In addition to the vortices, an inward-directed magnetic pressure gradient exists in the current sheet below the magnetic flux rope. It results in the formation of a sink that is maintained by reconnection. We conclude that coronal loop apparent implosions observed during eruptive flares are the result of hydromagnetic effects related to the generation of vortex and sink flows when a flux rope moves in a magnetized environment.
Shear flow driven counter rotating vortices in an inhomogeneous dusty magnetoplasma
Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Ijaz, Aisha; Haque, Q.
2014-02-01
The coupling of Shukla-Varma (SV) and convective cell modes is discussed in the presence of non-Boltzmannian electron response and parallel equilibrium shear flow. In the linear case, a new dispersion relation is derived and analyzed. It is found that the coupled SV and convective cell modes destabilize in the presence of electron shear flow. On the other hand, in the nonlinear regime, it is shown that Shukla-Varma mode driven counter rotating vortices can be formed for the system under consideration. It is found that these vortices move slowly by comparison with the ion acoustic or electron drift-wave driven counter rotating vortices. The relevance of the present investigation with regard to space plasmas is also pointed out.
On soft stability loss in rotating turbulent MHD flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapusta, Arkady; Mikhailovich, Boris
2014-01-01
The problem of the stability of turbulent flows of liquid metal in a cylindrical cavity against small velocity disturbances under the action of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) has been studied. The flow is considered in the induction-free approximation using the ‘external’ friction model. A system of dimensionless equations is examined in cylindrical coordinates. The results of computations performed on the basis of this mathematical model using the exchange of stabilities principle have shown a good consistency between the critical values of computed and experimental Reynolds numbers. (paper)
Regimes of Axisymmetric Flow and Scaling Laws in a Rotating Annulus with Local Convective Forcing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susie Wright
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We present a numerical study of axisymmetric flow in a rotating annulus in which local thermal forcing, via a heated annular ring on the outside of the base and a cooled circular disk in the centre of the top surface, drives convection. This new configuration is a variant of the classical thermally-driven annulus, where uniform heating and cooling are applied through the outer and inner sidewalls respectively. The annulus provides an analogue to a planetary circulation and the new configuration, with its more relaxed vertical thermal boundary conditions, is expected to better emulate vigorous convection in the tropics and polar regions as well as baroclinic instability in the mid-latitude baroclinic zone. Using the Met Office/Oxford Rotating Annulus Laboratory (MORALS code, we have investigated a series of equilibrated, two dimensional axisymmetric flows across a large region of parameter space. These are characterized in terms of their velocity and temperature fields. When rotation is applied several distinct flow regimes may be identified for different rotation rates and strengths of differential heating. These regimes are defined as a function of the ratio of the horizontal Ekman layer thickness to the non-rotating thermal boundary layer thickness and are found to be similar to those identified in previous annulus experiments. Convection without rotation is also considered and the scaling of the heat transport with Rayleigh number is calculated. This is then compared with existing work on the classical annulus as well as horizontal and Rayleigh-Bénard convection. As with previous studies on both rotating and non-rotating convection the system’s behaviour is found to be aspect ratio dependent. This dependence is seen in the scaling of the non-rotating Nusselt number and in transitions between regimes in the rotating case although further investigation is required to fully explain these observations.
Numerical simulation of 3D unsteady flow in a rotating pump by dynamic mesh technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, S; Guo, J; Yang, F X
2013-01-01
In this paper, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for three kinds of typical rotating pumps, roots blower, roto-jet pump and centrifugal pump, were performed using the three-dimensional Dynamic Mesh technique. In the unsteady simulation, all the computational domains, as stationary, were set in one inertial reference frame. The motions of the solid boundaries were defined by the Profile file in FLUENT commercial code, in which the rotational orientation and speed of the rotors were specified. Three methods (Spring-based Smoothing, Dynamic Layering and Local Re-meshing) were used to achieve mesh deformation and re-meshing. The unsteady solutions of flow field and pressure distribution were solved. After a start-up stage, the flow parameters exhibit time-periodic behaviour corresponding to blade passing frequency of rotor. This work shows that Dynamic Mesh technique could achieve numerical simulation of three-dimensional unsteady flow field in various kinds of rotating pumps and have a strong versatility and broad application prospects
Rotational flow in tapered slab rocket motors
Saad, Tony; Sams, Oliver C.; Majdalani, Joseph
2006-10-01
Internal flow modeling is a requisite for obtaining critical parameters in the design and fabrication of modern solid rocket motors. In this work, the analytical formulation of internal flows particular to motors with tapered sidewalls is pursued. The analysis employs the vorticity-streamfunction approach to treat this problem assuming steady, incompressible, inviscid, and nonreactive flow conditions. The resulting solution is rotational following the analyses presented by Culick for a cylindrical motor. In an extension to Culick's work, Clayton has recently managed to incorporate the effect of tapered walls. Here, an approach similar to that of Clayton is applied to a slab motor in which the chamber is modeled as a rectangular channel with tapered sidewalls. The solutions are shown to be reducible, at leading order, to Taylor's inviscid profile in a porous channel. The analysis also captures the generation of vorticity at the surface of the propellant and its transport along the streamlines. It is from the axial pressure gradient that the proper form of the vorticity is ascertained. Regular perturbations are then used to solve the vorticity equation that prescribes the mean flow motion. Subsequently, numerical simulations via a finite volume solver are carried out to gain further confidence in the analytical approximations. In illustrating the effects of the taper on flow conditions, comparisons of total pressure and velocity profiles in tapered and nontapered chambers are entertained. Finally, a comparison with the axisymmetric flow analog is presented.
Classification of hydromagnetic emissions based on frequency--time spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukunishi, H.; Toya, T.; Koike, K.; Kuwashima, M.; Kawamura, M.
1981-01-01
By using 3035 hydromagnetic emission events observed in the frequency range of 0.1--2.0 Hz at Syowa (Lapprox.6), HM emissions have been classified into eight subtypes based on their spectral structures, i.e., HM whistler, periodic HM emission, HM chorus, HM emission burst, IPDP, morning IPDP, Pc 1--2 band, and irregular HM emission. It is seen that each subtype has a preferential magnetic local time interval and also a frequency range for its occurrence. Morning IPDP events and irregular HM emissions occur in the magnetic morning hours, while dispersive periodic HM emissions and HM emission bursts occur around magnetic local noon, then HM chorus emissions occur in the afternoon hours and IPDP events occur in the evening hours. Furthermore, it is noticed that the mid-frequencies of these emissions vary from high frequencies in the morning hours to low frequencies in the afternoon hours. On the basis of these results, the generation mechanisms of each subtype are discussed
Steady flow in a rotating sphere with strong precession
Kida, Shigeo
2018-04-01
The steady flow in a rotating sphere is investigated by asymptotic analysis in the limit of strong precession. The whole spherical body is divided into three regions in terms of the flow characteristics: the critical band, which is the close vicinity surrounding the great circle perpendicular to the precession axis, the boundary layer, which is attached to the whole sphere surface and the inviscid region that occupies the majority of the sphere. The analytic expressions, in the leading order of the asymptotic expansion, of the velocity field are obtained in the former two, whereas partial differential equations for the velocity field are derived in the latter, which are solved numerically. This steady flow structure is confirmed by the corresponding direct numerical simulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchini, Alessandro; Balduzzi, Francesco; Ferrara, Giovanni; Ferrari, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
Highlights: • New method to calculate the incidence angle from a computed CFD flow field. • Applicable to each airfoil rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction. • Composed by four, easily automatable steps explained in details. • Robustness of the model assessed on two Darrieus turbine study cases. - Abstract: Numerical simulations provided in the last few years a significant contribution for a better understanding of many phenomena connected to the flow past rotating blades. In case of airfoils rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction, one of the most critical issues is represented by the definition of the incidence angle on the airfoil from the computed flow field. Incidence indeed changes continuously as a function of the azimuthal position of the blade and a distribution of peripheral speed is experienced along the airfoil’s thickness due to radius variation. The possibility of reducing the flow to lumped parameters (relative speed modulus and direction), however, would be of capital relevance to transpose accurate CFD numerical results into effective inputs to low-order models that are often exploited for preliminary design analyses. If several techniques are available for this scope in the case of blades rotating around an axis parallel to flow direction (e.g., horizontal-axis wind turbines), the definition of a robust procedure in case the revolution axis is orthogonal to the flow is still missing. In the study, a novel technique has been developed using data from Darrieus-like rotating airfoils. The method makes use of the virtual camber theory to define a virtual airfoil whose pressure coefficient distributions in straight flow are used to match those of the real airfoil in curved flow. Even if developed originally for vertical-axis wind turbines, the method is of general validity and is thought to represent in the near future a valuable tool for researchers to get a new insight on many complex phenomena connected to flow
Prediction of Heat Transfer For Turbulent Flow in Rotating Radial Duct
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Tekriwal
1995-01-01
in the case of low-Re model, the computation time is relatively high and the convergence is rather slow, thus rendering the low-Re model as an unattractive choice for rotating flows at high Reynolds number.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Quan-Zhuang; Peng, Lan; Liu, Jia [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems of Ministry of Education, College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Wang, Fei, E-mail: penglan@cqu.edu.cn [Chongqing Special Equipment Inspection and Research Institute, Chongqing, 401121 (China)
2016-08-15
In order to understand the effect of pool rotation on silicon melt flow with the bidirectional temperature gradients, we conducted a series of unsteady three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations in a shallow annular pool. The bidirectional temperature gradients are produced by the temperature difference between outer and inner walls as well as a constant heat flux at the bottom. Results show that when Marangoni number is small, a 3D steady flow is common without pool rotation. But it bifurcates to a 3D oscillatory flow at a low rotation Reynolds number. Subsequently, the flow becomes steady and axisymmetric at a high rotation Reynolds number. When the Marangoni number is large, pool rotation can effectively suppress the temperature fluctuation on the free surface, meanwhile, it improves the flow stability. The critical heat flux density diagrams are mapped, and the effects of radial and vertical temperature gradients on the flow are discussed. Additionally, the transition process from the flow dominated by the radial temperature gradient to the one dominated by the vertical temperature gradient is presented. (paper)
Effects of fluid flow on heat transfer in large rotating electrical machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lancial, Nicolas
2014-01-01
EDF operates a large number of electrical rotating machines in its electricity generation capacity. Thermal stresses which affect them can cause local heating, sufficient to damage their integrity. The present work contributes to provide methodologies for detecting hot spots in these machines, better understanding the topology of rotating flows and identifying their effects on heat transfer. Several experimental scale model were used by increasing their complexity to understand and validate the numerical simulations. A first study on a turbulent wall jet over a non-confined backward-facing step (half-pole hydro-generator) notes significant differences compared to results from confined case: both of them are present in an hydro-generator. A second study was done on a small confined rotating scale model to determinate the effects of a Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille on temperature distribution and position of hot spots on the heated rotor, by studying the overall flow regimes flow. These studies have helped to obtain a reliable method based on conjugate heat transfer (CHT) simulations. Another method, based on FEM coupled with the use of an inverse method, has been studied on a large model of hydraulic generator so as to solve the computation time issue of the first methodology. It numerically calculates the convective heat transfer from temperature measurements, but depends on the availability of experimental data. This work has also developed new no-contact measurement techniques as the use of a high-frequency pyrometer which can be applied on rotating machines for monitoring temperature. (author)
Visualization of the flow in a cylindrical container with a rotating disk
Imahoko, Ryoki; Kurakata, Hiroki; Sakakibara, Jun
2017-11-01
We studied a behavior of the flow in a cylindrical container with a rotating disk. The apparatus consists of a fixed cylindrical container of the inner diameter of 140 mm and height H, and a coaxial rotating disc with a diameter of 140 mm connected with a cylindrical shaft driven by an electrical motor. The radial gap between rotating disk and side wall is very slight distance. The height H is variable up to 100 mm. The velocity distribution in the container was measured by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results of this experiments will be discussed at the conference.
Computer modeling of the stalled flow of a rotating cylinder and the reverse magnus effect
Belotserkovskii, S. M.; Kotovskii, V. N.; Nisht, M. I.; Fedorov, R. M.
1985-02-01
Unsteady stalled flow around a rotating cylinder is investigated in a numerical experiment. Attention is mostly given to the reverse Magnus effect which was discovered in tube experiments at some critical rotational speed of the cylinder.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jongyul Kim
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We propose a position control method for a helical magnetic robot (HMR that uses the rotating frequency of the external rotating magnetic field (ERMF to minimize the position fluctuation of the HMR caused by pulsatile flow in human blood vessels. We prototyped the HMR and conducted several experiments in pseudo blood vessel environments with a peristaltic pump. We experimentally obtained the relation between the flow rate and the rotating frequency of the ERMF required to make the HMR stationary in a given pulsatile flow. Then we approximated the pulsatile flow by Fourier series and applied the required ERMF rotating frequency to the HMR in real time. Our proposed position control method drastically reduced the position fluctuation of the HMR under pulsatile flow.
Axial slit wall effect on the flow instability and heat transfer in rotating concentric cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Dong; Chao, Chang Qing; Wang, Ying Ze; Zhu, Fang Neng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Kim, Hyoung Bum [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
The slit wall effect on the flow instability and heat transfer characteristics in Taylor-Couette flow was numerically studied by changing the rotating Reynolds number and applying the negative temperature gradient. The concentric cylinders with slit wall are seen in many rotating machineries. Six different models with the slit number 0, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 were investigated in this study. The results show the axial slit wall enhances the Taylor vortex flow and suppresses the azimuthal variation of wavy Taylor vortex flow. When negative temperature gradient exists, the results show that the heat transfer augmentation appears from laminar Taylor vortex to turbulent Taylor flow regime. The heat transfer enhancement become stronger as increasing the Reynolds number and slit number. The larger slit number model also accelerates the flow transition regardless of the negative temperature gradient or isothermal condition.
Axial slit wall effect on the flow instability and heat transfer in rotating concentric cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Dong; Chao, Chang Qing; Wang, Ying Ze; Zhu, Fang Neng; Kim, Hyoung Bum
2016-01-01
The slit wall effect on the flow instability and heat transfer characteristics in Taylor-Couette flow was numerically studied by changing the rotating Reynolds number and applying the negative temperature gradient. The concentric cylinders with slit wall are seen in many rotating machineries. Six different models with the slit number 0, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 were investigated in this study. The results show the axial slit wall enhances the Taylor vortex flow and suppresses the azimuthal variation of wavy Taylor vortex flow. When negative temperature gradient exists, the results show that the heat transfer augmentation appears from laminar Taylor vortex to turbulent Taylor flow regime. The heat transfer enhancement become stronger as increasing the Reynolds number and slit number. The larger slit number model also accelerates the flow transition regardless of the negative temperature gradient or isothermal condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kambe, Tsutomu
2013-01-01
A new representation of the solution to Euler's equation of motion is presented by using a system of expressions for compressible rotational flows of an ideal fluid. This is regarded as a generalization of Bernoulli's theorem to compressible rotational flows. The present expressions are derived from the variational principle. The action functional for the principle consists of the main terms of the total kinetic, potential and internal energies, together with three additional terms yielding the equations of continuity, entropy and a third term that provides the rotational component of velocity field. The last term has the form of scalar product satisfying gauge symmetry with respect to both translation and rotation. This is a generalization of the Clebsch transformation from a physical point of view. It is verified that the system of new expressions, in fact, satisfies Euler's equation of motion. (paper)
Optic Flow Information Influencing Heading Perception during Rotation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diederick C. Niehorster
2011-05-01
Full Text Available We investigated what roles global spatial frequency, surface structure, and foreground motion play in heading perception during simulated rotation from optic flow. The display (110°Hx94°V simulated walking on a straight path over a ground plane (depth range: 1.4–50 m at 2 m/s while fixating a target off to one side (mean R/T ratios: ±1, ±2, ±3 under six display conditions. Four displays consisted of nonexpanding dots that were distributed so as to manipulate the amount of foreground motion and the presence of surface structure. In one further display the ground was covered with disks that expanded during the trial and lastly a textured ground display was created with the same spatial frequency power spectrum as the disk ground. At the end of each 1s trial, observers indicated their perceived heading along a line at the display's center. Mean heading biases were smaller for the textured than for the disk ground, for the displays with more foreground motion and for the displays with surface structure defined by dot motion than without. We conclude that while spatial frequency content is not a crucial factor, dense motion parallax and surface structure in optic flow are important for accurate heading perception during rotation.
Methods of measurement signal acquisition from the rotational flow meter for frequency analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Świsulski Dariusz
2017-01-01
Full Text Available One of the simplest and commonly used instruments for measuring the flow of homogeneous substances is the rotational flow meter. The main part of such a device is a rotor (vane or screw rotating at a speed which is the function of the fluid or gas flow rate. A pulse signal with a frequency proportional to the speed of the rotor is obtained at the sensor output. For measurements in dynamic conditions, a variable interval between pulses prohibits the analysis of the measuring signal. Therefore, the authors of the article developed a method involving the determination of measured values on the basis of the last inter-pulse interval preceding the moment designated by the timing generator. For larger changes of the measured value at a predetermined time, the value can be determined by means of extrapolation of the two adjacent interpulse ranges, assuming a linear change in the flow. The proposed methods allow analysis which requires constant spacing between measurements, allowing for an analysis of the dynamics of changes in the test flow, eg. using a Fourier transform. To present the advantages of these methods simulations of flow measurement were carried out with a DRH-1140 rotor flow meter from the company Kobold.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šimkanin, Ján; Brestenský, J.; Ševčík, S.
2006-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 4 (2006), s. 645-661 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/04/P182 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/0212/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : non-uniform stratification of the Earth's core * linear magnetoconvection * diffusive hydromagnetic instabilities Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2006
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bouakkaz Rafik
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, steady flow-field and heat transfer through a copper- water nanofluid around a rotating circular cylinder with a constant nondimensional rotation rate α varying from 0 to 5 was investigated for Reynolds numbers of 5–40. Furthermore, the range of nanoparticle volume fractions considered is 0–5%. The effect of volume fraction of nanoparticles on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are carried out by using a finite-volume method based commercial computational fluid dynamics solver. The variation of the local and the average Nusselt numbers with Reynolds number, volume fractions, and rotation rate are presented for the range of conditions. The average Nusselt number is found to decrease with increasing value of the rotation rate for the fixed value of the Reynolds number and volume fraction of nanoparticles. In addition, rotation can be used as a drag reduction technique.
Studies of hydromagnetic waves and oscillations in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawley, M.L.
1980-10-01
Small amplitude magnetoacoustic oscillations in a partially ionized, non-uniform, current carrying plasma column of finite beta are considered. The linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations are used to develop a theory describing both free and forced magnetoacoustic oscillations. The results of numerical calculations are given for the specific case of diffuse pinch equilibrium configurations. In an experimental study the amplitude of the oscillating axial magnetic flux is determined for several frequencies in the vicinity of the first magnetoacoustic resonance. Accurate determination of the plasma density profile is shown to be possible. Finite-amplitude effects on the propagation of axisymmetric hydromagnetic waves are examined. A nonlinear theory is developed which describes the second-order perturbation that accompanies the primary wave. The influence of Hall currents and the presence of neutral atoms on the second-order fields is treated. In an investigation on the propagation of torsional waves the observed second-order fields are shown to exhibit good quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations for moderate primary wave amplitudes. The re-ionization of the plasma by a torsional wave is investigated. A theoretical description is given of the nonlinear excitation of magnetoacoustic oscillations by means of an oscillating axial current
Numerical Investigation of Monodisperse Granular Flow Through an Inclined Rotating Chute
Shirsath, Sushil S.; Padding, J.T.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Peeters, Tim W.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.
2014-01-01
A discrete element model of spherical glass particles flowing down a rotating chute is validated against high quality experimental data. The simulations are performed in a corotating frame of reference, taking into account Coriolis and centrifugal forces. In view of future extensions aimed at
Sustained turbulence and magnetic energy in non-rotating shear flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nauman, Farrukh; Blackman, Eric G.
2017-01-01
From numerical simulations, we show that non-rotating magnetohydrodynamic shear flows are unstable to finite amplitude velocity perturbations and become turbulent, leading to the growth and sustenance of magnetic energy, including large scale fields. This supports the concept that sustained...... magnetic energy from turbulence is independent of the driving mechanism for large enough magnetic Reynolds numbers....
Breakdown of the large-scale circulation in $\\Gamma = 1/2$ rotating Rayleigh-Bénard flow
Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Clercx, H.J.H.; Lohse, Detlef
2012-01-01
Experiments and simulations of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection in cylindrical samples have revealed an increase in heat transport with increasing rotation rate. This heat transport enhancement is intimately related to a transition in the turbulent flow structure from a regime dominated by a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondal, Rabindra Nath, E-mail: rnmondal71@yahoo.com; Shaha, Poly Rani [Department of Mathematics, Jagannath University, Dhaka-1100 (Bangladesh); Roy, Titob [Department of Mathematics, Vikarunnesa Nun School and College, Boshundhara, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Yanase, Shinichiro, E-mail: yanase@okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)
2016-07-12
Unsteady laminar flow with convective heat transfer through a curved square duct rotating at a constant angular velocity about the center of curvature is investigated numerically by using a spectral method, and covering a wide range of the Taylor number −300≤Tr≤1000 for the Dean number Dn = 1000. A temperature difference is applied across the vertical sidewalls for the Grashof number Gr = 100, where the outer wall is heated and the inner wall cooled, the top and bottom walls being adiabatic. Flow characteristics are investigated with the effects of rotational parameter, Tr, and the pressure-driven parameter, Dn, for the constant curvature 0.001. Time evolution calculations as well as their phase spaces show that the unsteady flow undergoes through various flow instabilities in the scenario ‘multi-periodic → chaotic → steady-state → periodic → multi-periodic → chaotic’, if Tr is increased in the positive direction. For negative rotation, however, time evolution calculations show that the flow undergoes in the scenario ‘multi-periodic → periodic → steady-state’, if Tr is increased in the negative direction. Typical contours of secondary flow patterns and temperature profiles are obtained at several values of Tr, and it is found that the unsteady flow consists of two- to six-vortex solutions if the duct rotation is involved. External heating is shown to generate a significant temperature gradient at the outer wall of the duct. This study also shows that there is a strong interaction between the heating-induced buoyancy force and the centrifugal-Coriolis instability in the curved channel that stimulates fluid mixing and consequently enhances heat transfer in the fluid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mucignat, C.; Armellini, A.; Casarsa, L.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Detailed PIV and Stereo PIV investigation on a rotating test section. • Static channel: absence of guiding effect for inclined ribs. • Static channel: the ribs influence significantly the flow also at the trailing edge. • Rotating channel: opposite flow features with respect to the static case. • The analyzed flow features justify the previously observed thermal performances. -- Abstract: The present work is part of a wider research program which concerns the aero-thermal characterization of cooling channels for the trailing edge of gas turbine blades. The selected passage model is characterized by a trapezoidal cross-section of high aspect-ratio and coolant discharge at the blade tip and along the wedge-shaped trailing edge, where seven elongated pedestals are also installed. In this contribution, a new channel configuration provided with inclined ribs installed inside the radial development region is analyzed, extending the previous results and completing the already available data base, thus providing an overall review of the aero-thermal performance of the considered passage. The velocity field inside the channel was measured by means of 2D and Stereo-PIV techniques in multiple flow planes under static and rotating conditions. The tests were performed under engine similar conditions with respect to both Reynolds (Re = 20,000) and Rotation (Ro = 0, 0.23) numbers. Time averaged flow fields and velocity fluctuation data inside the stationary and rotating channels are analyzed and also critically compared with the data acquired without ribs. In this way the effects on the flow field induced by both rotation and ribs are clearly described. In particular, the ribs modify substantially both the flow field on the channel walls where they are installed and the 3D separation structures that surround the pedestals. If also rotation is taken into account, the relative flow field is characterized by a considerable guiding effect of the ribs coupled
Analysis of high-speed rotating flow inside gas centrifuge casing
Pradhan, Sahadev
2017-11-01
The generalized analytical model for the radial boundary layer inside the gas centrifuge casing in which the inner cylinder is rotating at a constant angular velocity Ωi while the outer one is stationary, is formulated for studying the secondary gas flow field due to wall thermal forcing, inflow/outflow of light gas along the boundaries, as well as due to the combination of the above two external forcing. The analytical model includes the sixth order differential equation for the radial boundary layer at the cylindrical curved surface in terms of master potential (χ) , which is derived from the equations of motion in an axisymmetric (r - z) plane. The linearization approximation is used, where the equations of motion are truncated at linear order in the velocity and pressure disturbances to the base flow, which is a solid-body rotation. Additional approximations in the analytical model include constant temperature in the base state (isothermal compressible Couette flow), high aspect ratio (length is large compared to the annular gap), high Reynolds number, but there is no limitation on the Mach number. The discrete eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the linear operators (sixth-order in the radial direction for the generalized analytical equation) are obtained. The solutions for the secondary flow is determined in terms of these eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. These solutions are compared with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations and found excellent agreement (with a difference of less than 15%) between the predictions of the analytical model and the DSMC simulations, provided the boundary conditions in the analytical model are accurately specified.
Theoretical Investigation of Creeping Viscoelastic Flow Transition Around a Rotating Curved Pipe
Hamza, S. E. E.; El-Bakry, Mostafa Y.
2015-01-01
The study of creeping motion of viscoelastic fluid around a rotating rigid torus is investigated. The analysis of the problem is performed using a second-order viscoelastic model. The study is carried out in terms of the bipolar toroidal system of coordinates where the toroid is rotating about its axis of symmetry (z-axis). The problem is solved within the frame of slow flow approximation. Therefore, all variables in the governing equations are expanded in a power series of angular velocity. ...
Effect of radiation and porosity parameter on hydromagnetic flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The aim of this paper is to study the momentum and the heat transfer characteristics in incompressible electrically conducting boundary layer flow over an exponentially stretching sheet under the effect of magnetic field with thermal radiation through porous medium. The governing boundary layer equations are converted ...
Xia, Yi; Lin, Jianzhong; Ku, Xiaoke; Chan, Tatleung
2018-04-01
Flow past a center-pinned freely rotatable cylinder asymmetrically confined in a two-dimensional channel is simulated with the lattice Boltzmann method for a range of Reynolds number 0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 200, eccentricity ratio 0/8 ≤ ɛ ≤ 7/8, and blockage ratio 0.1 ≤ β ≤ 0.5. It is found that the inertia tends to facilitate the anomalous clockwise rotation of the cylinder. As the eccentricity ratio increases, the cylinder rotates faster in the counterclockwise direction and then slows down at a range of Re 40, there exists an anomalous clockwise rotation for the cylinder at a low eccentricity ratio and the domain where the cylinder rotates anomalously becomes larger with the increase in the Reynolds number. In a channel with a higher blockage ratio, the rotation of the cylinder is more sensitive to the change of cylinder lateral position, and the separatrix at which the cylinder remains a state of rest moves upward generally. The cylinder is more likely to rotate counterclockwise and the rotating velocity is larger. At a lower blockage ratio, the anomalous clockwise rotation is more likely to occur, and the largest rotating velocity occurs when the blockage ratio is equal to 0.3. The mechanism of distinct rotational behavior of the cylinder is attributed to the transformation of distribution of shear stress which is resulted from the variation of pressure drop, the shift of maximum or minimum pressure zones along the upper and lower semi-cylinder surface, and the movement of stagnant point and separate point. Finally, the effects of the cylinder rotation on the flow structure and hydrodynamic force exerted on the cylinder surface are analyzed as well.
Entropy Generation in a Rotating Couette Flow with Suction/Injection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Das
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with an analytical study of entropy generation in viscous incompressible Couette flow with suction/injection in a rotating frame of reference. One of the plate is held at rest and the other one moves with an uniform velocity.The flow induced by the moving plate. An exact solution of governing equations has been obtained in closed form. The entropy generation number and the Bejan number are also obtained. The influences of each of the governing parameters on velocity, temperature, entropy generation and Bejan number are discussed with the help of graphs.
Unsteady hydromagnetic Couette flow within a porous channel with ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. ... long parallel porous plates, taking Hall current into account, in the presence of a transverse ..... modified Hartmann boundary layer and the decaying oscillations excited by the ...... On flow of electrically conducting fluid over a flat plate in the presence of a ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbosa, Marcos Pinotti
1992-07-01
Flow study in the formatted channel for two disks in rotation is discussed including the following main issues: flow description between disks in rotation; computational model; and numerical results. The parametric studies accomplished of the spacing between disks, of the diameter, and of the rotor angular speed allowed the influence analysis of these variables in the flow inside the channel and in the generated pressure difference. The disks rotation, evaluated through Reynolds' rotational number, is the main parameter that influences the pressure difference between channel entrance and exit. It verified although how much larger the rotation larger the pressure difference.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbosa, Marcos Pinotti
1992-07-01
Flow study in the formatted channel for two disks in rotation is discussed including the following main issues: flow description between disks in rotation; computational model; and numerical results. The parametric studies accomplished of the spacing between disks, of the diameter, and of the rotor angular speed allowed the influence analysis of these variables in the flow inside the channel and in the generated pressure difference. The disks rotation, evaluated through Reynolds' rotational number, is the main parameter that influences the pressure difference between channel entrance and exit. It verified although how much larger the rotation larger the pressure difference.
On the inverse Magnus effect for flow past a rotating cylinder
John, Benzi; Gu, Xiao-Jun; Barber, Robert W.; Emerson, David R.
2016-11-01
Flow past a rotating cylinder has been investigated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The study focuses on the occurrence of the inverse Magnus effect under subsonic flow conditions. In particular, the variations in the coefficients of lift and drag have been investigated as a function of the Knudsen and Reynolds numbers. Additionally, a temperature sensitivity study has been carried out to assess the influence of the wall temperature on the computed aerodynamic coefficients. It has been found that both the Reynolds number and the cylinder wall temperature significantly affect the drag as well as the onset of lift inversion in the transition flow regime.
A numerical study for off-centered stagnation flow towards a rotating disc
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Heydari
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this investigation, a semi-numerical method based on Bernstein polynomials for solving off-centered stagnation flow towards a rotating disc is introduced. This method expands the desired solutions in terms of a set of Bernstein polynomials over a closed interval and then makes use of the tau method to determine the expansion coefficients to construct approximate solutions. This method can satisfy boundary conditions at infinity. The properties of Bernstein polynomials are presented and are utilized to reduce the solution of governing nonlinear equations and their associated boundary conditions to the solution of algebraic equations. Graphical results are presented to investigate the influence of the rotation ratio α on the radial velocity, azimuthal velocity and the induced velocities. A comparative study with the previous results of viscous fluid flow in the literature is made.
Hermite-Pade approximation approach to hydromagnetic flows in convergent-divergent channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makinde, O.D.
2005-10-01
The problem of two-dimensional, steady, nonlinear flow of an incompressible conducting viscous fluid in convergent-divergent channels under the influence of an externally applied homogeneous magnetic field is studied using a special type of Hermite-Pade approximation approach. This semi-numerical scheme offers some advantages over solutions obtained by using traditional methods such as finite differences, spectral method, shooting method, etc. It reveals the analytical structure of the solution function and the important properties of overall flow structure including velocity field, flow reversal control and bifurcations are discussed. (author)
Nonlinear dynamics near the stability margin in rotating pipe flow
Yang, Z.; Leibovich, S.
1991-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of marginally unstable wave packets in rotating pipe flow is studied. These flows depend on two control parameters, which may be taken to be the axial Reynolds number R and a Rossby number, q. Marginal stability is realized on a curve in the (R, q)-plane, and the entire marginal stability boundary is explored. As the flow passes through any point on the marginal stability curve, it undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation and the steady base flow is replaced by a traveling wave. The envelope of the wave system is governed by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. The Ginzburg-Landau equation admits Stokes waves, which correspond to standing modulations of the linear traveling wavetrain, as well as traveling wave modulations of the linear wavetrain. Bands of wavenumbers are identified in which the nonlinear modulated waves are subject to a sideband instability.
Calibrationless rotating Lorentz-force flowmeters for low flow rate applications
Hvasta, M. G.; Dudt, D.; Fisher, A. E.; Kolemen, E.
2018-07-01
A ‘weighted magnetic bearing’ has been developed to improve the performance of rotating Lorentz-force flowmeters (RLFFs). Experiments have shown that the new bearing reduces frictional losses within a double-sided, disc-style RLFF to negligible levels. Operating such an RLFF under ‘frictionless’ conditions provides two major benefits. First, the steady-state velocity of the RLFF magnets matches the average velocity of the flowing liquid at low flow rates. This enables an RLFF to make accurate volumetric flow measurements without any calibration or prior knowledge of the fluid properties. Second, due to minimized frictional losses, an RLFF is able to measure low flow rates that cannot be detected when conventional, high-friction bearings are used. This paper provides a brief background on RLFFs, gives a detailed description of weighted magnetic bearings, and compares experimental RLFF data to measurements taken with a commercially available flowmeter.
On the phase lag of turbulent dissipation in rotating tidal flows
Zhang, Qianjiang; Wu, Jiaxue
2018-03-01
Field observations of rotating tidal flows in a shallow tidally swept sea reveal that a notable phase lag of both shear production and turbulent dissipation increases with height above the seafloor. These vertical delays of turbulent quantities are approximately equivalent in magnitude to that of squared mean shear. The shear production approximately equals turbulent dissipation over the phase-lag column, and thus a main mechanism of phase lag of dissipation is mean shear, rather than vertical diffusion of turbulent kinetic energy. By relating the phase lag of dissipation to that of the mean shear, a simple formulation with constant eddy viscosity is developed to describe the phase lag in rotating tidal flows. An analytical solution indicates that the phase lag increases linearly with height subjected to a combined effect of tidal frequency, Coriolis parameter and eddy viscosity. The vertical diffusion of momentum associated with eddy viscosity produces the phase lag of squared mean shear, and resultant delay of turbulent quantities. Its magnitude is inhibited by Earth's rotation. Furthermore, a theoretical formulation of the phase lag with a parabolic eddy viscosity profile can be constructed. A first-order approximation of this formulation is still a linear function of height, and its magnitude is approximately 0.8 times that with constant viscosity. Finally, the theoretical solutions of phase lag with realistic viscosity can be satisfactorily justified by realistic phase lags of dissipation.
Magnus effect on laminar flow around a rotating cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amarante, J.C.A.
