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Sample records for hydrogeological conceptual model

  1. Regional hydrogeological conceptual model of candidate Beishan area for high level radioactive waste disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hailong; Guo Yonghai

    2014-01-01

    The numerical modeling of groundwater flow is an important aspect of hydrogeological assessment in siting of a high level radioactive waste disposal repository. Hydrogeological conceptual model is the basic and premise of numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Based on the hydrogeological analysis of candidate Beishan area, surface water system was created by using DEM data and the modeling area is determined. Three-dimensional hydrogeological structure model was created through GMS software. On the basis of analysis and description of boundary condition, flow field, groundwater budget and hydrogeological parameters, hydrogeological conceptual model was set up for the Beishan area. (authors)

  2. Hydrogeophysics and remote sensing for the design of hydrogeological conceptual models in hard rocks - Sardón catchment (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Francés, Alain; Lubczynski, Maciek W.; Roy, Jean; Santos, Fernando A. Monteiro; Ardekani, Mohammad R. Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Hard rock aquifers are highly heterogeneous and hydrogeologically complex. To contribute to the design of hydrogeological conceptual models of hard rock aquifers, we propose a multi-techniques methodology based on a downward approach that combines remote sensing (RS), non-invasive hydrogeophysics and hydrogeological field data acquisition. The proposed methodology is particularly suitable for data scarce areas. It was applied in the pilot research area of Sardón catchment (80 km2)...

  3. A hydrogeological conceptual model of the Suio hydrothermal area (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroli, Michele; Lancia, Michele; Albano, Matteo; Casale, Anna; Giovinco, Gaspare; Petitta, Marco; Zarlenga, Francesco; dell'Isola, Marco

    2017-09-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed that describes the hydrothermal system of Suio Terme (central Italy). The studied area is located along the peri-Tyrrhenian zone of the central Apennines, between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate platform sequences of the Aurunci Mountains and the volcanic sequences of the Roccamonfina. A multi-disciplinary approach was followed, using new hydrogeological surveys, the interpretation of stratigraphic logs of boreholes and water wells, and geophysical data—seismic sections, shear-wave velocity (Vs) crustal model and gravimetric model. The collected information allowed for construction of a conceptual hydrogeological model and characterization of the hydrothermal system. The Suio hydrothermal system is strongly influenced by the Eastern Aurunci hydrostructure. Along the southeastern side, the top of the hydrostructure sinks to -1,000 m relative to sea level via a series of normal faults which give origin to the Garigliano graben. Geological and hydrogeological data strongly suggest the propagation and mixing of hot fluids, with cold waters coming from the shallow karst circuit. The aquitard distribution, the normal tectonic displacements and the fracturing of the karst hydrostructure strongly influence the hydrothermal basin. Carbon dioxide and other gasses play a key role in the whole circuit, facilitating the development of the hydrothermal system. The current level of knowledge suggests that the origin of the Suio hydrothermalism is the result of interaction between the carbonate reservoir of the Eastern Aurunci Mountains and the hot and deep crust of this peri-Tyrrhenian sector, where the Roccamonfina volcano represents the shallowest expression.

  4. Hydrogeological conceptual model development and numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW, Forsmark modelling stage 2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David (Serco TAP (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    Three versions of a site descriptive model (SDM) have been completed for the Forsmark area. Version 0 established the state of knowledge prior to the start of the site investigation programme. Version 1.1 was essentially a training exercise and was completed during 2004. Version 1.2 was a preliminary site description and concluded the initial site investigation work (ISI) in June 2005. Three modelling stages are planned for the complete site investigation work (CSI). These are labelled stage 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3, respectively. An important component of each of these stages is to address and continuously try to resolve discipline-specific uncertainties of importance for repository engineering and safety assessment. Stage 2.1 included an updated geological model for Forsmark and aimed to provide a feedback from the modelling working group to the site investigation team to enable completion of the site investigation work. Stage 2.2 described the conceptual understanding and the numerical modelling of the bedrock hydrogeology in the Forsmark area based on data freeze 2.2. The present report describes the modelling based on data freeze 2.3, which is the final data freeze in Forsmark. In comparison, data freeze 2.3 is considerably smaller than data freeze 2.2. Therefore, stage 2.3 deals primarily with model confirmation and uncertainty analysis, e.g. verification of important hypotheses made in stage 2.2 and the role of parameter uncertainty in the numerical modelling. On the whole, the work reported here constitutes an addendum to the work reported in stage 2.2. Two changes were made to the CONNECTFLOW code in stage 2.3. These serve to: 1) improve the representation of the hydraulic properties of the regolith, and 2) improve the conditioning of transmissivity of the deformation zones against single-hole hydraulic tests. The changes to the modelling of the regolith were made to improve the consistency with models made with the MIKE SHE code, which involved the introduction

  5. A revised conceptual hydrogeologic model of a crystalline rock environment, Whiteshell research area, southeastern Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.R.; Brown, A.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; McGregor, R.G.; Ophori, D.U.; Scheier, N.W.; Stanchell, F.; Thorne, G.A.; Tomsons, D.K.

    1996-04-01

    A revised conceptual hydrogeologic model of regional groundwater flow in the crystalline rocks of the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) has been developed by a team of AECL geoscientists. The revised model updates an earlier model developed in 1985, and has a much broader database. This database was compiled from Landsat and airborne radar images, geophysical surveys and surface mapping, and from analyses of fracture logs, hydraulic tests and water samples collected from a network of deep boreholes drilled across the WRA. The boundaries of the revised conceptual model were selected to coincide with the natural hydraulic boundaries assumed for the regional groundwater flow systems in the WRA. The upper and lower boundaries are the water table and a horizontal plane 4 km below ground surface. For modelling purposes the rocks below 4 km are considered to be impermeable. The rocks of the modelled region were divided on the basis of fracture characteristics into three categories: fractured zones (FZs); moderately fractured rock (MFR); and sparsely fractured rock (SFR). The FZs are regions of intensely fractured rock. Seventy-six FZs were selected to form the fault framework within the revised conceptual model. The physical rock/water properties of the FZs, MFR and SFR were selected by analysis of field data from hydraulic and tracer tests, laboratory test data and water quality data. These properties were used to define a mathematical groundwater flow model of the WRA using AECL's MOTIF finite element code (Ophori et al. 1995, 1996). (author). 29 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  6. Hydrogeophysics and remote sensing for the design of hydrogeological conceptual models in hard rocks - Sardón catchment (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, Alain P.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.; Roy, Jean; Santos, Fernando A. M.; Mahmoudzadeh Ardekani, Mohammad R.

    2014-11-01

    Hard rock aquifers are highly heterogeneous and hydrogeologically complex. To contribute to the design of hydrogeological conceptual models of hard rock aquifers, we propose a multi-techniques methodology based on a downward approach that combines remote sensing (RS), non-invasive hydrogeophysics and hydrogeological field data acquisition. The proposed methodology is particularly suitable for data scarce areas. It was applied in the pilot research area of Sardón catchment (80 km2) located west of Salamanca (Spain). The area was selected because of hard-rock hydrogeology, semi-arid climate and scarcity of groundwater resources. The proposed methodology consisted of three main steps. First, we detected the main hydrogeological features at the catchment scale by processing: (i) a high resolution digital terrain model to map lineaments and to outline fault zones; and (ii) high-resolution, multispectral satellite QuickBird and WorldView-2 images to map the outcropping granite. Second, we characterized at the local scale the hydrogeological features identified at step one with: i) ground penetrating radar (GPR) to assess groundwater table depth complementing the available monitoring network data; ii) 2D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and frequency domain electromagnetic (FDEM) to retrieve the hydrostratigraphy along selected survey transects; iii) magnetic resonance soundings (MRS) to retrieve the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer parameters at the selected survey sites. In the third step, we drilled 5 boreholes (25 to 48 m deep) and performed slug tests to verify the hydrogeophysical interpretation and to calibrate the MRS parameters. Finally, we compiled and integrated all acquired data to define the geometry and parameters of the Sardón aquifer at the catchment scale. In line with a general conceptual model of hard rock aquifers, we identified two main hydrostratigraphic layers: a saprolite layer and a fissured layer. Both layers were intersected and drained by

  7. Development of a hydrogeological conceptual wetland model in the data-scarce north-eastern region of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghof, Sonja; Gabiri, Geofrey; Stumpp, Christine; Chesnaux, Romain; Reichert, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions in wetlands is crucial because wetlands provide not only a high potential for agricultural production, but also sensitive and valuable ecosystems. This is especially true for the Kilombero floodplain wetland in Tanzania, which represents a data-scarce region in terms of hydrological and hydrogeological data. A comprehensive approach combining hydrogeological with tracer-based assessments was conducted, in order to develop a conceptual hydrogeological wetland model of the area around the city of Ifakara in the north-eastern region of Kilombero catchment. Within the study site, a heterogeneous porous aquifer, with a range of hydraulic conductivities, is underlain by a fractured-rock aquifer. Groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by silicate weathering and depends on groundwater residence times related to the hydraulic conductivities of the porous aquifer. Groundwater flows from the hillside to the river during most of the year. While floodwater close to the river is mainly derived from overbank flow of the river, floodwater at a greater distance from the river mainly originates from precipitation and groundwater discharge. Evaporation effects in floodwater increase with increasing distance from the river. In general, the contribution of flood and stream water to groundwater recharge is negligible. In terms of an intensification of agricultural activities in the wetland, several conclusions can be drawn from the conceptual model. Results of this study are valuable as a base for further research related to groundwater/surface-water interactions and the conceptual model can be used in the future to set up numerical flow and transport models.

  8. Volcanic aquifers of Hawai‘i—Hydrogeology, water budgets, and conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Engott, John A.; Rotzoll, Kolja; Bassiouni, Maoya; Johnson, Adam G.; Miller, Lisa D.; Mair, Alan

    2016-06-13

    Hawai‘i’s aquifers have limited capacity to store fresh groundwater because each island is small and surrounded by saltwater. Saltwater also underlies much of the fresh groundwater. Fresh groundwater resources are, therefore, particularly vulnerable to human activity, short-term climate cycles, and long-term climate change. Availability of fresh groundwater for human use is constrained by the degree to which the impacts of withdrawal—such as lowering of the water table, saltwater intrusion, and reduction in the natural discharge to springs, streams, wetlands, and submarine seeps—are deemed acceptable. This report describes the hydrogeologic framework, groundwater budgets (inflows and outflows), conceptual models of groundwater occurrence and movement, and the factors limiting groundwater availability for the largest and most populated of the Hawaiian Islands—Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i Island.The bulk of each of Hawai‘i’s islands is built of many thin lava flows erupted from shield volcanoes; the great piles of lava flows form highly permeable aquifers. In some areas, low-permeability dikes cutting across the lava flows, or low-permeability ash and soil horizons interlayered with the lava flows, can substantially alter groundwater flow. On some islands, sedimentary rocks form thick semiconfining coastal-plain deposits, locally known as caprock, that impede natural groundwater discharge to the ocean. In some regions, thick lava flows that ponded in preexisting depressions form aquifers that are much less permeable than aquifers formed by thin lava flows.Fresh groundwater inflow to Hawai‘i’s aquifers comes from recharge. For predevelopment conditions (1870), estimates of groundwater recharge from this study are 871, 675, 1,279, and 5,291 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) for Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i Island, respectively. Estimates of recharge for recent conditions (2010 land cover and 1978–2007 rainfall for Kaua‘i, O

  9. A conceptual hydrogeologic model for the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Teeple, Andrew; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2013-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer is a vital groundwater resource for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system in the 4,700 square-mile study area was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Pecos County, City of Fort Stockton, Brewster County, and Pecos County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The model was developed to gain a better understanding of the groundwater system and to establish a scientific foundation for resource-management decisions. Data and information were collected or obtained from various sources to develop the model. Lithologic information obtained from well reports and geophysical data were used to describe the hydrostratigraphy and structural features of the groundwater system, and aquifer-test data were used to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties. Groundwater-quality data were used to evaluate groundwater-flow paths, water and rock interaction, aquifer interaction, and the mixing of water from different sources. Groundwater-level data also were used to evaluate aquifer interaction as well as to develop a potentiometric-surface map, delineate regional groundwater divides, and describe regional groundwater-flow paths.

  10. Salinity sources of Kefar Uriya wells in the Judea Group aquifer of Israel. Part 1—conceptual hydrogeological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avisar, D.; Rosenthal, E.; Flexer, A.; Shulman, H.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Guttman, J.

    2003-01-01

    In the Yarkon-Taninim groundwater basin, the karstic Judea Group aquifer contains groundwater of high quality. However, in the western wells of the Kefar Uriya area located in the foothills of the Judea Mountains, brackish groundwater was locally encountered. The salinity of this water is caused presumably by two end members designated as the 'Hazerim' and 'Lakhish' water types. The Hazerim type represents surface water percolating through a highly fractured thin chalky limestone formation overlying the Judea Group aquifer. The salinity of the water derives conjointly from several sources such as leachates from rendzina and grumosols, dissolution of caliche crusts which contain evaporites and of rock debris from the surrounding formations. This surface water percolates downwards into the aquifer through a funnel- or chimney-like mechanism. This local salinization mechanism supercedes another regional process caused by the Lakhish waters. These are essentially diluted brines originating from deep formations in the western parts of the Coastal Plain. The study results show that salinization is not caused by the thick chalky beds of the Senonian Mt Scopus Group overlying the Judea Group aquifer, as traditionally considered but prevalently by aqueous leachates from soils and rock debris. The conceptual qualitative hydrogeological model of the salinization as demonstrated in this study, is supported by a quantitative hydrological model presented in another paper in this volume.

  11. Geological investigations contributing to the hydrogeological conceptual model in the Meuse/Haute-Marne area, Eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocher, M.; De Hoyos, A.; Hibsch, C.; Viennot, P.

    2010-01-01

    Callovian-Oxfordian (COX) indurated clay formation is currently studied by Andra in the 'Meuse/Haute-Marne' (MHM) area for hosting a potential repository of high level, long-lived radioactive waste. IRSN is conducting studies in support of the safety evaluation of the geological disposal programme developed by Andra. IRSN, in collaboration with the Paris School of Mines, develops conceptual and numerical models of the underground water flows throughout the Paris sedimentary basin. The calibrated numerical model correctly represents the hydraulic heads and water salinities collected throughout the basin. At the MHM scale however, several flow patterns can still reproduce the measured heads, some of them assuming specific flow pathways along regional tectonic trends. Considering or not such tectonic trends in the model has however an impact on the estimated radionuclide transfer times to the outlets. Even though most ANDRA and IRSN geochemical analyses suggest a dominant diffusive transport across the COX between the underlying Dogger and overlying Oxfordian aquifers, few data point out the possible existence of local vertical connections across major tectonic structures. In order to select the most plausible options for the numerical modelling, IRSN compiled published studies and carried out fieldwork analysis to provide new data for its hydrogeological conceptual model. Relevant geological data can be considered both at the kilometre scale and at the metre scale. At the kilometre scale, the litho-stratigraphic scheme both for Dogger and Oxfordian series had previously been documented in the MHM area. Regional sedimentologic and diagenetic models are available for the Oxfordian aquifer and partially for the Dogger aquifer. Our fieldwork analysis complete these models thanks to new correlations pointed out during detailed iso-hyps mapping performed by G2R laboratory, southeast from the MHM area. Unlike the Kimmeridgian and COX sedimentary piles, which are

  12. A comparison of results from groundwater flow modelling for two conceptual hydrogeological models for the Konrad site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, G.; Fein, E.; Storck, R.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive wastes with negligible heat production are planned to be disposed of into a deep iron ore formation at the Konrad site. This repository will be bedded in a low permeable formation called Oxfordian in a depth of 800 - 1300 m below the surface. The host formation is largely covered with clay of a few hundred meters thickness. The hydrogeological model area has an extension of 14 km in the west-east and 47 km in the north-south direction. The geological formations within the model area are disturbed by several fractured zones with a vertical extension of several hundred meters intersecting different horizontal layers. Due to this fact two hydrogeological models have been developed: The first one handles the fractured zones by globally increased permeabilities of the geological formations. The second handles the fractured zones by locally increased permeabilities, leaving the permeabilities of undisturbed areas unchanged. For both models, groundwater flow calculations have been carried out including parameter variations of permeability values. The results of the calculations are presented as flow paths which are compared for both models. Computer code used: SWIFT. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  13. Hydrogeological conditions in the Finnsjoen area. Compilation of data and conceptual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J.E.; Nordqvist, R.; Nyberg, G.; Smellie, J.; Tiren, S.

    1991-02-01

    In the present report all available data gathered from the Finnsjoen area of potential use for numerical modelling are compiled and discussed. The data have been collected during different phases during the period 1977-1989. This inevitably means that the quality of the measured and interpreted data varies in accordance with the continuous developments of improved equipments and interpretation techniques. The present report is an updated version of the SKB progress report 89-24 with the same title and authors, see introduction. (au)

  14. Hydrogeological conceptual model for Guarani Aquifer System: A tool for management; Modelo hidrogeologico conceptual del Sistema Acuifero Guarani (SAG): una herramienta para la gestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastmans, D.; Veroslavsky, G.; Kiang Cahng, H.; Caetano-Chang, M. R.; Nogueira Pressinotti, M. M.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer system (GAS) extends beneath the territories of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay and thus represents a typical example of a transboundary aquifer. The GAS is an important source of drinking water for the population living within its area. Because of differences in the legal norms concerning water resources in these four countries, an urgently required legal framework for the shared management of the groundwater is currently being drawn up. Within this context, the conceptual regional hydrogeological model should be used as an important tool to delineate shared actions, particularly in regions where the groundwater flow is transboundary. The GAS is considered to be a continuous aquifer made up of Mesozoic continental clastic sedimentary rocks that occur in the Parana and Chacoparanense sedimentary basins, and is bounded at its base by a Permo-Eotriassic regional unconformity and at the top by lower-Cretaceous basaltic lava. The groundwater flow shows a regional trend from N to S along the main axis of these basins. With regard to the major tectonic structures of these sedimentary basins, various main hydrodynamic domains can be distinguished, such as the Ponta Grossa arch and the Asuncion-Rio Grande dorsal. Regional recharge areas are primarily located in the eastern and northern outcrop areas, whilst the western end of the GAS, the Mato Grosso do Sul, contains zones of local recharge and regional discharge. Transboundary flow is observed in areas confined to the national borders of the four countries. Nevertheless, due to the groundwater residence times in the GAS special management actions are called for to prevent over-exploitation, particularly in the confined zones of the aquifer. (Author)

  15. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty with Application to Uranium Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Rockhold, Mark L.; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2007-07-30

    This report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes the development and application of a methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess predictive uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling that considers the combined impact of hydrogeologic uncertainties associated with the conceptual-mathematical basis of a model, model parameters, and the scenario to which the model is applied. The methodology is based on a n extension of a Maximum Likelihood implementation of Bayesian Model Averaging. Model uncertainty is represented by postulating a discrete set of alternative conceptual models for a site with associated prior model probabilities that reflect a belief about the relative plausibility of each model based on its apparent consistency with available knowledge and data. Posterior model probabilities are computed and parameter uncertainty is estimated by calibrating each model to observed system behavior; prior parameter estimates are optionally included. Scenario uncertainty is represented as a discrete set of alternative future conditions affecting boundary conditions, source/sink terms, or other aspects of the models, with associated prior scenario probabilities. A joint assessment of uncertainty results from combining model predictions computed under each scenario using as weight the posterior model and prior scenario probabilities. The uncertainty methodology was applied to modeling of groundwater flow and uranium transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area. Eight alternative models representing uncertainty in the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties as well as the temporal variability were considered. Two scenarios represent alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. The scenario alternatives were implemented in the models through the boundary conditions. Results demonstrate the feasibility of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow

  16. A conceptual hydrogeological model of ophiolitic aquifers (serpentinised peridotite): The test example of Mt. Prinzera (Northern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segadelli, Stefano; Vescovi, Paolo; Ogata, Kei; Chelli, Alessandro; Zanini, Andrea; Boschetti, Tiziano; Petrella, Emma; Toscani, Lorenzo; Gargini, Alessandro; Celico, Fulvio

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.The main aim of this study is the experimental analysis of the hydrogeological behaviour of the Mt. Prinzera ultramafic massif in the northern Apennines, Italy. The analysed multidisciplinary database has been acquired through (a) geologic and structural survey; (b)

  17. Nirex 97 an assessment of the post-closure performance of a deep waste repository at Sellafield. Volume 1: hydrogeological model development - conceptual basis and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degnan, P.; Littleboy, A.

    1997-01-01

    repository zone beneath Longlands Farm. In style, scope and presentation, Nirex 97 is primarily aimed at the scientific community, other radioactive waste disposal agencies and regulators. The report is published as part of Nirex's commitment to open publication of its scientific findings. The main value of the report currently is as a demonstration of the generic capability which has been developed to assess the radiological safety performance of candidate repository sites. The safety assessment reported as Nirex 97 was carried out between April 1996 and August 1997. It updates a preliminary assessment of the groundwater pathway for a repository at Sellafield, 'Nirex 95' published in July 1995. Nirex 97 takes account of further data obtained from the Nirex waste inventory, design, site characterisation and research programmes. In addition, Nirex 97 extends the Nirex 95 evaluation to include consideration of the potential radiological and flammability hazards in the biosphere arising from the effects of gas generation within the repository and the extent of pressurisation within the repository vaults. The assessment also takes account of the latest guidance from the Environment Agencies on requirements for authorisation of disposal facilities on land. Volume 1: Hydrogeological Conceptual Model Development - Conceptual Basis and Data, presents the conceptual model of the hydrogeology of the Sellafield area which underpins the post-closure performance assessment. The volume summarises the conceptual model development process and outlines the extensive site characterisation data for Sellafield which have been used in Nirex 97

  18. Hydrogeology of northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico: a conceptual model based on a geochemical characterization of sulfide-rich karst brackish springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Lagarde, Laura; Boston, Penelope J.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Hose, Louise D.; Axen, Gary; Stafford, Kevin W.

    2014-09-01

    Conspicuous sulfide-rich karst springs flow from Cretaceous carbonates in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico. This is a geologically complex, tropical karst area. The physical, geologic, hydrologic and chemical attributes of these springs were determined and integrated into a conceptual hydrogeologic model. A meteoric source and a recharge elevation below 1,500 m are estimated from the spring-water isotopic signature regardless of their chemical composition. Brackish spring water flows at a maximum depth of 2,000 m, as inferred from similar chemical attributes to the produced water from a nearby oil well. Oil reservoirs may be found at depths below 2,000 m. Three subsurface environments or aquifers are identified based on the B, Li+, K+ and SiO2 concentrations, spring water temperatures, and CO2 pressures. There is mixing between these aquifers. The aquifer designated Local is shallow and contains potable water vulnerable to pollution. The aquifer named Northern receives some brackish produced water. The composition of the Southern aquifer is influenced by halite dissolution enhanced at fault detachment surfaces. Epigenic speleogenesis is associated with the Local springs. In contrast, hypogenic speleogenesis is associated with the brackish sulfidic springs from the Northern and the Southern environments.

  19. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Teeple, Andrew; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers, which include the Pecos Valley, Igneous, Dockum, Rustler, and Capitan Reef aquifers, was developed as the second phase of a groundwater availability study in the Pecos County region in west Texas. The first phase of the study was to collect and compile groundwater, surface-water, water-quality, geophysical, and geologic data in the area. The third phase of the study involves a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in order to simulate groundwater conditions based on various groundwater-withdrawal scenarios. Resource managers plan to use the results of the study to establish management strategies for the groundwater system. The hydrogeologic framework is composed of the hydrostratigraphy, structural features, and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. Well and geophysical logs were interpreted to define the top and base surfaces of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units. Elevations of the top and base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer generally decrease from the southwestern part of the study area to the northeast. The thicknesses of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units were calculated using the interpolated top and base surfaces of the hydrostratigraphic units. Some of the thinnest sections of the aquifer were in the eastern part of the study area and some of the thickest sections were in the Pecos, Monument Draw, and Belding-Coyanosa trough areas. Normal-fault zones, which formed as growth and collapse features as sediments were deposited along the margins of more resistant rocks and as overlying sediments collapsed into the voids created by the dissolution of Permian-age evaporite deposits, were delineated based on the interpretation of hydrostratigraphic cross sections. The lowest aquifer transmissivity values were measured in the eastern part of the study area; the highest transmissivity values were

  20. Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath air force plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field at Fort Worth, Texas, constitute a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from AFP4, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. The U.S. Geological Survey developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental information associated with the hydrogeologic units (alluvial aquifer, Goodland-Walnut confining unit, and Paluxy aquifer) beneath the facility and a three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase. The geodatabase design uses a thematic layer approach to create layers of feature data using a geographic information system. The various features are separated into relational tables in the geodatabase on the basis of how they interact and correspond to one another. Using the geodatabase, geographic data at the site are manipulated to produce maps, allow interactive queries, and perform spatial analyses. The conceptual model for the study area comprises computer-generated, three-dimensional block diagrams of the hydrogeologic units. The conceptual model provides a platform for visualization of hydrogeologic-unit sections and surfaces and for subsurface environmental analyses. The conceptual model is based on three structural surfaces and two thickness configurations of the study area. The three structural surfaces depict the altitudes of the tops of the three hydrogeologic units. The two thickness configurations are those of the alluvial aquifer and the Goodland-Walnut confining unit. The surface of the alluvial aquifer was created using a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model. The 2,130 point altitudes of the top of the Goodland-Walnut unit were compiled from lithologic logs from existing wells, available soil

  1. Overview--Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitute a contractor-owned, government-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from the 3,600-acre facility, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. Environmental data collected at AFP4 and NAS–JRB during 1993–2002 created the need for consolidation of the data into a comprehensive temporal and spatial geodatabase. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center Environmental Management Directorate, developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental data associated with the hydrogeologic units beneath the facility. A three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase was designed concurrently. Three hydrogeologic units—from land surface downward, the alluvial aquifer, the GoodlandWalnut confining unit, and the Paluxy aquifer—compose the subsurface of interest at AFP4 and NAS–JRB. The alluvial aquifer consists primarily of clay and silt with sand and gravel channel deposits that might be interconnected or interfingered. The Goodland-Walnut confining unit directly underlies the alluvial aquifer and consists of limestone, marl, shale, and clay. The Paluxy aquifer is composed of dense mudstone and fine- to coarse-grained sandstone

  2. Manual on mathematical models in isotope hydrogeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Methodologies based on the use of naturally occurring isotopes are, at present, an integral part of studies being undertaken for water resources assessment and management. Quantitative evaluations based on the temporal and/or spatial distribution of different isotopic species in hydrological systems require conceptual mathematical formulations. Different types of model can be employed depending on the nature of the hydrological system under investigation, the amount and type of data available, and the required accuracy of the parameter to be estimated. This manual provides an overview of the basic concepts of existing modelling approaches, procedures for their application to different hydrological systems, their limitations and data requirements. Guidance in their practical applications, illustrative case studies and information on existing PC software are also included. While the subject matter of isotope transport modelling and improved quantitative evaluations through natural isotopes in water sciences is still at the development stage, this manual summarizes the methodologies available at present, to assist the practitioner in the proper use within the framework of ongoing isotope hydrological field studies. In view of the widespread use of isotope methods in groundwater hydrology, the methodologies covered in the manual are directed towards hydrogeological applications, although most of the conceptual formulations presented would generally be valid. Refs, figs, tabs.

  3. Manual on mathematical models in isotope hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Methodologies based on the use of naturally occurring isotopes are, at present, an integral part of studies being undertaken for water resources assessment and management. Quantitative evaluations based on the temporal and/or spatial distribution of different isotopic species in hydrological systems require conceptual mathematical formulations. Different types of model can be employed depending on the nature of the hydrological system under investigation, the amount and type of data available, and the required accuracy of the parameter to be estimated. This manual provides an overview of the basic concepts of existing modelling approaches, procedures for their application to different hydrological systems, their limitations and data requirements. Guidance in their practical applications, illustrative case studies and information on existing PC software are also included. While the subject matter of isotope transport modelling and improved quantitative evaluations through natural isotopes in water sciences is still at the development stage, this manual summarizes the methodologies available at present, to assist the practitioner in the proper use within the framework of ongoing isotope hydrological field studies. In view of the widespread use of isotope methods in groundwater hydrology, the methodologies covered in the manual are directed towards hydrogeological applications, although most of the conceptual formulations presented would generally be valid. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. A discussion on validation of hydrogeological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, J.; Mousavi, S.F.; Usunoff, E.J.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Galarza, G.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater flow and solute transport are often driven by heterogeneities that elude easy identification. It is also difficult to select and describe the physico-chemical processes controlling solute behaviour. As a result, definition of a conceptual model involves numerous assumptions both on the selection of processes and on the representation of their spatial variability. Validating a numerical model by comparing its predictions with actual measurements may not be sufficient for evaluating whether or not it provides a good representation of 'reality'. Predictions will be close to measurements, regardless of model validity, if these are taken from experiments that stress well-calibrated model modes. On the other hand, predictions will be far from measurements when model parameters are very uncertain, even if the model is indeed a very good representation of the real system. Hence, we contend that 'classical' validation of hydrogeological models is not possible. Rather, models should be viewed as theories about the real system. We propose to follow a rigorous modeling approach in which different sources of uncertainty are explicitly recognized. The application of one such approach is illustrated by modeling a laboratory uranium tracer test performed on fresh granite, which was used as Test Case 1b in INTRAVAL. (author)

  5. Nirex 97 an assessment of the post-closure performance of a deep waste repository at Sellafield. Volume 2; hydrogeological conceptual model development - effective parameters and calibration appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.; Watson, S.

    1997-01-01

    repository zone beneath Longlands Farm. In style, scope and presentation, Nirex 97 is primarily aimed at the scientific community, other radioactive waste disposal agencies and regulators. The report is published as part of Nirex's commitment to open publication of its scientific findings. The main value of the report currently is as a demonstration of the generic capability which has been developed to assess the radiological safety performance of candidate repository sites. The safety assessment reported as Nirex 97 was carried out between April 1996 and August 1997. It updates a preliminary assessment of the groundwater pathway for a repository at Sellafield, 'Nirex 95' published in July 1995. Nirex 97 takes account of further data obtained from the Nirex waste inventory, design, site characterisation and research programmes. In addition, Nirex 97 extends the Nirex 95 evaluation to include consideration of the potential radiological and flammability hazards in the biosphere arising from the effects of gas generation within the repository and the extent of pressurisation within the repository vaults. The assessment also takes account of the latest guidance from the Environment Agencies on requirements for authorisation of disposal facilities on land. Volume 2: Hydrogeological Model Development - Effective Parameters and Calibration, explains the steps followed to interpret and process field data in order to build a variety of two- and three-dimensional numerical models of groundwater flow. It describes the process of upscaling used to derive effective hydrogeological parameters for the hydrogeological units represented in these numerical models. The calibration of these numerical models is discussed

  6. Nirex 97 an assessment of the post-closure performance of a deep waste repository at Sellafield. Volume 2; hydrogeological conceptual model development - effective parameters and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.; Watson, S.

    1997-01-01

    repository zone beneath Longlands Farm. In style, scope and presentation, Nirex 97 is primarily aimed at the scientific community, other radioactive waste disposal agencies and regulators. The report is published as part of Nirex's commitment to open publication of its scientific findings. The main value of the report currently is as a demonstration of the generic capability which has been developed to assess the radiological safety performance of candidate repository sites. The safety assessment reported as Nirex 97 was carried out between April 1996 and August 1997. It updates a preliminary assessment of the groundwater pathway for a repository at Sellafield, 'Nirex 95' published in July 1995. Nirex 97 takes account of further data obtained from the Nirex waste inventory, design, site characterisation and research programmes. In addition, Nirex 97 extends the Nirex 95 evaluation to include consideration of the potential radiological and flammability hazards in the biosphere arising from the effects of gas generation within the repository and the extent of pressurisation within the repository vaults. The assessment also takes account of the latest guidance from the Environment Agencies on requirements for authorisation of disposal facilities on land. Volume 2: Hydrogeological Model Development - Effective Parameters and Calibration, explains the steps followed to interpret and process field data in order to build a variety of two- and three-dimensional numerical models of groundwater flow. It describes the process of upscaling used to derive effective hydrogeological parameters for the hydrogeological units represented in these numerical models. The calibration of these numerical models is discussed

  7. HydroCube: an entity-relationship hydrogeological data model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojda, Piotr; Brouyère, Serge; Derouane, Johan; Dassargues, Alain

    2010-12-01

    Managing, handling and accessing hydrogeological information depends heavily on the applied hydrogeological data models, which differ between institutions and countries. The effective dissemination of hydrogeological information requires the convergence of such models to make hydrogeological information accessible to multiple users such as universities, water suppliers, and administration and research organisations. Furthermore, because hydrogeological studies are complex, they require a wide variety of high-quality hydrogeological data with appropriate metadata in clearly designed and coherent structures. A need exists, therefore, to develop and implement hydrogeological data models that cover, as much as possible, the full hydrogeological domain. A new data model, called HydroCube, was developed for the Walloon Region in Belgium in 2005. The HydroCube model presents an innovative holistic project-based approach which covers a full set of hydrogeological concepts and features, allowing for effective hydrogeological project management. The model stores data relating to the project locality, hydrogeological equipment, and related observations and measurements. In particular, it focuses on specialized hydrogeological field experiments such as pumping and tracer tests. This logical data model uses entity-relationship diagrams and it has been implemented in the Microsoft Access environment. It has been enriched with a fully functional user interface.

  8. Use of stratigraphic, petrographic, hydrogeologic and geochemical information for hydrogeologic modelling based on geostatistical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohlig, K.J.; Fischer, H.; Poltl, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the stepwise utilization of geologic information from various sources for the construction of hydrogeological models of a sedimentary site by means of geostatistical simulation. It presents a practical application of aquifer characterisation by firstly simulating hydrogeological units and then the hydrogeological parameters. Due to the availability of a large amount of hydrogeological, geophysical and other data and information, the Gorleben site (Northern Germany) has been used for a case study in order to demonstrate the approach. The study, which has not yet been completed, tries to incorporate as much as possible of the available information and to characterise the remaining uncertainties. (author)

  9. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  10. Water-table and discharge changes associated with the 2016-2017 seismic sequence in central Italy: hydrogeological data and a conceptual model for fractured carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitta, Marco; Mastrorillo, Lucia; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Banzato, Francesca; Barberio, Marino Domenico; Billi, Andrea; Cambi, Costanza; De Luca, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Di Curzio, Diego; Di Salvo, Cristina; Nanni, Torquato; Palpacelli, Stefano; Rusi, Sergio; Saroli, Michele; Tallini, Marco; Tazioli, Alberto; Valigi, Daniela; Vivalda, Paola; Doglioni, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    A seismic sequence in central Italy from August 2016 to January 2017 affected groundwater dynamics in fractured carbonate aquifers. Changes in spring discharge, water-table position, and streamflow were recorded for several months following nine Mw 5.0-6.5 seismic events. Data from 22 measurement sites, located within 100 km of the epicentral zones, were analyzed. The intensity of the induced changes were correlated with seismic magnitude and distance to epicenters. The additional post-seismic discharge from rivers and springs was found to be higher than 9 m3/s, totaling more than 0.1 km3 of groundwater release over 6 months. This huge and unexpected contribution increased streamflow in narrow mountainous valleys to previously unmeasured peak values. Analogously to the L'Aquila 2009 post-earthquake phenomenon, these hydrogeological changes might reflect an increase of bulk hydraulic conductivity at the aquifer scale, which would increase hydraulic heads in the discharge zones and lower them in some recharge areas. The observed changes may also be partly due to other mechanisms, such as shaking and/or squeezing effects related to intense subsidence in the core of the affected area, where effects had maximum extent, or breaching of hydraulic barriers.

  11. Proglacial Hydrogeology of the Cordillera Blanca (Peru): Integrating Field Observations with Hydrogeophysical Inversions to Inform Groundwater Flow Simulations and Conceptual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, R. L.; Lautz, L.; McKenzie, J. M.; Moucha, R.; Mark, B. G.

    2017-12-01

    Geological and depositional conditions of the glaciated Cordillera Blanca in Peru have given way to proglacial aquifer systems that contribute substantially to regional streams and rivers, particularly during the dry season. As glacial retreat accelerates, the dry season water budget will be increasingly dominated by groundwater inputs, although predictions of future groundwater quantities require estimations of groundwater storage capacity, aquifer extents, and groundwater residence time. We present a characterization of the sediment structure in a prototypical proglacial valley in the central portion of the range, the Quilcayhuanca Valley. Northern and Central valleys of the Cordillera Blanca feature ubiquitous talus deposits that line the steep granite walls, and have become partially buried beneath lacustrine sediments deposited in proglacial lake beds. The portion of the talus still exposed near the valley walls provides recharge to deeper portions of the valley aquifers that underlie lacustrine clay, resulting in a confined aquifer system that is connected to the surface via perennial springs. Seismic refraction surveys reveal an interface separating relatively slow ( 400-800 m/s) and fast ( 2500 m/s) p-wave velocities. The depth of this refractor coincides with the depth to buried talus observed in drilling records. Electrical resistivity tomography profiles of the same transect show depths near the buried talus to be relatively conductive (10-100 Ωm). At these depths, we hypothesize that electrical conductance is elevated by saturated clay particles in the sediment matrix of the talus deposit. The resistivity models all show a more resistive ( 700 Ω m) region at depth, likely corresponding to a more hydraulically conductive material. The resistive zone is interpreted to be a deeper portion of a buried talus deposit that did not accumulate clay in the matrix. Other possibilities include a thick deposit of gravelly glacial outwash, or a relatively clay

  12. Bedrock hydrogeology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling, SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 concept. Site characterisation should provide all data required for an integrated evaluation of the suitability of the investigated site and an important component in the characterisation work is the development of a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It also provides input to the safety assessment. Another important use of the hydrogeological model is in the environmental impact assessment. This report presents the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at Forsmark reached following the completion of the surface-based investigations and provides a summary of the bedrock hydrogeological model and the underlying data supporting its development. It constitutes the main reference on bedrock hydrogeology for the site descriptive model concluding the surface-based investigations at Forsmark, SDM-site, and is intended to describe the hydraulic properties and hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at the site and to give the information essential for demonstrating understanding

  13. Bedrock Hydrogeology - Groundwater flow modelling. Site investigation SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden); Oden, Magnus [SKB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    The hydrogeological model developed for the SFR extension project (PSU) consists of 40 geologically modelled deformation zones (DZ) and 8 sub-horizontal structural-hydraulic features, called SBAstructures, not defined in the geological model. However, some of the SBA-structures coincide with what is defined as unresolved possible deformation zones (Unresolved PDZ) in the geological modelling. In addition, the hydrogeological model consists of a stochastic discrete fracture network (DFN) model intended for the less fractured rock mass volumes (fracture domains) between the zones and the SBA-structures, and a stochastic fracture model intended to handle remaining Unresolved PDZs in the geological modelling not modelled as SBA-structures in the hydrogeological modelling. The four structural components of the bedrock in the hydrogeological model, i.e. DZ, SBA, Unresolved PDZ and DFN, are assigned hydraulic properties in the hydrogeological model based on the transmissivities interpreted from single-hole hydraulic tests. The main objective of the present work is to present the characteristics of the hydrogeological model with regard to the needs of the forthcoming safety assessment SR-PSU. In concrete words, simulated data are compared with measured data, i.e. hydraulic heads in boreholes and tunnel inflow to the existing repository (SFR). The calculations suggest that the available data for flow model calibration cannot be used to motivate a substantial adjustment of the initial hydraulic parameterisation (assignment of hydraulic properties) of the hydrogeological model. It is suggested that uncertainties in the hydrogeological model are studied in the safety assessment SR-PSU by means of a large number of calculation cases. These should address hydraulic heterogeneity of deterministic structures (DZ and SBA) and realisations of stochastic fractures/fracture networks (Unresolved PDZ and DFN) within the entire SFR Regional model domain.

  14. Bedrock Hydrogeology-Groundwater flow modelling. Site investigation SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, Johan; Follin, Sven; Oden, Magnus

    2013-05-01

    The hydrogeological model developed for the SFR extension project (PSU) consists of 40 geologically modelled deformation zones (DZ) and 8 sub-horizontal structural-hydraulic features, called SBAstructures, not defined in the geological model. However, some of the SBA-structures coincide with what is defined as unresolved possible deformation zones (Unresolved PDZ) in the geological modelling. In addition, the hydrogeological model consists of a stochastic discrete fracture network (DFN) model intended for the less fractured rock mass volumes (fracture domains) between the zones and the SBA-structures, and a stochastic fracture model intended to handle remaining Unresolved PDZs in the geological modelling not modelled as SBA-structures in the hydrogeological modelling. The four structural components of the bedrock in the hydrogeological model, i.e. DZ, SBA, Unresolved PDZ and DFN, are assigned hydraulic properties in the hydrogeological model based on the transmissivities interpreted from single-hole hydraulic tests. The main objective of the present work is to present the characteristics of the hydrogeological model with regard to the needs of the forthcoming safety assessment SR-PSU. In concrete words, simulated data are compared with measured data, i.e. hydraulic heads in boreholes and tunnel inflow to the existing repository (SFR). The calculations suggest that the available data for flow model calibration cannot be used to motivate a substantial adjustment of the initial hydraulic parameterisation (assignment of hydraulic properties) of the hydrogeological model. It is suggested that uncertainties in the hydrogeological model are studied in the safety assessment SR-PSU by means of a large number of calculation cases. These should address hydraulic heterogeneity of deterministic structures (DZ and SBA) and realisations of stochastic fractures/fracture networks (Unresolved PDZ and DFN) within the entire SFR Regional model domain

  15. Hydrogeological modelling for migration of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunny, Faby; Chopra, Manish; Oza, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogeological modelling for migration of radionuclides basically involves modelling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport through the groundwater. The water that occurs below the land surface or within the lithosphere is called groundwater. The groundwater constitutes about 4 % of the total water on the earth and about 30 % of freshwater on the earth. Groundwater models describe groundwater flow and contaminant transport processes using mathematical equations that are based on certain simplifying assumptions. These assumptions typically involve the direction of flow, geometry of the aquifer, the heterogeneity or anisotropy of sediments or bedrock within the aquifer, the contaminant transport mechanisms and chemical reactions. Because of the simplifying assumptions and the many uncertainties in the values of data, a model must be viewed as an approximation and not an exact duplication of field conditions. However, these models are useful investigation tool for a number of applications such as prediction of the possible fate and migration of contaminants for risk evaluation; tracking the possible pathway of groundwater contamination; evaluation of design of hydraulic containment and pump-and-treat systems; design of groundwater monitoring networks; evaluation of regional groundwater resources and prediction of the effect of future groundwater withdrawals on groundwater levels

  16. Hydrogeologic Framework Model for the Saturated Zone Site Scale flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Miller

    2004-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to document the 19-unit, hydrogeologic framework model (19-layer version, output of this report) (HFM-19) with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The HFM-19 is developed as a conceptual model of the geometric extent of the hydrogeologic units at Yucca Mountain and is intended specifically for use in the development of the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Primary inputs to this model report include the GFM 3.1 (DTN: MO9901MWDGFM31.000 [DIRS 103769]), borehole lithologic logs, geologic maps, geologic cross sections, water level data, topographic information, and geophysical data as discussed in Section 4.1. Figure 1-1 shows the information flow among all of the saturated zone (SZ) reports and the relationship of this conceptual model in that flow. The HFM-19 is a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the hydrogeologic units surrounding the location of the Yucca Mountain geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The HFM-19 represents the hydrogeologic setting for the Yucca Mountain area that covers about 1,350 km2 and includes a saturated thickness of about 2.75 km. The boundaries of the conceptual model were primarily chosen to be coincident with grid cells in the Death Valley regional groundwater flow model (DTN: GS960808312144.003 [DIRS 105121]) such that the base of the site-scale SZ flow model is consistent with the base of the regional model (2,750 meters below a smoothed version of the potentiometric surface), encompasses the exploratory boreholes, and provides a framework over the area of interest for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport modeling. In depth, the model domain extends from land surface to the base of the regional groundwater flow model (D'Agnese et al. 1997 [DIRS 100131], p 2). For the site

  17. Hydrogeologic Framework Model for the Saturated Zone Site Scale flow and Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the 19-unit, hydrogeologic framework model (19-layer version, output of this report) (HFM-19) with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The HFM-19 is developed as a conceptual model of the geometric extent of the hydrogeologic units at Yucca Mountain and is intended specifically for use in the development of the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Primary inputs to this model report include the GFM 3.1 (DTN: MO9901MWDGFM31.000 [DIRS 103769]), borehole lithologic logs, geologic maps, geologic cross sections, water level data, topographic information, and geophysical data as discussed in Section 4.1. Figure 1-1 shows the information flow among all of the saturated zone (SZ) reports and the relationship of this conceptual model in that flow. The HFM-19 is a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the hydrogeologic units surrounding the location of the Yucca Mountain geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The HFM-19 represents the hydrogeologic setting for the Yucca Mountain area that covers about 1,350 km2 and includes a saturated thickness of about 2.75 km. The boundaries of the conceptual model were primarily chosen to be coincident with grid cells in the Death Valley regional groundwater flow model (DTN: GS960808312144.003 [DIRS 105121]) such that the base of the site-scale SZ flow model is consistent with the base of the regional model (2,750 meters below a smoothed version of the potentiometric surface), encompasses the exploratory boreholes, and provides a framework over the area of interest for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport modeling. In depth, the model domain extends from land surface to the base of the regional groundwater flow model (D'Agnese et al. 1997 [DIRS 100131], p 2). For the site-scale SZ flow model, the HFM

  18. Hydrogeological structure model of the Olkiluoto Site. Update in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaittinen, T.; Ahokas, H.; Nummela, J.; Paulamaeki, S.

    2011-09-01

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, a hydrogeological structure model containing the hydraulically significant zones on Olkiluoto Island has been compiled. The structure model describes the deterministic site scale zones that dominate the groundwater flow. The main objective of the study is to provide the geometry and the hydrogeological properties related to the groundwater flow for the zones and the sparsely fractured bedrock to be used in the numerical modelling of groundwater flow and geochemical transport and thereby in the safety assessment. Also, these zones should be taken into account in the repository layout and in the construction of the disposal facility and they have a long-term impact on the evolution of the site and the safety of the disposal repository. The previous hydrogeological model was compiled in 2008 and this updated version is based on data available at the end of May 2010. The updating was based on new hydrogeological observations and a systematic approach covering all drillholes to assess measured fracture transmissivities typical of the site-scale hydrogeological zones. New data consisted of head observations and interpreted pressure and flow responses caused by field activities. Essential background data for the modelling included the ductile deformation model and the site scale brittle deformation zones modelled in the geological model version 2.0. The GSM combine both geological and geophysical investigation data on the site. As a result of the modelling campaign, hydrogeological zones HZ001, HZ008, HZ19A, HZ19B, HZ19C, HZ20A, HZ20B, HZ21, HZ21B, HZ039, HZ099, OL-BFZ100, and HZ146 were included in the structure model. Compared with the previous model, zone HZ004 was replaced with zone HZ146 and zone HZ039 was introduced for the first time. Alternative zone HZ21B was included in the basic model. For the modelled zones, both the zone intersections, describing the fractures with dominating groundwater

  19. Site investigation SFR. Hydrogeological modelling of SFR. Model version 0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). A hydrogeological model is developed in three model versions, which will be used for safety assessment and design analyses. This report presents a data analysis of the currently available hydrogeological data from the ongoing Site Investigation SFR (KFR27, KFR101, KFR102A, KFR102B, KFR103, KFR104, and KFR105). The purpose of this work is to develop a preliminary hydrogeological Discrete Fracture Network model (hydro-DFN) parameterisation that can be applied in regional-scale modelling. During this work, the Geologic model had not yet been updated for the new data set. Therefore, all analyses were made to the rock mass outside Possible Deformation Zones, according to Single Hole Interpretation. Owing to this circumstance, it was decided not to perform a complete hydro-DFN calibration at this stage. Instead focus was re-directed to preparatory test cases and conceptual questions with the aim to provide a sound strategy for developing the hydrogeological model SFR v. 1.0. The presented preliminary hydro-DFN consists of five fracture sets and three depth domains. A statistical/geometrical approach (connectivity analysis /Follin et al. 2005/) was performed to estimate the size (i.e. fracture radius) distribution of fractures that are interpreted as Open in geologic mapping of core data. Transmissivity relations were established based on an assumption of a correlation between the size and evaluated specific capacity of geologic features coupled to inflows measured by the Posiva Flow Log device (PFL-f data). The preliminary hydro-DFN was applied in flow simulations in order to test its performance and to explore the role of PFL-f data. Several insights were gained and a few model technical issues were raised. These are summarised in Table 5-1

  20. Site investigation SFR. Hydrogeological modelling of SFR. Model version 0.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, Johan; Follin, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). A hydrogeological model is developed in three model versions, which will be used for safety assessment and design analyses. This report presents a data analysis of the currently available hydrogeological data from the ongoing Site Investigation SFR (KFR27, KFR101, KFR102A, KFR102B, KFR103, KFR104, and KFR105). The purpose of this work is to develop a preliminary hydrogeological Discrete Fracture Network model (hydro-DFN) parameterisation that can be applied in regional-scale modelling. During this work, the Geologic model had not yet been updated for the new data set. Therefore, all analyses were made to the rock mass outside Possible Deformation Zones, according to Single Hole Interpretation. Owing to this circumstance, it was decided not to perform a complete hydro-DFN calibration at this stage. Instead focus was re-directed to preparatory test cases and conceptual questions with the aim to provide a sound strategy for developing the hydrogeological model SFR v. 1.0. The presented preliminary hydro-DFN consists of five fracture sets and three depth domains. A statistical/geometrical approach (connectivity analysis /Follin et al. 2005/) was performed to estimate the size (i.e. fracture radius) distribution of fractures that are interpreted as Open in geologic mapping of core data. Transmissivity relations were established based on an assumption of a correlation between the size and evaluated specific capacity of geologic features coupled to inflows measured by the Posiva Flow Log device (PFL-f data). The preliminary hydro-DFN was applied in flow simulations in order to test its performance and to explore the role of PFL-f data. Several insights were gained and a few model technical issues were raised. These are summarised in Table 5-1

  1. Blueprint for a coupled model of sedimentology, hydrology, and hydrogeology in streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Daniel; Therrien, Rene; Simmons, Craig T.; Brunner, Philip

    2017-06-01

    The streambed constitutes the physical interface between the surface and the subsurface of a stream. Across all spatial scales, the physical properties of the streambed control surface water-groundwater interactions. Continuous alteration of streambed properties such as topography or hydraulic conductivity occurs through erosion and sedimentation processes. Recent studies from the fields of ecology, hydrogeology, and sedimentology provide field evidence that sedimentological processes themselves can be heavily influenced by surface water-groundwater interactions, giving rise to complex feedback mechanisms between sedimentology, hydrology, and hydrogeology. More explicitly, surface water-groundwater exchanges play a significant role in the deposition of fine sediments, which in turn modify the hydraulic properties of the streambed. We explore these feedback mechanisms and critically review the extent of current interaction between the different disciplines. We identify opportunities to improve current modeling practices. For example, hydrogeological models treat the streambed as a static rather than a dynamic entity, while sedimentological models do not account for critical catchment processes such as surface water-groundwater exchange. We propose a blueprint for a new modeling framework that bridges the conceptual gaps between sedimentology, hydrogeology, and hydrology. Specifically, this blueprint (1) fully integrates surface-subsurface flows with erosion, transport, and deposition of sediments and (2) accounts for the dynamic changes in surface elevation and hydraulic conductivity of the streambed. Finally, we discuss the opportunities for new research within the coupled framework.

