WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrogen generation program

  1. Hydrogen program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronich, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  2. Hydrogen Generation From Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Cohen; Stephen Porter; Oscar Chow; David Henderson

    2009-03-06

    Small-scale (100-500 kg H2/day) electrolysis is an important step in increasing the use of hydrogen as fuel. Until there is a large population of hydrogen fueled vehicles, the smaller production systems will be the most cost-effective. Performing conceptual designs and analyses in this size range enables identification of issues and/or opportunities for improvement in approach on the path to 1500 kg H2/day and larger systems. The objectives of this program are to establish the possible pathways to cost effective larger Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) water electrolysis systems and to identify areas where future research and development efforts have the opportunity for the greatest impact in terms of capital cost reduction and efficiency improvements. System design and analysis was conducted to determine the overall electrolysis system component architecture and develop a life cycle cost estimate. A design trade study identified subsystem components and configurations based on the trade-offs between system efficiency, cost and lifetime. Laboratory testing of components was conducted to optimize performance and decrease cost, and this data was used as input to modeling of system performance and cost. PEM electrolysis has historically been burdened by high capital costs and lower efficiency than required for large-scale hydrogen production. This was known going into the program and solutions to these issues were the focus of the work. The program provided insights to significant cost reduction and efficiency improvement opportunities for PEM electrolysis. The work performed revealed many improvement ideas that when utilized together can make significant progress towards the technical and cost targets of the DOE program. The cell stack capital cost requires reduction to approximately 25% of today’s technology. The pathway to achieve this is through part count reduction, use of thinner membranes, and catalyst loading reduction. Large-scale power supplies are available

  3. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  4. Status and integration of the gas generation studies performed for the Hydrogen Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Strachan, D.M.

    1993-02-01

    Waste in Tank 241-SY-101 on the Hanford Site generates and periodically releases hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen gases. Studies have been conducted at several laboratories to determine the chemical mechanisms for the gas generation and release. Results from these studies are presented and integrated in an attempt to describe current understanding of the physical properties of the waste and the mechanisms of gas generation and retention. Existing tank data are consistent with the interpretation that gases are uniformly generated in the tank, released continuously from the convecting layer, and stored in the nonconvecting layer. Tank temperature measurements suggest that the waste consists of ''gobs'' of material that reach neutral buoyancy at different times. The activation energy of the rate limiting step of the gas generating process was calculated to be about 7 kJ/mol but measured in the laboratory at 80 to 100 kJ/mol. Based on observed temperature changes in the tank the activation energy is probably not higher than about 20 kJ/mol. Several simulated waste compositions have been devised for use in laboratory studies in the place of actual waste from Tank 241-SY-101. Data from these studies can be used to predict how the actual waste might behave when heated or diluted. Density evaluations do not confirm that heating waste at the bottom of the tank would induce circulation within the waste; however, heating may release gas bubbles by dissolving the solids to which the bubbles adhere. Gas generation studies on simulated wastes indicated that nitrous oxide and hydrogen yields are not particularly coupled. Solubility studies of nitrous oxide, the most soluble of the principal gaseous products, indicate it is unlikely that dissolved gases contribute substantially to the quantity of gas released during periodic events

  5. Canadian hydrogen safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIntyre, I.; Tchouvelev, A.V.; Hay, D.R.; Wong, J.; Grant, J.; Benard, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian hydrogen safety program (CHSP) is a project initiative of the Codes and Standards Working Group of the Canadian transportation fuel cell alliance (CTFCA) that represents industry, academia, government, and regulators. The Program rationale, structure and contents contribute to acceptance of the products, services and systems of the Canadian Hydrogen Industry into the Canadian hydrogen stakeholder community. It facilitates trade through fair insurance policies and rates, effective and efficient regulatory approval procedures and accommodation of the interests of the general public. The Program integrates a consistent quantitative risk assessment methodology with experimental (destructive and non-destructive) failure rates and consequence-of-release data for key hydrogen components and systems into risk assessment of commercial application scenarios. Its current and past six projects include Intelligent Virtual Hydrogen Filling Station (IVHFS), Hydrogen clearance distances, comparative quantitative risk comparison of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling options; computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling validation, calibration and enhancement; enhancement of frequency and probability analysis, and Consequence analysis of key component failures of hydrogen systems; and fuel cell oxidant outlet hydrogen sensor project. The Program projects are tightly linked with the content of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 19 Hydrogen Safety. (author)

  6. HNEI wind-hydrogen program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, D.; Holst, B.; Yu, C.; Huang, N.; Wei, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on wind powered hydrogen production which is promising for Hawaii because Hawaii's wind energy potential exceeds the state's current electrical energy requirements by more than twenty-fold. Wind energy costs are now approaching $0.06 to $0.08/kWh, and the U.S. Department of Energy has set a goal of $0.04/kWh. These conditions make wind power a good source for electrolytic production of hydrogen. HNEI's wind-hydrogen program, at the HNEI-Kahua Wind Energy Storage Test facility on the island of Hawaii, is developing energy storage and power electronic systems for intermittent wind and solar devices to provide firm power to the utility or to a stand-alone hybrid system. In mid 1990, the first wind-hydrogen production/storage/ generation system is scheduled for installation. HNEI's wind- hydrogen program will provide research, development, demonstration, and education on the great potential and benefits of hydrogen

  7. Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Through its Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program, NREL researches, develops, analyzes, and validates fuel cell and hydrogen production, delivery, and storage technologies for transportation

  8. Storage, generation, and use of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClaine, Andrew W.; Rolfe, Jonathan L.; Larsen, Christopher A.; Konduri, Ravi K.

    2006-05-30

    A composition comprising a carrier liquid; a dispersant; and a chemical hydride. The composition can be used in a hydrogen generator to generate hydrogen for use, e.g., as a fuel. A regenerator recovers elemental metal from byproducts of the hydrogen generation process.

  9. Fuel cell using a hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-10-19

    A system is described for storing and generating hydrogen and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  10. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1996-02-01

    The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H 2 . CO 2 , N 2 0, NO, and NH 3 . For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H 2 , CO, CO 2 , N 2 , N 2 O and NO

  11. 2010 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes the hydrogen and fuel cell R&D activities and accomplishments in FY2009 for the DOE Hydrogen Program, including the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program and hydrogen-related work in the Offices of Science; Fossil Energy; and Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology. It includes reports on all of the research projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program between October 2009 and September 2010.

  12. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-03-01

    This plan details the goals, objectives, technical targets, tasks and schedule for EERE's contribution to the DOE Hydrogen Program. Similar detailed plans exist for the other DOE offices that make up the Hydrogen Program.

  13. Automotive dual-mode hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D. A.

    The automotive dual mode hydrogen generation system is advocated as a supplementary hydrogen fuel means along with the current metallic hydride hydrogen storage method for vehicles. This system consists of utilizing conventional electrolysis cells with the low voltage dc electrical power supplied by two electrical generating sources within the vehicle. Since the automobile engine exhaust manifold(s) are presently an untapped useful source of thermal energy, they can be employed as the heat source for a simple heat engine/generator arrangement. The second, and minor electrical generating means consists of multiple, miniature air disk generators which are mounted directly under the vehicle's hood and at other convenient locations within the engine compartment. The air disk generators are revolved at a speed which is proportionate to the vehicles forward speed and do not impose a drag on the vehicles motion.

  14. IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement's Second Generation R and D and the Hydrogen Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, N.; Garcia-Conde, A. G.; Riis, T. U.; Luzzi, A.; Valladares, M. R. de

    2005-07-01

    Since its creation by the International Energy Agency in the late 1970's, the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (HIA) has been at the forefront of collaborative international hydrogen research and development (R and D) (http://www.ieahia.org. ) The collective body of HIA hydrogen R and D will contribute to definition of the hydrogen economy. The five-year [2004-2009) mission of the IEA HIA is to advance the adoption of a Hydrogen Economy through strategic implementation of collaborative R and D and outreach programs that address key issues and barriers. The three goals for the Second Generation HIA are: Advancement of science and technology via pre-commercial collaborative RD and D programs; Assessment of market environment, including the non-energy sector; and Implementation of outreach program, aimed at community acceptance and support. The HIA launched its Second Generation of hydrogen R and D in the latter part of 2004. The HIA's anniversary report: In Pursuit of the Future: 25 Years of IEA Research towards the realization of Hydrogen Energy Systems (http://ieahia.org/pdfs/IEA_AnniversaryReport_HIA.pdf) chronicles its contributions to hydrogen R and D. As the hydrogen economy takes shape, the HIA is pleased to share highlights of its R and D history together with progress on planned activities and its six current annexes, listed below: Task 15 Photobiological Production of Hydrogen Task 16 Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials Task 17 Solid and Liquid Storage Task 18 Integrated Systems Evaluation Task 19 Safety Task 20 Hydrogen from Waterphotolysis Planned successor annexes in storage and photobiological hydrogen production will also be discussed, along with a task on high temperature hydrogen production that is now in the definition phase. Over 250 experts from the sixteen member HIA countries and the European Union contribute to this portfolio of cutting edge hydrogen R and D and analysis activities. Several other countries are expected to

  15. A method for generating hydrogen from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godin, Paul; Mascarello, Jean; Millet, Jacques.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of a method and an installation for generating hydrogen from water, through an endothermic cycle of several successive chemical reactions involving intermediate substances regenerated during said cycle, said reactions occuring at different temperatures. The reaction which takes place at the highest temperature is carried out electrochemically. This can be applied to power-generating units comprising a nuclear reactor [fr

  16. A new type of hydrogen generator-HHEG (high-compressed hydrogen energy generator)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, H.; Tojima, K.; Takeda, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' We have developed a new type of hydrogen generator named HHEG (High-compressed Hydrogen Energy Generator). HHEG can produce 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle without any mechanical compressor. HHEG is a kind of PEM(proton exchange membrane)electrolysis. It was well known that compressed hydrogen could be generated by water electrolysis. However, the conventional electrolysis could not generate 35 MPa or higher pressure that is required for fuel cell vehicle, because electrolysis cell stack is destroyed in such high pressure. In HHEG, the cell stack is put in high-pressure vessel and the pressure difference of oxygen and hydrogen that is generated by the cell stack is always kept at nearly zero by an automatic compensator invented by Mitsubishi Corporation. The cell stack of HHEG is not so special one, but it is not broken under such high pressure, because the automatic compensator always offsets the force acting on the cell stack. Hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle must be produce by no emission energy such as solar and atomic power. These energies are available as electricity. So, water electrolysis is the only way of producing hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen fuel is also 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen and will become 70 MPa in near future. But conventional mechanical compressor is not useful for such high pressure hydrogen fuel, because of the short lifetime and high power consumption. Construction of hydrogen station network is indispensable in order to come into wide use of fuel cell vehicles. For such network contraction, an on-site type hydrogen generator is required. HHEG can satisfy above these requirements. So we can conclude that HHEG is the only way of realizing the hydrogen economy. (author)