1989-01-01
The laminar flow around a rotating cylinder is studied, through the numerical solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations, for Reynolds number, based on cylinder radius, varying between 0.5 and 25 and for non-dimensional tangential velocities of the body surface between zero and 8. The Taylor and Hughes method is employed in the theoretical investigation. The Magnus lift coefficient and the drag coefficient are obtained and the presure and vorticity distribution are calculated. (author)
Feonychev, A. I.
It is well known that numerous experiments on crystal growth by the Bridgman method in space had met with only limited success. Because of this, only floating zone method is promising at present. However, realization of this method demands solution of some problems, in particular reduction of dopant micro- and macrosegregation. Rotating magnetic field is efficient method for control of flow in electrically conducting fluid and transfer processes. Investigation of rotating magnetic field had initiated in RIAME MAI in 1994 /3/. Results of the last investigations had been presented in /4/. Mathematical model of flow generated by rotating magnetic field and computer program were verified by comparison with experiment in area of developed oscillatory flow. Nonlinear analysis of flow stability under combination of thermocapillary convection and secondary flow generated by rotating magnetic field shows that boundary of transition from laminar to oscillatory flow is nonmonotone function in the plane of Marangoni number (Ma) - combined parameter Reω Ha2 (Ha is Hartman number, Reω is dimensionless velocity of magnetic field rotation). These data give additional knowledge of mechanism of onset of oscillations. In this case, there is reason to believe that the cause is Eckman's viscous stresses in rotating fluid on solid end-walls. It was shown that there is a possibility to increase stability of thermocapillary convection and in doing so to remove the main cause of dopant microsegregation. In doing so, if parameters of rotating magnetic field had been incorrectly chosen the dangerous pulsating oscillations are to develop. Radial macrosegregation of dopant can result from correct choosing of parameters of rotating magnetic field. As example, optimization of rotating magnetic field had been carried out for Ge(Ga) under three values of Marangoni number in weightlessness conditions. In the case when rotating magnetic field is used in terrestrial conditions, under combination of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Tong
2001-01-01
Full Text Available An important characteristic of wall rotating-driven flows is the tendency of fluid with high angular momentum to be flung radially outward. For a generator, the rotor rotating-driven flow, usually referred to as the rotating pumping flow, plays an important role in rotor winding cooling. In this study, three-dimensional numerical analyzes are presented for turbulent pumping flow in the inter-coil rotor cavity and short cooling grooves of a generator. Calculations of the flow field and the mass flux distribution through the grooves were carried out in a sequence of four related cases Under an isothermal condition: (a pumping flow, which is the self-generated flow resulted from the rotor pumping action; (b mixing flow, which is the combination of the ventilating flow and pumping flow, under a constant density condition; (c mixing flow, with density modeled by the ideal gas law; and (d mixing flow, with different pressure differentials applied on the system. The comparisons of the results from these cases can provide useful information regarding the impacts of the ventilating flow, gas density, and system pressure differential on the mass flux distribution in the short cooling grooves. Results show that the pumping effect is strong enough to generate the cooling flow for rotor winding cooling. Therefore, for small- or mid-size generators ventilation fans may be eliminated. It also suggests that increasing the chimney dimension can improve the distribution uniformity of mass flux through the cooling grooves.
Droplet rotation model apply in steam uniform flow and gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jinyi; Bo Hanliang; Sun Yuliang; Wang Dazhong
2012-01-01
The mechanism droplet movement behavior and the qualitative description of droplet trajectory in the steam uniform flow field in the gravitational field were researched with droplet rotation model. According to the mechanism of gravitational field and uniform flow fields, the effects on droplets movement were analyzed and the importance of lift forces was also discussed. Finally, a general trajectory and mechanism of the droplets movement was derived which lays the groundwork for the qualitative analysis of the single-drop model and could be general enough to be used in many applications. (authors)
Heat Transfer and Flows of Thermal Convection in a Fluid-Saturated Rotating Porous Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhong Kang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal convection at the steady state for high Rayleigh number in a rotating porous half space is investigated. Taking into account the effect of rotation, Darcy equation is extended to incorporate the Coriolis force term in a rotating reference frame. The velocity and temperature fields of thermal convection are obtained by using the homotopy analysis method. The influences of Taylor number and Rayleigh number on the Nusselt number, velocity profile, and temperature distribution are discussed in detail. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases rapidly with the increase of Taylor number but tends to have an asymptotic value. Besides, the rotation can give rise to downward flow in contrast with the upward thermal convection.
The effect of gas and fluid flows on nonlinear lateral vibrations of rotating drill strings
Khajiyeva, Lelya; Kudaibergenov, Askar; Kudaibergenov, Askat
2018-06-01
In this work we develop nonlinear mathematical models describing coupled lateral vibrations of a rotating drill string under the effect of external supersonic gas and internal fluid flows. An axial compressive load and a torque also affect the drill string. The mathematical models are derived by the use of Novozhilov's nonlinear theory of elasticity with implementation of Hamilton's variation principle. Expressions for the gas flow pressure are determined according to the piston theory. The fluid flow is considered as added mass inside the curved tube of the drill string. Using an algorithm developed in the Mathematica computation program on the basis of the Galerkin approach and the stiffness switching method the numerical solution of the obtained approximate differential equations is found. Influences of the external loads, drill string angular speed of rotation, parameters of the gas and fluid flows on the drill string vibrations are shown.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matteo Pascotto
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The flow field inside a cooling channel for the trailing edge of gas turbine blades has been numerically investigated with the aim to highlight the effects of channel rotation and orientation. A commercial 3D RANS solver including a SST turbulence model has been used to compute the isothermal steady air flow inside both static and rotating passages. Simulations were performed at a Reynolds number equal to 20000, a rotation number (Ro of 0, 0.23, and 0.46, and channel orientations of γ=0∘, 22.5°, and 45°, extending previous results towards new engine-like working conditions. The numerical results have been carefully validated against experimental data obtained by the same authors for conditions γ=0∘ and Ro = 0, 0.23. Rotation effects are shown to alter significantly the flow field inside both inlet and trailing edge regions. These effects are attenuated by an increase of the channel orientation from γ=0∘ to 45°.
On unsteady two-phase fluid flow due to eccentric rotation of a disk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Ghosh
2003-01-01
in a double-disk configuration, a result which is the reverse to that of solid-body rotation. Finally, the results are presented graphically to determine the quantitative response of the particle on the flow.
Grants, Ilmars; Gerbeth, Gunter
2010-07-01
The stability of a thermally stratified liquid metal flow is considered numerically. The flow is driven by a rotating magnetic field in a cylinder heated from above and cooled from below. The stable thermal stratification turns out to destabilize the flow. This is explained by the fact that a stable stratification suppresses the secondary meridional flow, thus indirectly enhancing the primary rotation. The instability in the form of Taylor-Görtler rolls is consequently promoted. These rolls can only be excited by finite disturbances in the isothermal flow. A sufficiently strong thermal stratification transforms this nonlinear bypass instability into a linear one reducing, thus, the critical value of the magnetic driving force. A weaker temperature gradient delays the linear instability but makes the bypass transition more likely. We quantify the non-normal and nonlinear components of this transition by direct numerical simulation of the flow response to noise. It is observed that the flow sensitivity to finite disturbances increases considerably under the action of a stable thermal stratification. The capabilities of the random forcing approach to identify disconnected coherent states in a general case are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viecelli, J.A.
1993-01-01
The Hamiltonian flow of a set of point vortices of like sign and strength has a low-temperature phase consisting of a rotating triangular lattice of vortices, and a normal temperature turbulent phase consisting of random clusters of vorticity that orbit about a common center along random tracks. The mean-field flow in the normal temperature phase has similarities with turbulent quasi-two-dimensional rotating laboratory and geophysical flows, whereas the low-temperature phase displays effects associated with quantum fluids. In the normal temperature phase the vortices follow power-law clustering distributions, while in the time domain random interval modulation of the vortex orbit radii fluctuations produces singular fractional exponent power-law low-frequency spectra corresponding to time autocorrelation functions with fractional exponent power-law tails. Enhanced diffusion is present in the turbulent state, whereas in the solid-body rotation state vortices thermally diffuse across the lattice. Over the entire temperature range the interaction energy of a single vortex in the field of the rest of the vortices follows positive temperature Fermi--Dirac statistics, with the zero temperature limit corresponding to the rotating crystal phase, and the infinite temperature limit corresponding to a Maxwellian distribution. Analyses of weather records dependent on the large-scale quasi-two-dimensional atmospheric circulation suggest the presence of singular fractional exponent power-law spectra and fractional exponent power-law autocorrelation tails, consistent with the theory
Effect of couple stresses on hydromagnetic flow of blood through a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The function of the coronary network is to supply blood to the heart; however, in cases of Coronary Artery Disease, the geometry has great influence on the nature of the blood flow and the overall performance of the heart. In this paper, the unsteady non-Newtonian flow of blood under couple stresses and a uniform external ...
MHD heat and mass diffusion flow by natural convection past a surface embedded in a porous medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaudhary R.C.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study of the transient hydromagnetic natural convection flow past a vertical plate embedded in a porous medium, taking account of the presence of mass diffusion and fluctuating temperature about time at the plate. The governing equations are solved in closed form by the Laplace-transform technique. The results are obtained for temperature, velocity, penetration distance, Nusselt number and skin-friction. The effects of various parameters are discussed on the flow variables and presented by graphs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pathan, A.A.
2015-01-01
The performance of greywater treatment through RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor) is related to many factors including rotational speed of disc, surface area of the media, thickness of biological film; quality and flow rate of influent. The plastic media provides surface for biological slime. The slime is rotated alternatively into the settled wastewater and then into atmosphere to provide aerobic conditions for the microorganisms. In this study the performance of RBC is investigated at different flow rates and disk areas of media by introducing additional discs on the shaft of RBC. Initially efficiency of the RBC was observed on six flow rates at the disc area of 9.78m/sup 2/. Furthermore optimized three flow rates were used to augment the disk area. The efficiency of RBC system was improved significantly at disk area of 11.76m/sup 2/ and flow rate of 20 L/h. Under these conditions the removal of BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) was observed 83, 57 and 90% respectively. (author)
Kwon, Young-Sam; Lin, Ying-Chieh; Su, Cheng-Fang
2018-04-01
In this paper, we consider the compressible models of magnetohydrodynamic flows giving rise to a variety of mathematical problems in many areas. We derive a rigorous quasi-geostrophic equation governed by magnetic field from the rotational compressible magnetohydrodynamic flows with the well-prepared initial data. It is a first derivation of quasi-geostrophic equation governed by the magnetic field, and the tool is based on the relative entropy method. This paper covers two results: the existence of the unique local strong solution of quasi-geostrophic equation with the good regularity and the derivation of a quasi-geostrophic equation.
Electromagnetic interaction of a rotating plasma flow with a conducting mesh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikehata, Takashi; Sato, Hirofumi; Iwaya, Tohru; Sato, Naoyuki; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi
2001-01-01
The effect of a conducting mesh (floating) on the penetrating current (a fraction of discharge current flowing in the downstream across a magnetic field) and the rotational velocity has been investigated and results have been compared with Simpson's model. The velocity was independent of the conductance of the mesh contrary to Simpson's model since the mesh is floating in the present study. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsushita, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Watanabe, a. [Toto Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)
1994-09-15
A membrane separation experiment was made with multi-tubular membrane module and rotating-disk membrane module to study the cross-flow filtration of yeast extract. The membrane was an alumina precision filtration membrane with 0.15 micron m diameter pores. A multi-tubular membrane which was 19 in number of channels and 0.113{sup 2} in effective membrane area was fitted to the multi-tubular membrane module. A rotating-disk membrane which was 0.071m{sup 2} in effective membrane area was fitted to the rotating-disk membrane module. Judging from the concentration speed and factor, the rotating-disk type is more advantageous in concentrating the suspension than the multi-tubular type. The soluble high-molecular component was more easily filtrated through the rotating-disk type, which is judged attributable to its possible operation at a high flow rate on the membrane surface without necessitating a high-flow rate circulation pump. As compared with the conventional cross-filtration type, the rotating-disk type gives a high permeate flux even at a high concentration factor. 11 refs., 5 figs.
Numerical Modelling of Non-Newtonian Fluid in a Rotational Cross-Flow MBR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Ratkovic, Nicolas Rios; Rasmussen, Michael R.
2011-01-01
Fouling is the main bottleneck of the widespread of MBR systems. One way to decrease and/or control fouling is by process hydrodynamics. This can be achieved by the increase of liquid crossflow velocity. In rotational cross-flow MBR systems, this is attained by the spinning of e.g. impellers. Val...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roderick, N.F.; Hussey, T.W.; Faehl, R.J.; Boyd, R.W.
1978-01-01
Two-dimensional (r-z) magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the electromagnetic implosion of metallic foil plasmas show, for certain initial configurations, a tendency to develop large-amplitude perturbations characteristic of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability. These perturbations develop at the plasma magnetic field interface for plasma configurations where the density gradient scale length, the characteristic dimension for the instability, is short. The effects on the plasma dynamics of the implosion will be discussed for several initial foil configurations. In general, the growth rates and linear mode structure are found to be influenced by the plasma shell thickness and density gradient scale length, in agreement with theory. The most destructive modes are found to be those with wavelengths of the order of the plasma shell thickness
Flow Field Characteristics and Lift Changing Mechanism for Half-Rotating Wing in Hovering Flight
Li, Q.; Wang, X. Y.; Qiu, H.; Li, C. M.; Qiu, Z. Z.
2017-12-01
Half-rotating wing (HRW) is a new similar-flapping wing system based on half-rotating mechanism which could perform rotating-type flapping instead of oscillating-type flapping. The characteristics of flow field and lift changing mechanism for HRW in hovering flight are important theoretical basis to improve the flight capability of HRW aircraft. The driving mechanism and work process of HRW were firstly introduced in this paper. Aerodynamic simulation model of HRW in hovering flight was established and solved using XFlow software, by which lift changing rule of HRW was drawn from the simulation solution. On the other hand, the development and shedding of the distal vortex throughout one stroke would lead to the changes of the lift force. Based on analyzing distribution characteristics of vorticity, velocity and pressure around wing blade, the main features of the flow field for HRW were further given. The distal attached vortex led to the increase of the lift force, which would gradually shed into the wake with a decline of lift in the later downstroke. The wake ring directed by the distal end of the blade would generate the downward accelerating airflow which produced the upward anti-impulse to HRW. The research results mentioned above illustrated that the behavior characteristics of vortex formed in flow field were main cause of lift changing for HRW.
Alias, M. S.; Rafie, A. S. Mohd; Marzuki, O. F.; Hamid, M. F. Abdul; Chia, C. C.
2017-12-01
Over the years, many studies have demonstrated the feasibility of the Magnus effect on spinning cylinder to improve lift production, which can be much higher than the traditional airfoil shape. With this characteristic, spinning cylinder might be used as a lifting device for short take-off distance aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Nonetheless, there is still a gap in research to explain the use of spinning cylinder as a good lifting device. Computational method is used for this study to analyse the Magnus effect, in which two-dimensional finite element numerical analysis method is applied using ANSYS FLUENT software to examine the coefficients of lift and drag, and to investigate the flow field around the rotating cylinder surface body. Cylinder size of 30mm is chosen and several configurations in steady and concentrated air flows have been evaluated. All in all, it can be concluded that, with the right configuration of the concentrated air flow setup, the rotating cylinder can be used as a lifting device for very short take-off since it can produce very high coefficient of lift (2.5 times higher) compared with steady air flow configuration.
Local instabilities in magnetized rotational flows: A short-wavelength approach
Kirillov, Oleg N.; Stefani, Frank; Fukumoto, Yasuhide
2014-01-01
We perform a local stability analysis of rotational flows in the presence of a constant vertical magnetic field and an azimuthal magnetic field with a general radial dependence. Employing the short-wavelength approximation we develop a unified framework for the investigation of the standard, the helical, and the azimuthal version of the magnetorotational instability, as well as of current-driven kink-type instabilities. Considering the viscous and resistive setup, our main focus is on the cas...
Inertial modes and their transition to turbulence in a differentially rotating spherical gap flow
Hoff, Michael; Harlander, Uwe; Andrés Triana, Santiago; Egbers, Christoph
2016-04-01
We present a study of inertial modes in a spherical shell experiment. Inertial modes are Coriolis-restored linear wave modes, often arise in rapidly-rotating fluids (e.g. in the Earth's liquid outer core [1]). Recent experimental works showed that inertial modes exist in differentially rotating spherical shells. A set of particular inertial modes, characterized by (l,m,ˆω), where l, m is the polar and azimuthal wavenumber and ˆω = ω/Ωout the dimensionless frequency [2], has been found. It is known that they arise due to eruptions in the Ekman boundary layer of the outer shell. But it is an open issue why only a few modes develop and how they get enhanced. Kelley et al. 2010 [3] showed that some modes draw their energy from detached shear layers (e.g. Stewartson layers) via over-reflection. Additionally, Rieutord et al. (2012) [4] found critical layers within the shear layers below which most of the modes cannot exist. In contrast to other spherical shell experiments, we have a full optical access to the flow. Therefore, we present an experimental study of inertial modes, based on Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) data, in a differentially rotating spherical gap flow where the inner sphere is subrotating or counter-rotating at Ωin with respect to the outer spherical shell at Ωout, characterized by the Rossby number Ro = (Ωin - Ωout)/Ωout. The radius ratio of η = 1/3, with rin = 40mm and rout = 120mm, is close to that of the Earth's core. Our apparatus is running at Ekman numbers (E ≈ 10-5, with E = ν/(Ωoutrout2), two orders of magnitude higher than most of the other experiments. Based on a frequency-Rossby number spectrogram, we can partly confirm previous considerations with respect to the onset of inertial modes. In contrast, the behavior of the modes in the counter-rotation regime is different. We found a triad interaction between three dominant inertial modes, where one is a slow axisymmetric Rossby mode [5]. We show that the amplitude of the most
Modelling of granular flows through inclined rotating chutes using a discrete particle model
Shirsath, S.S.; Padding, J.T.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2012-01-01
In blast furnaces, particles like coke, sinter and pellets enter from a hopper and are distributed on the burden surface by a rotating chute. Such particulate flows suffer occasionally from chocking and particle segregation at bottlenecks, which hinders efficient throughflow. To get a more
Numerical Study of Transonic Axial Flow Rotating Cascade Aerodynamics – Part 1: 2D Case
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina Carmen ANDREI
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a 2D study regarding the numerical simulation of flow within a transonic highly-loaded rotating cascade from an axial compressor. In order to describe an intricate flow pattern of a complex geometry and given specific conditions of cascade’s loading and operation, an appropriate accurate flow model is a must. For such purpose, the Navier-Stokes equations system was used as flow model; from the computational point of view, the mathematical support is completed by a turbulence model. A numerical comparison has been performed for different turbulence models (e.g. KE, KO, Reynolds Stress and Spallart-Allmaras models. The convergence history was monitored in order to focus on the numerical accuracy. The force vector has been reported in order to express the aerodynamics of flow within the rotating cascade at the running regime, in terms of Lift and Drag. The numerical results, expressed by plots of the most relevant flow parameters, have been compared. It comes out that the selecting of complex flow models and appropriate turbulence models, in conjunction with CFD techniques, allows to obtain the best computational accuracy of the numerical results. This paper aims to carry on a 2D study and a prospective 3D will be intended for the same architecture.
Numerical Study of Flow Motion and Patterns Driven by a Rotating Permanent Helical Magnetic Field
Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Baltaretu, Florin; Etay, Jacqueline; Fautrelle, Yves
2016-10-01
Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flow driven by a rotating permanent helical magnetic field in a cylindrical container is numerically studied. A three-dimensional numerical simulation provides insight into the visualization of the physical fields, including the magnetic field, the Lorentz force density, and the flow structures, especially the flow patterns in the meridional plane. Because the screen parameter is sufficiently small, the model is decoupled into electromagnetic and hydrodynamic components. Two flow patterns in the meridional plane, i.e., the global flow and the secondary flow, are discovered and the impact of several system parameters on their transition is investigated. Finally, a verifying model is used for comparison with the previous experiment.
SOLAR ROTATION EFFECTS ON THE HELIOSHEATH FLOW NEAR SOLAR MINIMA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borovikov, Sergey N.; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Ebert, Robert W.
2012-01-01
The interaction between fast and slow solar wind (SW) due to the Sun's rotation creates corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which further interact with each other creating complex plasma structures at large heliospheric distances. We investigate the global influence of CIRs on the SW flow in the inner heliosheath between the heliospheric termination shock (TS) and the heliopause. The stream interaction model takes into account the major global effects due to slow-fast stream interaction near solar minima. The fast and slow wind parameters are derived from the Ulysses observations. We investigate the penetration of corotating structures through the TS and their further propagation through the heliosheath. It is shown that the heliosheath flow structure may experience substantial modifications, including local decreases in the radial velocity component observed by Voyager 1.
Angular Momentum Transport in Turbulent Flow between Independently Rotating Cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paoletti, M. S.; Lathrop, D. P.
2011-01-01
We present measurements of the angular momentum flux (torque) in Taylor-Couette flow of water between independently rotating cylinders for all regions of the (Ω 1 , Ω 2 ) parameter space at high Reynolds numbers, where Ω 1 (Ω 2 ) is the inner (outer) cylinder angular velocity. We find that the Rossby number Ro=(Ω 1 -Ω 2 )/Ω 2 fully determines the state and torque G as compared to G(Ro=∞)≡G ∞ . The ratio G/G ∞ is a linear function of Ro -1 in four sections of the parameter space. For flows with radially increasing angular momentum, our measured torques greatly exceed those of previous experiments [Ji et al., Nature (London), 444, 343 (2006)], but agree with the analysis of Richard and Zahn [Astron. Astrophys. 347, 734 (1999)].
Unsteady magnetohydrodynamics mixed convection flow in a rotating medium with double diffusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiann, Lim Yeou; Ismail, Zulkhibri; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)
2015-05-15
Exact solutions of an unsteady Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow over an impulsively started vertical plate in a rotating medium are presented. The effects of thermal radiative and thermal diffusion on the fluid flow are also considered. The governing equations are modelled and solved for velocity, temperature and concentration using Laplace transforms technique. Expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained and their numerical results are presented graphically. Skin friction, Sherwood number and Nusselt number are also computed and presented in tabular forms. The determined solutions can generate a large class of solutions as special cases corresponding to different motions with technical relevance. The results obtained herein may be used to verify the validation of obtained numerical solutions for more complicated fluid flow problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamovich, Igor V.
2014-01-01
A three-dimensional, nonperturbative, semiclassical analytic model of vibrational energy transfer in collisions between a rotating diatomic molecule and an atom, and between two rotating diatomic molecules (Forced Harmonic Oscillator–Free Rotation model) has been extended to incorporate rotational relaxation and coupling between vibrational, translational, and rotational energy transfer. The model is based on analysis of semiclassical trajectories of rotating molecules interacting by a repulsive exponential atom-to-atom potential. The model predictions are compared with the results of three-dimensional close-coupled semiclassical trajectory calculations using the same potential energy surface. The comparison demonstrates good agreement between analytic and numerical probabilities of rotational and vibrational energy transfer processes, over a wide range of total collision energies, rotational energies, and impact parameter. The model predicts probabilities of single-quantum and multi-quantum vibrational-rotational transitions and is applicable up to very high collision energies and quantum numbers. Closed-form analytic expressions for these transition probabilities lend themselves to straightforward incorporation into DSMC nonequilibrium flow codes
Fu, Yuan; Zhang, Da-peng; Xie, Xi-lin
2018-04-01
In this study, a vorticity vector-potential method for two-dimensional viscous incompressible rotating driven flows is developed in the time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. The method is applicable in both inertial and non-inertial frames of reference with the advantage of a fixed and regular calculation domain. The numerical method is applied to triangle and curved triangle configurations in constant and varying rotational angular velocity cases respectively. The evolutions of flow field are studied. The geostrophic effect, unsteady effect and curvature effect on the evolutions are discussed.
Experimental analysis and flow visualization of a thin liquid film on a stationary and rotating disk
Thomas, S.; Faghri, A.; Hankey, W.
1991-01-01
The mean thickness of a thin liquid film of deionized water with a free surface on a stationary and rotating horizontal disk has been measured with a nonobtrusive capacitance technique. The measurements were taken when the rotational speed ranged from 0-300 rpm and the flow rate varied from 7.0-15.0 lpm. A flow visualization study of the thin film was also performed to determine the characteristics of the waves on the free surface. When the disk was stationary, a circular hydraulic jump was present on the disk. Upstream from the jump, the film thickness was determined by the inertial and frictional forces on the fluid, and the radial spreading of the film. The surface tension at the edge of the disk affected the film thickness downstream from the jump. For the rotating disk, the film thickness was dependent upon the inertial and frictional forces near the center of the disk and the centrifugal forces near the edge of the disk.
Wills plasma physics department thirty fifth 6-monthly progress report, Jan 1 to Jun 30, 1978
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-07-01
Progress is reported on research programs which are proceeding in the following areas: plasma sources, hydromagnetic shock waves, rotating plasmas, magnetohydrodyamics, laser diagnostics, and far infrared interferometry
Wills Plasma Physics Department thirty sixth 6-monthly progress report, July 1 to December 31, 1978
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
Progress is reported on research programs which are proceeding in the following ares: plasma sources, hydromagnetic shock waves, rotating plasmas, magnetohydrodynamics, laser diagnostics and far infrared interferometry
Measurement of the translation and rotation of a sphere in fluid flow
Barros, Diogo; Hiltbrand, Ben; Longmire, Ellen K.
2018-06-01
The problem of determining the translation and rotation of a spherical particle moving in fluid flow is considered. Lagrangian tracking of markers printed over the surface of a sphere is employed to compute the center motion and the angular velocity of the solid body. The method initially calculates the sphere center from the 3D coordinates of the reconstructed markers, then finds the optimal rotation matrix that aligns a set of markers tracked at sequential time steps. The parameters involved in the experimental implementation of this procedure are discussed, and the associated uncertainty is estimated from numerical analysis. Finally, the proposed methodology is applied to characterize the motion of a large spherical particle released in a turbulent boundary layer developing in a water channel.
Reconstruction of 3D flow structures in a cylindrical cavity with a rotating lid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik
is difficult to capture experimentally since the flow is fully three-dimensional and also varies in time. A measurement in a point or in a plane will by itself not give the full picture of the flow.Measurement with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) analyzed with Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD......) and that the presence of helical vortices can be detected. However, the interpretation of the resulting flow still is done with an element of guessing on whether a specific variation is caused by an actual time variation of a structure or is caused by the rotation of a three-dimensional structure.The present work...
A fluid dynamical flow model for the central peak in the rotation curve of disk galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, T.; Basu, B.
1980-01-01
The rotation curve of the central region in some disk galaxies shows a linear rise, terminating at a peak (primary peak) which is then vollowed by a deep minimum. The curve then again rises to another peak at more or less half-way across the galactic radius. This latter peak is considered as the peak of the rotation curve in all large-scale analysis of galactic structure. The primary peak is usually ignored for the purpose. In this work an attempt has been made to look at the primary peak as the manifestation of the post-explosion flow pattern of gas in the deep central region of galaxies. Solving hydrodynamical equations of motion, a flow model has been derived which imitates very closely the actually observed linear rotational velocity, followed by the falling branch of the curve to minimum. The theoretical flow model has been compared with observed results for nine galaxies. The agreement obtained is extremely encouraging. The distance of the primary peak from the galactic centre has been shown to be correlated with the angular velocity in the linear part of the rotation curve. Here also, agreement is very good between theoretical and observed results. It is concluded that the distance of the primary peak from the centre not only speaks of the time that has elapsed since the explosion occurred in the nucleus, it also speaks of the potential capability of the nucleus of the galaxy for repeating explosions through some efficient process of mass replenishment at the core. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. C. Chaudhary
2004-11-01
Full Text Available We investigate the hydromagnetic effect on viscous incompressible flow between two horizontal parallel porous flat plates with transverse sinusoidal injection of the fluid at the stationary plate and its corresponding removal by periodic suction through the plate in uniform motion. The flow becomes three dimensional due to this injection/suction velocity. Approximate solutions are obtained for the flow field, the pressure, the skin-friction, the temperature field, and the rate of heat transfer. The dependence of solution on M (Hartmann number and ÃŽÂ» (injection/suction is investigated by the graphs and tables.
Preferential states of rotating turbulent flows in a square container with a step topography
Tenreiro, M.; Trieling, R.R.; Zavala Sansón, L.; Heijst, van G.J.F.
2013-01-01
The self-organization of confined, quasi-two-dimensional turbulent flows in a rotating square container with a step-like topography is investigated by means of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations based on a rigid lid, shallow-water formulation. The domain is divided by a bottom
Bondi flow from a slowly rotating hot atmosphere
Narayan, Ramesh; Fabian, Andrew C.
2011-08-01
A supermassive black hole in the nucleus of an elliptical galaxy at the centre of a cool-core group or cluster of galaxies is immersed in hot gas. Bondi accretion should occur at a rate determined by the properties of the gas at the Bondi radius and the mass of the black hole. X-ray observations of massive nearby elliptical galaxies, including M87 in the Virgo cluster, indicate a Bondi accretion rate ? which roughly matches the total kinetic power of the jets, suggesting that there is a tight coupling between the jet power and the mass accretion rate. While the Bondi model considers non-rotating gas, it is likely that the external gas has some angular momentum, which previous studies have shown could decrease the accretion rate drastically. We investigate here the possibility that viscosity acts at all radii to transport angular momentum outwards so that the accretion inflow proceeds rapidly and steadily. The situation corresponds to a giant advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) which extends from beyond the Bondi radius down to the black hole. We find solutions of the ADAF equations in which the gas accretes at just a factor of a few less than ?. These solutions assume that the atmosphere beyond the Bondi radius rotates with a sub-Keplerian velocity and that the viscosity parameter is large, α≥ 0.1, both of which are reasonable for the problem at hand. The infall time of the ADAF solutions is no more than a few times the free-fall time. Thus, the accretion rate at the black hole is closely coupled to the surrounding gas, enabling tight feedback to occur. We show that jet powers of a few per cent of ? are expected if either a fraction of the accretion power is channelled into the jet or the black hole spin energy is tapped by a strong magnetic field pressed against the black hole by the pressure of the accretion flow. We discuss the Bernoulli parameter of the flow, the role of convection and the possibility that these as well as magnetohydrodynamic effects
Effect of rotation on convective mass transfer in rotating channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pharoah, J.G.; Djilali, N.
2002-01-01
Laminar flow and mass transfer in rotating channels is investigated in the context of centrifugal membrane separation. The effect of orientation with respect to the rotational axis is examined for rectangular channels of aspect ratio 3 and the Rossby number is varied from 0.3 to 20.9. Both Ro and the channel orientation are found to have a significant effect on the flow. Mass transfer calculations corresponding to reverse osmosis desalination are carried out at various operating pressures and all rotating cases exhibit significant process enhancements at relatively low rotation rates. Finally, while it is common in the membrane literature to correlate mass transfer performance with membrane shear rates this is shown not to be valid in the cases presented herein. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brahim Berrabah
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Numerical predictions of three-dimensional flow and heat transfer are performed for a two-pass square channel with 45° staggered ribs in non-orthogonally mode-rotation using the second moment closure model. At Reynolds number of 25,000, the rotation numbers studied were 0, 0.24, 0.35 and 1.00. The density ratios were 0.13, 0.23 and 0.50. The results show that at high buoyancy parameter and high rotation number with a low density ratio, the flow in the first passage is governed by the secondary flow induced by the rotation whereas the secondary flow induced by the skewed ribs was almost distorted. As a result the heat transfer rate is enhanced on both co-trailing and co-leading sides compared to low and medium rotation number. In contrast, for the second passage, the rotation slightly reduces the heat transfer rate on co-leading side at high rotation number with a low density ratio and degrades it significantly on both co-trailing and co-leading sides at high buoyancy parameter compared to the stationary, low and medium rotation numbers. The numerical results are in fair agreement with available experimental data in the bend region and the second passage, while in the first passage were overestimated at low and medium rotation numbers.
Stochastic Rotation Dynamics simulations of wetting multi-phase flows
Hiller, Thomas; Sanchez de La Lama, Marta; Brinkmann, Martin
2016-06-01
Multi-color Stochastic Rotation Dynamics (SRDmc) has been introduced by Inoue et al. [1,2] as a particle based simulation method to study the flow of emulsion droplets in non-wetting microchannels. In this work, we extend the multi-color method to also account for different wetting conditions. This is achieved by assigning the color information not only to fluid particles but also to virtual wall particles that are required to enforce proper no-slip boundary conditions. To extend the scope of the original SRDmc algorithm to e.g. immiscible two-phase flow with viscosity contrast we implement an angular momentum conserving scheme (SRD+mc). We perform extensive benchmark simulations to show that a mono-phase SRDmc fluid exhibits bulk properties identical to a standard SRD fluid and that SRDmc fluids are applicable to a wide range of immiscible two-phase flows. To quantify the adhesion of a SRD+mc fluid in contact to the walls we measure the apparent contact angle from sessile droplets in mechanical equilibrium. For a further verification of our wettability implementation we compare the dewetting of a liquid film from a wetting stripe to experimental and numerical studies of interfacial morphologies on chemically structured surfaces.
Wills plasma physics department thirty second 6-monthly progress report 1st July-31st December 1976
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
Progress is reported on research programs which are proceeding in the following topics: plasma sources, hydromagnetic shock waves, rotating plasmas, magnetohydrodynamics, laser diagnostics and far infrared interferometry. (J.R.)
Wills Plasma Physics department thirty first 6-monthly progress report 1st January-30th June 1976
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
Progress is reported on research programs which are proceeding in the following topics: plasma sources, hydromagnetic shock waves, rotating plasmas, magnetohydrodynamics, laser diagnostics and far infrared interferometry. (R.L.)
Thomas, S.; Hankey, W.; Faghri, A.; Swanson, T.
1990-01-01
The flow of a thin liquid film with a free surface along a horizontal plane that emanates from a pressurized vessel is examined numerically. In one g, a hydraulic jump was predicted in both plane and radial flow, which could be forced away from the inlet by increasing the inlet Froude number or Reynolds number. In zero g, the hydraulic jump was not predicted. The effect of solid-body rotation for radial flow in one g was to 'wash out' the hydraulic jump and to decrease the film height on the disk. The liquid film heights under one g and zero g were equal under solid-body rotation because the effect of centrifugal force was much greater than that of the gravitational force. The heat transfer to a film on a rotating disk was predicted to be greater than that of a stationary disk because the liquid film is extremely thin and is moving with a very high velocity.