  2. Coupled hydrogeological and reactive transport modelling of the Simpevarp area (Sweden)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinero, Jorge; Raposo, Juan R.; Galindez, Juan M.; Arcos, David; Guimera, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    The Simpevarp area is one of the alternative sites being considered for the deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Sweden. In this paper, a coupled regional groundwater flow and reactive solute transport model of the Simpevarp area is presented that integrates current hydrogeological and hydrochemical data of the area. The model simulates the current hydrochemical pattern of the groundwater system in the area. To that aim, a conceptual hydrochemical model was developed in order to represent the dominant chemical processes. Groundwater flow conditions were reproduced by taking into account fluid-density-dependent groundwater flow and regional hydrogeologic boundary conditions. Reactive solute transport calculations were performed on the basis of the velocity field so obtained. The model was calibrated and sensitivity analyses were carried out in order to investigate the effects of heterogeneities of hydraulic conductivity in the subsurface medium. Results provided by the reactive transport model are in good agreement with much of the measured hydrochemical data. This paper emphasizes the appropriateness of the use of reactive solute transport models when water-rock interaction reactions are involved, and demonstrates what powerful tools they are for the interpretation of hydrogeological and hydrochemical data from site geological repository characterization programs, by providing a qualitative framework for data analysis and testing of conceptual assumptions in a process-oriented approach

  3. Synthetic Study on the Geological and Hydrogeological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the site specific properties of a study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the several geological investigations such as surface geological surveys and borehole drillings were carried out since 1997. Especially, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to understand the further study of geological environments in 2006. As a result, the first geological model of a study area was constructed by using the results of geological investigation. The objective of this research is to construct a hydrogeological model around KURT area on the basis of the geological model. Hydrogeological data which were obtained from in-situ hydraulic tests in the 9 boreholes were estimated to accomplish the objective. And, the hydrogeological properties of the 4 geological elements in the geological model, which were the subsurface weathering zone, the log angle fracture zone, the fracture zones and the bedrock were suggested. The hydrogeological model suggested in this study will be used as input parameters to carry out the groundwater flow modeling as a next step of the site characterization around KURT area

  4. Conceptual IT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoudova, Kristina; Stanchev, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The business processes are the key asset for every organization. The design of the business process models is the foremost concern and target among an organization's functions. Business processes and their proper management are intensely dependent on the performance of software applications and technology solutions. The paper is attempt for definition of new Conceptual model of IT service provider, it could be examined as IT focused Enterprise model, part of Enterprise Architecture (EA) school.

  5. Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

    2009-01-01

    We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years.

  6. hydrogeological caracterization and modeling of the aquifer of oued ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. Baba-Hamed

    1 janv. 2018 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. HYDROGEOLOGICAL CARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE AQUIFER.

  7. Numerical model for mapping of complex hydrogeological conditions: the Chmielnik area (South Poland) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszta, Kamila; Szklarczyk, Tadeusz; Malina, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    Detailed analysis of hydrogeological conditions at a study area is the basis for characterising adjacent groundwater circulation systems. It is also an essential element during executing hydrogeological documentations. The goal of this work was to reconstruct on a numerical model natural groundwater circulation systems of the studied area located within the municipality of Chmielnik in the region of Kielce (South Poland). The area is characterized by a complex geological structure, which along with the existing hydrographic network, makes the scheme of groundwater circulation complicated and difficult to map on a numerical model. The studied area is situated at the border of three geological units: on the North - the extended portion of the Palaeozoic Swietokrzyskie Mountains (mainly Devonian and Permian), in the center - the S-W part of the Mesozoic Margin of the Swietokrzyskie Mountains, and on the South - a marginal zone of the Carpathian Foredeep. The whole area belongs to the Vistula river basin, and it includes catchments of its left tributaries: the Nida and Czarna Staszowska rivers. Based on the collected field and archival hydrogeological, hydrological and sozological data a conceptual model was built, under which a numerical model of groundwater flow was developed using the specialized software - Visual MODFLOW. The numerical model maps the five-layer groundwater circulation system in conjunction with surface watercourses. Such division reflects appropriately the variability of hydrogeological parameters within the geological structures. Two principal and exploited aquifers comprise: a fractured-porous Neogene and fractured Upper Jurassic formations. The external model borders are based primarily on surface watercourses and locally on watersheds. The modelled area of 130 km2 was divided into square grids of 50 m. The model consists of 275 rows and 277 columns. Each of five layers was simulated with the same number of active blocks. In the construction of

  8. 3D geological and hydrogeological modeling as design tools for the Conawapa generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Sharif, S.; Smith, B. [KGS Group, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cook, G.N.; Osiowy, B.J. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Following the project's suspension in the early 1990s, part of Manitoba Hydro's recommitment study involved digital modeling of geological and hydrogeological data for the foundation design and analysis of the proposed Conawapa generating station in northern Manitoba. Three-dimensional geological and hydrogeological models have been developed to consolidate and improve the designer's ability to understand all of the information, and to assist in developing engineering alternatives which will improve the overall confidence of the design. The tools are also being leveraged for use in environmental studies. This paper provided an overview of the Conawapa site and 3-dimensional modeling goals. It described the geology and hydrogeology of the Conawapa site as well as the bedrock structure and Karst development. The paper also presented the central concepts of 3-dimensional modeling studies, including the flow of information from database to modeling software platforms. The construction of the Conawapa geological model was also presented, with particular reference to an overview of the MVS software; mesh design; and model buildup logic. The construction of the Conawapa hydrogeological model was discussed in terms of the finite element code FEFLOW software; conceptual model design; and initial observations of Conawapa groundwater flow modeling. It was concluded that recent advancement and application of 3-dimensional geological visualization software to engineering and environmental projects, including at the future Conawapa site using MVS and FEFLOW, have shown that complicated geological data can be organized, displayed, and analysed in a systematic way, to improve site visualization, understanding, and data relationships. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Development of hydrogeological modelling approaches for assessment of consequences of hazardous accidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumynin, V.G.; Mironenko, V.A.; Konosavsky, P.K.; Pereverzeva, S.A.

    1994-07-01

    This paper introduces some modeling approaches for predicting the influence of hazardous accidents at nuclear reactors on groundwater quality. Possible pathways for radioactive releases from nuclear power plants were considered to conceptualize boundary conditions for solving the subsurface radionuclides transport problems. Some approaches to incorporate physical-and-chemical interactions into transport simulators have been developed. The hydrogeological forecasts were based on numerical and semi-analytical scale-dependent models. They have been applied to assess the possible impact of the nuclear power plants designed in Russia on groundwater reservoirs

  10. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  11. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  12. Coupled geochemical/hydrogeological modelling to assess the origin of salinity at the Tono area (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimera, Jordi; Ruiz, Eduardo; Luna, Miguel; Arcos, David; Jordana, Salvador; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2005-01-01

    Numerical models are powerful tools for the characterization of groundwater flow, especially when integrating geochemical and hydrogeological data. This paper describes modeling exercises performed in the area surrounding the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Construction Site in central Japan. A particular issue being investigated at the MIU Site is the presence of saline water detected at depth in certain boreholes. The main objective of this study is to develop conceptual physical models for the origin of this salinity and to test these conceptual models using numerical modeling techniques. One scenario being investigated is that the saline fluids represent residual Miocene age seawater which has been slightly altered by water-rock interactions. It is likely that during Miocene times, seawater inundated the Tono area. This hypothesis is partially supported by carbon and oxygen isotopic data of the calcite fracture filling materials. (author)

  13. Summary of discrete fracture network modelling as applied to hydrogeology of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Roberts, David

    2013-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is responsible for the development of a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The permitting of such a repository is informed by assessment studies to estimate the risks of the disposal method. One of the potential risks involves the transport of radionuclides in groundwater from defective canisters in the repository to the accessible environment. The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel has involved undertaking detailed surface-based site characterisation studies at two different sites, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. A key component of the hydrogeological modelling of these two sites has been the development of Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) concepts of groundwater flow through the fractures in the crystalline rocks present. A discrete fracture network model represents some of the characteristics of fractures explicitly, such as their, orientation, intensity, size, spatial distribution, shape and transmissivity. This report summarises how the discrete fracture network methodology has been applied to model groundwater flow and transport at Forsmark and Laxemar. The account has involved summarising reports previously published by SKB between 2001 and 2011. The report describes the conceptual framework and assumptions used in interpreting site data, and in particular how data has been used to calibrate the various parameters that define the discrete fracture network representation of bedrock hydrogeology against borehole geologic and hydraulic data. Steps taken to confirm whether the developed discrete fracture network models provide a description of regional-scale groundwater flow and solute transport consistent with wider hydraulic tests hydrochemical data from Forsmark and Laxemar are discussed. It illustrates the use of derived hydrogeological DFN models in the simulations of the temperate period hydrogeology that provided input to radionuclide transport

  14. Summary of discrete fracture network modelling as applied to hydrogeology of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Roberts, David

    2013-04-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is responsible for the development of a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The permitting of such a repository is informed by assessment studies to estimate the risks of the disposal method. One of the potential risks involves the transport of radionuclides in groundwater from defective canisters in the repository to the accessible environment. The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel has involved undertaking detailed surface-based site characterisation studies at two different sites, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. A key component of the hydrogeological modelling of these two sites has been the development of Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) concepts of groundwater flow through the fractures in the crystalline rocks present. A discrete fracture network model represents some of the characteristics of fractures explicitly, such as their, orientation, intensity, size, spatial distribution, shape and transmissivity. This report summarises how the discrete fracture network methodology has been applied to model groundwater flow and transport at Forsmark and Laxemar. The account has involved summarising reports previously published by SKB between 2001 and 2011. The report describes the conceptual framework and assumptions used in interpreting site data, and in particular how data has been used to calibrate the various parameters that define the discrete fracture network representation of bedrock hydrogeology against borehole geologic and hydraulic data. Steps taken to confirm whether the developed discrete fracture network models provide a description of regional-scale groundwater flow and solute transport consistent with wider hydraulic tests hydrochemical data from Forsmark and Laxemar are discussed. It illustrates the use of derived hydrogeological DFN models in the simulations of the temperate period hydrogeology that provided input to radionuclide transport

  15. Methodology for deriving hydrogeological input parameters for safety-analysis models - application to fractured crystalline rocks of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vomvoris, S.; Andrews, R.W.; Lanyon, G.W.; Voborny, O.; Wilson, W.

    1996-04-01

    Switzerland is one of many nations with nuclear power that is seeking to identify rock types and locations that would be suitable for the underground disposal of nuclear waste. A common challenge among these programs is to provide engineering designers and safety analysts with a reasonably representative hydrogeological input dataset that synthesizes the relevant information from direct field observations as well as inferences and model results derived from those observations. Needed are estimates of the volumetric flux through a volume of rock and the distribution of that flux into discrete pathways between the repository zones and the biosphere. These fluxes are not directly measurable but must be derived based on understandings of the range of plausible hydrogeologic conditions expected at the location investigated. The methodology described in this report utilizes conceptual and numerical models at various scales to derive the input dataset. The methodology incorporates an innovative approach, called the geometric approach, in which field observations and their associated uncertainty, together with a conceptual representation of those features that most significantly affect the groundwater flow regime, were rigorously applied to generate alternative possible realizations of hydrogeologic features in the geosphere. In this approach, the ranges in the output values directly reflect uncertainties in the input values. As a demonstration, the methodology is applied to the derivation of the hydrogeological dataset for the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  16. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    From 1966 to 2002, activities at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware chemical facility in New Castle County, Delaware resulted in the contamination of groundwater, soils, and wetland sediment. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control began a multi-year investigation of the hydrogeologic framework and hydrology of the confined aquifer system. The goals of the ongoing study at the site (the Potomac Aquifer Study) are to determine the hydraulic connection between the Columbia and Potomac aquifers, determine the direction of groundwater flow in the Potomac aquifer, and identify factors affecting the fate of contaminated groundwater. This report describes progress made towards these goals based on available data collected through September 2012.

  17. Modelling of future hydrogeological conditions at SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, L.G.; Stigsson, M.

    2001-03-01

    The purpose is to estimate the future groundwater movements at the SFR repository and to produce input to the quantitative safety assessment of the SFR. The future flow pattern of the groundwater is of interest, since components of the waste emplaced in a closed and abandoned repository will dissolve in the groundwater and be transported by the groundwater to the ground surface. The study is based on a system analysis approach. Three-dimensional models were devised of the studied domain. The models include the repository tunnels and the surrounding rock mass with fracture zones. The formal models used for simulation of the groundwater flow are three-dimensional mathematical descriptions of the studied hydraulic system. The studied domain is represented on four scales - regional, local, semi local and detailed - forming four models with different resolutions: regional, local, semi local and detailed models. The local and detailed models include a detailed description of the tunnel system at SFR and of surrounding rock mass and fracture zones. In addition, the detailed model includes description of the different structures that take place inside the deposition tunnels. At the area studied, the shoreline will retreat due to the shore level displacement; this process is included in the models. The studied period starts at 2000 AD and continues until a steady state like situation is reached for the surroundings of the SFR at ca 6000 AD. The models predict that as long as the sea covers the ground above the SFR, the regional groundwater flow as well as the flow in the deposition tunnels are small. However, due to the shore level displacement the shoreline (the sea) will retreat. Because of the retreating shoreline, the general direction of the groundwater flow at SFR will change, from vertical upward to a more horizontal flow; the size of the groundwater flow will be increased as well. The present layout of the SFR includes five deposition tunnels: SILO, BMA, BLA, BTF1

  18. Hydrogeologic model for the old Hanford townsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Q.; Csun, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state produced the country's first plutonium during WW II, and production continued through the end of the cold war. This plutonium production generated significant volumes of chemical and radioactive wastes, some of which were discharged directly to the local sediments as wastewater. Artifical recharge is still the dominating influence on the uppermost and unconfined aquifer over much of the Hanford site. Groundwater from a portion of this aquifer, which is in excess of drinking water standards for tritium, discharges to the Columbia River in the vicinity of the old Hanford townsite. The Hanford site lies within the Pasco basin, which is a structural basin in the Columbia Plateau. Columbia River basalt is overlain by the fluvial and lacustrian Ringold formation. The Ringold is unconformably overlain by the informal Hanford formation. Relatively impermeable basalt outcrops and subcrops along a northwest-southeast-trending anticline across the study area. Hanford sediments include both fluvial and glacial flood deposits lying on an irregular surface of basalt and sedimentary rocks. The coarser flood deposits have very high hydraulic conductivity and probably are the most important conduit for contaminant transport within the aquifer. A finite element model (CFEST-SC) is being used to study the effect of changing river stage on baseflow to the Columbia River near the old Hanford townsite. A steady-state version of the model produces calculated head within 1 m of observed values. Transient flow and solute transport results are expected to help further define the relationship between the contaminated aquifer and the Columbia River

  19. Development of a Hydrogeological Model of the Borrowdale Volcanics at Sellafield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, R. J.; Lunn, A. D.; Mackay, R.

    This work has arisen out of recent developments within the radioactive waste research programme managed by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, UK (HMIP)*, to develop an integrated flow and transport model for the potential deep radioactive waste repository at Sellafield. One of the largest sources of uncertainty in model predictions, is the characterisation of the hydrogeological properties of the underlying strata, in particular, of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG) within which the repository is to be located. Analysis of the available borehole data (that released by the proponent company, Nirex, by December 1995) for the BVG formation has indicated a dual regime consisting of flow within faults and flow within the matrix (or an equivalent porous medium containing micro-fractures). Significant relationships between permeability, depth and the presence and orientation of faults have been identified; they account for a variation of up to 6 orders of magnitude in mean permeability measurements. This can be explained in part by the effect of the orientation of the current maximum principal stress directions within the BVG: however, it is likely that permeability is also dependent on the existence of fracture families, which cannot be effectively identified from the data currently available. These analyses have enabled considerable insight to be gained into the dominant features of flow within the BVG. The conceptual hydrogeological model derived here will have a significant effect on the outcome and reliability of future radionuclide transport predictions in the Sellafield area.

  20. Hydrogeology of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mazza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the hydrogeological setting of Rome is figured out. This setting has been strongly influenced by different factors as tectonic activity, volcanism and seal level variations. The conceptual model of the groundwater flow in the roman area is represented by four aquifers, three of which being overlappingones. These aquifers flow from peripheral sectors of the study area toward Tiber and Aniene Rivers and the Sea.

  1. Numerical modeling of the hydrogeological effects of ONKALO in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raemae, T.

    2011-10-01

    The underground rock characterization facility ONKALO is currently being excavated in the bedrock of the Olkiluoto Island. The construction work of the ONKALO begun in 2004 and the tunnel will remain open for the whole period of the operation of the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel. The open tunnels cause a disturbance on the local groundwater system. The leakage water flowing into the open tunnels withdraw water from the bedrock and locally alter the natural flow routes. One of the possible consequences of the convergent flow towards the ONKALO is that the highly saline deeper groundwater might be drawn towards the ONKALO, this process is called upconing. The purpose of this work is to estimate the possible upconing of the deep saline waters up to the repository level. A numerical flow and transport simulation is conducted with conservative approach to ensure overestimation of the effects of the ONKALO. In this study a 3D model of the hydrogeological system of the Olkiluoto is used as the basis for numerical flow and transport modeling of the saline groundwater movement in the bedrock of Olkiluoto. The numerical modelling is conducted using the commercial Comsol 3.5a code. The modelled geometry of the ONKALO includes the already excavated ONKALO and the extension according to the layout plan used in this work. The ONKALO and the hydrogeological zones are simplified for this study. In addition the used hydrogeological zones are modelled as 3D blocks with constant thickness of 50 meters. With the used boundary conditions upconing occurs even with the lowest leakage values. The influence of the leakage water is small on the maximum TDS-value at the depth near ONKALO. In this work this phenomenon is explained by the increase in the fresh water infiltration rate as the leakage water is increased, since the low density fresh water is transported more easily downwards than the high density saline water transported upwards towards the ONKALO. Further away from

  2. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to obtain insight into and provide practical advice for event-based conceptual modeling. We analyze a set of event concepts and use the results to formulate a conceptual event model that is used to identify guidelines for creation of dynamic process models and static...... information models. We characterize events as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms of information structures. The conceptual event model is used to characterize a variety of event concepts and it is used to illustrate how events can...... be used to integrate dynamic modeling of processes and static modeling of information structures. The results are unique in the sense that no other general event concept has been used to unify a similar broad variety of seemingly incompatible event concepts. The general event concept can be used...

  3. Hydrogeological characterisation and modelling of deformation zones and fracture domains, Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (SE)); Leven, Jakob (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Roberts, David; Swift, Ben (Serco Assurance, Harwell (GB))

    2007-09-15

    The work reported here collates the structural-hydraulic information gathered in 21 cored boreholes and 32 percussion-drilled boreholes belonging to Forsmark site description, modelling stage 2.2. The analyses carried out provide the hydrogeological input descriptions of the bedrock in Forsmark needed by the end users Repository Engineering, Safety Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment; that is, hydraulic properties of deformation zones and fracture domains. The same information is also needed for constructing 3D groundwater flow models of the Forsmark site and surrounding area. The analyses carried out render the following conceptual model regarding the observed heterogeneity in deformation zone transmissivity: We find the geological division of the deterministically modelled deformation zones into eight categories (sets) useful from a hydrogeological point of view. Seven of the eight categories are steeply dipping, WNW, NW, NNW, NNE, NE, ENE and EW, and on is gently dipping, G. All deformation zones, regardless of orientation (strike and dip), are subjected to a substantial decrease in transmissivity with depth. The data gathered suggest a contrast of c. 20,000 times for the uppermost one kilometre of bedrock, i.e. more than four orders of magnitude. The hydraulic properties below this depth are not investigated. The lateral heterogeneity is also substantial but more irregular in its appearance. For instance, for a given elevation and deformation zone category (orientation), the spatial variability in transmissivity within a particular deformation zone appears to be as large as the variability between all deformation zones. This suggests that the lateral correlation length is shorter than the shortest distance between two adjacent observation points and shorter than the category spacing. The observation that the mean transmissivity of the gently-dipping deformation zones is c. one to two orders of magnitude greater than the mean transmissivities of all

  4. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Hydrogeological modelling. Final Report - Volume 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, L.R.; Trefry, M.G.; Barr, A.D.; Braumiller, S.

    1992-01-01

    This volume describes hydrogeological modelling carried out as part of the Alligator Rivers Analogue Project. Hydrogeology has played a key integrating role in the Project, largely because water movement is believed to have controlled the evolution of the Koongarra uranium Orebody and therefore affects field observations of all types at all scales. Aquifer testing described uses the concept of transmissivity in its interpretation of aquifer response to pumping. The concept of an aquifer, a layer transmitting significant quantities of water in a mainly horizontal direction, seems hard to accept in an environment as heterogeneous as that at Koongarra. But modelling of aquifers both in one dimension and two dimensionally in plan has contributed significantly to our understanding of the site. A one-dimensional model with three layers (often described as a quasi two dimensional model) was applied to flow between the Fault and Koongarra Creek. Being a transient model, this model was able to show that reverse flows can indeed occur back towards the Fault, but only if there is distributed recharge over the orebody as well as a mechanism for the Fault, or a region near the Fault, to remove water from the simulated cross-section. The model also showed clearly that the response of the three-layered system, consisting of a highly weathered zone, a fractured transmissive zone and a less conductive lower schist zone, is governed mainly by the transmissivity and storage coefficient of the middle layer. The storage coefficient of the higher layer has little effect. A two-dimensional model in plan used a description of anisotropy to show that reverse flows can also occur even without a conducting Fault. Modelling of a three-dimensional region using discrete fractures showed that it is certainly possible to simulate systems like that observed at Koongarra, but that large amounts of data are probably needed to obtain realistic descriptions of the fracture networks. Inverse modelling

  5. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Hydrogeological modelling. Final Report - Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townley, L R; Trefry, M G; Barr, A D [CSIRO Div of Water Resources, PO Wembley, WA (Australia); Braumiller, S [Univ of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept of Hydrology and Water Resources; Kawanishi, M [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko-Shi, Chiba-Ken (Japan); and others

    1993-12-31

    This volume describes hydrogeological modelling carried out as part of the Alligator Rivers Analogue Project. Hydrogeology has played a key integrating role in the Project, largely because water movement is believed to have controlled the evolution of the Koongarra uranium Orebody and therefore affects field observations of all types at all scales. Aquifer testing described uses the concept of transmissivity in its interpretation of aquifer response to pumping. The concept of an aquifer, a layer transmitting significant quantities of water in a mainly horizontal direction, seems hard to accept in an environment as heterogeneous as that at Koongarra. But modelling of aquifers both in one dimension and two dimensionally in plan has contributed significantly to our understanding of the site. A one-dimensional model with three layers (often described as a quasi two dimensional model) was applied to flow between the Fault and Koongarra Creek. Being a transient model, this model was able to show that reverse flows can indeed occur back towards the Fault, but only if there is distributed recharge over the orebody as well as a mechanism for the Fault, or a region near the Fault, to remove water from the simulated cross-section. The model also showed clearly that the response of the three-layered system, consisting of a highly weathered zone, a fractured transmissive zone and a less conductive lower schist zone, is governed mainly by the transmissivity and storage coefficient of the middle layer. The storage coefficient of the higher layer has little effect. A two-dimensional model in plan used a description of anisotropy to show that reverse flows can also occur even without a conducting Fault. Modelling of a three-dimensional region using discrete fractures showed that it is certainly possible to simulate systems like that observed at Koongarra, but that large amounts of data are probably needed to obtain realistic descriptions of the fracture networks. Inverse modelling

  6. Large-Scale Transport Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis: Distributed Sources in Complex Hydrogeologic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sig Drellack, Lance Prothro

    2007-01-01

    The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is in the process of assessing and developing regulatory decision options based on modeling predictions of contaminant transport from underground testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The UGTA Project is attempting to develop an effective modeling strategy that addresses and quantifies multiple components of uncertainty including natural variability, parameter uncertainty, conceptual/model uncertainty, and decision uncertainty in translating model results into regulatory requirements. The modeling task presents multiple unique challenges to the hydrological sciences as a result of the complex fractured and faulted hydrostratigraphy, the distributed locations of sources, the suite of reactive and non-reactive radionuclides, and uncertainty in conceptual models. Characterization of the hydrogeologic system is difficult and expensive because of deep groundwater in the arid desert setting and the large spatial setting of the NTS. Therefore, conceptual model uncertainty is partially addressed through the development of multiple alternative conceptual models of the hydrostratigraphic framework and multiple alternative models of recharge and discharge. Uncertainty in boundary conditions is assessed through development of alternative groundwater fluxes through multiple simulations using the regional groundwater flow model. Calibration of alternative models to heads and measured or inferred fluxes has not proven to provide clear measures of model quality. Therefore, model screening by comparison to independently-derived natural geochemical mixing targets through cluster analysis has also been invoked to evaluate differences between alternative conceptual models. Advancing multiple alternative flow models, sensitivity of transport predictions to parameter uncertainty is assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. The

  7. Study on the methodology for hydrogeological site descriptive modelling by discrete fracture networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ando, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Shuuji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to establish comprehensive techniques for site descriptive modelling considering the hydraulic heterogeneity due to the Water Conducting Features in fractured rocks. The WCFs was defined by the interpretation and integration of geological and hydrogeological data obtained from the deep borehole investigation campaign in the Mizunami URL project and Regional Hydrogeological Study. As a result of surface based investigation phase, the block-scale hydrogeological descriptive model was generated using hydraulic discrete fracture networks. Uncertainties and remaining issues associated with the assumption in interpreting the data and its modelling were addressed in a systematic way. (author)

  8. GIS-based hydrogeological databases and groundwater modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogu, Radu Constantin; Carabin, Guy; Hallet, Vincent; Peters, Valerie; Dassargues, Alain

    2001-12-01

    Reliability and validity of groundwater analysis strongly depend on the availability of large volumes of high-quality data. Putting all data into a coherent and logical structure supported by a computing environment helps ensure validity and availability and provides a powerful tool for hydrogeological studies. A hydrogeological geographic information system (GIS) database that offers facilities for groundwater-vulnerability analysis and hydrogeological modelling has been designed in Belgium for the Walloon region. Data from five river basins, chosen for their contrasting hydrogeological characteristics, have been included in the database, and a set of applications that have been developed now allow further advances. Interest is growing in the potential for integrating GIS technology and groundwater simulation models. A "loose-coupling" tool was created between the spatial-database scheme and the groundwater numerical model interface GMS (Groundwater Modelling System). Following time and spatial queries, the hydrogeological data stored in the database can be easily used within different groundwater numerical models. Résumé. La validité et la reproductibilité de l'analyse d'un aquifère dépend étroitement de la disponibilité de grandes quantités de données de très bonne qualité. Le fait de mettre toutes les données dans une structure cohérente et logique soutenue par les logiciels nécessaires aide à assurer la validité et la disponibilité et fournit un outil puissant pour les études hydrogéologiques. Une base de données pour un système d'information géographique (SIG) hydrogéologique qui offre toutes les facilités pour l'analyse de la vulnérabilité des eaux souterraines et la modélisation hydrogéologique a été établi en Belgique pour la région Wallonne. Les données de cinq bassins de rivières, choisis pour leurs caractéristiques hydrogéologiques différentes, ont été introduites dans la base de données, et un ensemble d

  9. Conceptual models of information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual information processing issues are examined. Human information processing is defined as an active cognitive process that is analogous to a system. It is the flow and transformation of information within a human. The human is viewed as an active information seeker who is constantly receiving, processing, and acting upon the surrounding environmental stimuli. Human information processing models are conceptual representations of cognitive behaviors. Models of information processing are useful in representing the different theoretical positions and in attempting to define the limits and capabilities of human memory. It is concluded that an understanding of conceptual human information processing models and their applications to systems design leads to a better human factors approach.

  10. SITE-94. The SKN conceptual model of Aespoe. Based on pre-investigations 1986-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundquist, U.; Torssander, P.

    1996-12-01

    The present report describes the SKN (National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel) conceptual model, which is a combined structural, hydrogeological and geochemical model. The development of the model has been carried out by stages with commencement in 1990. This report summarizes the main parts of the work performed. Initially, the development of the model was part of the program of SKN regarding review of SKB R and D work at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. At a later stage, the SKN model was further developed and integrated into SITE-94. This development comprised evaluation of additional hydrogeological and geochemical data in order to strengthen the model. This report summarizes two earlier reports by SKN written in Swedish. Furthermore, a comprehensive description of the hydrogeological and geochemical evaluation is presented. 58 refs

  11. SITE-94. The SKN conceptual model of Aespoe. Based on pre-investigations 1986-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, U.; Torssander, P. [Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The present report describes the SKN (National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel) conceptual model, which is a combined structural, hydrogeological and geochemical model. The development of the model has been carried out by stages with commencement in 1990. This report summarizes the main parts of the work performed. Initially, the development of the model was part of the program of SKN regarding review of SKB R and D work at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. At a later stage, the SKN model was further developed and integrated into SITE-94. This development comprised evaluation of additional hydrogeological and geochemical data in order to strengthen the model. This report summarizes two earlier reports by SKN written in Swedish. Furthermore, a comprehensive description of the hydrogeological and geochemical evaluation is presented. 58 refs.

  12. A Bayesian Markov geostatistical model for estimation of hydrogeological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.; Gustafson, G.

    1996-01-01

    A geostatistical methodology based on Markov-chain analysis and Bayesian statistics was developed for probability estimations of hydrogeological and geological properties in the siting process of a nuclear waste repository. The probability estimates have practical use in decision-making on issues such as siting, investigation programs, and construction design. The methodology is nonparametric which makes it possible to handle information that does not exhibit standard statistical distributions, as is often the case for classified information. Data do not need to meet the requirements on additivity and normality as with the geostatistical methods based on regionalized variable theory, e.g., kriging. The methodology also has a formal way for incorporating professional judgments through the use of Bayesian statistics, which allows for updating of prior estimates to posterior probabilities each time new information becomes available. A Bayesian Markov Geostatistical Model (BayMar) software was developed for implementation of the methodology in two and three dimensions. This paper gives (1) a theoretical description of the Bayesian Markov Geostatistical Model; (2) a short description of the BayMar software; and (3) an example of application of the model for estimating the suitability for repository establishment with respect to the three parameters of lithology, hydraulic conductivity, and rock quality designation index (RQD) at 400--500 meters below ground surface in an area around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in southeastern Sweden

  13. Development of hydrogeological modelling tools based on NAMMU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsic, N. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hartley, L.; Jackson, P.; Poole, M. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Morvik, A. [Bergen Software Services International AS, Bergen (Norway)

    2001-09-01

    A number of relatively sophisticated hydrogeological models were developed within the SR 97 project to handle issues such as nesting of scales and the effects of salinity. However, these issues and others are considered of significant importance and generality to warrant further development of the hydrogeological methodology. Several such developments based on the NAMMU package are reported here: - Embedded grid: nesting of the regional- and site-scale models within the same numerical model has given greater consistency in the structural model representation and in the flow between scales. Since there is a continuous representation of the regional- and site-scales the modelling of pathways from the repository no longer has to be contained wholly by the site-scale region. This allows greater choice in the size of the site-scale. - Implicit Fracture Zones (IFZ): this method of incorporating the structural model is very efficient and allows changes to either the mesh or fracture zones to be implemented quickly. It also supports great flexibility in the properties of the structures and rock mass. - Stochastic fractures: new functionality has been added to IFZ to allow arbitrary combinations of stochastic or deterministic fracture zones with the rock-mass. Whether a fracture zone is modelled deterministically or stochastically its statistical properties can be defined independently. - Stochastic modelling: efficient methods for Monte-Carlo simulation of stochastic permeability fields have been implemented and tested on SKB's computers. - Visualisation: the visualisation tool Avizier for NAMMU has been enhanced such that it is efficient for checking models and presentation. - PROPER interface: NAMMU outputs pathlines in PROPER format so that it can be included in PA workflow. The developed methods are illustrated by application to stochastic nested modelling of the Beberg site using data from SR 97. The model properties were in accordance with the regional- and site

  14. Development of hydrogeological modelling tools based on NAMMU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsic, N.; Hartley, L.; Jackson, P.; Poole, M.; Morvik, A.

    2001-09-01

    A number of relatively sophisticated hydrogeological models were developed within the SR 97 project to handle issues such as nesting of scales and the effects of salinity. However, these issues and others are considered of significant importance and generality to warrant further development of the hydrogeological methodology. Several such developments based on the NAMMU package are reported here: - Embedded grid: nesting of the regional- and site-scale models within the same numerical model has given greater consistency in the structural model representation and in the flow between scales. Since there is a continuous representation of the regional- and site-scales the modelling of pathways from the repository no longer has to be contained wholly by the site-scale region. This allows greater choice in the size of the site-scale. - Implicit Fracture Zones (IFZ): this method of incorporating the structural model is very efficient and allows changes to either the mesh or fracture zones to be implemented quickly. It also supports great flexibility in the properties of the structures and rock mass. - Stochastic fractures: new functionality has been added to IFZ to allow arbitrary combinations of stochastic or deterministic fracture zones with the rock-mass. Whether a fracture zone is modelled deterministically or stochastically its statistical properties can be defined independently. - Stochastic modelling: efficient methods for Monte-Carlo simulation of stochastic permeability fields have been implemented and tested on SKB's computers. - Visualisation: the visualisation tool Avizier for NAMMU has been enhanced such that it is efficient for checking models and presentation. - PROPER interface: NAMMU outputs pathlines in PROPER format so that it can be included in PA workflow. The developed methods are illustrated by application to stochastic nested modelling of the Beberg site using data from SR 97. The model properties were in accordance with the regional- and site

  15. Evaluation of Uncertainties in hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analyses. Model calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Ono, Makoto; Sugihara, Yutaka; Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Hajime; Fumimura, Kenichi

    2003-03-01

    This study involves evaluation of uncertainty in hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis. Three-dimensional groundwater flow in Shobasama site in Tono was analyzed using two continuum models and one discontinuous model. The domain of this study covered area of four kilometers in east-west direction and six kilometers in north-south direction. Moreover, for the purpose of evaluating how uncertainties included in modeling of hydrogeological structure and results of groundwater simulation decreased with progress of investigation research, updating and calibration of the models about several modeling techniques of hydrogeological structure and groundwater flow analysis techniques were carried out, based on the information and knowledge which were newly acquired. The acquired knowledge is as follows. As a result of setting parameters and structures in renewal of the models following to the circumstances by last year, there is no big difference to handling between modeling methods. The model calibration is performed by the method of matching numerical simulation with observation, about the pressure response caused by opening and closing of a packer in MIU-2 borehole. Each analysis technique attains reducing of residual sum of squares of observations and results of numerical simulation by adjusting hydrogeological parameters. However, each model adjusts different parameters as water conductivity, effective porosity, specific storage, and anisotropy. When calibrating models, sometimes it is impossible to explain the phenomena only by adjusting parameters. In such case, another investigation may be required to clarify details of hydrogeological structure more. As a result of comparing research from beginning to this year, the following conclusions are obtained about investigation. (1) The transient hydraulic data are effective means in reducing the uncertainty of hydrogeological structure. (2) Effective porosity for calculating pore water velocity of

  16. Process generalization in conceptual models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    In conceptual modeling, the universe of discourse (UoD) is divided into classes which have a taxonomic structure. The classes are usually defined in terms of attributes (all objects in a class share attribute names) and possibly of events. For enmple, the class of employees is the set of objects to

  17. Inverse modeling for the determination of hydrogeological parameters of a two-phase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.

    1993-02-01

    Investigations related to the disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland consider formations containing natural gas as potential rocks for a repository. Moreover, gas generation in the repository itself may lead to an unsaturated zone of significant extent and impact on the system's performance. The site characterization procedure requires the estimation of hydraulic properties being used as input parameters for a two-phase two-component numerical simulator. In this study, estimates of gas-related formation parameters are obtained by inverse modeling. Based on discrete observations of the system's state, model parameters can be estimated within the framework of a given conceptual model by means of optimization techniques. This study presents the theoretical background that related field data to the model parameters. A parameter estimation procedure is proposed and implemented in a computer code for automatic model calibration. This tool allows identification of key parameters affecting flow of water and gas in porous media. The inverse modeling approach is verified using data from a synthetic laboratory experiment. In addition, the Gas test performed at the Grimsel Test Site is analyzed in order to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed procedure when used with data from a real geologic environment. Estimation of hydrogeologic parameters by automatic model calibration improves the understanding of the two-phase flow processes and therefore increases the reliability of the subsequent simulation runs. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  18. Inverse modeling for the determination of hydrogeological parameters of a two-phase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.

    1993-01-01

    Investigations related to the disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland are dealing with formations containing natural gas as potential host rock for a repository. Moreover, gas generation in the repository itself may lead to an unsaturated zone of significant extent and impact on the system's performance. The site characterization procedure requires the estimation of hydraulic properties being used as input parameters for a two-phase two-component numerical simulator. In this study, estimates of gas related formation parameters are obtained by inverse modeling. Based on discrete observations of the system's state, model parameters can be estimated within the framework of a given conceptual model by means of optimization techniques. This study presents the theoretical background that relates field data to the model parameters. A parameter estimation procedure is proposed and implemented in a computer code for automatic model calibration. This tool allows to identify key parameters affecting flow of water and gas in porous media. The inverse modeling approach is verified using data from a synthetic laboratory experiment. In addition, the Gastest performed at the Grimsel Test Site is analyzed in order to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed procedure when used with data from a real geologic environment. Estimation of hydrogeologic parameters by automatic model calibration improves the understanding of the two-phase flow processes and therefore increases the reliability of the subsequent simulation runs. (author) figs., tabs., 100 refs

  19. Hydrogeologic Modeling at the Sylvania Corning FUSRAP Site - 13419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewy, Ann [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District (United States); Heim, Kenneth J. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England District (United States); McGonigal, Sean T.; Talimcioglu, Nazmi M. [The Louis Berger Group, Inc. (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A comparative groundwater hydrogeologic modeling analysis is presented herein to simulate potential contaminant migration pathways in a sole source aquifer in Nassau County, Long Island, New York. The source of contamination is related to historical operations at the Sylvania Corning Plant ('Site'), a 9.49- acre facility located at 70, 100 and 140 Cantiague Rock Road, Town of Oyster Bay in the westernmost portion of Hicksville, Long Island. The Site had historically been utilized as a nuclear materials manufacturing facility (e.g., cores, slug, and fuel elements) for reactors used in both research and electric power generation in early 1950's until late 1960's. The Site is contaminated with various volatile organic and inorganic compounds, as well as radionuclides. The major contaminants of concern at the Site are tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), nickel, uranium, and thorium. These compounds are present in soil and groundwater underlying the Site and have migrated off-site. The Site is currently being investigated as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The main objective of the current study is to simulate the complex hydrogeologic features in the region, such as numerous current and historic production well fields; large, localized recharge basins; and, multiple aquifers, and to assess potential contaminant migration pathways originating from the Site. For this purpose, the focus of attention was given to the underlying Magothy formation, which has been impacted by the contaminants of concern. This aquifer provides more than 90% of potable water supply in the region. Nassau and Suffolk Counties jointly developed a three-dimensional regional groundwater flow model to help understand the factors affecting groundwater flow regime in the region, to determine adequate water supply for public consumption, to investigate salt water intrusion in localized areas, to evaluate the impacts of regional

  20. Geological investigations and hydrogeologic model development in support of DoD and DOE environmental programs on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.; Pratt, G.; Davidson, H.; DeWitt, C.; Hitchcock, C.; Kelson, K.; Noller, J.; Sawyer, T.; Thomas, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results of preliminary geologic site characterization and hydrogeologic conceptual model development for the 250-km 2 Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) and associated lands in central New Mexico. The research, development, and other operational activities of the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) on KAFB over the last 50 years have resulted in diverse hazardous, radioactive, and mixed-waste environmental concerns. Because multiple federal, state, and local agencies are responsible for administrating the involved lands and because of the nature of many U.S. environmental regulations, individual contaminated and potentially contaminated DoD and DOE environmental restoration (ER) sites on KAFB are commonly handled as distinct entities with little consideration for the cumulative environmental and health risk from all sites. A site-wide characterization program has been undertaken at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM), under the auspices of the DOE, to construct a conceptual hydrogeologic model for the base. This conceptual model serves as the basis for placing each ER site into a broader context for evaluating background (i.e., non-contaminated) conditions and for modeling of possible contaminant pathways and travel-times. Regional and local hydrogeologic investigations from KAFB can be used as models for characterizing and evaluating other sites around the world where combined civilian and military environmental programs must work together to resolve environmental problems that may present health risks to workers and the general public

  1. Mass discharge estimation from contaminated sites: Multi-model solutions for assessment of conceptual uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Troldborg, Mads; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2012-01-01

    site. The different conceptual models consider different source characterizations and hydrogeological descriptions. The idea is to include a set of essentially different conceptual models where each model is believed to be realistic representation of the given site, based on the current level...... the appropriate management option. The uncertainty of mass discharge estimates depends greatly on the extent of the site characterization. A good approach for uncertainty estimation will be flexible with respect to the investigation level, and account for both parameter and conceptual model uncertainty. We...... propose a method for quantifying the uncertainty of dynamic mass discharge estimates from contaminant point sources on the local scale. The method considers both parameter and conceptual uncertainty through a multi-model approach. The multi-model approach evaluates multiple conceptual models for the same...

  2. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model of the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2017-09-08

    As part of a U.S. Geological Survey study in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, a digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model was constructed for the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico. This model was constructed to define the aquifer system geometry and subsurface lithologic characteristics and distribution for use in a regional numerical hydrologic model. The model includes five hydrostratigraphic units: river channel alluvium, three informal subdivisions of Santa Fe Group basin fill, and an undivided pre-Santa Fe Group bedrock unit. Model input data were compiled from published cross sections, well data, structure contour maps, selected geophysical data, and contiguous compilations of surficial geology and structural features in the study area. These data were used to construct faulted surfaces that represent the upper and lower subsurface hydrostratigraphic unit boundaries. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is constructed through combining faults, the elevation of the tops of each hydrostratigraphic unit, and boundary lines depicting the subsurface extent of each hydrostratigraphic unit. The framework also compiles a digital representation of the distribution of sedimentary facies within each hydrostratigraphic unit. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic model reproduces with reasonable accuracy the previously published subsurface hydrogeologic conceptualization of the aquifer system and represents the large-scale geometry of the subsurface aquifers. The model is at a scale and resolution appropriate for use as the foundation for a numerical hydrologic model of the study area.

  3. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  4. ADOxx Modelling Method Conceptualization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesat Efendioglu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Modelling Methods Engineering is equally rising with the importance of domain specific languages (DSL and individual modelling approaches. In order to capture the relevant semantic primitives for a particular domain, it is necessary to involve both, (a domain experts, who identify relevant concepts as well as (b method engineers who compose a valid and applicable modelling approach. This process consists of a conceptual design of formal or semi-formal of modelling method as well as a reliable, migratable, maintainable and user friendly software development of the resulting modelling tool. Modelling Method Engineering cycle is often under-estimated as both the conceptual architecture requires formal verification and the tool implementation requires practical usability, hence we propose a guideline and corresponding tools to support actors with different background along this complex engineering process. Based on practical experience in business, more than twenty research projects within the EU frame programmes and a number of bilateral research initiatives, this paper introduces the phases, corresponding a toolbox and lessons learned with the aim to support the engineering of a modelling method. ”The proposed approach is illustrated and validated within use cases from three different EU-funded research projects in the fields of (1 Industry 4.0, (2 e-learning and (3 cloud computing. The paper discusses the approach, the evaluation results and derived outlooks.

  5. Hydrogeological modelling as a tool for understanding rockslides evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; De Caro, Mattia; Frattini, Paolo; Volpi, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    construction of the models, in particular the partition of the slope in different sectors with different hydraulic conductivities, are coherent with the geological, structural, hydrological and hydrogeological field and laboratory data. The sensitivity analysis shows that the hydraulic conductivity of some slope sectors (e.g. morphostructures, compressed or relaxed slope-toe, basal shear band) strongly influence the water table position and evolution. In transient models, the values of specific storage coefficient play a major control on the amplitude of groundwater level fluctuations, deriving from snowmelt or induced reservoir level rise. The calibrated groundwater flow-models are consistent with groundwater levels measured in the proximity of the piezometers aligned along the sections. The two examples can be considered important for a more advanced understanding of the evolution of rockslides and suggest the required set of data and modelling approaches both for seasonal and long term slope stability analyses. The use of the results of such analyses is reported, for both the case studies, in a companion abstract in session 3.7 where elasto-visco-plastic rheologies have been adopted for the shear band materials to replicate the available displacement time-series.

  6. Hydrogeologic setting, conceptual groundwater flow system, and hydrologic conditions 1995–2010 in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.; Kuniansky, Eve L.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2018-05-04

    The hydrogeologic setting and groundwater flow system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina is dominated by the highly transmissive Floridan aquifer system. This principal aquifer is a vital source of freshwater for public and domestic supply, as well as for industrial and agricultural uses throughout the southeastern United States. Population growth, increased tourism, and increased agricultural production have led to increased demand on groundwater from the Floridan aquifer system, particularly since 1950. The response of the Floridan aquifer system to these stresses often poses regional challenges for water-resource management that commonly transcend political or jurisdictional boundaries. To help water-resource managers address these regional challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Availability and Use Science Program began assessing groundwater availability of the Floridan aquifer system in 2009.The current conceptual groundwater flow system was developed for the Floridan aquifer system and adjacent systems partly on the basis of previously published USGS Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) studies, specifically many of the potentiometric maps and the modeling efforts in these studies. The Floridan aquifer system extent was divided into eight hydrogeologically distinct subregional groundwater basins delineated on the basis of the estimated predevelopment (circa 1880s) potentiometric surface: (1) Panhandle, (2) Dougherty Plain-Apalachicola, (3) Thomasville-Tallahassee, (4) Southeast Georgia-Northeast Florida-South South Carolina, (5) Suwannee, (6) West-central Florida, (7) East-central Florida, and (8) South Florida. The use of these subregions allows for a more detailed analysis of the individual basins and the groundwater flow system as a whole.The hydrologic conditions and associated groundwater budget were updated relative to previous RASA studies to include additional data collected since the 1980s and to reflect the

  7. Hydrogeological modelling for assessment of radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, L.; Hoek, J.; Swan, D.; Appleyard, P.; Baxter, S.; Roberts, D.; Simpson, T. [AMEC (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing the programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel produced by its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy in Finland. Olkiluoto in Eurajoki has been selected as the primary site for the repository, subject to further detailed investigation which is currently focused on the construction of an underground rock characterisation and research facility (the ONKALO). An essential part of the assessment of long-term safety of a repository is the analysis of groundwater flow since it is the only means of transport of radionuclides to the biosphere (besides human intrusion). The analysis of long-term safety for a KBS-3 concept requires as input a description of details of the groundwater flow around and through components of the engineered barrier system as well as details of the groundwater pathway to the biosphere during the current temperate climate period, as well as indications of behaviour under future climate periods such as glacial conditions. This report describes the groundwater flow modelling study performed to provide some of the necessary inputs required by Safety Assessment (i.e. radionuclide transport analysis). Underlying this study is the understanding of the site developed during the site investigations as summarised in the site descriptive model (SDM), and in particular the description of Olkiluoto Hydrogeological DFN model (Hydro-DFN). The main focus of this study is the temperate climate period, i.e. the evolution over the next 10,000 years, but the hydrogeological situation under various glacial climate conditions is also evaluated. Primary outputs of the study are repository performance measures relating to: the distributions of groundwater flow around the deposition holes; deposition tunnels and through the EDZ; flow-related transport resistance along groundwater pathways from the repository to the surface; and their the exit locations. Other analyses consider the

  8. Hydrogeological modelling for assessment of radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, L.; Hoek, J.; Swan, D.; Appleyard, P.; Baxter, S.; Roberts, D.; Simpson, T.

    2013-07-01

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing the programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel produced by its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy in Finland. Olkiluoto in Eurajoki has been selected as the primary site for the repository, subject to further detailed investigation which is currently focused on the construction of an underground rock characterisation and research facility (the ONKALO). An essential part of the assessment of long-term safety of a repository is the analysis of groundwater flow since it is the only means of transport of radionuclides to the biosphere (besides human intrusion). The analysis of long-term safety for a KBS-3 concept requires as input a description of details of the groundwater flow around and through components of the engineered barrier system as well as details of the groundwater pathway to the biosphere during the current temperate climate period, as well as indications of behaviour under future climate periods such as glacial conditions. This report describes the groundwater flow modelling study performed to provide some of the necessary inputs required by Safety Assessment (i.e. radionuclide transport analysis). Underlying this study is the understanding of the site developed during the site investigations as summarised in the site descriptive model (SDM), and in particular the description of Olkiluoto Hydrogeological DFN model (Hydro-DFN). The main focus of this study is the temperate climate period, i.e. the evolution over the next 10,000 years, but the hydrogeological situation under various glacial climate conditions is also evaluated. Primary outputs of the study are repository performance measures relating to: the distributions of groundwater flow around the deposition holes; deposition tunnels and through the EDZ; flow-related transport resistance along groundwater pathways from the repository to the surface; and their the exit locations. Other analyses consider the

  9. Stepwise hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis on site scale (Step 0 and Step 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori

    2005-05-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. To achieve this goal, a variety of investigations, analysis, and evaluations have been conducted using an iterative approach. In this study, hydrogeological modeling and ground water flow analyses have been carried out using the data from surface-based investigations at Step 0 and Step 1, in order to synthesize the investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model, and to specify items for further investigation. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) As the investigation progresses Step 0 to Step 1, the understanding of groundwater flow was enhanced from Step 0 to Step 1, and the hydrogeological model could be revised, 2) The importance of faults as major groundwater flow pathways was demonstrated, 3) Geological and hydrogeological characteristics of faults with orientation of NNW and NE were shown to be especially significant. The main item specified for further investigations is summarized as follows: geological and hydrogeological characteristics of NNW and NE trending faults are important. (author)

  10. Hydrogeological model of the territory of Kowsar hydraulic project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical hydrogeology model of the territory of Kowsar Project was created with account for the results of the engineering surveys and hydro geological monitoring, which was conducted in the process of Kowsar Project construction. In order to create the model in the present work a universal computer system Ansys was used, which implements the finite element method and solid modeling technology, allowing to solve the filtration problem with the use of thermal analogy. The three-dimensional geometric model was built with use of the principle “hard body” modeling, which displays the main line of the territory relief, including the created water reservoir, geological structure (anticline Duk and the main lithological complexes developed within the territory. In the limestone mass As here is a zone characterized by water permeability on territory of Kowsar Project, and a layer characterized by seepage feeding, which occurs outside the considered territory. The water reservoir is a source of the change of hydro geological situation. The results of field observations witness, that the levels of underground waters within the area of the main structures reacts almost instantly on the water level change in the water reservoir; the delay period of levels change is not more than 1,5…2,0 weeks at maximum distance from the water reservoir. These particularities of the hydro geological regime allow using the steady-state scheme of the decision of forecast problems. The mass of limestone As, containing the structures of the Kowsar Project, is not homogeneous and anisotropy in its seepage characteristics. The heterogeneity is conditioned by exogenous influence on the mass up to the depth of 100…150 m. The seepage anisotropy of the mass is expressed by the difference of water permeability of the mass along and across the layers for almost one order. The structures of Kowsar Project is presented by a dam, grouting curtain on axis of the dam and

  11. A computer hydrogeologic model of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillson, R.; Hand, J.; Adams, P.; Lawrence, S.

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional, hydrogeologic model of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was developed as an element for regional groundwater flow and radionuclide transport models. The hydrogeologic model shows the distribution, thickness, and structural relationships of major aquifers and confining units, as conceived by a team of experts organized by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office. The model was created using Intergraph Corporation's Geographical Information System based Environmental Resource Management Application software. The study area encompasses more than 28,000 square kilometers in southern Nevada and Inyo County, California. Fifty-three geologic cross sections were constructed throughout the study area to provide a framework for the model. The lithology was simplified to 16 hydrostratigraphic units, and the geologic structures with minimal effect on groundwater flow were removed. Digitized cross sections, surface geology, and surface elevation data were the primary sources for the hydrogeologic model and database. Elevation data for the hydrostratigraphic units were posted, contoured, and gridded. Intergraph Corporation's three-dimensional visualization software, VOXEL trademark, was used to view the results interactively. The hydrogeologic database will be used in future flow modeling activities

  12. Linking Physical and Numerical Modelling in Hydrogeology Using Sand Tank Experiments and Comsol Multiphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Loheide, Steven P., II

    2011-01-01

    Visualising subsurface processes in hydrogeology and building intuition for how these processes are controlled by changes in forcing is hard for many undergraduate students. While numerical modelling is one way to help undergraduate students explore outcomes of multiple scenarios, many codes are not user-friendly with respect to defining domains,…

  13. Clustering and Bayesian hierarchical modeling for the definition of informative prior distributions in hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, K.; Kawa, N.; Hesse, F.; Rubin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce uncertainty in the prediction of subsurface flow and transport processes, practitioners should use all data available. However, classic inverse modeling frameworks typically only make use of information contained in in-situ field measurements to provide estimates of hydrogeological parameters. Such hydrogeological information about an aquifer is difficult and costly to acquire. In this data-scarce context, the transfer of ex-situ information coming from previously investigated sites can be critical for improving predictions by better constraining the estimation procedure. Bayesian inverse modeling provides a coherent framework to represent such ex-situ information by virtue of the prior distribution and combine them with in-situ information from the target site. In this study, we present an innovative data-driven approach for defining such informative priors for hydrogeological parameters at the target site. Our approach consists in two steps, both relying on statistical and machine learning methods. The first step is data selection; it consists in selecting sites similar to the target site. We use clustering methods for selecting similar sites based on observable hydrogeological features. The second step is data assimilation; it consists in assimilating data from the selected similar sites into the informative prior. We use a Bayesian hierarchical model to account for inter-site variability and to allow for the assimilation of multiple types of site-specific data. We present the application and validation of the presented methods on an established database of hydrogeological parameters. Data and methods are implemented in the form of an open-source R-package and therefore facilitate easy use by other practitioners.