  17. Generation IV national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preville, M.; Sadhankar, R.; Brady, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the Generation IV National Program. This program involves evolutionary and innovative design with significantly higher efficiencies (∼50% compared to present ∼30%) - sustainable, economical, safe, reliable and proliferation resistant - for future energy security. The Generation IV Forum (GIF) effectively leverages the resources of the participants to meet these goals. Ten countries signed the GIF Charter in 2001

  18. Hydrogen Programs of Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken-ichiro OTA

    2006-01-01

    The global sustainability is a key word of the future energy system for human beings. It should be friendly to the earth and also to human beings. Considering the limit of resources, the materials recycling would be very important. Considering the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy production through any processes would be the final problems for the sustainable growth. We have to think how to dispose the increasing entropy outside earth in the clean energy system. At present, the global carbon cycle is changing by the emission of CO 2 with the large consumption of fossil fuels. The global environment including human society should stand on harmonizing with the earth, where the global recycles of materials are important. Thinking about the global recycles of carbon and water quantitatively, the existence of water is 27,000 times larger than that of carbon. The transportation of water is 3,160 times faster than that of carbon. These figures show that the hydrogen from water is a superior energy carrier, compared to the carbon. The environmental impact factor was defined as the ratio of annual quantity of materials produced by energy consumption of mankind to a natural movement on earth. The influence of human activities on the global environment can be evaluated quantitatively by this environmental impact factor. The environmental impact factor of water on the earth, 0.0001, is more than two orders of magnitude less than that of carbon, 0.036. This means the hydrogen/water cycle is superior to the carbon cycle as material circulation for energy system of mankind. The energy consumption will increase tremendously in Asian countries due to their population increase and economic growth. We need a clean energy system for the sustainable growth. The hydrogen energy system is the most suitable energy system. In this paper the recent hydrogen energy programs of Japan, China and Korea will be introduced. (authors)

  19. Hydrogen Programs of Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken-ichiro Ota

    2006-01-01

    The global sustainability is a key word of the future energy system for human beings. It should be friendly to the earth and also to human beings. Considering the limit of resources, the materials recycling would be very important. Considering the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy production through any processes would be the final problems for the sustainable growth. We have to think how to dispose the increasing entropy outside earth in the clean energy system. At present, the global carbon cycle is changing by the emission of CO 2 with the large consumption of fossil fuels. The global environment including human society should stand on harmonizing with the earth, where the global recycles of materials are important. Thinking about the global recycles of carbon and water quantitatively, the existence of water is 27,000 times larger than that of carbon. The transportation of water is 3,160 times faster than that of carbon. These figures show that the hydrogen from water is a superior energy carrier, compared to the carbon. The environmental impact factor was defined as the ratio of annual quantity of materials produced by energy consumption of mankind to a natural movement on earth. The influence of human activities on the global environment can be evaluated quantitatively by this environmental impact factor. The environmental impact factor of water on the earth, 0.0001, is more than two orders of magnitude less than that of carbon, 0.036. This means the hydrogen/water cycle is superior to the carbon cycle as material circulation for energy system of mankind. The energy consumption will increase tremendously in Asian countries due to their population increase and economic growth. We need a clean energy system for the sustainable growth. The hydrogen energy system is the most suitable energy system. In this paper the recent hydrogen energy programs of Japan, China and Korea will be introduced. (author)

  20. EPRI steam generator programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, L.J.; Passell, T.O.; Bryant, P.E.C.; Rentler, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the current overall EPRI steam generator program plan and some of the ongoing projects. Because of the recent occurrence of a corrosion phenomenon called ''denting,'' which has affected a number of operating utilities, an expanded program plan is being developed which addresses the broad and urgent needs required to achieve improved steam generator reliability. The goal of improved steam generator reliability will require advances in various technologies and also a management philosophy that encourages conscientious efforts to apply the improved technologies to the design, procurement, and operation of plant systems and components that affect the full life reliability of steam generators

  1. Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Węcel, Daniel; Dubiel, Klaudia

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for determining the efficiency of a hydrogen generator taking the power requirements of its auxiliary systems into account. Authors present results of laboratory experiments conducted on a hydrogen generator containing a PEM water electrolyzer for a wide range of device loads. On the basis of measurements, the efficiency characteristics of electrolyzers were determined, including that of an entire hydrogen generator using a monitored power supply for its auxiliary devices. Based on the results of the experimental tests, the authors have proposed generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency. These characteristics were used for analyses of a Power-to-Gas system cooperating with a 40 MW wind farm with a known yearly power distribution. It was assumed that nightly-produced hydrogen is injected into the natural gas transmission system. An algorithm for determining the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a Power-to-Gas installation is proposed. These characteristics were determined as a function of the degree of storage of the energy produced in a Renewable Energy Sources (RES) installation, defined as the ratio of the amount of electricity directed to storage to the annual amount of electricity generated in the RES installation. Depending on the degree of storage, several quantities were determined. - Highlights: • The efficiency characteristics of PEM electrolyzer are determined. • Generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency are proposed. • Method of choice of electrolyser nominal power for Power-to-Gas system was proposed. • Development of Power-to-Gas systems requires implementation of support mechanisms.

  2. Progress of Nuclear Hydrogen Program in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae

    2009-01-01

    To cope with dwindling fossil fuels and climate change, it is clear that a clean alternative energy that can replace fossil fuels is required. Hydrogen is considered a promising future energy solution because it is clean, abundant and storable and has a high energy density. As other advanced countries, the Korean government had established a long-term vision for transition to the hydrogen economy in 2005. One of the major challenges in establishing a hydrogen economy is how to produce massive quantities of hydrogen in a clean, safe and economical way. Among various hydrogen production methods, the massive, safe and economic production of hydrogen by water splitting using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) can provide a success path to the hydrogen economy. Particularly in Korea, where usable land is limited, the nuclear production of hydrogen is deemed a practical solution due to its high energy density. To meet the expected demand for hydrogen, the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) launched a nuclear hydrogen program in 2004 together with Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST). Then, the nuclear hydrogen key technologies development program was launched in 2006, which aims at the development and validation of key and challenging technologies required for the realization of the nuclear hydrogen production demonstration system. In 2008, Korean Atomic Energy Commission officially approved a long-term development plan of the nuclear hydrogen system technologies as in the figure below and now the nuclear hydrogen program became the national agenda. This presentation introduces the current status of nuclear hydrogen projects in Korea and the progress of the nuclear hydrogen key technologies development. Perspectives of nuclear process heat applications are also addressed

  3. NRCan's hydrogen storage R and D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scepanovic, V.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) has been working in partnership with industry, other government departments and academia to expedite the development of hydrogen technologies. NRCan's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell R and D Program covers all aspects of hydrogen technologies: production, storage, utilization and codes and standards. Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of fuel cell power systems in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. NRCan's storage program has been focused on developing storage materials and technologies for a range of applications with the emphasis on transportation. An overview of most recent hydrogen storage projects including pressurized hydrogen, liquid hydrogen and storage in hydrides and carbon-based materials will be given. (author)

  4. Hydrogen generation using the modular helium reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, M.; Shenoy, A.

    2004-01-01

    Process heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor can be used to drive a set of chemical reactions, with the net result of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. For example, process heat at temperatures in the range 850 deg.C to 950 deg.C can drive the sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical process to produce hydrogen with high efficiency. Electricity can also be used to split water, using conventional, low-temperature electrolysis. An example of a hybrid process is high-temperature electrolysis (HTE), in which process heat is used to generate steam, which is then supplied to an electrolyser to generate hydrogen. In this paper we investigate the coupling of the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) to the SI process and HTE. These concepts are referred to as the H2-MHR. Optimization of the MHR core design to produce higher coolant outlet temperatures is also discussed. The use of fixed orifices to control the flow distribution is a promising design solution for increasing the coolant outlet temperature without increasing peak fuel temperatures significantly

  5. 2010 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  6. Hydrogen generation, distribution and combustion under severe LWR accident conditions: a state-of-technology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Hilliard, R.K.

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report include hydrogen generation, distribution in containment, and combustion characteristics. A companion report addresses hydrogen control. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues

  7. Sensitivity analyses on in-vessel hydrogen generation for KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Darl; Park, S.Y.; Park, S.H.; Park, J.H.

    2001-03-01

    Sensitivity analyses for the in-vessel hydrogen generation, using the MELCOR program, are described in this report for the Korean Next Generation Reactor. The typical accident sequences of a station blackout and a large LOCA scenario are selected. A lower head failure model, a Zircaloy oxidation reaction model and a B 4 C reaction model are considered for the sensitivity parameters. As for the base case, 1273.15K for a failure temperature of the penetrations or the lower head, an Urbanic-Heidrich correlation for the Zircaloy oxidation reaction model and the B 4 C reaction model are used. Case 1 used 1650K as the failure temperature for the penetrations and Case 2 considered creep rupture instead of penetration failure. Case 3 used a MATPRO-EG and G correlation for the Zircaloy oxidation reaction model and Case 4 turned off the B 4 C reaction model. The results of the studies are summarized below : (1) When the penetration failure temperature is higher, or the creep rupture failure model is considered, the amount of hydrogen increases for two sequences. (2) When the MATPRO-EG and G correlation for a Zircaloy oxidation reaction is considered, the amount of hydrogen is less than the Urbanic-Heidrich correlation (Base case) for both scenarios. (3) When the B 4 C reaction model turns off, the amount of hydrogen decreases for two sequences

  8. Photocatalysis in Generation of Hydrogen from Water

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-18

    Solar energy can be converted by utilizing the thermal or photoelectric effects of photons. Concentrated solar power systems utilize thermal energy from the sun by either making steam and then generating power or shifting the chemical equilibrium of a reaction (e.g., water splitting or CO2 reduction) that occurs at extremely high temperatures. The photocatalytic system contains powder photocatalysts. Each photocatalyst particle should collect sufficient photons from the solar flux to cause the required multielectron reactions to occur. The band gap and band edge positions of semiconductors are the most critical parameters for assessing the suitability of photocatalysts for overall water splitting. The most important requirement when selecting photocatalyst materials is the band positions relative to hydrogen and oxygen evolution potentials. For most photocatalysts, surface modification by cocatalysts was found to be essential to achieve overall water splitting.