Maqsood, Najwa; Mustafa, M.; Khan, Junaid Ahmad
This study provides a numerical treatment for rotating flow of viscoelastic (Maxwell) fluid bounded by a linearly deforming elastic surface. Mass transfer analysis is carried out in the existence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. By means of usual transformation, the governing equations are changed into global similarity equations which have been tackled by an expedient shooting approach. A contemporary numerical routine bvp4c of software MATLAB is also opted to develop numerical approximations. Both methods of solution are found in complete agreement in all the cases. Velocity and concentration profiles are computed and elucidated for certain range of viscoelastic fluid parameter. The solutions contain a rotation-strength parameter λ that has a considerable impact on the flow fields. For sufficiently large value of λ , the velocity fields are oscillatory decaying function of the non-dimensional vertical distance. Concentration distribution at the surface is found to decrease upon increasing the strengths of chemical reactions. A comparison of present computations is made with those of already published ones and such comparison appears convincing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iga, Keita, E-mail: iga@aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564 (Japan)
2017-12-15
Axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom is investigated and its approximate solution with an analytic expression is obtained. The interior region, comprising the majority of the fluid, consists of two sub-regions. It is easily shown that a rigid-body rotational flow with the same rotation rate as that of the bottom is formed in the inner interior and that a potential flow with constant angular momentum occurs in the outer interior sub-region. However, the radius that divides these two sub-regions has not been determined. To determine this radius, the structures of the boundary layers are investigated in detail. These boundary layers surround the interior regions, and include the boundaries between the interior region and the side wall of the tank, between the interior and the bottom, and between the inner and outer interior sub-regions. By connecting the flows in the boundary layers, the vertical circulation as a whole is established, and consequently the radius dividing the two interior sub-regions is successfully determined as a function of the aspect ratio of the water layer region. This axisymmetric flow will be utilized as the basic state for investigating theoretically various non-axisymmetric phenomena observed in laboratory experiments. (paper)
Rotating coherent flow structures as a source for narrowband tip clearance noise from axial fans
Zhu, Tao; Lallier-Daniels, Dominic; Sanjosé, Marlène; Moreau, Stéphane; Carolus, Thomas
2018-03-01
Noise from axial fans typically increases significantly as the tip clearance is increased. In addition to the broadband tip clearance noise at the design flow rate, narrowband humps also associated with the tip flow are observed in the far-field acoustic spectra at lower flow rate. In this study, both experimental and numerical methods are used to shed more light on the noise generation mechanism of this narrowband tip clearance noise and provide a unified description of this source. Unsteady aeroacoustic predictions with the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM) are successfully compared with experiment. Such a validation allows using LBM data to conduct a detailed modal analysis of the pressure field for detecting rotating coherent flow structures which might be considered as noise sources. As previously found in ring fans the narrowband humps in the far-field noise spectra are found to be related to the tip clearance noise that is generated by an interaction of coherent flow structures present in the tip region with the leading edge of the impeller blades. The visualization of the coherent structures shows that they are indeed part of the unsteady tip clearance vortex structures. They are hidden in a complex, spatially and temporally inhomogeneous flow field, but can be recovered by means of appropriate filtering techniques. Their pressure trace corresponds to the so-called rotational instability identified in previous turbomachinery studies, which brings a unified picture of this tip-noise phenomenon for the first time.
Temporal flow instability for Magnus-Robins effect at high rotation rates
Sengupta, T. K.; Kasliwal, A.; de, S.; Nair, M.
2003-06-01
The lift and drag coefficients of a circular cylinder, translating and spinning at a supercritical rate is studied theoretically to explain the experimentally observed violation of maximum mean lift coefficient principle, that was proposed heuristically by Prandtl on the basis of inviscid flow model. It is also noted experimentally that flow past a rotating and translating cylinder experiences temporal instability-a fact not corroborated by any theoretical studies so far. In the present paper we report very accurate solution of Navier-Stokes equation that displays the above-mentioned instability and the violation of the maximum limit. The calculated lift coefficient exceeds the limit of /4π, instantaneously as well as in time-averaged sense. The main purpose of the present paper is to explain the observed temporal instability sequence in terms of a new theory of instability based on full Navier-Stokes equation that does not require making any assumption about the flow field, unlike other stability theories.
Shah, Zahir; Islam, Saeed; Gul, Taza; Bonyah, Ebenezer; Altaf Khan, Muhammad
2018-06-01
The current research aims to examine the combined effect of magnetic and electric field on micropolar nanofluid between two parallel plates in a rotating system. The nanofluid flow between two parallel plates is taken under the influence of Hall current. The flow of micropolar nanofluid has been assumed in steady state. The rudimentary governing equations have been changed to a set of differential nonlinear and coupled equations using suitable similarity variables. An optimal approach has been used to acquire the solution of the modelled problems. The convergence of the method has been shown numerically. The impact of the Skin friction on velocity profile, Nusslet number on temperature profile and Sherwood number on concentration profile have been studied. The influences of the Hall currents, rotation, Brownian motion and thermophoresis analysis of micropolar nanofluid have been mainly focused in this work. Moreover, for comprehension the physical presentation of the embedded parameters that is, coupling parameter N1 , viscosity parameter Re , spin gradient viscosity parameter N2 , rotating parameter Kr , Micropolar fluid constant N3 , magnetic parameter M , Prandtl number Pr , Thermophoretic parameter Nt , Brownian motion parameter Nb , and Schmidt number Sc have been plotted and deliberated graphically.
Lorentz force effect on mixed convection micropolar flow in a vertical conduit
Abdel-wahed, Mohamed S.
2017-05-01
The present work provides a simulation of control and filtration process of hydromagnetic blood flow with Hall current under the effect of heat source or sink through a vertical conduit (pipe). This work meets other engineering applications, such as nuclear reactors cooled during emergency shutdown, geophysical transport in electrically conducting and heat exchangers at low velocity conditions. The problem is modeled by a system of partial differential equations taking the effect of viscous dissipation, and these equations are simplified and solved analytically as a series solution using the Differential Transformation Method (DTM). The velocities and temperature profiles of the flow are plotted and discussed. Moreover, the conduit wall shear stress and heat flux are deduced and explained.
Rotational effects on turbine blade cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Govatzidakis, G.J.; Guenette, G.R.; Kerrebrock, J.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)
1995-10-01
An experimental investigation of the influence of rotation on the heat transfer in a smooth, rectangular passage rotating in the orthogonal mode is presented. The passage simulates one of the cooling channels found in gas turbine blades. A constant heat flux is imposed on the model with either inward or outward flow. The effects of rotation and buoyancy on the Nusselt number were quantified by systematically varying the Rotation number, Density Ratio, Reynolds number, and Buoyancy parameter. The experiment utilizes a high resolution infrared temperature measurement technique in order to measure the wall temperature distribution. The experimental results show that the rotational effects on the Nusselt number are significant and proper turbine blade design must take into account the effects of rotation, buoyancy, and flow direction. The behavior of the Nusselt number distribution depends strongly on the particular side, axial position, flow direction, and the specific range of the scaling parameters. The results show a strong coupling between buoyancy and Corollas effects throughout the passage. For outward flow, the trailing side Nusselt numbers increase with Rotation number relative to stationary values. On the leading side, the Nusselt numbers tended to decrease with rotation near the inlet and subsequently increased farther downstream in the passage. The Nusselt numbers on the side walls generally increased with rotation. For inward flow, the Nusselt numbers generally improved relative to stationary results, but increases in the Nusselt number were relatively smaller than in the case of outward flow. For outward and inward flows, increasing the density ratio generally tended to decrease Nusselt numbers on the leading and trailing sides, but the exact behavior and magnitude depended on the local axial position and specific range of Buoyancy parameters.
Breakdown of the large-scale circulation in Γ=1/2 rotating Rayleigh-Bénard flow.
Stevens, Richard J A M; Clercx, Herman J H; Lohse, Detlef
2012-11-01
Experiments and simulations of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection in cylindrical samples have revealed an increase in heat transport with increasing rotation rate. This heat transport enhancement is intimately related to a transition in the turbulent flow structure from a regime dominated by a large-scale circulation (LSC), consisting of a single convection roll, at no or weak rotation to a regime dominated by vertically aligned vortices at strong rotation. For a sample with an aspect ratio Γ=D/L=1 (D is the sample diameter and L is its height) the transition between the two regimes is indicated by a strong decrease in the LSC strength. In contrast, for Γ=1/2, Weiss and Ahlers [J. Fluid Mech. 688, 461 (2011)] revealed the presence of a LSC-like sidewall temperature signature beyond the critical rotation rate. They suggested that this might be due to the formation of a two-vortex state, in which one vortex extends vertically from the bottom into the sample interior and brings up warm fluid while another vortex brings down cold fluid from the top; this flow field would yield a sidewall temperature signature similar to that of the LSC. Here we show by direct numerical simulations for Γ=1/2 and parameters that allow direct comparison with experiment that the spatial organization of the vertically aligned vortical structures in the convection cell do indeed yield (for the time average) a sinusoidal variation of the temperature near the sidewall, as found in the experiment. This is also the essential and nontrivial difference with the Γ=1 sample, where the vertically aligned vortices are distributed randomly.
One-dimensional analysis of plane and radial thin film flows including solid-body rotation
Thomas, S.; Hankey, W.; Faghri, A.; Swanson, T.
1989-01-01
The flow of a thin liquid film with a free surface along a horizontal plate which emanates from a pressurized vessel is examined by integrating the equations of motion across the thin liquid layer and discretizing the integrated equations using finite difference techniques. The effects of 0-g and solid-body rotation will be discussed. The two cases of interest are plane flow and radial flow. In plane flow, the liquid is considered to be flowing along a channel with no change in the width of the channel, whereas in radial flow the liquid spreads out radially over a disk, so that the area changes along the radius. It is desired to determine the height of the liquid film at any location along the plate of disk, so that the heat transfer from the plate or disk can be found. The possibility that the flow could encounter a hydraulic jump is accounted for.
Flow Visualization of a Rotating Detonation Engine
2016-10-05
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The rotating detonation engine ( RDE ) is a propulsion system that obtains thrust using continuously existing...2014 – 12/4/2015 Summary: The rotating detonation engine ( RDE ) is a propulsion system that obtains thrust using continuously existing detonation...structure. Studies have been conducted on rotating detonation engines ( RDE ) that obtain thrust from the continuously propagating detonation waves in the
The mutual attraction of magnetic knots. [solar hydromagnetic instability in sunspot regions
Parker, E. N.
1978-01-01
It is observed that the magnetic knots associated with active regions on the sun have an attraction for each other during the formative period of the active regions, when new magnetic flux is coming to the surface. The attraction disappears when new flux ceases to rise through the surface. Then the magnetic spots and knots tend to come apart, leading to disintegration of the sunspots previously formed. The dissolution of the fields is to be expected, as a consequence of the magnetic repulsion of knots of like polarity and as a consequence of the hydromagnetic exchange instability. The purpose of this paper is to show that the mutual attraction of knots during the formative stages of a sunspot region may be understood as the mutual hydrodynamic attraction of the rising flux tubes. Two rising tubes attract each other, as a consequence of the wake of the leading tube when one is moving behind the other, and as a consequence of the Bernoulli effect when rising side by side.
Effects of curvature on rarefied gas flows between rotating concentric cylinders
Dongari, Nishanth; White, Craig; Scanlon, Thomas J.; Zhang, Yonghao; Reese, Jason M.
2013-05-01
The gas flow between two concentric rotating cylinders is considered in order to investigate non-equilibrium effects associated with the Knudsen layers over curved surfaces. We investigate the nonlinear flow physics in the near-wall regions using a new power-law (PL) wall-scaling approach. This PL model incorporates Knudsen layer effects in near-wall regions by taking into account the boundary limiting effects on the molecular free paths. We also report new direct simulation Monte Carlo results covering a wide range of Knudsen numbers and accommodation coefficients, and for various outer-to-inner cylinder radius ratios. Our simulation data are compared with both the classical slip flow theory and the PL model, and we find that non-equilibrium effects are not only dependent on Knudsen number and accommodation coefficient but are also significantly affected by the surface curvature. The relative merits and limitations of both theoretical models are explored with respect to rarefaction and curvature effects. The PL model is able to capture some of the nonlinear trends associated with Knudsen layers up to the early transition flow regime. The present study also illuminates the limitations of classical slip flow theory even in the early slip flow regime for higher curvature test cases, although the model does exhibit good agreement throughout the slip flow regime for lower curvature cases. Torque and velocity profile comparisons also convey that a good prediction of integral flow properties does not necessarily guarantee the accuracy of the theoretical model used, and it is important to demonstrate that field variables are also predicted satisfactorily.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roderick, N.F.; Cochrane, K.; Douglas, M.R.
1998-01-01
Previous investigations carried out to study various methods of seeding the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations showed features similar to those seen in hydrodynamic calculations. For periodic single-mode initiations the results showed the appearance of harmonics as the single modes became nonlinear. For periodic multi-mode initiations new modes developed that indicated the presence of mode coupling. The MHD simulations used parameters of the high velocity large radius z-pinch experiments performed in the Z-accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. The cylindrical convergent geometry and variable acceleration of these configurations made comparison with analytic, developed for planar geometry with constant acceleration, difficult. A set of calculations in planar geometry using constant current to produce acceleration and parameters characteristic of the cylindrical implosions has been performed to allow a better comparison. Results of these calculations, comparison with analytic theory, and comparison with the cylindrical configuration calculations will be discussed
von Kármán swirling flow between a rotating and a stationary smooth disk: Experiment
Mukherjee, Aryesh; Steinberg, Victor
2018-01-01
Precise measurements of the torque in a von Kármán swirling flow between a rotating and a stationary smooth disk in three Newtonian fluids with different dynamic viscosities are reported. From these measurements the dependence of the normalized torque, called the friction coefficient, on Re is found to be of the form Cf=1.17 (±0.03 ) Re-0.46±0.003 where the scaling exponent and coefficient are close to that predicted theoretically for an infinite, unshrouded, and smooth rotating disk which follows from an exact similarity solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, obtained by von Kármán. An error analysis shows that deviations from the theory can be partially caused by background errors. Measurements of the azimuthal Vθ and axial velocity profiles along radial and axial directions reveal that the flow core rotates at Vθ/r Ω ≃0.22 (up to z ≈4 cm from the rotating disk and up to r0/R ≃0.25 in the radial direction) in spite of the small aspect ratio of the vessel. Thus the friction coefficient shows scaling close to that obtained from the von Kármán exact similarity solution, but the observed rotating core provides evidence of the Batchelor-like solution [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 4, 29 (1951), 10.1093/qjmam/4.1.29] different from the von Kármán [Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 1, 233 (1921), 10.1002/zamm.19210010401] or Stewartson [Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 49, 333 (1953), 10.1017/S0305004100028437] one.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Nath
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Self-similar solutions are obtained for unsteady, one-dimensional isothermal flow behind a shock wave in a rotational axisymmetric non-ideal gas in the presence of an azimuthal magnetic field. The shock wave is driven out by a piston moving with time according to power law. The fluid velocities and the azimuthal magnetic field in the ambient medium are assumed to be varying and obeying a power law. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. The gas is assumed to be non-ideal having infinite electrical conductivity and the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assumed to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. It is expected that such an angular velocity may occur in the atmospheres of rotating planets and stars. The effects of the non-idealness of the gas and the Alfven-Mach number on the flow-field are obtained. It is shown that the presence of azimuthal magnetic field and the rotation of the medium has decaying effect on the shock wave. Also, a comparison is made between rotating and non-rotating cases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Najwa Maqsood
Full Text Available This study provides a numerical treatment for rotating flow of viscoelastic (Maxwell fluid bounded by a linearly deforming elastic surface. Mass transfer analysis is carried out in the existence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. By means of usual transformation, the governing equations are changed into global similarity equations which have been tackled by an expedient shooting approach. A contemporary numerical routine bvp4c of software MATLAB is also opted to develop numerical approximations. Both methods of solution are found in complete agreement in all the cases. Velocity and concentration profiles are computed and elucidated for certain range of viscoelastic fluid parameter. The solutions contain a rotation-strength parameter λ that has a considerable impact on the flow fields. For sufficiently large value of λ, the velocity fields are oscillatory decaying function of the non-dimensional vertical distance. Concentration distribution at the surface is found to decrease upon increasing the strengths of chemical reactions. A comparison of present computations is made with those of already published ones and such comparison appears convincing. Keywords: Maxwell fluid, Similarity solution, Numerical method, Chemical reaction, Stretching sheet
Zaleski, Daniel P.; Prozument, Kirill
2017-06-01
Chirped-pulsed (CP) Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy invented by Brooks Pate and coworkers a decade ago is an attractive tool for gas phase chemical dynamics and kinetics studies. A good reactor for such a purpose would have well-defined (and variable) temperature and pressure conditions to be amenable to accurate kinetic modeling. Furthermore, in low pressure samples with large enough number of molecular emitters, reaction dynamics can be observable directly, rather than mediated by supersonic expansion. In the present work, we are evaluating feasibility of in situ time-resolved CP spectroscopy in a room temperature flow tube reactor. Vinyl cyanide (CH_2CHCN), neat or mixed with inert gasses, flows through the reactor at pressures 1-50 μbar (0.76-38 mTorr) where it is photodissociated by a 193 nm laser. Millimeter-wave beam of the CP spectrometer co-propagates with the laser beam along the reactor tube and interacts with nascent photoproducts. Rotational transitions of HCN, HNC, and HCCCN are detected, with ≥10 μs time-steps for 500 ms following photolysis of CH_2CHCN. The post-photolysis evolution of the photoproducts' rotational line intensities is investigated for the effects of rotational and vibrational thermalization of energized photoproducts. Possible contributions from bimolecular and wall-mediated chemistry are evaluated as well.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingtuan Yang
2015-05-01
Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation study of the characteristics of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions in swirling jets confined in a rectangular flow domain is carried out. The different structures of vortex cores for different swirl levels are illustrated. It is found that the vortex cores of low swirl flows are of regular cylindrical-helix patterns, whereas those of the high swirl flows are characterized by the formation of the bubble-type vortex breakdown followed by the radiant processing vortex cores. The results of mean velocity fields show the general procedures of vortex origination. Moreover, the effects of macroscopic and microscopic rotating motions with respect to the mean and fluctuation fields of the swirling flows are evaluated. The microscopic rotating effects, especially the effects with respect to the turbulent fluctuation motion, are increasingly intermittent with the increase in the swirl levels. In contrast, the maximum value of the probability density functions with respect to the macroscopic rotating effects of the fluctuation motion occurs at moderate swirl levels since the macroscopic rotating effects are attenuated by the formation of the bubble vortex breakdown with a region of stagnant fluids at supercritical swirl levels.
Second law analysis for hydromagnetic couple stress fluid flow through a porous channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.O. Kareem
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, the combined effects of magnetic field and ohmic heating on the entropy generation rate in the flow of couple stress fluid through a porous channel are investigated. The equations governing the fluid flow are formulated, non-dimensionalised and solved using a rapidly convergent semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method (ADM. The result of the computation shows a significant dependence of fluid’s thermophysical parameters on Joule’s dissipation as well as decline in the rate of change of fluid momentum due to the interplay between Lorentz and viscous forces. Moreover, the rate of entropy generation in the flow system drops as the magnitude of the magnetic field increases.
Forced and free convection hydromagnetic flow past a vertical flat plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdelkhalek, M.M.
2004-01-01
The effects of magnetic field and temperature heat source on the free and forced convection flow past an infinite vertical plate is studied analytically. Solutions of the reduced equation appropriate in the forced convection and free convection regime are obtained using perturbation technique. The expression for the velocity field, skin friction and Nusselt number have been obtained
Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei; Suwa, Yudai
2016-09-01
We report results from a series of three-dimensional (3D) rotational core-collapse simulations for 11.2 and 27 M⊙ stars employing neutrino transport scheme by the isotropic diffusion source approximation. By changing the initial strength of rotation systematically, we find a rotation-assisted explosion for the 27 M⊙ progenitor , which fails in the absence of rotation. The unique feature was not captured in previous two-dimensional (2D) self-consistent rotating models because the growing non-axisymmetric instabilities play a key role. In the rapidly rotating case, strong spiral flows generated by the so-called low T/|W| instability enhance the energy transport from the proto-neutron star (PNS) to the gain region, which makes the shock expansion more energetic. The explosion occurs more strongly in the direction perpendicular to the rotational axis, which is different from previous 2D predictions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nor Athirah Mohd Zin
Full Text Available In this article, the influence of thermal radiation on unsteady magnetohydrodynamics (MHD free convection flow of rotating Jeffrey nanofluid passing through a porous medium is studied. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are dispersed in the Kerosene Oil (KO which is chosen as conventional base fluid. Appropriate dimensionless variables are used and the system of equations is transformed into dimensionless form. The resulting problem is solved using the Laplace transform technique. The impact of pertinent parameters including volume fraction Ï, material parameters of Jeffrey fluid Î»1, Î», rotation parameter r, Hartmann number Ha, permeability parameter K, Grashof number Gr, Prandtl number Pr, radiation parameter Rd and dimensionless time t on velocity and temperature profiles are presented graphically with comprehensive discussions. It is observed that, the rotation parameter, due to the Coriolis force, tends to decrease the primary velocity but reverse effect is observed in the secondary velocity. It is also observed that, the Lorentz force retards the fluid flow for both primary and secondary velocities. The expressions for skin friction and Nusselt number are also evaluated for different values of emerging parameters. A comparative study with the existing published work is provided in order to verify the present results. An excellent agreement is found. Keywords: Jeffrey nanofluid, AgNPs, MHD and Porosity, Rotating flow, Laplace transform technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Memon, R.A.; Solangi, M.A.
2013-01-01
The impacts of rotational velocity and inertia on velocity gradients and stresses are addressed under present study. The non-Newtonian behaviour of inelastic rotating flows is predicted by employing Power law model. A numerical model has been developed for mixing flow within a cylindrical vessel along a couple of stirrers. A time marching FEM (Finite Element Method) is employed to predict the required solution. Predicted solutions are presented for minimum to maximum values in terms of contour plots of velocity gradients and shear stresses, over the range. The long term application of this research will be used to improve the design of mixers and processing products. The predicted results are used to generate the capability and are in good agreement with numerical results to the mixer design that will ultimately effect the processing of dough products. (author)
CFD Modeling of Flow and Ion Exchange Kinetics in a Rotating Bed Reactor System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsson, Hilde Kristina; Schjøtt Andersen, Patrick Alexander; Byström, Emil
2017-01-01
A rotating bed reactor (RBR) has been modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow pattern in the RBR was investigated and the flow through the porous material in it was quantified. A simplified geometry representing the more complex RBR geometry was introduced and the simplified...... model was able to reproduce the main characteristics of the flow. Alternating reactor shapes were investigated, and it was concluded that the use of baffles has a very large impact on the flows through the porous material. The simulations suggested, therefore, that even faster reaction rates could...... be achieved by making the baffles deeper. Two-phase simulations were performed, which managed to reproduce the deflection of the gas–liquid interface in an unbaffled system. A chemical reaction was implemented in the model, describing the ion-exchange phenomena in the porous material using four different...
Fluorescence Imaging of Rotational and Vibrational Temperature in a Shock Tunnel Nozzle Flow
Palma, Philip C.; Danehy, Paul M.; Houwing, A. F. P.
2003-01-01
Two-dimensional rotational and vibrational temperature measurements were made at the nozzle exit of a free-piston shock tunnel using planar laser-induced fluorescence. The Mach 7 flow consisted predominantly of nitrogen with a trace quantity of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide was employed as the probe species and was excited at 225 nm. Nonuniformities in the distribution of nitric oxide in the test gas were observed and were concluded to be due to contamination of the test gas by driver gas or cold test gas.The nozzle-exit rotational temperature was measured and is in reasonable agreement with computational modeling. Nonlinearities in the detection system were responsible for systematic errors in the measurements. The vibrational temperature was measured to be constant with distance from the nozzle exit, indicating it had frozen during the nozzle expansion.
Horn, S.; Schmid, P. J.; Aurnou, J. M.
2016-12-01
The Earth's metal core acts as a dynamo whose efficiency in generating and maintaining the magnetic field is essentially determined by the rotation rate and the convective motions occurring in its outer liquid part. For the description of the primary physics in the outer core the idealized system of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is often invoked, with the majority of studies considering only working fluids with Prandtl numbers of Pr ≳ 1. However, liquid metals are characterized by distinctly smaller Prandtl numbers which in turn result in an inherently different type of convection. Here, we will present results from direct numerical simulations of rapidly rotating convection in a fluid with Pr ≈ 0.025 in cylindrical containers and Ekman numbers as low as 5 × 10-6. In this system, the Coriolis force is the source of two types of inertial modes, the so-called wall modes, that also exist at moderate Prandtl numbers, and cylinder-filling oscillatory modes, that are a unique feature of small Prandtl number convection. The obtained flow fields were analyzed using the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD). This technique allows to extract and identify the structures that govern the dynamics of the system as well as their corresponding frequencies. We have investigated both the regime where the flow is purely oscillatory and the regime where wall modes and oscillatory modes co-exist. In the purely oscillatory regime, high and low frequency oscillatory modes characterize the flow. When both types of modes are present, the DMD reveals that the wall-attached modes dominate the flow dynamics. They precess with a relatively low frequency in retrograde direction. Nonetheless, also in this case, high frequency oscillations have a significant contribution.
Anisotropic turbulence and zonal jets in rotating flows with a β-effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Galperin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical studies of small-scale forced, two-dimensional turbulent flows on the surface of a rotating sphere have revealed strong large-scale anisotropization that culminates in the emergence of quasi-steady sets of alternating zonal jets, or zonation. The kinetic energy spectrum of such flows also becomes strongly anisotropic. For the zonal modes, a steep spectral distribution, E(n=CZ (Ω/R2 n-5, is established, where CZ=O(1 is a non-dimensional coefficient, Ω is the angular velocity, and R is the radius of the sphere, respectively. For other, non-zonal modes, the classical, Kolmogorov-Batchelor-Kraichnan, spectral law is preserved. This flow regime, referred to as a zonostrophic regime, appears to have wide applicability to large-scale planetary and terrestrial circulations as long as those are characterized by strong rotation, vertically stable stratification and small Burger numbers. The well-known manifestations of this regime are the banded disks of the outer planets of our Solar System. Relatively less known examples are systems of narrow, subsurface, alternating zonal jets throughout all major oceans discovered in state-of-the-art, eddy-permitting simulations of the general oceanic circulation. Furthermore, laboratory experiments recently conducted using the Coriolis turntable have basically confirmed that the lateral gradient of ''planetary vorticity'' (emulated via the topographic β-effect is the primary cause of the zonation and that the latter is entwined with the development of the strongly anisotropic kinetic energy spectrum that tends to attain the same zonal and non-zonal distributions, −5 and , respectively, in both the slope and the magnitude, as the corresponding spectra in other environmental conditions. The non-dimensional coefficient CZ in the −5 spectral law appears to be invariant, , in a variety of simulated and natural flows. This paper provides a brief review of the zonostrophic regime. The review includes the
Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe
Feng, Chunjuan; Liu, Feng; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao
2017-09-01
Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.
Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunjuan Feng
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Govindarajan Arunachalam
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An investigation of unsteady MHD free convective flow and mass transfer during the motion of a viscous incompressible fluid through a porous medium, bounded by an infinite vertical porous surface, in a rotating system is presented. The porous plane surface and the porous medium are assumed to rotate in a solid body rotation. The vertical surface is subjected to uniform constant suction perpendicular to it and the temperature at this surface fluctuates in time about a non-zero constant mean. Analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and concentration fields are obtained using the perturbation technique. The effects of R (rotation parameter, k0 (permeability parameter, M (Hartmann number and w (frequency parameter on the flow characteristics are discussed. It is observed that the primary velocity component decreases with the increase in either of the rotation parameter R, the permeability parameter k0, or the Hartmann number M. It is also noted that the primary skin friction increases whenever there is an increase in the Grashof number Gr or the modified Grashof number Gm. It is clear that the heat transfer coefficient in terms of the Nusselt number decreases in the case of both air and water when there is an increase in the Hartmann number M. It is observed that the magnitude of the secondary velocity profiles increases whenever there is an increase in either of the Grashof number or the modified Grashof number for mass transfer or the permeability of the porous media. Concentration profiles decreases with an increase in the Schmidt number.
Flow field investigations in rotating facilities by means of stationary PIV systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armellini, A; Mucignat, C; Casarsa, L; Giannattasio, P
2012-01-01
The flow field inside rotating test sections can be investigated by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV) operated in the phase-locked mode. With this experimental approach, the measurement system is kept fixed and it is synchronized with the periodical passage of the test section. Therefore, the direct output of the PIV measurements is the absolute velocity field, while the relative one is indirectly obtained from proper data processing that relies on accurate knowledge of the peripheral velocity field. This work provides an uncertainty analysis about the evaluation of the peripheral displacement field in phase-locked PIV measurements. The analysis leads to the detection of the levels of accuracy required in the estimation of both the angular velocity and the position of the center of rotation to ensure correct evaluation of the peripheral displacement field. In this regard, a simple methodology is proposed to evaluate the center of rotation position with an accuracy below 1 px. Finally, a procedure to pre-process the PIV images by subtracting the peripheral displacement is described. The advantages of its implementation are highlighted by the comparison with the performance of a more standard methodology where the peripheral field is subtracted from the absolute velocity field and not directly from the PIV raw data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, Igor
2009-01-01
variations. The flow in a cylindrical cavity with a rotating lid of a height of three radii and a Reynolds number of about 3500 is used as example. The reconstruction identifies a series of flow structures including axisymmetric vortex breakdown and distinct vortex structures along the cylinder wall....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adesanya, S.O.; Oluwadare, E.O.; Falade, J.A.; Makinde, O.D.
2015-01-01
In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow. - Highlights: • The influence of magnetic field on the free convective fluid flow is considered. • The coupled equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. • The Adomian series solution agreed with previously obtained result. • Magnetic field decreases the velocity maximum but enhances temperature field
Faghri, Amir; Swanson, Theodore D.
1990-01-01
In the first section, improvements in the theoretical model and computational procedure for the prediction of film height and heat-transfer coefficient of the free surface flow of a radially-spreading thin liquid film adjacent to a flat horizontal surface of finite extent are presented. Flows in the presence and absence of gravity are considered. Theoretical results are compared to available experimental data with good agreement. In the presence of gravity, a hydraulic jump is present, isolating the flow into two regimes: supercritical upstream from the jump and subcritical downstream of it. In this situation, the effects of surface tension are important near the outer edge of the disk where the fluid experiences a free fall. A region of flow separation is present just downstream of the jump. In the absence of gravity, no hydraulic jump or separated flow region is present. The variation of the heat-transfer coefficient for flows in the presence and absence of gravity are also presented. In the second section, the results of a numerical simulation of the flow field and associated heat transfer coefficients are presented for the free surface flow of a thin liquid film adjacent to a horizontal rotating disk. The computation was performed for different flow rates and rotational velocities using a 3-D boundary-fitted coordinate system. Since the geometry of the free surface is unknown and dependent on flow rate, rate of rotation, and other parameters, an iterative procedure had to be used to ascertain its location. The computed film height agreed well with existing experimental measurements. The flow is found to be dominated by inertia near the entrance and close to the free surface and dominated by centrifugal force at larger radii and adjacent to the disk. The rotation enhances the heat transfer coefficient by a significant amount.
Water flow in soil from organic dairy rotations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lamandé, Mathieu; Eriksen, Jørgen; Krogh, Paul Henning
2017-01-01
rye. Each plot was irrigated for an hour with 18·5 mm of water containing a conservative tracer, potassium bromide; 24 h after irrigation, macropores >1 mm were recorded visually on a horizontal plan of 0·7 m2 at five depths (10, 30, 40, 70 and 100 cm). The bromide (Br−) concentration in soil was also......Managed grasslands are characterized by rotations of leys and arable crops. The regime of water flow evolves during the leys because of earthworm and root activity, climate and agricultural practices (fertilizer, cutting and cattle trampling). The effects of duration of the leys, cattle trampling...... and fertilizer practice on the movement of water through sandy loam soil profiles were investigated in managed grassland of a dairy operation. Experiments using tracer chemicals were performed, with or without cattle slurry application, with cutting or grazing, in the 1st and the 3rd year of ley, and in winter...
The effects of curvature on the flow field in rapidly rotating gas centrifuges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wood, H.G.; Jordan, J.A.
1984-01-01
The effects of curvature on the fluid dynamics of rapidly rotating gas centrifuges are studied. A governing system of a linear partial differential equation and boundary conditions is derived based on a linearization of the equations for viscous compressible flow. This system reduces to the Onsager pancake model if the effects of curvature are neglected. Approximations to the solutions of the governing equations with and without curvature terms are obtained via a finite-element method. Two examples are considered: first where the flow is driven by a thermal gradient at the wall of the centrifuge, and then for the flow being driven by the introduction and removal of mass through the ends of the centrifuge. Comparisons of the results obtained show that, especially for the second example, the inclusion of the terms due to curvature in the model can have an appreciable effect on the solution. (author)
Numerical analysis of MHD Casson Navier's slip nanofluid flow yield by rigid rotating disk
Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.; Zahri, Mostafa; Tahir, M.
2018-03-01
An exertion is perform to report analysis on Casson liquid equipped above the rigid disk for z bar > 0 as a semi-infinite region. The flow of Casson liquid is achieve through rotation of rigid disk with constant angular frequency Ω bar . Magnetic interaction is consider by applying uniform magnetic field normal to the axial direction. The nanosized particles are suspended in the Casson liquid and rotation of disk is manifested with Navier's slip condition, heat generation/absorption and chemical reaction effects. The obtain flow narrating differential equations subject to MHD Casson nanofluid are transformed into ordinary differential system. For this purpose the Von Karman way of scheme is executed. To achieve accurate trends a computational algorithm is develop rather than to go on with usual build-in scheme. The effects logs of involved parameters, namely magnetic field parameter, Casson fluid parameter, slip parameter, thermophoresis and Brownian motion parameters on radial, tangential velocities, temperature, nanoparticles concentration, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are provided by means of graphical and tabular structures. It is observed that both tangential and radial velocities are decreasing function of Casson fluid parameter.