  14. Uncertainty in geological and hydrogeological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nilsson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in conceptual model structure and in environmental data is of essential interest when dealing with uncertainty in water resources management. To make quantification of uncertainty possible is it necessary to identify and characterise the uncertainty in geological and hydrogeological data. This paper discusses a range of available techniques to describe the uncertainty related to geological model structure and scale of support. Literature examples on uncertainty in hydrogeological variables such as saturated hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, specific storage, effective porosity and dispersivity are given. Field data usually have a spatial and temporal scale of support that is different from the one on which numerical models for water resources management operate. Uncertainty in hydrogeological data variables is characterised and assessed within the methodological framework of the HarmoniRiB classification.

  15. Educational game models: conceptualization and evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educational game models: conceptualization and evaluation. ... The Game Object Model (GOM), that marries educational theory and game design, forms the basis for the development of the Persona Outlining ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Hydrogeological characterization of deep subsurface structures at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Amano, Kenji; Takeuchi, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    Several hydrogeological investigation techniques have been used at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory site to assess hydrogeological structures and their control on groundwater flow. For example, the properties of water-conducting features (WCFs) can be determined using high-resolution electrical conductivity measurements of fluids, and compared to measurements using conventional logging techniques. Connectivity of WCFs can be estimated from transmissivity changes over time, calculated from the pressure derivative of hydraulic pressure data obtained from hydraulic testing results. Hydraulic diffusivity, obtained from hydraulic interference testing by considering the flow dimension, could be a key indicator of the connectivity of WCFs between boreholes. A conceptual hydrogeological model of several hundred square meters to several square kilometers, bounded by flow barrier structures, has been developed from pressure response plots, based on interference hydraulic testing. The applicability of several methods for developing conceptual hydrogeological models has been confirmed on the basis of the hydrogeological investigation techniques mentioned above. (author)

  17. Characterization and hydrogeological modelling of a site for disposal of medium- and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization studies of the French low-and intermediate-level radwaste site in the Aube Department includes a significant hydrogeological appraisal element. These studies are based upon geological, hydrogeological, and hydrodynamic measurements. The data are compiled into a model of the ground water- body. Data collection is continuous. The hydrodynamic model and the transport model is regularly validated for ANDRA (French National Radioactive Waste Disposal Agency) with a reliable and up-dated tool

  18. Hydrogeological characterization, modelling and monitoring of the site of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.; Guvanasen, V.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is constructing an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) to a depth of 250 m in a previously undisturbed granitic pluton located near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, as one of the major research projects within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. This paper discusses the hydrogeological characterization of the URL site, the modelling approach used to represent this information, the hydrogeological monitoring system installed to monitor the actual drawdown conditions that develop in response to the excavation, and the procedures employed to calibrate the numerical model. Comparisons between the drawdown predictions made by the model prior to any excavation and the actual drawdowns that have been measured since shaft excavation began in May 1984 are also discussed

  19. On the combination of isotope hydrogeology with regional flow and transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmen, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Many different methods and tools can be used when trying to improve the information basis on which decisions are made for maintaining a quantitatively and qualitatively safe, long-term use of groundwater resources. In this thesis, classical hydrogeological examinations, hydrochemical investigations, environmental isotope studies, computerized groundwater flow modelling and radioisotope transport modelling have been applied to the large system of reservoirs in the sedimentary deposits of southwestern Scania, Sweden. The stable isotopes 2 H, 18 O and 13 C and the radioactive 3 H and 14 C have been measured and the results obtained can improve the estimations of the periods of recharge and the average circulation times of the groundwater reservoirs studied. A groundwater flow model based on finite difference techniques and a continuum approach has been modified by data from traditional hydrogeological studies. The computer code, NEWSAM, has been used to simulate steady-state and transient isotope transport in the area studied, taking into account advective transport with radioactive decay. The interacting groundwater resevoirs studied have been represented by a three-dimensional system of grids in the numerical model. A major merit of this combination of isotope hydrogeology and regional flow and transport modelling is that the isotope transport simulations help to demonstrate where zones particularly vulnerable to pollution are situated. These locations are chiefly the results of the hydrogeological characteristics traditionally examined, but they are revealed by means of the transport model. Subsequent, more detailed investigations can then be focussed primarily on these vulnerable zones. High contents of radioisotopes in the main aquifer of southwestern Scania may indicate that groundwater withdrawals have stimulated recharge from shallow aquifers and surface waters and that the risk of pollution has increased. (196 refs.) (au)

  20. Conceptual Models Core to Good Design

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    People make use of software applications in their activities, applying them as tools in carrying out tasks. That this use should be good for people--easy, effective, efficient, and enjoyable--is a principal goal of design. In this book, we present the notion of Conceptual Models, and argue that Conceptual Models are core to achieving good design. From years of helping companies create software applications, we have come to believe that building applications without Conceptual Models is just asking for designs that will be confusing and difficult to learn, remember, and use. We show how Concept

  1. Scale problems in assessment of hydrogeological parameters of groundwater flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawalany, Marek; Sinicyn, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    An overview is presented of scale problems in groundwater flow, with emphasis on upscaling of hydraulic conductivity, being a brief summary of the conventional upscaling approach with some attention paid to recently emerged approaches. The focus is on essential aspects which may be an advantage in comparison to the occasionally extremely extensive summaries presented in the literature. In the present paper the concept of scale is introduced as an indispensable part of system analysis applied to hydrogeology. The concept is illustrated with a simple hydrogeological system for which definitions of four major ingredients of scale are presented: (i) spatial extent and geometry of hydrogeological system, (ii) spatial continuity and granularity of both natural and man-made objects within the system, (iii) duration of the system and (iv) continuity/granularity of natural and man-related variables of groundwater flow system. Scales used in hydrogeology are categorised into five classes: micro-scale - scale of pores, meso-scale - scale of laboratory sample, macro-scale - scale of typical blocks in numerical models of groundwater flow, local-scale - scale of an aquifer/aquitard and regional-scale - scale of series of aquifers and aquitards. Variables, parameters and groundwater flow equations for the three lowest scales, i.e., pore-scale, sample-scale and (numerical) block-scale, are discussed in detail, with the aim to justify physically deterministic procedures of upscaling from finer to coarser scales (stochastic issues of upscaling are not discussed here). Since the procedure of transition from sample-scale to block-scale is physically well based, it is a good candidate for upscaling block-scale models to local-scale models and likewise for upscaling local-scale models to regional-scale models. Also the latest results in downscaling from block-scale to sample scale are briefly referred to.

  2. Scale problems in assessment of hydrogeological parameters of groundwater flow models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawalany Marek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented of scale problems in groundwater flow, with emphasis on upscaling of hydraulic conductivity, being a brief summary of the conventional upscaling approach with some attention paid to recently emerged approaches. The focus is on essential aspects which may be an advantage in comparison to the occasionally extremely extensive summaries presented in the literature. In the present paper the concept of scale is introduced as an indispensable part of system analysis applied to hydrogeology. The concept is illustrated with a simple hydrogeological system for which definitions of four major ingredients of scale are presented: (i spatial extent and geometry of hydrogeological system, (ii spatial continuity and granularity of both natural and man-made objects within the system, (iii duration of the system and (iv continuity/granularity of natural and man-related variables of groundwater flow system. Scales used in hydrogeology are categorised into five classes: micro-scale – scale of pores, meso-scale – scale of laboratory sample, macro-scale – scale of typical blocks in numerical models of groundwater flow, local-scale – scale of an aquifer/aquitard and regional-scale – scale of series of aquifers and aquitards. Variables, parameters and groundwater flow equations for the three lowest scales, i.e., pore-scale, sample-scale and (numerical block-scale, are discussed in detail, with the aim to justify physically deterministic procedures of upscaling from finer to coarser scales (stochastic issues of upscaling are not discussed here. Since the procedure of transition from sample-scale to block-scale is physically well based, it is a good candidate for upscaling block-scale models to local-scale models and likewise for upscaling local-scale models to regional-scale models. Also the latest results in downscaling from block-scale to sample scale are briefly referred to.

  3. Stepwise hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis on site scale (step 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoe, Hironori; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Endo, Yoshinobu

    2005-02-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. To achieve this goal, a variety of investigations are being conducted using an iterative approach. In this study, hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analyses have been carried out using the data from surface-based investigations at Step 2, in order to synthesize the investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model, and to specify items for further investigation. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) The understanding of groundwater flow is enhanced, and the hydrogeological model has renewed; 2) The importance of faults as major groundwater flow pathways has been demonstrated; 3) The importance of iterative approach as progress of investigations has been demonstrated; 4) Geological and hydraulic characteristics of faults with orientation of NNW, NW and NE were shown to be especially significant; 5) the hydraulic properties of the Lower Sparsely Fractured Domain (LSFD) significantly influence the groundwater flow. The main items specified for further investigations are summarized as follows: 1) Geological and hydraulic characteristics of NNW, NW and NE trending faults; 2) Hydraulic properties of the LSFD; 3) More accuracy upper and lateral boundary conditions of the site scale model. (author)

  4. Template for Conceptual Model Construction: Model Review and Corps Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Jim E; O'Neil, L. J

    2007-01-01

    .... The template will expedite conceptual model construction by providing users with model parameters and potential model components, building on a study team's knowledge and experience, and promoting...

  5. A unifying conceptual model of entrepreneurial management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senderovitz, Martin

    This article offers a systematic analysis and synthesis of the area of entrepreneurial management. Through a presentation of two main perspectives on entrepreneurial management and a newly developed unifying conceptual entrepreneurial management model, the paper discusses a number of theoretical...

  6. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe Site: 3. Predictions of hydrogeological parameters for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.E.

    1996-12-01

    A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Predicted parameters for the near field include fracture spacing, fracture aperture, and Darcy velocity at each of forty canister deposition holes. Parameters for the far field include discharge location, Darcy velocity, effective longitudinal dispersion coefficient and head gradient, flow porosity, and flow wetted surface, for each canister source that discharges to the biosphere. Results are presented in the form of statistical summaries for a total of 42 calculation cases, which treat a set of 25 model variants in various combinations. The variants for the SITE-94 Reference Case model address conceptual and parametric uncertainty related to the site-scale hydrogeologic model and its properties, the fracture network within the repository, effective semi regional boundary conditions for the model, and the disturbed-rock zone around the repository tunnels and shafts. Two calculation cases simulate hydrologic conditions that are predicted to occur during future glacial episodes. 30 refs

  7. Hydrogeology baseline study Aurora Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A baseline hydrogeologic study was conducted in the area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine in order to develop a conceptual regional hydrogeologic model for the area that could be used to understand groundwater flow conditions. Geologic information was obtained from over 2,000 coreholes and from data obtained between 1980 and 1996 regarding water level for the basal aquifer. A 3-D numerical groundwater flow model was developed to provide quantitative estimates of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed mining operations on the groundwater flow system. The information was presented in the context of a regional study area which encompassed much of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, and a local study area which was defined by the lowlands of the Muskeg River Basin. Characteristics of the topography, hydrology, climate, geology, and hydrogeology of the region are described. The conclusion is that groundwater flow in the aquifer occurs mostly in a westerly direction beneath the Aurora Mine towards its inferred discharge location along the Athabasca River. Baseflow in the Muskeg River is mostly related to discharge from shallow surficial aquifers. Water in the river under baseflow conditions was fresh, of calcium-carbonate type, with very little indication of mineralization associated with deeper groundwater in the Aurora Mine area. 44 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  8. OWL references in ORM conceptual modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Jiri; Belunek, Roman; Hunka, Frantisek

    2017-07-01

    Object Role Modelling methodology is the fact-based type of conceptual modelling. The aim of the paper is to emphasize a close connection to OWL documents and its possible mutual cooperation. The definition of entities or domain values is an indispensable part of the conceptual schema design procedure defined by the ORM methodology. Many of these entities are already defined in OWL documents. Therefore, it is not necessary to declare entities again, whereas it is possible to utilize references from OWL documents during modelling of information systems.

  9. Hydrogeological modelling of the Atlantis aquifer for management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... technology is viewed as promising to reduce water losses and recycle water, in particular in .... recharge basins (CRBs along the coast), production boreholes and a water ..... negligible groundwater reserve. Figure 7. Figure 7 ..... VAN BREUKELEN BM (2012) A post audit and inverse modeling in reactive ...

  10. Hydrogeological modelling of the Atlantis aquifer for management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Atlantis Water Supply Scheme (AWSS, Western Cape, South Africa) has been in operation for about 40 years as a means to supply and augment drinking water to the town of Atlantis via managed aquifer recharge (MAR). In this study, the numerical model MODFLOW for groundwater flow and contaminant transport was ...

  11. Modelling of the site scale hydrogeological situation at Beberg using NAMMU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsic, N.; Gylling, B.; Grundfelt, B.; Hartley, L.

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to perform modelling of the site scale hydrogeological situation at Beberg using the finite element code NAMMU and compare the results with those from HYDRASTAR reported in SR 97. NAMMU was used in the large scale regional hydrogeological modelling at Beberg. The hypothetical repository layout at Beberg is based on geological data from the Finnsjoen site. Four model variants were created in this study. Two variants were compared with the deterministic freshwater case in the HYDRASTAR modelling. The other two variants were created to study the effect of a regionally distributed permeability anisotropy and variable density groundwater on the groundwater flow pattern. These processes are not considered in HYDRASTAR. The NAMMU results, including the pathline patterns, agree with those from the HYDRASTAR modelling. The effect of anisotropy and saline groundwater is found significant for the pathlines. The difference in canister flux between the NAMMU and the HYDRASTAR models is small, while the difference in travel time is more significant. The discrepancies between the results from the NAMMU and the HYDRASTAR simulations can be ascribed to the different numerical discretisation, i.e. different representation of the permeability, and the different pathline algorithms used in the two models

  12. Driver Performance Model: 1. Conceptual Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heimerl, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    ...'. At the present time, no such comprehensive model exists. This report discusses a conceptual framework designed to encompass the relationships, conditions, and constraints related to direct, indirect, and remote modes of driving and thus provides a guide or 'road map' for the construction and creation of a comprehensive driver performance model.

  13. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  14. Analysis of Subjective Conceptualizations Towards Collective Conceptual Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    This work is conducted as a preliminary study for a project where individuals' conceptualizations of domain knowledge will thoroughly be analyzed across 150 subjects from 6 countries. The project aims at investigating how humans' conceptualizations differ according to different types of mother la...

  15. Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California-Hydrogeologic framework and transient groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient groundwater flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the groundwater flow system and previous less extensive groundwater flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect groundwater flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the groundwater flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural groundwater discharge occurring through evapotranspiration (ET) and spring flow; the history of groundwater pumping from 1913 through 1998; groundwater recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were provided

  16. Conceptual modelling of human resource evaluation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoiţă Doina Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the highly diverse tasks which employees have to fulfil due to complex requirements of nowadays consumers, the human resource within an enterprise has become a strategic element for developing and exploiting products which meet the market expectations. Therefore, organizations encounter difficulties when approaching the human resource evaluation process. Hence, the aim of the current paper is to design a conceptual model of the aforementioned process, which allows the enterprises to develop a specific methodology. In order to design the conceptual model, Business Process Modelling instruments were employed - Adonis Community Edition Business Process Management Toolkit using the ADONIS BPMS Notation. The conceptual model was developed based on an in-depth secondary research regarding the human resource evaluation process. The proposed conceptual model represents a generic workflow (sequential and/ or simultaneously activities, which can be extended considering the enterprise’s needs regarding their requirements when conducting a human resource evaluation process. Enterprises can benefit from using software instruments for business process modelling as they enable process analysis and evaluation (predefined / specific queries and also model optimization (simulations.

  17. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The paper demonstrates that a wide variety of event-based modeling approaches are based on special cases of the same general event concept, and that the general event concept can be used to unify the otherwise unrelated fields of information modeling and process modeling. A set of event......-based modeling approaches are analyzed and the results are used to formulate a general event concept that can be used for unifying the seemingly unrelated event concepts. Events are characterized as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms...... of information structures. The general event concept can be used to guide systems analysis and design and to improve modeling approaches....

  18. FRSAD conceptual modeling of aboutness

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Marcia; Žumer, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The first comprehensive exploration of the development and use of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions' (IFLA) newly released model for subject authority data, covering everything from the rationale for creating the model to practical steps for implementing it.

  19. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, Ingvar [SWECO VIAK AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model.

  20. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhen, Ingvar; Follin, Sven; Hermanson, Jan

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model

  1. Assessing alternative conceptual models of fracture flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The numerical code TOUGH2 was used to assess alternative conceptual models of fracture flow. The models that were considered included the equivalent continuum model (ECM) and the dual permeability (DK) model. A one-dimensional, layered, unsaturated domain was studied with a saturated bottom boundary and a constant infiltration at the top boundary. Two different infiltration rates were used in the studies. In addition, the connection areas between the fracture and matrix elements in the dual permeability model were varied. Results showed that the two conceptual models of fracture flow produced different saturation and velocity profiles-even under steady-state conditions. The magnitudes of the discrepancies were sensitive to two parameters that affected the flux between the fractures and matrix in the dual permeability model: (1) the fracture-matrix connection areas and (2) the capillary pressure gradients between the fracture and matrix elements

  2. 3D hydrogeological model of the Lower Yarmouk Gorge, Jordan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Fabien; Inbar, Nimrod; Möller, Peter; Raggad, Marwan; Rödiger, Tino; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Shentsis, Izabela; Tzoufka, Kalliopi; Siebert, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG) lies on the eastern margin of the lower Jordan Rift Valley (JRV), bounded to the south by the Ajlun and to the north by the Golan Heights. It allows the outflow of the Yarmouk drainage basin and flow into the Jordan River, a few kilometers south of Lake Tiberias. The main aquifer system of the LYG is built mostly of Cretaceous sandstones and carbonates confined by Maastrichtian aquiclude. Fissures allow hydraulic connections between the major water-bearing formations from Quaternary to Upper Cretaceous age. It is supposed that the gorge acts as the mixing zone of two crossing flow pathways: N-S from the Hermon Mountains and from the Ajlun Dome, and E-W from Jebel al Arab Mountain in Syria (also known as Huran Plateau or Yarmouk drainage basin). As a result, several springs can be found within the gorge. These are characterized by widespread temperatures (20 - 60 °C) which indicate that, beside the complex regional flow, also ascending thermal waters control the hydrologic behavior of the LYG. Previous simulations based on a conceptual simplified 3D model (Magri et al., 2016) showed that crossing flow paths result from the coexistence of convection, that can develop for example along NE-SW oriented faults within the gorge or in permeable aquifers below Maastrichtian aquiclude, and additional flow fields that are induced by the N-S topographic gradients. Here we present the first 3D hydrogeological model of the entire LYG that includes structural features based on actual logs and interpreted seismic lines from both Israeli and Jordanian territories. The model distinguishes seven units from upper Eocene to the Lower Triassic, accounting for major aquifers, aquicludes and deep-cutting faults. Recharges are implemented based on the numerical representation developed by Shentsis (1990) that considers relationships between mean annual rain and topographic elevation. The model reveals that topography-driven N-S and E-W flows strongly control

  3. Index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models using hydrogeological settings: A critical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Bansod, Baban K.S.; Debnath, Sanjit K.; Thakur, Praveen Kumar; Ghanshyam, C.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater vulnerability maps are useful for decision making in land use planning and water resource management. This paper reviews the various groundwater vulnerability assessment models developed across the world. Each model has been evaluated in terms of its pros and cons and the environmental conditions of its application. The paper further discusses the validation techniques used for the generated vulnerability maps by various models. Implicit challenges associated with the development of the groundwater vulnerability assessment models have also been identified with scientific considerations to the parameter relations and their selections. - Highlights: • Various index-based groundwater vulnerability assessment models have been discussed. • A comparative analysis of the models and its applicability in different hydrogeological settings has been discussed. • Research problems of underlying vulnerability assessment models are also reported in this review paper

  4. Index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models using hydrogeological settings: A critical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Prashant, E-mail: prashantkumar@csio.res.in [CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research—CSIO, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Bansod, Baban K.S.; Debnath, Sanjit K. [CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research—CSIO, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Thakur, Praveen Kumar [Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (ISRO), Dehradun 248001 (India); Ghanshyam, C. [CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research—CSIO, Chandigarh 160030 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Groundwater vulnerability maps are useful for decision making in land use planning and water resource management. This paper reviews the various groundwater vulnerability assessment models developed across the world. Each model has been evaluated in terms of its pros and cons and the environmental conditions of its application. The paper further discusses the validation techniques used for the generated vulnerability maps by various models. Implicit challenges associated with the development of the groundwater vulnerability assessment models have also been identified with scientific considerations to the parameter relations and their selections. - Highlights: • Various index-based groundwater vulnerability assessment models have been discussed. • A comparative analysis of the models and its applicability in different hydrogeological settings has been discussed. • Research problems of underlying vulnerability assessment models are also reported in this review paper.

  5. Medieval Kingship: A Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Presents a model which describes the theories of kingship in Germany, France, and England between 800-1380 A.D. The three royal functions were defense of the realm, defense of the church, and material and moral improvement of royal subjects. (AM)

  6. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters

  7. Logistics and Transport - a conceptual model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how the freight transport sector is influenced by logistical principles of production and distribution. It introduces new ways of understanding freight transport as an integrated part of the changing trends of mobility. By introducing a conceptual model for understanding...... the interaction between logistics and transport, it points at ways to over-come inherent methodological difficulties when studying this relation...

  8. Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report - December 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report (CCM/CME Report) has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia Corporation (Sandia) to meet requirements under the Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico (SNL/NM) Compliance Order on Consent (the Consent Order). The Consent Order, entered into by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), DOE, and Sandia, became effective on April 29, 2004. The Consent Order identified the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater (TAG) Area of Concern (AOC) as an area of groundwater contamination requiring further characterization and corrective action. This report presents an updated Conceptual Site Model (CSM) of the TAG AOC that describes the contaminant release sites, the geological and hydrogeological setting, and the distribution and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The dataset used for this report includes the analytical results from groundwater samples collected through December 2015.

  9. Hydrogeological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, E.; Heinzen, W.; Santana, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work shows the hydrogeological study and well drilling carried out in the Teaching Formation Institute San Jose de Mayo Province Uruguay. It was developed a geological review in the National Directorate of Geology and Mining data base as well as field working, geology and hydrogeology recognition and area well drilling inventory.

  10. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  11. Efforts toward validation of a hydrogeological model of the Asse area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fein, E.; Klarr, K.; von Stempel, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Asse anticline (8 x 3 km) near Braunschweig (Germany) is part of the Subhercynian Basin and is characterized by a NW-SE orientation. In 1965, the GSF Research Center for Environment and Health acquired the former Asse salt mine on behalf of the FRG in order to carry out research and development work with a view of safe disposal of radioactive waste. To assess long term safety and predict groundwater flow nd radionuclide transport, an experimental program was carried out to validate hydrogeological models of the overburden of the Asse salt mine and to provide these with data. Five deep boreholes from 700 to 2250 m and 4 geological exploration shallow boreholes where drilled in the Asse area. Moreover, 19 piezometers and 27 exploration boreholes were sunk to perform pumping and tracer tests and yearly borehole loggings. In the end, about 50 boreholes and wells, 25 measuring weirs and about 70 creeks, drainage and springs were available to collect hydrological data and water samples. The different experiments and their evaluations as well as different hydrogeological models are presented and discussed. (J.S.). 9 refs., 7 figs

  12. Near-surface hydrogeological model of Laxemar. Open repository - Laxemar 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the methodology and the results from the modelling of an open final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Laxemar. Thus, the present work analyses the hydrological effects of the planned repository during the construction and operational phases when it is open, i.e. air-filled, and hence may cause a disturbance of the hydrological conditions in the surroundings. The numerical modelling is based on the conceptual and descriptive model presented in the version 1.2 Site Descriptive Model (SDM) for Laxemar. The modelling was divided into three steps. The first step was to update the L1.2 version model for hydrology and near surface hydrogeology, the main updates were related to the hydraulic properties of the bedrock and the size of the model area. The next step was to describe the conditions for the introductory construction by implementing the access tunnel and shafts to the model. The third step aimed at describing the consequences on the surface hydrology caused by an open repository. A sensitivity analysis that aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the model to the properties of the upper bedrock and the properties in the interface between the Quaternary deposits and the bedrock was performed as a part of steps two and three. The model covers an area of 19 km{sup 2}. In the Quaternary deposits, the surface water divides are assumed to coincide with the groundwater divides, thus a no-flow boundary condition is used at the horizontal boundaries. The transient top boundary condition uses meteorological data gathered at a local SKB station at Aespoe during 2004. The bottom boundary condition and the horizontal boundary condition in the bedrock is a steady state head boundary condition taken from the open repository modelling of the bedrock performed as a parallel activity with the modelling tool DarcyTools. The vertical extent of the model is from the ground surface to 150 m below sea level. Since the repository will be built at 450 m below sea

  13. Conceptual geohydrological model of the separations area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, R.W.; Marine, I.W.

    1977-01-01

    Subsurface drilling in and around the Separations Areas (F-Area and H-Area of the Savannah River Plant) is providing detailed information for a conceptual model of the geology and hydrology underlying these areas. This conceptual model will provide the framework needed for a mathematical model of groundwater movement beneath these areas. Existing information substantiates the presence of two areally extensive clay layers and several discontinuous clay and sandy-clay layers. These layers occur in and between beds of clayey and silty sand that make up most of the subsurface material. Within these sand beds are geologic units of differing hydraulic conductivity. For the present scale of the model, the subsurface information is considered adequate in H-Area, but additional drilling is planned in F-Area

  14. A Conceptual Model of Military Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Hiring Expectancies – Expectancy (VIE) Theory ( Vroom , 1996) states individuals choose among a set of employment alternatives on the basis of the...A Conceptual Model of Military Recruitment Presented at NATO Technical Course HFM 180 – Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in...the Military Fariya Syed October, 2009 Based on A Proposed Model Of Military Recruitment (Schreurs & Syed, 2007) Report Documentation Page

  15. Structural and geochemical techniques for the hydrogeological characterisation and stochastic modelling of fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vela, A.; Elorza, F.J.; Florez, F.; Paredes, C.; Mazadiego, L.; Llamas, J.F.; Perez, E.; Vives, L.; Carrera, J.; Munoz, A.; De Vicente, G.; Casquet, C.

    1999-01-01

    Safety analysis of radioactive waste storage systems require fractured rock studies. The performance assessment studies of this type of problems include the development of radionuclide flow and transport models to predict the evolution of possible contaminants released from the repository to the biosphere. The methodology developed in the HIDROBAP project and some results obtained with its application in El Berrocal granite batholith are presented. It integrates modern tools belonging to different disciplines. A Discrete Fracture Network model (DFT) was selected to simulate the fractured medium and a 3D finite element flow and transport model that includes the inverse problem techniques has been coupled to the DFT model to simulate the water movement trough the fracture network system. Preliminary results show that this integrated methodology can be very useful for the hydrogeological characterisation of rock fractured media. (author)

  16. On the significance of contaminant plume-scale and dose-response models in defining hydrogeological characterization needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R.; Bai, H.

    2007-12-01

    Defining rational and effective hydrogeological data acquisition strategies is of crucial importance since financial resources available for such efforts are always limited. Usually such strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of the impacts of uncertainty. This paper presents an approach for determining site characterization needs based on human health risk factors. The main challenge is in striking a balance between improved definition of hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological parameters. Striking this balance can provide clear guidance on setting priorities for data acquisition and for better estimating adverse health effects in humans. This paper addresses this challenge through theoretical developments and numerical testing. We will report on a wide range of factors that affect the site characterization needs including contaminant plume's dimensions, travel distances and other length scales that characterize the transport problem, as well as health risk models. We introduce a new graphical tool that allows one to investigate the relative impact of hydrogeological and physiological parameters in risk. Results show that the impact of uncertainty reduction in the risk-related parameters decreases with increasing distances from the contaminant source. Also, results indicate that human health risk becomes less sensitive to hydrogeological measurements when dealing with ergodic plumes. This indicates that under ergodic conditions, uncertainty reduction in human health risk may benefit from better understanding of the physiological component as opposed to a detailed hydrogeological characterization

  17. Hydrogeological bedrock inferred from electrical resistivity model in Taichung Basin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C. W.; Chang, P. Y.; Chang, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    The four-year project of the study of groundwater hydrogeology and recharge model was indicated by Central Geological Survey, MOEA, Taiwan (R.O.C.) to evaluate recharge groundwater areas in Taiwan where included Taipei, Taichung Basins, Lanyang and Chianan Plains. The groundwater recharge models of Lanyang Plain and Taipei Basin have successfully been estimated in two years ago (2013-2014). The third year of the project integrates with geophysical, geochemistry, and hydrogeology models to estimate the groundwater recharge model in Taichung Basin region. Taichung Basin is mainly covered by Pre-Pleistocene of thick gravel, sandy and muddy sediment rocks within a joint alluvial fan, whereas the depth of the hydrological bedrock remains uncertain. Two electrical resistivity geophysical tools were carried out utilizing direct current resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) explorations, which could ideally provide the depth resolutions from shallow to depth for evaluating the groundwater resources. The study has carried out 21 AMT stations in the southern Taichung Basin in order to delineate hydrological bedrock in the region. All the AMT stations were deployed about 24 hours and processed with remote reference technique to reduce culture noises. The quality of most stations shows acceptable in the area which two stations were excluded due to near-field source effect in the southwestern basin. The best depth resolution is identified in 500 meters for the model. The preliminary result shows that the depths of the bedrock gradually changes from southern ~20 m toward to ~400 m in central, and eastern ~20 m to 180 m in the western basin inferred from the AMT model. The investigation shows that AMT method could be a useful geophysical tool to enhance the groundwater recharge model estimation without dense loggings in the region.

  18. The conceptual model of organization social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    LUO, Lan; WEI, Jingfu

    2014-01-01

    With the developing of the research of CSR, people more and more deeply noticethat the corporate should take responsibility. Whether other organizations besides corporatesshould not take responsibilities beyond their field? This paper puts forward theconcept of organization social responsibility on the basis of the concept of corporate socialresponsibility and other theories. And the conceptual models are built based on theconception, introducing the OSR from three angles: the types of organi...

  19. Large scale hydrogeological modelling of a low-lying complex coastal aquifer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Rena

    2018-01-01

    intrusion. In this thesis a new methodological approach was developed to combine 3D numerical groundwater modelling with a detailed geological description and hydrological, geochemical and geophysical data. It was applied to a regional scale saltwater intrusion in order to analyse and quantify...... the groundwater flow dynamics, identify the driving mechanisms that formed the saltwater intrusion to its present extent and to predict its progression in the future. The study area is located in the transboundary region between Southern Denmark and Northern Germany, adjacent to the Wadden Sea. Here, a large-scale...... parametrization schemes that accommodate hydrogeological heterogeneities. Subsequently, density-dependent flow and transport modelling of multiple salt sources was successfully applied to simulate the formation of the saltwater intrusion during the last 4200 years, accounting for historic changes in the hydraulic...

  20. Hydrogeological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, E.; Carrion, R.

    1987-01-01

    This work refers to the hydrogeological study about underground water to domestic uses. It was required by Artigas intendence of Uruguay, in the rural school 10, located belongs to the Chiflero zone around the capital of the Artigas Province.

  1. Stepwise hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis on site scale (The former part of the step 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoe, Hironori; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Endo, Yoshinobu

    2005-07-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. To achieve this goal, a variety of investigations are being conducted using an iterative approach. In this study, hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analyses have been carried out using the data from surface-based investigations at the former part of Step 3 (deep borehole investigations without vertical seismic profiling investigations), in order to synthesize the investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model, and to specify items for further investigation. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) The uncertainty of hydrogeological model of the site scale is decreased as stepwise research; 2) Borehole investigations combined with hydraulic monitoring are useful for decreasing the uncertainty of hydrogeological model; The main items specified for further investigations are summarized as follows: 1) Trend, length, and hydraulic parameters of faults confirmed in the MIU construction site; 2) Shape of boundary of geological layer, and hydraulic parameters of rock; 3) Hydraulic head distribution of deep underground. (author)

  2. Meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological monitoring data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Oehman, Johan; Holgersson, Bjoern; Roennback, Kristoffer; Marelius, Fredrick

    2008-12-01

    magnitude higher compared to till in other parts of the area. Permeameter tests on till indicate an anisotropic hydraulic conductivity, with an anisotropy ratio (K h /K v ) that may be on the order of 15-30. Joint data evaluations are used to investigate interaction between groundwater in the Quaternary deposits and surface waters. Such evaluation of stream discharges and groundwater levels in the Quaternary deposits in the vicinity of the streams indicate that there is an (unconfined) groundwater level 'threshold' for initiation of discharge, likely related to the local drainage depth (i.e. the depth to the bottom of the stream). Moreover, joint evaluation of lake-water levels and groundwater levels near and below lakes indicates that interaction between lake water and groundwater in the underlying Quaternary deposits is limited to near-shore areas. Conceptually, groundwater flow in the deeper parts of the rock in Laxemar primarily occurs in a connected system of deformation zones, and the associated groundwater discharge takes place at locations where this system connects to zones that outcrop in the valleys. According to joint evaluation of groundwater levels in the Quaternary deposits and point-water heads in percussion and core boreholes, upward hydraulic-head gradients from the rock to the Quaternary deposits primarily prevail in connection to deformation zones in the rock. Hence, the topography in combination with the geometry and the hydrogeological properties of the deformation zones and their contact with the Quaternary deposits are likely important factors for groundwater discharge from rock to Quaternary deposits. At least in a qualitative sense, the interference tests summarised in this study indicate that there exist such hydraulic connections between outcropping deformation zones and Quaternary deposits

  3. Integrating advanced 3D Mapping into Improved Hydrogeologic Frameworks, a Future path for Groundwater Modeling? Results from Western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannia, J. C.; Abraham, J. D.; Peterson, S. M.; Sibray, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to provide an innovative, advanced 3 dimensional hydrogeologic framework which was used in a groundwater model designed to test water management scenarios. Principal aquifers for the area mostly consist of Quaternary alluvium and Tertiary-age fluvial sediments which are heavily used for irrigation, municipal and environmental uses. This strategy used airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys, validated through sensitivity analysis of geophysical and geological ground truth to provide new geologic interpretation to characterize the hydrogeologic framework in the area. The base of aquifer created through this work leads to new interpretations of saturated thickness and groundwater connectivity to the surface water system. The current version of the groundwater model which uses the advanced hydrogeologic framework shows a distinct change in flow path orientation, timing and amount of base flow to the streams of the area. Ongoing efforts for development of the hydrogeologic framework development include subdivision of the aquifers into new hydrostratigraphic units based on analysis of geophysical and lithologic characteristics which will be incorporated into future groundwater models. The hydrostratigraphic units are further enhanced by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements to characterize aquifers. NMR measures the free water in the aquifer in situ allowing for a determination of hydraulic conductivity. NMR hydraulic conductivity values will be mapped to the hydrostratigraphic units, which in turn are incorporated into the latest versions of the groundwater model. The addition of innovative, advanced 3 dimensional hydrogeologic frameworks, which incorporates AEM and NMR, for groundwater modeling, has a definite advantage over traditional frameworks. These groundwater models represent the natural system at a level of reality not achievable by other methods, which lead to greater confidence in the

  4. Current status of regional hydrogeological studies and numerical simulations on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shinsuke; Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Ishido, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    Current status of regional hydrogeological studies on geological disposal including hydrogeological modeling using numerical simulators is reviewed in this report. A regional scale and boundary conditions of numerical models are summarized mainly from the results of the RHS (regional hydrogeological study) project conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in the Tono area. We also refer to the current conceptual modes of hydrology and numerical models of unsaturated zone flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is the arid site proposed for consideration as the United States' first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Understanding behavior of a freshwater-saltwater transition zone seems to play a key role in the hydrogeological modeling in a coastal region. Technical features of a numerical simulator as a tool for geothermal reservoir modeling is also briefly described. (author)

  5. Hydrogeological measurements and modelling of the Down Ampney Fault Research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightman, M.A.; Sen, M.A.; Abbott, M.A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The British Geological Survey, in cooperation with ISMES of Italy, is carrying out a research programme into the properties of faults cutting clay formations. The programme has two major aims; firstly, to develop geophysical techniques to locate and measure the geophysical properties of a fault in clay; secondly, to measure the hydrogeological properties of the fault and its effect on the groundwater flow pattern through a sequence of clays and aquifers. Analysis of pulse tests performed in the clays at the Down Ampney Research site gave values of hydraulic conductivity ranging from 5 x 10 -12 to 2 x 10 -8 ms -1 . Numerical modelling of the effects of groundwater abstraction from nearby wells on the site was performed using the finite element code FEMWATER. The results are discussed. (Author)

  6. A conceptual model of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    2005-01-01

    . The remaining four constructs are attitudinal, designed to capture the awareness of members to the activities and importance of stakeholder groups in society, both internal and external to the organisation. The model not only allows the level of a party's political market orientation to be assessed, but also......This article proposes eight constructs of a conceptual model of political market orientation, taking inspiration from the business and political marketing literature. Four of the constructs are 'behavioural' in that they aim to describe the process of how information flows through the organisation...

  7. Preparatory hydrogeological calculations for site scale models of Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, B.; Lindgren, M.; Widen, H.

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the basis for site scale models of the three sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg in terms of: extent and position of site scale model domains; numerical implementation of geologic structural model; systematic review of structural data and control of compatibility in data sets. Some of the hydrogeological features of each site are briefly described. A summary of the results from the regional modelling exercises for Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg is given. The results from the regional models may be used as a base for determining the location and size of the site scale models and provide such models with boundary conditions. Results from the regional models may also indicate suitable locations for repositories. The resulting locations and sizes for site scale models are presented in figures. There are also figures showing that the structural models interpreted by HYDRASTAR do not conflict with the repository tunnels. It has in addition been verified with TRAZON, a modified version of HYDRASTAR for checking starting positions, revealing conflicts between starting positions and fractures zones if present

  8. Conceptual models for cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2011-12-01

    In the absence of scientific consensus on an appropriate theoretical framework, cumulative risk assessment and related research have relied on speculative conceptual models. We argue for the importance of theoretical backing for such models and discuss 3 relevant theoretical frameworks, each supporting a distinctive "family" of models. Social determinant models postulate that unequal health outcomes are caused by structural inequalities; health disparity models envision social and contextual factors acting through individual behaviors and biological mechanisms; and multiple stressor models incorporate environmental agents, emphasizing the intermediary role of these and other stressors. The conclusion is that more careful reliance on established frameworks will lead directly to improvements in characterizing cumulative risk burdens and accounting for disproportionate adverse health effects.

  9. Hydrogeological DFN modelling using structural and hydraulic data from KLX04. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden); Stigsson, Martin [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Urban [Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    SKB is conducting site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in fractured crystalline rocks at two coastal areas in Sweden. The two candidate areas are named Forsmark and Simpevarp. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (ISI) and a complete site investigation phase (CSI). The results of the ISI phase are used as a basis for deciding on the subsequent CSI phase. On the basis of the CSI investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft). An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the less fractured rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other disciplines (surface ecosystems, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models. The main objective of this study is to support the development of a hydrogeological DFN model (Discrete Fracture Network) for the Preliminary Site Description of the Laxemar area on a regional-scale (SDM version L1.2). A more specific objective of this study is to assess the propagation of uncertainties in the geological DFN modelling reported for L1.2 into the groundwater flow modelling. An improved understanding is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Description in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. The latter will serve as a basis for describing the present

  10. Hydrogeological DFN modelling using structural and hydraulic data from KLX04. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Stigsson, Martin; Svensson, Urban

    2006-04-01

    SKB is conducting site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in fractured crystalline rocks at two coastal areas in Sweden. The two candidate areas are named Forsmark and Simpevarp. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (ISI) and a complete site investigation phase (CSI). The results of the ISI phase are used as a basis for deciding on the subsequent CSI phase. On the basis of the CSI investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft). An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the less fractured rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other disciplines (surface ecosystems, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models. The main objective of this study is to support the development of a hydrogeological DFN model (Discrete Fracture Network) for the Preliminary Site Description of the Laxemar area on a regional-scale (SDM version L1.2). A more specific objective of this study is to assess the propagation of uncertainties in the geological DFN modelling reported for L1.2 into the groundwater flow modelling. An improved understanding is necessary in order to gain credibility for the Site Description in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. The latter will serve as a basis for describing the present

  11. Assessment of site-scale hydrogeological modelling possibilities in crystalline hard rock for safety appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J. [Cleanwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (United States); Luukkonen, A.

    2012-09-15

    This review describes the state-of-the-art in hydrogeological modelling for safety-case studies related to spent-fuel repositories in crystalline hard rock, focusing on issues of relevance for the KBS-3 disposal concept in Nordic environments. The review includes a survey of model capabilities and assumptions regarding groundwater flow processes, geological and excavation-related features, and boundary conditions for temperate, periglacial, and glacial climates. Modelling approaches are compared for research sites including the Stripa mine (Sweden), the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland), the Whiteshell Underground Research Laboratory (Canada), the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory and Simpevarp-Laxemar site (Sweden), the Forsmark site (Sweden), the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site (USA), and Olkiluoto (Finland). Current hydrogeological models allow realistic representations, but are limited by availability of data to constrain their properties. Examples of calibrations of stochastic representations of heterogeneity are still scarce. Integrated models that couple flow and non-reactive transport are now well established, particularly those based on continuum representations. Models that include reactive transport are still mainly in the realm of research tools. Thus far, no single software tool allows fully coupled treatment of all relevant thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical transport processes in the bedrock, together with climate-related physical processes at the ground surface, and with explicit treatment of bedrock heterogeneity. Hence practical applications require combinations of models based on different simplifications. Key improvements can be expected in treatment of the unsaturated zone, simulation of heterogeneous infiltration at the surface, and hydromechanical coupling. Significant advances have already been made in the amounts and types of data that can be used in site-scale models, including large datasets to define topography and other surface

  12. An integrated model for simulating nitrogen trading in an agricultural catchment with complex hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, T J; Rutherford, J C; Kerr, S C; Smeaton, D C; Palliser, C C

    2013-09-30

    Nitrogen loads to several New Zealand lakes are dominated by nonpoint runoff from pastoral farmland which adversely affects lake water quality. A 'cap and trade' scheme is being considered to help meet targets set for nitrogen loads to Lake Rotorua, and a numerical model, NTRADER, has been developed to simulate and compare alternative schemes. NTRADER models both the geophysics of nitrogen generation and transport, including groundwater lag times, and the economics of 'cap and trade' schemes. It integrates the output from several existing models, including a farm-scale nitrogen leaching and abatement model, a farm-scale management economic model, and a catchment-scale nitrogen transport model. This paper details modeling methods and compares possible trading program design features for the Lake Rotorua catchment. Model simulations demonstrate how a cap and trade program could be used to effectively achieve challenging environmental goals in the targeted catchment. However, results also show that, due to complex hydrogeology, satisfactory environmental outcomes may be not achieved unless groundwater lag times are incorporated into the regulatory scheme. One way to do this, as demonstrated here, would be to explicitly include lag times in the cap and trade program. The utility of the model is further demonstrated by quantifying relative differences in abatement costs across potential regulatory schemes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Business Model Innovation: An Integrative Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Wirtz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The point of departure of this exploratory study is the gap between the increasing importance of business model innovation (BMI in science and management and the limited conceptual assistance available. Therefore, the study identi es and explores scattered BMI insights and deduces them into an integrative framework to enhance our understanding about this phenomenon and to present a helpful guidance for researchers and practitioners. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study identi es BMI insights through a literature-based investigation and consolidates them into an integrative BMI framework that presents the key elements and dimensions of BMI as well as their presumed relationships. Findings: The study enhances our understanding about the key elements and dimensions of BMI, presents further conceptual insights into the BMI phenomenon, supplies implications for science and management, and may serve as a helpful guidance for future research. Practical Implications: The presented framework provides managers with a tool to identify critical BMI issues and can serve as a conceptual BMI guideline. Research limitations: Given the vast amount of academic journals, it is unlikely that every applicable scienti c publication is included in the analysis. The illustrative examples are descriptive in nature, and thus do not provide empirical validity. Several implications for future research are provided. Originality/Value: The study’s main contribution lies in the unifying approach of the dispersed BMI knowledge. Since our understanding of BMI is still limited, this study should provide the necessary insights and conceptual assistance to further develop the concept and guide its practical application.

  14. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  15. Achievements and Problems of Conceptual Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalheim, Bernhard

    Database and information systems technology has substantially changed. Nowadays, content management systems, (information-intensive) web services, collaborating systems, internet databases, OLAP databases etc. have become buzzwords. At the same time, object-relational technology has gained the maturity for being widely applied. Conceptual modelling has not (yet) covered all these novel topics. It has been concentrated for more than two decades around specification of structures. Meanwhile, functionality, interactivity and distribution must be included into conceptual modelling of information systems. Also, some of the open problems that have been already discussed in 1987 [15, 16] still remain to be open. At the same time, novel models such as object-relational models or XML-based models have been developed. They did not overcome all the problems but have been sharpening and extending the variety of open problems. The open problem presented are given for classical areas of database research, i.e., structuring and functionality. The entire are of distribution and interaction is currently an area of very intensive research.

  16. Conceptual Frameworks in the Doctoral Research Process: A Pedagogical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jeanette; Smyth, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to consideration of the role of conceptual frameworks in the doctoral research process. Through reflection on the two authors' own conceptual frameworks for their doctoral studies, a pedagogical model has been developed. The model posits the development of a conceptual framework as a core element of the doctoral…

  17. A Structural Equation Model of Conceptual Change in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2011-01-01

    A model of conceptual change in physics was tested on introductory-level, college physics students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to conceptual change in physics including an approach goal orientation, need for cognition, motivation, and course grade. Conceptual change in physics…

  18. Mass discharge estimation from contaminated sites: Multi-model solutions for assessment of conceptual uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, N. I.; Troldborg, M.; McKnight, U. S.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Mass discharge estimates are increasingly being used in the management of contaminated sites. Such estimates have proven useful for supporting decisions related to the prioritization of contaminated sites in a groundwater catchment. Potential management options can be categorised as follows: (1) leave as is, (2) clean up, or (3) further investigation needed. However, mass discharge estimates are often very uncertain, which may hamper the management decisions. If option 1 is incorrectly chosen soil and water quality will decrease, threatening or destroying drinking water resources. The risk of choosing option 2 is to spend money on remediating a site that does not pose a problem. Choosing option 3 will often be safest, but may not be the optimal economic solution. Quantification of the uncertainty in mass discharge estimates can therefore greatly improve the foundation for selecting the appropriate management option. The uncertainty of mass discharge estimates depends greatly on the extent of the site characterization. A good approach for uncertainty estimation will be flexible with respect to the investigation level, and account for both parameter and conceptual model uncertainty. We propose a method for quantifying the uncertainty of dynamic mass discharge estimates from contaminant point sources on the local scale. The method considers both parameter and conceptual uncertainty through a multi-model approach. The multi-model approach evaluates multiple conceptual models for the same site. The different conceptual models consider different source characterizations and hydrogeological descriptions. The idea is to include a set of essentially different conceptual models where each model is believed to be realistic representation of the given site, based on the current level of information. Parameter uncertainty is quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. For each conceptual model we calculate a transient mass discharge estimate with uncertainty bounds resulting from

  19. A conceptual model of referee efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix eGuillén

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction.

  20. Sierra toolkit computational mesh conceptual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, David G.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Cochran, William K.; Williams, Alan B.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.

  1. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  2. Preliminary simulation model to determine ground-water flow and ages within the Palo Duro Basin hydrogeologic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, H.; Picking, L.

    1986-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins is simulated by developing a hydrogeolgic profile and applying a cross-sectional, finite-element, numerical model to the profile. The profile is 350 miles long and 2 miles deep and extends from east-central New Mexico to the Texas-Oklahoma border. It is comprised of hydrogeologic units that are identified from geophysical well logs, sample logs, and core descriptions. A hydrogeologic unit as used in this profile is a physically continuous rock sequence with hydrologic properties that are relatively consistent throughout and distinct from surrounding units. The resulting hydrogeologic profile, with the exception of the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group, is discretized into a 6000-element mesh and a 22,000-element mesh. Permeability values assigned to hydrogeologic units were, in part, calculated from drill stem tests conducted throughout the Palo Duro Basin. Ground-water age and travel paths are determined by applying Darcy's equation to selected flow lines. The 170 million-year age determined from ground-water at points within the Wolfcamp Series compares favorably with the geochemical data for this region. An age of 188 million years is determined for the Pennsylvanian granite wash

  3. Conceptual hydrologic model of flow in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to propose a conceptual hydrologic model that reasonably describes the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, for use as a basis for preliminary site-performance assessment and as a guide to further investigations. Scott and others (1983) presented an initial conceptual hydrogeologic model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, based on detailed geologic, but very limited hydrologic, information. In this report, some of their concepts are examined and either supported or modified, and new concepts are developed. The model describes the manner in which flow probably occurs at Yucca Mountain and is based on: (1) current understanding of the hydrogeologic framework; (2) application of the principles of unsaturated flow; and (3) interpretation of some preliminary data from ongoing field and laboratory investigations. Included are extensive geologic information but relatively few hydrologic data that currently exist from the unsaturated zone in the Yucca Mountain area. Many uncertainties remain to be resolved concerning hydrologic conditions and processes. As a result, most of the concepts presented are intentionally descriptive and conjectural, with little quantitative basis provided. However, for the sake of directness and simplicity of expression, the model is presented as if it were a true expression of the facts. The authors recognize, and the reader should be aware, that the proposed model probably is not the only reasonable description that could be made at this point, and it certainly is subject to revision and quantification as more data become available. Although various alternative models probably could be developed, the one described in this report seems to fit current understanding of the unsaturated flow through a section of layered, fractured-rock formations with contrasting hydrologic properties, such as occurs at Yucca Mountain. 41 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  4. A Proposed Conceptual Model of Military Medical Readiness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Hall, Brian M

    2007-01-01

    .... The basis for the proposed conceptual model builds on common and accepted latent variable and theoretical modeling techniques proposed by healthcare scholars, organizational theorists, mathematical...