  9. Nanostructured, complex hydride systems for hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Varin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex hydride systems for hydrogen (H2 generation for supplying fuel cells are being reviewed. In the first group, the hydride systems that are capable of generating H2 through a mechanical dehydrogenation phenomenon at the ambient temperature are discussed. There are few quite diverse systems in this group such as lithium alanate (LiAlH4 with the following additives: nanoiron (n-Fe, lithium amide (LiNH2 (a hydride/hydride system and manganese chloride MnCl2 (a hydride/halide system. Another hydride/hydride system consists of lithium amide (LiNH2 and magnesium hydride (MgH2, and finally, there is a LiBH4-FeCl2 (hydride/halide system. These hydride systems are capable of releasing from ~4 to 7 wt.% H2 at the ambient temperature during a reasonably short duration of ball milling. The second group encompasses systems that generate H2 at slightly elevated temperature (up to 100 °C. In this group lithium alanate (LiAlH4 ball milled with the nano-Fe and nano-TiN/TiC/ZrC additives is a prominent system that can relatively quickly generate up to 7 wt.% H2 at 100 °C. The other hydride is manganese borohydride (Mn(BH42 obtained by mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS. In a ball milled (2LiBH4 + MnCl2 nanocomposite, Mn(BH42 co-existing with LiCl can desorb ~4.5 wt.% H2 at 100 °C within a reasonable duration of dehydrogenation. Practical application aspects of hydride systems for H2 generation/storage are also briefly discussed.

  10. WE-NET: Japanese hydrogen program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsugi, Chiba; Harumi, Arai; Kenzo, Fukuda

    1998-01-01

    The Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), started the New Sunshine Program in 1993 by unifying the Sunshine Program (R and D on new energy technology), the Moonlight Program (R and D on energy conservation technology), and the Research and Development Program for Environmental Technology. The objective of the new program is to develop innovative technologies to allow sustainable growth while solving energy and environmental issues. One of the new projects in this program is the ''International Clean Energy System Technology Utilizing Hydrogen (World Energy Network)'': WE-NET. The goal of WE-NET is to construct a worldwide energy network for effective supply, transportation and utilization of renewable energy using hydrogen. The WE-NET program extends over 28 years from 1993 to 2020. In Phase 1, we started core research in areas such as development of high efficiency technologies including hydrogen production using polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysis, hydrogen combustion turbines, etc. (author)

  11. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which

  12. Surface generation of negative hydrogen ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommel, P.J.M. van.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations on negative hydrogen ion sources at the ampere level. Formation of H - ions occurs when positive hydrogen ions capture two electrons at metal surfaces. The negative ionization probability of hydrogen at metal surfaces increases strongly with decreasing work function of the surface. The converters used in this study are covered with cesium. Usually there are 'surface plasma sources' in which the hydrogen source plasma interacts with a converter. In this thesis the author concentrates upon investigating a new concept that has converters outside the plasma. In this approach a positive hydrogen ion beam is extracted from the plasma and is subsequently reflected from a low work function converter surface. (Auth.)

  13. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-23

    The 2015 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2015 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; and market transformation.

  14. 2016 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-09

    The 2016 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2016 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; market transformation; and Small Business Innovation Research projects.

  15. Embedded system based on PWM control of hydrogen generator with SEPIC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Cheikh; Setiawan, Eko; Habibi, Muhammad Afnan; Hodaka, Ichijo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to design and to produce a micro electrical plant system based on fuel cell for teaching material-embedded systems in technical vocational training center. Based on this, the student can experience generating hydrogen by fuel cells, controlling the rate of hydrogen generation by the duty ration of single-ended primary-inductor converter(SEPIC), drawing the curve rate of hydrogen to duty ratio, generating electrical power by using hydrogen, and calculating the fuel cell efficiency when it is used as electrical energy generator. This project is of great importance insofar as students will need to acquire several skills to be able to realize it such as continuous DC DC conversion and the scientific concept behind the converter, the regulation of systems with integral proportional controllers, the installation of photovoltaic cells, the use of high-tech sensors, microcontroller programming, object-oriented programming, mastery of the fuel cell syste

  16. Liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage: catalytic hydrogen generation under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Long; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Yan, Jun-Min; Zhang, Xin-Bo; Xu, Qiang

    2010-05-25

    There is a demand for a sufficient and sustainable energy supply. Hence, the search for applicable hydrogen storage materials is extremely important owing to the diversified merits of hydrogen energy. Lithium and sodium borohydride, ammonia borane, hydrazine, and formic acid have been extensively investigated as promising hydrogen storage materials based on their relatively high hydrogen content. Significant advances, such as hydrogen generation temperatures and reaction kinetics, have been made in the catalytic hydrolysis of aqueous lithium and sodium borohydride and ammonia borane as well as in the catalytic decomposition of hydrous hydrazine and formic acid. In this Minireview we briefly survey the research progresses in catalytic hydrogen generation from these liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage materials.

  17. Generating Consistent Program Tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a tool that supports construction of program tutorials. A program tutorial provides the reader with an understanding of an example program by interleaving fragments of source code and explaining text. An example program can for example illustrate how to use a library or a......, and we see potential in using the tool to produce program tutorials to be used for frameworks, libraries, and in educational contexts.......In this paper we present a tool that supports construction of program tutorials. A program tutorial provides the reader with an understanding of an example program by interleaving fragments of source code and explaining text. An example program can for example illustrate how to use a library...... or a framework. We present a means for specifying the fragments of a program that are to be in-lined in the tutorial text. These in-line fragments are defined by addressing named syntactical elements, such as classes and methods, but it is also possible to address individual code lines by labeling them...

  18. Alternative transportation fuels in the USA: government hydrogen vehicle programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The linkage between natural gas-based transportation and hydrogen-based transportation strategies, two clean burning gaseous fuels, provides a strong policy rationale for increased government sponsorship of hydrogen vehicle research and demonstration programs. Existing federal and state government hydrogen vehicle projects are discussed in this paper: research at the NREL, alternate-fueled buses, Renewable Hydrogen for the State of Hawaii program, New York state alternative transportation fuels program, Colorado program. 9 refs

  19. Hydrogen Generation from Sugars via Aqueous-Phase Reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randy D Cortright

    2006-01-01

    Virent Energy Systems, Inc. is commercializing the Aqueous Phase Reforming (APR) process that allows the generation of hydrogen-rich gas streams from biomass-derived compounds such as glycerol, sugars, and sugar alcohols. The APR process is a unique method that generates hydrogen from aqueous solutions of these oxygenated compounds in a single step reactor process compared to the three or more reaction steps required for hydrogen generation via conventional processes that utilize non-renewable fossil fuels. The key breakthrough of the APR process is that the reforming of these aqueous solutions is done in the liquid phase. The patented APR process occurs at temperatures (150 C to 270 C) where the water-gas shift reaction is favorable, making it possible to generate hydrogen with low amounts of CO in a single chemical reactor. Furthermore, the APR process occurs at pressures (typically 15 to 50 bar) where the hydrogen-rich effluent can be effectively purified using either membrane technology or pressure swing adsorption technology. The utilization of biomass-based compounds allows the APR process to be a carbon neutral method to generate hydrogen. In the near term, the feed-stock of interest is waste glycerol that is being generated in large quantities as a byproduct in the production of bio-diesel. Virent has developed the APR system for on-demand generation of hydrogen-rich fuel gas from either glycerol or sorbitol (the sugar alcohol formed by hydrogenation of glucose) to fuel a stationary internal combustion engine driven generator (10 kW). Under a USDOE funded project, Virent is currently developing the APR process to generate high yields of hydrogen from corn-derived glucose. This project objective is to achieve the DOE 2010 cost target for distributed production from renewable liquid fuels of 3.60 dollars/gge (gasoline gallon equivalent) delivered. (authors)

  20. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan outlines the strategy, activities, and plans of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, which includes hydrogen and fuel cell activities within the EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program and the DOE offices of Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Science.

  1. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Analysis: Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott E. Grasman; John W. Sheffield; Fatih Dogan; Sunggyu Lee; Umit O. Koylu; Angie Rolufs

    2010-04-30

    This study considered opportunities for hydrogen in stationary applications in order to make recommendations related to RD&D strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international stationary power efforts, as well as cost and environmental modeling of pathways. The study analyzed the different strategies utilized in power generation systems and identified the different challenges and opportunities for producing and using hydrogen as an energy carrier. Specific objectives included both a synopsis/critical analysis of lessons learned from previous stationary power programs and recommendations for a strategy for hydrogen infrastructure deployment. This strategy incorporates all hydrogen pathways and a combination of distributed power generating stations, and provides an overview of stationary power markets, benefits of hydrogen-based stationary power systems, and competitive and technological challenges. The motivation for this project was to identify the lessons learned from prior stationary power programs, including the most significant obstacles, how these obstacles have been approached, outcomes of the programs, and how this information can be used by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program to meet program objectives primarily related to hydrogen pathway technologies (production, storage, and delivery) and implementation of fuel cell technologies for distributed stationary power. In addition, the lessons learned address environmental and safety concerns, including codes and standards, and education of key stakeholders.

  2. HOGEN{trademark} proton exchange membrane hydrogen generators: Commercialization of PEM electrolyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.F.; Molter, T.M. [Proton Energy Systems, Inc., Rocky Hill, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    PROTON Energy Systems` new HOGEN series hydrogen generators are Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) based water electrolyzers designed to generate 300 to 1000 Standard Cubic Feet Per Hour (SCFH) of high purity hydrogen at pressures up to 400 psi without the use of mechanical compressors. This paper will describe technology evolution leading to the HOGEN, identify system design performance parameters and describe the physical packaging and interfaces of HOGEN systems. PEM electrolyzers have served US and UK Navy and NASA needs for many years in a variety of diverse programs including oxygen generators for life support applications. In the late 1970`s these systems were advocated for bulk hydrogen generation through a series of DOE sponsored program activities. During the military buildup of the 1980`s commercial deployment of PEM hydrogen generators was de-emphasized as priority was given to new Navy and NASA PEM electrolysis systems. PROTON Energy Systems was founded in 1996 with the primary corporate mission of commercializing PEM hydrogen generators. These systems are specifically designed and priced to meet the needs of commercial markets and produced through manufacturing processes tailored to these applications. The HOGEN series generators are the first step along the path to full commercial deployment of PEM electrolyzer products for both industrial and consumer uses. The 300/1000 series are sized to meet the needs of the industrial gases market today and provide a design base that can transition to serve the needs of a decentralized hydrogen infrastructure tomorrow.