The flow and hydrodynamic stability of a liquid film on a rotating disc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Moon-Uhn
2009-01-01
The flow of a liquid film on a rotating disc is investigated in the case where a liquid is supplied at a constant flow rate. We propose thin film equations by the integral method with a simple approach to satisfy the boundary conditions on a disc and a free surface, and the results are compared with those of the Navier-Stokes equations. The radial film velocity is assumed to be a quartic profile in our analysis, whereas it was assumed to be a quadratic one, neglecting the inertia force so that the boundary conditions were not completely satisfied, in the analysis of Sisoev et al (2003 J. Fluid Mech. 229 531-54). The basic flow and its stability are analyzed using the thin film equations even in the region where the inertia force is not negligible. A local stability analysis of the flow is conducted using the linearized disturbance equations and correctly predicts Needham's simple instability criterion. The present thin film equations give a good approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations.
Flow and Heat Transfer of Bingham Plastic Fluid over a Rotating Disk with Variable Thickness
Liu, Chunyan; Pan, Mingyang; Zheng, Liancun; Ming, Chunying; Zhang, Xinxin
2016-11-01
This paper studies the steady flow and heat transfer of Bingham plastic fluid over a rotating disk of finite radius with variable thickness radially in boundary layer. The boundary layer flow is caused by the rotating disk when the extra stress is greater than the yield stress of the Bingham fluid. The analyses of the velocity and temperature field related to the variable thickness disk have not been investigated in current literatures. The governing equations are first simplified into ordinary differential equations owing to the generalized von Kármán transformation for seeking solutions easily. Then semi-similarity approximate analytical solutions are obtained by using the homotopy analysis method for different physical parameters. It is found that the Bingham number clearly influences the velocity field distribution, and the skin friction coefficient Cfr is nonlinear growth with respect to the shape parameter m. Additionally, the effects of the involved parameters (i.e. shape parameter m, variable thickness parameter β, Reynolds number Rev, and Prandtl number Pr) on velocity and temperature distribution are investigated and analyzed in detail.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Prian, Vasily
1951-01-01
An analysis was made of the flow in the rotating passages of a 48-inch diameter radial-inlet centrifugal impeller at a tip speed of 700 feet per second in order to provide more knowledge on the flow...
Biomolecular Nano-Flow-Sensor to Measure Near-Surface Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noji Hiroyuki
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated that the measurement of the near-surface flow at the interface between a liquid and solid using a 10 nm-sized biomolecular motor of F1-ATPase as a nano-flow-sensor. For this purpose, we developed a microfluidic test-bed chip to precisely control the liquid flow acting on the F1-ATPase. In order to visualize the rotation of F1-ATPase, several hundreds nanometer-sized particle was immobilized at the rotational axis of F1-ATPase to enhance the rotation to be detected by optical microscopy. The rotational motion of F1-ATPase, which was immobilized on an inner surface of the test-bed chip, was measured to obtain the correlation between the near-surface flow and the rotation speed of F1-ATPase. As a result, we obtained the relationship that the rotation speed of F1-ATPase was linearly decelerated with increasing flow velocity. The mechanism of the correlation between the rotation speed and the near-surface flow remains unclear, however the concept to use biomolecule as a nano-flow-sensor was proofed successfully. (See supplementary material 1 Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9479-3 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Click here for file
Jiang, Zhou; Xia, Zhenhua; Shi, Yipeng; Chen, Shiyi
2018-04-01
A fully developed spanwise rotating turbulent channel flow has been numerically investigated utilizing large-eddy simulation. Our focus is to assess the performances of the dynamic variants of eddy viscosity models, including dynamic Vreman's model (DVM), dynamic wall adapting local eddy viscosity (DWALE) model, dynamic σ (Dσ ) model, and the dynamic volumetric strain-stretching (DVSS) model, in this canonical flow. The results with dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used as references. Our results show that the DVM has a wrong asymptotic behavior in the near wall region, while the other three models can correctly predict it. In the high rotation case, the DWALE can get reliable mean velocity profile, but the turbulence intensities in the wall-normal and spanwise directions show clear deviations from DNS data. DVSS exhibits poor predictions on both the mean velocity profile and turbulence intensities. In all three cases, Dσ performs the best.
Multiscale gyrokinetics for rotating tokamak plasmas: fluctuations, transport and energy flows.
Abel, I G; Plunk, G G; Wang, E; Barnes, M; Cowley, S C; Dorland, W; Schekochihin, A A
2013-11-01
This paper presents a complete theoretical framework for studying turbulence and transport in rapidly rotating tokamak plasmas. The fundamental scale separations present in plasma turbulence are codified as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio ε = ρi/α of the gyroradius to the equilibrium scale length. Proceeding order by order in this expansion, a set of coupled multiscale equations is developed. They describe an instantaneous equilibrium, the fluctuations driven by gradients in the equilibrium quantities, and the transport-timescale evolution of mean profiles of these quantities driven by the interplay between the equilibrium and the fluctuations. The equilibrium distribution functions are local Maxwellians with each flux surface rotating toroidally as a rigid body. The magnetic equilibrium is obtained from the generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for a rotating plasma, determining the magnetic flux function from the mean pressure and velocity profiles of the plasma. The slow (resistive-timescale) evolution of the magnetic field is given by an evolution equation for the safety factor q. Large-scale deviations of the distribution function from a Maxwellian are given by neoclassical theory. The fluctuations are determined by the 'high-flow' gyrokinetic equation, from which we derive the governing principle for gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamaks: the conservation and local (in space) cascade of the free energy of the fluctuations (i.e. there is no turbulence spreading). Transport equations for the evolution of the mean density, temperature and flow velocity profiles are derived. These transport equations show how the neoclassical and fluctuating corrections to the equilibrium Maxwellian act back upon the mean profiles through fluxes and heating. The energy and entropy conservation laws for the mean profiles are derived from the transport equations. Total energy, thermal, kinetic and magnetic, is conserved and there is no net turbulent heating. Entropy is produced
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Y.; Shesterikov, I.; Berte, M.; Dumortier, P.; Van Schoor, M.; Vergote, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Koslowski, R.
2013-01-01
Direct measurements of residual stress (force) have been executed at the edge of the TEXTOR tokamak using multitip Langmuir and Mach probes, together with counter-current NBI torque to balance the existing toroidal rotation. Substantial residual stress and force have been observed at the plasma boundary, confirming the existence of a finite residual stress as possible mechanisms to drive the intrinsic toroidal rotation. In low-density discharges, the residual stress displays a quasi-linear dependence on the local pressure gradient, consistent with theoretical predictions. At high-density shots the residual stress and torque are strongly suppressed. The results show close correlation between the residual stress and the E r × B flow shear rate, suggesting a minimum threshold of the E × B flow shear required for the k ∥ symmetry breaking. These findings provide the first experimental evidence of the role of E r × B sheared flows in the development of residual stresses and intrinsic rotation. (letter)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Okamoto, Masao.
1992-05-01
Effects of external momentum sources, i.e., fast ions produced by the neutral beam injection and an external inductive electric field, on the neoclassical ion parallel flow, current, and rotation are analytically investigated for a simple plasma in general toroidal systems. It is shown that the contribution of the external sources to the ion parallel flow becomes large as the collision frequency of thermal ions increases because of the momentum conservation of Coulomb collisions and sharply decreasing viscosity coefficients, with collision frequency. As a result, the beam-driven parallel flow of thermal ions becomes comparable to that of electrons in the Pfirsh-Schluter collisionality regime, whereas in the 1/μ or banana regime it is smaller than that of electrons by the order of √(m e /m i ) (m e and m i are electron and ion masses). This beam-driven ion parallel flow can not produce a large beam-driven current because of the cancellation with electron parallel flow, but produces a large toroidal rotation of ions. As both electrons and ions approach the Pfirsh-Schluter collisionality regime the contribution of thermodynamical forces becomes negligibly small and the large toroidal rotation of ions is predominated by the beam-driven component in the non-axisymmetric configuration with large helical ripples. (author)
Kinematic morphology of large-scale structure: evolution from potential to rotational flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Eyink, Gregory L.
2014-01-01
As an alternative way to describe the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of the characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. We show that this tool, first introduced in turbulence two decades ago, is very useful for understanding the evolution of the cosmic web structure, and in classifying its morphology. Before shell crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with the cosmic web structure because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatial distribution and different types of alignment between the cosmic web and vorticity direction for various vortical flows. Incorporating shell crossing into closed dynamical systems is highly non-trivial, but we propose a possible statistical explanation for some of the phenomena relating to the internal structure of the three-dimensional invariant space.
Kinematic morphology of large-scale structure: evolution from potential to rotational flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Eyink, Gregory L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2014-09-20
As an alternative way to describe the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of the characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. We show that this tool, first introduced in turbulence two decades ago, is very useful for understanding the evolution of the cosmic web structure, and in classifying its morphology. Before shell crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with the cosmic web structure because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatial distribution and different types of alignment between the cosmic web and vorticity direction for various vortical flows. Incorporating shell crossing into closed dynamical systems is highly non-trivial, but we propose a possible statistical explanation for some of the phenomena relating to the internal structure of the three-dimensional invariant space.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Bae, C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejoen (Korea, Republic of)
2015-06-15
A systematic formalism for the calculation of rotation in non-axisymmetric tokamaks with 3D magnetic fields is described. The Braginskii Ωτ-ordered viscous stress tensor formalism, generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry, and the resulting fluid moment equations provide a systematic formalism for the calculation of toroidal and poloidal rotation and radial ion flow in tokamaks in the presence of various non-axisymmetric “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. The relation among rotation velocities, radial ion particle flux, ion orbit loss, and radial electric field is discussed, and the possibility of controlling these quantities by producing externally controllable toroidal and/or poloidal currents in the edge plasma for this purpose is suggested for future investigation.
MHD Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in non-hydrostatic equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laghouati, Y; Bouabdallah, A; Zizi, M; Alemany, A
2007-01-01
The present work deals with the linear stability of a magnetohydrodynamic shear flow so that a stratified inviscid fluid rotating about a vertical axis when a uniform magnetic field is applied in the direction of the streaming or zonal flow. In geophysical flow, the stability of the flow is determined by taking into account the nonhydrostatic condition depending on Richardson number R i and the deviation δ from hydrostatic equilibrium. According to Stone (Stone P H 1971 J. Fluid. Mech. 45 659), it is shown that such deviation δ decreases the growth rates of three kinds of instability which can appear as geostrophic (G), symmetric (S) and Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instabilities. To be specific, the evolution of the flow is therefore considered in the light of the influence of magnetic field, particularly, on K-H instability. The results of this study are presented by the linear stability of a magnetohydrodynamic, with horizontal free-shear flow of stratified fluid, subject to rotation about the vertical axis and uniform magnetic field in the zonal direction. Results are discussed and compared to previous works as Chandrasekhar (Chandrasekhar S 1961 Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability (Oxford: Clarendon Press) chapter 11 pp 481-513) and Stone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohr, A.
1976-01-01
Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra
Polygons on a rotating fluid surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jansson, Thomas R.N.; Haspang, Martin P.; Jensen, Kåre H.
2006-01-01
We report a novel and spectacular instability of a fluid surface in a rotating system. In a flow driven by rotating the bottom plate of a partially filled, stationary cylindrical container, the shape of the free surface can spontaneously break the axial symmetry and assume the form of a polygon...... rotating rigidly with a speed different from that of the plate. With water, we have observed polygons with up to 6 corners. It has been known for many years that such flows are prone to symmetry breaking, but apparently the polygonal surface shapes have never been observed. The creation of rotating...
Viscous potential flow analysis of magnetohydrodynamic interfacial stability through porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obied Allah, M.H.
2013-01-01
In the view of viscous potential flow theory, the hydromagnetic stability of the interface between two infinitely conducting, incompressible plasmas, streaming parallel to the interface and subjected to a constant magnetic field parallel to the streaming direction will be considered. The plasmas are flowing through porous media between two rigid planes and surface tension is taken into account. A general dispersion relation is obtained analytically and solved numerically. For Kelvin-Helmholtz instability problem, the stability criterion is given by a critical value of the relative velocity. On the other hand, a comparison between inviscid and viscous potential flow solutions has been made and it has noticed that viscosity plays a dual role, destabilizing for Rayleigh-Taylor problem and stabilizing for Kelvin-Helmholtz. For Rayleigh-Taylor instability, a new dispersion relation has been obtained in terms of a critical wave number. It has been found that magnetic field, surface tension, and rigid planes have stabilizing effects, whereas critical wave number and porous media have destabilizing effects. (author)
Three-dimensional coating and rimming flow: a ring of fluid on a rotating horizontal cylinder
Leslie, G. A.
2013-01-29
The steady three-dimensional flow of a thin, slowly varying ring of Newtonian fluid on either the outside or the inside of a uniformly rotating large horizontal cylinder is investigated. Specifically, we study \\'full-ring\\' solutions, corresponding to a ring of continuous, finite and non-zero thickness that extends all of the way around the cylinder. In particular, it is found that there is a critical solution corresponding to either a critical load above which no full-ring solution exists (if the rotation speed is prescribed) or a critical rotation speed below which no full-ring solution exists (if the load is prescribed). We describe the behaviour of the critical solution and, in particular, show that the critical flux, the critical load, the critical semi-width and the critical ring profile are all increasing functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of small rotation speed, the critical flux is small and the critical ring is narrow and thin, leading to a small critical load. In the limit of large rotation speed, the critical flux is large and the critical ring is wide on the upper half of the cylinder and thick on the lower half of the cylinder, leading to a large critical load. We also describe the behaviour of the non-critical full-ring solution and, in particular, show that the semi-width and the ring profile are increasing functions of the load but, in general, non-monotonic functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of large rotation speed, the ring approaches a limiting non-uniform shape, whereas in the limit of small load, the ring is narrow and thin with a uniform parabolic profile. Finally, we show that, while for most values of the rotation speed and the load the azimuthal velocity is in the same direction as the rotation of the cylinder, there is a region of parameter space close to the critical solution for sufficiently small rotation speed in which backflow occurs in a small region on the upward-moving side of the cylinder. © 2013
Three-dimensional coating and rimming flow: a ring of fluid on a rotating horizontal cylinder
Leslie, G. A.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.
2013-01-01
The steady three-dimensional flow of a thin, slowly varying ring of Newtonian fluid on either the outside or the inside of a uniformly rotating large horizontal cylinder is investigated. Specifically, we study 'full-ring' solutions, corresponding to a ring of continuous, finite and non-zero thickness that extends all of the way around the cylinder. In particular, it is found that there is a critical solution corresponding to either a critical load above which no full-ring solution exists (if the rotation speed is prescribed) or a critical rotation speed below which no full-ring solution exists (if the load is prescribed). We describe the behaviour of the critical solution and, in particular, show that the critical flux, the critical load, the critical semi-width and the critical ring profile are all increasing functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of small rotation speed, the critical flux is small and the critical ring is narrow and thin, leading to a small critical load. In the limit of large rotation speed, the critical flux is large and the critical ring is wide on the upper half of the cylinder and thick on the lower half of the cylinder, leading to a large critical load. We also describe the behaviour of the non-critical full-ring solution and, in particular, show that the semi-width and the ring profile are increasing functions of the load but, in general, non-monotonic functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of large rotation speed, the ring approaches a limiting non-uniform shape, whereas in the limit of small load, the ring is narrow and thin with a uniform parabolic profile. Finally, we show that, while for most values of the rotation speed and the load the azimuthal velocity is in the same direction as the rotation of the cylinder, there is a region of parameter space close to the critical solution for sufficiently small rotation speed in which backflow occurs in a small region on the upward-moving side of the cylinder. © 2013 Cambridge
Wills plasma physics department twenty-eighth 6-monthly progress report 1st July-31st December 1974
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1975-01-01
Progress is reported on several research programs which include: 1) plasma sources, 2) hydromagnetic shock waves, 3) rotating plasmas, 4) icr heating and magnetoacoustic heating, 5) carbon dioxide laser interferometer, 6) dye lasers, and 7) plasmascanned Michelson interferometer. (R.L.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eltayeb, I.A.
1983-07-01
The linear progation properties and stability of wave motions in spherical shells examined in paper I (Geophys. Astr. Fluid Dyn., 16, 129) are here extended to the case of a toroidal magnetic field together with an associated shear flow. The analysis is restricted to moderate values of the magnetic field amplitude, in which case the ensuing motions are two-dimensional. They occur in thin cylindrical cells coaxial with the axis of rotation. For every set of the relevant parameters an infinity of modes exists and is divided into two uncoupled categories. One category is associated with a temperature perturbation even in the axial coordinate z and the other category odd in z. In the presence of an inner solid core the even set persists only outside the cylindrical surface, Csub(c), whose generators touch the inner core at its equator while the odd set persists everywhere. The direction of propagation of these waves depends on the ratio, q, of thermal to magnetic diffusivities and on the modified Chandrasekhar number Q (which is the ratio of Lorentz to Coriolis forces). For small values of q relevant to geophysical applications both eastward and westward propagation is possible if Q is small; but as Q increases beyond a certain value, only eastward propagation is possible. For the case of large q applicable to astrophysical situations both eastward and westward propagation is possible. All these results apply for a variety of temperature gradients in which both internal and differential forms of heating are invoked, and various forms of toroidal magnetic fields. The stability of these wave motions is examined and the most preferred mode of convection is identified in each case. The unstable cell always lies on Csub(c) or outside it. Its precise location depends on the types of magnetic field and temperature gradient. The sloping boundary of the spherical shell tends to stabilize westward propagating waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, Tasawar [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Qayyum, Sumaira [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Imtiaz, Maria, E-mail: mi_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alzahrani, Faris; Alsaedi, Ahmed [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-09-01
This paper addresses the flow of magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid) between two parallel rotating stretchable disks with different rotating and stretching velocities. Water based fluid comprising magnetite-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is addressed. Velocity slip and temperature jump at solid–fluid interface are also taken into account. Appropriate transformations reduce the nonlinear partial differential system to ordinary differential system. Convergent series solutions are obtained. Effects of various pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles are shown and evaluated. Computations for skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented and examined for the influence of involved parameters. It is noted that tangential velocity of fluid decreases for larger velocity slip parameter. Fluid temperature also reduces for increasing value of thermal slip parameter. Surface drag force and heat transfer rate at lower disk are enhanced when magnetic field strength is increased. - Highlights: • Flow and heat transfer of ferrofluid induced by two stretchable rotating disks with velocity and thermal slips are explored. • Fluid temperature increases for larger solid volume fraction of nanofluid. • Heat transfer rate decreases for increasing values of thermal slip parameter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minami, Kazuo; Sato, Kazunori.
1978-09-01
The dynamic shear stabilization of the hydromagnetic instability in low-beta plasmas by an axial RF current whose frequency is not much smaller than the ion cyclotron frequency ωsub(ci) is analyzed in some detail. We adopt the simple model of a uniform plasma column with infinite conductivity. Attention is limited to the case of the m = 1 kink mode with long wave lengths. The Mathieu equation, in which the effect of the ion cyclotron motion is taken into account, is derived. It is shown that the dynamic shear stabilization is still effective, even if the frequency of the applied RF current is of the order of ωsub(ci), which is considerably higher than the frequencies believed to be available in the previous analyses. (author)
Dou, Huashu; Zhang, Shuo; Yang, Hui; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kinoue, Yoichi
2018-04-01
Flow around two rotating side-by-side circular cylinders of equal diameter D is numerically studied at the Reynolds number 40≤ Re ≤200 and various rotation rate θ i . The incoming flow is assumed to be two-dimensional laminar flow. The governing equations are the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and solved by the finite volume method (FVM). The ratio of the center-to-center spacing to the cylinder diameter is T/D=2. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effect of rotational speed and Reynolds number on the stability of the flow. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data and a good agreement is achieved. The stability of the flow is analyzed by using the energy gradient theory, which produces the energy gradient function K to identify the region where the flow is the most prone to be destabilized and the degree of the destabilization. Numerical results reveal that K is the most significant at the separated shear layers of the cylinder pair. With Re increases, the length of the wake is shorter and the vortex shedding generally exhibits a symmetrical distribution for θ i < θ crit . It is also shown that the unsteady vortex shedding can be suppressed by rotating the cylinders in the counter-rotating mode.
Hydromagnetic Falkner-Skan flow of Casson fluid past a moving wedge with heat transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imran Ullah
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Numerical solutions are carried out for steady state two dimensional electrically conducting mixed convection flow of Casson fluid along non-isothermal moving wedge through porous medium in the presence of viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption. The governing partial differential equations, subject to boundary conditions are transformed into ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically by Keller-box method. To check the validity of present method, numerical results for dimensionless local skin friction coefficient and rate of heat transfer are compared with results of available literature as special cases and revealed in good agreement. The influence of pertinent parameters on velocity, temperature profiles, as well as wall shear stress and heat transfer rate is displayed in graphical form and discussed. It is found that fluid velocity increases with increase of Eckert number in case of assisting flow, while it decreases in case of opposing flow. It is also noticed that heat generation/absorption parameter influence fluid velocity and temperature significantly. A significant result obtained from this study is that heat transfer rate reduces with increase of Prandtl number in the presence of viscous dissipation effect. Also, increasing values of Eckert number have no effects on force convection flow.
Weiss, Stephan; Wei, Ping; Ahlers, Guenter
2015-11-01
Turbulent thermal convection under rotation shows a remarkable variety of different flow states. The Nusselt number (Nu) at slow rotation rates (expressed as the dimensionless inverse Rossby number 1/Ro), for example, is not a monotonic function of 1/Ro. Different 1/Ro-ranges can be observed with different slopes ∂Nu / ∂ (1 / Ro) . Some of these ranges are connected by sharp transitions where ∂Nu / ∂ (1 / Ro) changes discontinuously. We investigate different regimes in cylindrical samples of aspect ratio Γ = 1 by measuring temperatures at the sidewall of the sample for various Prandtl numbers in the range 3 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
From Newton's bucket to rotating polygons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, B.; Linnartz, E. C.; Vested, Malene Louise Hovgaard
2014-01-01
We present an experimental study of 'polygons' forming on the free surface of a swirling water flow in a partially filled cylindrical container. In our set-up, we rotate the bottom plate and the cylinder wall with separate motors. We thereby vary rotation rate and shear strength independently...... and move from a rigidly rotating 'Newton's bucket' flow to one where bottom and cylinder wall are rotating oppositely and the surface is strongly turbulent but flat on average. Between those two extremes, we find polygonal states for which the rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken. We investigate...... the phase diagram spanned by the two rotational frequencies at a given water filling height and find polygons in a regime, where the two frequencies are sufficiently different and, predominantly, when they have opposite signs. In addition to the extension of the family of polygons found with the stationary...
On the geometry of field lines in plasma flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagewadi, C.S.; Prasanna Kumar, K.N.
1988-01-01
Many research investigators have applied differential geometry to plasma. Intrinsic properties of fluid flows in streamline, vortex line geometries are we ll known under certain set of geometric conditions. Though this approach has yielded some interesting results but the most general properties of flows can be obtained, using eight geometric parameters ksub(s), tsub(s) θsub(ns), θsub(bs), phisub(s), Ωsub(s), div n, div b and the basic necessary conditions to be satisfied by the flow in general anholonomic co-ordinate system together with the conditions to be satisfied by the geometric parameters of triply orthogonal spatial curves of congruences. Adopting the above techniques for triply orthogonal spatial curves of congruences related to the lines of forces, Purushottam has studied the geometric properties of spatial hydromagnetic fluid flows. Again these results have been studied by him in general along the field lines. These results have been studied for plasma along field lines and the basic equations of plasma have been expressed in intrinsic decomposition forms. Furthe r complex lamellar magnetic field have been studied by introducing Lie surface. (a uthor)
Large-scale flows, sheet plumes and strong magnetic fields in a rapidly rotating spherical dynamo
Takahashi, F.
2011-12-01
Mechanisms of magnetic field intensification by flows of an electrically conducting fluid in a rapidly rotating spherical shell is investigated. Bearing dynamos of the Eartn and planets in mind, the Ekman number is set at 10-5. A strong dipolar solution with magnetic energy 55 times larger than the kinetic energy of thermal convection is obtained. In a regime of small viscosity and inertia with the strong magnetic field, convection structure consists of a few large-scale retrograde flows in the azimuthal direction and sporadic thin sheet-like plumes. The magnetic field is amplified through stretching of magnetic lines, which occurs typically through three types of flow: the retrograde azimuthal flow near the outer boundary, the downwelling flow of the sheet plume, and the prograde azimuthal flow near the rim of the tangent cylinder induced by the downwelling flow. It is found that either structure of current loops or current sheets is accompanied in each flow structure. Current loops emerge as a result of stretching the magnetic lines along the magnetic field, wheres the current sheets are formed to counterbalance the Coriolis force. Convection structure and processes of magnetic field generation found in the present model are distinct from those in models at larger/smaller Ekman number.
The residual zonal dynamics in a toroidally rotating tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Deng
2015-01-01
Zonal flows, initially driven by ion-temperature-gradient turbulence, may evolve due to the neoclassic polarization in a collisionless tokamak plasma. In this presentation, the form of the residual zonal flow is presented for tokamak plasmas rotating toroidally at arbitrary velocity. The gyro-kinetic equation is analytically solved to give the expression of residual zonal flows with arbitrary rotating velocity. The zonal flow level decreases as the rotating velocity increases. The numerical evaluation is in good agreement with the previous simulation result for high aspect ratio tokamaks. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Dong-Wei; Kaneko, Shigehiko; Hayama, Shinji
1999-01-01
This study reports the stability of annular leakage-flow-induced vibrations. The pressure distribution of fluid between a fixed outer cylinder and a vibrating inner cylinder was obtained in the case of a translationally and rotationally coupled motion of the inner cylinder. The unsteady fluid force acting on the inner cylinder in the case of translational and rotational single-degree-of-freedom vibrations was then expressed in terms proportional to the acceleration, velocity, and displacement. Then the critical flow rate (at which stability was lost) was determined for an annular leakage-flow-induced vibration. Finally, the stability was investigated theoretically. It is known that instability will occur in the case of a divergent passage, but the critical flow rate depends on the passage increment in a limited range: the eccentricity of the passage and the pressure loss factor at the inlet of the passage lower the stability. (author)
Visual perception of axes of head rotation
Arnoldussen, D. M.; Goossens, J.; van den Berg, A. V.
2013-01-01
Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. (1) Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit. We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow's rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals. (2) Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semi-circular canals (SCC)? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those Blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes. (3) We investigated if subject's sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is
Swarnalathamma, B. V.; Krishna, M. Veera
2017-07-01
We studied heat transfer on MHD convective flow of viscous electrically conducting heat generating/absorbing fluid through porous medium in a rotating channel under uniform transverse magnetic field normal to the channel and taking Hall current. The flow is governed by the Brinkman's model. The diagnostic solutions for the velocity and temperature are obtained by perturbation technique and computationally discussed with respect to flow parameters through the graphs. The skin friction and Nusselt number are also evaluated and computationally discussed with reference to pertinent parameters in detail.
Flow of Giesekus viscoelastic fluid in a concentric annulus with inner cylinder rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravanchi, Maryam Takht; Mirzazadeh, Mahmoud; Rashidi, Fariborz
2007-01-01
An approximate analytical solution is derived for the steady state, purely tangential flow of a viscoelastic fluid obeying the Giesekus constitutive equation in a concentric annulus with inner cylinder rotation. An approximation is used for the estimation of radial normal stress. The effect of Weissenberg number (We), radius ratio (κ) and mobility factor (α) on velocity distribution and fRe are investigated. The results show that the velocity gradient near the inner cylinder increases as the fluid elasticity increases. The results also show that fRe decreases with increasing fluid elasticity
Prasad, D. V. V. Krishna; Chaitanya, G. S. Krishna; Raju, R. Srinivasa
2018-05-01
The aim of this research work is to find the EFGM solutions of the unsteady magnetohydromagnetic natural convection heat transfer flow of a rotating, incompressible, viscous, Boussinesq fluid is presented in this study in the presence of radiative heat transfer. The Rosseland approximation for an optically thick fluid is invoked to describe the radiative flux. Numerical results obtained show that a decrease in the temperature boundary layer occurs when the Prandtl number and the radiation parameter are increased and the flow velocity approaches steady state as the time parameter t is increased. These findings are in quantitative agreement with earlier reported studies.
MHD equilibrium with toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, J.
1987-03-01
The present work attempts to formulate the equilibrium of axisymmetric plasma with purely toroidal flow within ideal MHD theory. In general, the inertial term Rho(v.Del)v caused by plasma flow is so complicated that the equilibrium equation is completely different from the Grad-Shafranov equation. However, in the case of purely toroidal flow the equilibrium equation can be simplified so that it resembles the Grad-Shafranov equation. Generally one arbitrary two-variable functions and two arbitrary single variable functions, instead of only four single-variable functions, are allowed in the new equilibrium equations. Also, the boundary conditions of the rotating (with purely toroidal fluid flow, static - without any fluid flow) equilibrium are the same as those of the static equilibrium. So numerically one can calculate the rotating equilibrium as a static equilibrium. (author)
Unsteady flow field in a mini VAWT with relative rotation blades: analysis of temporal results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayeul-Lainé, A C; Simonet, S; Bois, G
2013-01-01
The present wind turbine is a small one which can be used on roofs or in gardens. This turbine has a vertical axis. Each turbine blade combines a rotating movement around its own axis and around the main rotor axis. Due to this combination of movements, flow around this turbine is highly unsteady and needs to be modelled by unsteady calculation. The present work is an extended study starting in 2009. The benefits of combined rotating blades have been shown. The performance coefficient of this kind of turbine is very good for some blade stagger angles. Spectral analysis of unsteady results on specific points in the domain and temporal forces on blades was already presented for elliptic blades. The main aim here is to compare two kinds of blades in case of the best performances
Polygons on a rotating fluid surface.
Jansson, Thomas R N; Haspang, Martin P; Jensen, Kåre H; Hersen, Pascal; Bohr, Tomas
2006-05-05
We report a novel and spectacular instability of a fluid surface in a rotating system. In a flow driven by rotating the bottom plate of a partially filled, stationary cylindrical container, the shape of the free surface can spontaneously break the axial symmetry and assume the form of a polygon rotating rigidly with a speed different from that of the plate. With water, we have observed polygons with up to 6 corners. It has been known for many years that such flows are prone to symmetry breaking, but apparently the polygonal surface shapes have never been observed. The creation of rotating internal waves in a similar setup was observed for much lower rotation rates, where the free surface remains essentially flat [J. M. Lopez, J. Fluid Mech. 502, 99 (2004). We speculate that the instability is caused by the strong azimuthal shear due to the stationary walls and that it is triggered by minute wobbling of the rotating plate.
Chemical Kinetics in the expansion flow field of a rotating detonation-wave engine
Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas
2014-11-01
Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. A key step towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release.
Flow and heat transfer over a rotating disk with surface roughness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Myung Sup; Hyun, Jae Min; Park, Jun Sang
2007-01-01
A numerical study is made of flow and heat transfer near an infinite disk, which rotates steadily about the longitudinal axis. The surface of the disk is characterized by axisymmetric, sinusoidally-shaped roughness. The representative Reynolds number is large. Numerical solutions are acquired to the governing boundary-layer-type equations. The present numerical results reproduce the previous data for a flat disk. For a wavy surface disk, the radial distributions of local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number show double periodicity, which is in accord with the previous results. Physical explanations are provided for this finding. The surface-integrated torque coefficient and average Nusselt number increase as the surface roughness parameter increases. The effect of the Rossby number is also demonstrated
Hydromagnetic flow of a Cu-water nanofluid past a moving wedge with viscous dissipation
M. Salem, A.; Galal, Ismail; Rania, Fathy
2014-04-01
A numerical study is performed to investigate the flow and heat transfer at the surface of a permeable wedge immersed in a copper (Cu)-water-based nanofluid in the presence of magnetic field and viscous dissipation using a nanofluid model proposed by Tiwari and Das (Tiwari I K and Das M K 2007 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 50 2002). A similarity solution for the transformed governing equation is obtained, and those equations are solved by employing a numerical shooting technique with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. A comparison with previously published work is carried out and shows that they are in good agreement with each other. The effects of velocity ratio parameter λ, solid volume fraction φ, magnetic field M, viscous dissipation Ec, and suction parameter Fw on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are discussed. The unique and dual solutions for self-similar equations of the flow and heat transfer are analyzed numerically. Moreover, the range of the velocity ratio parameter for which the solution exists increases in the presence of magnetic field and suction parameter.
Hayat, T.; Khan, M. Waleed Ahmed; Khan, M. Ijaz; Waqas, M.; Alsaedi, A.
2018-06-01
Flow of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) viscous fluid between two rotating disks is modeled. Angular velocities of two disks are different. Flow is investigated for nonlinear mixed convection. Heat transfer is analyzed for nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Chemical reaction is also implemented. Convective conditions of heat and mass transfer are studied. Transformations used lead to reduction of PDEs into the ODEs. The impacts of important physical variables like Prandtl number, Reynold number, Hartman number, mixed convection parameter, chemical reaction and Schmidt number on velocities, temperature and concentration are elaborated. In addition velocity and temperature gradients are physically interpreted. Our obtained results indicate that radial, axial and tangential velocities decrease for higher estimation of Hartman number.
Natural convective magneto-nanofluid flow and radiative heat transfer past a moving vertical plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Das
2015-03-01
Full Text Available An investigation of the hydromagnetic boundary layer flow past a moving vertical plate in nanofluids in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation has been carried out. Three different types of water-based nanofluids containing copper, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide are taken into consideration. The governing equations are solved using Laplace transform technique and the solutions are presented in closed form. The numerical values of nanofluid temperature, velocity, the rate of heat transfer and the shear stress at the plate are presented graphically for several values of the pertinent parameters. The present study finds applications in engineering devices.
Table-top rotating turbulence : an experimental insight through Particle Tracking
Castello, Del L.
2010-01-01
The influence of the Earth background rotation on oceanic and atmospheric currents, as well as the effects of a rapid rotation on the flow inside industrial machineries like mixers, turbines, and compressors, are only the most typical examples of fluid flows affected by rotation. Despite the
Wall shear stress from a rotating cylinder in cross flow using the electrochemical technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labraga, L.; Bourabaa, N.; Berkah, T.