  5. Numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area was developed to synthesize estimates of water-budget components and hydraulic properties, and to provide a tool to analyze the effect of additional stress on water-level altitudes within the aquifers and on discharge to springs. This report, prepared in cooperation with the city of Rapid City, documents a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units for the 1,000-square-mile study area that includes Rapid City and the surrounding area. Water-table conditions generally exist in outcrop areas of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units, which form generally concentric rings that surround the Precambrian core of the uplifted Black Hills. Confined conditions exist east of the water-table areas in the study area. The Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit is 375 to 800 feet (ft) thick in the study area with the more permeable upper part containing predominantly sandstone and the less permeable lower part containing more shale and limestone than the upper part. Shale units in the lower part generally impede flow between the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit and the underlying Madison hydrogeologic unit; however, fracturing and weathering may result in hydraulic connections in some areas. The Madison hydrogeologic unit is composed of limestone and dolomite that is about 250 to 610 ft thick in the study area, and the upper part contains substantial secondary permeability from solution openings and fractures. Recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units is from streamflow loss where streams cross the outcrop and from infiltration of precipitation on the outcrops (areal recharge). MODFLOW-2000, a finite-difference groundwater

  6. Testing an integral conceptual model of frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbens, Robbert J; van Assen, Marcel A; Luijkx, Katrien G; Schols, Jos M

    2012-09-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to test three hypotheses derived from an integral conceptual model of frailty.   The integral model of frailty describes the pathway from life-course determinants to frailty to adverse outcomes. The model assumes that life-course determinants and the three domains of frailty (physical, psychological, social) affect adverse outcomes, the effect of disease(s) on adverse outcomes is mediated by frailty, and the effect of frailty on adverse outcomes depends on the life-course determinants. In June 2008 a questionnaire was sent to a sample of community-dwelling people, aged 75 years and older (n = 213). Life-course determinants and frailty were assessed using the Tilburg frailty indicator. Adverse outcomes were measured using the Groningen activity restriction scale, the WHOQOL-BREF and questions regarding healthcare utilization. The effect of seven self-reported chronic diseases was examined. Life-course determinants, chronic disease(s), and frailty together explain a moderate to large part of the variance of the seven continuous adverse outcomes (26-57%). All these predictors together explained a significant part of each of the five dichotomous adverse outcomes. The effect of chronic disease(s) on all 12 adverse outcomes was mediated at least partly by frailty. The effect of frailty domains on adverse outcomes did not depend on life-course determinants. Our finding that the adverse outcomes are differently and uniquely affected by the three domains of frailty (physical, psychological, social), and life-course determinants and disease(s), emphasizes the importance of an integral conceptual model of frailty. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Development of analytical and numerical models for the assessment and interpretation of hydrogeological field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironenko, V.A.; Rumynin, V.G.; Konosavsky, P.K.; Pozdniakov, S.P.; Shestakov, V.M.; Roshal, A.A.

    1994-07-01

    Mathematical models of the flow and tracer tests in fractured aquifers are being developed for the further study of radioactive wastes migration in round water at the Lake Area, which is associated with one of the waste disposal site in Russia. The choice of testing methods, tracer types (chemical or thermal) and the appropriate models are determined by the nature of the ongoing ground-water pollution processes and the hydrogeological features of the site under consideration. Special importance is attached to the increased density of wastes as well as to the possible redistribution of solutes both in the liquid phase and in the absorbed state (largely, on fracture surfaces). This allows for studying physical-and-chemical (hydrogeochemical) interaction parameters which are hard to obtain (considering a fractured structure of the rock mass) in laboratory. Moreover, a theoretical substantiation is being given to the field methods of studying the properties of a fractured stratum aimed at the further construction of the drainage system or the subsurface flow barrier (cutoff wall), as well as the monitoring system that will evaluate the reliability of these ground-water protection measures. The proposed mathematical models are based on a tight combination of analytical and numerical methods, the former being preferred in solving the principal (2D axisymmetrical) class of the problems. The choice of appropriate problems is based on the close feedback with subsequent field tests in the Lake Area. 63 refs

  8. Development of analytical and numerical models for the assessment and interpretation of hydrogeological field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironenko, V.A.; Rumynin, V.G.; Konosavsky, P.K. [St. Petersburg Mining Inst. (Russian Federation); Pozdniakov, S.P.; Shestakov, V.M. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Roshal, A.A. [Geosoft-Eastlink, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Mathematical models of the flow and tracer tests in fractured aquifers are being developed for the further study of radioactive wastes migration in round water at the Lake Area, which is associated with one of the waste disposal site in Russia. The choice of testing methods, tracer types (chemical or thermal) and the appropriate models are determined by the nature of the ongoing ground-water pollution processes and the hydrogeological features of the site under consideration. Special importance is attached to the increased density of wastes as well as to the possible redistribution of solutes both in the liquid phase and in the absorbed state (largely, on fracture surfaces). This allows for studying physical-and-chemical (hydrogeochemical) interaction parameters which are hard to obtain (considering a fractured structure of the rock mass) in laboratory. Moreover, a theoretical substantiation is being given to the field methods of studying the properties of a fractured stratum aimed at the further construction of the drainage system or the subsurface flow barrier (cutoff wall), as well as the monitoring system that will evaluate the reliability of these ground-water protection measures. The proposed mathematical models are based on a tight combination of analytical and numerical methods, the former being preferred in solving the principal (2D axisymmetrical) class of the problems. The choice of appropriate problems is based on the close feedback with subsequent field tests in the Lake Area. 63 refs.

  9. Numerical modelling of levee stability based on coupled mechanical, thermal and hydrogeological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwornik Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical modelling of coupled mechanical, thermal and hydrogeological processes for a soil levee is presented in the paper. The modelling was performed for a real levee that was built in Poland as a part of the ISMOP project. Only four parameters were changed to build different flood waves: the water level, period of water increase, period of water decrease, and period of low water level after the experiment. Results of numerical modelling shows that it is possible and advisable to calculate simultaneously changes of thermal and hydro-mechanical fields. The presented results show that it is also possible to use thermal sensors in place of more expensive pore pressure sensors, with some limitations. The results of stability analysis show that the levee is less stable when the water level decreases, after which factor of safety decreases significantly. For all flooding wave parameters described in the paper, the levee is very stable and factor of safety variations for any particular stage were not very large.

  10. Conceptualization of preferential flow for hillslope stability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukemilks, Karlis; Wagner, Jean-Frank; Saks, Tomas; Brunner, Philip

    2018-03-01

    This study uses two approaches to conceptualize preferential flow with the goal to investigate their influence on hillslope stability. Synthetic three-dimensional hydrogeological models using dual-permeability and discrete-fracture conceptualization were subsequently integrated into slope stability simulations. The slope stability simulations reveal significant differences in slope stability depending on the preferential flow conceptualization applied, despite similar small-scale hydrogeological responses of the system. This can be explained by a local-scale increase of pore-water pressures observed in the scenario with discrete fractures. The study illustrates the critical importance of correctly conceptualizing preferential flow for slope stability simulations. It further demonstrates that the combination of the latest generation of physically based hydrogeological models with slope stability simulations allows for improvement to current modeling approaches through more complex consideration of preferential flow paths.

  11. Bedrock Hydrogeology - Site investigation SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan [Geosigma AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Assoes AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). This report presents an integrated analysis and interpretation of the historic data from the existing SFR (1980 - 1986), as well as, from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008 - 2009). The primary objective is to establish a conceptual hydrogeological model of the bedrock for safety assessment and design analyses. Analyses and interpretations of all (old and new) hydraulic data are analysed with regard to the recently developed geological deformation zone model of the SFR model domain (Curtis et al. 2011). The methodology used by Curtis et al. (2011) has focussed on magnetic anomalies and deformation zone intercepts with ground surface greater than 300 m. In the hydrogeological modelling, however, it has been considered important to also explore the occurrence and characteristics of shallow horizontal to sub-horizontal structures (sheet joints) inside the SFR model domain. Such structures are of considerable importance for the hydrogeology in the uppermost c. 150 m of bedrock in SDM-Site Forsmark; hence the term Shallow Bedrock Aquifer was used to emphasise their hydraulic significance. In this study, the acronym SBA-structure is used for horizontal structures identified in the hydrogeological modelling. In addition to the predominantly steeply dipping geological deformation zones, eight so-called SBA-structures are modelled deterministically in the hydrogeological model. The SBA-structures are envisaged as hydraulically heterogeneous and composed of clusters of minor gently dipping to horizontal fractures rather than extensive single features. A type of structures that is partly included in the definition of the SBA-structures is the Unresolved Possible Deformations Zone (Unresolved PDZ) intercepts identified by Curtis et al. (2011). The Unresolved

  12. Regional hydrogeological study in the Tono area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Nobuhisa; Ota, Kunio; Hama, Katsuhiro; Tsubota, Kouji

    1998-01-01

    Regional hydrogeological studies have been carried out since fiscal 1992 to determine the regional groundwater flow in the Tono area of Japan. The following items have been investigated: 1) Understanding the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry of the deep geological environment in the Tono area. 2) Constructing conceptual models of the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry. 3) Developing appropriate techniques to investigate the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry of the deep geological environment. This report presents the results of the last six years of the study in the Tono area. (author)

  13. A conceptual competitive intelligence quality assurance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshilidzi Eric Nenzhelele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitive Intelligence (CI improves the quality of product and service, decision-making and it improves quality of life. However, it has been established that decision makers are not happy about the quality of CI. This is because enterprises fail in quality assurance of CI. It has been concluded that most enterprises are clueless concerning CI quality assurance. Studies that previously attempted to resolve CI quality problem were limited in scope and focused too much on the quality of information than the overall CI quality. The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual CI quality assurance model which will help in quality assurance of CI. The research was qualitative in nature and used content analysis.

  14. Tono regional hydrogeological study project. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Ota, Kunio; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Osawa, Hideaki

    2005-09-01

    Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build firm scientific and technological basis for the research and development of geological disposal. One of the geoscientific research programme is a Regional Hydrogeological Study (RHS) project in the Tono region, central Japan. This report mainly summarizes the results of research in DH-14 and DH-15 boreholes at Toki city and Mizunami city in fiscal year 2004 which were carried out to support and improve the results in fiscal year 2003. The research in the regional scale area shows the reliability of conceptual hydrogeological model and numerical simulation for the evaluation of regional hydrogeology. On the other hand, the geological and geophysical investigation, and borehole investigation during the surface-based investigations in the local scale area provide the pragmatic distribution of hydrogeological structure that may control regional groundwater hydrology. Hydrogeological simulations regarding the geological structure such as fault and hydrogeological property demonstrate the priority of investigation of geological structure for the evaluation of hydrogeology. The fault perpendicular to groundwater flow direction crucially affects on regional hydrology. Such fault is necessary to be investigated by priority. Hydrochemical investigation shows that chemical evolution process in this groundwater illustrated is mixing between groundwaters with different salinities. Principal component analysis and mass balance calculation reveal reliable chemistry of end-member waters for mixing. Regarding methodology development, the strategy and procedure of investigations are summarized based on the results of surface-based investigation. Moreover the multi interval monitoring system for water pressure and temperature has developed and started to monitor the in-situ condition of groundwater. The geology, geological structure, hydraulic

  15. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  16. Creating a Universe, a Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Johnson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Space is something. Space inherently contains laws of nature: universal rules (mathematics, space dimensions, types of forces, types of fields, and particle species, laws (relativity, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism and symmetries (Lorentz, Gauge, and symmetry breaking. We have significant knowledge about these laws of nature because all our scientific theories assume their presence. Their existence is critical for developing either a unique theory of our universe or more speculative multiverse theories. Scientists generally ignore the laws of nature because they “are what they are” and because visualizing different laws of nature challenges the imagination. This article defines a conceptual model separating space (laws of nature from the universe’s energy source (initial conditions and expansion (big bang. By considering the ramifications of changing the laws of nature, initial condition parameters, and two variables in the big bang theory, the model demonstrates that traditional fine tuning is not the whole story when creating a universe. Supporting the model, space and “nothing” are related to the laws of nature, mathematics and multiverse possibilities. Speculation on the beginning of time completes the model.

  17. A Conceptual Modeling Approach for OLAP Personalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigós, Irene; Pardillo, Jesús; Mazón, Jose-Norberto; Trujillo, Juan

    Data warehouses rely on multidimensional models in order to provide decision makers with appropriate structures to intuitively analyze data with OLAP technologies. However, data warehouses may be potentially large and multidimensional structures become increasingly complex to be understood at a glance. Even if a departmental data warehouse (also known as data mart) is used, these structures would be also too complex. As a consequence, acquiring the required information is more costly than expected and decision makers using OLAP tools may get frustrated. In this context, current approaches for data warehouse design are focused on deriving a unique OLAP schema for all analysts from their previously stated information requirements, which is not enough to lighten the complexity of the decision making process. To overcome this drawback, we argue for personalizing multidimensional models for OLAP technologies according to the continuously changing user characteristics, context, requirements and behaviour. In this paper, we present a novel approach to personalizing OLAP systems at the conceptual level based on the underlying multidimensional model of the data warehouse, a user model and a set of personalization rules. The great advantage of our approach is that a personalized OLAP schema is provided for each decision maker contributing to better satisfy their specific analysis needs. Finally, we show the applicability of our approach through a sample scenario based on our CASE tool for data warehouse development.

  18. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to the bedrock

  19. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to

  20. Waste Disposal: Long-term Performance Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Hydrogeological Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marivoet, J

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on long-term performance studies are: (1) to develop a methodology and associated tools for assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal of all types of radioactive waste in clay formations and of the shallow-land burial of low-level waste; (2) to assess the performance and to identify the most influential elements of integrated repository systems for the disposal of radioactive waste; (3) to collect geological, piezometric and hydraulic data required for studying the hydrogeological system in north-eastern Belgium; (4) to develop a regional aquifer model for north-easter Belgium and to apply it in the performance assessments for the Mol site; (5) to test, verify and improve computer codes used in the performance assessment calculations of waste disposal concepts and contaminated sites (the computer codes simulate water flow and transport of radionuclides in engineered barriers, aquifers and contaminated sites). The scientific programme and achievements in 1999 are described.

  1. Karst connections between unconfined aquifers and the Upper Floridan aquifer in south Georgia: geophysical evidence and hydrogeological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, D. M.; Denizman, C.

    2011-12-01

    Buried karst features in sedimentary rocks of the south Georgia Coastal Plain present a challenge for hydrogeological models of recharge and confined flow within the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The Withlacoochee River, the trunk stream for the area, frequently disappears into subsurface caverns as it makes its way south to join the Suwannee River in northern Florida. The Withlacoochee also receives inputs from small ponds and bays which in turn receive spring and seep groundwater inputs. We have mapped karst topography at the "top of rock" using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Up to seven meters of relief is indicated for the paleotopography on Miocene to Pliocene rocks, contrasting with the more subdued relief of the modern landscape. Current stratigraphic and hydrogeological reconstructions do not incorporate this amount of relief or lateral variation in the confining beds. One "pipe" which is approximately four meters in diameter is being mapped in detail. We have field evidence at this location for rapid movement of surficial pond and river water with a meteoric signature through several separate strata of sedimentary rock into an aquifer in the Hawthorn formation. We use our geophysical and hydrological field evidence to constrain quantitative hydrogeological models for the flow rates into and out of both this upper aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer, which is generally considered to be confined by the clays of the Hawthorn.

  2. COSMO: a conceptual framework for service modelling and refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Steen, Maarten W.A.; Pokraev, S.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for service modelling and refinement, called the COSMO (COnceptual Service MOdelling) framework. This framework provides concepts to model and reason about services, and to support operations, such as composition and discovery, which are performed on them

  3. SR-Site Pre-modelling: Sensitivity studies of hydrogeological model variants for the Laxemar site using CONNECTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Hoek, Jaap; Hartley, Lee (Serco (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This study investigated a number of potential model variants of the SR-Can hydrogeological models of the temperate period and the sensitivity of the performance measures to the chosen parameters. This will help to guide the choice of potential variants for the SR-Site project and provide an input to design premises for the underground construction of the repository. It was found that variation of tunnel backfill properties in the tunnels had a significant effect on performance measures, but in the central area, ramps and shafts it had a lesser effect for those property values chosen. Variation of tunnel EDZ properties only had minor effects on performance measures. The presence of a crown space in the deposition tunnels had a significant effect on the tunnel performance measures and a lesser effect on the rock and EDZ performance measures. The presence of a deposition hole EDZ and spalling also had an effect on the performance measures.

  4. Final Technical Report - Integrated Hydrogeophysical and Hydrogeologic Driven Parameter Upscaling for Dual-Domain Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, John M

    2012-11-05

    The three major components of this research were: 1. Application of minimally invasive, cost effective hydrogeophysical techniques (surface and borehole), to generate fine scale (~1m or less) 3D estimates of subsurface heterogeneity. Heterogeneity is defined as spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity and/or hydrolithologic zones. 2. Integration of the fine scale characterization of hydrogeologic parameters with the hydrogeologic facies to upscale the finer scale assessment of heterogeneity to field scale. 3. Determination of the relationship between dual-domain parameters and practical characterization data.

  5. Applications of hydrogeological modelling methodology using NAMMU and CONNECTFLOW. Task 1, 2, 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko; Hartley, Lee; Holton, David

    2004-11-01

    It is planned to store spent nuclear fuel at depth in crystalline rock in Sweden. Site investigations are carried out to confirm if the suggested sites are appropriate. Modelling of groundwater flow and transport may be used to aid the site investigation and is also an important part of the safety assessment of a site. A good design of the repository will enhance the safety. To support the site investigation phase and the design of underground repositories four tasks have been performed. These tasks are all related to the CONNECTFLOW groundwater flow modelling concept. CONNECTFLOW is a suite of software that includes: the continuum porous medium (CPM) concept as implemented in NAMMU, the discrete fracture network (DFN) concept as implemented in NAPSAC, the ability to nest these two representations into a single combined model. As an integrated suite of hydrogeological modelling tools CONNECTFLOW offers several benefits: the ability to nest different scales of the model from the canister-scale to the regional scale to resolve detailed flow behaviour around the waste packages in the context of the overall hydrogeological situation at a site, nesting is flexible as embedded fine-scale CPM regions can be nested within coarser CPM models, multiple DFN regions can be nested inside CPM models, and CPM models can be nested within DFN models, nesting of regions is precise in that the system is solved in a single step with equations at the interface between nested regions that ensure both continuity of pressure and conservation of mass flux between the regions. This ensures a flux-balance between the two-scales, and hence offers greater consistency than two-step nesting or only implementing pressure continuity, the ability to upscale DFN models to obtain the equivalent CPM properties on a variety of scales ensures that the modeler can move between DFN and SC concepts easily in a self-consistent way. The aim of the current tasks is to demonstrate and test the CONNECTFLOW

  6. Hydrogeologic Framework Model for the Saturated-Zone Site-Scale Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Peterman

    2003-03-05

    Yucca Mountain is being evaluated as a potential site for development of a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Ground water is considered to be the principal means for transporting radionuclides that may be released from the potential repository to the accessible environment, thereby possibly affecting public health and safety. The ground-water hydrology of the region is a result of both the arid climatic conditions and the complex geology. Ground-water flow in the Yucca Mountain region generally can be described as consisting of two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick, generally deep-lying, Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Locally within the potential repository area, the flow is through a vertical sequence of welded and nonwelded tuffs that overlie the carbonate aquifer. Downgradient from the site, these tuffs terminate in basin fill deposits that are dominated by alluvium. Throughout the system, extensive and prevalent faults and fractures may control ground-water flow. The purpose of this Analysis/Modeling Report (AMR) is to document the three-dimensional (3D) hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) that has been constructed specifically to support development of a site-scale ground-water flow and transport model. Because the HFM provides the fundamental geometric framework for constructing the site-scale 3D ground-water flow model that will be used to evaluate potential radionuclide transport through the saturated zone (SZ) from beneath the potential repository to down-gradient compliance points, the HFM is important for assessing potential repository system performance. This AMR documents the progress of the understanding of the site-scale SZ ground-water flow system framework at Yucca Mountain based on data through July 1999. The

  7. Coupling of hydrogeological models with hydrogeophysical data to characterize seawater intrusion and shallow geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujean, J.; Kemna, A.; Engesgaard, P. K.; Hermans, T.; Vandenbohede, A.; Nguyen, F.

    2013-12-01

    case are tested. They consist in a thermal injection and storage of water in a shallow sandy aquifer. The use of a physically-based constraint accounting for the difference in conductivity between the formation and the tap injected water and based on the hydrogeological model calibrated first on temperatures is necessary to improve the parameter estimation. Results suggest that time-lapse ERT data may be limited but useful information for estimating groundwater flow and transport parameters for both the convection and conduction phases.

  8. Conceptual model of water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  9. Summary of hydrogeologic conditions at Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.; Gurban, I. [INTERA KB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Rhen, I. [VBB Viak AB (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    This report is a compilation of existing data and descriptions for use in the hydrogeologic modelling of three hypothetical sites for a nuclear waste repository in Sweden. It provides modelling teams with preliminary conceptual models, parameter values and uncertainties for inputs to numerical flow and transport models on the regional and site scales. Its primary objective is to provide consistent data sets and conceptual models so that the results of performance assessment modelling will be as comparable as possible. Where possible, this report also provides alternative conceptual models that should be evaluated as part of the modelers` sensitivity analysis. The information contained in this report is taken from several key sources, including the SKB SICADA database, the Swedish Geological Survey well database, the SKB Geographic Information System, the Swedish Land Survey databases, and published SKB reports. 148 refs, 25 tabs, 60 figs.

  10. Summary of hydrogeologic conditions at Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.; Gurban, I.; Rhen, I.

    1997-10-01

    This report is a compilation of existing data and descriptions for use in the hydrogeologic modelling of three hypothetical sites for a nuclear waste repository in Sweden. It provides modelling teams with preliminary conceptual models, parameter values and uncertainties for inputs to numerical flow and transport models on the regional and site scales. Its primary objective is to provide consistent data sets and conceptual models so that the results of performance assessment modelling will be as comparable as possible. Where possible, this report also provides alternative conceptual models that should be evaluated as part of the modelers' sensitivity analysis. The information contained in this report is taken from several key sources, including the SKB SICADA database, the Swedish Geological Survey well database, the SKB Geographic Information System, the Swedish Land Survey databases, and published SKB reports

  11. 3-D basin modelling of the Paris Basin: diagenetic and hydrogeologic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Jost, A.; Marsily, G. de

    2004-01-01

    A 3-D basin model of the Paris basin is presented in order to simulate through geological times fluid, heat and solute fluxes. This study emphasizes: i) the contribution of basin models to the quantitative hydrodynamic understanding of behaviour of the basin over geological times; ii) the additional use of Atmospheric General Circulation model (AGCM) to provide palaeo-climatic boundaries for a coupled flow and mass transfer modelling, constrained by geochemical and isotopic tracers and; iii) the integration of different types of data (qualitative and quantitative) to better constrain the simulations. Firstly, in a genetic way, basin model is used to reproduce geological, physical and chemical processes occurring in the course of the 248 My evolution of the Paris basin that ought to explain the present-day hydraulic properties at the regional scale. As basin codes try to reproduce some of these phenomena, they should be able to give a plausible idea of the regional-scale permeability distribution of the multi-layered system, of the pre-industrial hydrodynamic conditions within the aquifers and of the diagenesis timing and type of hydrodynamic processes involved. Secondly, climate records archived in the Paris basin groundwater suggest that climate and morphological features have an impact on the hydrogeological processes, particularly during the last 5 My. An Atmospheric General Circulation model is used with a refined spatial resolution centred on the Paris basin to reproduce the climate for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ky) and the middle Pliocene (3 My). These climates will be prescribed, through forcing functions to the hydrological code with the main objective of understanding the way aquifers and aquitards react under different climate conditions, the period and the duration of these effects. Finally, the Paris basin has been studied for a number of years by different scientific communities, thus a large amount of data has been collected. By

  12. Multiple-point statistical simulation for hydrogeological models: 3-D training image development and conditioning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Vignoli, Giulio; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Thanh Vu, Le; Keefer, Donald A.; Jørgensen, Flemming

    2017-12-01

    Most studies on the application of geostatistical simulations based on multiple-point statistics (MPS) to hydrogeological modelling focus on relatively fine-scale models and concentrate on the estimation of facies-level structural uncertainty. Much less attention is paid to the use of input data and optimal construction of training images. For instance, even though the training image should capture a set of spatial geological characteristics to guide the simulations, the majority of the research still relies on 2-D or quasi-3-D training images. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel strategy for 3-D MPS modelling characterized by (i) realistic 3-D training images and (ii) an effective workflow for incorporating a diverse group of geological and geophysical data sets. The study covers an area of 2810 km2 in the southern part of Denmark. MPS simulations are performed on a subset of the geological succession (the lower to middle Miocene sediments) which is characterized by relatively uniform structures and dominated by sand and clay. The simulated domain is large and each of the geostatistical realizations contains approximately 45 million voxels with size 100 m × 100 m × 5 m. Data used for the modelling include water well logs, high-resolution seismic data, and a previously published 3-D geological model. We apply a series of different strategies for the simulations based on data quality, and develop a novel method to effectively create observed spatial trends. The training image is constructed as a relatively small 3-D voxel model covering an area of 90 km2. We use an iterative training image development strategy and find that even slight modifications in the training image create significant changes in simulations. Thus, this study shows how to include both the geological environment and the type and quality of input information in order to achieve optimal results from MPS modelling. We present a practical workflow to build the training image and

  13. Conceptual models in the field of library catalogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Petek

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The publishing world is changing quickly and so must also bibliographic control. It is tirne to re-examine cataloguing rules and MARC formats. This can be done by the method of conceptual modelling. Some conceptual models are presented; an IFLA study on the functional requirements for bibliographic records is described in detail.

  14. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Cox, Ian; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Swift, Ben [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) carries out site investigations in two different candidate areas in Sweden with the objective of describing the in-situ conditions for a bedrock repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (IPLU) and a complete site investigation phase (KPLU). The results of IPLU are used as a basis for deciding on a subsequent KPLU phase. On the basis of the KPLU investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft). An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model, which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other geo-disciplines (hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models. Here, a numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to understand the zone of influence for groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are then performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to identify potential discharge areas for the site and using greater grid resolution. The main objective of this study is to support the development of a preliminary Site Description of the Forsmark area on a regional-scale based on the available data of 30 June 2004 and the previous Site Description. A more specific

  15. Conceptualizing Telehealth in Nursing Practice: Advancing a Conceptual Model to Fill a Virtual Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Daniel A; Penner, Jamie L

    2016-03-01

    Increasingly nurses use various telehealth technologies to deliver health care services; however, there has been a lag in research and generation of empirical knowledge to support nursing practice in this expanding field. One challenge to generating knowledge is a gap in development of a comprehensive conceptual model or theoretical framework to illustrate relationships of concepts and phenomena inherent to adoption of a broad range of telehealth technologies to holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature revealed eight published conceptual models, theoretical frameworks, or similar entities applicable to nursing practice. Many of these models focus exclusively on use of telephones and four were generated from qualitative studies, but none comprehensively reflect complexities of bridging nursing process and elements of nursing practice into use of telehealth. The purpose of this article is to present a review of existing conceptual models and frameworks, discuss predominant themes and features of these models, and present a comprehensive conceptual model for telehealth nursing practice synthesized from this literature for consideration and further development. This conceptual model illustrates characteristics of, and relationships between, dimensions of telehealth practice to guide research and knowledge development in provision of holistic person-centered care delivery to individuals by nurses through telehealth technologies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. HYDROGEOLOGY AND CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE KARSTIC COASTAL AQUIFER IN NORTHERN YUCATAN STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Villasuso-Pino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone of northern Yucatan Peninsula (YP is mainly constituted by Tertiary limestones, covered by Pleistocen limestones, where there exist swamps and estuary systems, locally called “rías”, with mouths connecting them to the sea and hence being a way for an important amount of groundwater to discharge, like in Ría Lagartos and Celestún. These limestones have karstic layers located at depths from 8 to 16 meters below terrain surface.  It is in these layers where groundwater mainly flows toward coast, passing below the sand dune and discharging in the sea in the form of submarine springs which in many cases manifest themselves on the marine surface depending on the hydraulic or piezometric fresh water head. The width of the superficial limestone within this coastal fringe, called “caliche”, varies from 5 to 10 kilometers in the study zone (Chuburna-Progreso-Chicxulub.  Its permeability is extremely low, so it constitutes a confining layer that impedes superficial waters to percolate toward groundwater.  The hydraulic head of the groundwater below this confining layer is over the mean sea level and also over the swamp water level, coastal lagoons and estuaries. There are two important hydrological phenomena that occur in this coastal fringe: 1 There is no recharge to the aquifer (groundwater due to limestone rock outcrops is impermeable or semipermeable; and 2 groundwater pressure is not lost, nor saline interfase is rised if the superficial layer is broken.  The groundwater pollution vulnerability within this coastal fringe is less than that for the superficial saline waters of swamps and estuaries, because of caliche’s low intrinsic permeability that impedes percolation.

  17. Use of a risk-based hydrogeologic model to set remedial goals in a Puget Sound basin watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, G.; Gould, L.; Martin, J.; Riley, M.; Floyd, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Port of Seattle is redeveloping industrial land for a container terminal along the southwest Seattle waterfront. Concrete, asphalt, ballast, and a landfill geomembrane will cover the site and prevent direct contact with surface soils, so remedial goals focused on groundwater contamination from subsurface soils. Groundwater at the site flows along an old stormwater drain, in a filled estuary of a small creek, to Elliott Bay. Remedial goals for a variety of organic chemicals, metals, and TPH in subsurface soils were identified to protect marine receptors in the bay and their consumers. Washington State and federal marine water quality criteria were the starting points in the risk-based model, and corresponding concentrations of chemicals in groundwater were back-calculated through a hydrogeologic model. The hydrogeologic model included a mixing zone component in the bay and dilution/attenuation factors along the groundwater transport pathway that were determined from onsite groundwater and surface water chemical concentrations. A rearranged Summers equation was then applied in a second back-calculation to determine subsurface soil concentrations corresponding to the back calculated groundwater concentrations. The equation was based on calculated aquifer flow rates for the small creek watershed and rates of infiltration through surface materials calculated for each redevelopment soil cover type by the HELP model. Results of the risk-based hydrogeologic back-calculation model indicate that, depending on soil cover type at the site, concentrations in subsurface soils of PCBs from 2 to 1,000 mg/kg and of TPH up to free phase concentration would not result in risks to marine organisms or their consumers in Elliott Bay

  18. Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the conceptual and numerical models used for modeling of unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid (water and air) flow and solute transport processes. This is in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0030 Conceptual and Numerical Models for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Processes, Rev 00''. The conceptual and numerical modeling approaches described in this AMR are used for models of UZ flow and transport in fractured, unsaturated rock under ambient and thermal conditions, which are documented in separate AMRs. This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR), the Near Field Environment PMR, and the following models: Calibrated Properties Model; UZ Flow Models and Submodels; Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes Model; Thermal-Hydrologic-Chemical (THC) Seepage Model; Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model; Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA); and UZ Radionuclide Transport Models

  19. Role of conceptual models in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.; Moran, T.P.; Brown, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    A crucial objective in plant operation (and perhaps licensing) ought to be to explicitly train operators to develop, perhaps with computer aids, robust conceptual models of the plants they control. The question is whether we are actually able to develop robust conceptual models and validate their robustness. Cognitive science is just beginning to come to grips with this problem. This paper describes some of the evolving technology for building conceptual models of physical mechanisms and some of the implications of such models in the context of nuclear power plant operation

  20. National Identity: Conceptual models, discourses and political change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of conceptual models or discourses. This is especially important in cases that involve conflictive political issues such as national and ethnic identity. The article reports on a historical project with a linguistic dimension in my department (PI Stuart Ward, cf. Ward 2004), which aims to throw light......Cognitive Linguistics has demonstrated the applicability of a conceptual approach to the understanding of political issues, cf. Lakoff (2008) and many others. From a different perspective, critical discourse analysis has approached political concepts with a focus on issues involving potentially...... divisive features such as race, class, gender and ethnic identity. Although discourses are not identical to conceptual models, conceptual models are typically manifested in discourse, and discourses are typically reflections of conceptualizations, a theme explored e.g. in Hart and Lukes (2007). As argued...

  1. Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling (TCM): User's Guide and Reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehne, F.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1997-01-01

    The Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling (TCM) is a suite of graphical editors for a number of graphical notation systems that are used in software specification methods. The notations can be used to represent the conceptual structure of the software - hence the name of the suite. This manual describes

  2. Soft computing and hydrogeologic characterization of the Serra Geral-Guarani aquifer system, Parana state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, F.; Friedel, M. J.; Ferreira, F. J.; Fraser, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Self-organizing map (SOM) technique is used to estimate missing hydrogeologic (hydraulic and hydrochemical) properties and evaluate potential connectivity between the Serra Geral and Guarani aquifer system. K-means clustering of SOM neurons is useful for identifying hydrogeologic units (conceptual models) in which the Serra Geral waters are carbonate-calcium and carbonate-magnesium, and Guarani waters are sodium, chloride, fluoride and sulfate as characteristic elements. SOM predictions appear generally consistent with current connectivity models with vertical fluxes from Guarani aquifer strongly influenced by geological structures. Additionally, we identify other new hydrochemical facies in the Serra Geral aquifer indicating areas with potential connections between the two aquifers.

  3. Sensitivity analysis and development of calibration methodology for near-surface hydrogeology model of Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneljung, Maria; Sassner, Mona; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran

    2007-11-01

    This report describes modelling where the hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology, advective transport mechanisms, and the contact between groundwater and surface water within the SKB site investigation area at Laxemar. In the MIKE SHE system, surface water flow is described with the one-dimensional modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with the groundwater flow module in MIKE SHE. In early 2008, a supplementary data set will be available and a process of updating, rebuilding and calibrating the MIKE SHE model based on this data set will start. Before the calibration on the new data begins, it is important to gather as much knowledge as possible on calibration methods, and to identify critical calibration parameters and areas within the model that require special attention. In this project, the MIKE SHE model has been further developed. The model area has been extended, and the present model also includes an updated bedrock model and a more detailed description of the surface stream network. The numerical model has been updated and optimized, especially regarding the modelling of evapotranspiration and the unsaturated zone, and the coupling between the surface stream network in MIKE 11 and the overland flow in MIKE SHE. An initial calibration has been made and a base case has been defined and evaluated. In connection with the calibration, the most important changes made in the model were the following: The evapotranspiration was reduced. The infiltration capacity was reduced. The hydraulic conductivities of the Quaternary deposits in the water-saturated part of the subsurface were reduced. Data from one surface water level monitoring station, four surface water discharge monitoring stations and 43 groundwater level monitoring stations (SSM series boreholes) have been used to evaluate and calibrate the model. The base case simulations showed a reasonable agreement

  4. Sensitivity analysis and development of calibration methodology for near-surface hydrogeology model of Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneljung, Maria; Sassner, Mona; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB, Lilla Bommen 1, SE-411 04 Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2007-11-15

    This report describes modelling where the hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology, advective transport mechanisms, and the contact between groundwater and surface water within the SKB site investigation area at Laxemar. In the MIKE SHE system, surface water flow is described with the one-dimensional modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with the groundwater flow module in MIKE SHE. In early 2008, a supplementary data set will be available and a process of updating, rebuilding and calibrating the MIKE SHE model based on this data set will start. Before the calibration on the new data begins, it is important to gather as much knowledge as possible on calibration methods, and to identify critical calibration parameters and areas within the model that require special attention. In this project, the MIKE SHE model has been further developed. The model area has been extended, and the present model also includes an updated bedrock model and a more detailed description of the surface stream network. The numerical model has been updated and optimized, especially regarding the modelling of evapotranspiration and the unsaturated zone, and the coupling between the surface stream network in MIKE 11 and the overland flow in MIKE SHE. An initial calibration has been made and a base case has been defined and evaluated. In connection with the calibration, the most important changes made in the model were the following: The evapotranspiration was reduced. The infiltration capacity was reduced. The hydraulic conductivities of the Quaternary deposits in the water-saturated part of the subsurface were reduced. Data from one surface water level monitoring station, four surface water discharge monitoring stations and 43 groundwater level monitoring stations (SSM series boreholes) have been used to evaluate and calibrate the model. The base case simulations showed a reasonable agreement

  5. Towards a Model of Technology Adoption: A Conceptual Model Proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Pat; Moreton, Rob

    A conceptual model for Information Communication Technology (ICT) adoption by Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is proposed. The research uses several ICT adoption models as its basis with theoretical underpinning provided by the Diffusion of Innovation theory and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Taking an exploratory research approach the model was investigated amongst 200 SMEs whose core business is ICT. Evidence from this study demonstrates that these SMEs face the same issues as all other industry sectors. This work points out weaknesses in SMEs environments regarding ICT adoption and suggests what they may need to do to increase the success rate of any proposed adoption. The methodology for development of the framework is described and recommendations made for improved Government-led ICT adoption initiatives. Application of the general methodology has resulted in new opportunities to embed the ethos and culture surrounding the issues into the framework of new projects developed as a result of Government intervention. A conceptual model is proposed that may lead to a deeper understanding of the issues under consideration.

  6. A conceptual model for the development and management of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A conceptual model for the development and management of the Cape Flats ... rainfall; this rainfall pattern has implications for recharge and water management issues in ... Keywords: water resource management, Cape Town, water quality, ...

  7. Technologies for conceptual modelling and intelligent query formulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Alberts, R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project is to devise and evaluate algorithms, methodologies, techniques and interaction paradigms to build a tool for conceptual modelling and query management of complex data repositories based on a framework with solid formal...

  8. Extracting conceptual models from user stories with Visual Narrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, Garm; Robeer, Marcel; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; van der Werf, Jan Martijn E. M.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    2017-01-01

    Extracting conceptual models from natural language requirements can help identify dependencies, redundancies, and conflicts between requirements via a holistic and easy-to-understand view that is generated from lengthy textual specifications. Unfortunately, existing approaches never gained traction

  9. Conceptual Model for Effective Sports Marketing in Nigeria | Akarah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptual Model for Effective Sports Marketing in Nigeria. ... that are influenced by the sports market mix and sports consumers that are influenced by psychological factors and notes that; ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  10. Southern marl prairies conceptual ecological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S.M.; Loftus, W.F.; Gaiser, E.E.; Huffman, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    About 190,000 ha of higher-elevation marl prairies flank either side of Shark River Slough in the southern Everglades. Water levels typically drop below the ground surface each year in this landscape. Consequently, peat soil accretion is inhibited, and substrates consist either of calcitic marl produced by algal periphyton mats or exposed limestone bedrock. The southern marl prairies support complex mosaics of wet prairie, sawgrass sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), tree islands, and tropical hammock communities and a high diversity of plant species. However, relatively short hydroperiods and annual dry downs provide stressful conditions for aquatic fauna, affecting survival in the dry season when surface water is absent. Here, we present a conceptual ecological model developed for this landscape through scientific concensus, use of empirical data, and modeling. The two major societal drivers affecting the southern marl prairies are water management practices and agricultural and urban development. These drivers lead to five groups of ecosystem stressors: loss of spatial extent and connectivity, shortened hydroperiod and increased drought severity, extended hydroperiod and drying pattern reversals, introduction and spread of non-native trees, and introduction and spread of non-native fishes. Major ecological attributes include periphyton mats, plant species diversity and community mosaic, Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), marsh fishes and associated aquatic fauna prey base, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and wading bird early dry season foraging. Water management and development are hypothesized to have a negative effect on the ecological attributes of the southern marl prairies in the following ways. Periphyton mats have decreased in cover in areas where hydroperiod has been significantly reduced and changed in community composition due to inverse responses to increased nutrient availability. Plant species diversity and

  11. Conceptual Models and Guidelines for Clinical Assessment of Financial Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The ability to manage financial affairs is a life skill of critical importance, and neuropsychologists are increasingly asked to assess financial capacity across a variety of settings. Sound clinical assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of applicable clinical conceptual models and principles. However, the literature has presented relatively little conceptual guidance for clinicians concerning financial capacity and its assessment. This article seeks to address this gap. The article presents six clinical models of financial capacity : (1) the early gerontological IADL model of Lawton, (2) the clinical skills model and (3) related cognitive psychological model developed by Marson and colleagues, (4) a financial decision-making model adapting earlier decisional capacity work of Appelbaum and Grisso, (5) a person-centered model of financial decision-making developed by Lichtenberg and colleagues, and (6) a recent model of financial capacity in the real world developed through the Institute of Medicine. Accompanying presentation of the models is discussion of conceptual and practical perspectives they represent for clinician assessment. Based on the models, the article concludes by presenting a series of conceptually oriented guidelines for clinical assessment of financial capacity. In summary, sound assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of clinical conceptual models and principles. Awareness of such models, principles and guidelines will strengthen and advance clinical assessment of financial capacity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Regional hydrogeological simulations. Numerical modelling using ConnectFlow. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Hoch, Andrew; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) carries out site investigations in two different candidate areas in Sweden with the objective of describing the in situ conditions for a bedrock repository for spent nuclear fuel. The two candidate areas are named Forsmark and Simpevarp. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (IPLU) and a complete site investigation phase (KPLU). The results of IPLU are used as a basis for deciding on a subsequent KPLU phase. On the basis of the KPLU investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft).An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other geo-disciplines (hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models.Here, a numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to understand the zone of influence for groundwater flow that effects the Simpevarp area. Transport calculations are then performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (tens of square kilometres) to identify potential discharge areas for the site. The transport from the two site-scale release areas (a few square kilometres) at the Simpevarp site and the Laxemar site are also considered more specifically and using greater grid resolution.The main

  13. GIS-based model of groundwater occurrence using geological and hydrogeological data in Precambrian Oban Massif southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikakwe, Gregory Udie

    2018-06-01

    This research modeled geological and hydrogeological controls on groundwater occurrence in Oban Massif and environs southeastern Nigeria. Topographical, hydrogeological, and structural maps, including lithology samples from drilled bores, well completion, and pumping test data in the study area were procured. Collection of coordinates of rock sample locations and structural data on strike and dip of rock exposures was collected. Geological and structural information collected was overlaid on the topographical, hydrogeological and structural map and digitized to produce the geological map of the study area. Thematic map on geological groundwater prospect map of the study was prepared using multicriteria evaluation. Relative weights were assigned to various rock types based on their relative contribution to groundwater occurrence and the map was reclassified using geographic information system (ArcGIS10.1) analysis. Depth ranges of the various lithologic units from drilled boreholes were used to construct lithologic correlation section of the boreholes across the study area using RockWorks16 Program software. Hydrogeological parameters such as storativity, specific capacity, transmissivity, drawdown, pumping rate, static water level, total depth, and well yield were computed from well completion reports and aquifer test. Results shows that the geologic groundwater prospect map was categorized into very good (28.73 m2), good (9.66 m2), moderate (35.08 m2), fair (49.38 m2), and poor (77.63 m2) zones. Aquifer parameters showed ranges such as (specific capacity (1.81-31.16 m2/day/m), transmissivity (0.0033-12 m2/day), storativity (9.4 × 10-3-2.3), drawdown (2.2-17.65 m), pumping rate (0.75-3.57 l/s), static water level (0-20.5 m), and total depth (3.3-61 m). Borehole depths obtained in the basement are shallower than those in the sedimentary area. Aquifer test parameters obtained from boreholes across the study indicate better correspondence with zones identified as

  14. Modeling of water transfer to aquifers: application to the determination of groundwater recharge by inversion in a complex hydrogeological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassane-Mamadou-Maina, Fadji-Zaouna

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main available water resource for many countries; they are mainly replenished by water from precipitation, called groundwater recharge. Due to its great importance, management of groundwater resources is more essential than ever, and is achieved through mathematical models which offer us a better understanding of physical phenomena as well as their prediction. Hydrogeological Systems are generally complex thus characterized by a highly variable dynamic over time and space. These complexities have attracted the attention of many hydro geologists and many sophisticated models that can handle these issues and describe these Systems accurately were developed. Unfortunately, modeling groundwater recharge is still a challenge in groundwater resource management. Generally, groundwater models are used to simulate aquifers flow without a good estimation of recharge and its spatial-temporal distribution. as groundwater recharge rates show spatial-temporal variability due to climatic conditions, land use, and hydrogeological heterogeneity, these methods have limitations in dealing with these characteristics. To overcome these limitations, a coupled model which simulates flow in the unsaturated zone and recharge as well as groundwater flow was developed. The flow in the unsaturated zone is solved either with resolution of Richards equation or with empirical models while the diffusivity equation governs flow in the saturated zone. Robust numerical methods were used to solve these equations: we apply nonconforming finite element to solve the diffusivity equation and we used an accurate and efficient method for solving the Richards equation. In the natural environments, parameters that control these hydrological mechanisms aren't accurately known or even unknowns, only variations of piezometric heads are commonly available. Hence, ail parameters related to unsaturated and saturated flows will be identified by using only these piezometric data

  15. A conceptual model for determining career choice of CHROME alumna based on farmer's conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lisa Simmons

    This qualitative program evaluation examines the career decision-making processes and career choices of nine, African American women who participated in the Cooperating Hampton Roads Organization for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) and who graduated from urban, rural or suburban high schools in the year 2000. The CHROME program is a nonprofit, pre-college intervention program that encourages underrepresented minority and female students to enter science, technically related, engineering, and math (STEM) career fields. The study describes career choices and decisions made by each participant over a five-year period since high school graduation. Data was collected through an Annual Report, Post High School Questionnaires, Environmental Support Questionnaires, Career Choice Questionnaires, Senior Reports, and standardized open-ended interviews. Data was analyzed using a model based on Helen C. Farmer's Conceptual Models, John Ogbu's Caste Theory and Feminist Theory. The CHROME program, based on its stated goals and tenets, was also analyzed against study findings. Findings indicated that participants received very low levels of support from counselors and teachers to pursue STEM careers and high levels of support from parents and family, the CHROME program and financial backing. Findings of this study also indicated that the majority of CHROME alumna persisted in STEM careers. The most successful participants, in terms of undergraduate degree completion and occupational prestige, were the African American women who remained single, experienced no critical incidents, came from a middle class to upper middle class socioeconomic background, and did not have children.

  16. Hydrogeological modelling of the eastern region of Areco river locally detailed on Atucha I and II nuclear power plants area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattone, Natalia I.; Fuentes, Nestor O.

    2009-01-01

    Water flow behaviour of Pampeano aquifer was modeled using Visual Mod-flow software Package 2.8.1 with the assumption of a free aquifer, within the region of the Areco river and extending to the rivers of 'Canada Honda' and 'de la Cruz'. Steady state regime was simulated and grid refinement allows obtaining locally detailed calculation in the area of Atucha I and II Nuclear power plants, in order to compute unsteady situations as the consequence of water flow variations from and to the aquifer, enabling the model to study the movement of possible contaminant particles in the hydrogeologic system. In this work the effects of rivers action, the recharge conditions and the flow lines are analyzed, taking always into account the range of reliability of obtained results, considering the incidence of uncertainties introduced by data input system, the estimates and interpolation of parameters used. (author)

  17. Impact of model complexity and multi-scale data integration on the estimation of hydrogeological parameters in a dual-porosity aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Mas, Elena; Bianchi, Marco; Mansour, Majdi

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the impact of model complexity and multi-scale prior hydrogeological data on the interpretation of pumping test data in a dual-porosity aquifer (the Chalk aquifer in England, UK). In order to characterize the hydrogeological properties, different approaches ranging from a traditional analytical solution (Theis approach) to more sophisticated numerical models with automatically calibrated input parameters are applied. Comparisons of results from the different approaches show that neither traditional analytical solutions nor a numerical model assuming a homogenous and isotropic aquifer can adequately explain the observed drawdowns. A better reproduction of the observed drawdowns in all seven monitoring locations is instead achieved when medium and local-scale prior information about the vertical hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution is used to constrain the model calibration process. In particular, the integration of medium-scale vertical K variations based on flowmeter measurements lead to an improvement in the goodness-of-fit of the simulated drawdowns of about 30%. Further improvements (up to 70%) were observed when a simple upscaling approach was used to integrate small-scale K data to constrain the automatic calibration process of the numerical model. Although the analysis focuses on a specific case study, these results provide insights about the representativeness of the estimates of hydrogeological properties based on different interpretations of pumping test data, and promote the integration of multi-scale data for the characterization of heterogeneous aquifers in complex hydrogeological settings.

  18. Undergraduate Education in Hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, John Richard, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a course at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire which improved instruction in physical hydrogeology, chemical hydrogeology, and water resources. Describes 14 laboratory activities including objectives, methods, and a list of equipment needed. (Author/MVL)

  19. Identifying students’ mental models of sound propagation: The role of conceptual blending in understanding conceptual change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeslav Hrepic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated introductory physics students’ mental models of sound propagation. We used a phenomenographic method to analyze the data in the study. In addition to the scientifically accepted Wave model, students used the “Entity” model to describe the propagation of sound. In this latter model sound is a self-standing entity, different from the medium through which it propagates. All other observed alternative models contain elements of both Entity and Wave models, but at the same time are distinct from each of the constituent models. We called these models “hybrid” or “blend” models. We discuss how students use these models in various contexts before and after instruction and how our findings contribute to the understanding of conceptual change. Implications of our findings for teaching are summarized.

  20. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes. 86 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues are raised by various critics. In this paper I provide some perspective on issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass-action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes

  2. Guide for developing conceptual models for ecological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W., II.

    1996-05-01

    Ecological conceptual models are the result of the problem formulation phase of an ecological risk assessment, which is an important component of the Remedial Investigation process. They present hypotheses of how the site contaminants might affect the site ecology. The contaminant sources, routes, media, routes, and endpoint receptors are presented in the form of a flow chart. This guide is for preparing the conceptual models; use of this guide will standardize the models so that they will be of high quality, useful to the assessment process, and sufficiently consistent so that connections between sources of exposure and receptors can be extended across operable units (OU). Generic conceptual models are presented for source, aquatic integrator, groundwater integrator, and terrestrial OUs

  3. Compilation of data used for the analysis of the geological and hydrogeological DFN models. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanson, Jan; Fox, Aaron; Oehman, Johan; Rhen, Ingvar

    2008-08-01

    This report provides an overview and compilation of the various data that constitutes the basis for construction of the geological and hydrogeological discrete feature network (DFN) models as part of model version SDM-Site Laxemar. This includes a review of fracture data in boreholes and in outcrop. Furthermore, the basis for the construction of lineament maps is given as well as a review of the hydraulic test data from cored and percussion-drilled boreholes. An emphasis is put on graphical representation of borehole logs in the form of composites of geological, hydrogeological and even hydrogeochemical data in the case of cored boreholes. One major contribution is a compilation of characteristics of minor local deformation zones (MDZs) identified in cored boreholes. Basic orientation data and fracture intensity data are presented as a function of depth for individual boreholes. The coupling between hydrogeological data and geological data is further refined in plots of Posiva flow log (PFL) data vs. geological single hole interpretation data

  4. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description Forsmark area version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Stigsson, Martin; Svensson, Urban

    2005-12-01

    A numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to study the zone of influence for variable-density groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to test the sensitivity to different hydrogeological uncertainties and the need for far-field realism. The main objectives of the regional flow modelling were to achieve the following: I. Palaeo-hydrogeological understanding: An improved understanding of the palaeohydrogeological conditions is necessary in order to gain credibility for the site descriptive model in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This requires modelling of the groundwater flow from the last glaciation up to present-day with comparisons against measured TDS and other hydro-geochemical measures. II. Simulation of flow paths: The simulation and visualisation of flow paths from a tentative repository area is a means for describing the role of the current understanding of the modelled hydrogeological conditions in the target volume, i.e. the conditions of primary interest for Safety Assessment. Of particular interest here is demonstration of the need for detailed far-field realism in the numerical simulations. The motivation for a particular model size (and resolution) and set of boundary conditions for a realistic description of the recharge and discharge connected to the flow at repository depth is an essential part of the groundwater flow path simulations. The numerical modelling was performed by two separate modelling teams, the ConnectFlow Team and the DarcyTools Team. The work presented in this report was based on the computer code DarcyTools developed by Computer-aided Fluid Engineering. DarcyTools is a kind of equivalent porous media (EPM) flow code specifically designed to treat flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock intersected by transmissive

  5. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description Forsmark area version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to study the zone of influence for variable-density groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to test the sensitivity to different hydrogeological uncertainties and the need for far-field realism. The main objectives of the regional flow modelling were to achieve the following: I. Palaeo-hydrogeological understanding: An improved understanding of the palaeohydrogeological conditions is necessary in order to gain credibility for the site descriptive model in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This requires modelling of the groundwater flow from the last glaciation up to present-day with comparisons against measured TDS and other hydro-geochemical measures. II. Simulation of flow paths: The simulation and visualisation of flow paths from a tentative repository area is a means for describing the role of the current understanding of the modelled hydrogeological conditions in the target volume, i.e. the conditions of primary interest for Safety Assessment. Of particular interest here is demonstration of the need for detailed far-field realism in the numerical simulations. The motivation for a particular model size (and resolution) and set of boundary conditions for a realistic description of the recharge and discharge connected to the flow at repository depth is an essential part of the groundwater flow path simulations. The numerical modelling was performed by two separate modelling teams, the ConnectFlow Team and the DarcyTools Team. The work presented in this report was based on the computer code DarcyTools developed by Computer-aided Fluid Engineering. DarcyTools is a kind of equivalent porous media (EPM) flow code specifically designed to treat flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock intersected by transmissive

  6. Seismic-refraction field experiments on Galapagos Islands: A quantitative tool for hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelinet, M.; Domínguez, C.; Fortin, J.; Violette, S.