  3. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  4. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  5. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  6. A self-regulating hydrogen generator for micro fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Pengwang, Eakkachai; Shannon, Mark A. [Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Masel, Richard I. [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 213 Roger Adams Lab, 600 S. Mathews, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The ever-increasing power demands and miniaturization of portable electronics, micro-sensors and actuators, and emerging technologies such as cognitive arthropods have created a significant interest in development of micro fuel cells. One of the major challenges in development of hydrogen micro fuel cells is the fabrication and integration of auxiliary systems for generating, regulating, and delivering hydrogen gas to the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). In this paper, we report the development of a hydrogen gas generator with a micro-scale control system that does not consume any power. The hydrogen generator consists of a hydride reactor and a water reservoir, with a regulating valve separating them. The regulating valve consists of a port from the water reservoir and a movable membrane with via holes that permit water to flow from the reservoir to the hydride reactor. Water flows towards the hydride reactor, but stops within the membrane via holes due to capillary forces. Water vapor then diffuses from the via holes into the hydride reactor resulting in generation of hydrogen gas. When the rate of hydrogen consumed by the MEA is lower than the generation rate, gas pressure builds up inside the hydride reactor, deflecting the membrane, closing the water regulator valve, until the pressure drops, whereby the valve reopens. We have integrated the self-regulating micro hydrogen generator to a MEA and successfully conducted fuel cell tests under varying load conditions. (author)

  7. Hydrogen research and development in Hawaii: Hawaii natural energy institute's hydrogen from renewable resources research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.R.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Takahashi, P.K.; Jensen, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Hawaii, an energy-vulnerable state, has launched a Renewable Resources Research Program, focusing on hydrogen production and storage; the main tasks of this effort are: photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen through the use of coated silicon electrodes; solar conversion and the production of hydrogen with cyanobacteria; improved hydrogen storage through the use of nonclassical poly-hydride metal complexes. 10 refs

  8. Thermochemical hydrogen generation of indium oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyung Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of alternative energy resources is an urgent requirement to alleviate current energy constraints. As such, hydrogen gas is gaining attention as a future alternative energy source to address existing issues related to limited energy resources and air pollution. In this study, hydrogen generation by a thermochemical water-splitting process using two types of In2O3 thin films was investigated. The two In2O3 thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD and sputtering deposition systems contained different numbers of oxygen vacancies, which were directly related to hydrogen generation. The as-grown In2O3 thin film prepared by CVD generated a large amount of hydrogen because of its abundant oxygen vacancies, while that prepared by sputtering had few oxygen vacancies, resulting in low hydrogen generation. Increasing the temperature of the In2O3 thin film in the reaction chamber caused an increase in hydrogen generation. The oxygen-vacancy-rich In2O3 thin film is expected to provide a highly effective production of hydrogen as a sustainable and efficient energy source.

  9. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  10. Hydrogen generator from light hydrocarbons for stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, F.; Recupero, Vincenzo; Pino, L.; Vita, A.; Lagana, M.

    2006-01-01

    The present article describes the activities carried out in the CNR institute, particularly the development, realization and testing of one unit of hydrogen generation to integrate with fuel-cells for residential applications [it

  11. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur

    2010-12-14

    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.

  12. Broad Spectrum Photoelectrochemical Diodes for Solar Hydrogen Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Craig A.

    2014-11-26

    Under program auspices we have investigated material chemistries suitable for the solar generation of hydrogen by water photoelectrolysis. We have built upon, and extended, our knowledge base on the synthesis and application of TiO2 nanotube arrays, a material architecture that appears ideal for water photoelectrolysis. To date we have optimized, refined, and greatly extended synthesis techniques suitable for achieving highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays of given length, wall thickness, pore diameter, and tube-to-tube spacing for use in water photoelectrolysis. We have built upon this knowledge based to achieve visible light responsive, photocorrosion stable n-type and p-type ternary oxide nanotube arrays for use in photoelectrochemical diodes.

  13. Hydrolysis Batteries: Generating Electrical Energy during Hydrogen Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Chen, Jun; Fu, Kai; Zheng, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2018-02-19

    The hydrolysis reaction of aluminum can be decoupled into a battery by pairing an Al foil with a Pd-capped yttrium dihydride (YH 2 -Pd) electrode. This hydrolysis battery generates a voltage around 0.45 V and leads to hydrogen absorption into the YH 2 layer. This represents a new hydrogen absorption mechanism featuring electrical energy generation during hydrogen absorption. The hydrolysis battery converts 8-15 % of the thermal energy of the hydrolysis reaction into usable electrical energy, leading to much higher energy efficiency compared to that of direct hydrolysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Steam generator tube integrity program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given

  15. 2009 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen Program, November 2009 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes the hydrogen and fuel cell R&D activities and accomplishments of the DOE Hydrogen Program for FY2009. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  16. 2013 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2013 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  17. 2014 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2014 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  18. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, Sunita [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2011 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  19. Higher-Order Program Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    for OCaml, a dialect of ML, that provides run-time code generation for OCaml programs. We apply these byte-code combinators in semantics-directed compilation for an imperative language and in run-time specialization using type-directed partial evaluation. Finally, we present an approach to compiling goal......This dissertation addresses the challenges of embedding programming languages, specializing generic programs to specific parameters, and generating specialized instances of programs directly as executable code. Our main tools are higher-order programming techniques and automatic program generation....... It is our thesis that they synergize well in the development of customizable software. Recent research on domain-specific languages propose to embed them into existing general-purpose languages. Typed higher-order languages have proven especially useful as meta languages because they provide a rich...

  20. Analysis of Hydrogen Generation and Accumulation in U-233 Tube Vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ally, M.R.; Willis, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the 233 U Safe Storage Program is to enhance the safe storage of 233 U-bearing materials. This report describes the work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radiochemical Development Facility (RDF) to address questions related to possible hydrogen generation and accumulation in 233 U tube vaults. The objective of this effort was to verify assumptions in the mathematical model used to estimate the hydrogen content of the gaseous atmosphere that possibly could occur inside the tube vaults in Building 3019 and to evaluate proposed measures for mitigating any hydrogen concerns. A mathematical model was developed using conservative assumptions to evaluate possible hydrogen generation and accumulation in the tube vaults. The model concluded that an equilibrium concentration would be established below the lower flammability limit (LFL) of 4.1% hydrogen. The major assumptions used in the model that were validated are as follows: (1) The shield plug does not form a seal with the tube vault wall, thus allowing the hydrogen gas to diffuse past the shield plug to the upper section of the tube vault. (2) The tube vault end-cap leaks sufficiently to allow air to be drawn into the tube vault by the off-gas system, thereby purging hydrogen from the upper section of the tube vault. (3) Any hydrogen gas generated completely mixes with the other gases present in the lower section of the tube vault and does not stratify beneath the shield plug. (4) The diffusion coefficient determined from the literature for constant diffusion of hydrogen in air is valid. The coefficient is corrected for temperatures from 0 to 25 C. Another assumption used in the model, that hydrogen generated by radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen-bearing materials (e.g., moisture and plastic) leaks from the cans under steady-state condition, as opposed to a sudden release resulting from rupture of the can(s), was beyond the scope of this investigation. Several parameters from the original

  1. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luigi Bonadio

    2006-01-01

    The next generation of engineers and scientists will face great technical, economic and political challenges to satisfy increasing demands for a secure, reliable and affordable global energy system that maintains and enhances current standards of living. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program aims to bolster the quality and relevance of primary and secondary school teaching in emerging areas of science, technology and environmental/sustainability studies using hydrogen, in its capacity as a versatile energy carrier, as the educational basis for teacher and student learning. Critical advances in specific areas of hydrogen production, distribution, storage and end-use technologies arise when students are engaged to develop and apply a broad range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge and practical skills. A comprehensive hydrogen and fuel cell technology teaching module will be developed to complement existing fuels and energy curricula across Australian schools. The pilot program will be delivered via the collaboration of nine trial schools, a broad range of technical and pedagogy experts and representatives of professional bodies and industry. The program features essential and extensive teacher consultation, a professional learning and development course, industry site visits and a dedicated research and evaluation study. This initiative aims to bolster teacher literacy and student participation in the design, construction and operation of various hydrogen and fuel cell devices and extended activities. Students will reflect on and formally present their learning experiences via several dedicated fora including an awards ceremony where outstanding performance of leading schools, teachers and student groups within the cluster will be acknowledged. (authors)

  2. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luigi Bonadio [Senior Consultant Luigi Bonadio and Associates (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    The next generation of engineers and scientists will face great technical, economic and political challenges to satisfy increasing demands for a secure, reliable and affordable global energy system that maintains and enhances current standards of living. The Australian Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Education Program aims to bolster the quality and relevance of primary and secondary school teaching in emerging areas of science, technology and environmental/sustainability studies using hydrogen, in its capacity as a versatile energy carrier, as the educational basis for teacher and student learning. Critical advances in specific areas of hydrogen production, distribution, storage and end-use technologies arise when students are engaged to develop and apply a broad range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge and practical skills. A comprehensive hydrogen and fuel cell technology teaching module will be developed to complement existing fuels and energy curricula across Australian schools. The pilot program will be delivered via the collaboration of nine trial schools, a broad range of technical and pedagogy experts and representatives of professional bodies and industry. The program features essential and extensive teacher consultation, a professional learning and development course, industry site visits and a dedicated research and evaluation study. This initiative aims to bolster teacher literacy and student participation in the design, construction and operation of various hydrogen and fuel cell devices and extended activities. Students will reflect on and formally present their learning experiences via several dedicated fora including an awards ceremony where outstanding performance of leading schools, teachers and student groups within the cluster will be acknowledged. (authors)

  3. Algorithm for programming function generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, E.

    1981-01-01

    The present paper deals with a mathematical problem, encountered when driving a fully programmable μ-processor controlled function generator. An algorithm is presented to approximate a desired function by a set of straight segments in such a way that additional restrictions (hardware imposed) are also satisfied. A computer program which incorporates this algorithm and automatically generates the necessary input for the function generator for a broad class of desired functions is also described

  4. Hydrogen generation at ambient conditions: application in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddien, Albert; Loges, Björn; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The efficient generation of hydrogen from formic acid/amine adducts at ambient temperature is demonstrated. The highest catalytic activity (TOF up to 3630 h(-1) after 20 min) was observed in the presence of in situ generated ruthenium phosphine catalysts. Compared to the previously known methods to generate hydrogen from liquid feedstocks, the systems presented here can be operated at room temperature without the need for any high-temperature reforming processes, and the hydrogen produced can then be directly used in fuel cells. A variety of Ru precursors and phosphine ligands were investigated for the decomposition of formic acid/amine adducts. These catalytic systems are particularly interesting for the generation of H2 for new applications in portable electric devices.