2002-01-01
The wall shear rate from a rotating cylinder in a uniform flow was measured with flush-mounted electrochemical mass transfer probes. The experiments were performed using two rectangular electrodes in a sandwich arrangement. Initially, the frequency response of that probe was numerically studied using an inverse mass transfer method in order to restore the whole wall shear stress in the time domain starting from the measured transfer coefficients given by the split probe. The experiments were performed in the range of velocity ratios 0 4, points of zero shear stress on the rotating cylinder vanish, which is in fact consistent with the previous arguments that the cylinder is surrounded by a set of closed streamlines. This experimental study shows that, when their dynamic behaviour is known, the electrochemical probes are able to sense complex fine structures not observed up to now by previous analytical, numerical or experimental methods, even when non-linear effects are not negligible. (orig.)
Transverse thermopherotic MHD Oldroyd-B fluid with Newtonian heating
Mehmood, R.; Rana, S.; Nadeem, S.
2018-03-01
Hydromagnetic transverse flow of an Oldroyd-B type fluid with suspension of nanoparticles and Newtonian heating effects is conferred in this article. Relaxation and Retardation time effects are taken into consideration. Using suitable transformations physical problem is converted into non-linear ordinary differential equations which are tackled numerically via Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration scheme. Illustration of embedded constraints on flow characteristics are extracted through graphs. The physical response of velocity, temperature and concentration are investigated computationally. Momentum boundary layer thickness decreases but local heat and mass flux rises for Deborah number and Hartman number. The results provide interesting insights into certain applicable transport phenomena involving hydromagnetic rheological fluids.
Low-density, radiatively inefficient rotating-accretion flow on to a black hole
Inayoshi, Kohei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Haiman, Zoltán; Kuiper, Rolf
2018-05-01
We study low-density axisymmetric accretion flows on to black holes (BHs) with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, adopting the α-viscosity prescription. When the gas angular momentum is low enough to form a rotationally supported disc within the Bondi radius (RB), we find a global steady accretion solution. The solution consists of a rotational equilibrium distribution around r ˜ RB, where the density follows ρ ∝ (1 + RB/r)3/2, surrounding a geometrically thick and optically thin accretion disc at the centrifugal radius RC(
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uday Singh Rajput
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Effects of rotation and radiation on unsteady MHD flow past a vertical plate with variable wall temperature and mass diffusion in the presence of Hall current is studied here. Earlier we studied chemical reaction effect on unsteady MHD flow past an exponentially accelerated inclined plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion in the presence of Hall current. We had obtained the results which were in agreement with the desired flow phenomenon. To study further, we are changing the model by considering radiation effect on fluid, and changing the geometry of the model. Here in this paper we are taking the plate positioned vertically upward and rotating with velocity Ω . Further, medium of the flow is taken as porous. The plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate increase linearly with time. The governing system of partial differential equations is transformed to dimensionless equations using dimensionless variables. The dimensionless equations under consideration have been solved by Laplace transform technique. The model contains equations of motion, diffusion equation and equation of energy. To analyze the solution of the model, desirable sets of the values of the parameters have been considered. The governing equations involved in the flow model are solved by the Laplace-transform technique. The results obtained have been analyzed with the help of graphs drawn for different parameters. The numerical values obtained for the drag at boundary and Nusselt number have been tabulated. We found that the values obtained for velocity, concentration and temperature are in concurrence with the actual flow of the fluid
Transitions in rapidly rotating convection dynamos
Tilgner, A.
2013-12-01
It is commonly assumed that buoyancy in the fluid core powers the geodynamo. We study here the minimal model of a convection driven dynamo, which is a horizontal plane layer in a gravity field, filled with electrically conducting fluid, heated from below and cooled from above, and rotating about a vertical axis. Such a plane layer may be viewed as a local approximation to the geophysically more relevant spherical geometry. The numerical simulations have been run on graphics processing units with at least 960 cores. If the convection is driven stronger and stronger at fixed rotation rate, the flow behaves at some point as if it was not rotating. This transition shows in the scaling of the heat transport which can be used to distinguish slow from rapid rotation. One expects dynamos to behave differently in these two flow regimes. But even within the convection flows which are rapidly rotating according to this criterion, it will be shown that different types of dynamos exist. In one state, the magnetic field strength obeys a scaling indicative of a magnetostrophic balance, in which the Lorentz force is in equilibrium with the Coriolis force. The flow in this case is helical. A different state exists at higher magnetic Reynolds numbers, in which the magnetic energy obeys a different scaling law and the helicity of the flow is much reduced. As one increases the Rayleigh number, all other parameters kept constant, one may find both types of dynamos separated by an interval of Rayleigh numbers in which there are no dynamos at all. The effect of these transitions on energy dissipation and mean field generation have also been studied.
Hydromagnetic effect on inclined peristaltic flow of a couple stress fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.C. Shit
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the effect of channel inclination on the peristaltic transport of a couple stress fluid in the presence of externally applied magnetic field. The slip velocity at the channel wall has been taken into account. Under the long wave length and low-Reynolds number assumptions, the analytical solutions for axial velocity, stream function, pressure gradient and pressure rise are obtained. The computed results are presented graphically by taking valid numerical data for non-dimensional physical parameters available in the existing scientific literatures. The results revealed that the trapping fluid can be eliminated and the central line axial velocity can be reduced with a considerable extent by the application of magnetic field. The flow phenomena for the pumping characteristics, trapping and reflux are furthermore investigated. The study shows that the slip parameter and Froude number play an important role in controlling axial pressure gradient.
Rotation vectors for homeomorphisms of non-positively curved manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lessa, Pablo
2011-01-01
Rotation vectors, as defined for homeomorphisms of the torus that are isotopic to the identity, are generalized to such homeomorphisms of any complete Riemannian manifold with non-positive sectional curvature. These generalized rotation vectors are shown to exist for almost every orbit of such a dynamical system with respect to any invariant measure with compact support. The concept is then extended to flows and, as an application, it is shown how non-null rotation vectors can be used to construct a measurable semi-conjugacy between a given flow and the geodesic flow of a manifold
Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.
2005-01-01
An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.
Instabilities and spin-up behaviour of a rotating magnetic field driven flow in a rectangular cavity
Galindo, V.; Nauber, R.; Räbiger, D.; Franke, S.; Beyer, H.; Büttner, L.; Czarske, J.; Eckert, S.
2017-11-01
This study presents numerical simulations and experiments considering the flow of an electrically conducting fluid inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The investigations are focused on the spin-up, where a liquid metal (GaInSn) is suddenly exposed to an azimuthal body force generated by the RMF and the subsequent flow development. The numerical simulations rely on a semi-analytical expression for the induced electromagnetic force density in an electrically conducting medium inside a cuboid container with insulating walls. Velocity distributions in two perpendicular planes are measured using a novel dual-plane, two-component ultrasound array Doppler velocimeter with continuous data streaming, enabling long term measurements for investigating transient flows. This approach allows identifying the main emerging flow modes during the transition from stable to unstable flow regimes with exponentially growing velocity oscillations using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition method. Characteristic frequencies in the oscillating flow regimes are determined in the super critical range above the critical magnetic Taylor number T ac≈1.26 ×1 05, where the transition from the steady double vortex structure of the secondary flow to an unstable regime with exponentially growing oscillations is detected. The mean flow structures and the temporal evolution of the flow predicted by the numerical simulations and observed in experiments are in very good agreement.
Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.
2017-12-01
Convection is the main heat transport process in the liquid cores of planets. The convective flows are thought to be turbulent and constrained by rotation (corresponding to high Reynolds numbers Re and low Rossby numbers Ro). Under these conditions, and in the absence of magnetic fields, the convective flows can produce coherent Reynolds stresses that drive persistent large-scale zonal flows. The formation of large-scale flows has crucial implications for the thermal evolution of planets and the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. In this work, we explore this problem with numerical simulations using a quasi-geostrophic approximation to model convective and zonal flows at Re 104 and Ro 10-4 for Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (Pr 0.1). The formation of intense multiple zonal jets strongly affects the convective heat transport, leading to the formation of a mean temperature staircase. We also study the generation of magnetic fields by the quasi-geostrophic flows at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.
CISM Course on Rotating Fluids
1992-01-01
The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.
An experimental study of rotational pressure loss in rotor-stator gap
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Yew Chuan Chong
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The annular gap between rotor and stator is an inevitable flow path of a throughflow ventilated electrical machine, but the flow entering the rotor-stator gap is subjected to the effects of rotation. The pressure loss and volumetric flow rate across the rotor-stator gap were measured and compared between rotating and stationary conditions. The experimental measurements found that the flow entering the rotor-stator gap is affected by an additional pressure loss. In the present study, the rotational pressure loss at the entrance of rotor-stator gap is characterised. Based upon dimensional analysis, the coefficient of entrance loss can be correlated with a dimensionless parameter, i.e. rotation ratio. The investigation leads to an original correlation for the entrance loss coefficient of rotor-stator gap arisen from the Coriolis and centrifugal effects in rotating reference frame.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuliang Zhao
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Our group has reported that Melan-A cells and lymphocytes undergo self-rotation in a homogeneous AC electric field, and found that the rotation velocity of these cells is a key indicator to characterize their physical properties. However, the determination of the rotation properties of a cell by human eyes is both gruesome and time consuming, and not always accurate. In this paper, a method is presented to more accurately determine the 3D cell rotation velocity and axis from a 2D image sequence captured by a single camera. Using the optical flow method, we obtained the 2D motion field data from the image sequence and back-project it onto a 3D sphere model, and then the rotation axis and velocity of the cell were calculated. After testing the algorithm on animated image sequences, experiments were also performed on image sequences of real rotating cells. All of these results indicate that this method is accurate, practical, and useful. Furthermore, the method presented there can also be used to determine the 3D rotation velocity of other types of spherical objects that are commonly used in microfluidic applications, such as beads and microparticles.
Steady flow instability in an annulus with deflectors at rotational vibration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kozlov, Nikolai V [Lab. Vibrational Hydromechanics, Perm State-Humanitarian Pedagogical University 24 Sibirskaya av., 614990 Perm (Russian Federation); Pareau, Dominique; Stambouli, Moncef [Lab. Chemical Engineering, CentraleSupélec-Université Paris Saclay, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Ivantsov, Andrey, E-mail: kozlov.n@icmm.ru [Lab. Computational Hydrodynamics Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics UB RAS1 Acad. Korolev st., 614013 Perm (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
Experimental study and direct numerical simulation of the dynamics of an isothermal low-viscosity fluid are done in a coaxial gap of a cylindrical container making rotational vibrations relative to its axis. On the inner surface of the outer wall of the container, semicircular deflectors are regularly situated, playing the role of flow activators. As a result of vibrations, the activators oscillate tangentially. In the simulation, a 2D configuration is considered, excluding the end-wall effects. In the experiment, a container with a large aspect ratio is used. Steady streaming is generated in the viscous boundary layers on the activators. On each of the latter, beyond the viscous domain, a symmetric vortices pair is formed. The steady streaming in the annulus has an azimuthal periodicity. With an increase in the vibration intensity, a competition between the vortices occurs, as a result of which one of the vortices (let us call it even) approaches the activator and the other one (odd) rolls away and couples with the vortices from the neighbouring pairs. Streamlines of the odd vortices close on each other, forming a cog-wheel shaped flow that encircles the inner wall. Comparison of the experiment and the simulation reveals an agreement at moderate vibration intensity. (paper)
Rotation, Stability and Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Connor, J. W.
2007-07-01
Tokamak plasmas can frequently exhibit high levels of rotation and rotation shear. This can usually be attributed to various sources: injection of momentum, e.g. through neutral beams, flows driven by plasma gradients or torques resulting from non-ambipolar particle loss; however, the source sometimes remains a mystery, such as the spontaneous rotation observed in Ohmic plasmas. The equilibrium rotation profile is given by the balance of these sources with transport and other losses; the edge boundary conditions can play an important role in determining this profile . Such plasma rotation, particularly sheared rotation, is predicted theoretically to have a significant influence on plasma behaviour. In the first place, sonic flows can significantly affect tokamak equilibria and neoclassical transport losses. However, the influence of rotation on plasma stability and turbulence is more profound. At the macroscopic level it affects the behaviour of the gross MHD modes that influence plasma operational limits. This includes sawteeth, the seeding of neoclassical tearing modes, resistive wall modes and the onset of disruptions through error fields, mode locking and reconnection. At the microscopic level it has a major effect on the stability of ballooning modes, both ideal MHD and drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. In the non-linear state, as unstable drift waves evolve into turbulent structures, sheared rotation also tears apart eddies, thereby reducing the resulting transport. There is considerable experimental evidence for these effects on both MHD stability and plasma confinement. In particular, the appearance of improved confinement modes with transport barriers, such as edge H-mode barriers and internal transport barriers (ITBs) appears to correlate well with the presence of sheared plasma rotation. This talk will describe the theory underlying some of these phenomena involving plasma rotation, on both macroscopic and microscopic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serov Anatoly
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The torque of the rotational resistance in the Ku-Etta multi-cylinder system rotating in the direction towards each other is measured. The experiments were carried out for three values of the kinematic viscosity of the working fluid that fills the multicylinder system: water at a temperature of 24 °C (viscosity 0.9 cSt, an aqueous solution of glycerol at 20 °C and 41 °C (2.5 cSt and 5.2 cSt. An attempt is made to investigate the features of a viscous flow in the multicolor Couette flow system from the analysis of the energy spectra of the moment of resistance to rotation of cylinders.
Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations for rotating axisymmetric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.
1994-03-01
The influence of sheared equilibrium flows on the confinement properties of tokamak plasmas is a topic of much current interest. A proper theoretical foundation for the systematic kinetic analysis of this important problem has been provided here by presented the derivation of a set of nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations applicable to low frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. The subsonic rotation velocity considered is in the direction of symmetry with the angular rotation frequency being a function of the equilibrium magnetic flux surface. In accordance with experimental observations, the rotation profile is chosen to scale with the ion temperature. The results obtained represent the shear flow generalization of the earlier analysis by Frieman and Chen where such flows were not taken into account. In order to make it readily applicable to gyrokinetic particle simulations, this set of equations is cast in a phase-space-conserving continuity equation form
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liou Tong-Miin
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The local turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer in a rotating two-pass square duct with 19 pairs of in-line 90 ∘ ribs have been investigated computationally. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation (RANS with a two-layer k − ϵ turbulence model was solved. The in-line 90 ∘ ribs were arranged on the leading and trailing walls with rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio and pitch-to-height ratio of 0.136 and 10, respectively. The Reynolds number, based on duct hydraulic diameter and bulk mean velocity, was fixed at 1.0 × 10 4 whereas the rotational number varied from 0 to 0.2 . Results are validated with previous measured velocity field and heat transfer coefficient distributions. The validation shows that the effect of rotation on the passage-averaged Nusselt number ratio can be predicted reasonably well; nevertheless, the transverse mean velocity and, in turn, the distribution of regional-averaged Nusselt number ratio are markedly underpredicted in the regions toward which the Coriolis force is directed. Further CFD studies are needed.
Coarsening dynamics of binary liquids with active rotation.
Sabrina, Syeda; Spellings, Matthew; Glotzer, Sharon C; Bishop, Kyle J M
2015-11-21
Active matter comprised of many self-driven units can exhibit emergent collective behaviors such as pattern formation and phase separation in both biological (e.g., mussel beds) and synthetic (e.g., colloidal swimmers) systems. While these behaviors are increasingly well understood for ensembles of linearly self-propelled "particles", less is known about the collective behaviors of active rotating particles where energy input at the particle level gives rise to rotational particle motion. A recent simulation study revealed that active rotation can induce phase separation in mixtures of counter-rotating particles in 2D. In contrast to that of linearly self-propelled particles, the phase separation of counter-rotating fluids is accompanied by steady convective flows that originate at the fluid-fluid interface. Here, we investigate the influence of these flows on the coarsening dynamics of actively rotating binary liquids using a phenomenological, hydrodynamic model that combines a Cahn-Hilliard equation for the fluid composition with a Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid velocity. The effect of active rotation is introduced though an additional force within the Navier-Stokes equations that arises due to gradients in the concentrations of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating particles. Depending on the strength of active rotation and that of frictional interactions with the stationary surroundings, we observe and explain new dynamical behaviors such as "active coarsening" via self-generated flows as well as the emergence of self-propelled "vortex doublets". We confirm that many of the qualitative behaviors identified by the continuum model can also be found in discrete, particle-based simulations of actively rotating liquids. Our results highlight further opportunities for achieving complex dissipative structures in active materials subject to distributed actuation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, P.; Lamb, F.K.
1979-01-01
We use the solutions of the two-dimensional hydromagnetic equations obtained previously to calculate the torque on a magnetic neutron star accreting from a Keplerian disk. We find that the magnetic coupling between the star and the plasma outside the inner edge of the disk is appreciable. As a result of this coupling the spin-up torque on fast rotators is substantially less than that on slow rotators; for sufficiently high stellar angular velocities or sufficiently low accretion rates this coupling dominates that de to the plasma and the magnetic field at the inner edge of the disk, braking the star's rotation even while accretion, and hence X-ray emission, continues.We apply these results to pulsating X-ray sources, and show that the observed secular spin-up rates of all the sources in which this rate has been measured can be accounted for quantitatively if one assumes that these sources are accreting from Keplerian disks and have magnetic moments approx.10 29 --10 32 gauss cm 3 . The reduction of the torque on fast rotators provides a natural explanation of the spin-up rate of Her X-1, which is much below that expected for slow rotators. We show further that a simple relation between the secular spin-up rate : P and the quantity PL/sup 3/7/ adequately represents almost all the observational data, P and L being the pulse period and the luminosity of the source, respectively. This ''universal'' relation enables one to estimate any one of the parameters P, P, and L for a given source if the other two are known. We show that the short-term period fluctuations observed in Her X-1, Cen X-3, Vela X-1, and X Per can be accounted for quite naturally as consequences of torque variations caused by fluctuations in the mass transfer rate. We also indicate how the spin-down torque at low luminosities found here may account for the paradoxical existence of a large number of long-period sources with short spin-up time scales
Ibrahim, Wubshet
2018-03-01
This article numerically examines three dimensional boundary layer flow of a rotating Powell-Eyring nanofluid. In modeling heat transfer processes, non-Fourier heat flux theory and for mass transfer non-Fick's mass flux theory are employed. This theory is recently re-initiated and it becomes the active research area to resolves some drawback associated with the famous Fourier heat flux and mass flux theory. The mathematical model of the flow problem is a system of non-linear partial differential equations which are obtained using the boundary layer analysis. The non-linear partial differential equations have been transformed into non-linear high order ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. Employing bvp4c algorithm from matlab software routine, the numerical solution of the transformed ordinary differential equations is obtained. The governing equations are constrained by parameters such as rotation parameter λ , the non-Newtonian parameter N, dimensionless thermal relaxation and concentration relaxation parameters δt and δc . The impacts of these parameters have been discussed thoroughly and illustrated using graphs and tables. The findings show that thermal relaxation time δt reduces the thermal and concentration boundary layer thickness. Further, the results reveal that the rotational parameter λ has the effect of decreasing the velocity boundary layer thickness in both x and y directions. Further examination pinpoints that the skin friction coefficient along x-axis is an increasing and skin friction coefficient along y-axis is a decreasing function of rotation parameter λ . Furthermore, the non-Newtonian fluid parameter N has the characteristic of reducing the amount of local Nusselt numbers -f″ (0) and -g″ (0) both in x and y -directions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beer, M.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
1997-01-01
Sheared rotation dynamics are widely believed to have signficant influence on experimentally observed confinement transitions in advanced operating modes in major tokamak experiments, such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [D.J. Grove and D.M. Meade, Nuclear Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)], with reversed magnetic shear regions in the plasma interior. The high-n toroidal drift modes destabilized by the combined effects of ion temperature gradients and trapped particles in toroidal geometry can be strongly affected by radially sheared toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. In previous work with the FULL linear microinstability code, a simplified rotation model including only toroidal rotation was employed, and results were obtained. Here, a more complete rotation model, that includes contributions from toroidal and poloidal rotation and the ion pressure gradient to the total radial electric field, is used for a proper self-consistent treatment of this key problem. Relevant advanced operating mode cases for TFTR are presented. In addition, the complementary problem of the dynamics of fluctuation-driven E x B flow is investigated by an integrated program of gyrokinetic simulation in annulus geometry and gyrofluid simulation in flux tube geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kheradmand, Saeid; Esmailian, Mojtaba; Fatahy, A. [Malek-Ashtar University of Technology (MUT), Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-04-15
Finishing of a workpiece is a main process in the production. This affects the quality and lifetime. Finishing in order of nanometer, nowadays, is a main demand of the industries. Thus, some new finishing process, such as abrasive flow finishing, is introduced to respond this demand. This may be aided by rotating workpiece and imposing a magnetic field. Numerical simulation of this process can be beneficial to reduce the expense and predict the result in a minimum time. Accordingly, in this study, magnetorheological fluid finishing is numerically simulated. The working medium contains magnetic and abrasive particles, blended in a base fluid. Some hydrodynamic parameters and surface roughness variations are studied. It is found that combination of rotating a workpiece and imposing a magnetic field can improve the surface roughness up to 15 percent.
Current status of rotational atherectomy.
Tomey, Matthew I; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K
2014-04-01
Rotational atherectomy facilitates percutaneous coronary intervention for complex de novo lesions with severe calcification. A strategy of routine rotational atherectomy has not, however, conferred reduction in restenosis or major adverse cardiac events. As it is technically demanding, rotational atherectomy is also uncommon. At this 25-year anniversary since the introduction of rotational atherectomy, we sought to review the current state-of-the-art in rotational atherectomy technique, safety, and efficacy data in the modern era of drug-eluting stents, strategies to prevent and manage complications, including slow-flow/no-reflow and burr entrapment, and appropriate use in the context of the broader evolution in the management of stable ischemic heart disease. Fundamental elements of optimal technique include use of a single burr with burr-to-artery ratio of 0.5 to 0.6-rotational speed of 140,000 to 150,000 rpm, gradual burr advancement using a pecking motion, short ablation runs of 15 to 20 s, and avoidance of decelerations >5,000 rpm. Combined with meticulous technique, optimal antiplatelet therapy, vasodilators, flush solution, and provisional use of atropine, temporary pacing, vasopressors, and mechanical support may prevent slow-flow/no-reflow, which in contemporary series is reported in 0.0% to 2.6% of cases. On the basis of the results of recent large clinical trials, a subset of patients with complex coronary artery disease previously assigned to rotational atherectomy may be directed instead to medical therapy alone or bypass surgery. For patients with de novo severely calcified lesions for which rotational atherectomy remains appropriate, referral centers of excellence are required. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Kyung [Tuskegee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States); Fan, Liang-Shih [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhou, Qiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yang, Hui [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
2014-09-30
A new and efficient direct numerical method with second-order convergence accuracy was developed for fully resolved simulations of incompressible viscous flows laden with rigid particles. The method combines the state-of-the-art immersed boundary method (IBM), the multi-direct forcing method, and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). First, the multi-direct forcing method is adopted in the improved IBM to better approximate the no-slip/no-penetration (ns/np) condition on the surface of particles. Second, a slight retraction of the Lagrangian grid from the surface towards the interior of particles with a fraction of the Eulerian grid spacing helps increase the convergence accuracy of the method. An over-relaxation technique in the procedure of multi-direct forcing method and the classical fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme in the coupled fluid-particle interaction were applied. The use of the classical fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme helps the overall IB-LBM achieve the second order accuracy and provides more accurate predictions of the translational and rotational motion of particles. The preexistent code with the first-order convergence rate is updated so that the updated new code can resolve the translational and rotational motion of particles with the second-order convergence rate. The updated code has been validated with several benchmark applications. The efficiency of IBM and thus the efficiency of IB-LBM were improved by reducing the number of the Lagragian markers on particles by using a new formula for the number of Lagrangian markers on particle surfaces. The immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IBLBM) has been shown to predict correctly the angular velocity of a particle. Prior to examining drag force exerted on a cluster of particles, the updated IB-LBM code along with the new formula for the number of Lagrangian markers has been further validated by solving several theoretical problems. Moreover, the unsteadiness of the drag force is examined when a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James A. Parsons
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of channel rotation on jet impingement cooling by arrays of circular jets in twin channels was studied. Impinging jet flows were in the direction of rotation in one channel and opposite to the direction of rotation in the other channel. The jets impinged normally on the smooth, heated target wall in each channel. The spent air exited the channels through extraction holes in each target wall, which eliminates cross flow on other jets. Jet rotation numbers and jet Reynolds numbers varied from 0.0 to 0.0028 and 5000 to 10,000, respectively. For the target walls with jet flow in the direction of rotation (or opposite to the direction of rotation, as rotation number increases heat transfer decreases up to 25% (or 15% as compared to corresponding results for non-rotating conditions. This is due to the changes in flow distribution and rotation induced Coriolis and centrifugal forces.
Visual perception of axes of head rotation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Mattijs Arnoldussen
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. 1. Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit.We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow’s rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals.2. Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semicircular canals (SCC? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those BOLD signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes.3. We investigated if subject’s sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is not arranged into
Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum
Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane
2014-05-01
A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rauf, A., E-mail: raufamar@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)
2016-10-15
The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.
Flow curves of Sn and Sn-3.5Ag obtained by rotational viscometry using a stainless steel cone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamazaki, Takahisa; Oishi, Shinya; Gamou, Hirosato; Ikeshoji, Toshi-Taka; Suzumura, Akio
2014-01-01
Corrosion of stainless steel in a flow soldering bath by a lead-free solder was investigated using a cone-plate-type rotational viscometer. The rotational torque of the stainless-steel cone in contact with a molten solder was measured at various shear rates. The delicate measured torque was related to the change of the viscosity of the solder owing to dissolution of materials originating from the cone. The estimated viscosity coefficient was ten times greater than the values which have been reported. The result was attributed to the tin content of the solder combined with oxygen from the passive state oxide film on the cone surface. The increase of the viscosity of the silver-containing solder was much greater than in case of pure Sn
Analogies between oscillation and rotation of bodies induced or influenced by vortex shedding
Lugt, H. J.
Vortex-induced or vortex-influenced rotation and oscillation of bodies in a parallel flow are discussed. A steady flow occurs if the body axis is parallel to the flow or if the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the flow. Flows around an oscillating body are quasi-steady only if the Strougal number is much smaller than unity. The connection between rotation and oscillation is demonstrated in terms of the autorotation of a Lanchester propeller, and conditions for stable autorotation are defined. The Riabouchinsky curve is shown to be typical of forces and torques on bodies with vortical wakes, including situations with fixed body axes perpendicular to the flow. A differential equation is formulated for rotational and oscillating bodies that shed vortices by extending the pendulum equation to include vortical effects expressed as a fifth-order polynomial.
Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas
Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.
2000-10-01
In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior-shear-dust-acoustic vortices-are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter (``epicyclic shaking'') makes these collective modes transiently unstable. .
Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.
2000-01-01
In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior--shear-dust-acoustic vortices--are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter ('epicyclic shaking') makes these collective modes transiently unstable
Escamilla-Ruíz, I. A.; Sierra-Espinosa, F. Z.; García, J. C.; Valera-Medina, A.; Carrillo, F.
2017-09-01
Single-phase flows in stirred tank reactors have useful characteristics for a wide number of industrial applications. Usually, reactors are cylindrical vessels and complex impeller designs, which are often highly energy consuming and produce complicated flow patterns. Therefore, a novel configuration consisting of a square stirred tank reactor is proposed in this study with potential advantages over conventional reactors. In the present work hydrodynamics and turbulence have been studied for a single-phase flow in steady state operating in batch condition. The flow was induced by drag from a rotating cylinder with two diameters. The effects of drag from the stirrer as well as geometrical parameters of the system on the hydrodynamic behavior were investigated using Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) and non-intrusive Laser Doppler Anemometry, (LDA). Data obtained from LDA measurements were used for the validation of the CFD simulations, and to detecting the macro-instabilities inside the tank, based on the time series analysis for three rotational speeds N = 180, 1000 and 2000 rpm. The numerical results revealed the formation of flow patterns and macro-vortex structures in the upper part of the tank as consequence of the Reynolds number and the stream discharge emanated from the cylindrical stirrer. Moreover, increasing the cylinder diameter has an impact on the number of recirculation loops as well as the energy consumption of the entire system showing better performance in the presence of turbulent flows.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Trnka, Miroslav; Pohanková, Eva; Hlavinka, Petr; Tripathi, Abishek; Žalud, Zdeněk
2013-01-01
Roč. 991, JUN 04-07 (2013), s. 401-408 ISSN 0567-7572 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : short rotation poplar coppice * water balance * sap flow * Bowen ratio and energy balance method * modeling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Alias Suba, Subbu; Muthucumaraswamy, R.
2018-04-01
A numerical analysis of transient radiative MHD(MagnetoHydroDynamic) natural convective flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting and rotating fluid along a semi-infinite isothermal vertical plate is carried out taking into consideration Hall current, rotation and first order chemical reaction.The coupled non-linear partial differential equations are expressed in difference form using implicit finite difference scheme. The difference equations are then reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations with a tri-diagonal structure which is solved by Thomas Algorithm. The primary and secondary velocity profiles, temperature profile, concentration profile, skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood Number are depicted graphically for a range of values of rotation parameter, Hall parameter,magnetic parameter, chemical reaction parameter, radiation parameter, Prandtl number and Schmidt number.It is recognized that rate of heat transfer and rate of mass transfer decrease with increase in time but they increase with increasing values of radiation parameter and Schmidt number respectively.
Fuel ion rotation measurement and its implications on H-mode theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Hinton, F.L.; Kim, Y.B.; Seraydarian, R.; Mandl, W.
1993-10-01
Poloidal and toroidal rotation of the fuel ions (He 2+ ) and the impurity ions (C 6+ and B 5+ ) in H-mode helium plasmas have been investigated in the DIII-D tokamak by means of charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, resulting in the discovery that the fuel ion poloidal rotation is in the ion diamagnetic drift direction while the impurity ion rotation is in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. The radial electric field obtained from radial force balance analysis of the measured pressure gradients and rotation velocities is shown to be the same regardless of which ion species is used and therefore is a more fundamental parameter than the rotation flows in studying H-mode phenomena. It is shown that the three contributions to the radial electric field (diamagnetic, poloidal rotation, and toroidal rotation terms) are comparable and consequently the poloidal flow does not solely represent the E x B flow. In the high-shear edge region, the density scale length is comparable to the ion poloidal gyroradius, and thus neoclassical theory is not valid there. In view of this new discovery that the fuel and impurity ions rotate in opposite sense, L-H transition theories based on the poloidal rotation may require improvement
Numerical Investigation on a Prototype Centrifugal Pump Subjected to Fluctuating Rotational Speed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Liang Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The rotational speed of pumps often encounters fluctuation in engineering for some reasons. In this paper, in order to study the transient response characteristic of a prototype centrifugal pump subjected to fluctuating rotational speed, a closed-loop pipe system including the pump is built to accomplish unsteady flow calculations in which the boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the pump are not required to be set. The external performance results show that the head’s responsiveness to the fluctuating rotational speed is very good, while the flow rate’s responsiveness is slightly delayed. The variation tendencies of the static pressures at the inlet and the outlet of the pump are almost completely opposite, wherein the variation tendency of the static pressure at the outlet is identical with that of the rotational speed. The intensity of the turbulence energy in each impeller channel is relatively uniform in the transient flow calculations, while, in the quasi-steady flow calculation, it becomes weaker in a channel closed to the volute tongue. The nondimensional flow rate and head coefficients are dependent on the rotational speed, and their variation tendencies are opposite to that of the fluctuating rotational speed as a whole.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derks, Didi; Wisman, Hans; Blaaderen, Alfons van; Imhof, Arnout
2004-01-01
We report on novel possibilities for studying colloidal suspensions in a steady shear field in real space. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is combined with the use of a counter-rotating cone-plate shear cell. This allows imaging of individual particles in the bulk of a sheared suspension in a stationary plane. Moreover, this plane of zero velocity can be moved in the velocity gradient direction while keeping the shear rate constant. The colloidal system under study consists of rhodamine labelled PMMA spheres in a nearly density and refractive index matched mixture of cyclohexylbromide and cis-decalin. We show measured flow profiles in both the fluid and the crystalline phase and find indications for shear banding in the case of a sheared crystal. Furthermore, we show that, thanks to the counter-rotating principle of the cone-plate shear cell, a layer of particles in the bulk of a sheared crystalline suspension can be imaged for a prolonged time, with the result that their positions can be tracked
Extension of the PSE code NOLOT for transition analysis in rotating reference frames
Dechamps, Xavier; Hein, Stefan
2016-01-01
The present work aims at contributing to a better understanding of the effect of rotation on the stability properties of boundary layers. For this purpose, the Parabolized-Stability-Equations based NOLOT code was extended to rotating reference frames through the inclusion of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces. Stability analyses of three flow configurations were then considered for verification: the rotating Blasius Profile, the flow along a curved wall and the three-dimensional flow due to ...
Rotating gravity currents. Part 1. Energy loss theory
Martin, J. R.; Lane-Serff, G. F.
2005-01-01
A comprehensive energy loss theory for gravity currents in rotating rectangular channels is presented. The model is an extension of the non-rotating energy loss theory of Benjamin (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 31, 1968, p. 209) and the steady-state dissipationless theory of rotating gravity currents of Hacker (PhD thesis, 1996). The theory assumes the fluid is inviscid, there is no shear within the current, and the Boussinesq approximation is made. Dissipation is introduced using a simple method. A head loss term is introduced into the Bernoulli equation and it is assumed that the energy loss is uniform across the stream. Conservation of momentum, volume flux and potential vorticity between upstream and downstream locations is then considered. By allowing for energy dissipation, results are obtained for channels of arbitrary depth and width (relative to the current). The results match those from earlier workers in the two limits of (i) zero rotation (but including dissipation) and (ii) zero dissipation (but including rotation). Three types of flow are identified as the effect of rotation increases, characterized in terms of the location of the outcropping interface between the gravity current and the ambient fluid on the channel boundaries. The parameters for transitions between these cases are quantified, as is the detailed behaviour of the flow in all cases. In particular, the speed of the current can be predicted for any given channel depth and width. As the channel depth increases, the predicted Froude number tends to surd 2, as for non-rotating flows.