    2018-01-01

    Due to their complex structure and the difficulty of collecting data, the hydrogeology of basaltic islands remains misunderstood, and the Galapagos islands are not an exception. Geophysics allows the possibility to describe the subsurface of these islands and to quantify the hydrodynamical properties of its ground layers, which can be useful to build robust hydrogeological models. In this paper, we present seismic refraction data acquired on Santa Cruz and San Cristobal, the two main inhabited islands of Galapagos. We investigated sites with several hydrogeological contexts, located at different altitudes and at different distances to the coast. At each site, a 2D P-wave velocity profile is built, highlighting unsaturated and saturated volcanic layers. At the coastal sites, seawater intrusion is identified and basal aquifer is characterized in terms of variations in compressional sound wave velocities, according to saturation state. At highlands sites, the limits between soils and lava flows are identified. On San Cristobal Island, the 2D velocity profile obtained on a mid-slope site (altitude 150 m), indicates the presence of a near surface freshwater aquifer, which is in agreement with previous geophysical studies and the hydrogeological conceptual model developed for this island. The originality of our paper is the use of velocity data to compute field porosity based on poroelasticity theory and the Biot-Gassmann equations. Given that porosity is a key parameter in quantitative hydrogeological models, it is a step forward to a better understanding of shallow fluid flows within a complex structure, such as Galapagos volcanoes.

  7. Stability analysis of rockmass using a hydrogeologic model of groundwater flow at an underground limestone mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, H.; Kim, D.; Kim, G.; Kim, D.; Cheong, S.

    2017-12-01

    The safety and environmental issues should be addressed for sustainable mining operations. One of the key factors is the groundwater flow into underground mine workings, which will affect the overall workability and efficiency of the mining operation. Prediction of the groundwater inflow requires a detailed knowledge of the geologic conditions, including the presence of major faults and other geologic structures at the mine site. The hydrologic boundaries and depth of the phreatic surface of the mine area, as well as other relevant properties of the rockmass, are also provided. The stability of underground structures, in terms of the maximum stresses and deformations within the rockmass, can be analyzed using either the total stress or the effective stress approaches. Both the dried and saturated conditions should be considered with appropriate safety factors, as the distribution of the water pressure within the rockmass resulted from the groundwater flow directly affects the stability. In some cases, the rockmass rating systems such as the RMR and Q-systems are also applied. Various numerical codes have been used to construct the hydrogeologic models of mine sites, and the MINEDW by Itasca is one of those groundwater flow model codes developed to simulate groundwater flow related to mining. In this study, with a 3D hydrogeologic model constructed using the MINEDW for an underground limestone mine, the rate of mine water inflow and the porewater pressure were estimated. The stability of mine pillars and adits was analyzed adopting the porewater pressure and effective stress developed in the rockmass. The results were also compared with those from other 2D stability analysis procedures.

  8. Hydrogeology of Montserrat review and new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioch Hemmings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The tropical, active volcanic arc island of Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, Caribbean. Study focus: New insights into hydrological recharge distribution, measurements of aquifer permeability, and geological and hydrological field observations from Montserrat are combined with a review of the current understanding of volcanic island hydrology. The aim is to begin to develop a conceptual model for the hydrology of Montserrat, and to inform and stimulate further investigation into the hydrology of volcanic arc islands, by combining a review of the current understanding of essential components of the hydrological system with fresh analysis of existing data, and new observations, data collection and analysis. This study provides new insights into hydrological recharge distribution, measurements of aquifer permeability, and geological and hydrological field observations from Montserrat. New hydrological insights for the region: A new groundwater recharge model predicts whole island recharge of 266 mm/year, between 10% and 20% of annual rainfall. Core scale permeability tests reveal ranges from 10−14 to 10−12 m2 for volcaniclastic rocks with coarse matrix, to a minimum of 10−18 m2 for andesitic lavas and volcaniclastics with fine or altered matrix. Analysis of historical pumping tests on aquifers in reworked, channel and alluvial sediment indicate permeabilities ∼10−10 m2. Springs at elevations between 200 and 400 m above mean sea level on Centre Hills currently discharge over 45 L/s. High discharge require a reasonably laterally continuous low permeability body. Contrasting conceptual models are presented to illustrate two potential hydrogeological scenarios. New field observations also reveal systematic spatial variations in spring water temperature and specific electrical conductivity indicating that meteoric waters supplying the springs are mixed with a deeper groundwater source at some sites. Keywords: Volcanic island

  9. Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian S.

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini......-world are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...

  10. A Conceptual Framework of Business Model Emerging Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Goumagias, Nik; Fernandes, Kiran; Cabras, Ignazio; Li, Feng; Shao, Jianhao; Devlin, Sam; Hodge, Victoria Jane; Cowling, Peter Ivan; Kudenko, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an environmentally driven conceptual framework of Business Model change. Business models acquired substantial momentum in academic literature during the past decade. Several studies focused on what exactly constitutes a Business Model (role model, recipe, architecture etc.) triggering a theoretical debate about the Business Model’s components and their corresponding dynamics and relationships. In this paper, we argue that for Business Models as cognitive structures,...

  11. Comparison of two conceptual models of flow using the TSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Several new capabilities have been added to the Total-System Analyzer (TSA), including a new model of unsaturated flow and transport, two new models of source releases, a different computational method for saturated transport, and gas-release capability. In this paper these new capabilities are described, and a comparison is made of results from the two different conceptual models of unsaturated flow that are now part of the TSA, a composite-porosity model and a simple fracture-flow model

  12. Conceptual language models for domain-specific retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Trieschnigg, D.; de Rijke, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, various meta-languages have been used to manually enrich documents with conceptual knowledge of some kind. Examples include keyword assignment to citations or, more recently, tags to websites. In this paper we propose generative concept models as an extension to query modeling within

  13. River City High School Guidance Services: A Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Coll. Testing Program, Iowa City, IA.

    This model describes how the guidance staff at a hypothetical high school communicated the effectiveness of the guidance program to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. A description of the high school is presented, and guidance services and personnel are described. A conceptual model responding to student needs is outlined along with…

  14. Conceptual basis for developing of trainig models in complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents conceptual basis for developing of training models of interactive assembling system for automatic building of application software systems, ... software generation, such as: program module compatibility, formalization of computer interaction and choosing of formal model for human machine interface.

  15. Regionalising Parameters of a Conceptual Rainfall-Runoff Model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IHACRES, a lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff model, was calibrated to six catchments ranging in size from 49km2 to 600 km2 within the upper Tana River basin to obtain a set of model parameters that characterise the hydrological behaviour within the region. Physical catchment attributes indexing topography, soil and ...

  16. Conceptual Model of Artifacts for Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of design science research artifacts. The model views an artifact at three levels. At the artifact level a selected artifact is viewed as a combination of material and immaterial aspects and a set of representations hereof. At the design level the selected artifact...

  17. Menthor Editor: An Ontology-Driven Conceptual Modeling Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João Luiz; Sales, Tiago Prince; Guerson, John; Braga, Bernardo F.B; Brasileiro, Freddy; Sobral, Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    The lack of well-founded constructs in ontology tools can lead to the construction of non-intended models. In this demonstration we present the Menthor Editor, an ontology-driven conceptual modelling platform which incorporates the theories of the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO). We illustrate

  18. Virtual Business Collaboration Conceptual Knowledge Model (VBCKM)

    OpenAIRE

    Morcous Massoud Yassa; Fatama A Omara; Hesham A Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of virtual business collaboration modeling, many pervious works have been accepted to consider some essential virtual business collaborative models. A practical dynamic virtual organization may be a combination of those models and some other elemental features with some modifications to meet the business opportunity requirements. Therefore, some guidelines and rules are needed to help in constructing a practical collaboration model. This work aims to determine the essential...

  19. Motivation to Improve Work through Learning: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kueh Hua Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to enhance our current understanding of the transfer of training by proposing a conceptual model that supports the mediating role of motivation to improve work through learning about the relationship between social support and the transfer of training. The examination of motivation to improve work through motivation to improve work through a learning construct offers a holistic view pertaining to a learner's profile in a workplace setting, which emphasizes learning for the improvement of work performance. The proposed conceptual model is expected to benefit human resource development theory building, as well as field practitioners by emphasizing the motivational aspects crucial for successful transfer of training.

  20. A Conceptual Model for Leadership Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderscheid, Steven V.; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model of leadership transition based on an integrative review of literature. The article establishes a compelling case for focusing on leadership transitions as an area for study and leadership development practitioner intervention. The proposed model in this study identifies important success factors…

  1. Modeling of 3d Space-time Surface of Potential Fields and Hydrogeologic Modeling of Nuclear Waste Disposal Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, V.; Bondarenko, Y.; Zayonts, I.; Rudenko, Y.

    extension and consolidation are identified. These data correlate with results of seismic and mining works. Hydrogeological 3D Model. The hydrogeological 3D Model de- velopment starts from the upper hydrodynamic zone, for which the data are available on hydraulic parameters. After calibration of the upper model elements, the deep part of the model is developed using data about the permeability structure of the crystalline rock massif, obtained from the 3D STSM. The results of analysis and the discrepancy of hydrodynamic regime modeling are used to refine the 3D Model for the rocks per- meability structure. This iterative process of consecutive correlation and refinement of model may be repeated many times. As a result of this technique implementation, the areas of active and very slow water exchange are found, and the system is revealed of vertically alternating zones of enhanced filtration and weak permeability. Based on these data, the sites are pre-selected, which are prospective for subsequently more detailed works on grounding the possibility of nuclear wastes isolation in geological formations. The use of the methodology described above is expedient at the stage of more detailed works, if the corresponding complex is provided of geophysical, hydro- geological, field testing and modeling investigations. Summary Successful testing of 3D STSM technology was carried out starting from 1997 till 1999 by the Ministry of Emergency Situations and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine during the realization of the project "Choosing the favorable geological structures for safe isolation of dangerous nuclear wastes of Chernobyl NPP". The performed works enabled us to draw prelim- inary 3D Space-Time Surface Model, structural-kinematic and geodynamic map of 2 the region understudy. As a result, two regions were selected, which are characterized by existence of geodynamic processes of cooling, thermal shrinkage and structural substance compression of geospace medium. Such regions seem to be the

  2. The ACTIVE conceptual framework as a structural equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L.; Payne, Brennan R.; Casanova, Ramon; Davoudzadeh, Pega; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Farias, Sarah; Giovannetti, Tania; Ip, Edward H.; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W.; Schaie, K. Warner; Thomas, Kelsey; Willis, Sherry; Jones, Richard N.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Study Context Conceptual frameworks are analytic models at a high level of abstraction. Their operationalization can inform randomized trial design and sample size considerations. Methods The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) conceptual framework was empirically tested using structural equation modeling (N=2,802). ACTIVE was guided by a conceptual framework for cognitive training in which proximal cognitive abilities (memory, inductive reasoning, speed of processing) mediate treatment-related improvement in primary outcomes (everyday problem-solving, difficulty with activities of daily living, everyday speed, driving difficulty), which in turn lead to improved secondary outcomes (health-related quality of life, health service utilization, mobility). Measurement models for each proximal, primary, and secondary outcome were developed and tested using baseline data. Each construct was then combined in one model to evaluate fit (RMSEA, CFI, normalized residuals of each indicator). To expand the conceptual model and potentially inform future trials, evidence of modification of structural model parameters was evaluated by age, years of education, sex, race, and self-rated health status. Results Preconceived measurement models for memory, reasoning, speed of processing, everyday problem-solving, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) difficulty, everyday speed, driving difficulty, and health-related quality of life each fit well to the data (all RMSEA .95). Fit of the full model was excellent (RMSEA = .038; CFI = .924). In contrast with previous findings from ACTIVE regarding who benefits from training, interaction testing revealed associations between proximal abilities and primary outcomes are stronger on average by nonwhite race, worse health, older age, and less education (p conceptual model. Findings suggest that the types of people who show intervention effects on cognitive performance potentially may be

  3. The ACTIVE conceptual framework as a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L; Payne, Brennan R; Casanova, Ramon; Davoudzadeh, Pega; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Farias, Sarah; Giovannetti, Tania; Ip, Edward H; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W; Schaie, K Warner; Thomas, Kelsey; Willis, Sherry; Jones, Richard N

    2018-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Conceptual frameworks are analytic models at a high level of abstraction. Their operationalization can inform randomized trial design and sample size considerations. The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) conceptual framework was empirically tested using structural equation modeling (N=2,802). ACTIVE was guided by a conceptual framework for cognitive training in which proximal cognitive abilities (memory, inductive reasoning, speed of processing) mediate treatment-related improvement in primary outcomes (everyday problem-solving, difficulty with activities of daily living, everyday speed, driving difficulty), which in turn lead to improved secondary outcomes (health-related quality of life, health service utilization, mobility). Measurement models for each proximal, primary, and secondary outcome were developed and tested using baseline data. Each construct was then combined in one model to evaluate fit (RMSEA, CFI, normalized residuals of each indicator). To expand the conceptual model and potentially inform future trials, evidence of modification of structural model parameters was evaluated by age, years of education, sex, race, and self-rated health status. Preconceived measurement models for memory, reasoning, speed of processing, everyday problem-solving, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) difficulty, everyday speed, driving difficulty, and health-related quality of life each fit well to the data (all RMSEA .95). Fit of the full model was excellent (RMSEA = .038; CFI = .924). In contrast with previous findings from ACTIVE regarding who benefits from training, interaction testing revealed associations between proximal abilities and primary outcomes are stronger on average by nonwhite race, worse health, older age, and less education (p conceptual model. Findings suggest that the types of people who show intervention effects on cognitive performance potentially may be different from

  4. Groundwater Flow and Thermal Modeling to Support a Preferred Conceptual Model for the Large Hydraulic Gradient North of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, D.; Oberlander, P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report on the results of a preliminary modeling framework to investigate the causes of the large hydraulic gradient north of Yucca Mountain. This study builds on the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (referenced herein as the Site-scale model (Zyvoloski, 2004a)), which is a three-dimensional saturated zone model of the Yucca Mountain area. Groundwater flow was simulated under natural conditions. The model framework and grid design describe the geologic layering and the calibration parameters describe the hydrogeology. The Site-scale model is calibrated to hydraulic heads, fluid temperature, and groundwater flowpaths. One area of interest in the Site-scale model represents the large hydraulic gradient north of Yucca Mountain. Nearby water levels suggest over 200 meters of hydraulic head difference in less than 1,000 meters horizontal distance. Given the geologic conceptual models defined by various hydrogeologic reports (Faunt, 2000, 2001; Zyvoloski, 2004b), no definitive explanation has been found for the cause of the large hydraulic gradient. Luckey et al. (1996) presents several possible explanations for the large hydraulic gradient as provided below: The gradient is simply the result of flow through the upper volcanic confining unit, which is nearly 300 meters thick near the large gradient. The gradient represents a semi-perched system in which flow in the upper and lower aquifers is predominantly horizontal, whereas flow in the upper confining unit would be predominantly vertical. The gradient represents a drain down a buried fault from the volcanic aquifers to the lower Carbonate Aquifer. The gradient represents a spillway in which a fault marks the effective northern limit of the lower volcanic aquifer. The large gradient results from the presence at depth of the Eleana Formation, a part of the Paleozoic upper confining unit, which overlies the lower Carbonate Aquifer in much of the Death Valley region. The

  5. Meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological monitoring data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec, Taeby (Sweden)); Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Holgersson, Bjoern (SWECO VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden)); Roennback, Kristoffer (Aqualog AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Marelius, Fredrick (WSP Sverige, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report presents and analyses meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological time-series data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, available in SKB's Sicada database at time of the Laxemar 2.3 data freeze (Aug. 31, 2007). The meteorological data set includes data from two local stations, located on the island of Aespoe and at Plittorp, located further inland. In addition, the data evaluation uses a longer-term data set from 7 surrounding stations, operated by SMHI. As part of this study, a time series is constructed of the water content of snow. According to the data evaluation, the site-average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration can be estimated to be on the order of 600 and 535 mm, respectively. In particular, precipitation demonstrates a near-coastal gradient, with less precipitation at the coast compared to areas further inland. The surface-water level data set includes data from 4 lake-level gauging stations and 3 sea-level gauging stations. All lakes are located above sea level, including the near-coastal Lake Soeraa. Hence, no intrusion of sea water to lakes takes place. There is a strong co-variation among the monitored lake-water levels, typically with maxima during spring and minima during late summer and early autumn. Concerning the sea as a hydraulic boundary, the maximum and minimum sea levels (daily averages) during the site-investigation period were -0.52 and 0.71 metres above sea level, respectively, whereas the average sea level was 0.03 metres above sea level (RHB 70). The data set on stream discharge, surface-water temperature and electrical conductivity includes data from 9 discharge-gauging stations in 7 streams. Based on the discharge data, the site-average specific discharge for the years 2005-2007 can be estimated to 165 mm/y, which is within the interval of the estimated long-term average. Overall, discharge-data errors are likely to be small. The hydrogeological

  6. Resource modelling for control: how hydrogeological modelling can support a water quality monitoring infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzari, Andrea; Doveri, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the physical/chemical processes implied with the exploitation of water bodies for human consumption is an essential tool for the optimisation of the monitoring infrastructure. Due to their increasing importance in the context of human consumption (at least in the EU), this work focuses on groundwater resources. In the framework of drinkable water networks, the physical and data-driven modelling of transport phenomena in groundwater can help optimising the sensor network and validating the acquired data. This work proposes the combined usage of physical and data-driven modelling as a support to the design and maximisation of results from a network of distributed sensors. In particular, the validation of physico-chemical measurements and the detection of eventual anomalies by a set of continuous measurements take benefit from the knowledge of the domain from which water is abstracted, and its expected characteristics. Change-detection techniques based on non-specific sensors (presented by quite a large literature during the last two decades) have to deal with the classical issues of maximising correct detections and minimising false alarms, the latter of the two being the most typical problem to be faced, in the view of designing truly applicable monitoring systems. In this context, the definition of "anomaly" in terms of distance from an expected value or feature characterising the quality of water implies the definition of a suitable metric and the knowledge of the physical and chemical peculiarities of the natural domain from which water is exploited, with its implications in terms of characteristics of the water resource.

  7. Multilevel Models: Conceptual Framework and Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Otilia-Sonia Hrițcu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and the social or organizational groups they belong to can be viewed as a hierarchical system situated on different levels. Individuals are situated on the first level of the hierarchy and they are nested together on the higher levels. Individuals interact with the social groups they belong to and are influenced by these groups. Traditional methods that study the relationships between data, like simple regression, do not take into account the hierarchical structure of the data and the effects of a group membership and, hence, results may be invalidated. Unlike standard regression modelling, the multilevel approach takes into account the individuals as well as the groups to which they belong. To take advantage of the multilevel analysis it is important that we recognize the multilevel characteristics of the data. In this article we introduce the outlines of multilevel data and we describe the models that work with such data. We introduce the basic multilevel model, the two-level model: students can be nested into classes, individuals into countries and the general two-level model can be extended very easily to several levels. Multilevel analysis has begun to be extensively used in many research areas. We present the most frequent study areas where multilevel models are used, such as sociological studies, education, psychological research, health studies, demography, epidemiology, biology, environmental studies and entrepreneurship. We support the idea that since hierarchies exist everywhere, multilevel data should be recognized and analyzed properly by using multilevel modelling.

  8. Bedrock Hydrogeology-Site investigation SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, Johan; Bockgaard, Niclas; Follin, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). This report presents an integrated analysis and interpretation of the historic data from the existing SFR (1980 - 1986), as well as, from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008 - 2009). The primary objective is to establish a conceptual hydrogeological model of the bedrock for safety assessment and design analyses. Analyses and interpretations of all (old and new) hydraulic data are analysed with regard to the recently developed geological deformation zone model of the SFR model domain (Curtis et al. 2011). The methodology used by Curtis et al. (2011) has focussed on magnetic anomalies and deformation zone intercepts with ground surface greater than 300 m. In the hydrogeological modelling, however, it has been considered important to also explore the occurrence and characteristics of shallow horizontal to sub-horizontal structures (sheet joints) inside the SFR model domain. Such structures are of considerable importance for the hydrogeology in the uppermost c. 150 m of bedrock in SDM-Site Forsmark; hence the term Shallow Bedrock Aquifer was used to emphasise their hydraulic significance. In this study, the acronym SBA-structure is used for horizontal structures identified in the hydrogeological modelling. In addition to the predominantly steeply dipping geological deformation zones, eight so-called SBA-structures are modelled deterministically in the hydrogeological model. The SBA-structures are envisaged as hydraulically heterogeneous and composed of clusters of minor gently dipping to horizontal fractures rather than extensive single features. A type of structures that is partly included in the definition of the SBA-structures is the Unresolved Possible Deformations Zone (Unresolved PDZ) intercepts identified by Curtis et al. (2011). The Unresolved

  9. Modelling students' knowledge organisation: Genealogical conceptual networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Nousiainen, Maija

    2018-04-01

    Learning scientific knowledge is largely based on understanding what are its key concepts and how they are related. The relational structure of concepts also affects how concepts are introduced in teaching scientific knowledge. We model here how students organise their knowledge when they represent their understanding of how physics concepts are related. The model is based on assumptions that students use simple basic linking-motifs in introducing new concepts and mostly relate them to concepts that were introduced a few steps earlier, i.e. following a genealogical ordering. The resulting genealogical networks have relatively high local clustering coefficients of nodes but otherwise resemble networks obtained with an identical degree distribution of nodes but with random linking between them (i.e. the configuration-model). However, a few key nodes having a special structural role emerge and these nodes have a higher than average communicability betweenness centralities. These features agree with the empirically found properties of students' concept networks.

  10. A Conceptualized Investment Model of Crowdfunding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, A.; Brem, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Crowdfunding is growing in popularity as a new form of both investment opportunity and source of venture capital. This article takes a view on whether crowdfunding is a replacement or an addition to traditional seed capital sources in the early stages of a new venture. With access to angel...... investment decreasing since the financial crisis of 2008, crowdfunding is of great importance to start-ups seeking starting capital. However, little effort has been made to define the investment model of crowdfunding with both crowdfunder and crowdfundee in mind. Drawing on an in-depth review of current...... literature on crowdfunding, this article creates an investment model of crowdfunding with various reward models available to investor and investee in mind. This article provides an extensive survey of the environment of crowdfunding based on current literature. It offers a jumping off point and a thorough...

  11. A spatial DB model to simulate the road network efficiency in hydrogeological emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele, Mangiameli; Giuseppe, Mussumeci

    2015-12-01

    We deal with the theme of the simulation of risk analysis using a technological approach based on the integration of exclusively free and open source tools: PostgreSQL as Database Management System (DBMS) and Quantum GIS-GRASS as Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. The case study is represented by a seismic land in Sicily characterized by steep slopes and frequent instability phenomena. This area includes a city of about 30.000 inhabitants (Enna) that lies on the top of a mountain at about 990 m a.s.l.. The access to the city is assured by few and very winding roads that are also highly vulnerable to seismic and hydrogeological hazards. When exceptional rainfall events occur, the loss of efficiency of these roads should compromise timeliness and effectiveness of rescue operations. The data of the sample area have been structured into the adopted DBMS, and the connection to the GIS functionalities allows simulating the exceptional events. We analyzed the hazard, vulnerability and exposure related to these events and calculated the final risk defining three classes for each scenario: low (L), medium (M) and high (H). This study can be a valuable tool to prioritize risk levels and set priorities for intervention to the main road networks..

  12. A spatial DB model to simulate the road network efficiency in hydrogeological emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele, Mangiameli, E-mail: michele.mangiameli@dica.unict.it; Giuseppe, Mussumeci [Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    We deal with the theme of the simulation of risk analysis using a technological approach based on the integration of exclusively free and open source tools: PostgreSQL as Database Management System (DBMS) and Quantum GIS-GRASS as Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. The case study is represented by a seismic land in Sicily characterized by steep slopes and frequent instability phenomena. This area includes a city of about 30.000 inhabitants (Enna) that lies on the top of a mountain at about 990 m a.s.l.. The access to the city is assured by few and very winding roads that are also highly vulnerable to seismic and hydrogeological hazards. When exceptional rainfall events occur, the loss of efficiency of these roads should compromise timeliness and effectiveness of rescue operations. The data of the sample area have been structured into the adopted DBMS, and the connection to the GIS functionalities allows simulating the exceptional events. We analyzed the hazard, vulnerability and exposure related to these events and calculated the final risk defining three classes for each scenario: low (L), medium (M) and high (H). This study can be a valuable tool to prioritize risk levels and set priorities for intervention to the main road networks.

  13. A spatial DB model to simulate the road network efficiency in hydrogeological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michele, Mangiameli; Giuseppe, Mussumeci

    2015-01-01

    We deal with the theme of the simulation of risk analysis using a technological approach based on the integration of exclusively free and open source tools: PostgreSQL as Database Management System (DBMS) and Quantum GIS-GRASS as Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. The case study is represented by a seismic land in Sicily characterized by steep slopes and frequent instability phenomena. This area includes a city of about 30.000 inhabitants (Enna) that lies on the top of a mountain at about 990 m a.s.l.. The access to the city is assured by few and very winding roads that are also highly vulnerable to seismic and hydrogeological hazards. When exceptional rainfall events occur, the loss of efficiency of these roads should compromise timeliness and effectiveness of rescue operations. The data of the sample area have been structured into the adopted DBMS, and the connection to the GIS functionalities allows simulating the exceptional events. We analyzed the hazard, vulnerability and exposure related to these events and calculated the final risk defining three classes for each scenario: low (L), medium (M) and high (H). This study can be a valuable tool to prioritize risk levels and set priorities for intervention to the main road networks.

  14. A Conceptual Model of Investor Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lovric (Milan); U. Kaymak (Uzay); J. Spronk (Jaap)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBased on a survey of behavioral finance literature, this paper presents a descriptive model of individual investor behavior in which investment decisions are seen as an iterative process of interactions between the investor and the investment environment. This investment process is

  15. A conceptual model of investor behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovric, M.; Kaymak, U.; Spronk, J.; Nefti, S.; Gray, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral finance is a subdiscipline of finance that uses insights from cogni tive and social psychology to enrich our knowledge of how investors make their financial decisions. Agent-based artificial financial markets are bottomup models of financial markets that start from the micro level of

  16. Learning strategies: a synthesis and conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattie, John A. C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a model of learning that proposes that various learning strategies are powerful at certain stages in the learning cycle. The model describes three inputs and outcomes (skill, will and thrill), success criteria, three phases of learning (surface, deep and transfer) and an acquiring and consolidation phase within each of the surface and deep phases. A synthesis of 228 meta-analyses led to the identification of the most effective strategies. The results indicate that there is a subset of strategies that are effective, but this effectiveness depends on the phase of the model in which they are implemented. Further, it is best not to run separate sessions on learning strategies but to embed the various strategies within the content of the subject, to be clearer about developing both surface and deep learning, and promoting their associated optimal strategies and to teach the skills of transfer of learning. The article concludes with a discussion of questions raised by the model that need further research.

  17. Developing rural palliative care: validating a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Mary Lou; Williams, Allison; DeMiglio, Lily; Mettam, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to validate a conceptual model for developing palliative care in rural communities. This model articulates how local rural healthcare providers develop palliative care services according to four sequential phases. The model has roots in concepts of community capacity development, evolves from collaborative, generalist rural practice, and utilizes existing health services infrastructure. It addresses how rural providers manage challenges, specifically those related to: lack of resources, minimal community understanding of palliative care, health professionals' resistance, the bureaucracy of the health system, and the obstacles of providing services in rural environments. Seven semi-structured focus groups were conducted with interdisciplinary health providers in 7 rural communities in two Canadian provinces. Using a constant comparative analysis approach, focus group data were analyzed by examining participants' statements in relation to the model and comparing emerging themes in the development of rural palliative care to the elements of the model. The data validated the conceptual model as the model was able to theoretically predict and explain the experiences of the 7 rural communities that participated in the study. New emerging themes from the data elaborated existing elements in the model and informed the requirement for minor revisions. The model was validated and slightly revised, as suggested by the data. The model was confirmed as being a useful theoretical tool for conceptualizing the development of rural palliative care that is applicable in diverse rural communities.

  18. A conceptual model specification language (CMSL Version 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1992-01-01

    Version 2 of a language (CMSL) to specify conceptual models is defined. CMSL consists of two parts, the value specification language VSL and the object spercification language OSL. There is a formal semantics and an inference system for CMSL but research on this still continues. A method for

  19. Conceptual model for reinforced grass on inner dike slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; ComCoast

    2005-01-01

    A desk study has been carried out in order to develop a conceptual model for the erosion of inner dike slopes with reinforced grass cover. Based on the results the following can be concluded: The presence of a geosynthetic in a grass slope can be taken into account in the EPM method by increasing

  20. LCM 3.0: A Language for describing Conceptual Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Remco; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1993-01-01

    The syntax of the conceptual model specification language LCM is defined. LCM uses equational logic to specify data types and order-sorted dynamic logic to specify objects with identity and mutable state. LCM specifies database transactions as finite sets of atomic object transitions.

  1. A New Conceptual Model for Understanding International Students' College Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfattal, Eyad

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the theory and practice of international marketing in higher education with the purpose of exploring a conceptual model for understanding international students' needs in the context of a four-year college in the United States. A transcendental phenomenological design was employed to investigate the essence of international…

  2. Designing Public Library Websites for Teens: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robin Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop a conceptual model for the design of public library websites for teens (TLWs) that would enable designers and librarians to create library websites that better suit teens' information needs and practices. It bridges a gap in the research literature between user interface design in human-computer…

  3. A Conceptual Model of the World of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRooy, William H.

    The conceptual model described in this paper resulted from the need to organize a body of knowledge related to the world of work which would enable curriculum developers to prepare accurate, realistic instructional materials. The world of work is described by applying Malinowski's scientific study of the structural components of culture. It is…

  4. Conceptual models for waste tank mechanistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemann, R.T.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Eyler, L.L.; Liljegren, L.M.; Roberts, J.S.

    1992-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a study for Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the work is to study possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from double-shell waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This interim report emphasizing the modeling work follows two other interim reports, Mechanistic Analysis of Double-Shell Tank Gas Release Progress Report -- November 1990 and Collection and Analysis of Existing Data for Waste Tank Mechanistic Analysis Progress Report -- December 1990, that emphasized data correlation and mechanisms. The approach in this study has been to assemble and compile data that are pertinent to the mechanisms, analyze the data, evaluate physical properties and parameters, evaluate hypothetical mechanisms, and develop mathematical models of mechanisms

  5. A Conceptual Model of Investor Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lovric, M.; Kaymak, U.; Spronk, J.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBased on a survey of behavioral finance literature, this paper presents a descriptive model of individual investor behavior in which investment decisions are seen as an iterative process of interactions between the investor and the investment environment. This investment process is influenced by a number of interdependent variables and driven by dual mental systems, the interplay of which contributes to boundedly rational behavior where investors use various heuristics and may exh...

  6. Conceptual model of integrated apiarian consultancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bodescu, Dan; Stefan, Gavril; Paveliuc Olariu, Codrin; Magdici, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The socio-economic field researches have indicated the necessity of realizing an integrated consultancy service for beekeepers that will supply technical-economic solutions with a practical character for ensuring the lucrativeness and viability of the apiaries. Consequently, an integrated apiarian consultancy model has been built holding the following features: it realizes the diagnosis of the meliferous resources and supplies solutions for its optimal administration; it realizes the technica...

  7. Modeling in transport phenomena a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to

  8. Wound care clinical pathway: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, J E; Cuzzell, J

    1996-08-01

    A clinical pathway is a written sequence of clinical processes or events that guides a patient with a defined problem toward an expected outcome. Clinical pathways are tools to assist with the cost-effective management of clinical outcomes related to specific problems or disease processes. The primary obstacles to developing clinical pathways for wound care are the chronic natures of some wounds and the many variables that can delay healing. The pathway introduced in this article was modeled upon the three phases of tissue repair: inflammatory, proliferative, and maturation. This physiology-based model allows clinicians to identify and monitor outcomes based on observable and measurable clinical parameters. The pathway design, which also includes educational and behavioral outcomes, allows the clinician to individualize the expected timeframe for outcome achievement based on individual patient criteria and expert judgement. Integral to the pathway are the "4P's" which help standardize the clinical processes by wound type: Protocols, Policies, Procedures, and Patient education tools. Four categories into which variances are categorized based on the cause of the deviation from the norm are patient, process/system, practitioner, and planning/discharge. Additional research is warranted to support the value of this clinical pathway in the clinical arena.

  9. Conceptual design interpretations, mindset and models

    CERN Document Server

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Cash, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Maximising reader insights into the theory, models, methods and fundamental reasoning of design, this book addresses design activities in industrial settings, as well as the actors involved. This approach offers readers a new understanding of design activities and related functions, properties and dispositions. Presenting a ‘design mindset’ that seeks to empower students, researchers, and practitioners alike, it features a strong focus on how designers create new concepts to be developed into products, and how they generate new business and satisfy human needs.   Employing a multi-faceted perspective, the book supplies the reader with a comprehensive worldview of design in the form of a proposed model that will empower their activities as student, researcher or practitioner. We draw the reader into the core role of design conceptualisation for society, for the development of industry, for users and buyers of products, and for citizens in relation to public systems. The book also features original con...

  10. Conceptual Models as Tools for Communication Across Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Heemskerk

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand and manage complex social-ecological systems, social scientists and ecologists must collaborate. However, issues related to language and research approaches can make it hard for researchers in different fields to work together. This paper suggests that researchers can improve interdisciplinary science through the use of conceptual models as a communication tool. The authors share lessons from a workshop in which interdisciplinary teams of young scientists developed conceptual models of social-ecological systems using data sets and metadata from Long-Term Ecological Research sites across the United States. Both the process of model building and the models that were created are discussed. The exercise revealed that the presence of social scientists in a group influenced the place and role of people in the models. This finding suggests that the participation of both ecologists and social scientists in the early stages of project development may produce better questions and more accurate models of interactions between humans and ecosystems. Although the participants agreed that a better understanding of human intentions and behavior would advance ecosystem science, they felt that interdisciplinary research might gain more by training strong disciplinarians than by merging ecology and social sciences into a new field. It is concluded that conceptual models can provide an inspiring point of departure and a guiding principle for interdisciplinary group discussions. Jointly developing a model not only helped the participants to formulate questions, clarify system boundaries, and identify gaps in existing data, but also revealed the thoughts and assumptions of fellow scientists. Although the use of conceptual models will not serve all purposes, the process of model building can help scientists, policy makers, and resource managers discuss applied problems and theory among themselves and with those in other areas.

  11. Quantification of the electrical anisotropy in the pro­cess of numerical modelling for hydrogeological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernez, S.; Bouchedda, A.; Gloaguen, E.; Paradis, D.

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the subsurface, it is important to characterize accurately its permeability. Hydrogeophysics, which involves the use of geophysical data to infer the hydraulic properties of the subsurface, is a relatively new geoscience field that is promising to improve hydrogeological characterization. Amongst existing geophysical methods, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), that can cover a large continuous underground surface or volume, has been widely applied. The inversed electrical resistivities obtained are related to the permeabilities by different means and the resistivity anisotropy should theoretically be a proxy to the permeability anisotropy. However, the existing hydrogeophysical inversion tools usually do not take into account anisotropy. In this paper, we present an anisotropic forward- and inverse-problem 2.5D finite-differences electrical study, which allows to produce improved anisotropic permeability characterization models. We first detail the theoretical basis of the anisotropic ERT, which introduces a resistivity tensor in place of a scalar, and its numerical implementation. After that, we build a synthetic case presenting a simple but representative geological structure in two horizontal homogeneous and anisotropic beds: the numerical forward modelling shows a difference of less than 1% with the analytical solution; the inverse modelling is able to reproduce the initial structure well, with resistivity values close to the initial synthetic model (see attached figure). We show that by using both surface and single-borehole arrays, we overcome the equivalence principle making sure that a unique solution arises. The latter cannot be obtained when considering the media isotropic as typically assumed with existing inversion tools. Finally, we discuss the consequences of the integration of anisotropy in the data-integrated characterization of the permeability. We show that it has a

  12. Conceptual model innovation management: market orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Ya. Maljuta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights issues that determine the beginning of the innovation process. Determined that until recently in Ukraine at all levels of innovation management (regional, sectoral, institutional dominated grocery orientation innovation that focus on production innovation and found that the transition to a market economy, the restructuring of production and complexity of social needs led to the strengthening of the consumer. It is proved that innovation itself – not the ultimate goal, but only a means of satisfying consumer needs. It proved that changing production conditions, complications of social needs and the need to improve the competitiveness of innovations require finding new forms of innovation. In this regard, proposed to allocate such basic scheme (model of innovation in small businesses, individual entrepreneurs, venture capital firms, eksplerents, patients, violents and commutants, spin-offs and spin-out company, network (or shell company and a network of small businesses.

  13. Collaborative Rural Healthcare Network: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Raja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare is a critical issue in rural communities throughout the world. Provision of timely and cost effective health care in these communities is a challenge since it is coupled with a lack of adequate infrastructure and manpower support. Twenty percent of the United States of America‘s population resides in rural communities, i.e., 59 million people; however, only nine percent of the nation’s physicians practice in rural communities. Shortage of health care personnel and the lack of equipment and facilities often force rural residents to travel long distances to receive needed medical treatment. Researchers and practitioners are in search of solutions to address these unique challenges. In this research, we present a proposed collaborative model of a health information system for rural communities and the challenges and opportunities of this global issue.

  14. THM large spatial-temporal model to simulate the past 2 Ma hydrogeological evolution of Paris Basin including natural tracer transport as part of site characterization for radwaste repository project Cigéo - France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabderrahmane, A., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological site characterization for deep geological high level and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste repository cover a large time scale needed for safety analysis and calculation. Hydrogeological performance of a site relies also on the effects of geodynamic evolution as tectonic uplift, erosion/sedimentation and climate including glaciation on the groundwater flow and solute and heat transfer. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical model of multilayered aquifer system of Paris Basin is developed to reproduce the present time flow and the natural tracer (Helium) concentration profiles based on the last 2 Ma of geodynamic evolution. Present time geological conceptual model consist of 27 layers at Paris Basin (Triassic-Tertiary) with refinement at project site scale (29 layers from Triassic to Portlandian). Target layers are the clay host formation of Callovo-Oxfrodian age (160 Ma) and the surrounding aquifer layers of Oxfordian and Dogger. Modelled processes are: groundwater flow, heat and solutes (natural tracers) transport, freezing and thawing of groundwater (expansion and retreat of permafrost), deformation of the multilayered aquifer system induced by differential tectonic uplift and the hydro-mechanical stress effect as caused by erosion of the outcropping layers. Numerical simulation considers a period from 2 Ma BP and up to the present. Transient boundary conditions are governed by geodynamic processes: (i) modification of the geometry of the basin and (ii) temperatures along the topography will change according to a series of 15 identical climate cycles with multiple permafrost (glaciation) periods. Numerical model contains 71 layers and 18 million cells. The solution procedure solves three coupled systems of equations, head, temperature and concentrations, by the use of a finite difference method, and by applying extensive parallel processing. The major modelling results related to the processes of importance for site characterization as hydraulic

  15. Conceptual model of male military sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, William B; Domino, Jessica L; Rentz, Timothy O; Mata-Galán, Emma L

    2017-08-01

    Male sexual trauma is understudied, leaving much to be known about the unique mental health needs of male survivors. This study examined veteran men's perceptions of the effects of military sexual trauma. Military sexual trauma was defined as physically forced, verbally coerced, or substance-incapacitated acts experienced during military service. Interviews were conducted with 21 male veterans who reported experiencing military sexual trauma. Data were drawn together using a grounded theory methodology. Three categories emerged from data analysis, including (a) types of military sexual trauma (being touched in a sexual way against their will [N = 18]; sexual remarks directed at them [N = 15]; being physically forced to have sex [N = 13]); (b) negative life effects (difficulty trusting others [N = 18]; fear of abandonment [N = 17]; substance use [N = 13]; fear of interpersonal violence [N = 12]; conduct and vocational problems [N = 11]; irritability/aggression [N = 8]; insecurity about sexual performance [N = 8]; difficulty managing anger [N = 8]); and (c) posttraumatic growth (N = 15). Results from this study suggest sexual trauma in the military context may affect systems of self-organization, specifically problems in affective, self-concept, and relational domains, similar to symptoms of those who have experienced prolonged traumatic stressors. This model can be used by clinicians to select treatments that specifically target these symptoms and promote posttraumatic growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Hydrogeological modeling constraints provided by geophysical and geochemical mapping of a chlorinated ethenes plume in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindratsima, Stephen; Guérin, Roger; Bendjoudi, Hocine; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2014-09-01

    A methodological approach is described which combines geophysical and geochemical data to delineate the extent of a chlorinated ethenes plume in northern France; the methodology was used to calibrate a hydrogeological model of the contaminants' migration and degradation. The existence of strong reducing conditions in some parts of the aquifer is first determined by measuring in situ the redox potential and dissolved oxygen, dissolved ferrous iron and chloride concentrations. Electrical resistivity imaging and electromagnetic mapping, using the Slingram method, are then used to determine the shape of the pollutant plume. A decreasing empirical exponential relation between measured chloride concentrations in the water and aquifer electrical resistivity is observed; the resistivity formation factor calculated at a few points also shows a major contribution of chloride concentration in the resistivity of the saturated porous medium. MODFLOW software and MT3D99 first-order parent-daughter chain reaction and the RT3D aerobic-anaerobic model for tetrachloroethene (PCE)/trichloroethene (TCE) dechlorination are finally used for a first attempt at modeling the degradation of the chlorinated ethenes. After calibration, the distribution of the chlorinated ethenes and their degradation products simulated with the model approximately reflects the mean measured values in the observation wells, confirming the data-derived image of the plume.

  17. Tumor heterogeneity and progression: conceptual foundations for modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greller, L D; Tobin, F L; Poste, G

    1996-01-01

    A conceptual foundation for modeling tumor progression, growth, and heterogeneity is presented. The purpose of such models is to aid understanding, test ideas, formulate experiments, and to model cancer 'in machina' to address the dynamic features of tumor cell heterogeneity, progression, and growth. The descriptive capabilities of such an approach provides a consistent language for qualitatively reasoning about tumor behavior. This approach provides a schema for building conceptual models that combine three key phenomenological driving elements: growth, progression, and genetic instability. The growth element encompasses processes contributing to changes in tumor bulk and is distinct from progression per se. The progression element subsumes a broad collection of processes underlying phenotypic progression. The genetics elements represents heritable changes which potentially affect tumor character and behavior. Models, conceptual and mathematical, can be built for different tumor situations by drawing upon the interaction of these three distinct driving elements. These models can be used as tools to explore a diversity of hypotheses concerning dynamic changes in cellular populations during tumor progression, including the generation of intratumor heterogeneity. Such models can also serve to guide experimentation and to gain insight into dynamic aspects of complex tumor behavior.

  18. BIM-enabled Conceptual Modelling and Representation of Building Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jin Kook; Kim, Mi Jeong

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how a building information modelling (BIM)-based approach for building circulation enables us to change the process of building design in terms of its computational representation and processes, focusing on the conceptual modelling and representation of circulation within buildings. BIM has been designed for use by several BIM authoring tools, in particular with the widely known interoperable industry foundation classes (IFCs), which follow an object-oriented data modelli...

  19. Advertisement Effectiveness for Print Media: A Conceptual Model

    OpenAIRE

    Prateek Maheshwari; Nitin Seth; Anoop Kumar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present research paper is to highlight the importance of measuring advertisement effectiveness in print media and to develop a conceptual model for advertisement effectiveness. The developed model is based on dimensions on which advertisement effectiveness depends and on the dimensions which are used to measure the effectiveness. An in-depth and extensive literature review is carried out to understand the concept of advertisement effectiveness and its var...

  20. A conceptual framework for measuring airline business model convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Daft, Jost; Albers, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a measurement framework that synthesizes the airline and strategy literature to identify relevant dimensions and elements of airline business models. The applicability of this framework for describing airline strategies and structures and, based on this conceptualization, for assessing the potential convergence of airline business models over time is then illustrated using a small sample of five German passenger airlines. For this sample, the perception of a rapprochement ...

  1. Elements of a flexible approach for conceptual hydrological modeling : 1. Motivation and theoretical development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenicia, F.; Kavetski, D.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a flexible framework for conceptual hydrological modeling, with two related objectives: (1) generalize and systematize the currently fragmented field of conceptual models and (2) provide a robust platform for understanding and modeling hydrological systems. In contrast to

  2. Conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow and solute transport in fracture zones: Application to the Aspo Island (Sweden)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinero, J.; Samper, J.

    2003-01-01

    Several countries around the world are considering the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep repositories located in fractured granite formations. Evaluating the long term safety of such repositories requires sound conceptual and numerical models which must consider simultaneously groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical and radiological processes. These models are being developed from data and knowledge gained from in situ experiments carried out at deep underground laboratories such as that of Aspo, Sweden, constructed in fractured granite. The Redox Zone Experiment is one of such experiments performed at Aspo in order to evaluate the effects of the construction of the access tunnel on the hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions of a fracture zone intersected by the tunnel. Previous authors interpreted hydrochemical and isotopic data of this experiment using a mass-balance approach based on a qualitative description of groundwater flow conditions. Such an interpretation, however, is subject to uncertainties related to an over-simplified conceptualization of groundwater flow. Here we present numerical models of groundwater flow and solute transport for this fracture zone. The first model is based on previously published conceptual model. It presents noticeable un consistencies and fails to match simultaneously observed draw downs and chloride breakthrough curves. To overcome its limitations, a revised flow and transport model is presented which relies directly on available hydrodynamic and transport parameters, is based on the identification of appropriate flow and transport boundary conditions and uses, when needed, solute data extrapolated from nearby fracture zones. A significant quantitative improvement is achieved with the revised model because its results match simultaneously drawdown and chloride data. Other improvements are qualitative and include: ensuring consistency of hydrodynamic and hydrochemical data and avoiding

  3. Conceptual Commitments of the LIDA Model of Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Stan; Strain, Steve; McCall, Ryan; Baars, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    Significant debate on fundamental issues remains in the subfields of cognitive science, including perception, memory, attention, action selection, learning, and others. Psychology, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence each contribute alternative and sometimes conflicting perspectives on the supervening problem of artificial general intelligence (AGI). Current efforts toward a broad-based, systems-level model of minds cannot await theoretical convergence in each of the relevant subfields. Such work therefore requires the formulation of tentative hypotheses, based on current knowledge, that serve to connect cognitive functions into a theoretical framework for the study of the mind. We term such hypotheses "conceptual commitments" and describe the hypotheses underlying one such model, the Learning Intelligent Distribution Agent (LIDA) Model. Our intention is to initiate a discussion among AGI researchers about which conceptual commitments are essential, or particularly useful, toward creating AGI agents.

  4. Study of the influence of hydrogeological conditions in the upper aquifer on radionuclide migration from a geological repository using a 2D groundwater flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestopalov, Vyacheslav; Bohuslavskyy, Alexander; Shybetskyi, Iurii [National Academy of Science of Ukaraine, Kyiv (Ukraine). Radioenvironmental Centre

    2015-07-01

    Results are presented of a case groundwater flow-transport modeling to predict the radionuclide migration from a deep geological repository (DGR) of radioactive waste. The influence of hydrogeological conditions in the upper aquifers of a storey water exchange system on the rate of contaminant migration from the DGR to its natural far-field groundwater discharges (a shallow well and a river) as a general DGR safety condition is considered.

  5. Identification of Chemistry Learning Problems Viewed From Conceptual Change Model

    OpenAIRE

    Redhana, I. W; Sudria, I. B. N; Hidayat, I; Merta, L. M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at describing and explaining chemistry learning problems viewed from conceptual change model and misconceptions of students. The study was qualitative research of case study type conducted in one class of SMAN 1 Singaraja. Subjects of the study were a chemistry teacher and students. Data were obtained through classroom observation, interviews, and conception tests. The chemistry learning problems were grouped based on aspects of necessity, intelligibility, plausibility, and f...

  6. Using Annotated Conceptual Models to Derive Information System Implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Berglas

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Producing production quality information systems from conceptual descriptions is a time consuming process that employs many of the world's programmers. Although most of this programming is fairly routine, the process has not been amenable to simple automation because conceptual models do not provide sufficient parameters to make all the implementation decisions that are required, and numerous special cases arise in practice. Most commercial CASE tools address these problems by essentially implementing a waterfall model in which the development proceeds from analysis through design, layout and coding phases in a partially automated manner, but the analyst/programmer must heavily edit each intermediate stage. This paper demonstrates that by recognising the nature of information systems, it is possible to specify applications completely using a conceptual model that has een annotated with additional parameters that guide automated implementation. More importantly, it will be argued that a manageable number of annotations are sufficient to implement realistic applications, and techniques will be described that enabled the author's commercial CASE tool, the Intelligent Develope to automated implementation without requiring complex theorem proving technology.

  7. Conceptual Model of Climate Change Impacts at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, Jean Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Goal 9 of the LANL FY15 Site Sustainability Plan (LANL 2014a) addresses Climate Change Adaptation. As part of Goal 9, the plan reviews many of the individual programs the Laboratory has initiated over the past 20 years to address climate change impacts to LANL (e.g. Wildland Fire Management Plan, Forest Management Plan, etc.). However, at that time, LANL did not yet have a comprehensive approach to climate change adaptation. To fill this gap, the FY15 Work Plan for the LANL Long Term Strategy for Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability (LANL 2015) included a goal of (1) establishing a comprehensive conceptual model of climate change impacts at LANL and (2) establishing specific climate change indices to measure climate change and impacts at Los Alamos. Establishing a conceptual model of climate change impacts will demonstrate that the Laboratory is addressing climate change impacts in a comprehensive manner. This paper fulfills the requirement of goal 1. The establishment of specific indices of climate change at Los Alamos (goal 2), will improve our ability to determine climate change vulnerabilities and assess risk. Future work will include prioritizing risks, evaluating options/technologies/costs, and where appropriate, taking actions. To develop a comprehensive conceptual model of climate change impacts, we selected the framework provided in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Resilience Toolkit (http://toolkit.climate.gov/).

  8. Conceptual Model of IT Infrastructure Capability and Its Empirical Justification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xianfeng; LAN Boxiong; GUO Zhenwei

    2008-01-01

    Increasing importance has been attached to the value of information technology (IT) infrastructure in today's organizations. The development of efficacious IT infrastructure capability enhances business performance and brings sustainable competitive advantage. This study analyzed the IT infrastructure capability in a holistic way and then presented a concept model of IT capability. IT infrastructure capability was categorized into sharing capability, service capability, and flexibility. This study then empirically tested the model using a set of survey data collected from 145 firms. Three factors emerge from the factor analysis as IT flexibility, IT service capability, and IT sharing capability, which agree with those in the conceptual model built in this study.