  5. Molecular cobalt pentapyridine catalysts for generating hydrogen from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J; Sun, Yujie

    2013-11-05

    A composition of matter suitable for the generation of hydrogen from water is described, the positively charged cation of the composition including the moiety of the general formula. [(PY5Me.sub.2)CoL].sup.2+, where L can be H.sub.2O, OH.sup.-, a halide, alcohol, ether, amine, and the like. In embodiments of the invention, water, such as tap water or sea water can be subject to low electric potentials, with the result being, among other things, the generation of hydrogen.

  6. Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2007-05-31

    We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

  7. FY 2005 Annual Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-10-01

    In cooperation with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies, the Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program is advancing the state of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in support of the President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The initiative seeks to develop hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies needed to make it practical and cost-effective for Americans to choose to use fuel cell vehicles by 2020. Significant progress was made in fiscal year 2005 toward that goal.

  8. Research program plan: steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscara, J.; Serpan, C.Z. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    This document presents a plan for research in Steam Generators to be performed by the Materials Engineering Branch, MEBR, Division of Engineering Technology, (EDET), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. It is one of four plans describing the ongoing research in the corresponding areas of MEBR activity. In order to answer the questions posed, the Steam Generator Program has been organized with the three elements of non-destructive examination; mechanical integrity testing; and corrosion, cleaning and decontamination

  9. Hydrogen Generation, Combustibility and Mitigation in Nuclear Power Plant Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talha, K.A.; El-Sheikh, B.M.; Gad El-Mawla, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear power plant is provided with features to insure safety. The engineered safety features (ESFs) are devoted to set operating conditions under accident conditions. If ESFs fail to apply in some accidents, this would lead to what called severe accidents, and core damage. In this case hydrogen will be generated from different sources particularly from metal-water reactions. Since the containment is the final barrier to protect the environment from the release of radioactive materials; its integrity should not be threatened. In recent years, hydrogen concentration represents a real problem if it exceeds the combustibility limits. This work is devoted to calculate the amount of hydrogen to be generated, indelicate its combustibility and how to inertize the containment using different gases to maintain its integrity and protect the environment from the release of radioactive materials

  10. Correlation energy generating potentials for molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.S.; Thakkar, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of local correlation energy functionals are currently in use. All of them depend, to some extent, on modeling the correlation energy of a homogeneous electron fluid. Since atomic and molecular charge densities are neither uniform nor slowly varying, it is important to attempt to use known high accuracy wave functions to learn about correlation energy functionals appropriate to such systems. We have extended the definition of the correlation energy generating potentials V/sub c/ introduced by Ros. A charge density response to correlation has been allowed for by inclusion of an electron--nuclear component V/sup e/n/sub c/ in addition to the electron--electron component V/sup e/e/sub c/. Two different definitions of V/sup e/n/sub c/ are given. We present the first calculations of V/sub c/ for a molecular system: H 2 . The results show that V/sup e/n/sub c/, in either definition, is by no means negligible. Moreover, V/sup e/e/sub c/ and both forms of V/sup e/n/sub c/ show significant nonlocal dependence on the charge density. Calculations with ten different model correlation energy functionals show that none of them is particularly sensitive to the charge density. However, they are quite sensitive to the parametrization of the electron fluid correlation energy. The schemes which include self-interaction corrections (SIC) are found to be superior to those of Kohn--Sham type. The correlation energy generating potentials implied by the SIC type and empirical correlation energy functionals are found to correspond roughly to averages of one of the accurate potentials

  11. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarna, S.

    1991-07-01

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  12. Micro hydrogen for portable power : generating opportunities for hydrogen and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A new fuel cell technology for portable applications was reviewed. Success for the fuel cell industry will be achieved primarily by supplanting lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cells for portable applications have clear advantages to batteries in addition to their known environmental benefits. Micro hydrogen {sup TM} is the integrated combination of hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen storage and delivery, fluidic interconnects and power conditioning electronics required for creating high energy density portable power sources. The small size, low heat production, environmental sustainability and refueling flexibility of the systems provides enormous economic opportunities for the use of micro hydrogen in cell phone technology, personal digital assistants and other electronic gadgets. Details of a trial to test and evaluate micro hydrogen fuel cell powered bike lights were presented. Further programs are planned for external demonstrations of high-beam search and rescue lighting, flashlights for security personnel and portable hydrogen power sources that will be used by multiple organizations throughout British Columbia. It was concluded that fuel cell technology must match the lithium-ion battery's performance by providing fast recharge, high energy density, and adaptability. Issues concerning refueling and portable and disposable cartridges for micro hydrogen systems were also discussed. 8 figs.

  13. Hydrogen generation from biogenic and fossil fuels by autothermal reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, Thomas; Heinzel, Angelika; Vogel, Bernhard

    Hydrogen generation for fuel cell systems by reforming technologies from various fuels is one of the main fields of investigation of the Fraunhofer ISE. Suitable fuels are, on the one hand, gaseous hydrocarbons like methane, propane but also, on the other hand, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline and alcohols, e.g., ethanol as biogenic fuel. The goal is to develop compact systems for generation of hydrogen from fuel being suitable for small-scale membrane fuel cells. The most recent work is related to reforming according to the autothermal principle — fuel, air and steam is supplied to the reactor. Possible applications of such small-scale autothermal reformers are mobile systems and also miniature fuel cell as co-generation plant for decentralised electricity and heat generation. For small stand-alone systems without a connection to the natural gas grid liquid gas, a mixture of propane and butane is an appropriate fuel.

  14. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in fuel cell by Enterobacter aerogenes ADH 43 with many kinds of carbon sources in batch stirred tank reactor. MA Rachman, LD Eniya, Y Liasari, MM Nasef, A Ahmad, H Saidi ...

  15. Extreme hydrogen plasma densities achieved in a linear plasma generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, van G.J.; Veremiyenko, V.P.; Goedheer, W.J.; Groot, de B.; Kleyn, A.W.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Versloot, T.W.; Whyte, D.G.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    A magnetized hydrogen plasma beam was generated with a cascaded arc, expanding in a vacuum vessel at an axial magnetic field of up to 1.6 T. Its characteristics were measured at a distance of 4 cm from the nozzle: up to a 2 cm beam diameter, 7.5×1020 m-3 electron density, ~2 eV electron and ion

  16. Method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Carter, John David; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-03-30

    A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

  17. CHALLENGES IN GENERATING HYDROGEN BY HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS USING SOLID OXIDE CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. S. Sohal; J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; M. G. McKellar; J. S. Herring; E. A. Harvego

    2008-03-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) high temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells is presented in this paper. The research results reported here have been obtained in a laboratory-scale apparatus. These results and common scale-up issues also indicate that for the technology to be successful in a large industrial setting, several technical, economical, and manufacturing issues have to be resolved. Some of the issues related to solid oxide cells are stack design and performance optimization, identification and evaluation of cell performance degradation parameters and processes, integrity and reliability of the solid oxide electrolysis (SOEC) stacks, life-time prediction and extension of the SOEC stack, and cost reduction and economic manufacturing of the SOEC stacks. Besides the solid oxide cells, balance of the hydrogen generating plant also needs significant development. These issues are process and ohmic heat source needed for maintaining the reaction temperature (~830°C), high temperature heat exchangers and recuperators, equal distribution of the reactants into each cell, system analysis of hydrogen and associated energy generating plant, and cost optimization. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return of 10%. These issues need interdisciplinary research effort of federal laboratories, solid oxide cell manufacturers, hydrogen consumers, and other such stakeholders. This paper discusses research and development accomplished by INL on such issues and highlights associated challenges that need to

  18. Dealloyed Ruthenium Film Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Chemical Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis B. Serin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin-film ruthenium (Ru and copper (Cu binary alloys have been prepared on a Teflon™ backing layer by cosputtering of the precious and nonprecious metals, respectively. Alloys were then selectively dealloyed by sulfuric acid as an etchant, and their hydrogen generation catalysts performances were evaluated. Sputtering time and power of Cu atoms have been varied in order to tailor the hydrogen generation performances. Similarly, dealloying time and the sulfuric acid concentration have also been altered to tune the morphologies of the resulted films. A maximum hydrogen generation rate of 35 mL min−1 was achieved when Cu sputtering power and time were 200 W and 60 min and while acid concentration and dealloying time were 18 M and 90 min, respectively. It has also been demonstrated that the Ru content in the alloy after dealloying gradually increased with the increasing the sputtering power of Cu. After 90 min dealloying, the Ru to Cu ratio increased to about 190 times that of bare alloy. This is the key issue for observing higher catalytic activity. Interestingly, we have also presented template-free nanoforest-like structure formation within the context of one-step alloying and dealloying used in this study. Last but not least, the long-time hydrogen generation performances of the catalysts system have also been evaluated along 3600 min. During the first 600 min, the catalytic activity was quite stable, while about 24% of the catalytic activity decayed after 3000 min, which still makes these systems available for the development of robust catalyst systems in the area of hydrogen generation.