Numerical investigation of the onset of centrifugal buoyancy in a rotating cavity
Pitz, Diogo B.; Marxen, Olaf; Chew, John
2016-11-01
Buoyancy-induced flows in a differentially heated rotating annulus present a multitude of dynamics when control parameters such as rotation rate, temperature difference and Prandtl number are varied. Whilst most of the work in this area has been motivated by applications involving geophysics, the problem of buoyancy-induced convection in rotating systems is also relevant in industrial applications such as the flow between rotating disks of turbomachinery internal air systems, in which buoyancy plays a major role and poses a challenge to accurately predict temperature distributions and heat transfer rates. In such applications the rotational speeds involved are very large, so that the centrifugal accelerations induced are much higher than gravity. In this work we perform direct numerical simulations and linear stability analysis of flow induced by centrifugal buoyancy in a sealed rotating annulus of finite gap with flat end-walls, using a canonical setup representative of an internal air system rotating cavity. The analysis focuses on the behaviour of small-amplitude disturbances added to the base flow, and how those affect the onset of Rossby waves and, ultimately, the transition to a fully turbulent state where convection columns no longer have a well-defined structure. Diogo B. Pitz acknowledges the financial support from the Capes foundation through the Science without Borders program.
Arterial secondary blood flow patterns visualized with vector flow ultrasound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Hansen, Jens Munk
2011-01-01
This study presents the first quantification and visualisation of secondary flow patterns with vector flow ultrasound. The first commercial implementation of the vector flow method Transverse Oscillation was used to obtain in-vivo, 2D vector fields in real-time. The hypothesis of this study...... was that the rotational direction is constant within each artery. Three data sets of 10 seconds were obtained from three main arteries in healthy volunteers. For each data set the rotational flow patterns were identified during the diastole. Each data set contains a 2D vector field over time and with the vector angles...
Turbulent structures in cylindrical density currents in a rotating frame of reference
Salinas, Jorge S.; Cantero, Mariano I.; Dari, Enzo A.; Bonometti, Thomas
2018-06-01
Gravity currents are flows generated by the action of gravity on fluids with different densities. In some geophysical applications, modeling such flows makes it necessary to account for rotating effects, modifying the dynamics of the flow. While previous works on rotating stratified flows focused on currents of large Coriolis number, the present work focuses on flows with small Coriolis numbers (i.e. moderate-to-large Rossby numbers). In this work, cylindrical rotating gravity currents are investigated by means of highly resolved simulations. A brief analysis of the mean flow evolution to the final state is presented to provide a complete picture of the flow dynamics. The numerical results, showing the well-known oscillatory behavior of the flow (inertial waves) and a final state lens shape (geostrophic adjustment), are in good agreement with experimental observations and theoretical models. The turbulent structures in the flow are visualized and described using, among others, a stereoscopic visualization and videos as supplementary material. In particular, the structure of the lobes and clefts at the front of the current is presented in association to local turbulent structures. In rotating gravity currents, the vortices observed at the lobes front are not of hairpin type but are rather of Kelvin-Helmholtz type.
A numerical strategy for modelling rotating stall in core compressors
Vahdati, M.
2007-03-01
The paper will focus on one specific core-compressor instability, rotating stall, because of the pressing industrial need to improve current design methods. The determination of the blade response during rotating stall is a difficult problem for which there is no reliable procedure. During rotating stall, the blades encounter the stall cells and the excitation depends on the number, size, exact shape and rotational speed of these cells. The long-term aim is to minimize the forced response due to rotating stall excitation by avoiding potential matches between the vibration modes and the rotating stall pattern characteristics. Accurate numerical simulations of core-compressor rotating stall phenomena require the modelling of a large number of bladerows using grids containing several tens of millions of points. The time-accurate unsteady-flow computations may need to be run for several engine revolutions for rotating stall to get initiated and many more before it is fully developed. The difficulty in rotating stall initiation arises from a lack of representation of the triggering disturbances which are inherently present in aeroengines. Since the numerical model represents a symmetric assembly, the only random mechanism for rotating stall initiation is provided by numerical round-off errors. In this work, rotating stall is initiated by introducing a small amount of geometric mistuning to the rotor blades. Another major obstacle in modelling flows near stall is the specification of appropriate upstream and downstream boundary conditions. Obtaining reliable boundary conditions for such flows can be very difficult. In the present study, the low-pressure compression (LPC) domain is placed upstream of the core compressor. With such an approach, only far field atmospheric boundary conditions are specified which are obtained from aircraft speed and altitude. A chocked variable-area nozzle, placed after the last compressor bladerow in the model, is used to impose boundary
Nonlinear dynamics and anisotropic structure of rotating sheared turbulence.
Salhi, A; Jacobitz, F G; Schneider, K; Cambon, C
2014-01-01
Homogeneous turbulence in rotating shear flows is studied by means of pseudospectral direct numerical simulation and analytical spectral linear theory (SLT). The ratio of the Coriolis parameter to shear rate is varied over a wide range by changing the rotation strength, while a constant moderate shear rate is used to enable significant contributions to the nonlinear interscale energy transfer and to the nonlinear intercomponental redistribution terms. In the destabilized and neutral cases, in the sense of kinetic energy evolution, nonlinearity cannot saturate the growth of the largest scales. It permits the smallest scale to stabilize by a scale-by-scale quasibalance between the nonlinear energy transfer and the dissipation spectrum. In the stabilized cases, the role of rotation is mainly nonlinear, and interacting inertial waves can affect almost all scales as in purely rotating flows. In order to isolate the nonlinear effect of rotation, the two-dimensional manifold with vanishing spanwise wave number is revisited and both two-component spectra and single-point two-dimensional energy components exhibit an important effect of rotation, whereas the SLT as well as the purely two-dimensional nonlinear analysis are unaffected by rotation as stated by the Proudman theorem. The other two-dimensional manifold with vanishing streamwise wave number is analyzed with similar tools because it is essential for any shear flow. Finally, the spectral approach is used to disentangle, in an analytical way, the linear and nonlinear terms in the dynamical equations.
The Acoustical Behavior of Contra-Rotating Fan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Wu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The noise produced by a contra-rotating ventilator can cause injury to humans. Therefore, it is important to reduce noise caused by ventilators. In this study, the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H model was used to simulate the acoustics of four different axial impeller spacing points based on the unsteady flow field through a FBD No. 8.0 contra-rotating ventilator. Experiments were conducted to verify the correctness of the numerical model. Meanwhile, the Variable Frequency Drive (VFD drives the two motors of 55 kW to give the impellers different speeds to distinguish different conditions. The results showed that the main noise source of the ventilator was the two rotating impellers and the area between them. For the same axial space, the noise decreased with the increase of flow rate and then decreased. And the amplitude of the discrete pulse increased gradually. It can be concluded that the vortex acoustics decreased gradually with the increase of flow rate and the rotating acoustics were the major contributor. With the axial distance increasing, the noise caused by the two impellers was weak, and the frequencies of sound pressure level moved toward medium- and low-frequency bands gradually. The suitable axial space could reduce noise and improve the working environment.
Demonstration of pumping efficiency for rotating disks by Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogiwara, Norio
2010-01-01
We investigated the concept of creating a gas radial flow by employing the molecular drag effect upon gas molecules on rotating disks. All the gas molecules have a circumferential velocity rω (r: distance from the rotating axis, and ω: angular velocity) each time they leave a surface of the rotating disks. As a result, the gas molecules between the rotating disks tend on average to move outward from the center. That is, a radial flow appears. This idea was demonstrated by Monte Carlo simulation of 2 types of rotating disks (flat and corrugated ones). Pumping efficiency was clearly demonstrated for both types of disks when the velocity ratio rω/ ( : mean velocity) became larger than 1. (author)
Theory of inertial waves in rotating fluids
Gelash, Andrey; L'vov, Victor; Zakharov, Vladimir
2017-04-01
The inertial waves emerge in the geophysical and astrophysical flows as a result of Earth rotation [1]. The linear theory of inertial waves is known well [2] while the influence of nonlinear effects of wave interactions are subject of many recent theoretical and experimental studies. The three-wave interactions which are allowed by inertial waves dispersion law (frequency is proportional to cosine of the angle between wave direction and axes of rotation) play an exceptional role. The recent studies on similar type of waves - internal waves, have demonstrated the possibility of formation of natural wave attractors in the ocean (see [3] and references herein). This wave focusing leads to the emergence of strong three-wave interactions and subsequent flows mixing. We believe that similar phenomena can take place for inertial waves in rotating flows. In this work we present theoretical study of three-wave and four-wave interactions for inertial waves. As the main theoretical tool we suggest the complete Hamiltonian formalism for inertial waves in rotating incompressible fluids [4]. We study three-wave decay instability and then present statistical description of inertial waves in the frame of Hamiltonian formalism. We obtain kinetic equation, anisotropic wave turbulence spectra and study the problem of parametric wave turbulence. These spectra were previously found in [5] by helicity decomposition method. Taking this into account we discuss the advantages of suggested Hamiltonian formalism and its future applications. Andrey Gelash thanks support of the RFBR (Grant No.16-31-60086 mol_a_dk) and Dr. E. Ermanyuk, Dr. I. Sibgatullin for the fruitful discussions. [1] Le Gal, P. Waves and instabilities in rotating and stratified flows, Fluid Dynamics in Physics, Engineering and Environmental Applications. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 25-40, 2013. [2] Greenspan, H. P. The theory of rotating fluids. CUP Archive, 1968. [3] Brouzet, C., Sibgatullin, I. N., Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E
Influence of rotation on the near-wake development behind an impulsively started circular cylinder
Coutanceau, M.; Menard, C.
1985-09-01
A rotating body, travelling through a fluid in such a way that the rotation axis is at right angles to the translational path, experiences a transverse force, called the Magnus force. The present study is concerned with a rotating cylinder which is in a state of translational motion. In the considered case, the existence of a lift force may be explained easily on the basis of the theory of inviscid fluids. An experimental investigation provides new information regarding the mechanism of the near-wake development of the classical unsteady flow and the influence of the rotational effects. Attention is given to the experimental technique, aspects of flow topology and notation, the time development of the wake flow pattern, the time evolution of certain flow properties, the flow structure in the neighborhood of the front stagnation point, and the influence of the Reynolds number on flow establishment.
Study on the Contra-Rotating Propeller system design and full-scale performance prediction method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keh-Sik Min
2009-09-01
Full Text Available A ship's screw-propeller produces thrust by rotation and, at the same time, generates rotational flow behind the propeller. This rotational flow has no contribution to the generation of thrust, but instead produces energy loss. By recovering part of the lost energy in the rotational flow, therefore, it is possible to improve the propulsion efficiency. The contra-rotating propeller (CRP system is the representing example of such devices. Unfortunately, however, neither a design method nor a full-scale performance prediction procedure for the CRP system has been well established yet. The authors have long performed studies on the CRP system, and some of the results from the authors’ studies shall be presented and discussed.
Jovian electron bursts: Correlation with the interplanetary field direction and hydromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, E.J.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Chenette, D.L.; Conlon, T.F.; Simpson, J.A.
1976-01-01
The bursts of relativistic electrons detected on Pioneer 10 upstream from Jupiter and within 400r/subj/ of the planet have been found to be correlated with the interplanetary magnetic field. In the three examples upon which this study is based, during the month prior to the Pioneer 10 encounter, electrons with energies between 3 and 6 MeV escaping from Jupiter's magnetosphere were observed only when the interplanetary magnetic field was along the Jupiter-spacecraft line. In addition, large-amplitude interplanetary waves with characteristic periods of 10 min were observed and found to be well correlated with intervals during which the field was along the Jupiter-spacecraft line. Abrupt changes in the field away from the preferred direction caused equally abrupt terminations of the waves with an accompanying reduction in the electron flux. These results are consistent with propagation of the electrons from Jupiter to Pioneer along, rather than across, the magnetic field lines. The direction of the interplanetary magnetic field is apparently not affected by the electron bursts or by other particles from Jupiter. The average Parker spiral direction is clear with no enhancement in the Jupiter-spacecraft direction. Two alternative possibilities are considered for the origin of the waves. If they were generated near Jupiter, they would have to propagate to the spacecraft in the whistler mode. The expected attenuation of these waves over distances of several hundred r/subj/ an their long travel times make this explanation unattractive. Alternatively, hydromagnetic wave generation by Jovian charged particles, presumably the relativistic electrons themselves, as they travel upstream, appears to be an attractive explanation
Timokhin, A. N.; Arons, J.
2013-02-01
We report the results of an investigation of particle acceleration and electron-positron plasma generation at low altitude in the polar magnetic flux tubes of rotation-powered pulsars, when the stellar surface is free to emit whatever charges and currents are demanded by the force-free magnetosphere. We apply a new 1D hybrid plasma simulation code to the dynamical problem, using Particle-in-Cell methods for the dynamics of the charged particles, including a determination of the collective electrostatic fluctuations in the plasma, combined with a Monte Carlo treatment of the high-energy gamma-rays that mediate the formation of the electron-positron pairs. We assume the electric current flowing through the pair creation zone is fixed by the much higher inductance magnetosphere, and adopt the results of force-free magnetosphere models to provide the currents which must be carried by the accelerator. The models are spatially one dimensional, and designed to explore the physics, although of practical relevance to young, high-voltage pulsars. We observe novel behaviour (a) When the current density j is less than the Goldreich-Julian value (0 electrically trapped particles with the same sign of charge as the beam. The voltage drops are of the order of mc2/e, and pair creation is absent. (b) When the current density exceeds the Goldreich-Julian value (j/jGJ > 1), the system develops high voltage drops (TV or greater), causing emission of curvature gamma-rays and intense bursts of pair creation. The bursts exhibit limit cycle behaviour, with characteristic time-scales somewhat longer than the relativistic fly-by time over distances comparable to the polar cap diameter (microseconds). (c) In return current regions, where j/jGJ generated pairs allow the system to simultaneously carry the magnetospherically prescribed currents and adjust the charge density and average electric field to force-free conditions. We also elucidate the conditions for pair creating beam flow to be
The analysis on centrifugal compressor rotating stall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Kwang Ho; Shin, You Hwan
2003-01-01
In the present study, the performance characteristics and the number of stall cell during rotating stall of a centrifugal air compressor were experimentally investigated. Rotating stall in the vaneless diffuser were investigated by measuring unsteady pressure fluctuations at several different diffuser radius using a high frequency pressure transducer. The number of stall cell and their rotational speeds are distinctive features of the rotating stall phenomenon. The present study is mainly forced on the analysis for the stall cell number and its propagation speed unstable operating region of the compressor. The interpretation method of visualization is based on the pressure distribution in the circumference pressure fields while plotting the pressure and its harmonics variations in time in polar coordinates. To obtain the visualize the existence rotating stall, auto-correlation function and the frequency spectra of the pressure fluctuations were measured at r/r2=1.52. When the flow coefficient is lower than 0.150, the static pressure at impeller inlet is higher than that at inlet duct of the compressor. And the flow coefficient is lower than 0.086, several stall cell groups of discrete frequencies are observed
Counter-rotating type axial flow pump unit in turbine mode for micro grid system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasahara, R; Takano, G; Komaki, K; Murakami, T; Kanemoto, T
2012-01-01
Traditional type pumped storage system contributes to adjust the electric power unbalance between day and night, in general. This serial research proposes the hybrid power system combined the wind power unit with the pump-turbine unit, to provide the constant output for the grid system, even at the suddenly fluctuating/turbulent wind. In the pumping mode, the pump should operate unsteadily at not only the normal but also the partial discharge. The operation may be unstable in the rising portion of the head characteristics at the lower discharge, and/or bring the cavitation at the low suction head. To simultaneously overcome both weak points, the authors have proposed a superior pump unit that is composed of counter-rotating type impellers and a peculiar motor with double rotational armatures. This paper discusses the operation at the turbine mode of the above unit. It is concluded with the numerical simulations that this type unit can be also operated acceptably at the turbine mode, because the unit works so as to coincide the angular momentum change through the front runners/impellers with that thorough the rear runners/impellers, namely to take the axial flow at not only the inlet but also the outlet without the guide vanes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Mabood
Full Text Available This article addresses the combined effects of chemical reaction and viscous dissipation on MHD radiative heat and mass transfer of nanofluid flow over a rotating stretching surface. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis in the presence of heat source. Similarity transformation variables have been used to model the governing equations of momentum, energy, and nanoparticles concentration. Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method with shooting technique is applied to solve the resulting coupled ordinary differential equations. Physical features for all pertinent parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient, and heat and mass transfer rates are analyzed graphically. The numerical comparison has also presented for skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number as a special case for our study. It is noted that fluid velocity enhances when rotational parameter is increased. Surface heat transfer rate enhances for larger values of Prandtl number and heat source parameter while mass transfer rate increases for larger values of chemical reaction parameter. Keywords: Nanofluid, MHD, Chemical reaction, Rotating stretching sheet, Radiation
Arc dynamics of a pulsed DC nitrogen rotating gliding arc discharge
Zhu, Fengsen; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Angjian; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Tu, Xin
2018-03-01
In this study, a novel pulsed direct current (DC) rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor co-driven by an external magnetic field and a tangential gas flow has been developed. The dynamic characteristics of the rotating gliding arc have been investigated by means of numerical simulation and experiment. The simulation results show that a highly turbulent vortex flow can be generated at the bottom of the RGA reactor to accelerate the arc rotation after arc ignition, whereas the magnitude of gas velocity declined significantly along the axial direction of the RGA reactor. The calculated arc rotation frequency (14.4 Hz) is reasonably close to the experimental result (18.5 Hz) at a gas flow rate of 10 l min-1. In the presence of an external magnet, the arc rotation frequency is around five times higher than that of the RGA reactor without using a magnet, which suggests that the external magnetic field plays a dominant role in the maintenance of the arc rotation in the upper zone of the RGA reactor. In addition, when the magnet is placed outside the reactor reversely to form a reverse external magnetic field, the arc can be stabilized at a fixed position in the inner wall of the outer electrode at a critical gas flow rate of 16 l min-1.
Lift of a rotating circular cylinder in unsteady flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carstensen, Stefan; Mandviwalla, Xerxes; Vita, Luca
2012-01-01
A cylinder rotating in steady current experiences a lift known as the Magnus effect. In the present study the effect of waves on the Magnus effect has been investigated. This situation is experienced with the novel floating offshore vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) concept called the DEEPWIND...... concept, which incorporates a rotating spar buoy and thereby utilizes seawater as a roller-bearing. The a priori assumption and the results suggest that the lift in waves, to a first approximation, may be represented by a formulation similar to the well-known Morison formulation. The force coefficients...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webley, R.S.
1981-01-01
In a rotating anode x-ray tube it is proposed to mount the rotating anode, or means such as a shaft affixed to it, to rotate on bearings in a race the seating for which is cooled by a suitable coolant flow. A suitable bellows arrangement allows the coolant pressure to determine the contact pressure of the seating on the bearings. This allows the thermal impedance to be varied and the bearing wear to be optimised therewith as well as allowing adjustment for wear. The use of two bellows allows the seating section therebetween to move towards the other section as the rollers wear. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Srinivas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The present work investigates the effects of thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo on MHD flow of viscous fluid between expanding or contracting rotating porous disks with viscous dissipation. The partial differential equations governing the flow problem under consideration have been transformed by a similarity transformation into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An analytical approach, namely the homotopy analysis method is employed in order to obtain the solutions of the ordinary differential equations. The effects of various emerging parameters on flow variables have been discussed numerically and explained graphically. Comparison of the HAM solutions with the numerical solutions is performed.
Stability Analysis for Rotating Stall Dynamics in Axial Flow Compressors
1999-01-01
modes determines collectively local stability of the compressor model. Explicit conditions are obtained for local stability of rotating stall which...critical modes determines the stability for rotating stall collectively . We point out that although in a special case our stability condition for...strict crossing assumption implies that the zero solution changes its stability as ~, crosses ~’c. For instance, odk (yc ) > 0 implies that the zero
Observation of plasma hole in a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagaoka, Kenichi; Ishihara, Tatsuzo; Okamoto, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.
2001-01-01
Plasma hole, a cylindrical density cavity, formed in a rotating plasma has been investigated experimentally. The plasma hole is characterized by large aspect ratio (length/radius ≥ 30), steep boundary layer between the hole and the ambient plasma (10 ion Larmor radius), and extremely high positive potential (130 V). The flow velocity field associated with plasma hole structure has been measured, and is found to have interesting features: (1) plasma rotates in azimuthal direction at a maximum velocity of order of ion sound speed, (2) plasma flows radially inward across the magnetic field line, (3) there present an axial flow reversal between core and peripheral region. It is found that the flow pattern of the plasma hole is very similar to the that of well-developed typhoon with core. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available The present article has been arranged to study the Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a channel with flexible walls. Both fluid and channel are in a state of solid body rotation. Convective conditions for heat transfer in the formulation are adopted. Viscous dissipation in energy expression is taken into account. Resulting differential systems after invoking small Reynolds number and long wavelength considerations are numerically solved. Runge-Kutta scheme of order four is implemented for the results of axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient. Comparison with previous limiting studies is shown. Outcome of new parameters of interest is analyzed. Keywords: Rotating frame, Hall current, Joule heating, Convective conditions, Wall properties
Flow shear stabilization of rotating plasmas due to the Coriolis effect
Haverkort, J. W.; de Blank, H. J.
2012-01-01
A radially decreasing toroidal rotation frequency can have a stabilizing effect on nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. We show that this is a consequence of the Coriolis effect that induces a restoring pressure gradient force when plasma is perturbed radially. In a rotating
The Oscillatory Nature of Rotating Convection in Liquid Metal
Aurnou, J. M.; Bertin, V. L.; Grannan, A. M.
2016-12-01
Earth's magnetic field is assumed to be generated by fluid motions in its liquid metal core. In this fluid, the heat diffuses significantly more than momentum and thus, the ratio of these two diffusivities, the Prandtl number Pr=ν/Κ, is well below unity. The convective flow dynamics of liquid metal is very different from Pr ≈ 1 fluids like water and those used in current dynamo simulations. In order to characterize rapidly rotating thermal convection in low Pr number fluids, we have performed laboratory experiments in a cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr ≈ 0.023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number, which characterizes the effect of rotation, varies from E = 4 10-5 to 4 10-6 and the dimensionless buoyancy forcing (Rayleigh number, Ra) varies from Ra =3 105 to 2 107. Using heat transfer measurements (Nusselt number, Nu) as well as temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes are identified for the first time in liquid metal laboratory experiments. These wall modes coexist with the bulk inertial oscillatory modes. When the strengh of the buoyancy increases, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr ≈ 1 dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, the flows that drive thermally-driven dynamo action in low Pr geophysical and astrophysical fluids can differ substantively than those occuring in current-day Pr ≈ 1 numerical models. In addition, our results suggest that relatively low wavenumber, wall-attached modes may be dynamically important in rapidly-rotating convection in liquid metals.
Rotating Hele-Shaw cell with a time-dependent angular velocity
Anjos, Pedro H. A.; Alvarez, Victor M. M.; Dias, Eduardo O.; Miranda, José A.
2017-12-01
Despite the large number of existing studies of viscous flows in rotating Hele-Shaw cells, most investigations analyze rotational motion with a constant angular velocity, under vanishing Reynolds number conditions in which inertial effects can be neglected. In this work, we examine the linear and weakly nonlinear dynamics of the interface between two immiscible fluids in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell, considering the action of a time-dependent angular velocity, and taking into account the contribution of inertia. By using a generalized Darcy's law, we derive a second-order mode-coupling equation which describes the time evolution of the interfacial perturbation amplitudes. For arbitrary values of viscosity and density ratios, and for a range of values of a rotational Reynolds number, we investigate how the time-dependent angular velocity and inertia affect the important finger competition events that traditionally arise in rotating Hele-Shaw flows.
LDV measurement of boundary layer on rotating blade surface in wind tunnel
Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Suzuki, Daiki; Kaga, Norimitsu; Kagisaki, Yosuke
2014-12-01
Wind turbines generate electricity due to extracting energy from the wind. The rotor aerodynamics strongly depends on the flow around blade. The surface flow on the rotating blade affects the sectional performance. The wind turbine surface flow has span-wise component due to span-wise change of airfoil section, chord length, twisted angle of blade and centrifugal force on the flow. These span-wise flow changes the boundary layer on the rotating blade and the sectional performance. Hence, the thorough understanding of blade surface flow is important to improve the rotor performance. For the purpose of clarification of the flow behaviour around the rotor blade, the velocity in the boundary layer on rotating blade surface of an experimental HAWT was measured in a wind tunnel. The velocity measurement on the blade surface was carried out by a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). As the results of the measurement, characteristics of surface flow are clarified. In optimum tip speed operation, the surface flow on leading edge and r/R=0.3 have large span-wise velocity which reaches 20% of sectional inflow velocity. The surface flow inboard have three dimensional flow patterns. On the other hand, the flow outboard is almost two dimensional in cross sectional plane.
Mishra, A.; Sharma, B. K.
2017-11-01
A numerical study of an oscillatory unsteady MHD flow and heat and mass transfer in a vertical rotating channel with an inclined uniform magnetic field and the Hall effect is carried out. The conservation equations of momentum, energy, and species are formulated in a rotating frame of reference with inclusion of the buoyancy effects and Lorentz forces. The Lorentz forces are determined by using the generalized Ohm law with the Hall parameter taken into account. The obtained coupled partial differential equations are nondimensionalized and solved numerically by using the explicit finite difference method. The effects of various model parameters, like the Hall parameter, Hartmann number, wall suction/injection parameter, rotation parameter, angle of magnetic field inclination, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, etc., on the channel velocities, skin friction coefficients, Nusselt number, and the Sherwood number are examined. It is found that the influence of the Hartmann number and Hall parameter on the channel velocities and skin friction coefficients is dependent on the value of the wall suction/injection parameter.
Zhu, Yunzeng; Chen, Yiqi; Meng, Xiangrui; Wang, Jing; Lu, Ying; Xu, Youchun; Cheng, Jing
2017-09-05
Centrifugal microfluidics has been widely applied in the sample-in-answer-out systems for the analyses of nucleic acids, proteins, and small molecules. However, the inherent characteristic of unidirectional fluid propulsion limits the flexibility of these fluidic chips. Providing an extra degree of freedom to allow the unconstrained and reversible pumping of liquid is an effective strategy to address this limitation. In this study, a wirelessly charged centrifugal microfluidic platform with two rotation axes has been constructed and the flow control strategy in such platform with two degrees of freedom was comprehensively studied for the first time. Inductively coupled coils are installed on the platform to achieve wireless power transfer to the spinning stage. A micro servo motor is mounted on both sides of the stage to alter the orientation of the device around a secondary rotation axis on demand during stage rotation. The basic liquid operations on this platform, including directional transport of liquid, valving, metering, and mixing, are comprehensively studied and realized. Finally, a chip for the simultaneous determination of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and methanal in water samples is designed and tested based on the strategy presented in this paper, demonstrating the potential use of this platform for on-site environmental monitoring, food safety testing, and other life science applications.
Influence of the shaft rotation on the stability of magnetic fluid shaft seal characteristics
Krakov, M. S.; Nikiforov, I. V.
2008-12-01
Distribution of the magnetic particles concentration in a magnetic fluid shaft seal is studied numerically for a rotating shaft. It is revealed that the shaft rotation causes not only an azimuthal flow of the magnetic fluid, but a meridional flow as well. This meridional flow prevents the growth of magnetic particle concentration in the gap of the magnetic fluid shaft seal. As a result, the burst pressure of the magnetic fluid shaft seal for the rotating shaft is stable and does not change with time. Figs 6, Refs 7.
Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer
2015-01-01
An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number.
Turbulent heat transfer studies in annulus with inner cylinder rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzay, T.M.; Scott, C.J.
1977-01-01
Experimental investigations of turbulent heat transfer are made in a large-gap annulus with both rotating and nonrotating inner cylinder. The vertical annular channel has an electrically heated outer wall; the inner wall i thermally and electrically insulated. The axial air flow is allowed to develop before rotation and heating are imparted. The resulting temperature fields are investigated using thermocouple probes located near the channel exit. The wall heat flux, wall axial temperature development, and radial temperature profiles are measured. For each axial Reynolds number, three heat flux rates are used. Excellent correlation is established between rotational and nonrotational Nusselt number. The proper correlation parameter is a physical quantity characterizing the flow helix. This parameter is the inverse of the ratio of axial travel of the flow helix in terms of hydraulic diameter, per half revolution of the spinning wall
Faraday Rotation Measure Study of Cluster Magnetic Fields
Frankel, M. M.; Clarke, T. E.
2001-12-01
Magnetic fields are thought to play an important role in galaxy cluster evolution. To this end in this study, we looked at polarized radio sources viewed at small impact parameters to the cores of non-cooling flow clusters. By looking at non-cooling flow clusters we hoped to establish what magnetic fields of clusters look like in the absence of the compressed central magnetic fields of the cooling-flow cores. Clarke, Kronberg and Boehringer (2001) examined Faraday rotation measures of radio probes at relatively large impact parameters to the cores of galaxy clusters. The current study is an extension of the Clarke et al. analysis to probe the magnetic fields in the cores of galaxy clusters. We looked at the Faraday rotation of electromagnetic waves from background or imbedded radio galaxies, which were observed with the VLA in A&B arrays. Our results are consistent with previous findings and exhibit a trend towards higher rotation measures and in turn higher magnetic fields at small impact parameters to cluster cores. This research was made possible through funding from the National Science Foundation.
Wernet, Mark P.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Locke, Randy J.
2018-01-01
Film cooling is used in a wide variety of engineering applications for protection of surfaces from hot or combusting gases. The design of more efficient thin film cooling geometries/configurations could be facilitated by an ability to accurately model and predict the effectiveness of current designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions. Hence, a benchmark set of flow field property data were obtained for use in assessing current CFD capabilities and for development of better turbulence models. Both Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and spontaneous rotational Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopy were used to acquire high quality, spatially-resolved measurements of the mean velocity, turbulence intensity and also the mean temperature and normalized root mean square (rms) temperatures in a single injector cooling flow arrangement. In addition to flowfield measurements, thermocouple measurements on the plate surface enabled estimates of the film effectiveness. Raman spectra in air were obtained across a matrix of radial and axial locations downstream from a 68.07 mm square nozzle blowing heated air over a range of temperatures and Mach numbers, across a 30.48cm long plate equipped with a single injector cooling hole. In addition, both centerline streamwise 2-component PIV and cross-stream 3-component Stereo PIV data at 15 axial stations were collected in the same flows. The velocity and temperature data were then compared against Wind-US CFD code predictions for the same flow conditions. The results of this and planned follow-on studies will support NASA's development and assessment of turbulence models for heated flows.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Hiroko
1985-01-01
Thirty-one regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements were performed on 26 patients with cerebrovascular accidents using N-Isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] Iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography (ECT). The equation for determining rCBF is as follows: F=100.R.Cb/(N.A), where F is rCBF in ml/100 g/min., R is the constant withdrawal rate of arterial blood in ml/min., Cb is the brain activity concentration in μCi/g, A is the total activity (5 min.) in the withdrawal arterial whole blood in μCi and N is the fraction of A that is true tracer activity (0.75). In determining Cb at 5 min. after injection, reconstructed counts from 35 min. to 59 min. were corrected to represent those from 4 min. to 5 min. with the use of time activity curve for the entire brain immediately after injection to 30 min. Reconstructed counts of central region in tomographic image were corrected 118% of the obtained values from the result of the countingrate ratio between peripheral and central regions of interests obtained from phantom study. Brain mean blood flow values were distributed from 11 to 39 ml/100 g/min. In 119 cortical regions obtained from 11 measurements in 9 patients, there was a significant correlation (r=0.41, p 123 I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT and those from 133 Xe inhalation method. rCBF measurement using 123 I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT is not only relatively noninvasive measurement for the entire brain but also three-dimensional evaluation. Besides, it is superior in spatial resolution and accuracy to conventional 133 Xe clearance method. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rath, Pravat Kumar; Dash, G.C.; Patra, Ajit Kumar
2010-01-01
Effect of Hall current on the unsteady free convection flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid past an exponentially accelerated vertical porous flat plate with internal heat absorption/generation in the presence of foreign gases (such as H 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O, NH 3 ) and chemical reaction has been investigated. An uniform magnetic field transverse to the plate has been applied. The effects of the Hall current m, the hydromagnetic parameter Mt, the chemical reaction parameter K c the Grashof number for heat transfer G r , the Grashof number for mass transfer G c , the Schmidt number S c , the Prandtl number P r and the transpiration parameter α are discussed in detail. (author)
Control of vortex breakdown in a closed cylinder with a rotating lid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Aubry, Nadine
2010-01-01
The flow within a closed cylinder with a rotating lid is considered as a prototype for fundamental studies of vortex breakdown. Numerical simulations for various parameter values have been carried out to reproduce the known effect of a thin rotating rod positioned along the center axis as well...... as analyze the influence of local vorticity sources. As expected, the results show that the breakdown bubbles in the steady axisymmetric flow can be affected dramatically, i.e., fully suppressed or significantly enhanced, by rotating the rod. The main contribution of this article is to show that the observed...... behavior can be explained by the vorticity generated by the rod locally near the rotating lid and near the fixed lid, as analogous behavior is caused by the introduction of local vorticity sources in the flow without a rod. Moreover, we describe the influence on the breakdown bubbles of the vorticity...
Chen, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Hong-Ren
2017-05-01
We demonstrate a functional rotating electrothermal technique for rapidly concentrating and sorting a large number of particles on a microchip by the combination of particle dielectrophoresis (DEP) and inward rotating electrothermal (RET) flows. Different kinds of particles can be attracted (positive DEP) to or repelled (negative DEP) from electrode edges, and then the n-DEP responsive particles are further concentrated in the heated region by RET flows. The RET flows arise from the spatial inhomogeneous electric properties of fluid caused by direct infrared laser (1470 nm) heating of solution in a rotating electric field. The direction of the RET flows is radially inward to the heated region with a co-field (the same as the rotating electric field) rotation. Moreover, the velocity of the RET flows is proportional to the laser power and the square of the electric field strength. The RET flows are significant over a frequency range from 200 kHz to 5 MHz. The RET flows are generated by the simultaneous application of the infrared laser and the rotating electric field. Therefore, the location of particle concentrating can be controlled within the rotating electric field depending on the position of the laser spot. This multi-field technique can be operated in salt solutions and at higher frequency without external flow pressure, and thus it can avoid electrokinetic phenomena at low frequency to improve the manipulation accuracy for lab-on-chip applications.