  9. The treatment of conceptual model uncertainty for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, J.M.; Flint, A.; Dockery, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    A reasonable risk assessment of radioactive waste disposals faces three main problems : 1) the ability of the conceptual model to account for the effective repository process ; 2) the boundary conditions ; 3) the parameters values that model the particular site. Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project deals with these problems through two major approaches that are described here : 1) the evolution of models for the recurrence rate of volcanism ; 2) the nominal hydrologic performance for the site. These two approaches are expected to lead to a reasonable demonstration of the suitability of the site. (D.L.). 13 refs., 2 figs

  10. Hydrogeologic modelling in support of a proposed Deep Geologic Repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, J.F.; Normani, S.D.; Yin, Y. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Sykes, E.A.; Jensen, M.R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has proposed the construction of a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste at the Bruce site on the shore of Lake Huron near Tiverton, Ontario. The DGR is to be excavated at a depth of about 680 m within argillaceous limestones of Ordovician age. A saturated regional-scale and site-scale numerical modelling study has been completed in order to evaluate the safety of storing radioactive waste at the site and to better understand the geochemistry and hydrogeology of the formations surrounding the proposed DGR. This paper reported on the regional-scale base-case modelling and analysis of the measured pressure profile in deep boreholes at the DGR site. The numerical modelling study provided a framework to investigate the groundwater flow system as it relates to, and potentially affects, the safety and long-term performance of the DGR. A saturated groundwater flow model was also developed using FRAC3DVS-OPG. The objective of regional-scale groundwater modelling of the Paleozoic sedimentary sequence underlying southwestern Ontario was to provide a basis for the assembly and integration of site-specific geoscientific data and to explain the influence of parameter and scenario uncertainty on predicted long-term geosphere barrier performance. The base-case analysis showed that solute transport in the Ordovician and lower Silurian is diffusion dominant. For the base-case parameters, the estimated mean life expectancy for the proposed DGR is more than 8 million years. The possible presence of a gas phase in the rock between the Cambrian and the Niagaran was not considered in the analyses of this paper. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  11. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  12. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Sockolow, Paulina

    2016-02-24

    Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologies in the health sector, and to encourage discussion of these conceptual models in scholarly forums. A two-part method was used to summarize and structure ideas about how to work effectively with conceptual models in health informatics research that included (1) a selective review and summary of the literature of conceptual models; and (2) the construction of a step-by-step approach to developing a conceptual model. The seven-step methodology for developing conceptual models in health informatics research explained in this paper involves (1) acknowledging the limitations of health science and information science conceptual models; (2) giving a rationale for one's choice of integrative conceptual model; (3) explicating a conceptual model verbally and graphically; (4) seeking feedback about the conceptual model from stakeholders in both the health science and information science domains; (5) aligning a conceptual model with an appropriate research plan; (6) adapting a conceptual model in response to new knowledge over time; and (7) disseminating conceptual models in scholarly and scientific forums. Making explicit the conceptual model that underpins a health informatics research project can contribute to increasing the number of well-formed and strongly grounded health informatics research projects. This explication has distinct benefits for researchers in training, research teams, and researchers and practitioners in information, health, and other disciplines.

  13. Hydrogeology of Gypsum formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimchouk A.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed explanation of hydrogeological characteristics of gypsum aquifers is given in various situations: deep-seated karst-confined conditions, subjacent, entrenched and denuded karst types-semi-confined, phreatic and vadose conditions. The hydrogeological evolution of barren exposed gypsum karst and flow velocities in gypsum karst aquifers is also discussed.

  14. A conceptual and disease model framework for osteoporotic kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, M; Miltenburger, C; White, M; Alvares, L

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a multi-method research project to develop a conceptual framework for measuring outcomes in studies of osteoporotic kyphosis. The research involved literature research and qualitative interviews among clinicians who treat patients with kyphosis and among patients with the condition. Kyphosis due to at least one vertebral compression fracture is prevalent among osteoporotic patients, resulting in well-documented symptoms and impact on functioning and well-being. A three-part study led to development of a conceptual measurement framework for comprehensive assessment of symptoms, impact, and treatment benefit for kyphosis. A literature-based disease model (DM) was developed and tested with physicians (n = 10) and patients (n = 10), and FDA guidelines were used to develop a final disease model and a conceptual framework. The DM included signs, symptoms, causes/triggers, exacerbations, and functional status associated with kyphosis. The DM was largely confirmed, but physicians and patients added several concepts related to impact on functioning, and some concepts were not confirmed and removed from the DM. This study confirms the need for more comprehensive assessment of health outcomes in kyphosis, as most current studies omit key concepts.

  15. Use of Multi-class Empirical Orthogonal Function for Identification of Hydrogeological Parameters and Spatiotemporal Pattern of Multiple Recharges in Groundwater Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. L.; Hsu, N. S.; Yeh, W. W. G.; Hsieh, I. H.

    2017-12-01

    This study develops an innovative calibration method for regional groundwater modeling by using multi-class empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). The developed method is an iterative approach. Prior to carrying out the iterative procedures, the groundwater storage hydrographs associated with the observation wells are calculated. The combined multi-class EOF amplitudes and EOF expansion coefficients of the storage hydrographs are then used to compute the initial gauss of the temporal and spatial pattern of multiple recharges. The initial guess of the hydrogeological parameters are also assigned according to in-situ pumping experiment. The recharges include net rainfall recharge and boundary recharge, and the hydrogeological parameters are riverbed leakage conductivity, horizontal hydraulic conductivity, vertical hydraulic conductivity, storage coefficient, and specific yield. The first step of the iterative algorithm is to conduct the numerical model (i.e. MODFLOW) by the initial guess / adjusted values of the recharges and parameters. Second, in order to determine the best EOF combination of the error storage hydrographs for determining the correction vectors, the objective function is devised as minimizing the root mean square error (RMSE) of the simulated storage hydrographs. The error storage hydrograph are the differences between the storage hydrographs computed from observed and simulated groundwater level fluctuations. Third, adjust the values of recharges and parameters and repeat the iterative procedures until the stopping criterion is reached. The established methodology was applied to the groundwater system of Ming-Chu Basin, Taiwan. The study period is from January 1st to December 2ed in 2012. Results showed that the optimal EOF combination for the multiple recharges and hydrogeological parameters can decrease the RMSE of the simulated storage hydrographs dramatically within three calibration iterations. It represents that the iterative approach that

  16. Conceptual Modeling in the Time of the Revolution: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylopoulos, John

    Conceptual Modeling was a marginal research topic at the very fringes of Computer Science in the 60s and 70s, when the discipline was dominated by topics focusing on programs, systems and hardware architectures. Over the years, however, the field has moved to centre stage and has come to claim a central role both in Computer Science research and practice in diverse areas, such as Software Engineering, Databases, Information Systems, the Semantic Web, Business Process Management, Service-Oriented Computing, Multi-Agent Systems, Knowledge Management, and more. The transformation was greatly aided by the adoption of standards in modeling languages (e.g., UML), and model-based methodologies (e.g., Model-Driven Architectures) by the Object Management Group (OMG) and other standards organizations. We briefly review the history of the field over the past 40 years, focusing on the evolution of key ideas. We then note some open challenges and report on-going research, covering topics such as the representation of variability in conceptual models, capturing model intentions, and models of laws.

  17. Operations and support cost modeling of conceptual space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The University of Dayton is pleased to submit this annual report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center which documents the development of an operations and support (O&S) cost model as part of a larger life cycle cost (LCC) structure. It is intended for use during the conceptual design of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. This research is being conducted under NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1327. This research effort changes the focus from that of the first two years in which a reliability and maintainability model was developed to the initial development of an operations and support life cycle cost model. Cost categories were initially patterned after NASA's three axis work breakdown structure consisting of a configuration axis (vehicle), a function axis, and a cost axis. A revised cost element structure (CES), which is currently under study by NASA, was used to established the basic cost elements used in the model. While the focus of the effort was on operations and maintenance costs and other recurring costs, the computerized model allowed for other cost categories such as RDT&E and production costs to be addressed. Secondary tasks performed concurrent with the development of the costing model included support and upgrades to the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model. The primary result of the current research has been a methodology and a computer implementation of the methodology to provide for timely operations and support cost analysis during the conceptual design activities.

  18. A Conceptual Model of the Pasadena Housing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, Alan S.; Barber, Thomas A.

    1971-01-01

    During the last 5 years, there have been several attempts at applying systems analysis to complex urban problems. This paper describes one such attempt by a multidisciplinary team of students, engineers, professors, and community representatives. The Project organization is discussed and the interaction of the different disciplines (the process) described. The two fundamental analysis questions posed by the Project were: "Why do houses deteriorate?" and "Why do people move?" The analysis of these questions led to the development of a conceptual system model of housing in Pasadena. The major elements of this model are described, and several conclusions drawn from it are presented.

  19. A Conceptual Model of eLearning Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Abbad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based learning systems are being used in many universities and firms but their adoption requires a solid understanding of the user acceptance processes. The technology acceptance model (TAM has been used to test the acceptance of various technologies and software within an e-learning context. This research aims to discuss the main factors of a successful e-learning adoption by students. A conceptual research framework of e-learning adoption is proposed based on the TAM model.

  20. Geomorphic dam-break flows. Part I: conceptual model

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, JGAB; Ferreira, RML; Cardoso, AH

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Water Management 163 Issue WM6 This paper presents a one-dimensional conceptual model for simulating geomorphic dam-break flows. The model is based on conservation laws drawn from continuum mixture theory that are integrated over the flow depth,assuming that the f10w is composed of two transport layers. Closure equations were derived from the review and reanalysis of previous studies on granular flow,debris f10w and sheet flow. The sedime...

  1. A Conceptual Model for Multidimensional Analysis of Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, Franck; Teste, Olivier; Tournier, Ronan; Zurlfluh, Gilles

    Data warehousing and OLAP are mainly used for the analysis of transactional data. Nowadays, with the evolution of Internet, and the development of semi-structured data exchange format (such as XML), it is possible to consider entire fragments of data such as documents as analysis sources. As a consequence, an adapted multidimensional analysis framework needs to be provided. In this paper, we introduce an OLAP multidimensional conceptual model without facts. This model is based on the unique concept of dimensions and is adapted for multidimensional document analysis. We also provide a set of manipulation operations.

  2. Robust Bayesian Experimental Design for Conceptual Model Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, H. V.; Tsai, F. T. C.

    2015-12-01

    A robust Bayesian optimal experimental design under uncertainty is presented to provide firm information for model discrimination, given the least number of pumping wells and observation wells. Firm information is the maximum information of a system can be guaranteed from an experimental design. The design is based on the Box-Hill expected entropy decrease (EED) before and after the experiment design and the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) framework. A max-min programming is introduced to choose the robust design that maximizes the minimal Box-Hill EED subject to that the highest expected posterior model probability satisfies a desired probability threshold. The EED is calculated by the Gauss-Hermite quadrature. The BMA method is used to predict future observations and to quantify future observation uncertainty arising from conceptual and parametric uncertainties in calculating EED. Monte Carlo approach is adopted to quantify the uncertainty in the posterior model probabilities. The optimal experimental design is tested by a synthetic 5-layer anisotropic confined aquifer. Nine conceptual groundwater models are constructed due to uncertain geological architecture and boundary condition. High-performance computing is used to enumerate all possible design solutions in order to identify the most plausible groundwater model. Results highlight the impacts of scedasticity in future observation data as well as uncertainty sources on potential pumping and observation locations.

  3. Conceptual models of microseismicity induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baro Urbea, J.; Lord-May, C.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Joern, D.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in the pore pressure due to fluid invasion are accountable for microseismic activity recorded in geothermal systems and during hydraulic fracturing operations. To capture this phenomenon on a conceptual level, invasion percolation models have been suggested to represent the flow network of fluids within a porous media and seismic activity is typically considered to be directly related to the expansion of the percolated area. Although such models reproduce scale-free frequency-magnitude distributions, the associated b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter relation do not align with observed data. Here, we propose an alternative conceptual invasion percolation model that decouples the fluid propagation from the microseismic events. Instead of a uniform pressure, the pressure is modeled to decay along the distance from the injection site. Wet fracture events are simulated with a stochastic spring block model exhibiting stick-slip dynamics as a result of the variations of the pore pressure. We show that the statistics of the stick-slip events are scale-free, but now the b-values depend on the level of heterogeneity in the local static friction coefficients. Thus, this model is able to reproduce the wide spectrum of b-values observed in field catalogs associated with fluid induced microseismicity. Moreover, the spatial distribution of microseismic events is also consistent with observations.

  4. A Conceptual Culture Model for Design Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of design science research (DSR in information systems is the user-centred creation of IT-artifacts with regard to specific social environments. For culture research in the field, which is necessary for a proper localization of IT-artifacts, models and research approaches from social sciences usually are adopted. Descriptive dimension-based culture models most commonly are applied for this purpose, which assume culture being a national phenomenon and tend to reduce it to basic values. Such models are useful for investigations in behavioural culture research because it aims to isolate, describe and explain culture-specific attitudes and characteristics within a selected society. In contrast, with the necessity to deduce concrete decisions for artifact-design, research results from DSR need to go beyond this aim. As hypothesis, this contribution generally questions the applicability of such generic culture dimensions’ models for DSR and focuses on their theoretical foundation, which goes back to Hofstede’s conceptual Onion Model of Culture. The herein applied literature-based analysis confirms the hypothesis. Consequently, an alternative conceptual culture model is being introduced and discussed as theoretical foundation for culture research in DSR.

  5. A simple conceptual model of abrupt glacial climate events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Braun

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we use a very simple conceptual model in an attempt to reduce essential parts of the complex nonlinearity of abrupt glacial climate changes (the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger events to a few simple principles, namely (i the existence of two different climate states, (ii a threshold process and (iii an overshooting in the stability of the system at the start and the end of the events, which is followed by a millennial-scale relaxation. By comparison with a so-called Earth system model of intermediate complexity (CLIMBER-2, in which the events represent oscillations between two climate states corresponding to two fundamentally different modes of deep-water formation in the North Atlantic, we demonstrate that the conceptual model captures fundamental aspects of the nonlinearity of the events in that model. We use the conceptual model in order to reproduce and reanalyse nonlinear resonance mechanisms that were already suggested in order to explain the characteristic time scale of Dansgaard-Oeschger events. In doing so we identify a new form of stochastic resonance (i.e. an overshooting stochastic resonance and provide the first explicitly reported manifestation of ghost resonance in a geosystem, i.e. of a mechanism which could be relevant for other systems with thresholds and with multiple states of operation. Our work enables us to explicitly simulate realistic probability measures of Dansgaard-Oeschger events (e.g. waiting time distributions, which are a prerequisite for statistical analyses on the regularity of the events by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. We thus think that our study is an important advance in order to develop more adequate methods to test the statistical significance and the origin of the proposed glacial 1470-year climate cycle.

  6. Hydrogeological framework and geometry modeling via joint gravity and borehole parameters, the Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem basin (central-eastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souei, Ali; Atawa, Mohamed; Zouaghi, Taher

    2018-03-01

    The Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem basin, in the central-eastern part of Tunisia, is characterized by the scarcity of surface and subsurface water resources. Although the aquifer systems of this basin are not well understood, the scarce water resources are subject to a high rate of exploitation leading to a significant drop in the level of the water table. This work presents correlation of gravity data with hydrogeological data in order to improve the knowledge of the deep structures and aquifer systems. Various geophysical filtering techniques (e.g., residual anomaly, upward continuation, horizontal gradient, and Euler deconvolution) applied to the complete Bouguer anomaly, deduce the deep structures and geometry of the basin and highlight gravity lineaments that correspond to the tectonic features. The structural framework of the Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem hydrogeological basin shows N-S to NNE-SSW and E-W oriented structures that should be related to tectonic deformations. In addition to the faults, previously recognized, new lineaments are highlighted by the present work. They correspond to NE-, NW-, E- and N- trending faults that have controlled structuring and geometry of the basin. 2D gravity forward modeling, based on the interpretation of geophysical, geological and hydrogeological data, led to a better understanding of the basin geometry and spatial distribution of the Campanian-Maastrichtian and Cenozoic potential aquifers. Three hydrogeological sub-basins identified include the Nadhour sub-basin in the north, the El Alem sub-Basin in the South and the Etrabelsia sub-Basin in the East. These sub-basins are marked by a thickening of deposits, are separated by the Sisseb-Fadeloun raised structure of Neogene and Quaternary thinned series. The results allow the determination of limit conditions for the basin hydrodynamic evolution and explain some anomalies on the quantity and quality of the groundwater. They provide a management guide for water resources prospection in

  7. Towards Smart and Resilient City: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafah, Y.; Winarso, H.; Suroso, D. S. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to compare five smart city models selected based on a number of specific criteria. Following the comparison and assessment performed, we draw conclusions and further linkages identifying the components and characters found in resilient cities. The purpose of this analysis is to produce a new approach and concept: the “smart and resilient city.” Through in-depth literature study, this paper analyzes five conceptual smart city models deemed to have a background, point of view, and benchmark towards software group, as they focus on welfare, inclusion, social equality, and competitiveness. Analyzing the strategies, methods, and techniques of five smart city models, this paper concludes that there has been no inclusion of resilience concepts in the assessment, especially in the context of natural disasters. Basically, the models are also interrelated and there are some things that overlap. As a recommendation, there is a model that tries to combine the components and character of smart city and resilient city into one entity that is embedded as a whole in a conceptual picture towards the new concept, the “smart and resilient city”. The concept of smart city and resilient city go hand in hand with each other and thus are interrelated. Therefore, it is imperative to study that concept deeper, in this case primarily in the context of disaster.

  8. Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.

    2001-01-01

    A primary focus of coastal science during the past 3 decades has been the question: How does anthropogenic nutrient enrichment cause change in the structure or function of nearshore coastal ecosystems? This theme of environmental science is recent, so our conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem continues to change rapidly. In this review, I suggest that the early (Phase I) conceptual model was strongly influenced by limnologists, who began intense study of lake eutrophication by the 1960s. The Phase I model emphasized changing nutrient input as a signal, and responses to that signal as increased phytoplankton biomass and primary production, decomposition of phytoplankton-derived organic matter, and enhanced depletion of oxygen from bottom waters. Coastal research in recent decades has identified key differences in the responses of lakes and coastal-estuarine ecosystems to nutrient enrichment. The contemporary (Phase II) conceptual model reflects those differences and includes explicit recognition of (1) system-specific attributes that act as a filter to modulate the responses to enrichment (leading to large differences among estuarine-coastal systems in their sensitivity to nutrient enrichment); and (2) a complex suite of direct and indirect responses including linked changes in: water transparency, distribution of vascular plants and biomass of macroalgae, sediment biogeochemistry and nutrient cycling, nutrient ratios and their regulation of phytoplankton community composition, frequency of toxic/harmful algal blooms, habitat quality for metazoans, reproduction/growth/survival of pelagic and benthic invertebrates, and subtle changes such as shifts in the seasonality of ecosystem functions. Each aspect of the Phase II model is illustrated here with examples from coastal ecosystems around the world. In the last section of this review I present one vision of the next (Phase III) stage in the evolution of our conceptual model, organized around 5

  9. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran FARAJOLLAHI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims at presenting a conceptual model for effective distance learning in higher education. Findings of this research shows that an understanding of the technological capabilities and learning theories especially constructive theory and independent learning theory and communicative and interaction theory in Distance learning is an efficient factor in the planning of effective Distance learning in higher education. Considering the theoretical foundations of the present research, in the effective distance learning model, the learner is situated at the center of learning environment. For this purpose, the learner needs to be ready for successful learning and the teacher has to be ready to design the teaching- learning activities when they initially enter the environment. In the present model, group and individual active teaching-learning approach, timely feedback, using IT and eight types of interactions have been designed with respect to theoretical foundations and current university missions. From among the issues emphasized in this model, one can refer to the Initial, Formative and Summative evaluations. In an effective distance learning environment, evaluation should be part of the learning process and the feedback resulting from it should be used to improve learning. For validating the specified features, the opinions of Distance learning experts in Payame Noor, Shiraz, Science and Technology and Amirkabir Universities have been used which verified a high percentage of the statistical sample of the above mentioned features.

  10. Multiple-point statistical simulation for hydrogeological models: 3-D training image development and conditioning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-S. Høyer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on the application of geostatistical simulations based on multiple-point statistics (MPS to hydrogeological modelling focus on relatively fine-scale models and concentrate on the estimation of facies-level structural uncertainty. Much less attention is paid to the use of input data and optimal construction of training images. For instance, even though the training image should capture a set of spatial geological characteristics to guide the simulations, the majority of the research still relies on 2-D or quasi-3-D training images. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel strategy for 3-D MPS modelling characterized by (i realistic 3-D training images and (ii an effective workflow for incorporating a diverse group of geological and geophysical data sets. The study covers an area of 2810 km2 in the southern part of Denmark. MPS simulations are performed on a subset of the geological succession (the lower to middle Miocene sediments which is characterized by relatively uniform structures and dominated by sand and clay. The simulated domain is large and each of the geostatistical realizations contains approximately 45 million voxels with size 100 m  ×  100 m  ×  5 m. Data used for the modelling include water well logs, high-resolution seismic data, and a previously published 3-D geological model. We apply a series of different strategies for the simulations based on data quality, and develop a novel method to effectively create observed spatial trends. The training image is constructed as a relatively small 3-D voxel model covering an area of 90 km2. We use an iterative training image development strategy and find that even slight modifications in the training image create significant changes in simulations. Thus, this study shows how to include both the geological environment and the type and quality of input information in order to achieve optimal results from MPS modelling. We present a practical

  11. Development and validation of a mass casualty conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Joan M; Effken, Judith A

    2010-03-01

    To develop and validate a conceptual model that provides a framework for the development and evaluation of information systems for mass casualty events. The model was designed based on extant literature and existing theoretical models. A purposeful sample of 18 experts validated the model. Open-ended questions, as well as a 7-point Likert scale, were used to measure expert consensus on the importance of each construct and its relationship in the model and the usefulness of the model to future research. Computer-mediated applications were used to facilitate a modified Delphi technique through which a panel of experts provided validation for the conceptual model. Rounds of questions continued until consensus was reached, as measured by an interquartile range (no more than 1 scale point for each item); stability (change in the distribution of responses less than 15% between rounds); and percent agreement (70% or greater) for indicator questions. Two rounds of the Delphi process were needed to satisfy the criteria for consensus or stability related to the constructs, relationships, and indicators in the model. The panel reached consensus or sufficient stability to retain all 10 constructs, 9 relationships, and 39 of 44 indicators. Experts viewed the model as useful (mean of 5.3 on a 7-point scale). Validation of the model provides the first step in understanding the context in which mass casualty events take place and identifying variables that impact outcomes of care. This study provides a foundation for understanding the complexity of mass casualty care, the roles that nurses play in mass casualty events, and factors that must be considered in designing and evaluating information-communication systems to support effective triage under these conditions.

  12. Can Bayesian Belief Networks help tackling conceptual model uncertainties in contaminated site risk assessment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Mads; Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; McKnight, Ursula S.

    different conceptual models may describe the same contaminated site equally well. In many cases, conceptual model uncertainty has been shown to be one of the dominant sources for uncertainty and is therefore essential to account for when quantifying uncertainties in risk assessments. We present here......A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is the formulation of a conceptual site model. The conceptual model is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modelling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. A conceptual model should...... a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) approach for evaluating the uncertainty in risk assessment of groundwater contamination from contaminated sites. The approach accounts for conceptual model uncertainty by considering multiple conceptual models, each of which represents an alternative interpretation of the site...

  13. A conceptual model of psychological contracts in construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Ke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of relationship style contracting is recognised in the construction industry. Both public and private sector clients are stipulating more integrated and collaborative forms of procurement. Despite relationship and integrated contractual arrangement being available for some time, it is clear that construction firms have been slow to adopt them. Hence it is timely to examine how social exchanges, via unwritten agreement and behaviours, are being nurtured in construction projects. This paper adopted the concept of Psychological Contracts (PC to describe unwritten agreement and behaviours. A conceptual model of the PC is developed and validated using the results from a questionnaire survey administered to construction professionals in Australia. The results uncovered the relationships that existed amongst relational conditions and relational benefits, the PC and the partners’ satisfaction. The results show that all the hypotheses in the conceptual model of the PC are supported, suggesting the PC model is important and may have an effect on project performance and relationship quality among contracting parties. A validated model of the PC in construction was then developed based on the correlations among each component. The managerial implications are that past relationships and relationship characteristics should be taken into account in the selection of procurement partners and the promise of future resources, support and tangible relational outcomes are also vital. It is important for contracting parties to pay attention to unwritten agreements (the PC and behaviours when managing construction projects.

  14. Hydrogeological modelling of the Atlantis aquifer for management support to the Atlantis water supply scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available model MODFLOW for groundwater flow and contaminant transport was used in support of the management of the AWSS. The aims were: (i) to calibrate the MODFLOW model for the MAR site at Atlantis; (ii) to run realistic scenarios that cannot be replicated...

  15. MISCO: A Conceptual Model for MIS Implementation in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Bali

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology ('IT' has made a prolific impact, both in sociological and commercial terms. In the business world, the pursuit of new technology and working practices has often been at the expense of equal regard for the correct methods to manage the new technology. Contemporary IT techniques and methods include Management Information Systems ('MIS' which are normally implemented on a company-wide basis. However, MIS implementation has major cultural and organisational implications which will form the main focus of this paper. A conceptual model is proposed for successful MIS implementation which combines established research findings with ethnographically-informed data from a small, UK-based, business.

  16. Penetration Testing Professional Ethics: a conceptual model and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Pierce

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where commercial software is continually patched to correct security flaws, penetration testing can provide organisations with a realistic assessment of their security posture. Penetration testing uses the same principles as criminal hackers to penetrate corporate networks and thereby verify the presence of software vulnerabilities. Network administrators can use the results of a penetration test to correct flaws and improve overall security. The use of hacking techniques, however, raises several ethical questions that centre on the integrity of the tester to maintain professional distance and uphold the profession. This paper discusses the ethics of penetration testing and presents our conceptual model and revised taxonomy.

  17. Hydrogeology of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George; Bruce, T. Scott; Bailey, Christopher M.; Sherwood, W. Cullen; Eaton, L. Scott; Powars, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogeology of Virginia documented herein is in two parts. Part 1 consists of an overview and description of the hydrogeology within each regional aquifer system in the Commonwealth. Part 2 includes discussions of hydrogeologic research topics of current relevance including: 1. the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, 2. subsidence/compaction in the Coastal Plain, 3. groundwater age and aquifer susceptibility, 4. the occurrence of groundwater at depth in fractured-rock and karst terrains, and 5. hydrologic response of wells to earthquakes around the world.

  18. Model Intercomparison Study to Investigate a Dense Contaminant Plume in a Complex Hydrogeologic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Mark D.; Cole, Charles R.; Foley, Michael G.; Zinina, Galina A.; Zinin, Alexander I.; Vasil'Kova, Nelly A.; Samsonova, Lilia M.

    2001-01-01

    A joint Russian and U.S. model intercomparison study was undertaken for developing more realistic contaminant transport models of the Mayak Site, Southern Urals. The test problems were developed by the Russian Team based on their experience modeling contaminant migration near Lake Karachai. The intercomparison problems were designed to address lake and contaminant plume interactions, as well as river interactions and plume density effects. Different numerical codes were used. Overall there is good agreement between the results of both models. Features shown by both models include (1) the sinking of the plume below the lake, (2) the raising of the water table in the fresh water adjacent to the lake in response to the increased pressure from the dense plume, and (3) the formation of a second sinking plume in an area where evapotranspiration exceeded infiltration, thus increasing the solute concentrations above the source (i.e., lake) values

  19. Conceptual Development af a 3D Product Configuration Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skauge, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    in the development of IT-systems that support the procedures in companies and in the building industry. In other words, it is a knowledge-based system that helps companies in their daily work. The aim of the project has been to develop and examine conceptual ideas about 3D modelling configurator used in the company......’s production of steel fire sliding doors. The development of the 3D digital model is based on practical rather than theoretical research. The result of the research is a prototype digital 3D model to be presented live.......Paper. This project deals with 3D product configuration of a digital building element which has been developed as a prototype in cooperation between a product manufacturer and a research institution in Denmark. The project falls within the concept of product modelling which is more and more used...

  20. Conceptual model for deriving the repository source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.H.; Apted, M.J.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Van Luik, A.E.; Williford, R.E.; Doctor, P.G.; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA; Roy F. Weston, Inc./Rogers and Assoc. Engineering Corp., Rockville, MD)

    1984-01-01

    Part of a strategy for evaluating the compliance of geologic repositories with Federal regulations is a modeling approach that would provide realistic release estimates for a particular configuration of the engineered-barrier system. The objective is to avoid worst-case bounding assumptions that are physically impossible or excessively conservative and to obtain probabilitistic estimates of (1) the penetration time for metal barriers and (2) radionuclide-release rates for individually simulated waste packages after penetration has occurred. The conceptual model described in this paper will assume that release rates are explicitly related to such time-dependent processes as mass transfer, dissolution and precipitation, radionuclide decay, and variations in the geochemical environment. The conceptual model will take into account the reduction in the rates of waste-form dissolution and metal corrosion due to a buildup of chemical reaction products. The sorptive properties of the metal-barrier corrosion products in proximity to the waste form surface will also be included. Cumulative released from the engineered-barrier system will be calculated by summing the releases from a probabilistically generated population of individual waste packages. 14 refs., 7 figs

  1. Conceptual model for deriving the repository source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.H.; Apted, M.J.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Doctor, P.G.; Williford, R.E.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1984-11-01

    Part of a strategy for evaluating the compliance of geologic repositories with federal regulations is a modeling approach that would provide realistic release estimates for a particular configuration of the engineered-barrier system. The objective is to avoid worst-case bounding assumptions that are physically impossible or excessively conservative and to obtain probabilistic estimates of (1) the penetration time for metal barriers and (2) radionuclide-release rates for individually simulated waste packages after penetration has occurred. The conceptual model described in this paper will assume that release rates are explicitly related to such time-dependent processes as mass transfer, dissolution and precipitation, radionuclide decay, and variations in the geochemical environment. The conceptual model will take into account the reduction in the rates of waste-form dissolution and metal corrosion due to a buildup of chemical reaction products. The sorptive properties of the metal-barrier corrosion products in proximity to the waste form surface will also be included. Cumulative releases from the engineered-barrier system will be calculated by summing the releases from a probabilistically generated population of individual waste packages. 14 refs., 7 figs

  2. Hydrogeological controls of variable microbial water quality in a complex subtropical karst system in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Anna; Goeppert, Nadine; Goldscheider, Nico

    2018-05-01

    Karst aquifers are particularly vulnerable to bacterial contamination. Especially in developing countries, poor microbial water quality poses a threat to human health. In order to develop effective groundwater protection strategies, a profound understanding of the hydrogeological setting is crucial. The goal of this study was to elucidate the relationships between high spatio-temporal variability in microbial contamination and the hydrogeological conditions. Based on extensive field studies, including mapping, tracer tests and hydrochemical analyses, a conceptual hydrogeological model was developed for a remote and geologically complex karst area in Northern Vietnam called Dong Van. Four different physicochemical water types were identified; the most important ones correspond to the karstified Bac Son and the fractured Na Quan aquifer. Alongside comprehensive investigation of the local hydrogeology, water quality was evaluated by analysis for three types of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB): Escherichia coli, enterococci and thermotolerant coliforms. The major findings are: (1) Springs from the Bac Son formation displayed the highest microbial contamination, while (2) springs that are involved in a polje series with connections to sinking streams were distinctly more contaminated than springs with a catchment area characterized by a more diffuse infiltration. (3) FIB concentrations are dependent on the season, with higher values under wet season conditions. Furthermore, (4) the type of spring capture also affects the water quality. Nevertheless, all studied springs were faecally impacted, along with several shallow wells within the confined karst aquifer. Based on these findings, effective protection strategies can be developed to improve groundwater quality.

  3. A conceptual gamma shield design using the DRP model computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, E E [Reactor Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Rahman, F A [National Center of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this investigation is to assess basic areas of concern in the development of reactor shielding conceptual design calculations. A spherical shield model composed of low carbon steel and lead have been constructed to surround a Co-60 gamma point source. two alternative configurations have been considered in the model computation. The numerical calculations have been performed using both the ANISN code and DRP model computation together with the DLC 75-Bugle 80 data library. A resume of results for deep penetration in different shield materials with different packing densities is presented and analysed. The results showed that the gamma fluxes attenuation is increased with increasing distribution the packing density of the shield material which reflects its importance of considering it as a safety parameter in shielding design. 3 figs.

  4. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. Impact of river stage prediction methods on stream-aquifer exchanges in a hydro(geo)logical model at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, F.; Flipo, N.; de Fouquet, C.

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to provide a realistic simulation of river stage in regional river networks in order to improve the quantification of stream-aquifer exchanges and better assess the associated aquifer responses that are often impacted by the magnitude and the frequency of the river stage fluctuations. The study focuses on the Oise basin (17 000 km2, part of the 65 000 km2 Seine basin in Northern France) where stream-aquifer exchanges cannot be assessed directly by experimental methods. Nowadays numerical methods are the most appropriate approaches for assessing stream-aquifer exchanges at this scale. A regional distributed process-based hydro(geo)logical model, Eau-Dyssée, is used, which aims at the integrated modeling of the hydrosystem to manage the various elements involved in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of water resources. Eau-Dyssée simulates pseudo 3D flow in aquifer systems solving the diffusivity equation with a finite difference numerical scheme. River flow is simulated with a Muskingum model. In addition to the in-stream discharge, a river stage estimate is needed to calculate the water exchange at the stream-aquifer interface using the Darcy law. Three methods for assessing in-stream river stages are explored to determine the most appropriate representation at regional scale over 25 years (1980-2005). The first method consists in defining rating curves for each cell of a 1D Saint-Venant hydraulic model. The second method consists in interpolating observed rating curves (at gauging stations) onto the river cells of the hydro(geo)logical model. The interpolation technique is based on geostatistics. The last method assesses river stage using Manning equation with a simplified rectangular cross-section (water depth equals the hydraulic radius). Compared to observations, the geostatistical and the Manning methodologies lead to slightly less accurate (but still acceptable) results offering a low computational cost opportunity

  6. Comparison of two conceptual models of flow using the TSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the performance-assessment task for the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Sandia National Laboratories is developing a set of programs called the Total-System Analyzer (TSA). The TSA is one of the tools being used in the current effort to provide a systematic preliminary estimate the total-system performance of the Yucca Mountain site. The purposes of this paper are twofold: (1) to describe capabilities that have been added to the TSA in the last year; and (2) to present a comparison of two conceptual models of unsaturated-zone flow and transport, in terms of the performance measure specified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 40 CFR Part 191. The conceptual-model comparison is intended to demonstrate the new TSA capabilities and at the same time shed some light on the performance implications of fracture flow at Yucca Mountain. Unsaturated fracture flow is not yet well understood, and it is of great importance in determining the performance of Yucca Mountain

  7. Conceptual models in man-machine design verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The need for systematic methods for evaluation of design concepts for new man-machine systems has been rapidly increasing in consequence of the introduction of modern information technology. Direct empirical methods are difficult to apply when functions during rare conditions and support of operator decisions during emergencies are to be evaluated. In this paper, the problems of analytical evaluations based on conceptual models of the man-machine interaction are discussed, and the relations to system design and analytical risk assessment are considered. Finally, a conceptual framework for analytical evaluation is proposed, including several domains of description: 1. The problem space, in the form of a means-end hierarchy; 2. The structure of the decision process; 3. The mental strategies and heuristics used by operators; 4. The levels of cognitive control and the mechanisms related to human errors. Finally, the need for models representing operators' subjective criteria for choosing among available mental strategies and for accepting advice from intelligent interfaces is discussed

  8. A conceptual model for groundwater flow and geochemical evolution in the southern Outaouais Region, Québec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montcoudiol, N.; Molson, J.; Lemieux, J.-M.; Cloutier, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Geochemical and isotope data help constrain the 2D conceptual flow model. • Stable isotopes indicate recharge occurring under conditions similar to current climate. • Mixing was found between younger ( 3 H) and older ( 14 C and 4 He) groundwater. • Mixing occurred under natural flow conditions and/or was induced during sampling. • The new conceptual model shows dominant local and intermediate flow systems. - Abstract: A conceptual model was developed for a hydrogeological flow system in the southern Outaouais Region, Quebec, Canada, where the local population relies heavily on groundwater pumped from shallow overburden aquifers and from deeper fractured crystalline bedrock. The model is based on the interpretation of aqueous inorganic geochemical data from 14 wells along a cross-section following the general flow direction, of which 9 were also analysed for isotopes (δ 18 O, δ 2 H, 3 H, δ 13 C, 14 C) and 4 for noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xe, Kr). Three major water types were identified: (1) Ca–HCO 3 in the unconfined aquifer as a result of silicate (Ca-feldspar) weathering, (2) Na–Cl as a remnant of the post-glacial Champlain Sea in stagnant confined zones of the aquifer, and (3) Na–HCO 3 , resulting from freshening of the confined aquifer due to Ca–Na cation exchange. Chemical data also allowed the identification of significant mixing zones. Isotope and noble gas data confirm the hypothesis of remnant water from the Champlain Sea and also support the hypothesis of mixing processes between a young tritium-rich component with an older component containing high 4 He concentrations. It is still unclear if the mixing occurs under natural flow conditions or if it is induced by pumping during the sampling, most wells being open boreholes in the bedrock. It is clear, however, that the hydrogeochemical system is dynamic and still evolving from induced changes since the last glaciation. As a next step, the conceptual model will serve as a

  9. Hydrogeological assessment based on ground water flow modeling around Atbara town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S. H. M.

    2010-10-01

    Study area lies in the River Nile state North Central of Sudan between latitudes 17 o 34 - 18 o 00 N and longitudes 33 o 55 - 34 o 43 E. The geological settings of the study area are composed of pre-Cambrian Basement Complex, upper Cretaceous Nubian sandstone formation, Oligocene Hudi Chert, and quaternary superficial deposits in ascending order. Generally there are two main aquifers: shallow or upper aquifer in the alluvial deposits (5 - 37 m thick) and deep or lower aquifer in cretaceous Nubian sand stone (17 - 60 m). The upper aquifer is semi confined, whereas, the lower aquifer is almost confined except in the area around Atbara Town. Hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer varies between 1.89 x 10 -1 to 8.95 x 10 -1 m/min. Most of the water quality in the study area is suitable for domestic, agriculture, and industrial used with the exception of small pockets at Atbara town and some village in West of study area where salinity and contaminations were detected. Generally most of water quality in the study area is fit for human consumption. The ground water flow model of the study area was constricted using 40 column, 50 rows and 3 layers, forming 6000 cells covering the model domain. The model was calibrated using 3D Finite difference visual MODFLOW. The model calibration criteria such as mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMS) and mass balance error of water into and of out of the system were adjusted to less 1.3, 1.6 m, and 2.5% respectively. The contour maps of the simulated heads produced by visual MODFLOW show fair similarity with the contour map drawn using initial heads which confirm the reliability of Visual MODFLOW application and acceptable model calibration for the problem. As the result of model prediction, the calibration seemed to be more acceptable with average (RMS) of 2.5 m and average absolute mean error (AM) of 1.38 m and average normalized root mean square (NRMS) of (2.02%). Prediction results reflect the increasing of

  10. Sensitivity analysis and development of calibration methodology for near-surface hydrogeology model of Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneljung, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran

    2007-04-01

    The hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow, transport mechanisms and the contact between ground- and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the 1D modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. In spring 2007, a new data freeze will be available and a process of updating, rebuilding and calibrating the MIKE SHE model will start, based on the latest data set. Prior to this, it is important to gather as much knowledge as possible on calibration methods and to define critical calibration parameters and areas within the model. In this project, an optimization of the numerical description and an initial calibration of the MIKE SHE model has been made, and an updated base case has been defined. Data from 5 surface water level monitoring stations, 4 surface water discharge monitoring stations and 32 groundwater level monitoring stations (SFM soil boreholes) has been used for model calibration and evaluation. The base case simulations generally show a good agreement between calculated and measured water levels and discharges, indicating that the total runoff from the area is well described by the model. Moreover, with two exceptions (SFM0012 and SFM0022) the base case results show very good agreement between calculated and measured groundwater head elevations for boreholes installed below lakes. The model also shows a reasonably good agreement between calculated and measured groundwater head elevations or depths to phreatic surfaces in many other points. The following major types of calculation-measurement differences can be noted: Differences in groundwater level amplitudes due to transpiration processes. Differences in absolute mean groundwater head, due to differences between borehole casing levels and the interpolated DEM. Differences in absolute mean head elevations, due to local errors in hydraulic conductivity values

  11. Sensitivity analysis and development of calibration methodology for near-surface hydrogeology model of Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneljung, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran [DHI Water and Environment AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow, transport mechanisms and the contact between ground- and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the 1D modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. In spring 2007, a new data freeze will be available and a process of updating, rebuilding and calibrating the MIKE SHE model will start, based on the latest data set. Prior to this, it is important to gather as much knowledge as possible on calibration methods and to define critical calibration parameters and areas within the model. In this project, an optimization of the numerical description and an initial calibration of the MIKE SHE model has been made, and an updated base case has been defined. Data from 5 surface water level monitoring stations, 4 surface water discharge monitoring stations and 32 groundwater level monitoring stations (SFM soil boreholes) has been used for model calibration and evaluation. The base case simulations generally show a good agreement between calculated and measured water levels and discharges, indicating that the total runoff from the area is well described by the model. Moreover, with two exceptions (SFM0012 and SFM0022) the base case results show very good agreement between calculated and measured groundwater head elevations for boreholes installed below lakes. The model also shows a reasonably good agreement between calculated and measured groundwater head elevations or depths to phreatic surfaces in many other points. The following major types of calculation-measurement differences can be noted: Differences in groundwater level amplitudes due to transpiration processes. Differences in absolute mean groundwater head, due to differences between borehole casing levels and the interpolated DEM. Differences in absolute mean head elevations, due to local errors in hydraulic conductivity values

  12. Joint inversion of seismic refraction and resistivity data using layered models - applications to hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhojuntti, N. G.; Kamm, J.

    2010-12-01

    We present a layered-model approach to joint inversion of shallow seismic refraction and resistivity (DC) data, which we believe is a seldom tested method of addressing the problem. This method has been developed as we believe that for shallow sedimentary environments (roughly fairly simple 2D geometries, mainly for checking the validity of the calculations. The inversion generally converges towards the correct solution, although there could be stability problems if the starting model is too erroneous. We have also applied the code to field data from seismic refraction and multi-electrode resistivity measurements at typical sand-gravel groundwater reservoirs. The tests are promising, as the calculated depths agree fairly well with information from drilling and the velocity and resistivity values appear reasonable. Current work includes better regularization of the inversion as well as defining individual weight factors for the different datasets, as the present algorithm tends to constrain the depths mainly by using the seismic data. More complex synthetic examples will also be tested, including models addressing the seismic hidden-layer problem.

  13. Characterisation of karst hydrogeology in Western Ireland using geophysical and hydraulic modelling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. McCormack

    2017-04-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Results suggest two primary pathways of northwards groundwater flow in the catchment, a fault which discharges offshore, and a ∼2 m diameter karst conduit running underneath the catchment lowlands against the prevailing geological dip. This conduit, whose existence was suspected but never confirmed, links a large ephemeral lake to the coast where it discharges intertidally. Hydraulic modelling indicates that the conduit network is a complex mixture of constrictions with multiple inlets and outlets. Two ephemeral lakes are shown to be hydraulically discontinuous, either drained separately or linked by a low pressure channel.

  14. Representing Glaciations and Subglacial Processes in Hydrogeological Models: A Numerical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Sterckx

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific impact of glacial processes on groundwater flow and solute transport under ice-sheets was determined by means of numerical simulations. Groundwater flow and the transport of δ18O, TDS, and groundwater age were simulated in a generic sedimentary basin during a single glacial event followed by a postglacial period. Results show that simulating subglacial recharge with a fixed flux boundary condition is relevant only for small fluxes, which could be the case under partially wet-based ice-sheets. Glacial loading decreases overpressures, which appear only in thick and low hydraulic diffusivity layers. If subglacial recharge is low, glacial loading can lead to underpressures after the retreat of the ice-sheet. Isostasy reduces considerably the infiltration of meltwater and the groundwater flow rates. Below permafrost, groundwater flow is reduced under the ice-sheet but is enhanced beyond the ice-sheet front. Accounting for salinity-dependent density reduces the infiltration of meltwater at depth. This study shows that each glacial process is potentially relevant in models of subglacial groundwater flow and solute transport. It provides a good basis for building and interpreting such models in the future.

  15. A conceptual model for translating omic data into clinical action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M Herr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic, proteomic, epigenomic, and other "omic" data have the potential to enable precision medicine, also commonly referred to as personalized medicine. The volume and complexity of omic data are rapidly overwhelming human cognitive capacity, requiring innovative approaches to translate such data into patient care. Here, we outline a conceptual model for the application of omic data in the clinical context, called "the omic funnel." This model parallels the classic "Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom pyramid" and adds context for how to move between each successive layer. Its goal is to allow informaticians, researchers, and clinicians to approach the problem of translating omic data from bench to bedside, by using discrete steps with clearly defined needs. Such an approach can facilitate the development of modular and interoperable software that can bring precision medicine into widespread practice.

  16. Testing and validation of numerical models of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions in fractured granites: A quantitative study of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinero Huguet, J

    2001-07-01

    This work deals with numerical modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions through fractured media. These models have been developed within the framework of research activities founded by ENRESA , the Spanish Company for Nuclear Waste Management. This project is the result of a collaborative agreement between ENRESA and his equivalent Swedish Company (SKB) through the research project Task Force 5 of the Aspo Underground Laboratory. One of the objectives of this project is to assess quantitatively th hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced by the construction of a Deep Geological Repository in fractured granites. This is important because the new conditions altered construction impact will constitute the initial conditions for the repository closure stage. A second goo l of this work deals with testing the ability of current numerical tools to cope simultaneously with the complex hydrogeological and hydrochemical settlings, which are expected to take place in actual nuclear waste underground repositories constructed in crystalline fractured bed racks. This study has been undertaken through the performance of numerical models, which have subsequently been applied to simulate the hydrogeological and hydrochemical behavior of a granite massif, at a kilo metrical scale, during construction of the Aspo Hard Rock Underground Laboratory (Sweden). The Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory is a prototype, full-scale underground facility launched and operated by SKB. The main aim of the laboratory is to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The framework of this underground facility provides a unique opportunity to attempt the objectives of the present dissertation. (Author)

  17. Testing and validation of numerical models of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions in fractured granites: A quantitative study of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinero Huguet, J.

    2001-06-01

    This work deals with numerical modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions through fractured media. These models have been developed within the framework of research activities founded by ENRESA , the Spanish Company for Nuclear Waste Management. This project is the result of a collaborative agreement between ENRESA and his equivalent Swedish Company (SKB) through the research project Task Force 5 of the Aspo Underground Laboratory. One of the objectives of this project is to assess quantitatively th hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced by the construction of a Deep Geological Repository in fractured granites. This is important because the new conditions altered construction impact will constitute the initial conditions for the repository closure stage. A second goo l of this work deals with testing the ability of current numerical tools to cope simultaneously with the complex hydrogeological and hydrochemical settlings, which are expected to take place in actual nuclear waste underground repositories constructed in crystalline fractured bed racks. This study has been undertaken through the performance of numerical models, which have subsequently been applied to simulate the hydrogeological and hydrochemical behavior of a granite massif, at a kilo metrical scale, during construction of the Aspo Hard Rock Underground Laboratory (Sweden). The Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory is a prototype, full-scale underground facility launched and operated by SKB. The main aim of the laboratory is to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The framework of this underground facility provides a unique opportunity to attempt the objectives of the present dissertation. (Author)

  18. GEOQUIMICO : an interactive tool for comparing sorption conceptual models (surface complexation modeling versus K[D])

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Glenn E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Within reactive geochemical transport, several conceptual models exist for simulating sorption processes in the subsurface. Historically, the K D approach has been the method of choice due to ease of implementation within a reactive transport model and straightforward comparison with experimental data. However, for modeling complex sorption phenomenon (e.g. sorption of radionuclides onto mineral surfaces), this approach does not systematically account for variations in location, time, or chemical conditions, and more sophisticated methods such as a surface complexation model (SCM) must be utilized. It is critical to determine which conceptual model to use; that is, when the material variation becomes important to regulatory decisions. The geochemical transport tool GEOQUIMICO has been developed to assist in this decision-making process. GEOQUIMICO provides a user-friendly framework for comparing the accuracy and performance of sorption conceptual models. The model currently supports the K D and SCM conceptual models. The code is written in the object-oriented Java programming language to facilitate model development and improve code portability. The basic theory underlying geochemical transport and the sorption conceptual models noted above is presented in this report. Explanations are provided of how these physicochemical processes are instrumented in GEOQUIMICO and a brief verification study comparing GEOQUIMICO results to data found in the literature is given

  19. [Active ageing and success: A brief history of conceptual models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petretto, Donatella Rita; Pili, Roberto; Gaviano, Luca; Matos López, Cristina; Zuddas, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe different conceptual models of successful ageing, active and healthy ageing developed in Europe and in America in the 20° century, starting from Rowe and Kahn's original model (1987, 1997). A narrative review was conducted on the literature on successful ageing. Our review included definition of successful ageing from European and American scholars. Models were found that aimed to describe indexes of active and healthy ageing, models devoted to describe processes involved in successful ageing, and additional views that emphasise subjective and objective perception of successful ageing. A description is also given of critiques on previous models and remedies according to Martin et al. (2014) and strategies for successful ageing according to Jeste and Depp (2014). The need is discussed for the enhancement of Rowe and Kahn's model and other models with a more inclusive, universal description of ageing, incorporating scientific evidence regarding active ageing. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulation modelling of fynbos ecosystems: Systems analysis and conceptual models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, FJ

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available -animal interactions. An additional two models, which expand aspects of the FYNBOS model, are described: a model for simulating canopy processes; and a Fire Recovery Simulator. The canopy process model will simulate ecophysiological processes in more detail than FYNBOS...

  1. Hydrogeological characterisation of groundwater over Brazil using remotely sensed and model products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kexiang; Awange, Joseph L; Khandu; Forootan, Ehsan; Goncalves, Rodrigo Mikosz; Fleming, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    For Brazil, a country frequented by droughts and whose rural inhabitants largely depend on groundwater, reliance on isotope for its monitoring, though accurate, is expensive and limited in spatial coverage. We exploit total water storage (TWS) derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites to analyse spatial-temporal groundwater changes in relation to geological characteristics. Large-scale groundwater changes are estimated using GRACE-derived TWS and altimetry observations in addition to GLDAS and WGHM model outputs. Additionally, TRMM precipitation data are used to infer impacts of climate variability on groundwater fluctuations. The results indicate that climate variability mainly controls groundwater change trends while geological properties control change rates, spatial distribution, and storage capacity. Granular rocks in the Amazon and Guarani aquifers are found to influence larger storage capability, higher permeability (>10 -4 m/s) and faster response to rainfall (1 to 3months' lag) compared to fractured rocks (permeability 3months) found only in Bambui aquifer. Groundwater in the Amazon region is found to rely not only on precipitation but also on inflow from other regions. Areas beyond the northern and southern Amazon basin depict a 'dam-like' pattern, with high inflow and slow outflow rates (recharge slope > 0.75, discharge slope 30cm). Amazon's groundwater declined between 2002 and 2008 due to below normal precipitation (wet seasons lasted for about 36 to 47% of the time). The Guarani aquifer and adjacent coastline areas rank second in terms of storage capacity, while the northeast and southeast coastal regions indicate the smallest storage capacity due to lack of rainfall (annual average is rainfall <10cm). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraqs Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing: A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues, recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, and descriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

  3. A conceptual model to improve performance in virtual teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shopee Dube

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vast improvement in communication technologies and sophisticated project management tools, methods and techniques has allowed geographically and culturally diverse groups to operate and function in a virtual environment. To succeed in this virtual environment where time and space are becoming increasingly irrelevant, organisations must define new ways of implementing initiatives. This virtual environment phenomenon has brought about the formation of virtual project teams that allow organisations to harness the skills and knowhow of the best resources, irrespective of their location. Objectives: The aim of this article was to investigate performance criteria and develop a conceptual model which can be applied to enhance the success of virtual project teams. There are no clear guidelines of the performance criteria in managing virtual project teams. Method: A qualitative research methodology was used in this article. The purpose of content analysis was to explore the literature to understand the concept of performance in virtual project teams and to summarise the findings of the literature reviewed. Results: The research identified a set of performance criteria for the virtual project teams as follows: leadership, trust, communication, team cooperation, reliability, motivation, comfort and social interaction. These were used to conceptualise the model. Conclusion: The conceptual model can be used in a holistic way to determine the overall performance of the virtual project team, but each factor can be analysed individually to determine the impact on the overall performance. The knowledge of performance criteria for virtual project teams could aid project managers in enhancing the success of these teams and taking a different approach to better manage and coordinate them.

  4. The structure of conceptual models with application to the Aespoe HRL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Olle; Baeckblom, G.; Wikberg, P.; Gustafson, G.; Stanfors, R.