  19. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  20. Generating para-water from para-hydrogen: A Gedankenexperiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Konstantin L; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2018-07-01

    A novel conceptual approach is described that is based on the transfer of hyperpolarization from para-hydrogen in view of generating a population imbalance between the two spin isomers of H 2 O. The approach is analogous to SABRE (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange) and makes use of the transfer of spin order from para-hydrogen to H 2 O in a hypothetical organometallic complex. The spin order transfer is expected to be most efficient at avoided level crossings. The highest achievable enrichment levels of para- and ortho-water are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wind energy-hydrogen storage hybrid power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenjei Yang; Orhan Aydin [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    2001-07-01

    In this theoretical investigation, a hybrid power generation system utilizing wind energy and hydrogen storage is presented. Firstly, the available wind energy is determined, which is followed by evaluating the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system. A revised model of windmill is proposed from which wind power density and electric power output are determined. When the load demand is less than the output of the generation, the excess electric power is relayed to the electrolytic cell where it is used to electrolyse the de-ionized water. Hydrogen thus produced can be stored as hydrogen compressed gas or liquid. Once the hydrogen is stored in an appropriate high-pressure vessel, it can be used in a combustion engine, fuel cell, or burned in a water-cooled burner to produce a very high-quality steam for space heating, or to drive a turbine to generate electric power. It can also be combined with organic materials to produce synthetic fuels. The conclusion is that the system produces no harmful waste and depletes no resources. Note that this system also works well with a solar collector instead of a windmill. (author)

  2. Perspectives for generation companies and the emerging hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, N.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Canadian and global power generation supply is evolving towards inclusion of emerging types of technologies for electricity production. Although much of Canadian electricity supply will continue to be derived from traditional sources in the foreseeable future the band for capital cost competitiveness is narrowing between the once clear-cut technological winners and emerging generation technologies creating opportunity for new technologies to commercialize in the market. OPG has been active in the development and commercialization of stationary high temperature fuel cells for several years. The major activity has been a partnering initiative to engineer and implement Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) demonstration installations. The relationship with SOFC developer Siemens-Westinghouse out of Pittsburgh has allowed OPG to maintain an ongoing involvement in the emerging fuel cell industry, while exploring the broader implications of this technology for the power industry business model. OPG is part of the 'Hydrogen Village Partnership'. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production, storage and delivery techniques as well as applications of hydrogen such as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. OPG maintains an active role in the demonstration of emerging technologies for a number of reasons: 1) advancing commercialization of emerging generation technologies, 2) 'hands-on' participation in the deployment of such technology in order to gather and apply market knowledge 3) Involvement in developing technology as a part of commitment to sustainable development. (author)

  3. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  4. Symbol generators with program control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, V.M.; Tomik, J.

    1974-01-01

    Methods of constructing symbol generators are described which ensure a program variation of symbol shape and setup. The symbols are formed on the basis of a point microraster. A symbol description code contains information on a symbol shape, with one digit corresponding to each microraster element. For a microraster discrete by-pass the description code is transformed into succession of illuminating pulses by means of a shift register

  5. Portable Fuel Cell Battery Charger with Integrated Hydrogen Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossel, Ulf G. [CH-5452 Oberrohrdorf (Switzerland)

    1999-10-01

    A fully self-sufficient portable fuel cell battery charger has been designed, built, operated and is now prepared for commercialisation. The lightweight device is equipped with 24 circular polymer electrolyte cells of an innovative design. Each cell is a complete unit and can be tested prior to stacking. Hydrogen is admitted to the anode chamber from the centre of the cell. Air can reach the cathode by diffusion through a porous metal foam layer placed between cathode and separator plate. Soft seals surround the centre hole of the cells to separate hydrogen from air. Water vapour generated by the electrochemical conversion is released into the atmosphere via the porous metal foam on the cathode. All hydrogen fed to the dead-ended anode chamber is converted to electric power. The device is equipped with a chemical hydrogen generator. The fuel gas is formed by adding small amounts of water to a particular chemical compound which is contained in disposable cartridges. With one such cartridge enough hydrogen can be generated to operate CD-players, radios, recorders or portable computers for some hours, depending on the current drawn by the electronic device. The handy portable battery charger delivers about 10 W at 12 V DC. It is designed to be used in remote areas as autonomous power source for charging batteries used in radios, CD players, cellular telephones, radio transmitters, flash lights or model air planes. The power can also be used directly to provide light, sound or motion. Patents have been filed and partners are sought for commercialisation. (author) 4 figs.

  6. Utilization of Aluminum Waste with Hydrogen and Heat Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryakovskaya, O. A.; Meshkov, E. A.; Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnokov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-10-01

    A concept of energy generation via hydrogen and heat production from aluminum containing wastes is proposed. The hydrogen obtained by oxidation reaction between aluminum waste and aqueous solutions can be supplied to fuel cells and/or infrared heaters for electricity or heat generation in the region of waste recycling. The heat released during the reaction also can be effectively used. The proposed method of aluminum waste recycling may represent a promising and cost-effective solution in cases when waste transportation to recycling plants involves significant financial losses (e.g. remote areas). Experiments with mechanically dispersed aluminum cans demonstrated that the reaction rate in alkaline solution is high enough for practical use of the oxidation process. In theexperiments aluminum oxidation proceeds without any additional aluminum activation.

  7. 2016 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, Sunita [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  8. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  9. 2012 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  10. Overview of U.S. programs for hydrogen from renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses US program for hydrogen from renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources include biomass, wind, solar, hydropower, geothermal and ocean waves. Although nuclear power is not considered renewable, a case can be made that it is, but requires recycling of spent fuel. The paper also discusses hydrogen production, storage and delivery. It discusses fuel cells, safety codes and standards and system analysis

  11. Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee annual report: Summary of DOE hydrogen programs for FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The FY 1988 Summary is the eleventh consecutive yearly report providing an overview of the hydrogen-related programs of the DOE offices represented on the HECC. A historical summary of the hydrogen budgets of these offices is given. The distribution by mission-related program element for FY 1988, and the non-mission-related activities are given. Total DOE funding in FY 1988 for mission-related hydrogen research was $5.2 million; DOE non-mission-related hydrogen research funding totaled $30.0 million. The individual program elements are described in the body of this report, and more specific program information is given in the Technology Summary Forms in Appendix A. 2 tabs

  12. Hydrogen, a bridge between mobility and distributed generation. Some consideration towards the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino Romeri

    2006-01-01

    In this paper were analysed the most recent energy initiatives started by some national and international institution, with particular focus on hydrogen and fuel cell. It were also overviewed the national road-maps towards the hydrogen economy. In 2004, based on the most authoritative available data regarding future FCVs penetration it was observed that, if vehicle power-generation system fuel cell based becomes more sophisticated, the role of the vehicles within the power grid might change. Fuel Cell Vehicle (FVC) could become a new power-generation source, supplying electricity to home and to the grid. Also, it was defined the dimension of this new kind of power generation source in different areas and it was compared with the related power grid installed generation capacity and it was found that this new source could be a multiple of the foreseeable installed capacity in year 2030. In the present work it was revised the analysis with the most recent scenarios and it was found that the results do not change significantly. Unfortunately this kind of analysis is still not considered in the energy debate or in the road-maps towards the hydrogen economy. (author)

  13. Emergency diesel generator reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The need for an emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability program has been established by 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.63, Loss of All Alternating Current Power, which requires that utilities assess their station blackout duration and recovery capability. EDGs are the principal emergency ac power sources for coping with a station blackout. Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout, identifies a need for (1) an EDG reliability equal to or greater than 0.95, and (2) an EDG reliability program to monitor and maintain the required levels. The resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI) B-56 embodies the identification of a suitable EDG reliability program structure, revision of pertinent regulatory guides and Tech Specs, and development of an Inspection Module. Resolution of B-56 is coupled to the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44, Station Blackout, which resulted in the station blackout rule, 10 CFR 50.63 and Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout. This paper discusses the principal elements of an EDG reliability program developed for resolving GSI B-56 and related matters

  14. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from

  15. Hydrogen fuelled buses: Italian ENEA research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.

    1993-01-01

    Current hydrogen automotive fuels research studies being conducted by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) are being targeted towards the development of hydrogen fueled vans and buses for use in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicles' air pollution abatement characteristics would justify their high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. The demonstration vehicle being used in the experimental studies and performance tests is a two liter minibus with a spark ignition engine power rated at 55 kW with gasoline operation and 45 kW with hydrogen. Detailed design notes are given regarding the retrofitting of the minibus chassis to house the aluminium gas storage tanks and the adaptation of the engine to operate with compressed hydrogen. Attention is given to efforts being made to resolve combustion control and fueling problems. Focus is on the progress being made in the development of an efficient and safe electronically controlled fuel injection system

  16. Research opportunities in photochemical sciences for the DOE Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padro, C.E.G. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    For several decades, interest in hydrogen has ebbed and flowed. With the OPEC oil embargo of the 1970`s and the promise of inexpensive nuclear power, hydrogen research focused on fuel applications. The economics and the realities of nuclear power shifted the emphasis to hydrogen as an energy carrier. Environmental benefits took center stage as scientists and politicians agreed on the potential threat of carbon dioxide emissions to global climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Utility Technologies manages the National Hydrogen Program. In this role, the DOE provides national leadership and acts as a catalyst through partnerships with industry. These partnerships are needed to assist in the transition of sustainable hydrogen systems from a government-supported research and development phase to commercial successes in the marketplace. The outcome of the Program is expected to be the orderly phase-out of fossil fuels as a result of market-driven technology advances, with a least-cost, environmentally benign energy delivery system. The program seeks to maintain its balance of high-risk, long-term research in renewable based technologies that address the environmental benefits, with nearer-term, fossil based technologies that address infrastructure and market issues. National laboratories, universities, and industry are encouraged to participate, cooperate, and collaborate in the program. The U.S. Hydrogen Program is poised to overcome the technical and economic challenges that currently limit the impact of hydrogen on our energy picture, through cooperative research, development, and demonstrations.

  17. NOBLE METAL CHEMISTRY AND HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D

    2008-06-25

    Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell vessels were performed with the primary purpose of producing melter feeds for the beaded frit program plus obtaining samples of simulated slurries containing high concentrations of noble metals for off-site analytical studies for the hydrogen program. Eight pairs of 22-L simulations were performed of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. These sixteen simulations did not contain mercury. Six pairs were trimmed with a single noble metal (Ag, Pd, Rh, or Ru). One pair had all four noble metals, and one pair had no noble metals. One supporting 4-L simulation was completed with Ru and Hg. Several other 4-L supporting tests with mercury have not yet been performed. This report covers the calculations performed on SRNL analytical and process data related to the noble metals and hydrogen generation. It was originally envisioned as a supporting document for the off-site analytical studies. Significant new findings were made, and many previous hypotheses and findings were given additional support as summarized below. The timing of hydrogen generation events was reproduced very well within each of the eight pairs of runs, e.g. the onset of hydrogen, peak in hydrogen, etc. occurred at nearly identical times. Peak generation rates and total SRAT masses of CO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen were reproduced well. Comparable measures for hydrogen were reproduced with more variability, but still reasonably well. The extent of the reproducibility of the results validates the conclusions that were drawn from the data.