Hayat, T.; Ahmad, Salman; Ijaz Khan, M.; Alsaedi, A.
2018-05-01
In this article we investigate the flow of Sutterby liquid due to rotating stretchable disk. Mass and heat transport are analyzed through Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis. Further the effects of magnetic field, chemical reaction and heat source are also accounted. We employ transformation procedure to obtain a system of nonlinear ODE’s. This system is numerically solved by Built-in-Shooting method. Impacts of different involved parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration are described. Velocity, concentration and temperature gradients are numerically computed. Obtained results show that velocity is reduced through material parameter. Temperature and concentration are enhanced with thermophoresis parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tobias, B.; Grierson, B. A.; Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Chen, M.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Muscatello, C. M. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Classen, I. G. J. [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Fusion Energy Research, DIFFER, Rhinjuizen (Netherlands); Fitzpatrick, R. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78705 (United States); Olofsson, K. E. J.; Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)
2016-05-15
The electromagnetic coupling of helical modes, even those having different toroidal mode numbers, modifies the distribution of toroidal angular momentum in tokamak discharges. This can have deleterious effects on other transport channels as well as on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and disruptivity. At low levels of externally injected momentum, the coupling of core-localized modes initiates a chain of events, whereby flattening of the core rotation profile inside successive rational surfaces leads to the onset of a large m/n = 2/1 tearing mode and locked-mode disruption. With increased torque from neutral beam injection, neoclassical tearing modes in the core may phase-lock to each other without locking to external fields or structures that are stationary in the laboratory frame. The dynamic processes observed in these cases are in general agreement with theory, and detailed diagnosis allows for momentum transport analysis to be performed, revealing a significant torque density that peaks near the 2/1 rational surface. However, as the coupled rational surfaces are brought closer together by reducing q{sub 95}, additional momentum transport in excess of that required to attain a phase-locked state is sometimes observed. Rather than maintaining zero differential rotation (as is predicted to be dynamically stable by single-fluid, resistive MHD theory), these discharges develop hollow toroidal plasma fluid rotation profiles with reversed plasma flow shear in the region between the m/n = 3/2 and 2/1 islands. The additional forces expressed in this state are not readily accounted for, and therefore, analysis of these data highlights the impact of mode coupling on torque balance and the challenges associated with predicting the rotation dynamics of a fusion reactor—a key issue for ITER.
Rotational discontinuities and the structure of the magnetopause
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swift, D.W.; Lee, L.C.
1983-01-01
Symmetric and asymmetric rotational discontinuities are studied by means of a one-dimensional computer simulation and by single-particle trajectory calculations. The numerical simulations show the symmetric rotation to be stable for both ion and electron senses of rotation with a thickness of the order of a few ion gyroradii when the rotation angle of the tangential field is 180 0 or less. Larger rotation angles tend to be unstable. In an expansive discontinuity, when the magnetic field on the downstream side of the discontinuity is larger, an expanding transition layer separating the high-field from a low-field region develops on the downstream side, and a symmetric rotational discontinuity forms at the upstream edge. The implication of these results for magnetopause structure and energy flow through the magnetopause is described
The unsteady flow of a nanofluid in the stagnation point region of a time-dependent rotating sphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malvandi Amir
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of nanofluid over a time-dependent rotating sphere where the free stream velocity varies continuously with time. The boundary layer equations were normalized via similarity variables and solved numerically. Best accuracy of the results has been obtained for regular fluid with previous studies. The nanofluid is treated as a two-component mixture (base fluid+nanoparticles that incorporates the effects of Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis simultaneously as the two most important mechanisms of slip velocity in laminar flows. Our outcomes indicated that as A and λ increase, surface shear stresses, heat transfer and concentration rates, climb up. Also, Increasing the thermophoresis Nt is found to decrease in the both values of heat transfer and concentration rates. This decrease supresses for higher thermophoresis number. In addition, it was observed that unlike the heat transfer rate, a rise in Brownian motion Nb, leads to an increase in concentration rate.
Gordon, Kathryn; Morris, Scott; Jemcov, Aleksandar; Cameron, Joshua
2013-11-01
The interaction of components in a compressible, internal flow often results in unsteady interactions between the wakes and moving blades. A prime example in which this flow feature is of interest is the interaction between the downstream rotor blades in a transonic axial compressor with the wake vortices shed from the upstream inlet guide vane (IGV). Previous work shows that a double row of counter-rotating vortices convects downstream into the rotor passage as a result of the rotor blade bow shock impinging on the IGV. The rotor-relative time-mean total pressure distribution has a region of high total pressure corresponding to the pathline of the vortices. The present work focuses on the relationship between the magnitude of the time-mean rotor-relative total pressure profile and the axial spacing between the IGV and the rotor. A survey of different axial gap sizes is performed in a two-dimensional computational study to obtain the sensitivity of the pressure profile amplitude to IGV-rotor axial spacing.
Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator
Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xing; Morgan, Huw; Leonard, Drew; Jeska, Lauren, E-mail: xxl@aber.ac.uk [Sefydliad Mathemateg a Ffiseg, Prifysgol Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Cymru SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)
2012-06-20
During 2011 September 24, as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument of the Solar Dynamic Observatory and ground-based H{alpha} telescopes, a prominence and associated cavity appeared above the southwest limb. On 2011 September 25 8:00 UT, material flows upward from the prominence core along a narrow loop-like structure, accompanied by a rise ({>=}50,000 km) of the prominence core and the loop. As the loop fades by 10:00, small blobs and streaks of varying brightness rotate around the top part of the prominence and cavity, mimicking a cyclone. The most intense and coherent rotation lasts for over three hours, with emission in both hot ({approx}1 MK) and cold (hydrogen and helium) lines. We suggest that the cyclonic appearance and overall evolution of the structure can be interpreted in terms of the expansion of helical structures into the cavity, and the movement of plasma along helical structures which appears as a rotation when viewed along the helix axis. The coordinated movement of material between prominence and cavity suggests that they are structurally linked. Complexity is great due to the combined effect of these actions and the line-of-sight integration through the structure which contains tangled fields.
Steady flow torques in a servo motor operated rotary directional control valve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, He; Gong, Guofang; Zhou, Hongbin; Wang, Wei
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A novel servo motor operated rotary directional control valve is proposed. • Steady flow torque is a crucial issue that affects rotary valve performance. • Steady flow torque is analyzed on the aspects of theory, simulation and experiment. • Change law of the steady flow torque with spool rotation angle is explored. • Effect of pressure drop and flow rate on the steady flow torque is studied. - Abstract: In this paper, a servo motor operated rotary directional control valve is proposed, and a systematic analysis of steady flow torques in this valve is provided by theoretical calculation, CFD simulation and experimental test. In the analysis, spool rotation angle corresponding to the maximum orifice opening is tagged as 0°. Over a complete change cycle of the orifice, the range of spool rotation angle is symmetric about 0°. The results show that the direction of steady flow torques in this valve is always the direction of orifice closing. The steady flow torques serve as resistances to the spool rotation when the orifice opening increases, while impetuses to the spool rotation when the orifice opening decreases. At a certain pressure drop or flow rate, steady flow torques are approximately equal and opposite when at spool rotation angles which are symmetric about 0°. When the spool rotates from 0°, at a certain pressure drop, their values increase first then decrease with the spool rotation and reach their maximum values at an angle corresponding to about 1/2 of the maximum orifice opening, and at a certain flow rate, their values increase with the spool rotation. The steady flow torques in this valve are the sums of those in the meter-in and meter-out valve chambers. At a certain spool rotation angle, steady flow torques in the meter-in and meter-out valve chambers are approximately proportional to the pressure drop and the second power of the flow rate through the orifice. Theoretical calculation and CFD simulation can be validated by
Generation of plasma rotation by ICRH in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.; Phillips, C.K.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.; Bonoli, P.T.; Rice, J.; Greenwald, M.; Grassie, J.S. de
2001-01-01
A physical mechanism to generate plasma rotation by ICRH is presented in a tokamak geometry. By breaking the omnigenity of resonant ion orbits, ICRH can induce a non-ambipolar minor-radial flow of resonant ions. This induces a return current j p r in the plasma, which then drives plasma rotation through the j p r xB force. It is estimated that the fast-wave power in the present-day tokamak experiments can be strong enough to give a significant modification to plasma rotation. (author)
Numerical Simulation of Non-Rotating and Rotating Coolant Channel Flow Fields. Part 1
Rigby, David L.
2000-01-01
Future generations of ultra high bypass-ratio jet engines will require far higher pressure ratios and operating temperatures than those of current engines. For the foreseeable future, engine materials will not be able to withstand the high temperatures without some form of cooling. In particular the turbine blades, which are under high thermal as well as mechanical loads, must be cooled. Cooling of turbine blades is achieved by bleeding air from the compressor stage of the engine through complicated internal passages in the turbine blades (internal cooling, including jet-impingement cooling) and by bleeding small amounts of air into the boundary layer of the external flow through small discrete holes on the surface of the blade (film cooling and transpiration cooling). The cooling must be done using a minimum amount of air or any increases in efficiency gained through higher operating temperature will be lost due to added load on the compressor stage. Turbine cooling schemes have traditionally been based on extensive empirical data bases, quasi-one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, and trial and error. With improved capabilities of CFD, these traditional methods can be augmented by full three-dimensional simulations of the coolant flow to predict in detail the heat transfer and metal temperatures. Several aspects of turbine coolant flows make such application of CFD difficult, thus a highly effective CFD methodology must be used. First, high resolution of the flow field is required to attain the needed accuracy for heat transfer predictions, making highly efficient flow solvers essential for such computations. Second, the geometries of the flow passages are complicated but must be modeled accurately in order to capture all important details of the flow. This makes grid generation and grid quality important issues. Finally, since coolant flows are turbulent and separated the effects of turbulence must be modeled with a low Reynolds number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iga, Keita; Watanabe, Shunichi; Niino, Hiroshi; Misawa, Nobuhiko [Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564 (Japan); Yokota, Sho [Meteorological Research Institute, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052 (Japan); Ikeda, Takashi, E-mail: iga@aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Japan Patent Office, 3-4-3 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-8915 (Japan)
2017-12-15
The theory of axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical container with a rotating bottom, as described in Part I, is validated against the results of previous and our own laboratory experiments. First, deformation of the water surface is derived using the velocity distribution of the axisymmetric flow obtained by the theory. The form of the water surface is classified into three regimes, and the rotation rates of the transitions between these regimes are determined. The parameters predicted from this theory are compared with the results measured in laboratory experiments and also with data from previous experimental studies. The theory predicts the experimental data well, but a slight difference was found in the narrow region close to the side wall. Corrections estimated by considering the fluid behavior around the side wall boundary layer successfully explain most of the discrepancies. This theory appears to predict the results of the laboratory experiments very well, much better than a theory using an assumption of quadratic drag as a model of turbulent boundary layers. (paper)
A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth
Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel
2012-11-01
Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].
Magneto-rotational instability in differentially rotating liquid metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikhov, E.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Lakhin, V.P.; Serebrennikov, K.S.
2006-01-01
We study the stability of Couette flow between two cylinders in the presence of axial magnetic field in local WKB approximation. We find the analytical expression of the critical angular velocity minimized over the wave number and the imposed magnetic field as a function of the measure of deviation of the rotation law from the Rayleigh line. The result found is in a good agreement with the previously known numerical results based on the global analysis. We perform a minimization of the critical Reynolds number over the wave number at fixed magnetic field both analytically and numerically. We show that a compromise between resistive suppression of magneto-rotational instability at weak magnetic field and the increase of the critical Reynolds number with the increase of magnetic field is possible. It takes place at moderate values of magnetic field of order 3x10 2 gauss giving the critical Reynolds number of order 4x10 4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Masood [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hashim, E-mail: hashim_alik@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hussain, M. [Department of Sciences and Humanities, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Azam, M. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2016-08-15
This paper presents a study of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian Carreau fluid over a convectively heated surface. The analysis of heat transfer is further performed in the presence of non-linear thermal radiation. The appropriate transformations are employed to bring the governing equations into dimensionless form. The numerical solutions of the partially coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations are obtained by using the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration scheme. The influence of non-dimensional governing parameters on the velocity, temperature, local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number is studied and discussed with the help of graphs and tables. Results proved that there is significant decrease in the velocity and the corresponding momentum boundary layer thickness with the growth in the magnetic parameter. However, a quite the opposite is true for the temperature and the corresponding thermal boundary layer thickness. - Highlights: • We investigated the Magnetohydrodynamic flow of Carreau constitutive fluid model. • Impact of non-linear thermal radiation is further taken into account. • Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method is employed to obtain the numerical solutions. • Fluid velocity is higher in case of hydromagnetic flow in comparison with hydrodynamic flow. • The local Nusselt number is a decreasing function of the thermal radiation parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Hiroko (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)
1985-01-01
Thirty-one regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements were performed on 26 patients with cerebrovascular accidents using N-Isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) Iodoamphetamine (/sup 123/I-IMP) and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography (ECT). The equation for determining rCBF is as follows: F=100.R.Cb/(N.A), where F is rCBF in ml/100 g/min., R is the constant withdrawal rate of arterial blood in ml/min., Cb is the brain activity concentration in ..mu..Ci/g, A is the total activity (5 min.) in the withdrawal arterial whole blood in ..mu..Ci and N is the fraction of A that is true tracer activity (0.75). In determining Cb at 5 min. after injection, reconstructed counts from 35 min. to 59 min. were corrected to represent those from 4 min. to 5 min. with the use of time activity curve for the entire brain immediately after injection to 30 min. Reconstructed counts of central region in tomographic image were corrected 118% of the obtained values from the result of the counting rate ratio between peripheral and central regions of interest obtained from phantom study. Brain mean blood flow values were distributed from 11 to 39 ml/100 g/min. In 119 cortical regions obtained from 11 measurements in 9 patients, there was a significant correlation (r=0.41, p < 0.001) between rCBF values obtained from /sup 123/I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT and those from /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. rCBF measurement using /sup 123/I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT is not only relatively noninvasive measurement for the entire brain but also three-dimensional evaluation. Besides, it is superior in spatial resolution and accuracy to conventional /sup 133/Xe clearance method.
Hayat, T.; Ahmad, Salman; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.
2018-05-01
This article addresses flow of third grade nanofluid due to stretchable rotating disk. Mass and heat transports are analyzed through thermophoresis and Brownian movement effects. Further the effects of heat generation and chemical reaction are also accounted. The obtained ODE's are tackled computationally by means of homotopy analysis method. Graphical outcomes are analyzed for the effects of different variables. The obtained results show that velocity reduces through Reynolds number and material parameters. Temperature and concentration increase with Brownian motion and these decrease by Reynolds number.
Tokamak rotation and charge exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.
1991-01-01
In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref
Rotation of a single vortex in dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Jia; Feng Fan; Liu Fu-Cheng; He Ya-Feng
2017-01-01
A single vortex is obtained in radio-frequency capacitive discharge in argon gas. The dust subsystem is confined in the horizontal plane with an asymmetrical saw structure placed on the lower electrode. The vortex rotates as a whole along the long side of the saw-teeth. Asymmetry of the saw structure plays an important role in the rotation of the vortex. Nonzero curl of the total force resulting from the local ion flow and the electric field in the plasma sheath could be attributed to the persistent rotation of vortex. (paper)
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Li, Hui; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe
2015-07-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Si, Jiahe, E-mail: jsi@nmt.edu; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Nornberg, Mark D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2015-07-15
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Si, Jiahe; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark D.
2015-01-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations
Overview of Rotating Cavitation and Cavitation Surge in the Fastrac Engine LOX Turbopump
Zoladz, Thomas; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Observations regarding rotating cavitation and cavitation surge experienced during the development of the Fastrac 60 Klbf engine turbopump are discussed. Detailed observations from the analysis of both water flow and liquid oxygen test data are offered. Scaling and general comparison of rotating cavitation between water flow and liquid oxygen testing are discussed. Complex data features linking the localized rotating cavitation mechanism of the inducer to system surge components are described in detail. Finally a description of a simple lumped-parameter hydraulic system model developed to better understand observed data is given.
Nath, G; Sahu, P K
2016-01-01
A self-similar model for one-dimensional unsteady isothermal and adiabatic flows behind a strong exponential shock wave driven out by a cylindrical piston moving with time according to an exponential law in an ideal gas in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field and variable density is discussed in a rotating atmosphere. The ambient medium is assumed to possess radial, axial and azimuthal component of fluid velocities. The initial density, the fluid velocities and magnetic field of the ambient medium are assumed to be varying with time according to an exponential law. The gas is taken to be non-viscous having infinite electrical conductivity. Solutions are obtained, in both the cases, when the flow between the shock and the piston is isothermal or adiabatic by taking into account the components of vorticity vector. The effects of the variation of the initial density index, adiabatic exponent of the gas and the Alfven-Mach number on the flow-field behind the shock wave are investigated. It is found that the presence of the magnetic field have decaying effects on the shock wave. Also, it is observed that the effect of an increase in the magnetic field strength is more impressive in the case of adiabatic flow than in the case of isothermal flow. The assumption of zero temperature gradient brings a profound change in the density, non-dimensional azimuthal and axial components of vorticity vector distributions in comparison to those in the case of adiabatic flow. A comparison is made between isothermal and adiabatic flows. It is obtained that an increase in the initial density variation index, adiabatic exponent and strength of the magnetic field decrease the shock strength.
On the development of lift and drag in a rotating and translating cylinder
Martin-Alcantara, Antonio; Sanmiguel-Rojas, Enrique; Fernandez-Feria, Ramon
2014-11-01
The two-dimensional flow around a rotating cylinder is investigated numerically using a vorticity forces formulation with the aim of analyzing the flow structures, and their evolutions, that contribute to the lift and drag forces on the cylinder. The Reynolds number, based on the cylinder diameter and steady free-stream speed, considered is Re = 200 , while the non-dimensional rotation rate (ratio of the surface speed and free-stream speed) selected were α = 1 and 3. For α = 1 the wake behind the cylinder for the fully developed flow is oscillatory due to vortex shedding, and so are the lift and drag forces. For α = 3 the fully developed flow is steady with constant (high) lift and (low) drag. Each of these cases is considered in two different transient problems, one with angular acceleration of the cylinder and constant speed, and the other one with translating acceleration of the cylinder and constant rotation. Special attention is paid to explaining the mechanisms of vortex shedding suppression for high rotation (when α = 3) and its relation to the mechanisms by which the lift is enhanced and the drag is almost suppressed when the fully developed flow is reached. Supported by the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad of Spain Grant No. DPI2013-40479-P.
Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus.
Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G V
2014-01-21
The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Bhaskar Reddy
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to investigate the influence of variable thermal conductivity and partial velocity slip on hydromagnetic two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a nanofluid with Cu nanoparticles over a stretching sheet with convective boundary condition. Using similarity transformation, the governing boundary layer equations along with the appropriate boundary conditions are transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations. Employing Runge-kutta fourth-order method along with shooting technique, the resultant system of equations is solved. The influence of various pertinent parameters such as nanofluid volume fraction parameter, the magnetic parameter, radiation parameter, thermal conductivity parameter, velocity slip parameter, Biot number, and suction or injection parameter on the velocity of the flow field and heat transfer characteristics is computed numerically and illustrated graphically. The present results are compared with the existing results for the case of regular fluid and found an excellent agreement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poonia Hemant
2010-01-01
Full Text Available An unsteady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, laminar mixed convective boundary layer flow of an incompressible and electrically-conducting fluid along an infinite vertical plate embedded in the porous medium with heat and mass transfer is analyzed, by taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions. Numerical evaluation of the analytical results is performed and graphical results for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles within the boundary layer are discussed. The results show that increased cooling (Gr > 0 of the plate and the Eckert number leads to a rise in the velocity profile. Also, an increase in Eckert number leads to an increase in the temperature. Effects of Sc on velocity and concentration are discussed and shown graphically.
Airfoil flow instabilities induced by background flow oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selerowicz, W.C.; Szumowski, A.P. [Technical Univ. Warsaw (Poland)
2002-04-01
The effect of background flow oscillations on transonic airfoil (NACA 0012) flow was investigated experimentally. The oscillations were generated by means of a rotating plate placed downstream of the airfoil. Owing to oscillating chocking of the flow caused by the plate, the airfoil flow periodically accelerated and decelerated. This led to strong variations in the surface pressure and the airfoil loading. The results are presented for two angles of attack, {alpha}=4 and {alpha}=8.5 , which correspond to the attached and separated steady airfoil flows, respectively. (orig.)
Visualization study of flow in axial flow inducer.
Lakshminarayana, B.
1972-01-01
A visualization study of the flow through a three ft dia model of a four bladed inducer, which is operated in air at a flow coefficient of 0.065, is reported in this paper. The flow near the blade surfaces, inside the rotating passages, downstream and upstream of the inducer is visualized by means of smoke, tufts, ammonia filament, and lampblack techniques. Flow is found to be highly three dimensional, with appreciable radial velocity throughout the entire passage. The secondary flows observed near the hub and annulus walls agree with qualitative predictions obtained from the inviscid secondary flow theory.
Rotational Evolution and Magnetic Field of AP Stars
Xiaojun, C.; Matsuura, O. T.
1990-11-01
RESUMO. Prop6e- se qLie 0 campo de estrelas Ap pode ser 9cr ado pelo mecanismo de na base clo envelope c 0 fl V C C t V 0, C t r a ri S p 0 r t a d C) p a r a a S LI p e r f C 1 e p e I a Instabllidade de boiament 0 na ase de Haya hi. Campos cibservados permit em est imar uma perda de momento durante a ase pr -Seque%nC:ia P r ri C: p a I a ci ni p a t V C I C: C) m a s C) b s e r V a nT C 5. E S t r C I a S A normals, que ro t a ao , ria0 most ram camp Os :os superficia; importantes e isto pode ac:oriteaer C LIma protoestrela evolue para Sequencia Principal em passar pela fase de Hayashi. ABSTRACT: It 5 proposed that the ma9netic field o Ap stars may be enerated by the dynamo at the base of the convective envelope, arid transported to the surface b y t h C i ri s t a b iii t y C) f b LI 0 y a n c y i n t h C H a y a s hi p h a s e. Observed surface ma9netic fields allow to estimate a 1055 of an9ular momentum during the pre-Main Sequence phase compatible with the observations. apidIy rotating normal A stars do not shciw important surface magnetic fields and this may occur if a protostar evcilves to Main Sequence skipping the Hayashi phase. Key words: HYDROMAGNETICS - STARS-PECULIAR A
Measurement and Analysis of Rotational Energy of Nitrogen Molecular Beam by REMPI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kataoka, K.; Sugiyama, N.; Ide, K.; Niimi, T.
2008-01-01
Molecular beams are powerful tools for diagnoses of solid surfaces and gas-surface interaction tests. Unfortunately, there are very few reports about experimental analysis of internal energy distribution (e.g. rotational energy) of molecular beams of diatomic or polyatomic molecules, because measurement of internal energy distribution is very difficult. Spectroscopic measurement techniques based on resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is very powerful for measurement in highly rarefied gas flows. In this study, the REMPI method is applied to measurement of rotational energy distribution of nitrogen molecular beams. The REMPI spectrum of the molecular beam indicates the rotational temperature higher than the translational temperature of 7.2 K estimated by assuming isentropic flows. The O and P branches of the REMPI spectrum correspond to the rotational temperature of 30 K, but the S branch of the spectrum deviates from that at 30 K. It seems to be because the non-equilibrium rotational energy distribution of the molecular beam deviates from the Boltzmann distribution.
Effect of head rotation on cerebral blood velocity in the prone position
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Højlund, Jakob; Sandmand, Marie; Sonne, Morten
2012-01-01
for cerebral blood flow. We tested in healthy subjects the hypothesis that rotating the head in the prone position reduces cerebral blood flow. Methods. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), and CO were determined, together with the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V...... V(mean) ~10% in spite of an elevated MAP. Prone positioning with rotated head affects both CBF and cerebrovenous drainage indicating that optimal brain perfusion requires head centering....
Rotating thermal convection at very large Rayleigh numbers
Weiss, Stephan; van Gils, Dennis; Ahlers, Guenter; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
2016-11-01
The large scale thermal convection systems in geo- and astrophysics are usually influenced by Coriolis forces caused by the rotation of their celestial bodies. To better understand the influence of rotation on the convective flow field and the heat transport at these conditions, we study Rayleigh-Bénard convection, using pressurized sulfur hexaflouride (SF6) at up to 19 bars in a cylinder of diameter D=1.12 m and a height of L=2.24 m. The gas is heated from below and cooled from above and the convection cell sits on a rotating table inside a large pressure vessel (the "Uboot of Göttingen"). With this setup Rayleigh numbers of up to Ra =1015 can be reached, while Ekman numbers as low as Ek =10-8 are possible. The Prandtl number in these experiment is kept constant at Pr = 0 . 8 . We report on heat flux measurements (expressed by the Nusselt number Nu) as well as measurements from more than 150 temperature probes inside the flow. We thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for financial support through SFB963: "Astrophysical Flow Instabilities and Turbulence". The work of GA was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation through Grant DMR11-58514.
Photothermally controlled Marangoni flow around a micro bubble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namura, Kyoko; Nakajima, Kaoru; Kimura, Kenji; Suzuki, Motofumi
2015-01-01
We have experimentally investigated the control of Marangoni flow around a micro bubble using photothermal conversion. Using a focused laser spot acting as a highly localized heat source on Au nanoparticles/dielectric/Ag mirror thin film enables us to create a micro bubble and to control the temperature gradient around the bubble at a micrometer scale. When we irradiate the laser next to the bubble, a strong main flow towards the bubble and two symmetric rotation flows on either side of it develop. The shape of this rotation flow shows a significant transformation depending on the relative position of the bubble and the laser spot. Using this controllable rotation flow, we have demonstrated sorting of the polystyrene spheres with diameters of 2 μm and 0.75 μm according to their size
Photothermally controlled Marangoni flow around a micro bubble
Namura, Kyoko; Nakajima, Kaoru; Kimura, Kenji; Suzuki, Motofumi
2015-01-01
We have experimentally investigated the control of Marangoni flow around a micro bubble using photothermal conversion. Using a focused laser spot acting as a highly localized heat source on Au nanoparticles/dielectric/Ag mirror thin film enables us to create a micro bubble and to control the temperature gradient around the bubble at a micrometer scale. When we irradiate the laser next to the bubble, a strong main flow towards the bubble and two symmetric rotation flows on either side of it develop. The shape of this rotation flow shows a significant transformation depending on the relative position of the bubble and the laser spot. Using this controllable rotation flow, we have demonstrated sorting of the polystyrene spheres with diameters of 2 μm and 0.75 μm according to their size.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Mantovani
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of symmetric circulations of a rotating baroclinic flow, forced by a steady thermal wind and dissipated by Laplacian friction. The analysis is performed with numerical time-integration. Symmetric flows, vertically bound by horizontal walls and subject to either periodic or vertical wall lateral boundary conditions, are investigated in the region of parameter-space where unstable small amplitude modes evolve into stable stationary nonlinear solutions. The distribution of solutions in parameter-space is analysed up to the threshold of chaotic behaviour and the physical nature of the nonlinear interaction operating on the finite amplitude unstable modes is investigated. In particular, analysis of time-dependent energy-conversions allows understanding of the physical mechanisms operating from the initial phase of linear instability to the finite amplitude stable state. Vertical shear of the basic flow is shown to play a direct role in injecting energy into symmetric flow since the stage of linear growth. Dissipation proves essential not only in limiting the energy of linearly unstable modes, but also in selecting their dominant space-scales in the finite amplitude stage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Butrymowicz Dariusz
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The theoretical basis for the indirect measurement approach of mean heat transfer coefficient for the packed bed based on the modified single blow technique was presented and discussed in the paper. The methodology of this measurement approach dedicated to the matrix of the rotating regenerative gas heater was discussed in detail. The testing stand consisted of a dedicated experimental tunnel with auxiliary equipment and a measurement system are presented. Selected experimental results are presented and discussed for selected types of matrices of regenerative air preheaters for the wide range of Reynolds number of gas. The agreement between the theoretically predicted and measured temperature profiles was demonstrated. The exemplary dimensionless relationships between Colburn heat transfer factor, Darcy flow resistance factor and Reynolds number were presented for the investigated matrices of the regenerative gas heater.
3D CFD for chemical transport profiles in a rotating disk CVD reactor
Han, Jong-Hyun; Yoon, Do-Young
2010-06-01
The RDCVD (Rotating Disk Chemical Vapor Deposition) technique is an appropriate method for uniform deposition of grains, such as compound semiconductior materials. The substrate temperature and rotation speed are the major factors, which determine the thickness uniformity of the deposited films. This paper investigates 3D CFD (3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results of flow and heat transfer in a reactor of RDCVD using Fluent. In order to establish the reducibility of buoyancy effect on deposition quality, the chemical transport profile upon the disk heated is examined successfully in 3D domain for different rotating speeds. The resulting vortex flows due the simultaneous buoyance and centrifuge are discussed qualitatively in the 3D virtual system of a RDCVD reactor. 3D CFD is even more effective to describe the internal vortex flows due to the competitive inlet, buoyancy and centrifuge flows, which cannot be realized in the general 2D (2 Dimensional) CFD.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Neoclassical poloidal and toroidal rotation in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.B.; Diamond, P.H.; Groebner, R.J.
1991-01-01
Explicit expressions for the neoclassical poloidal and toroidal rotation speeds of primary ion and impurity species are derived via the Hirshman and Sigmar moment approach. The rotation speeds of the primary ion can be significantly different from those of impurities in various interesting cases. The rapid increase of impurity poloidal rotation in the edge region of H-mode discharges in tokamaks can be explained by a rapid steepening of the primary ion pressure gradient. Depending on ion collisionality, the poloidal rotation speed of the primary ions at the edge can be quite small and the flow direction may be opposite to that of the impurities. This may cast considerable doubts on current L to H bifurcation models based on primary ion poloidal rotation only. Also, the difference between the toroidal rotation velocities of primary ions and impurities is not negligible in various cases. In Ohmic plasmas, the parallel electric field induces a large impurity toroidal rotation close to the magnetic axis, which seems to agree with experimental observations. In the ion banana and plateau regime, there can be non-negligible disparities between primary ion and impurity toroidal rotation velocities due to the ion density and temperature gradients. Detailed analytic expressions for the primary ion and impurity rotation speeds are presented, and the methodology for generalization to the case of several impurity species is also presented for future numerical evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokgoz, S; Elsinga, G E; Delfos, R; Westerweel, J
2011-01-01
The effect of flow structures to the torque values of fully turbulent Taylor-Couette flow was experimentally studied using tomographic PIV. The measurements were performed for various relative cylinder rotation speeds and Reynolds numbers, based on a study of Ravelet et al. (2010). We confirmed that the flow structures are strongly influenced by the rotation number. Our analyses using time-averaged mean flow showed the presence of Taylor vortices for the two smallest rotation numbers that were studied. Increasing the rotation number initially resulted in the shape deformation of the Taylor vortices. Further increment towards only outer cylinder rotation, showed transition to the dominance of the small scale vortices and absence of Taylor vortex-like structures. We compared the transition of the flow structures with the curves of dimensionless torque. Sudden changes of the flow structures confirmed the presence of transition points on the torque curve, where the dominance of small and large scale vortical structures on the mean flow interchanges.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hathaway, D.H.; Somerville, R.C.J.; National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM; California Univ., La Jolla)
1985-01-01
Three-dimensional, time-dependent convection in a plane layer of fluid, uniformly heated from below and subject to vertical shear and to rotation about an axis tilted from the vertical, was simulated by the numerical solution of the Boussinesq equations, including all Coriolis terms. Rotation about a vertical axis produces smaller convection cells with diminished heat fluxes and considerable vorticity. When the rotation axis is tilted from the vertical to represent tropical latitudes, the convection cells become elongated in a N-S direction. Imposed flows with constant vertical shear produce convective rolls aligned with the mean flow. When the rotation vector is tilted from the vertical, the competing effects due to rotation and shear can stabilize the convective motions. 15 references
Equilibrium of current driven rotating liquid metal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikhov, E.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Zakharov, S.V.; Zakharov, V.S.; Livadny, A.O.; Serebrennikov, K.S.
2006-01-01
In view of great importance of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) as a fundamental mechanism for angular momentum transfer in magnetized stellar accretion disks, several research centers are involved in experimental study of MRI under laboratory conditions. The idea of the experiment is to investigate the rotation dynamics of well conducting liquid (liquid metal) between two cylinders in axial magnetic field. In this Letter, an experimental scheme with immovable cylinders and fluid rotation driven by radial current is considered. The analytical solution of a stationary flow was found taking into account the external current. Results of axially symmetric numerical simulations of current driven fluid dynamics in experimental setup geometry are presented. The analytical solution and numerical simulations show that the current driven fluid rotation in axial magnetic field provides the axially homogeneous velocity profile suitable for MRI study in classical statement
Klocke, F.; Herrig, T.; Zeis, M.; Klink, A.
2017-10-01
Combining the working principle of electrochemical machining (ECM) with a universal rotating tool, like a wire, could manage lots of challenges of the classical ECM sinking process. Such a wire-ECM process could be able to machine flexible and efficient 2.5-dimensional geometries like fir tree slots in turbine discs. Nowadays, established manufacturing technologies for slotting turbine discs are broaching and wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM). Nevertheless, high requirements on surface integrity of turbine parts need cost intensive process development and - in case of wire-EDM - trim cuts to reduce the heat affected rim zone. Due to the process specific advantages, ECM is an attractive alternative manufacturing technology and is getting more and more relevant for sinking applications within the last few years. But ECM is also opposed with high costs for process development and complex electrolyte flow devices. In the past, few studies dealt with the development of a wire ECM process to meet these challenges. However, previous concepts of wire ECM were only suitable for micro machining applications. Due to insufficient flushing concepts the application of the process for machining macro geometries failed. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and simulation of a new flushing approach for process assessment. The suitability of a rotating structured wire electrode in combination with an axial flushing for electrodes with high aspect ratios is investigated and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idris, A; Pullen, K
2013-01-01
The effects of chamfering and corner radiusing on the discharge coefficient of rotating axial orifices are presented in this paper. Both experimental and CFD results show that chamfering and corner radiusing improve the discharge coefficient of rotating orifices. For non-inclined rotating orifices, the discharge coefficient reduces with increasing speed, but chamfered and radiused orifices manage to have higher discharge coefficient (C d ) than the straight edge orifices. Comparing between chamfering and corner radiusing, the radiused corner orifice has the highest C d at every rotational speed. This is because the inlet radius helps guiding the flow into the orifice and avoiding flow separation at the inlet.