    1994-05-01

    In performance assessment a sequence of models is used to describe the function of the geological barrier. This report proposes a general structure and terminology for description of these models. A model description consists of the following components: A conceptual model which defines the geometric framework in which the problem is solved, the dimensions of the modelled volume, descriptions of the processes included in the model, and the boundary conditions; Data which are introduced into the conceptual model, and a mathematical or numerical tool used to produce output data. Contradictory to common practice in geohydrologic modelling it is proposed that the term conceptual model is restricted to define in what way the model is constructed, and that this is separated from any specific application of the conceptual model. Hence, the conceptual model should not include any specific data. 5 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Climate stability and sensitivity in some simple conceptual models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. Ray [University College Dublin, Meteorology and Climate Centre, School of Mathematical Sciences, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-02-15

    A theoretical investigation of climate stability and sensitivity is carried out using three simple linearized models based on the top-of-the-atmosphere energy budget. The simplest is the zero-dimensional model (ZDM) commonly used as a conceptual basis for climate sensitivity and feedback studies. The others are two-zone models with tropics and extratropics of equal area; in the first of these (Model A), the dynamical heat transport (DHT) between the zones is implicit, in the second (Model B) it is explicitly parameterized. It is found that the stability and sensitivity properties of the ZDM and Model A are very similar, both depending only on the global-mean radiative response coefficient and the global-mean forcing. The corresponding properties of Model B are more complex, depending asymmetrically on the separate tropical and extratropical values of these quantities, as well as on the DHT coefficient. Adopting Model B as a benchmark, conditions are found under which the validity of the ZDM and Model A as climate sensitivity models holds. It is shown that parameter ranges of physical interest exist for which such validity may not hold. The 2 x CO{sub 2} sensitivities of the simple models are studied and compared. Possible implications of the results for sensitivities derived from GCMs and palaeoclimate data are suggested. Sensitivities for more general scenarios that include negative forcing in the tropics (due to aerosols, inadvertent or geoengineered) are also studied. Some unexpected outcomes are found in this case. These include the possibility of a negative global-mean temperature response to a positive global-mean forcing, and vice versa. (orig.)

  6. CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF CONSUMERS TRUST TO ONLINE SHOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dubovyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the conceptual model of the major factors that influence consumers trust in online shop: reliability of online store, reliable information system for making purchases online, factors of ethic interactiveness (security, third-party certification, internet-marketing communications of online-shop and other factors – that is divided enterprises of trade and consumers (demographic variables, psychological perception of internet-marketing communications, experience of purchase of commodities are in the Internet. The degree of individual customer trust propensity which reflects the personality traits, culture and previous experience. An implement signs of consumer confidence due to site elements online shop – graphic design, structured design, design of content, design harmonized with perception of target audience.

  7. Conceptual Models of the Individual Public Service Provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Pedersen, Lene Holm; Bhatti, Yosef

    are used to gain insight on the motivation of public service providers; namely principal-agent theory, self-determination theory and public service motivation theory. We situate the theoretical discussions in the context of public service providers being transferred to private organizations......Individual public service providers’ motivation can be conceptualized as either extrinsic, autonomous or prosocial, and the question is how we can best theoretically understand this complexity without losing too much coherence and parsimony. Drawing on Allison’s approach (1969), three perspectives...... theoretical – to develop a coherent model of individual public service providers – but the empirical illustration also contributes to our understanding of motivation in the context of public sector outsourcing....

  8. CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF INFORMATION SYSTEM OF THE AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uladzimir Buts

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Research subject represented by the theoretical and practical issues use of information resources in the agricultural business. Research aim is to formation of a conceptual model of information system of agricultural enterprises according to the requirements of sustainable development. Research methods. The work is prepared on basis of several scientific methods and approaches including monographic, analytical, computational and constructive methods of mathematical and structural logic simulation of information systems. Research results. Based on the assessment of the results of research information systems in agribusiness, as reflected in the theoretical review, the author designed principles of the information system for the agricultural enterprise for sustainable development of agribusiness. Sphere of application of the research results. State and regional authorities of economic regulation. Agricultural enterprises and farmers.

  9. A Framework for Conceptual Modeling of Geographic Data Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Christensen, J.V.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    Sustained advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and consumer electronics pave the way to a kind of location-based service that relies on the tracking of the continuously changing positions of an entire population of service users. This type of service is characterized by large...... an object is moving. Empirical performance studies based on a real road network and GPS logs from cars areThe notion of data quality is of particular importance to geographic data. One reason is that such data is often inherently imprecise. Another is that the usability of the data is in large part...... determined by how "good" the data is, as different applications of geographic data require different qualities of the data are met. Such qualities concern the object level as well as the attribute level of the data. This paper presents a systematic and integrated approach to the conceptual modeling...

  10. Recruiting Transcultural Qualitative Research Participants: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Eide

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Working with diverse populations poses many challenges to the qualitative researcher who is a member of the dominant culture. Traditional methods of recruitment and selection (such as flyers and advertisements are often unproductive, leading to missed contributions from potential participants who were not recruited and researcher frustration. In this article, the authors explore recruitment issues related to the concept of personal knowing based on experiences with Aboriginal Hawai'ian and Micronesian populations, wherein knowing and being known are crucial to successful recruitment of participants. They present a conceptual model that incorporates key concepts of knowing the other, cultural context, and trust to guide other qualitative transcultural researchers. They also describe challenges, implications, and concrete suggestions for recruitment of participants.

  11. Fatigue in fibromyalgia: a conceptual model informed by patient interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Louise

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is increasingly recognized as an important symptom in fibromyalgia (FM. Unknown however is how fatigue is experienced by individuals in the context of FM. We conducted qualitative research in order to better understand aspects of fatigue that might be unique to FM as well as the impact it has on patients' lives. The data obtained informed the development of a conceptual model of fatigue in FM. Methods Open-ended interviews were conducted with 40 individuals with FM (US [n = 20], Germany [n = 10] and France [n = 10]. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative methods based upon grounded theory to identify key themes and concepts. Results Participants were mostly female (70% with a mean age of 48.7 years (range: 25-79. Thirty-one individuals (i.e., 77.5% spontaneously described experiencing tiredness/lack of energy/fatigue due to FM. Participants discussed FM fatigue as being more severe, constant/persistent and unpredictable than normal tiredness. The conceptual model depicts the key elements of fatigue in FM from a patient perspective. This includes: an overwhelming feeling of tiredness (n = 17, 42.5%, not relieved by resting/sleeping (n = 15, 37.5%, not proportional to effort exerted (n = 25, 62.5%, associated with a feeling of weakness/heaviness (n = 20, 50%, interferes with motivation (n = 22, 55%, interferes with desired activities (n = 27, 67.5%, prolongs tasks (n = 15, 37.5%, and makes it difficult to concentrate (n = 21, 52.5%, think clearly (n = 12, 30% or remember things (n = 9, 22.5%. Conclusion The majority of individuals with FM who participated in this study experience fatigue and describe it as more severe than normal tiredness.

  12. Assessment of private hospital portals: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alipour-Hafezi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital portals, as the first virtual entry, play an important role in connecting people with hospital and also presenting hospital virtual services. The main purpose of this article was to suggest a conceptual model to improve Tehran private hospital portals. The suggested model can be used by all the health portals that are in the same circumstances and all the health portals which are in progress. Method: This is a practical research, using evaluative survey research method. Research population includes all the private hospital portals in Tehran, 34 portals, and ten top international hospital portals. Data gathering tool used in this research was a researcher-made checklist including 14 criteria and 77 sub-criteria with their weight score. In fact, objective observation with the mentioned checklist was used to gather information. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and tables and graphs were used to present the organized data. Also, data were analyzed using independent t-test. Conceptual modeling technique was used to design the model and demonstration method was used to evaluate the proposed model. In this regard, SPSS statistical software was used to perform the tests. Results:The comparative study between the two groups of portals, TPH and WTH, in the 14 main criteria showed that the value of t-test in contact information criteria was 0.862, portal page specification was -1.378, page design criteria -1.527, updating pages -0.322, general information and access roads -3.161, public services -7.302, patient services -4.154, patient data -8.703, research and education -9.155, public relationship -3.009, page technical specifications -4.726, telemedicine -7.488, pharmaceutical services -6.183, and financial services -2.782. Finally, the findings demonstrated that Tehran private hospital portals in criterion of contact information were favorable; page design criteria were relatively favorable; page technical

  13. Modelling in Primary School: Constructing Conceptual Models and Making Sense of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh; Peled, Irit

    2017-01-01

    This article describes sixth-grade students' engagement in two model-eliciting activities offering students the opportunity to construct mathematical models. The findings show that students utilized their knowledge of fractions including conceptual and procedural knowledge in constructing mathematical models for the given situations. Some students…

  14. Hydrogeological boundary settings in SR 97. Uncertainties in regional boundary settings and transfer of boundary conditions to site-scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, S.

    1999-06-01

    The SR 97 project presents a performance assessment (PA) of the overall safety of a hypothetical deep repository at three sites in Sweden arbitrarily named Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. One component of this PA assesses the uncertainties in the hydrogeological modelling. This study focuses on uncertainties in boundary settings (size of model domain and boundary conditions) in the regional and site-scale hydrogeological modelling of the three sites used to simulating the possible transport of radionuclides from the emplacement waste packages through the host rock to the accessible environment. Model uncertainties associated with, for instance, parameter heterogeneity and structural interpretations are addressed in other studies. This study concludes that the regional modelling of the SR 97 project addresses uncertainties in the choice of boundary conditions and size of model domain differently at each site, although the overall handling is acceptable and in accordance with common modelling practice. For example, the treatment of uncertainties with regard to the ongoing post-glacial flushing of the Baltic Shield is creditably addressed although not exhaustive from a modelling point of view. A significant contribution of the performed modelling is the study of nested numerical models, i.e., the numerical interplay between regional and site-scale numerical models. In the site-scale modelling great efforts are made to address problems associated with (i) the telescopic mesh refinement (TMR) technique with regard to the stochastic continuum approach, and (ii) the transfer of boundary conditions between variable-density flow systems and flow systems that are constrained to treat uniform density flow. This study concludes that the efforts made to handle these problems are acceptable with regards to the objectives of the SR 97 project

  15. A conceptual model for the fuel oxidation of defective fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, J.D.; Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T.; He, Z.

    2007-01-01

    A mechanistic conceptual model has been developed to predict the fuel oxidation behaviour in operating defective fuel elements for water-cooled nuclear reactors. This theoretical work accounts for gas-phase transport and sheath reactions in the fuel-to-sheath gap to determine the local oxygen potential. An improved thermodynamic analysis has also been incorporated into the model to describe the equilibrium state of the oxidized fuel. The fuel oxidation kinetics treatment accounts for multi-phase transport including normal diffusion and thermodiffusion for interstitial oxygen migration in the solid, as well as gas-phase transport in the fuel pellet cracks. The fuel oxidation treatment is further coupled to a heat conduction equation. A numerical solution of the coupled transport equations is obtained by a finite-element technique with the FEMLAB 3.1 software package. The model is able to provide radial-axial profiles of the oxygen-to-uranium ratio and the fuel temperatures as a function of time in the defective element for a wide range of element powers and defect sizes. The model results are assessed against coulometric titration measurements of the oxygen-to-metal profile for pellet samples taken from ten spent defective elements discharged from the National Research Universal Reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories and commercial reactors

  16. Internal Models, Vestibular Cognition, and Mental Imagery: Conceptual Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred W; Ellis, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular cognition has recently gained attention. Despite numerous experimental and clinical demonstrations, it is not yet clear what vestibular cognition really is. For future research in vestibular cognition, adopting a computational approach will make it easier to explore the underlying mechanisms. Indeed, most modeling approaches in vestibular science include a top-down or a priori component. We review recent Bayesian optimal observer models, and discuss in detail the conceptual value of prior assumptions, likelihood and posterior estimates for research in vestibular cognition. We then consider forward models in vestibular processing, which are required in order to distinguish between sensory input that is induced by active self-motion, and sensory input that is due to passive self-motion. We suggest that forward models are used not only in the service of estimating sensory states but they can also be drawn upon in an offline mode (e.g., spatial perspective transformations), in which interaction with sensory input is not desired. A computational approach to vestibular cognition will help to discover connections across studies, and it will provide a more coherent framework for investigating vestibular cognition.

  17. BIM-Enabled Conceptual Modelling and Representation of Building Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kook Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a building information modelling (BIM-based approach for building circulation enables us to change the process of building design in terms of its computational representation and processes, focusing on the conceptual modelling and representation of circulation within buildings. BIM has been designed for use by several BIM authoring tools, in particular with the widely known interoperable industry foundation classes (IFCs, which follow an object-oriented data modelling methodology. Advances in BIM authoring tools, using space objects and their relations defined in an IFC's schema, have made it possible to model, visualize and analyse circulation within buildings prior to their construction. Agent-based circulation has long been an interdisciplinary topic of research across several areas, including design computing, computer science, architectural morphology, human behaviour and environmental psychology. Such conventional approaches to building circulation are centred on navigational knowledge about built environments, and represent specific circulation paths and regulations. This paper, however, places emphasis on the use of ‘space objects’ in BIM-enabled design processes rather than on circulation agents, the latter of which are not defined in the IFCs' schemas. By introducing and reviewing some associated research and projects, this paper also surveys how such a circulation representation is applicable to the analysis of building circulation-related rules.

  18. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE LIFE CYCLE OF THE PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марія Костянтинівна СУХОНОС

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model of the life cycle of the program is proposed. This model is based on the value approach. As a resulting index, it uses a category of complex structural value. This model renders the process of the life cycle of the program in the context of time/result. It assumes the presence of four basic phases of the life cycle, namely, initiation, planning, executing and closing. Also, this model formalizes interconnection of management processes of integration of program and management of its community and subprocesses. Selection of a value approach for the forming of a resulting index of a program determines by a variety of results of the program. This is a result of its variety and complexity in the process of finding a criterion for evaluation. Worked out a mechanism for assessing the value of the program. It consists of four steps and involves using of conventional methods (decomposition and expert estimates. As a unit of measurement assumes to use points and rating scale with the maximum score a hundred points. A complex value, which is evaluated at one hundred points, is a result of the program. It is critically important in the process of current and final evaluation of the program.

  19. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR IMPROVED PROJECT SELECTION AND PRIORITISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Viljoen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Project portfolio management processes are often designed and operated as a series of stages (or project phases and gates. However, the flow of such a process is often slow, characterised by queues waiting for a gate decision and by repeated work from previous stages waiting for additional information or for re-processing. In this paper the authors propose a conceptual model that applies supply chain and constraint management principles to the project portfolio management process. An advantage of the proposed model is that it provides the ability to select and prioritise projects without undue changes to project schedules. This should result in faster flow through the system.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Prosesse om portefeuljes van projekte te bestuur word normaalweg ontwerp en bedryf as ’n reeks fases en hekke. Die vloei deur so ’n proses is dikwels stadig en word gekenmerk deur toue wat wag vir besluite by die hekke en ook deur herwerk van vorige fases wat wag vir verdere inligting of vir herprosessering. In hierdie artikel word ‘n konseptuele model voorgestel. Die model berus op die beginsels van voorsieningskettings sowel as van beperkingsbestuur, en bied die voordeel dat projekte geselekteer en geprioritiseer kan word sonder onnodige veranderinge aan projekskedules. Dit behoort te lei tot versnelde vloei deur die stelsel.

  20. Hydrogeologic analysis of remedial alternatives for the solar ponds plume, RFETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, C.F. III; Whidden, J.A.; Hopkins, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to develop a conceptual model and a hydrogeologic analysis plan for remedial alternatives being considered for the remediation of a ground water contaminant plume consisting of chiefly nitrate and uranium. The initial step in this process was to determine the adequacy of the existing data from the vast database of site information. Upon concluding that the existing database was sufficient to allow for the development of a conceptual model and then constructing the conceptual model, a hydrogeologic analysis plan was developed to evaluate several alternatives for plume remediation. The plan will be implemented using a combination of analytical and simple numerical ground water flow and contaminant transport models. This allows each portion of the study to be addressed using the appropriate tool, without having to develop a large three-dimensional numerical ground water flow and transport model, thereby reducing project costs. The analysis plan will consist of a preliminary phase of screening analyses for each of the remedial alternative scenarios, and a second phase of more comprehensive and in-depth analyses on a selected subset of remedial alternative scenarios. One of the alternatives which will be analyzed is phytoremediation (remediation of soil and ground water via uptake of chemicals by plants) because of the potential for relatively low capital and operation and maintenance costs, passive nature, and potential to provide long-term protection of the surface water. The results of these hydrogeological analyses will be factored into the selection of the preferred remedial alternative, or combination of alternatives, for the contaminant plume

  1. Hydrogeology of Mors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    The covering layers protect the salt in the dome. Ground water velocities are small and the chalk exhibits good retention properties for the radionuclides. As ground water velocities below 500 m are small, knowledge of hydrogeology over only a small area over the dome is necessary (1 km horizontal transport takes about 15 mill. years). Additionally if the retention properties of the chalk together with radioactive decay are taken into account, it becomes obvious that the nuclides can travel only a few metres into the chalk, before they have decayed to safe radioactive levels. Therefore it does not appear to be necessary to investigate the hydrogeology beyond a few metres from the disposal area. The hydrogeological investigations that have been carried out, although they cover only a limited area, thus give an excellent and sufficient basis for a safety evaluation for determining the suitability of the Mors salt dome for waste disposal. (EG)

  2. Testing a Conceptual Change Model Framework for Visual Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finson, Kevin D.; Pedersen, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    An emergent data analysis technique was employed to test the veracity of a conceptual framework constructed around visual data use and instruction in science classrooms. The framework incorporated all five key components Vosniadou (2007a, 2007b) described as existing in a learner's schema: framework theory, presuppositions, conceptual domains,…

  3. Defining the end-point of mastication: A conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Stuart, Eli M; Jones, Jim R; Bronlund, John E

    2017-10-01

    The great risks of swallowing are choking and aspiration of food into the lungs. Both are rare in normal functioning humans, which is remarkable given the diversity of foods and the estimated 10 million swallows performed in a lifetime. Nevertheless, it remains a major challenge to define the food properties that are necessary to ensure a safe swallow. Here, the mouth is viewed as a well-controlled processor where mechanical sensory assessment occurs throughout the occlusion-circulation cycle of mastication. Swallowing is a subsequent action. It is proposed here that, during mastication, temporal maps of interfacial property data are generated, which the central nervous system compares against a series of criteria in order to be sure that the bolus is safe to swallow. To determine these criteria, an engineering hazard analysis tool, alongside an understanding of fluid and particle mechanics, is used to deduce the mechanisms by which food may deposit or become stranded during swallowing. These mechanisms define the food properties that must be avoided. By inverting the thinking, from hazards to ensuring safety, six criteria arise which are necessary for a safe-to-swallow bolus. A new conceptual model is proposed to define when food is safe to swallow during mastication. This significantly advances earlier mouth models. The conceptual model proposed in this work provides a framework of decision-making to define when food is safe to swallow. This will be of interest to designers of dietary foods, foods for dysphagia sufferers and will aid the further development of mastication robots for preparation of artificial boluses for digestion research. It enables food designers to influence the swallow-point properties of their products. For example, a product may be designed to satisfy five of the criteria for a safe-to-swallow bolus, which means the sixth criterion and its attendant food properties define the swallow-point. Alongside other organoleptic factors, these

  4. Towards methodical modelling: Differences between the structure and output dynamics of multiple conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoben, Wouter; Woods, Ross; Freer, Jim

    2016-04-01

    Conceptual hydrologic models consist of a certain arrangement of spatial and temporal dynamics consisting of stores, fluxes and transformation functions, depending on the modeller's choices and intended use. They have the advantages of being computationally efficient, being relatively easy model structures to reconfigure and having relatively low input data demands. This makes them well-suited for large-scale and large-sample hydrology, where appropriately representing the dominant hydrologic functions of a catchment is a main concern. Given these requirements, the number of parameters in the model cannot be too high, to avoid equifinality and identifiability issues. This limits the number and level of complexity of dominant hydrologic processes the model can represent. Specific purposes and places thus require a specific model and this has led to an abundance of conceptual hydrologic models. No structured overview of these models exists and there is no clear method to select appropriate model structures for different catchments. This study is a first step towards creating an overview of the elements that make up conceptual models, which may later assist a modeller in finding an appropriate model structure for a given catchment. To this end, this study brings together over 30 past and present conceptual models. The reviewed model structures are simply different configurations of three basic model elements (stores, fluxes and transformation functions), depending on the hydrologic processes the models are intended to represent. Differences also exist in the inner workings of the stores, fluxes and transformations, i.e. the mathematical formulations that describe each model element's intended behaviour. We investigate the hypothesis that different model structures can produce similar behavioural simulations. This can clarify the overview of model elements by grouping elements which are similar, which can improve model structure selection.

  5. Defining a conceptual model for the coastal aquifers of Mediterranean islands, an example from Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Sebastien; Garel, Emilie; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    A hydrochemical and isotope study was conducted to identify the flow paths, the recharge areas and the geochemical processes governing the evolution of groundwater in a Mediterranean carbonate coastal aquifer. The study is expected to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model based on environmental tracer investigations tools to characterise and quantify the aquifer system of Bonifacio. The groundwater resource represents the unique drinking water resource of the southern Corsica and the region faces a high pressures over the groundwater resource during the touristic period (2,000,000 tourists per year). A well-documented description of the geology and structure of this basin was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study at the aquifer scale. A hydrochemical (physico-chemical parameters, major ions) and isotope (δ2H, δ18O, 3H) survey of rainwater and groundwater has been carried out monthly during almost two years. A local meteoric water line has been defined and marine, terrestrial and anthropogenic influences on the recharge water hydrochemistry have been described. Preferential recharge during autumn/winter of rainfall is observed and a depletion in the isotopic signature for some groundwater samples suggests a recharge in higher altitude from the surrounding granites. A modification of the input signal during infiltration through the unsaturated zone appears and the groundwater hydrochemistry displays differential variations in time and space, with the presence of inertial water bodies in the lower aquifer mainly. In this context, CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and SF6 were used to evaluate groundwater residence time. CFCs have been relevant despite the presence of a deep unsaturated zone and the computed rate of groundwater renewal is pluriannual to multi-decadal. Natural SF6 was found in granites and has been used as a direct tracer of groundwater origin, highlighting its role in the aquifer lateral recharge. Strontium

  6. Conceptual Modeling Framework for E-Area PA HELP Infiltration Model Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-30

    A conceptual modeling framework based on the proposed E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) closure cap design is presented for conducting Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model simulations of intact and subsided cap infiltration scenarios for the next E-Area Performance Assessment (PA).

  7. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Global Warming Explained by a Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, C. S.; Alexeev, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Amplification, the process of amplified warming at high latitudes, manifests itself differently in the Arctic and Antarctic. Not only is the temperature increase in the Arctic more pronounced than in the Antarctic but the dramatic sea ice decline in the Arctic over the last few decades also contrasts sharply with trendless to weak positive trend of Antarctic sea ice throughout the same period. This asymmetric behavior is often partly attributed to the differences in configuration of continents in the Arctic and Antarctic: the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by land while the Southern Ocean has a continent in the middle. A simple conceptual energy balance model of Budyko-Sellers type, accounting for differences between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, is applied to study the mechanisms of climate sensitivity to a variety of forcings. Asymmetry in major modes of variability is explained using an eigenmode analysis of the linearized model. Negative forcings over Antarctica such as from ozone depletion were found to have an amplified effect on southern hemisphere climate and may be an important cause of the muted warming and slightly positive Antarctic sea ice trend.

  8. Developing a conceptual model for selecting and evaluating online markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Feizollahi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many evidences, which emphasis on the benefits of using new technologies of information and communication in international business and many believe that E-Commerce can help satisfy customer explicit and implicit requirements. Internet shopping is a concept developed after the introduction of electronic commerce. Information technology (IT and its applications, specifically in the realm of the internet and e-mail promoted the development of e-commerce in terms of advertising, motivating and information. However, with the development of new technologies, credit and financial exchange on the internet websites were constructed so to facilitate e-commerce. The proposed study sends a total of 200 questionnaires to the target group (teachers - students - professionals - managers of commercial web sites and it manages to collect 130 questionnaires for final evaluation. Cronbach's alpha test is used for measuring reliability and to evaluate the validity of measurement instruments (questionnaires, and to assure construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis is employed. In addition, in order to analyze the research questions based on the path analysis method and to determine markets selection models, a regular technique is implemented. In the present study, after examining different aspects of e-commerce, we provide a conceptual model for selecting and evaluating online marketing in Iran. These findings provide a consistent, targeted and holistic framework for the development of the Internet market in the country.

  9. Cognitive balanced model: a conceptual scheme of diagnostic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchiari, Claudio; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2012-02-01

    Diagnostic reasoning is a critical aspect of clinical performance, having a high impact on quality and safety of care. Although diagnosis is fundamental in medicine, we still have a poor understanding of the factors that determine its course. According to traditional understanding, all information used in diagnostic reasoning is objective and logically driven. However, these conditions are not always met. Although we would be less likely to make an inaccurate diagnosis when following rational decision making, as described by normative models, the real diagnostic process works in a different way. Recent work has described the major cognitive biases in medicine as well as a number of strategies for reducing them, collectively called debiasing techniques. However, advances have encountered obstacles in achieving implementation into clinical practice. While traditional understanding of clinical reasoning has failed to consider contextual factors, most debiasing techniques seem to fail in raising sound and safer medical praxis. Technological solutions, being data driven, are fundamental in increasing care safety, but they need to consider human factors. Thus, balanced models, cognitive driven and technology based, are needed in day-to-day applications to actually improve the diagnostic process. The purpose of this article, then, is to provide insight into cognitive influences that have resulted in wrong, delayed or missed diagnosis. Using a cognitive approach, we describe the basis of medical error, with particular emphasis on diagnostic error. We then propose a conceptual scheme of the diagnostic process by the use of fuzzy cognitive maps. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Dynamic knowledge representation using agent-based modeling: ontology instantiation and verification of conceptual models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The sheer volume of biomedical research threatens to overwhelm the capacity of individuals to effectively process this information. Adding to this challenge is the multiscale nature of both biological systems and the research community as a whole. Given this volume and rate of generation of biomedical information, the research community must develop methods for robust representation of knowledge in order for individuals, and the community as a whole, to "know what they know." Despite increasing emphasis on "data-driven" research, the fact remains that researchers guide their research using intuitively constructed conceptual models derived from knowledge extracted from publications, knowledge that is generally qualitatively expressed using natural language. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a computational modeling method that is suited to translating the knowledge expressed in biomedical texts into dynamic representations of the conceptual models generated by researchers. The hierarchical object-class orientation of ABM maps well to biomedical ontological structures, facilitating the translation of ontologies into instantiated models. Furthermore, ABM is suited to producing the nonintuitive behaviors that often "break" conceptual models. Verification in this context is focused at determining the plausibility of a particular conceptual model, and qualitative knowledge representation is often sufficient for this goal. Thus, utilized in this fashion, ABM can provide a powerful adjunct to other computational methods within the research process, as well as providing a metamodeling framework to enhance the evolution of biomedical ontologies.

  11. Implementation and use of Gaussian process meta model for sensitivity analysis of numerical models: application to a hydrogeological transport computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrel, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the studies of environmental transfer and risk assessment, numerical models are used to simulate, understand and predict the transfer of pollutant. These computer codes can depend on a high number of uncertain input parameters (geophysical variables, chemical parameters, etc.) and can be often too computer time expensive. To conduct uncertainty propagation studies and to measure the importance of each input on the response variability, the computer code has to be approximated by a meta model which is build on an acceptable number of simulations of the code and requires a negligible calculation time. We focused our research work on the use of Gaussian process meta model to make the sensitivity analysis of the code. We proposed a methodology with estimation and input selection procedures in order to build the meta model in the case of a high number of inputs and with few simulations available. Then, we compared two approaches to compute the sensitivity indices with the meta model and proposed an algorithm to build prediction intervals for these indices. Afterwards, we were interested in the choice of the code simulations. We studied the influence of different sampling strategies on the predictiveness of the Gaussian process meta model. Finally, we extended our statistical tools to a functional output of a computer code. We combined a decomposition on a wavelet basis with the Gaussian process modelling before computing the functional sensitivity indices. All the tools and statistical methodologies that we developed were applied to the real case of a complex hydrogeological computer code, simulating radionuclide transport in groundwater. (author) [fr

  12. Direct Push supported geotechnical and hydrogeological characterisation of an active sinkhole area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippelt, Thomas; Vienken, Thomas; Kirsch, Reinhard; Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes represent a natural geologic hazard in areas where soluble layers are present in the subsurface. A detailed knowledge of the composition of the subsurface and its hydrogeological and geotechnical properties is essential for the understanding of sinkhole formation and propagation. This serves as base for risk evaluation and the development of an early warning system. However, site models often depend on data from drillings and surface geophysical surveys that in many cases cannot resolve the spatial distribution of relevant hydrogeological and geotechnical parameters sufficiently. Therefore, an active sinkhole area in Münsterdorf, Northern Germany, was investigated in detail using Direct Push technology, a minimally invasive sounding method. The obtained vertical high-resolution profiles of geotechnical and hydrogeological characteristics, in combination with Direct Push based sampling and surface geophysical measurements lead to a strong improvement of the geologic site model. The conceptual site model regarding sinkhole formation and propagation will then be tested based on the gathered data and, if necessary, adapted accordingly.

  13. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced changes in the physical environment (soils, groundwater flow system, type and volumes of contaminants, geochemical aspects and the consequences on the neighboring mangrove ecosystem. This article describes the importance of hydrogeological studies in mangrove areas as part of an appropriate environmental assessment, taking as an example an industrial dumping area located in that Petrochemical Complex. Field work included extensive drilling and sampling to obtain basic geological and hydrogeological parameters and data in the pilot area, such as hydraulic conductivity and piezometric heads; emphasizing the tracking of possible contamination by industrial effluents and the marine influence; validation of the conceptual model with mathematical models (numerical and analytical models was carried out. Results show the great importance of well conducted and detailed hydrogeological studies to properly address environmental problems caused by industrial plants in mangrove areas.

  14. The Value of Conceptual Models in Coping with Complexity and Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Karen P. J.; van Koppen, C. S. A.; Leemans, Rik

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual models are useful for facing the challenges of environmental sciences curriculum and course developers and students. These challenges are inherent to the interdisciplinary and problem-oriented character of environmental sciences curricula. In this article, we review the merits of conceptual models in facing these challenges. These…

  15. A conceptual and calculational model for gas formation from impure calcined plutonium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, John L.; Eller, P. Gary

    2000-01-01

    Safe transport and storage of pure and impure plutonium oxides requires an understanding of processes that may generate or consume gases in a confined storage vessel. We have formulated conceptual and calculational models for gas formation from calcined materials. The conceptual model for impure calcined plutonium oxides is based on the data collected to date

  16. Teacher Emotion Research: Introducing a Conceptual Model to Guide Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Leanne; Mansfield, Caroline; Dobozy, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a conceptual model of teacher emotion through a review of teacher emotion research published between 2003 and 2013. By examining 82 publications regarding teacher emotion, the main aim of the review was to identify how teacher emotion was conceptualised in the literature and develop a conceptual model to…

  17. Non-monotonic reasoning in conceptual modeling and ontology design: A proposal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available -1 2nd International Workshop on Ontologies and Conceptual Modeling (Onto.Com 2013), Valencia, Spain, 17-21 June 2013 Non-monotonic reasoning in conceptual modeling and ontology design: A proposal Giovanni Casini1 and Alessandro Mosca2 1...

  18. A note on the translation of conceptual data models into description logics: disjointness and covering assumptions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available possibilities for conceptual data modeling. It also raises the question of how existing conceptual models using ER, UML or ORM could be translated into Description Logics (DLs), a family of logics that have proved to be particularly appropriate for formalizing...

  19. Theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L; Bowen, D M

    2017-11-01

    Theories provide a structural knowing about concept relationships, practice intricacies, and intuitions and thus shape the distinct body of the profession. Capturing ways of knowing and being is essential to any professions' practice, education and research. This process defines the phenomenon of the profession - its existence or experience. Theory evaluation is a systematic criterion-based assessment of a specific theory. This study presents a theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DH HNCM). Using the Walker and Avant Theory Analysis, a seven-step process, the DH HNCM, was analysed and evaluated for its meaningfulness and contribution to dental hygiene. The steps include the following: (i) investigate the origins; (ii) examine relationships of the theory's concepts; (iii) assess the logic of the theory's structure; (iv) consider the usefulness to practice; (v) judge the generalizability; (vi) evaluate the parsimony; and (vii) appraise the testability of the theory. Human needs theory in nursing and Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory prompted this theory's development. The DH HNCM depicts four concepts based on the paradigm concepts of the profession: client, health/oral health, environment and dental hygiene actions, and includes validated eleven human needs that evolved overtime to eight. It is logical, simplistic, allows scientific predictions and testing, and provides a unique lens for the dental hygiene practitioner. With this model, dental hygienists have entered practice, knowing they enable clients to meet their human needs. For the DH HNCM, theory analysis affirmed that the model is reasonable and insightful and adds to the dental hygiene professions' epistemology and ontology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Conceptual Model As The Tool For Managing Bank Services Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelija Severović

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality has become basic factor of economic efficiency and basic principle of business activities of successful organizations. Its consequence is revolution on the area of quality that has comprised all kinds of products and services and so the bank services as well. To understand the present and future needs of clients and to know how to fulfill and try to exceed their expectations is the task of each efficient economy. Therefore, the banks in the developed economies try to re-orientate organizationally, technologically and informatically their business activities placing the client in the core of this business activity. Significant indicators of quality services that banks offer is measured by the waiting time of clients for the offer of the desirable service and the number of clients who give up to enter the bank due to the long waiting queues. Dissatisfied client is the worst work result and business activity of banks. Following the stated, the great effort is made to improve service qualities, which means professionalism and communication of personnel with whom the clients come in contact, and giving punctual and clear information and short waiting period of standing in the lines. The aim of this work is to present and describe the functioning of bank system under the conditions of establishing quality in offering services to clients and to recognize basic guidelines for quality increase in the work of sub branches. Since the banking is very dynamic and complex system, the conceptual model is carried out for the purpose of optimization of the stated quality parameters for the bank business activity; this model, in further research, will serve for the development of simulation model.

  1. Conceptualizing women's attitudes toward condom use with the tripartite model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Kristina B; Shook, Natalie J

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) estimated that women represent 24% of HIV diagnoses in the United States, with most infections resulting from heterosexual contact. However, consistent condom use is highly effective in preventing the spread of HIV. The current study examined women's attitudes toward condom use and potential inconsistencies related to the conceptualization and measurement of attitudes. Data were collected from October 2009 through March 2010. Researchers included 556 female undergraduate students from the Southeast region of the United States. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine whether women's condom use attitudes were composed of an affective and a cognitive component. Evidence for a two-factor model of condom use attitudes consisting of an affective and cognitive component was found, with participants reporting slightly negative feelings toward condom use but favorable beliefs about using condoms. Affect accounted for more variance (42%) than cognition (8%) in condom use attitudes. Notably, affect and cognition were differentially associated with past behavior and intentions to use condoms. Understanding the structure of women's attitudes toward using condoms can aid in the creation of appropriate HIV prevention and condom use messaging targeted toward promoting positive attitudes and normative change. Changing women's attitudes in this manner could enhance the effectiveness of condom use interventions.

  2. The Performative Gift: A Feminist Materialist Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Skågeby

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gifting (or gift-giving is a particularly interesting form of communication that envelops both material and social dimensions. Objects are transformed into gifts through particular socio-material practices. While these practices are, of course, interesting in themselves, this paper will take a step back and revisit attempts to define and theorize the gift as a concept. In a time when the gift economy is often called upon as a potential candidate for more “participatory alternatives to capitalist totality”, particularly in relation to theorizing of labour on and through the Internet, theories of gifting provide an important foundation for discussing the boundaries of alternative futures and economies. So far, little effort has been taken to advance gift theory into a new materialist or posthumanist thinking. In an attempt to take that first step, this paper provides two contributions. First, it highlights how feminist theorizing of the gift comprises interesting forerunners in a new materialist conception of the gift. Second, it explores the analytical traction that can be gained from interlocking theories of the gift, feminist materialism and digital media, the result being a conceptual model that addresses the gift as a form of virtual-digital-material communication.

  3. Facets of private practice nursing: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anne; Averis, Andrea

    2002-04-01

    This paper critically examines the literature relating to private practice nursing. Particular attention is given to the reasons nurses choose private practice and the major issues involved. A conceptual model has been developed based on this information. Nurses' roles are expanding into different work domains. Private practice nursing is one of the advanced practice options available. It also requires the nurse to develop business knowledge and skills. A literature search was conducted of Pub-Med, Cinahl, Medline and InfoTrac databases using the terms 'private practice', 'nurse entrepreneur', 'nurses in business', Inurse practitioners', 'self-employed nurse', 'advanced practice' and 'clinical nurse specialist'. Further relevant articles were identified from the reference lists of papers detected by this literature search. In addition, conference proceedings were examined for any other material on this topic. A thorough search of the existing literature revealed one unpublished theoretically based study which examined limited aspects of private practice nursing in Victoria. A reasonable number of articles and publications that provided anecdotal and personal accounts of being a nurse in business were identified. This review highlights the need for further theoretically based research in this area of nursing, so as to expand nursing knowledge. Suggestions are given for further research in this topical area. Existing research into private practice nursing is limited and not sufficient to inform changes to policy and nurse education. More research is needed.

  4. Stakeholder Participation in System Change: A New Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Tammy; Higuchi, Kathryn S; Hogg, William

    2016-08-01

    A recent change in Canada's primary care system led to the introduction of Nurse Practitioner-Led clinics. The literature suggests that stakeholders can influence system change initiatives. However, very little is known about healthcare stakeholder motivations, particularly stakeholders who are seen as resistors to change. To examine stakeholder participation in the system change process that led to the introduction of the first Nurse Practitioner-Led clinic in Ontario. This single case study included two site visits, semistructured individual tape-recorded interviews, and the examination of relevant public documents. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Sixteen individuals from different healthcare sectors and professions participated in the interviews and 20 documents were reviewed. Six key themes emerged from the data. Linking Evidence to Action The findings from the study present a new perspective on stakeholder participation that includes both those who supported the proposed change and those who advocated for a different change. The findings identify stakeholder activities used to shape, share, and protect their visions for system change. The conceptual model presented in this study adds to the understanding of challenges and complexities involved in healthcare system change. Understanding why and how stakeholders participate in change can help healthcare leaders in planning activities to enhance stakeholder involvement in healthcare system change. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Geologic Setting and Hydrogeologic Units of the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Morgan, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS) covers approximately 44,000 square miles of northeastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, and western Idaho. The area supports a $6 billion per year agricultural industry, leading the Nation in production of apples and nine other commodities (State of Washington Office of Financial Management, 2007; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007). Groundwater availability in the aquifers of the area is a critical water-resource management issue because the water demand for agriculture, economic development, and ecological needs is high. The primary aquifers of the CPRAS are basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) and overlying basin-fill sediments. Water-resources issues that have implications for future groundwater availability in the region include (1) widespread water-level declines associated with development of groundwater resources for irrigation and other uses, (2) reduction in base flow to rivers and associated effects on temperature and water quality, and (3) current and anticipated effects of global climate change on recharge, base flow, and ultimately, groundwater availability. As part of a National Groundwater Resources Program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of the CPRAS in 2007 with the broad goals of (1) characterizing the hydrologic status of the system, (2) identifying trends in groundwater storage and use, and (3) quantifying groundwater availability. The study approach includes documenting changes in the status of the system, quantifying the hydrologic budget for the system, updating the regional hydrogeologic framework, and developing a groundwater-flow simulation model for the system. The simulation model will be used to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and later to evaluate groundwater availability under alternative development and climate scenarios. The objectives of this study were to update the hydrogeologic framework for the CPRAS using the available

  6. Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakova, R.; Zenisova, Z.; Seman, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

  7. Conceptual and numerical modeling approach of the Guarani Aquifer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In large aquifers, relevant for their considerable size, regional groundwater modeling remains challenging given geologic complexity and data scarcity in space and time. Yet, it may be conjectured that regional scale groundwater flow models can help in understanding the flow system functioning and the relative magnitude of water budget components, which are important for aquifer management. The Guaraní Aquifer System is the largest transboundary aquifer in South America. It contains an enormous volume of water; however, it is not well known, being difficult to assess the impact of exploitation currently used to supply over 25 million inhabitants. This is a sensitive issue because the aquifer is shared by four countries. Moreover, an integrated groundwater model, and therefore a global water balance, were not available. In this work, a transient regional scale model for the entire aquifer based upon five simplified, equally plausible conceptual models represented by different hydraulic conductivity parametrizations is used to analyze the flow system and water balance components. Combining an increasing number of hydraulic conductivity zones and an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the hypothesis of a continuous sedimentary unit yielded errors within the calibration target in a regional sense. The magnitude of the water budget terms resulted very similar for all parametrizations. Recharge and stream/aquifer fluxes were the dominant components representing, on average, 84.2% of total inflows and 61.4% of total outflows, respectively. However, leakage was small compared to stream discharges of main rivers. For instance, the simulated average leakage for the Uruguay River was 8 m3 s−1 while the observed absolute minimum discharge was 382 m3 s−1. Streams located in heavily pumped regions switched from a gaining condition in early years to a losing condition over time. Water is discharged through

  8. Conceptual and numerical modeling approach of the Guarani Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L.; Vives, L.; Gomez, A.

    2013-01-01

    In large aquifers, relevant for their considerable size, regional groundwater modeling remains challenging given geologic complexity and data scarcity in space and time. Yet, it may be conjectured that regional scale groundwater flow models can help in understanding the flow system functioning and the relative magnitude of water budget components, which are important for aquifer management. The Guaraní Aquifer System is the largest transboundary aquifer in South America. It contains an enormous volume of water; however, it is not well known, being difficult to assess the impact of exploitation currently used to supply over 25 million inhabitants. This is a sensitive issue because the aquifer is shared by four countries. Moreover, an integrated groundwater model, and therefore a global water balance, were not available. In this work, a transient regional scale model for the entire aquifer based upon five simplified, equally plausible conceptual models represented by different hydraulic conductivity parametrizations is used to analyze the flow system and water balance components. Combining an increasing number of hydraulic conductivity zones and an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the hypothesis of a continuous sedimentary unit yielded errors within the calibration target in a regional sense. The magnitude of the water budget terms resulted very similar for all parametrizations. Recharge and stream/aquifer fluxes were the dominant components representing, on average, 84.2% of total inflows and 61.4% of total outflows, respectively. However, leakage was small compared to stream discharges of main rivers. For instance, the simulated average leakage for the Uruguay River was 8 m3 s-1 while the observed absolute minimum discharge was 382 m3 s-1. Streams located in heavily pumped regions switched from a gaining condition in early years to a losing condition over time. Water is discharged through the aquifer boundaries, except at the eastern boundary. On average

  9. An approach to hydrogeological modeling of a large system of groundwater-fed lakes and wetlands in the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Nathan R.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.; Rowe, Clinton M.

    2018-05-01

    The feasibility of a hydrogeological modeling approach to simulate several thousand shallow groundwater-fed lakes and wetlands without explicitly considering their connection with groundwater is investigated at the regional scale ( 40,000 km2) through an application in the semi-arid Nebraska Sand Hills (NSH), USA. Hydraulic heads are compared to local land-surface elevations from a digital elevation model (DEM) within a geographic information system to assess locations of lakes and wetlands. The water bodies are inferred where hydraulic heads exceed, or are above a certain depth below, the land surface. Numbers of lakes and/or wetlands are determined via image cluster analysis applied to the same 30-m grid as the DEM after interpolating both simulated and estimated heads. The regional water-table map was used for groundwater model calibration, considering MODIS-based net groundwater recharge data. Resulting values of simulated total baseflow to interior streams are within 1% of observed values. Locations, areas, and numbers of simulated lakes and wetlands are compared with Landsat 2005 survey data and with areas of lakes from a 1979-1980 Landsat survey and the National Hydrography Dataset. This simplified process-based modeling approach avoids the need for field-based morphology or water-budget data from individual lakes or wetlands, or determination of lake-groundwater exchanges, yet it reproduces observed lake-wetland characteristics at regional groundwater management scales. A better understanding of the NSH hydrogeology is attained, and the approach shows promise for use in simulations of groundwater-fed lake and wetland characteristics in other large groundwater systems.

  10. A conceptual precipitation-runoff modeling suite: Model selection, calibration and predictive uncertainty assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler Jon Smith

    2008-01-01

    In Montana and much of the Rocky Mountain West, the single most important parameter in forecasting the controls on regional water resources is snowpack. Despite the heightened importance of snowpack, few studies have considered the representation of uncertainty in coupled snowmelt/hydrologic conceptual models. Uncertainty estimation provides a direct interpretation of...

  11. Hydrogeology along the southern boundary of the Hanford Site between the Yakima and Columbia Rivers, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) operations at the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington, have generated large volumes of hazardous and radioactive wastes since 1944. Some of the hazardous wastes were discharged to the ground in the 1100 and 3000 Areas, near the city of Richland. The specific waste types and quantities are unknown; however, they probably include battery acid, antifreeze, hydraulic fluids, waste oils, solvents, degreasers, paints, and paint thinners. Between the Yakima and Columbia rivers in support of future hazardous waste site investigations and ground-water and land-use management. The specific objectives were to collect and review existing hydrogeologic data for the study area and establish a water-level monitoring network; describe the regional and study area hydrogeology; develop a hydrogeologic conceptual model of the unconfined ground-water flow system beneath the study area, based on available data; describe the flow characteristics of the unconfined aquifer based on the spatial and temporal distribution of hydraulic head within the aquifer; use the results of this study to delineate additional data needs in support of future Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FS), Fate and Transport modeling, Baseline Risk Assessments (BRA), and ground-water and land-use management

  12. ITE CHARACTERIZATION TO SUPPORT CONCEPTUAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR SUBSURFACE RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of radionuclide contaminants in ground water often begins with the development of conceptual and analytical models that guide our understanding of the processes controlling radionuclide transport. The reliability of these models is often predicated on the collection o...

  13. Hydrogeological and Hydrogeochemical Modelling of the Alicun de las Torres Termal System (Province of Granada). Isotope Hydrochemistry and Gases in Groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Perez, A. J.; Delgado, A.; Crespo, M. T.; Martin, A.; Vaselli, O.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of a Singular Strategic Project entitled: A dvanced Technologies of Carbon, Capture and Storage (CCS) , supported by the MICINN (Spain) and the FEDER founds (EU), specifically in the Carbon Storage Task, a comprehensive study on the CO 2 leakage as DIC (Dissolved Inorganic Carbon) in the Alicun de Las Torres (Prov. of Granada) natural analogue thermal system was envisaged. This analogous system is characterised by the presence of a very important travertine formation, which can be considered as a permanent and stable sink for CO 2 . In order to explain the formation of these travertine mass an hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical model of the area has been established by using the hydrochemical data, the stable and radioactive isotope characteristics, the dissolved inorganic carbon, as well as the chemical and isotopic composition of the free and dissolved gases of the above mentioned Thermal System. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model for use with a steady-state numerical ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, W.R.; Faunt, C.C.; D'Agnese, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Department of Energy and other Federal, State, and local agencies, is evaluating the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The ground-water flow system covers and area of about 100,000 square kilometers from latitude 35 degrees to 38 degrees 15 minutes North to longitude 115 degrees to 118 degrees West, with the flow system proper comprising about 45,000 square kilometers. The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system is one of the larger flow systems within the Southwestern United States and includes in its boundaries the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and much of Death Valley. Part of this study includes the construction of a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model to serve as the foundation for the development of a steady-state regional ground-water flow model. The digital framework model provides a computer-based description of the geometry and composition of the hydro geologic units that control regional flow. The framework model of the region was constructed by merging two previous framework models constructed for the Yucca Mountain Project and the Environmental Restoration Program Underground Test Area studies at the Nevada Test Site. The hydrologic characteristics of the region result from a currently arid climate and complex geology. Interbasinal regional ground-water flow occurs through a thick carbonate-rock sequence of Paleozoic age, a locally thick volcanic-rock sequence of Tertiary age, and basin-fill alluvium of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Throughout the system, deep and shallow ground-water flow may be controlled by extensive and pervasive regional and local faults and fractures. The framework model was constructed using data from several sources to define the geometry of the regional hydrogeologic units. These data sources include (1) a 1:250,000-scale hydrogeologic-map compilation of the region; (2) regional-scale geologic cross

  15. A conceptual modeling framework for discrete event simulation using hierarchical control structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furian, N; O'Sullivan, M; Walker, C; Vössner, S; Neubacher, D

    2015-08-01

    Conceptual Modeling (CM) is a fundamental step in a simulation project. Nevertheless, it is only recently that structured approaches towards the definition and formulation of conceptual models have gained importance in the Discrete Event Simulation (DES) community. As a consequence, frameworks and guidelines for applying CM to DES have emerged and discussion of CM for DES is increasing. However, both the organization of model-components and the identification of behavior and system control from standard CM approaches have shortcomings that limit CM's applicability to DES. Therefore, we discuss the different aspects of previous CM frameworks and identify their limitations. Further, we present the Hierarchical Control Conceptual Modeling framework that pays more attention to the identification of a models' system behavior, control policies and dispatching routines and their structured representation within a conceptual model. The framework guides the user step-by-step through the modeling process and is illustrated by a worked example.

  16. Hydrogeologic characterization of a fractured granitic rock aquifer, Raymond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Andrew J.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The hydrogeologic properties of a shallow, fractured granitic rock aquifer in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California were investigated via the analysis of borehole geophysical logs and pumping tests. The drawdowns produced during these tests are not indicative of any simple conceptual aquifer model, and borehole logs show that the granite is intensely fractured. These observations are suggestive of a complex fracture-flow geometry which is extremely difficult to decipher. However, through the measurement of orientations of individual subsurface fractures from acoustic televiewer logs, and correlation between particular fractures and electrical resistivity and thermal-pulse flowmeter logs, it was found that the aquifer is, in general, comprised of two subhorizontal and nearly parallel zones of unloading fractures. Downhole flowmeter measurements taken in several wells provide further evidence for the inferred dual-layer structure of the aquifer, as well as yield quantitative measures of the contribution of flow from each zone. Analysis of drawdowns in pumped wells reveals that there are zones of relatively high transmissivity immediately around them. It was found that these properties, as well as a nearby zone of lower transmissivity, can account for their observed drawdowns. A numerical model was constructed to test whether these major heterogeneities could also account for the drawdowns in observation wells. This stepwise analysis of both the geophysical and hydrological data resulted in the formulation of a conceptual model of the aquifer which is consistent with observations, and which can account for its behavior when subjected to pumping.