  18. Molecular metal-Oxo catalysts for generating hydrogen from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2015-02-24

    A composition of matter suitable for the generation of hydrogen from water is described, the positively charged cation of the composition having the general formula [(PY5W.sub.2)MO].sup.2+, wherein PY5W.sub.2 is (NC.sub.5XYZ)(NC.sub.5H.sub.4).sub.4C.sub.2W.sub.2, M is a transition metal, and W, X, Y, and Z can be H, R, a halide, CF.sub.3, or SiR.sub.3, where R can be an alkyl or aryl group. The two accompanying counter anions, in one embodiment, can be selected from the following Cl.sup.-, I.sup.-, PF.sub.6.sup.-, and CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-. In embodiments of the invention, water, such as tap water containing electrolyte or straight sea water can be subject to an electric potential of between 1.0 V and 1.4 V relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, which at pH 7 corresponds to an overpotential of 0.6 to 1.0 V, with the result being, among other things, the generation of hydrogen with an optimal turnover frequency of ca. 1.5 million mol H.sub.2/mol catalyst per h.

  19. One Step Hydrogen Generation Through Sorption Enhanced Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Jeff [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2017-08-03

    One-step hydrogen generation, using Sorption Enhanced Reforming (SER) technology, is an innovative means of providing critical energy and environmental improvements to US manufacturing processes. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a Compact Hydrogen Generator (CHG) process, based on SER technology, which successfully integrates previously independent process steps, achieves superior energy efficiency by lowering reaction temperatures, and provides pathways to doubling energy productivity with less environmental pollution. GTI’s prior CHG process development efforts have culminated in an operational pilot plant. During the initial pilot testing, GTI identified two operating risks- 1) catalyst coating with calcium aluminate compounds, 2) limited solids handling of the sorbent. Under this contract GTI evaluated alternative materials (one catalyst and two sorbents) to mitigate both risks. The alternate catalyst met performance targets and did not experience coating with calcium aluminate compounds of any kind. The alternate sorbent materials demonstrated viable operation, with one material enabling a three-fold increase in sorbent flow. The testing also demonstrated operation at 90% of its rated capacity. Lastly, a carbon dioxide co-production study was performed to assess the advantage of the solid phase separation of carbon dioxide- inherent in the CHG process. Approximately 70% lower capital cost is achievable compared to SMR-based hydrogen production with CO2 capture, as well as improved operating costs.

  20. Atomistic Modelling of Materials for Clean Energy Applications : hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a number of clean-energy materials for hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery energy storage applications have been investigated through state-of-the-art density functional theory. As an alternative fuel, hydrogen has been regarded as one of the promising clean energies with the advantage of abundance (generated through water splitting) and pollution-free emission if used in fuel cell systems. However, some key problems such as finding efficient ways to prod...

  1. Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Hydrogenation Reactions on Platinum Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krier, James M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-08-31

    Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is used to characterize intermediate species of hydrogenation reactions on the surface of platinum nanoparticle catalysts. In contrast to other spectroscopy techniques which operate in ultra-high vacuum or probe surface species after reaction, SFG collects information under normal conditions as the reaction is taking place. Several systems have been studied previously using SFG on single crystals, notably alkene hydrogenation on Pt(111). In this thesis, many aspects of SFG experiments on colloidal nanoparticles are explored for the first time. To address spectral interference by the capping agent (PVP), three procedures are proposed: UV cleaning, H2 induced disordering and calcination (core-shell nanoparticles). UV cleaning and calcination physically destroy organic capping while disordering reduces SFG signal through a reversible structural change by PVP.

  2. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  3. CO2-based hydrogen storage - Hydrogen generation from formaldehyde/water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincado, Monica; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Prechtl, Martin H. G.

    2018-04-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is the simplest and most significant industrially produced aldehyde. The global demand is about 30 megatons annually. Industrially it is produced by oxidation of methanol under energy intensive conditions. More recently, new fields of application for the use of formaldehyde and its derivatives as, i.e. cross-linker for resins or disinfectant, have been suggested. Dialkoxymethane has been envisioned as a combustion fuel for conventional engines or aqueous formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde may act as a liquid organic hydrogen carrier molecule (LOHC) for hydrogen generation to be used for hydrogen fuel cells. For the realization of these processes, it requires less energy-intensive technologies for the synthesis of formaldehyde. This overview summarizes the recent developments in low-temperature reductive synthesis of formaldehyde and its derivatives and low-temperature formaldehyde reforming. These aspects are important for the future demands on modern societies' energy management, in the form of a methanol and hydrogen economy, and the required formaldehyde feedstock for the manufacture of many formaldehyde-based daily products.

  4. Sensitivity to temperature of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitalas, R.

    1981-01-01

    The sensitivity to temperature of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning is discussed. The complexity of the sensitivity is due to the different equilibration time-scales of the constituents of the p-p chain and CN cycle and the dependence of their abundances and time-scales on temperature. The time-scale of the temperature perturbation, compared to the equilibrium time-scale of a constituent, determines whether the constituent is in equilibrium and affects the sensitivity. The temperature sensitivity of the p-p chain for different values of hydrogen abundance, when different constituents come into equilibrium is presented, as well as its variation with 3 He abundance. The temperature sensitivity is drastically different from n 11 , the temperature sensitivity of the proton-proton reaction, unless the time-scale of temperature perturbation is long enough for 3 He to remain in equilibrium. Even in this case the sensitivity of the p-p chain differs significantly from n 11 , unless the temperature is so low that PP II and PP III chains can be neglected. The variation of the sensitivity of CN energy generation is small for different time-scales of temperature variation, because the temperature sensitivities of individual reactions are so similar. The combined sensitivity to temperature of energy generation by hydrogen burning is presented and shown to have a maximum of 16.4 at T 6 = 24.5. For T 6 > 25 the temperature sensitivity is given by the sensitivity of 14 N + p reaction. (author)

  5. Liquid Hydrogen Consumption During Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of liquid hydrogen consumption and the points of its loss in prior to the shuttle launch. It traces the movement of the fuel from the purchase to the on-board quantity and the loss that results in 54.6 of the purchased quantity being on board the Shuttle.

  6. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  7. Reforming water to generate hydrogen using mechanical alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena F, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to generate a hydrogen production system by means of mechanical milling, in which 0.1 g of magnesium were weighed using a volume of 300 μL for each water solvent (H_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH) in a container to start mechanical milling for 2, 4 and 6 h. Once the mechanical milling was finished, the hydrogen that was produced every two hours was measured to determine the appropriate milling time in the production, also in each period of time samples of the powders produced during the milling of Mg were taken, in this process we used characterization techniques such as: X-ray diffraction at an angle of 2θi 5 and 2θf 90 degrees and scanning electron microscopy, taking micrographs of 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 magnifications. According to the mechanical milling results hydrogen was obtained when using water, as well as with methanol. In the techniques of X-ray diffraction characterization different results were obtained before and after the milling, since by the diffractogram s is possible to observe how the magnesium to be put in the mechanical milling along with the water and methanol was diminishing to be transformed into hydroxide and magnesium oxide, as well as in the micrographs taken with scanning electron microscopy the change in the magnesium morphology to hydroxide and magnesium oxide is observed. (Author)

  8. Compact PEM fuel cell system combined with all-in-one hydrogen generator using chemical hydride as a hydrogen source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jincheol; Kim, Taegyu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Compact fuel cell system was developed for a portable power generator. • Novel concept using an all-in-one reactor for hydrogen generation was proposed. • Catalytic reactor, hydrogen chamber and separator were combined in a volume. • The system can be used to drive fuel cell-powered unmanned autonomous systems. - Abstract: Compact fuel cell system was developed for a portable power generator. The power generator features a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using a chemical hydride as a hydrogen source. The hydrogen generator extracted hydrogen using a catalytic hydrolysis from a sodium borohydride alkaline solution. A novel concept using an all-in-one reactor was proposed in which a catalyst, hydrogen chamber and byproduct separator were combined in a volume. In addition, the reactor as well as a pump, cooling fans, valves and controller was integrated in a single module. A 100 W PEMFC stack was connected with the hydrogen generator and was evaluated at various load conditions. It was verified that the stable hydrogen supply was achieved and the developed system can be used to drive fuel cell-powered unmanned autonomous systems.

  9. Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

    2004-03-29

    This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

  10. Steam-Generator Integrity Program/Steam-Generator Group Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Steam Generator Integrity Program (SGIP) is a comprehensive effort addressing issues of nondestructive test (NDT) reliability, inservice inspection (ISI) requirements, and tube plugging criteria for PWR steam generators. In addition, the program has interactive research tasks relating primary side decontamination, secondary side cleaning, and proposed repair techniques to nondestructive inspectability and primary system integrity. The program has acquired a service degraded PWR steam generator for research purposes. This past year a research facility, the Steam Generator Examination Facility (SGEF), specifically designed for nondestructive and destructive examination tasks of the SGIP was completed. The Surry generator previously transported to the Hanford Reservation was then inserted into the SGEF. Nondestructive characterization of the generator from both primary and secondary sides has been initiated. Decontamination of the channelhead cold leg side was conducted. Radioactive field maps were established in the steam generator, at the generator surface and in the SGEF

  11. Identification of intrinsic catalytic activity for electrochemical reduction of water molecules to generate hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient hydronium ion activities at near-neutral pH and under unbuffered conditions induce diffusion-limited currents for hydrogen evolution, followed by a reaction with water molecules to generate hydrogen at elevated potentials. The observed