Nucleation of rotating crystals by Thiovulum majus bacteria
Petroff, A. P.; Libchaber, A.
2018-01-01
Thiovulum majus self-organize on glass surfaces into active two-dimensional crystals of rotating cells. Unlike classical crystals, these bacterial crystallites continuously rotate and reorganize as the power of rotating cells is dissipated by the surrounding flow. In this article, we describe the earliest stage of crystallization, the attraction of two bacteria into a hydrodynamically-bound dimer. This process occurs in three steps. First a free-swimming cell collides with the wall and becomes hydrodynamically bound to the two-dimensional surface. We present a simple model to understand how viscous forces localize cells near the chamber walls. Next, the cell diffuses over the surface for an average of 63+/- 6 s before escaping to the bulk fluid. The diffusion coefficient {D}{{eff}}=7.98 +/- 0.1 μ {{{m}}}2 {{{s}}}-1 of these 8.5 μ {{m}} diameter cells corresponds to a temperature of (4.16+/- 0.05)× {10}4 K, and thus cannot be explained by equilibrium fluctuations. Finally, two cells coalesce into a rotating dimer when the convergent flow created by each cell overwhelms their active Brownian motion. This occurs when cells diffuse to within a distance of 13.3 ± 0.2 μm of each other.
Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Bardakov, R. N.
2018-02-01
By the methods of schlieren visualization, the evolution of elements of the fine structure of transverse vortex loops formed in the circular vortex behind the edge of a disk rotating in a continuously stratified fluid is traced for the first time. An inhomogeneous distribution of the density of a table-salt solution in a basin was formed by the continuous-squeezing method. The development of periodic perturbations at the outer boundary of the circular vortex and their transformation at the vortex-loop vertex are traced. A slow change in the angular size of the structural elements in the supercritical-flow mode is noted.
COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Matsakos, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lima, J. J. G., E-mail: veronique.cayatte@obspm.fr [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)
2014-06-10
Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.
Scaling relations for plasma production and acceleration of rotating plasma flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikehata, Takashi; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi; Sekine, Ryusuke; Hasegawa, Kazuyuki.
1989-01-01
Scaling relations are investigated theoretically and experimentally of the plasma production and acceleration in the rotating plasma gun which has been developed as a new means of plasma centrifuge. Two operational modes: the gas-discharge mode for gaseous elements and the vacuum-discharge mode for solid elements are studied. Relations of the plasma density and velocities to the discharge current and the magnetic field are derived. The agreement between experiment and theory is quite well. It is found that fully-ionized rotating plasmas produced in the gas-discharge mode is most advantageous to realize efficient plasma centrifuge. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muthucumaraswamy R.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available An exact analysis of rotation effects on unsteady flow of an incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past a uniformly accelerated infinite isothermal vertical plate, under the action of transversely applied magnetic field has been presented. The plate temperature is raised to Tw and the concentration level near the plate is also raised to C′w . The dimensionless governing equations are solved using Laplace-transform technique. The velocity profiles, temperature and concentration are studied for different physical parameters like thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, Prandtl number and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of thermal Grashof number or mass Grashof number. It is also observed that the velocity increases with decreasing magnetic field parameter.
Rotational microfluidic motor for on-chip microcentrifugation
Shilton, Richie J.; Glass, Nick R.; Chan, Peggy; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.
2011-06-01
We report on the design of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) driven fluid-coupled micromotor which runs at high rotational velocities. A pair of opposing SAWs generated on a lithium niobate substrate are each obliquely passed into either side of a fluid drop to drive rotation of the fluid, and the thin circular disk set on the drop. Using water for the drop, a 5 mm diameter disk was driven with rotation speeds and start-up torques up to 2250 rpm and 60 nN m, respectively. Most importantly for lab-on-a-chip applications, radial accelerations of 172 m/s2 was obtained, presenting possibilities for microcentrifugation, flow sequencing, assays, and cell culturing in truly microscale lab-on-a-chip devices.
Urita, Atsushi; Funakoshi, Tadanao; Horie, Tatsunori; Nishida, Mutsumi; Iwasaki, Norimasa
2017-01-01
Vascularity is the important factor of biologic healing of the repaired tissue. The purpose of this study was to clarify sequential vascular patterns of repaired rotator cuff by suture techniques. We randomized 21 shoulders in 20 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair into 2 groups: transosseous-equivalent repair (TOE group, n = 10) and transosseous repair (TO group, n = 11). Blood flow in 4 regions inside the cuff (lateral articular, lateral bursal, medial articular, and medial bursal), in the knotless suture anchor in the TOE group, and in the bone tunnel in the TO group was measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound at 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. The sequential vascular pattern inside the repaired rotator cuff was different between groups. The blood flow in the lateral articular area at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months (P = .002, .005, and .025) and that in the lateral bursal area at 2 months (P = .031) in the TO group were significantly greater than those in the TOE group postoperatively. Blood flow was significantly greater for the bone tunnels in the TO group than for the knotless suture anchor in the TOE group at 1 month and 2 months postoperatively (P = .041 and .009). This study clarified that the sequential vascular pattern inside the repaired rotator cuff depends on the suture technique used. Bone tunnels through the footprint may contribute to biologic healing by increasing blood flow in the repaired rotator cuff. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKee, G.; Gohil, P.; Schlossberg, D.; Boedo, J.; Burrell, K.; deGrassie, J.; Groebner, R.; Makowski, M.; Moyer, R.; Petty, C.; Rhodes, T.; Schmitz, L.; Shafer, M.; Solomon, W.; Umansky, M.; Wang, G.; White, A.; Xu, X.
2008-01-01
The injected power required to induce a transition from L-mode to H-mode plasmas is found to depend strongly on the injected neutral beam torque and consequent plasma toroidal rotation. Edge turbulence and flows, measured near the outboard midplane of the plasma (0.85 < r/a < 1.0) on DIII-D with the high-sensitivity 2D beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system, likewise vary with rotation and suggest a causative connection. The L-H power threshold in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift away from the X-point decreases from 4-6 MW with co-current beam injection, to 2-3 MW with near zero net injected torque, and to <2 MW with counter injection. Plasmas with the ion (del)B drift towards the X-point exhibit a qualitatively similar though less pronounced power threshold dependence on rotation. 2D edge turbulence measurements with BES show an increasing poloidal flow shear as the L-H transition is approached in all conditions. At low rotation, the poloidal flow of turbulent eddies near the edge reverses prior to the L-H transition, generating a significant poloidal flow shear that exceeds the measured turbulence decorrelation rate. This increased poloidal turbulence velocity shear may facilitate the L-H transition. No such reversal is observed in high rotation plasmas. The poloidal turbulence velocity spectrum exhibits a transition from a Geodesic Acoustic Mode zonal flow to a higher-power, lower frequency, zero-mean-frequency zonal flow as rotation varies from co-current to balanced during a torque scan at constant injected neutral beam power, perhaps also facilitating the L-H transition. This reduced power threshold at lower toroidal rotation may benefit inherently low-rotation plasmas such as ITER
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Deuring, P.; Kračmar, S.; Nečasová, Šárka
2011-01-01
Roč. 2011, - (2011), s. 351-361 ISSN 1078-0947. [8th AIMS International Conference. Dresden, 25.05.2010-28.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190804; GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : viscous incompressible flow * rotating body * fundamental solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.913, year: 2011 http://aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=6978
Induced fluid rotation and bistable fluidic turn-down valves (a survey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tesař Václav
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Paper surveys engineering applications of an unusual fluidic principle — momentum transfer through a relatively small communicating window into a vortex chamber, where the initially stationary fluid is put into rotation. The transfer is often by shear stress acting in the window plane, but may be enhanced and perhaps even dominated by fluid flow crossing the boundary. The case of zero-time-mean fluid transport through the window has found use in experimental fluid mechanics: non-invasive measurement of wall shear stress on objects by evaluating the induced rotation in the vortex chamber. The case with the non-zero flow through the interface became the starting point in development of fluidic valves combining two otherwise mutually incompatible properties: bistability and flow turning down.
Dynamics of shallow flows with and without background rotation
Durán Matute, M.
2010-01-01
Large-scale oceanic and atmospheric flows tend to behave in a two-dimensional way. To further understand such flows, a large scientific effort has been devoted to the study of perfect two-dimensional flows. For the last 30 years, there has been a large interest in experimentally validating the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abd-Alla, A.M.; Abo-Dahab, S.M.
2015-01-01
In this paper, the peristaltic flow of a Jeffrey fluid in an asymmetric rotating channel is studied. Mathematical modeling is carried out by utilizing long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. Closed form expressions for the pressure gradient, pressure rise, streamlines, axial velocity and shear stress on the channel walls have been computed numerically. Effects of Hartmann number, the ratio of relaxation to retardation times, time-mean flow, rotation and the phase angle on the pressure gradient, pressure rise, streamline, axial velocity and shear stress are discussed in detail and shown graphically. The results indicate that the effect of the Hartmann number, the ratio of relaxation to retardation times, time-mean flow, rotation and the phase angle are very pronounced in the phenomena. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the asymmetric channel and symmetric channel. - Highlights: • The peristaltic flow of a Jeffrey fluid in an asymmetric rotating channel with magnetic field. • Mathematical modeling for long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. • Closed form expressions for the pressure gradient, pressure rise, stream function, axial velocity and shear stress
Sambath, P.; Pullepu, Bapuji; Hussain, T.; Ali Shehzad, Sabir
2018-03-01
The consequence of thermal radiation in laminar natural convective hydromagnetic flow of viscous incompressible fluid past a vertical cone with mass transfer under the influence of chemical reaction with heat source/sink is presented here. The surface of the cone is focused to a variable wall temperature (VWT) and wall concentration (VWC). The fluid considered here is a gray absorbing and emitting, but non-scattering medium. The boundary layer dimensionless equations governing the flow are solved by an implicit finite-difference scheme of Crank-Nicolson which has speedy convergence and stable. This method converts the dimensionless equations into a system of tri-diagonal equations and which are then solved by using well known Thomas algorithm. Numerical solutions are obtained for momentum, temperature, concentration, local and average shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates for various values of parameters Pr, Sc, λ, Δ, Rd are established with graphical representations. We observed that the liquid velocity decreased for higher values of Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. The temperature is boost up for decreasing values of Schimdt and Prandtl numbers. The enhancement in radiative parameter gives more heat to liquid due to which temperature is enhanced significantly.
Contrasting the solar rotation rate of cycles 23 and 24
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antia, H M; Basu, Sarbani
2013-01-01
The minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24 was quite unusual compared with other minima for which detailed data are available and this pointed to the possibility that cycle 24 will be unusual. Cycle 24 is almost at its maximum now and we take this opportunity to compare and contrast the solar rotation rate and zonal flows between the two cycles. We find that the rotation rate during cycle 24 is slightly lower than that during cycle 23. Additionally we find that the poleward branch of the zonal flow that is believed to be the harbinger of the next solar cycle is very week in cycle 24.
Extension and comparison of neoclassical models for poloidal rotation in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stacey, W. M.
2008-01-01
Several neoclassical models for the calculation of poloidal rotation in tokamaks were rederived within a common framework, extended to include additional physics and numerically compared. The importance of new physics phenomena not usually included in poloidal rotation calculations (e.g., poloidal electric field, VxB force resulting from enhanced radial particle flow arising from the ionization of recycling neutrals) was examined. Extensions of the Hirshman-Sigmar, Kim-Diamond-Groebner, and Stacey-Sigmar poloidal rotation models are presented
Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2014-04-15
We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.
Rotating stall simulation for axial and centrifugal compressors
Halawa, Taher; Gadala, Mohamed S.
2017-05-01
This study presents a numerical simulation of the rotating stall phenomenon in axial and centrifugal compressors with detailed descriptions of stall precursors and its development with time. Results showed that the vaneless region of the centrifugal compressor is the most critical location affected by stall. It was found that the tip leakage flow and the back flow impingement are the main cause of the stall development at the impeller exit area for centrifugal compressors. The results of the axial compressor simulations indicated that the early separated flow combined with the tip leakage flow can block the impeller passages during stall.
Oscillatory Convection in Rotating Liquid Metals
Bertin, Vincent; Grannan, Alex; Aurnou, Jonathan
2016-11-01
We have performed laboratory experiments in a aspect ratio Γ = 2 cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr = 0 . 023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number varies from E = 4 ×10-5 to 4 ×10-6 and the Rayleigh number varies from Ra = 3 ×105 to 2 ×107 . Using heat transfer and temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes develop, coexisting with the inertial oscillatory modes in the bulk. When the strength of the buoyancy increases further, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr = 1 planetary and stellar dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, convection driven dynamo action in low Pr fluids can differ substantively than that occurring in typical Pr = 1 numerical models. Our results also suggest that low wavenumber, wall modes may be dynamically and observationally important in liquid metal dynamo systems. We thank the NSF Geophysics Program for support of this project.
Laminar boundary layer response to rotation of a finite diameter surface patch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klewicki, J.C.; Hill, R.B.
2003-01-01
The responses of the flat plate laminar boundary layer to perturbations generated by rotating a finite patch of the bounding surface are explored experimentally. The size of the surface patch was of the same order as the boundary layer thickness. The displacement thickness Reynolds number range of the boundary layers explored was 72-527. The rotation rates of the surface patch ranged from 2.14 to 62.8 s-1. Qualitative flow visualizations and quantitative molecular tagging velocimetry measurements revealed that rotation of a finite surface patch generates an asymmetric loop-like vortex. Significant features of this vortex include that, (i) the sign of the vorticity in the vortex head is opposite that of the boundary layer vorticity regardless of the sign of the input rotation, (ii) one leg of the vortex exhibits motion akin to solid body rotation while the other leg is best characterized as a spanwise shear layer, (iii) the vortex leg exhibiting near solid body rotation lifts more rapidly from the surface than the leg more like a shear layer, and (iv) the vortex leg exhibiting near solid body rotation always occurs on the side of the surface patch experiencing downstream motion. These asymmetries switch sides depending on the sign of the input rotation. The present results are interpreted and discussed relative to analytical solutions for infinite geometries. By way of analogy, plausible connections are drawn between the present results and the influences of wall normal vortices in turbulent boundary layer flows
Rotating solitary wave at the wall of a cylindrical container
Amaouche, Mustapha
2013-04-30
This paper deals with the theoretical modeling of a rotating solitary surface wave that was observed during water drainage from a cylindrical reservoir, when shallow water conditions were reached. It represents an improvement of our previous study, where the radial flow perturbation was neglected. This assumption led to the classical planar Korteweg–de Vries equation for the wall wave profile, which did not account for the rotational character of the base flow. The present formulation is based on a less restricting condition and consequently corrects the last shortcoming. Now the influence of the background flow appears in the wave characteristics. The theory provides a better physical depiction of the unique experiment by predicting fairly well the wave profile at least in the first half of its lifetime and estimating the speed of the observed wave with good accuracy.
Development of NTD Hydraulic Rotation System for Kijang Research Reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Hanok; Park, Kijung; Park, Yongsoo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
The KJRR will be mainly utilized for isotope production, NTD (Neutron Transmutation Doping) production, and related research activities. During irradiation for the NTD process, the irradiation rigs containing the silicon ingot rotate at a constant speed to ensure precisely defined homogeneity of the irradiation. The NTDHRS requires only hydraulic piping conveniently routed to the rotating devices inside the reactor pool. The resulting layout leaves the pool area clear of obstructions which might obscure vision and hinder target handling for operators. Pump banks and control valves are located remotely in a dedicated plant room allowing easy access and online maintenance. The necessities and major characteristic of NTD hydraulic rotation system are described in this study. A new NTD hydraulic rotation system are being developed to rotate the irradiation rigs at a constant speed and supply cooling flow for the irradiation rigs and reflector assembly. The configuration of the NTD hydraulic rotation device is discussed and practical methods to improve the rotational performance are suggested.
Development of NTD Hydraulic Rotation System for Kijang Research Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Hanok; Park, Kijung; Park, Yongsoo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Park, Cheol
2014-01-01
The KJRR will be mainly utilized for isotope production, NTD (Neutron Transmutation Doping) production, and related research activities. During irradiation for the NTD process, the irradiation rigs containing the silicon ingot rotate at a constant speed to ensure precisely defined homogeneity of the irradiation. The NTDHRS requires only hydraulic piping conveniently routed to the rotating devices inside the reactor pool. The resulting layout leaves the pool area clear of obstructions which might obscure vision and hinder target handling for operators. Pump banks and control valves are located remotely in a dedicated plant room allowing easy access and online maintenance. The necessities and major characteristic of NTD hydraulic rotation system are described in this study. A new NTD hydraulic rotation system are being developed to rotate the irradiation rigs at a constant speed and supply cooling flow for the irradiation rigs and reflector assembly. The configuration of the NTD hydraulic rotation device is discussed and practical methods to improve the rotational performance are suggested
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xueping Du
2018-04-01
Full Text Available To investigate the effect of wind deflectors on air flow and heat transfer performance of an air-cooling tower under crosswind conditions, an experimental system based on a surface condenser aluminum exchanger-type indirect air-cooling tower is established at a 1:100 proportional reduction. A 3-D computational fluid dynamics simulation model is built to study the air flow and temperature fields. The air flow rate into the cooling tower and the heat transfer rate of the radiators are used to evaluate cooling performance. Rotating wind deflectors are adopted to reduce the influence of crosswind on the cooling tower performance. The effects of the rotating wind deflectors on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the air-cooling tower under different environmental crosswind speeds are studied. Results indicate that the wind direction in the tower reverses as the rotating speed of the wind deflectors increases. The thermal performance of an air-cooling tower under crosswind conditions can be improved by using rotating wind deflectors. The heat transfer rate of a cooling tower with eight wind deflectors begins to increase when the rotating speed exceeds 2 r/min.
The Neopuff's PEEP valve is flow sensitive.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Hawkes, Colin Patrick
2012-01-31
AIM: The current recommendation in setting up the Neopuff is to use a gas flow of 5-15 L\\/min. We investigated if the sensitivity of the positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) valve varies at different flow rates within this range. METHODS: Five Neopuffs were set up to provide a PEEP of 5 cm H(2) O. The number of clockwise revolutions to complete occlusion of the PEEP valve and the mean and range of pressures at each quarter clockwise revolution were recorded at gas flow rates between 5 and 15 L\\/min. Results: At 5, 10 and 15 L\\/min, 0.5, 1.7 and 3.4 full clockwise rotations were required to completely occlude the PEEP valve, and pressures rose from 5 to 11.4, 18.4 and 21.5 cm H(2) O, respectively. At a flow rate of 5 L\\/min, half a rotation of the PEEP dial resulted in a rise in PEEP from 5 to 11.4cm H(2) O. At 10 L\\/min, half a rotation resulted in a rise from 5 to 7.7cm H(2) O, and at 15 L\\/min PEEP rose from 5 to 6.8cm H(2) O. CONCLUSION: Users of the Neopuff should be aware that the PEEP valve is more sensitive at lower flow rates and that half a rotation of the dial at 5 L\\/min gas flow can more than double the PEEP.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Le Wang
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Based on phase space reconstruction and fractal dynamics in nonlinear dynamics, a method is proposed to extract and analyze the dynamics of the rotating stall in the impeller of centrifugal compressor, and some numerical examples are given to verify the results as well. First, the rotating stall of an existing low speed centrifugal compressor (LSCC is numerically simulated, and the time series of pressure in the rotating stall is obtained at various locations near the impeller outlet. Then, the phase space reconstruction is applied to these pressure time series, and a low-dimensional dynamical system, which the dynamics properties are included in, is reconstructed. In phase space reconstruction, C–C method is used to obtain the key parameters, such as time delay and the embedding dimension of the reconstructed phase space. Further, the fractal characteristics of the rotating stall are analyzed in detail, and the fractal dimensions are given for some examples to measure the complexity of the flow in the post-rotating stall. The results show that the fractal structures could reveal the intrinsic dynamics of the rotating stall flow and could be considered as a characteristic to identify the rotating stall.
The bathtub vortex in a rotating container
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, B.
2006-01-01
We study the time-independent free-surface flow which forms when a fluid drains out of a container, a so-called bathtub vortex. We focus on the bathtub vortex in a rotating container and describe the free-surface shape and the complex flow structure using photographs of the free surface, flow...... expansion approximation of the central vortex core and reduce the model to a single first-order equation. We solve the equation numerically and find that the axial velocity depends linearly on height whereas the azimuthal velocity is almost independent of height. We discuss the model of the bathtub vortex...
A Single Mode Study of a Quasi-Geostrophic Convection-Driven Dynamo Model
Plumley, M.; Calkins, M. A.; Julien, K. A.; Tobias, S.
2017-12-01
Planetary magnetic fields are thought to be the product of hydromagnetic dynamo action. For Earth, this process occurs within the convecting, turbulent and rapidly rotating outer core, where the dynamics are characterized by low Rossby, low magnetic Prandtl and high Rayleigh numbers. Progress in studying dynamos has been limited by current computing capabilities and the difficulties in replicating the extreme values that define this setting. Asymptotic models that embrace these extreme parameter values and enforce the dominant balance of geostrophy provide an option for the study of convective flows with actual relevance to geophysics. The quasi-geostrophic dynamo model (QGDM) is a multiscale, fully-nonlinear Cartesian dynamo model that is valid in the asymptotic limit of low Rossby number. We investigate the QGDM using a simplified class of solutions that consist of a single horizontal wavenumber which enforces a horizontal structure on the solutions. This single mode study is used to explore multiscale time stepping techniques and analyze the influence of the magnetic field on convection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, D.W. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kaneko, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hayama, S. [Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama (Japan)
1999-07-25
This study reports the stability of annular leakage-flow-induced vibrations. The pressure distribution of fluid between a fixed outer cylinder and a vibrating inner cylinder was obtained in the case of a translationally and rotationally coupled motion of the inner cylinder. The unsteady fluid force acting on the inner cylinder in the case of translational and rotational single-degree-of-freedom vibrations was then expressed in terms proportional to the acceleration, velocity, and displacement. Then the critical flow rate (at which stability was lost) was determined for an annular leakage-flow-induced vibration. Finally, the stability was investigated theoretically. It is known that instability will occur in the case of a divergent passage, but the critical flow rate depends on the passage increment in a limited range: the eccentricity of the passage and the pressure loss factor at the inlet of the passage lower the stability. (author)
Dynamics of Tidally Locked, Ultrafast Rotating Atmospheres
Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam P.
2017-10-01
Tidally locked gas giants, which exhibit a novel regime of day-night thermal forcing and extreme stellar irradiation, are typically in several-day orbits, implying slow rotation and a modest role for rotation in the atmospheric circulation. Nevertheless, there exist a class of gas-giant, highly irradiated objects - brown dwarfs orbiting white dwarfs in extremely tight orbits - whose orbital and hence rotation periods are as short as 1-2 hours. Spitzer phase curves and other observations have already been obtained for this fascinating class of objects, which raise fundamental questions about the role of rotation in controlling the circulation. So far, most modeling studies have investigated rotation periods exceeding a day, as appropriate for typical hot Jupiters. In this work we investigate the dynamics of tidally locked atmospheres in shorter rotation periods down to about two hours. With increasing rotation rate (decreasing rotation period), we show that the width of the equatorial eastward jet decreases, consistent with the narrowing of wave-mean-flow interacting region due to decrease of the equatorial deformation radius. The eastward-shifted equatorial hot spot offset decreases accordingly, and the westward-shifted hot regions poleward of the equatorial jet associated with Rossby gyres become increasingly distinctive. At high latitudes, winds becomes weaker and more geostrophic. The day-night temperature contrast becomes larger due to the stronger influence of rotation. Our simulated atmospheres exhibit small-scale variability, presumably caused by shear instability. Unlike typical hot Jupiters, phase curves of fast-rotating models show an alignment of peak flux to secondary eclipse. Our results have important implications for phase curve observations of brown dwarfs orbiting white dwarfs in ultra tight orbits.
Scaling of wet granular flows in a rotating drum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jarray Ahmed
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the effect of capillary forces and particle size on wet granular flows and we propose a scaling methodology that ensures the conservation of the bed flow. We validate the scaling law experimentally by using different size glass beads with tunable capillary forces. The latter is obtained using mixtures of ethanol-water as interstitial liquid and by increasing the hydrophobicity of glass beads with an ad-hoc silanization procedure. The scaling methodology in the flow regimes considered (slipping, slumping and rolling yields similar bed flow for different particle sizes including the angle of repose that normally increases when decreasing the particle size.
Complex coronary lesions and rotational atherectomy: one hospital’s experience*
Jiang, Jun; Sun, Yong; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Dong, Liang; Liu, Xian-bao; Hu, Xin-yang; Feng, Yan; Wang, Jian-an
2012-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rotational atherectomy followed by drug eluting stent (DES) implantation in patients with complex coronary lesions. Methods: From August 2006 to August 2012, 253 consecutive patients with 289 lesions and who underwent rotational atherectomy in our center were enrolled in this study. Results: The overall procedure success rate was 98% with the cost of two (0.8%) coronary perforations, three (1.2%) dissections, five (2.0%) slow flows or no flows, three (1.2%) peri-procedure myocardial infarctions, and two (0.8%) in hospital deaths. During follow-up (mean three years), one (0.4%) patient died, two (0.8%) patients had acute myocardial infarction, 14 (5.5%) had restenosis, and target lesion revascularization occurred in eight patients (3.2%). Conclusions: Rotational atherectomy followed by DES implantation is a safe and effective technique for patients with complex coronary lesions, especially calcified and non-dilatable lesions. PMID:22843185
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prasad Ramachandra V.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available An unsteady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, laminar free convective boundary-layer flow of an incompressible, Newtonian, electrically-conducting and radiating fluid past an infinite heated vertical porous plate with heat and mass transfer is analyzed, by taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions. Numerical evaluation of the analytical results is performed and graphical results for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles within the boundary layer and tabulated results for the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented and discussed. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases, the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer, whereas when thermal and solutal Grashof increases the velocity increases.
Brayton rotating units for space reactor power systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gallo, Bruno M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies and Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., The Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)
2009-09-15
Designs and analyses models of centrifugal-flow compressor and radial-inflow turbine of 40.8kW{sub e} Brayton Rotating Units (BRUs) are developed for 15 and 40 g/mole He-Xe working fluids. Also presented are the performance results of a space power system with segmented, gas cooled fission reactor heat source and three Closed Brayton Cycle loops, each with a separate BRU. The calculated performance parameters of the BRUs and the reactor power system are for shaft rotational speed of 30-55 krpm, reactor thermal power of 120-471kW{sub th}, and turbine inlet temperature of 900-1149 K. With 40 g/mole He-Xe, a power system peak thermal efficiency of 26% is achieved at rotation speed of 45 krpm, compressor and turbine inlet temperatures of 400 and 1149 K and 0.93 MPa at exit of the compressor. The corresponding system electric power is 122.4kW{sub e}, working fluid flow rate is 1.85 kg/s and the pressure ratio and polytropic efficiency are 1.5% and 86.3% for the compressor and 1.42% and 94.1% for the turbine. For the same nominal electrical power of 122.4kW{sub e}, decreasing the molecular weight of the working fluid (15 g/mole) decreases its flow rate to 1.03 kg/s and increases the system pressure to 1.2 MPa. (author)
Generation of a rotating liquid liner by tangential injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burton, R.L.; Turchi, P.J.; Jenkins, D.J.; Lanham, R.E.; Cameron, J.; Cooper, A.L.
1979-01-01
Efficient compression of low mass-density payloads by the implosion of higher mass-density liquid cylinders or liners, as in the NRL LINUS concept for controlled thermonuclear fusion, requires rotation of the liner material to avoid Rayleigh--Taylor instabilities at the liner-payload interface. Experimentally, such implosions have been demonstrated with liners formed within rotating implosion chambers. The present work uses a scale-model experimental apparatus to investigate the possibility of creating liner rotation by tangential injection of the liquid liner material. Different modes of behavior are obtained depending on the fluid exhaust procedures. Right-circular, cylindrical free surfaces are achieved with axial exhaust of fluid at radii interior to the injection nozzles, for which the liner exhibits a combination of solid-body and free vortex flows in different regions. Measurements allow estimates of power losses to viscous shear, turbulence, etc. A simple model based on open-channel flow is then derived, which is in good agreement with experiment, and is used to extrapolate results to the scale of a possible LINUS fusion reactor
Energy transfer in turbulence under rotation
Buzzicotti, Michele; Aluie, Hussein; Biferale, Luca; Linkmann, Moritz
2018-03-01
It is known that rapidly rotating turbulent flows are characterized by the emergence of simultaneous upscale and downscale energy transfer. Indeed, both numerics and experiments show the formation of large-scale anisotropic vortices together with the development of small-scale dissipative structures. However the organization of interactions leading to this complex dynamics remains unclear. Two different mechanisms are known to be able to transfer energy upscale in a turbulent flow. The first is characterized by two-dimensional interactions among triads lying on the two-dimensional, three-component (2D3C)/slow manifold, namely on the Fourier plane perpendicular to the rotation axis. The second mechanism is three-dimensional and consists of interactions between triads with the same sign of helicity (homochiral). Here, we present a detailed numerical study of rotating flows using a suite of high-Reynolds-number direct numerical simulations (DNS) within different parameter regimes to analyze both upscale and downscale cascade ranges. We find that the upscale cascade at wave numbers close to the forcing scale is generated by increasingly dominant homochiral interactions which couple the three-dimensional bulk and the 2D3C plane. This coupling produces an accumulation of energy in the 2D3C plane, which then transfers energy to smaller wave numbers thanks to the two-dimensional mechanism. In the forward cascade range, we find that the energy transfer is dominated by heterochiral triads and is dominated primarily by interaction within the fast manifold where kz≠0 . We further analyze the energy transfer in different regions in the real-space domain. In particular, we distinguish high-strain from high-vorticity regions and we uncover that while the mean transfer is produced inside regions of strain, the rare but extreme events of energy transfer occur primarily inside the large-scale column vortices.
The Influence of Slope Breaks on Lava Flow Surface Disruption
Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Wright, Robert
2014-01-01
Changes in the underlying slope of a lava flow impart a significant fraction of rotational energy beyond the slope break. The eddies, circulation and vortices caused by this rotational energy can disrupt the flow surface, having a significant impact on heat loss and thus the distance the flow can travel. A basic mechanics model is used to compute the rotational energy caused by a slope change. The gain in rotational energy is deposited into an eddy of radius R whose energy is dissipated as it travels downstream. A model of eddy friction with the ambient lava is used to compute the time-rate of energy dissipation. The key parameter of the dissipation rate is shown to be rho R(sup 2/)mu, where ? is the lava density and mu is the viscosity, which can vary by orders of magnitude for different flows. The potential spatial disruption of the lava flow surface is investigated by introducing steady-state models for the main flow beyond the steepening slope break. One model applies to slow-moving flows with both gravity and pressure as the driving forces. The other model applies to fast-moving, low-viscosity, turbulent flows. These models provide the flow velocity that establishes the downstream transport distance of disrupting eddies before they dissipate. The potential influence of slope breaks is discussed in connection with field studies of lava flows from the 1801 Hualalai and 1823 Keaiwa Kilauea, Hawaii, and 2004 Etna eruptions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prasad Ramachandra V.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The interaction of free convection with thermal radiation of viscous incompressible MHD unsteady flow past an impulsively started vertical plate with uniform heat and mass flux is analyzed. This type of problem finds application in many technological and engineering fields such as rocket propulsion systems, space craft re-entry aerothermodynamics, cosmical flight aerodynamics, plasma physics, glass production and furnace engineering .The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat transfer in the limit of the optically thin fluid. The non-linear, coupled equations are solved using an implicit finite difference scheme of Crank-Nicolson type. Velocity, temperature and concentration of the flow have been presented for various parameters such as thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, radiation parameter and magnetic parameter. The local and average skin friction, Nusslet number and Sherwood number are also presented graphically. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer. .
Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere.
Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul
2018-02-01
We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.
Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere
Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul
2018-02-01
We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.
A reference Pelton turbine - High speed visualization in the rotating frame
Solemslie, Bjørn W.; Dahlhaug, Ole G.
2016-11-01
To enable a detailed study the flow mechanisms effecting the flow within the reference Pelton runner designed at the Waterpower Laboratory (NTNLT) a flow visualization system has been developed. The system enables high speed filming of the hydraulic surface of a single bucket in the rotating frame of reference. It is built with an angular borescopes adapter entering the turbine along the rotational axis and a borescope embedded within a bucket. A stationary high speed camera located outside the turbine housing has been connected to the optical arrangement by a non-contact coupling. The view point of the system includes the whole hydraulic surface of one half of a bucket. The system has been designed to minimize the amount of vibrations and to ensure that the vibrations felt by the borescope are the same as those affecting the camera. The preliminary results captured with the system are promising and enable a detailed study of the flow within the turbine.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fogedby, Hans C.; Imparato, Alberto
2018-01-01
to a directed rotary motion. At variance with the classical case, the thermal fluctuations in the baths give rise to a non-vanishing average torque contribution; this is a genuine quantum effect akin to the Casimir effect. In the steady state the heat current flowing between the two baths is systematically......, the rotator cannot work either as a heat pump or as a heat engine. We finally use our exact results to extend an ab initio quantum simulation algorithm to the out-of-equilibrium regime. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2018...
Moore, Joan G.; Moore, John
1992-01-01
The flow in the NASA Low-Speed Impeller is affected by both curvature and rotation. The flow curves due to the following: (1) geometric curvature, e.g. the curvature of the hub and shroud profiles in the meridional plane and the curvature of the backswept impeller blades; and (2) secondary flow vortices, e.g. the tip leakage vortex. Changes in the turbulence and effective turbulent viscosity in the impeller are investigated. The effects of these changes on three-dimensional flow development are discussed. Two predictions of the flow in the impeller, one with, and one without modification to the turbulent viscosity due to rotation and curvature, are compared. Some experimental and theoretical background for the modified mixing length model of turbulent viscosity will also be presented.