  17. Conceptual Model and Numerical Approaches for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.H. Liu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the conceptual and numerical models used for modeling unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid (water and air) flow and solute transport processes. This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Model and Analysis Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.5, 2.1.1, 2.1.2 and 2.2.1). The conceptual and numerical modeling approaches described in this report are mainly used for models of UZ flow and transport in fractured, unsaturated rock under ambient conditions. Developments of these models are documented in the following model reports: (1) UZ Flow Model and Submodels; (2) Radionuclide Transport Models under Ambient Conditions. Conceptual models for flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured media are discussed in terms of their applicability to the UZ at Yucca Mountain. The rationale for selecting the conceptual models used for modeling of UZ flow and transport is documented. Numerical approaches for incorporating these conceptual models are evaluated in terms of their representation of the selected conceptual models and computational efficiency; and the rationales for selecting the numerical approaches used for modeling of UZ flow and transport are discussed. This report also documents activities to validate the active fracture model (AFM) based on experimental observations and theoretical developments. The AFM is a conceptual model that describes the fracture-matrix interaction in the UZ of Yucca Mountain. These validation activities are documented in Section 7 of this report regarding use of an independent line of evidence to provide additional confidence in the use of the AFM in the UZ models. The AFM has been used in UZ flow and transport models under both ambient and thermally disturbed conditions. Developments of these models are documented

  18. Numerical modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona (DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    SKB is currently performing site investigations at two potential sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report presents results of water flow and solute transport modelling of the Forsmark site. The modelling reported in this document focused on the near-surface groundwater, i.e. groundwater in Quaternary deposits and shallow rock, and surface water systems, and was performed using the MIKE SHE tool. The most recent site data used in the modelling were delivered in the Forsmark 2.3 dataset, which had its 'data freeze' on March 31, 2007. The present modelling is performed in support of the final version of the Forsmark site description that is produced during the site investigation phase. In this work, the hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow and the contact between groundwater and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the one-dimensional 'channel flow' modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. The MIKE SHE model was updated with data from the F2.3 data freeze. The main updates concerned the geological description of the saturated zone and the time series data on water levels and surface water discharges. The time series data used as input data and for calibration and validation was extended until the Forsmark 2.3 data freeze (March 31, 2007). The present work can be subdivided into the following four parts: 1. Update of the numerical flow model. 2. Sensitivity analysis and calibration of the model parameters. 3. Validation of the calibrated model, followed by evaluation and identification of discrepancies between measurements and model results. 4. Additional sensitivity analysis and calibration in order to resolve the problems identified in point three above. The main actions taken during the calibration can be summarised as follows: 1. The potential evapotranspiration was

  19. Using Multilevel Modeling in Language Assessment Research: A Conceptual Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This article critiques traditional single-level statistical approaches (e.g., multiple regression analysis) to examining relationships between language test scores and variables in the assessment setting. It highlights the conceptual, methodological, and statistical problems associated with these techniques in dealing with multilevel or nested…

  20. Collective (Team) Learning Process Models: A Conceptual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Randall

    2010-01-01

    Teams have become a key resource for learning and accomplishing work in organizations. The development of collective learning in specific contexts is not well understood, yet has become critical to organizational success. The purpose of this conceptual review is to inform human resource development (HRD) practice about specific team behaviors and…

  1. Mapping the Territory: A Conceptual Model of Scholastic Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mary

    Intended to provide a comprehensive conceptual framework to serve as a scaffold for past, present, and future research on "scholastic journalism" (journalism in the secondary school), a topical content analysis of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) Secondary Education Division research, teaching,…

  2. Reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Vicinity, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennehy, K.F.; Prowell, D.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this report are two-fold: (1) to define the hydrogeologic conditions in the vicinity of the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) and, (2) to evaluate the potential for movement of a concentrated salt-solution waste if released at or near the DWPF. These purposes were accomplished by assembling and evaluating existing hydrogeologic data; collecting additional geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data; developing a local geologic framework; developing a conceptual model of the local ground-water flow system; and by performing laboratory experiments to determine the mobility of salt-solution waste in surface and near-surface sediments. Although the unconsolidated sediments are about 1000 ft thick in the study area, only the Tertiary age sediments, or upper 300 ft are discussed in this report. The top of the Ellenton Formation acts as the major confining unit between the overlying aquifers in Tertiary sediments and the underlying aquifers in Cretaceous sediments; therefore, the Ellenton Formation is the vertical limit of our hydrogeologic investigation. The majority of the hydrologic data for this study come from monitoring wells at the saltstone disposal site (SDS) in Z Area (fig. 3). No recent water-level data were collected in S Area owing to the removal of S Area monitoring wells prior to construction at the DWPF. 46 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Impact of hydrogeological factors on groundwater salinization due to ocean-surge inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Huichen; Yu, Xuan; Graf, Thomas; Michael, Holly A.

    2018-01-01

    Ocean surges cause seawater inundation of coastal inland areas. Subsequently, seawater infiltrates into coastal aquifers and threatens the fresh groundwater resource. The severity of resulting salinization can be affected by hydrogeological factors including aquifer properties and hydrologic conditions, however, little research has been done to assess these effects. To understand the impacts of hydrogeological factors on groundwater salinization, we numerically simulated an ocean-surge inundation event on a two-dimensional conceptual coastal aquifer using a coupled surface-subsurface approach. We varied model permeability (including anisotropy), inland hydraulic gradient, and recharge rate. Three salinization-assessment indicators were developed, based on flushing time, depth of salt penetration, and a combination of the two, weighted flushing time, with which the impact of hydrogeological factors on groundwater vulnerability to salinization were quantitatively assessed. The vulnerability of coastal aquifers increases with increasing isotropic permeability. Low horizontal permeability (kx) and high vertical permeability (kz) lead to high aquifer vulnerability, and high kx and low kz lead to low aquifer vulnerability. Vulnerability decreases with increasing groundwater hydraulic gradient and increasing recharge rate. Additionally, coastal aquifers with a low recharge rate (R ≤ 300 mm yr-1) may be highly vulnerable to ocean-surge inundation. This study shows how the newly introduced indicators can be used to quantitatively assess coastal aquifer vulnerability. The results are important for global vulnerability assessment of coastal aquifers to ocean-surge inundation.

  4. A conceptual modeling framework for discrete event simulation using hierarchical control structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furian, N.; O’Sullivan, M.; Walker, C.; Vössner, S.; Neubacher, D.

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual Modeling (CM) is a fundamental step in a simulation project. Nevertheless, it is only recently that structured approaches towards the definition and formulation of conceptual models have gained importance in the Discrete Event Simulation (DES) community. As a consequence, frameworks and guidelines for applying CM to DES have emerged and discussion of CM for DES is increasing. However, both the organization of model-components and the identification of behavior and system control from standard CM approaches have shortcomings that limit CM’s applicability to DES. Therefore, we discuss the different aspects of previous CM frameworks and identify their limitations. Further, we present the Hierarchical Control Conceptual Modeling framework that pays more attention to the identification of a models’ system behavior, control policies and dispatching routines and their structured representation within a conceptual model. The framework guides the user step-by-step through the modeling process and is illustrated by a worked example. PMID:26778940

  5. Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability.This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The

  6. Stochastic hydrogeologic units and hydrogeologic properties development for total-system performance assessments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, A.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Robey, T.H.; Rautman, C.A.; Barnard, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    A stochastic representation of the lithologic units and associated hydrogeologic parameters of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository are developed for use in performance-assessment calculations, including the Total-System Performance Assessment for Yucca Mountain-SNL Second Iteration (TSPA-1993). A simplified lithologic model has been developed based on the physical characteristics of the welded and nonwelded units at Yucca Mountain. Ten hydrogeologic units are developed from site-specific data (lithologic and geophysical logs and core photographs) obtained from the unsaturated and saturated zones. The three-dimensional geostatistical model of the ten hydrogeologic units is based on indicator-coding techniques and improves on the two-dimensional model developed for TSPA91. The hydrogeologic properties (statistics and probability distribution functions) are developed from the results of laboratory tests and in-situ aquifer tests or are derived through fundamental relationships. Hydrogeologic properties for matrix properties, bulk conductivities, and fractures are developed from existing site specific data. Extensive data are available for matrix porosity, bulk density, and matrix saturated conductivity. For other hydrogeologic properties, the data are minimal or nonexistent. Parameters for the properties are developed as beta probability distribution functions. For the model units without enough data for analysis, parameters are developed as analogs to existing units. A relational, analytic approach coupled with bulk conductivity parameters is used to develop fracture parameters based on the smooth-wall-parallel-plate theory. An analytic method is introduced for scaling small-core matrix properties to the hydrogeologic unit scales

  7. MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES TO EMERGING MARKETS: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF TURNKEY PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra Vassileva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed conceptual model for global market entry decisions.

  8. A proposal of conceptual model for Pertuso Spring discharge evaluation in the Upper Valley of Aniene River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sappa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Aniene River basin is part of a large karst aquifer, which interacts with the river, and represents the most important water resource in the southeast part of Latium Region, Central Italy, used for drinking, agriculture and hydroelectric supplies. This work provides hydrogeochemical data and their interpretations for 1 spring and 2 cross section of Aniene River, monitored from July 2014 to December 2015, in the Upper Valley of Aniene River, to identify flow paths and hydrogeochemical processes governing groundwater-surface water interactions in this region. These activities deal with the Environmental Monitoring Plan made for the catchment work project of the Pertuso Spring, in the Upper Valley of Aniene River, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the South part of Rome district. Discharge measurements and hydrogeochemical data were analyzed to develop a conceptual model of aquifer-river interaction, with the aim of achieving proper management and protection of this important hydrogeological system. All groundwater samples are characterized as Ca-HCO3 type. Geochemical modeling and saturation index computation of the water samples show that groundwater and surface water chemistry in the study area was evolved through the interaction with carbonate minerals. All groundwater samples were undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite, however some of the Aniene River samples were saturated with respect to dolomite. The analysis of Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios indicates that the dissolution of carbonate minerals is important for groundwater and surface water chemistry, depending on the hydrological processes, which control the groundwater residence time and chemical equilibria in the aquifer.

  9. A participative and facilitative conceptual modelling framework for discrete event simulation studies in healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Kotiadis, Kathy; Tako, Antuela; Vasilakis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Existing approaches to conceptual modelling (CM) in discrete-event simulation do not formally support the participation of a group of stakeholders. Simulation in healthcare can benefit from stakeholder participation as it makes possible to share multiple views and tacit knowledge from different parts of the system. We put forward a framework tailored to healthcare that supports the interaction of simulation modellers with a group of stakeholders to arrive at a common conceptual model. The fra...

  10. An Empirical Review of the Connection Between Model Viewer Characteristics and the Comprehension of Conceptual Process Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendling, Jan; Recker, Jan; Reijers, Hajo A.; Leopold, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Understanding conceptual models of business domains is a key skill for practitioners tasked with systems analysis and design. Research in this field predominantly uses experiments with specific user proxy cohorts to examine factors that explain how well different types of conceptual models can be

  11. Hydrogeologic modelling in support of a proposed deep geologic repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste - 16264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Jonathan F.; Normani, Stefano D.; Yin, Yong; Sykes, Eric A.; Jensen, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site in Ontario, Canada. The DGR is to be constructed at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation. This paper describes a regional-scale geologic conceptual model for the DGR site and analyzes flow system evolution using the FRAC3DVSOPG flow and transport model. This provides a framework for the assembly and integration of site-specific geo-scientific data that explains and illustrates the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier. In the geologic framework of the Province of Ontario, the Bruce DGR is located at the eastern edge of the Michigan Basin. Borehole logs covering Southern Ontario combined with site specific data have been used to define the structural contours at the regional and site scale of the 31 sedimentary strata that may be present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock. The regional-scale domain encompasses an 18.500 km 2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The groundwater zone below the Devonian is characterized by units containing stagnant water having high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/l. The computational sequence involves the calculation of steady-state density independent flow that is used as the initial condition for the determination of pseudo-equilibrium for a density dependent flow system that has an initial TDS distribution developed from observed data. Long-term simulations that consider future glaciation scenarios include the impact of ice thickness and permafrost. The selection of the performance measure used to evaluate a groundwater system is important. The traditional metric of average water particle travel time is inappropriate for geologic units such as the Ordovician where solute transport is

  12. Software verification, model validation, and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations. A paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work reviewed the current concept of nuclear waste disposal in stable, terrestrial geologic media with a system of natural and man-made multi-barriers. Various aspects of this concept and supporting research were examined with the emphasis on the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Several of the crucial issues and challenges facing the current concept were discussed. These include: The difficulties inherent in a concept that centres around lithologic studies; the unsatisfactory state of software quality assurance in the present computer simulation programs; and the lack of a standardized, comprehensive, and systematic procedure to carry out a rigorous process of model validation and assessment of simulation studies. An outline of such an approach was presented and some of the principles, tools and techniques for software verification were introduced and described. A case study involving an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment computer program is presented. A new paradigm to nuclear waste disposal was advocated to address the challenges facing the existing concept. The RRC (Regional Recharge Concept) was introduced and its many advantages were described and shown through a modelling exercise. (orig./HP)

  13. Hydrological and hydrogeological effects of an open repository in Forsmark. Final MIKE SHE flow modelling results for the Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran

    2010-07-01

    This report presents methodology and modelling results concerning a deep-rock repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark. Specifically, the modelling tools MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 and MOUSE are used to quantify the groundwater inflow to the repository and associated hydrological and hydrogeological effects during the construction and operation phases. The modelling results presented in the report provide input to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that will be part of a permit application according to the Environmental Code. Based on an existing MIKE SHE model for Forsmark, the first step of the modelling process was to implement an updated hydrogeological model of the bedrock and to increase the vertical and horizontal extents of the model domain. Other model updates involve the vegetation classification, and implementation of SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste) and the subsurface drainage system at the nearby nuclear power plant. The updated model was calibrated using measured data on groundwater levels in the Quaternary deposits and the bedrock, water levels in lakes, and stream discharges. The calibrated model was then used for simulation of undisturbed conditions (i.e. without the repository) as a reference for modelling results obtained for disturbed conditions (with the repository). The modelling results for undisturbed conditions that are presented in the report closely resemble those of the final MIKE SHE site descriptive modelling (SDM-Site Forsmark). The repository layout was implemented as pipe links (segments) in the modelling tool MOUSE, and the implemented layout was used for the modelling of disturbed conditions. The study uses an updated and verified MIKE SHE-MOUSE coupling routine that is specifically adapted for calculation of groundwater inflow to grouted rock tunnels. The vertical shafts of the repository are implemented in the form of MIKE SHE grid cells with atmospheric pressure. Modelling results for disturbed

  14. Using sparse polynomial chaos expansions for the global sensitivity analysis of groundwater lifetime expectancy in a multi-layered hydrogeological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deman, G.; Konakli, K.; Sudret, B.; Kerrou, J.; Perrochet, P.; Benabderrahmane, H.

    2016-01-01

    The study makes use of polynomial chaos expansions to compute Sobol' indices within the frame of a global sensitivity analysis of hydro-dispersive parameters in a simplified vertical cross-section of a segment of the subsurface of the Paris Basin. Applying conservative ranges, the uncertainty in 78 input variables is propagated upon the mean lifetime expectancy of water molecules departing from a specific location within a highly confining layer situated in the middle of the model domain. Lifetime expectancy is a hydrogeological performance measure pertinent to safety analysis with respect to subsurface contaminants, such as radionuclides. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the variability in the mean lifetime expectancy can be sufficiently explained by the uncertainty in the petrofacies, i.e. the sets of porosity and hydraulic conductivity, of only a few layers of the model. The obtained results provide guidance regarding the uncertainty modeling in future investigations employing detailed numerical models of the subsurface of the Paris Basin. Moreover, the study demonstrates the high efficiency of sparse polynomial chaos expansions in computing Sobol' indices for high-dimensional models. - Highlights: • Global sensitivity analysis of a 2D 15-layer groundwater flow model is conducted. • A high-dimensional random input comprising 78 parameters is considered. • The variability in the mean lifetime expectancy for the central layer is examined. • Sparse polynomial chaos expansions are used to compute Sobol' sensitivity indices. • The petrofacies of a few layers can sufficiently explain the response variance.

  15. Hydrological and hydrogeological effects of an open repository in Forsmark. Final MIKE SHE flow modelling results for the Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    This report presents methodology and modelling results concerning a deep-rock repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark. Specifically, the modelling tools MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 and MOUSE are used to quantify the groundwater inflow to the repository and associated hydrological and hydrogeological effects during the construction and operation phases. The modelling results presented in the report provide input to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that will be part of a permit application according to the Environmental Code. Based on an existing MIKE SHE model for Forsmark, the first step of the modelling process was to implement an updated hydrogeological model of the bedrock and to increase the vertical and horizontal extents of the model domain. Other model updates involve the vegetation classification, and implementation of SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste) and the subsurface drainage system at the nearby nuclear power plant. The updated model was calibrated using measured data on groundwater levels in the Quaternary deposits and the bedrock, water levels in lakes, and stream discharges. The calibrated model was then used for simulation of undisturbed conditions (i.e. without the repository) as a reference for modelling results obtained for disturbed conditions (with the repository). The modelling results for undisturbed conditions that are presented in the report closely resemble those of the final MIKE SHE site descriptive modelling (SDM-Site Forsmark). The repository layout was implemented as pipe links (segments) in the modelling tool MOUSE, and the implemented layout was used for the modelling of disturbed conditions. The study uses an updated and verified MIKE SHE-MOUSE coupling routine that is specifically adapted for calculation of groundwater inflow to grouted rock tunnels. The vertical shafts of the repository are implemented in the form of MIKE SHE grid cells with atmospheric pressure. Modelling results for disturbed

  16. Validation of the Continuum of Care Conceptual Model for Athletic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Lafave

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of conceptual models in field-based emergency care currently borrows from existing standards of medical and paramedical professions. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a comprehensive conceptual model that could account for injuries ranging from nonurgent to catastrophic events including events that do not follow traditional medical or prehospital care protocols. The conceptual model should represent the continuum of care from the time of initial injury spanning to an athlete’s return to participation in their sport. Finally, the conceptual model should accommodate both novices and experts in the AT profession. This paper chronicles the content validation steps of the Continuum of Care Conceptual Model for Athletic Therapy (CCCM-AT. The stages of model development were domain and item generation, content expert validation using a three-stage modified Ebel procedure, and pilot testing. Only the final stage of the modified Ebel procedure reached a priori 80% consensus on three domains of interest: (1 heading descriptors; (2 the order of the model; (3 the conceptual model as a whole. Future research is required to test the use of the CCCM-AT in order to understand its efficacy in teaching and practice within the AT discipline.

  17. Concurrent sketching model for the industrial product conceptual design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Briede-Westermeyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El diseño conceptual, en el diseño de nuevos productos, es la e tapa temprana donde se definen aspectos claves del producto fin al. El enfoque sistémico aborda dicha fase a través de un modelo de desagregac ión teórica de los atributos del producto y su asociación a geo metrías que las representen, sirviendo de base para realizar la exploración de la propuesta conceptual. La investigación en torno al orige n de las diversas tipologías de boceto demuestra que se nombran en función de su propósito más que en su instrumentalización técnica. El modelo de abocetado concurrente planteado busca ser un modelo ampliado de l modelo sistémico para el diseño conceptual (Hernandis&Briede, 2009, que asocia el uso de las tipologías de boceto a las diversas et apas del modelo para facilitar y apoyar visualmente los proceso s cognitivos y la toma de decisiones en etapas teóricas iniciales, poco defini das y muy abstractas.

  18. The 8 Learning Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting Diversification of Learning Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique; Poumay, M; Leclercq, D

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Verpoorten, D., Poumay, M., & Leclercq, D. (2006). The 8 Learning Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting Diversification of Learning Methods. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence

  19. [Self-Determination in Medical Rehabilitation - Development of a Conceptual Model for Further Theoretical Discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, Tatjana; Meyer, Thorsten

    2018-01-22

    Aim was to gather theoretical knowledge about self-determination and to develop a conceptual model for medical rehabilitation- which serves as a basis for discussion. We performed a literature research in electronic databases. Various theories and research results were adopted and transferred to the context of medical rehabilitation and into a conceptual model. The conceptual model of self-determination reflects on a continuum which forms of self-determination may be present in situations of medical rehabilitation treatments. The location on the continuum depends theoretically on the manifestation of certain internal and external factors that may influence each other. The model provides a first conceptualization of self-determination focusing on medical rehabilitation which should be further refined and tested empirically. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Benefits of using a Social-Ecological Systems Approach to Conceptualize and Model Wetlands Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a social-ecological systems (SES) perspective to examine wetland restoration helps decision-makers recognize interdependencies and relations between ecological and social components of coupled systems. Conceptual models are an invaluable tool to capture, visualize, and orga...

  1. Environmental Cleanup Best Management Practices: Effective Use of the Project Life Cycle Conceptual Site Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet is the first in a series of documents that address conceptual site models (CSMs). This fact sheet summarizes how environmental practitioners can use CSMs to achieve, communicate, and maintain stakeholder consensus.

  2. A conceptual model of channel choice : measuring online and offline shopping value perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Thijs L.J.; Jager, Wander

    2004-01-01

    This study tries to understand how consumers evaluate channels for their purchasing. Specifically, it develops a conceptual model that addresses consumer value perceptions of using the Internet versus the traditional (physical) channel. Previous research showed that perceptions of price, product

  3. Triad Issue Paper: Using Geophysical Tools to Develop the Conceptual Site Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technology bulletin explains how hazardous-waste site professionals can use geophysical tools to provide information about subsurface conditions to create a more representative conceptual site model (CSM).

  4. Supporting conceptual modelling of dynamic systems: A knowledge engineering perspective on qualitative reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, J.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that even students educated in science at prestigious universities have misconceptions about the systems underlying climate change, sustainability and government spending. Interactive conceptual modelling and simulation tools, which are based on Artificial Intelligence techniques,

  5. A conceptual framework to model long-run qualitative change in the energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Ebersberger, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    A conceptual framework to model long-run qualitative change in the energy system / A. Pyka, B. Ebersberger, H. Hanusch. - In: Evolution and economic complexity / ed. J. Stanley Metcalfe ... - Cheltenham [u.a.] : Elgar, 2004. - S. 191-213

  6. MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES TO EMERGING MARKETS: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF TURNKEY PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bistra Vassileva; Miroslav Nikolov

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed concep...

  7. Large regional groundwater modeling - a sensitivity study of some selected conceptual descriptions and simplifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Lars O.; Holmen, Johan

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of this report is: - To present a supplementary, in-depth evaluation of certain conceptual simplifications, descriptions and model uncertainties in conjunction with regional groundwater simulation, which in the first instance refer to model depth, topography, groundwater table level and boundary conditions. Implementation was based on geo-scientifically available data compilations from the Smaaland region but different conceptual assumptions have been analysed

  8. Prevention through Design Adoption Readiness Model (PtD ARM): An integrated conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Justin; Dickerson, Deborah E; Koebel, Charles T

    2015-01-01

    Prevention through Design (PtD), eliminating hazards at the design-stage of tools and systems, is the optimal method of mitigating occupational health and safety risks. A recent National Institute of Safety and Health initiative has established a goal to increase adoption of PtD innovation in industry. The construction industry has traditionally lagged behind other sectors in the adoption of innovation, in general; and of safety and health prevention innovation, in particular. Therefore, as a first step toward improving adoption trends in this sector, a conceptual model was developed to describe the parameters and causal relationships that influence and predict construction stakeholder "adoption readiness" for PtD technology innovation. This model was built upon three well-established theoretical frameworks: the Health Belief Model, the Diffusion of Innovation Model, and the Technology Acceptance Model. Earp and Ennett's model development methodology was employed to build a depiction of the key constructs and directionality and magnitude of relationships among them. Key constructs were identified from the literature associated with the three theoretical frameworks, with special emphasis given to studies related to construction or OHS technology adoption. A conceptual model is presented. Recommendations for future research are described and include confirmatory structural equation modeling of model parameters and relationships, additional descriptive investigation of barriers to adoption in some trade sectors, and design and evaluation of an intervention strategy.

  9. Simulation of hydrodynamic effects of salt rejection due to permafrost. Hydrogeological numerical model of density-driven mixing, at a regional scale, due to a high salinity pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik; Svensson, Urban; Follin, Sven

    2006-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to support the safety assessment of the investigated candidate sites concerning hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical issues related to permafrost. However, a more specific objective of the study is to improve the assessment of processes in relation to permafrost scenarios. The model is based on a mathematical model that includes Darcy velocities, mass conservation, matrix diffusion, and salinity distribution. Gravitational effects are thus fully accounted for. A regional groundwater flow model (POM v1.1, Simpevarp) was used as basis for the simulations. The main results of the model include salinity distributions in time. The general conclusion is that density-driven mixing processes are contained within more permeable deformation zones and that these processes are fast as compared with preliminary permafrost growth rates. The results of the simulation suggest that a repository volume in the rock mass in-between the deterministic deformation zones, approximately 150 m below the permafrost will not experience a high salinity situation due to the salt rejection process

  10. Education and Employment in Hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Darryll T.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study of position descriptions in the field of hydrogeology appearing in want ads, published studies describing the working professional, and published descriptions of hydrogeology programs. Results indicate an increase in positions of ten times that of five years ago. Suggests basic training requirements for beginning…

  11. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction

  12. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicated on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction. 43 refs

  13. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction

  14. Tolerance of uncertainty: Conceptual analysis, integrative model, and implications for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Marij A; Gutheil, Caitlin M; Strout, Tania D; Smets, Ellen M A; Han, Paul K J

    2017-05-01

    Uncertainty tolerance (UT) is an important, well-studied phenomenon in health care and many other important domains of life, yet its conceptualization and measurement by researchers in various disciplines have varied substantially and its essential nature remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to: 1) analyze the meaning and logical coherence of UT as conceptualized by developers of UT measures, and 2) develop an integrative conceptual model to guide future empirical research regarding the nature, causes, and effects of UT. A narrative review and conceptual analysis of 18 existing measures of Uncertainty and Ambiguity Tolerance was conducted, focusing on how measure developers in various fields have defined both the "uncertainty" and "tolerance" components of UT-both explicitly through their writings and implicitly through the items constituting their measures. Both explicit and implicit conceptual definitions of uncertainty and tolerance vary substantially and are often poorly and inconsistently specified. A logically coherent, unified understanding or theoretical model of UT is lacking. To address these gaps, we propose a new integrative definition and multidimensional conceptual model that construes UT as the set of negative and positive psychological responses-cognitive, emotional, and behavioral-provoked by the conscious awareness of ignorance about particular aspects of the world. This model synthesizes insights from various disciplines and provides an organizing framework for future research. We discuss how this model can facilitate further empirical and theoretical research to better measure and understand the nature, determinants, and outcomes of UT in health care and other domains of life. Uncertainty tolerance is an important and complex phenomenon requiring more precise and consistent definition. An integrative definition and conceptual model, intended as a tentative and flexible point of departure for future research, adds needed breadth

  15. Organizational intellectual capital and the role of the nurse manager: A proposed conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jason H; Von Ah, Diane; Broome, Marion E

    Nurse managers must leverage both the human capital and social capital of the teams they lead in order to produce quality outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between human capital and social capital and how these concepts may work together to produce organizational outcomes through leadership of nurses. The purpose of this article was to explore the concepts of human capital and social capital as they relate to nursing leadership in health care organizations. Specific aims included (a) to synthesize the literature related to human capital and social capital in leadership, (b) to refine the conceptual definitions of human capital and social capital with associated conceptual antecedents and consequences, and (c) to propose a synthesized conceptual model guiding further empirical research of social capital and human capital in nursing leadership. A systematic integrative review of leadership literature using criteria informed by Whittemore and Knafl (2005) was completed. CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Academic Search Premier, Business Source Premier, Health Business FullTEXT, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO databases were searched for the years 1995 to 2016 using terms "human capital," "social capital," and "management." Analysis of conceptual definitions, theoretical and conceptual models, antecedents and consequences, propositions or hypotheses, and empirical support for 37 articles fitting review criteria resulted in the synthesis of the proposed Gilbert Conceptual Model of Organizational Intellectual Capital. The Gilbert Conceptual Model of Organizational Intellectual Capital advances the propositions of human capital theory and social capital theory and is the first model to conceptualize the direct and moderating effects that nurse leaders have on the human capital and social capital of the teams they lead. This model provides a framework for further empirical study and may have implications for practice, organizational policy, and education related to nursing

  16. A Conceptual Model for Analysing Management Development in the UK Hospitality Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual, contingent model of management development. It explains the nature of the UK hospitality industry and its potential influence on MD practices, prior to exploring dimensions and relationships in the model. The embryonic model is presented as a model that can enhance our understanding of the complexities of the…

  17. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  18. Hydrological and hydro-geological effects on wetlands and forest areas from the repository at Forsmark. Results from modelling with MIKE SHE; Hydrologiska och hydrogeologiska effekter paa vaatmarker och skogsomraaden av slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Resultat fraan modellering med MIKE SHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Gustafsson, Ann-Marie; Aneljung, Maria; Sabel, Ulrika (DHI Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    This report provides background material for investigations and associated impact assessments concerning water operations in terms of withdrawal of groundwater from the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report presents detailed modelling results in the form of supplementary sensitivity analyses and detailed hydrological and hydrogeological analyses of specific nature objects in Forsmark. The sensitivity analyses aim to investigate the sensitivity of the modelling results to i) the meteorological conditions, ii) impervious surfaces and iii) the model description of the present SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste). A number of simulation cases aim to study cumulative effects of groundwater withdrawal from an extended SFR. The simulations are evaluated with respect to the groundwater table drawdown and head changes in the bedrock. The report analyses the hydrogeological and hydrological conditions for a number of selected wetland objects and forest objects. The selection of objects aims to cover different types of valuable nature objects at different geographical locations in relation to the influence area of the groundwater table drawdown. The analysis comprises groundwater levels at all nature objects, whereas wetlands with particularly high nature values have been studied in detail with respect to surface water levels, the need for water supply and object-specific water balances. These studies have been performed for different meteorological conditions in the form of a type (2006) and a statistically normal, dry and wet year, respectively, with a return period of 100 years for the dry- and wet years. All simulations for disturbed conditions with a fully open repository are done with a hydraulic conductivity of K{sub inj} = 10-7 or 10-8 m/s in the grouted zone. The results show that time-dependent precipitation and snow melt have large influence on the temporal variations of the depth to the groundwater table for

  19. Conceptual model for marketing solar based technology to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Raj; Ramaseshan, B.; Nayar, C.V.

    2002-01-01

    Developing countries are faced with large shortfalls of electric-power generation, shortages of usable indigenous fuels, and transportation bottlenecks for those fuels. The loss of revenue that is forced upon the industry due to power cuts and frequent interruptions of power supply is substantial. Renewable sources of energy have an important role to play in providing much needed power in the context of growing global concern about sustainable energy supplies and protecting the environment from the adverse effects of fossil fuel utilization. The purpose of the study is to identify the factors that influence the adoption of solar-based technology. An examination of the literature in the area of diffusion of technology has led to the identification of different variables. The possible relationships that may exist between these variables is depicted in the conceptual framework. This paper attempts to clarify the relationships between the variables that have been identified and the decision to adopt. (Author)

  20. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The unsaturated volcanic tuff beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy as a host rock for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Assessment of site suitability needs an efficient and focused investigative program. A conceptual hydrogeologic model that simulates the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was developed to guide the program and to provide a basis for preliminary assessment of site suitability. The study was made as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project of the US Department of Energy. Thickness of the unsaturated zone is about 1640 to 2460 feet (500 to 750 meters). Based on physical properties, the rocks in the unsaturated zone are grouped for the purpose of this paper into five informal hydrogeologic units. From top to bottom these units are: Tiva Canyon welded unit, Paintbrush nonwelded unit. Topopah Spring welded unit, Calico Hills nonwelded unit, and Crater Flat unit. Welded units have a mean fracture density of 8 to 40 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 12 to 23%, matrix hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 6.5 x 10 -6 to 9.8 x 10 -6 foot per day (2 x 10 -6 to 3 x 10 -6 meter per day), and bulk hydraulic conductivities of 0.33 to 33 feet per day (0.1 to 10 meters per day). The nonwelded units have a mean fracture density of 1 to 3 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 31 to 46%, and saturated hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 2.6 x 10 -5 to 2.9 x 10 -2 foot per day (8 x 10 -6 to 9 x 10 -3 meter per day). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Investigating conceptual models for physical property couplings in solid solution models of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbow, Steven; Watson, Claire; Savage, David

    2005-11-01

    The long-term behaviour of cementitious engineered barriers is an important process to consider when modelling the migration of radionuclides from a geological repository for nuclear waste. The modelling of cement is complicated by the fact that the cement is dominated by the behaviour of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel which is a complex solid exhibiting incongruent dissolution behaviour. In this report, we have demonstrated the implementation of a solid-solution CSH gel model within a geochemical transport modelling framework using the Raiden computer code to investigate cement/concrete-groundwater interactions. The modelling conducted here shows that it is possible to couple various conceptual models for the evolution of physical properties of concrete with a solid solution model for cement degradation in a fully coupled geochemical transport model to describe the interaction of cement/concrete engineered barriers with groundwater. The results show that changes to the conceptual models and flow rates can give rise to very different evolutions. Most simulations were carried out at a reduced 'experimental' scale rather than full repository scale. The work has shown the possibility to investigate also the changing physical properties of degrading cement. To further develop the model more emphasis is needed on kinetics and the detailed development of a nearly clogged pore space. Modelling of the full repository scale could be another way forward to understand the behaviour of degrading concrete. A general conclusion is that the combined effects of chemical evolution and physical degradation should be analysed in performance assessments of cementitious repositories. Moreover, the project results will be used as one basis in coming reviews of SKB's safety assessments of repositories for spent fuel and low-and intermediate level waste

  2. Investigating conceptual models for physical property couplings in solid solution models of cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbow, Steven; Watson, Claire; Savage, David [Quintesssa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-15

    The long-term behaviour of cementitious engineered barriers is an important process to consider when modelling the migration of radionuclides from a geological repository for nuclear waste. The modelling of cement is complicated by the fact that the cement is dominated by the behaviour of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel which is a complex solid exhibiting incongruent dissolution behaviour. In this report, we have demonstrated the implementation of a solid-solution CSH gel model within a geochemical transport modelling framework using the Raiden computer code to investigate cement/concrete-groundwater interactions. The modelling conducted here shows that it is possible to couple various conceptual models for the evolution of physical properties of concrete with a solid solution model for cement degradation in a fully coupled geochemical transport model to describe the interaction of cement/concrete engineered barriers with groundwater. The results show that changes to the conceptual models and flow rates can give rise to very different evolutions. Most simulations were carried out at a reduced 'experimental' scale rather than full repository scale. The work has shown the possibility to investigate also the changing physical properties of degrading cement. To further develop the model more emphasis is needed on kinetics and the detailed development of a nearly clogged pore space. Modelling of the full repository scale could be another way forward to understand the behaviour of degrading concrete. A general conclusion is that the combined effects of chemical evolution and physical degradation should be analysed in performance assessments of cementitious repositories. Moreover, the project results will be used as one basis in coming reviews of SKB's safety assessments of repositories for spent fuel and low-and intermediate level waste.

  3. A beginner's guide to writing the nursing conceptual model-based theoretical rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Eileen; Manister, Nancy N

    2012-10-01

    Writing the theoretical rationale for a study can be a daunting prospect for novice researchers. Nursing's conceptual models provide excellent frameworks for placement of study variables, but moving from the very abstract concepts of the nursing model to the less abstract concepts of the study variables is difficult. Similar to the five-paragraph essay used by writing teachers to assist beginning writers to construct a logical thesis, the authors of this column present guidelines that beginners can follow to construct their theoretical rationale. This guide can be used with any nursing conceptual model but Neuman's model was chosen here as the exemplar.

  4. A Conceptual Model to Identify Intent to Use Chemical-Biological Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Zalesny

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a conceptual model to identify and interrelate indicators of intent of non-state actors to use chemical or biological weapons. The model expands on earlier efforts to understand intent to use weapons of mass destruction by building upon well-researched theories of intent and behavior and focusing on a sub-set of weapons of mass destruction (WMD to account for the distinct challenges of employing different types of WMD in violent acts. The conceptual model is presented as a first, critical step in developing a computational model for assessing the potential for groups to use chemical or biological weapons.

  5. CAPTURING UNCERTAINTY IN UNSATURATED-ZONE FLOW USING DIFFERENT CONCEPTUAL MODELS OF FRACTURE-MATRIX INTERACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUSAN J. ALTMAN, MICHAEL L. WILSON, GUMUNDUR S. BODVARSSON

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary calculations show that the two different conceptual models of fracture-matrix interaction presented here yield different results pertinent to the performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Namely, each model produces different ranges of flow in the fractures, where radionuclide transport is thought to be most important. This method of using different flow models to capture both conceptual model and parameter uncertainty ensures that flow fields used in TSPA calculations will be reasonably calibrated to the available data while still capturing this uncertainty. This method also allows for the use of three-dimensional flow fields for the TSPA-VA calculations

  6. Urban hydrogeology in Indonesia: A highlight from Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, R. F.

    2018-02-01

    In many cities in the developing countries, groundwater is an important source of public water supply. The interaction between groundwater systems and urban environments has become an urgent challenge for many developing cities in the world, Indonesia included. Contributing factors are, but not limited to, the continuous horizontal and vertical expansion of cities, population growth, climate change, water scarcity and groundwater quality degradation. Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia becomes a good example to study and implement urban hydrogeology. Urban hydrogeology is a science for investigating groundwater at the hydrological cycle and its change, water regime and quality within the urbanized landscape and zones of its impact. The present paper provides a review of urban groundwater studies in Jakarta in the context of urban water management, advances in hydrogeological investigation, monitoring and modelling since the city was established. The whole study emphasizes the necessity of an integrated urban groundwater management and development supporting hydrogeological techniques for urban areas.

  7. Combining Different Conceptual Change Methods within 5E Model: A Sample Teaching Design of "Cell" Concept and its Organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Mustafa; Calik, Muammer

    2008-01-01

    Since students' misconceptions are not completely remedied by means of only one conceptual change method, the authors assume that using different conceptual methods embedded within the 5E model will not only be more effective in enhancing students' conceptual understanding, but also may eliminate all students' misconceptions. The aim of this study…

  8. Navigating Tensions Between Conceptual and Metaconceptual Goals in the Use of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Science education involves learning about phenomena at three levels: concrete (facts and generalizations), conceptual (concepts and theories), and metaconceptual (epistemology) (Snir et al. in J Sci Educ Technol 2(2):373-388, 1993). Models are key components in science, can help build conceptual understanding, and may also build metaconceptual understanding. Technology can transform teaching and learning by turning models into interactive simulations that learners can investigate. This paper identifies four characteristics of models and simulations that support conceptual learning but misconstrue models and science at a metaconceptual level. Ahistorical models combine the characteristics of several historical models; they conveniently compile ideas but misrepresent the history of science (Gilbert in Int J Sci Math Educ 2(2):115-130, 2004). Teleological models explain behavior in terms of a final cause; they can lead to useful heuristics but imply purpose in processes driven by chance and probability (Talanquer in Int J Sci Educ 29(7):853-870, 2007). Epistemological overreach occurs when models or simulations imply greater certainty and knowledge about phenomena than warranted; conceptualizing nature as being well known (e.g., having a mathematical structure) poses the danger of conflating model and reality or data and theory. Finally, models are inevitably ontologically impoverished. Real-world deviations and many variables are left out of models, as models' role is to simplify. Models and simulations also lose much of the sensory data present in phenomena. Teachers, designers, and professional development designers and facilitators must thus navigate the tension between conceptual and metaconceptual learning when using models and simulations. For each characteristic, examples are provided, along with recommendations for instruction and design. Prompts for explicit reflective activities around models are provided for each characteristic

  9. Conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed, Sierra Nevada, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J.A.; Flint, L.E.; Alpers, Charles N.; Yarnell, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the development of a conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed; and we hypothesize how components of the conceptual model may be spatially distributed using a geographical information system (GIS). The conceptual model illustrates key processes controlling sediment dynamics in the upper Yuba River watershed and was tested and revised using field measurements, aerial photography, and low elevation videography. Field reconnaissance included mass wasting and channel storage inventories, assessment of annual channel change in upland tributaries, and evaluation of the relative importance of sediment sources and transport processes. Hillslope erosion rates throughout the study area are relatively low when compared to more rapidly eroding landscapes such as the Pacific Northwest and notable hillslope sediment sources include highly erodible andesitic mudflows, serpentinized ultramafics, and unvegetated hydraulic mine pits. Mass wasting dominates surface erosion on the hillslopes; however, erosion of stored channel sediment is the primary contributor to annual sediment yield. We used GIS to spatially distribute the components of the conceptual model and created hillslope erosion potential and channel storage models. The GIS models exemplify the conceptual model in that landscapes with low potential evapotranspiration, sparse vegetation, steep slopes, erodible geology and soils, and high road densities display the greatest hillslope erosion potential and channel storage increases with increasing stream order. In-channel storage in upland tributaries impacted by hydraulic mining is an exception. Reworking of stored hydraulic mining sediment in low-order tributaries continues to elevate upper Yuba River sediment yields. Finally, we propose that spatially distributing the components of a conceptual model in a GIS framework provides a guide for developing more detailed sediment budgets or numerical models making it an

  10. Hydrogeologic testing strategy for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logsdon, M.J.; Verma, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    At the time of licensing for a proposed deep geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste, the Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to present and defend a complete licensing/performance assessment of the geologic repository system. As part of its responsibilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff will be required to perform an independent assessment of the groundwater flow system with respect to the technical criteria of 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 60. Specifically, the staff expects to use mathematical models to predict pre-emplacement and post-emplacement groundwater flow paths and travel times. These predictive assessments will be used to reach findings on compliance with the proposed EPA Standards (10 CFR 60.112), which apply to post-emplacement groundwater travel time along the path of likely radionuclide travel (10 CFR 60.113(2)). Predictive modeling of groundwater flow will require defensible conceptual models of the flow system, defensible boundary conditions, and defensible values of hydraulic parameters. The purpose fo this technical position is to provide guidance to DOE on an approach that the NRC staff considers acceptable in determining what hydrogeologic testing (including types of tests, scale of tests, and number of tests) at the Hanford site will be required to produce the hydraulic data necessary and sufficient to perform rigorous, quantitative modeling to support predictions of repository performance. 2 figures

  11. Conceptual geoinformation model of natural hazards risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulygin, Valerii

    2016-04-01

    Natural hazards are the major threat to safe interactions between nature and society. The assessment of the natural hazards impacts and their consequences is important in spatial planning and resource management. Today there is a challenge to advance our understanding of how socio-economical and climate changes will affect the frequency and magnitude of hydro-meteorological hazards and associated risks. However, the impacts from different types of natural hazards on various marine and coastal economic activities are not of the same type. In this study, the conceptual geomodel of risk assessment is presented to highlight the differentiation by the type of economic activities in extreme events risk assessment. The marine and coastal ecosystems are considered as the objects of management, on the one hand, and as the place of natural hazards' origin, on the other hand. One of the key elements in describing of such systems is the spatial characterization of their components. Assessment of ecosystem state is based on ecosystem indicators (indexes). They are used to identify the changes in time. The scenario approach is utilized to account for the spatio-temporal dynamics and uncertainty factors. Two types of scenarios are considered: scenarios of using ecosystem services by economic activities and scenarios of extreme events and related hazards. The reported study was funded by RFBR, according to the research project No. 16-35-60043 mol_a_dk.

  12. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  13. On uncertainty quantification in hydrogeology and hydrogeophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Niklas; Ginsbourger, David; Irving, James; Nobile, Fabio; Doucet, Arnaud

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in sensor technologies, field methodologies, numerical modeling, and inversion approaches have contributed to unprecedented imaging of hydrogeological properties and detailed predictions at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, imaging results and predictions will always remain imprecise, which calls for appropriate uncertainty quantification (UQ). In this paper, we outline selected methodological developments together with pioneering UQ applications in hydrogeology and hydrogeophysics. The applied mathematics and statistics literature is not easy to penetrate and this review aims at helping hydrogeologists and hydrogeophysicists to identify suitable approaches for UQ that can be applied and further developed to their specific needs. To bypass the tremendous computational costs associated with forward UQ based on full-physics simulations, we discuss proxy-modeling strategies and multi-resolution (Multi-level Monte Carlo) methods. We consider Bayesian inversion for non-linear and non-Gaussian state-space problems and discuss how Sequential Monte Carlo may become a practical alternative. We also describe strategies to account for forward modeling errors in Bayesian inversion. Finally, we consider hydrogeophysical inversion, where petrophysical uncertainty is often ignored leading to overconfident parameter estimation. The high parameter and data dimensions encountered in hydrogeological and geophysical problems make UQ a complicated and important challenge that has only been partially addressed to date.

  14. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

  15. Three-dimensional hydrogeological modeling to assess the elevated-water-table technique for controlling acid generation from an abandoned tailings site in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Marie-Pier; Bussière, Bruno; Broda, Stefan; Aubertin, Michel

    2018-01-01

    The Manitou Mine sulphidic-tailings storage facility No. 2, near Val D'Or, Canada, was reclaimed in 2009 by elevating the water table and applying a monolayer cover made of tailings from nearby Goldex Mine. Previous studies showed that production of acid mine drainage can be controlled by lowering the oxygen flux through Manitou tailings with a water table maintained at the interface between the cover and reactive tailings. Simulations of different scenarios were performed using numerical hydrogeological modeling to evaluate the capacity of the reclamation works to maintain the phreatic surface at this interface. A large-scale numerical model was constructed and calibrated using 3 years of field measurements. This model reproduced the field measurements, including the existence of a western zone on the site where the phreatic level targeted is not always met during the summer. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the response of the model to varying saturated hydraulic conductivities, porosities, and grain-size distributions. Higher variations of the hydraulic heads, with respect to the calibrated scenario results, were observed when simulating a looser or coarser cover material. Long-term responses were simulated using: the normal climatic data, data for a normal climate with a 2-month dry spell, and a simplified climate-change case. Environmental quality targets were reached less frequently during summer for the dry spell simulation as well as for the simplified climate-change scenario. This study illustrates how numerical simulations can be used as a key tool to assess the eventual performance of various mine-site reclamation scenarios.

  16. Using a lumped conceptual hydrological model for five different catchments in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Ekenberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Hydrological models offer powerful tools for understanding and predicting. In this thesis we havereviewed the advantages and disadvantages of physically based distributed hydrological models andconceptually lumped hydrological models. Based on that review, we went into depth and developed aMATLAB code to test if a simple conceptual lumped hydrological model, namely GR2M, wouldperform satisfactory for five different catchments in different parts of Sweden. The model had ratherunsatisfactory re...

  17. Conceptual design of an integrated technology model for carbon policy assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Dimotakes, Paul E. (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA)

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a technology choice model for understanding strategies to reduce carbon intensity in the electricity sector. The report considers the major modeling issues affecting technology policy assessment and defines an implementable model construct. Further, the report delineates the basis causal structure of such a model and attempts to establish the technical/algorithmic viability of pursuing model development along with the associated analyses.

  18. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  19. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  20. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  1. The Prince Edward Island Conceptual Model for Nursing: a nursing perspective of primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, M; Gallant, M; MacKinnon, M; Dell, G; Herbert, R; MacNutt, G; McCarthy, M J; Murnaghan, D; Robertson, K

    2000-06-01

    The philosophy of primary health care (PHC) recognizes that health is a product of individual, social, economic, and political factors and that people have a right and a duty, individually and collectively, to participate in the course of their own health. The majority of nursing models cast the client in a dependent role and do not conceptualize health in a social, economic, and political context. The Prince Edward Island Conceptual Model for Nursing is congruent with the international move towards PHC. It guides the nurse in practising in the social and political environment in which nursing and health care take place. This model features a nurse/client partnership, the goal being to encourage clients to act on their own behalf. The conceptualization of the environment as the collective influence of the determinants of health gives both nurse and client a prominent position in the sociopolitical arena of health and health care.

  2. Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Michelle H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The fate and transport of 129I in the environment and potential remediation technologies are currently being studied as part of environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site. A conceptual model describing the nature and extent of subsurface contamination, factors that control plume behavior, and factors relevant to potential remediation processes is needed to support environmental remedy decisions. Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited. Thus, the conceptual model also needs to both describe known contaminant and biogeochemical process information and to identify aspects about which additional information needed to effectively support remedy decisions. this document summarizes the conceptual model of iodine behavior relevant to iodine in the subsurface environment at the Hanford site.

  3. Examining the Etiology of Reading Disability as Conceptualized by the Hybrid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbeli, Florina; Hart, Sara A.; Wagner, Richard K.; Taylor, Jeanette

    2018-01-01

    A fairly recent definition of reading disability (RD) is that in the form of a hybrid model. The model views RD as a latent construct that is manifested through various observable unexpected impairments in reading-related skills and through inadequate response to intervention. The current report evaluated this new conceptualization of RD from an…

  4. Career and Technical Education (CTE) Student Success in Community Colleges: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschy, Amy S.; Bremer, Christine D.; Castellano, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education (CTE) students pursuing occupational associate's degrees or certificates differ from students seeking academic majors at 2-year institutions in several ways. This article examines several theoretical models of student persistence and offers a conceptual model of student success focused on CTE students in community…

  5. Regime transitions in near-surface temperature inversions : a conceptual model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wiel, B.J.H.; Vignon, E.; Baas, P.; Bosveld, F.C.; de Roode, S.R.; Moene, A.F.; Genthon, C.; van der Linden, Steven J.A.; van Hooft, J. Antoon; van Hooijdonk, I.G.S.

    2017-01-01

    A conceptual model is used in combination with observational analysis to understand regime transitions of near-surface temperature inversions at night as well as in Arctic conditions. The model combines a surface energy budget with a bulk parameterization for turbulent heat transport. Energy fluxes

  6. University Library Strategy Development: A Conceptual Model of Researcher Performance to Inform Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Alexia; Zhao, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    This case study presents a conceptual model of researcher performance developed by Deakin University Library, Australia. The model aims to organize research performance data into meaningful researcher profiles, referred to as researcher typologies, which support the demonstration of research impact and value. Three dimensions shaping researcher…

  7. The Conceptualization of the Mathematical Modelling Process in Technology-Aided Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglu, Çaglar Naci; Güzel, Esra Bukova

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to conceptualize the technology-aided mathematical modelling process in the frame of cognitive modelling perspective. The grounded theory approach was adopted in the study. The research was conducted with seven groups consisting of nineteen prospective mathematics teachers. The data were collected from the video records of…

  8. Conceptual Resources in Self-Developed Explanatory Models: The Importance of Integrating Conscious and Intuitive Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Brown, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the spontaneous explanatory models children construct, critique, and revise in the context of tasks in which children need to predict, observe, and explain phenomena involving magnetism. It further investigates what conceptual resources students use, and in what ways they use them, to construct explanatory models, and the…

  9. Conceptualization of an R&D Based Learning-to-Innovate Model for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Oiki Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to conceptualize an R & D based learning-to-innovate (LTI) model. The problem to be addressed was the lack of a theoretical L TI model, which would inform science pedagogy. The absorptive capacity (ACAP) lens was adopted to untangle the R & D LTI phenomenon into four learning processes: problem-solving via…

  10. A model for information retrieval driven by conceptual spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanase, D.

    2015-01-01

    A retrieval model describes the transformation of a query into a set of documents. The question is: what drives this transformation? For semantic information retrieval type of models this transformation is driven by the content and structure of the semantic models. In this case, Knowledge Organization Systems (KOSs) are the semantic models that encode the meaning employed for monolingual and cross-language retrieval. The focus of this research is the relationship between these meanings’ repre...

  11. Conceptual Models, Choices, and Benchmarks for Building Quality Work Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker-Hocevar, Michele

    1996-01-01

    The two models in Florida's Educational Quality Benchmark System represent a new way of thinking about developing schools' work culture. The Quality Performance System Model identifies nine dimensions of work within a quality system. The Change Process Model provides a theoretical framework for changing existing beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors…

  12. Drilling technologies in hydrogeological survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vorlíček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the drilling technologies used in hydrogeology. The main aim of the work is to explore types of drilling technologies used at hydrogeological drilling wells and modern technologies that could potentially be used in the future. The work also summarizes a historical development of drilling techniques, a drilling process procedure, information obtained from boreholes and the most common types of drilling fluids.

  13. The physical hydrogeology of ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Appold, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits represent a convergence of fluid flow, thermal energy, and solute flux that is hydrogeologically unusual. From the hydrogeologic perspective, hydrothermal ore deposition represents a complex coupled-flow problem—sufficiently complex that physically rigorous description of the coupled thermal (T), hydraulic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes (THMC modeling) continues to challenge our computational ability. Though research into these coupled behaviors has found only a limited subset to be quantitatively tractable, it has yielded valuable insights into the workings of hydrothermal systems in a wide range of geologic environments including sedimentary, metamorphic, and magmatic. Examples of these insights include the quantification of likely driving mechanisms, rates and paths of fluid flow, ore-mineral precipitation mechanisms, longevity of hydrothermal systems, mechanisms by which hydrothermal fluids acquire their temperature and composition, and the controlling influence of permeability and other rock properties on hydrothermal fluid behavior. In this communication we review some of the fundamental theory needed to characterize the physical hydrogeology of hydrothermal systems and discuss how this theory has been applied in studies of Mississippi Valley-type, tabular uranium, porphyry, epithermal, and mid-ocean ridge ore-forming systems. A key limitation in the computational state-of-the-art is the inability to describe fluid flow and transport fully in the many ore systems that show evidence of repeated shear or tensional failure with associated dynamic variations in permeability. However, we discuss global-scale compilations that suggest some numerical constraints on both mean and dynamically enhanced crustal permeability. Principles of physical hydrogeology can be powerful tools for investigating hydrothermal ore formation and are becoming increasingly accessible with ongoing advances in modeling software.