  12. Development of a high-efficiency hydrogen generator for fuel cells for distributed power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraiswamy, K.; Chellappa, Anand [Intelligent Energy, 2955 Redondo Ave., Long Beach, CA 90806 (United States); Smith, Gregory; Liu, Yi; Li, Mingheng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A collaborative effort between Intelligent Energy and Cal Poly Pomona has developed an adsorption enhanced reformer (AER) for hydrogen generation for use in conjunction with fuel cells in small sizes. The AER operates at a lower temperature (about 500 C) and has a higher hydrogen yield and purity than those in the conventional steam reforming. It employs ceria supported rhodium as the catalyst and potassium-promoted hydrotalcites to remove carbon dioxide from the products. A novel pulsing feed concept is developed for the AER operation to allow a deeper conversion of the feedstock to hydrogen. Continuous production of near fuel-cell grade hydrogen is demonstrated in the AER with four packed beds running alternately. In the best case of methane reforming, the overall conversion to hydrogen is 92% while the carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations in the production stream are on the ppm level. The ratio of carbon dioxide in the regeneration exhaust to the one in the product stream is on the order of 10{sup 3}. (author)

  13. Surface- and interface-engineered heterostructures for solar hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyan; Li, Yanrui; Shen, Shaohua

    2018-04-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting based on semiconductor photoelectrodes provides a promising platform for reducing environmental pollution and solving the energy crisis by developing clean, sustainable and environmentally friendly hydrogen energy. In this context, metal oxides with their advantages including low cost, good chemical stability and environmental friendliness, have attracted extensive attention among the investigated candidates. However, the large bandgap, poor charge transfer ability and high charge recombination rate limit the PEC performance of metal oxides as photoelectrodes. To solve this limitation, many approaches toward enhanced PEC water splitting performance, which focus on surface and interface engineering, have been presented. In this topical review, we concentrate on the heterostructure design of some typical metal oxides with narrow bandgaps (e.g. Fe2O3, WO3, BiVO4 and Cu2O) as photoelectrodes. An overview of the surface- and interface-engineered heterostructures, including semiconductor heterojunctions, surface protection, surface passivation and cocatalyst decoration, will be given to introduce the recent advances in metal oxide heterostructures for PEC water splitting. This article aims to provide fundamental references and principles for designing metal oxide heterostructures with high activity and stability as photoelectrodes for PEC solar hydrogen generation.

  14. Modeling of Syngas Reactions and Hydrogen Generation Over Sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Klier; Jeffery A. Spirko; Michael L. Neiman

    2002-09-17

    The objective of the research is to analyze pathways of reactions of hydrogen with oxides of carbon over sulfides, and to predict which characteristics of the sulfide catalyst (nature of metal, defect structure) give rise to the lowest barriers toward oxygenated hydrocarbon product. Reversal of these pathways entails the generation of hydrogen, which is also proposed for study. In this first year of study, adsorption reactions of H atoms and H{sub 2} molecules with MoS{sub 2}, both in molecular and solid form, have been modeled using high-level density functional theory. The geometries and strengths of the adsorption sites are described and the methods used in the study are described. An exposed MO{sup IV} species modeled as a bent MoS{sub 2} molecule is capable of homopolar dissociative chemisorption of H{sub 2} into a dihydride S{sub 2}MoH{sub 2}. Among the periodic edge structures of hexagonal MoS{sub 2}, the (1{bar 2}11) edge is most stable but still capable of dissociating H{sub 2}, while the basal plane (0001) is not. A challenging task of theoretically accounting for weak bonding of MoS{sub 2} sheets across the Van der Waals gap has been addressed, resulting in a weak attraction of 0.028 eV/MoS{sub 2} unit, compared to the experimental value of 0.013 eV/MoS{sub 2} unit.

  15. Generation of hydrogen free radicals from water for fuels by electric field induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nong, Guangzai; Chen, Yiyi; Li, Ming; Zhou, Zongwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen free radicals are generated from water splitting. • Hydrogen fuel is generated from water by electric field induction. • Hydrocarbon fuel is generated from CO_2 and water by electric field induction. - Abstract: Water is the most abundant resource for generating hydrogen fuel. In addition to dissociating H"+ and "−OH ions, certain water molecules dissociate to radicals under an electric field are considered. Therefore, an electric field inducing reactor is constructed and operated to generate hydrogen free radicals in this paper. Hydrogen free radicals begin to be generated under a 1.0 V electric field, and increasing the voltage and temperature increases the number of hydrogen free radicals. The production rate of hydrogen free radicals is 0.245 mmol/(L h) at 5.0 V and room temperature. The generated hydrogen free radicals are converted to polymer fuel and hydrogen fuel at production rates of 0.0093 mmol/(L h) and 0.0038 mmol/(L h) respectively, under 5.0 V and 0.25 mA. The results provide a way to generate hydrogen free radicals, which might be used to generate hydrocarbon fuel in industrial manufacture.

  16. Generating hydrogen from sunlight and water using photovoltaic tandem cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    Photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy to energy in hydrogen at viable efficiency is a long-term goal needed to usher in the hydrogen economy worldwide. The twin cell technology based Tandem Cell tackles a number of challenges faced by single photoelectrochemical cell based water splitting and offers a novel way of utilising complimentary parts of the solar spectrum in two cells. The overall process results in a complete system driven by solar energy that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen Solar Ltd is a UK based enterprise that is working towards commercialisation of this Tandem Cell technology. One of the main project activities involved the development and optimisation of methods for preparation of larger scale photocatalytic electrodes using reproducible low cost industrial processes, with efficiencies equal to or greater than those from small scale samples made experimentally in University laboratories. Stability is also an important issue and endurance testing was performed on some samples. Spray pyrolysis methods offer considerable promise as for preparation of metal oxide semiconductor films at low cost, reproducibly. These studies lead to optimised designs for Tandem Cells, resulting in construction of an array of 12 Tandem Cells. The findings of this array work, in particular engineering issues, were very significant. Based on this work it is intended to build another two array systems that consists of 24 Tandem Cells which will be tested for light to chemical conversion efficiency, to determine what efficiency has been achieved overall. The main conclusions resulting from this project were as follows. Overall, considerable progress was made in characterising the factors that affect photoelectrode performance efficiency but that, losses in efficiency when increasing the area of photoelectrodes was greater than expected and optimisation of efficiency at practical device scale needs more work. Based on the outcome of this work program

  17. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  18. Next-generation TCAP hydrogen isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L. K.; Sessions, H. T.; Poore, A. S.; Jacobs, W. D.; Williams, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    A thermal cycling absorption process (TCAP) for hydrogen isotope separation has been in operation at Savannah River Site since 1994. The process uses a hot/cold nitrogen system to cycle the temperature of the separation column. The hot/cold nitrogen system requires the use of large compressors, heat exchanges, valves and piping that is bulky and maintenance intensive. A new compact thermal cycling (CTC) design has recently been developed. This new design uses liquid nitrogen tubes and electric heaters to heat and cool the column directly so that the bulky hot/cold nitrogen system can be eliminated. This CTC design is simple and is easy to implement, and will be the next generation TCAP system at SRS. A twelve-meter column has been fabricated and installed in the laboratory to demonstrate its performance. The design of the system and its test results to date is discussed. (authors)

  19. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong Wook; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2016-04-20

    Photocatalytic hydrogen (H2 ) generation in a water splitting process has recently attracted tremendous interest because it allows the direct conversion of clean and unlimited solar energy into the ideal energy resource of H2 . For efficient photocatalytic H2 generation, the role of the photocatalyst is critical. With increasing demand for more efficient, sustainable, and cost-effective photocatalysts, various types of semiconductor photocatalysts have been intensively developed. In particular, on the basis of its superior catalytic and tunable electronic properties, nitrogen-doped graphene is a potential candidate for a high-performance photocatalyst. Nitrogen-doped graphene also offers additional advantages originating from its unique two-dimensional sp(2) -hybridized carbon network including a large specific surface area and exceptional charge transport properties. It has been reported that nitrogen-doped graphene can play diverse but positive functions including photo-induced charge acceptor/meditator, light absorber from UV to visible light, n-type semiconductor, and giant molecular photocatalyst. Herein, we summarize the recent progress and general aspects of nitrogen-doped graphene as a photocatalyst for photocatalytic H2 generation. In addition, challenges and future perspectives in this field are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Potential for Low-Temperature Abiotic Hydrogen Generation and a Hydrogen-Driven Deep Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanshan; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The release and oxidation of ferrous iron during aqueous alteration of the mineral olivine is known to reduce aqueous solutions to such extent that molecular hydrogen, H2, forms. H2 is an efficient energy carrier and is considered basal to the deep subsurface biosphere. Knowledge of the potential for H2 generation is therefore vital to understanding the deep biosphere on Earth and on extraterrestrial bodies. Here, we provide a review of factors that may reduce the potential for H2 generation with a focus on systems in the core temperature region for thermophilic to hyperthermophilic microbial life. We show that aqueous sulfate may inhibit the formation of H2, whereas redox-sensitive compounds of carbon and nitrogen are unlikely to have significant effect at low temperatures. In addition, we suggest that the rate of H2 generation is proportional to the dissolution rate of olivine and, hence, limited by factors such as reactive surface areas and the access of water to fresh surfaces. We furthermore suggest that the availability of water and pore/fracture space are the most important factors that limit the generation of H2. Our study implies that, because of large heat flows, abundant olivine-bearing rocks, large thermodynamic gradients, and reduced atmospheres, young Earth and Mars probably offered abundant systems where microbial life could possibly have emerged. Key Words: Serpentinization—Olivine—Hydrogen—Deep biosphere—Water—Mars. Astrobiology 11, 711–724. PMID:21923409

  1. Spark Discharge Generated Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vons, V.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the largest obstacles to the large scale application of hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles is the absence of hydrogen storage methods suitable for application on-board of these vehicles. Metal hydrides are materials in which hydrogen is reversibly absorbed by one or more metals or

  2. Interfacial electrochemistry of colloidal ruthenium dioxide and catalysis of the photochemical generation of hydrogen from water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen from water using solar energy is a very attractive research topic, because of the potential use of hydrogen as an alternative, clean fuel. It has been shown by many workers in the field that photochemical hydrogen generation can be achieved in an aqueous system,

  3. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  4. A third-generation dispersion and third-generation hydrogen bonding corrected PM6 method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Jimmy Charnley; Christensen, Anders Steen; Svendsen, Casper Steinmann

    2014-01-01

    We present new dispersion and hydrogen bond corrections to the PM6 method, PM6-D3H+, and its implementation in the GAMESS program. The method combines the DFT-D3 dispersion correction by Grimme et al. with a modified version of the H+ hydrogen bond correction by Korth. Overall, the interaction...... in GAMESS, while the corresponding numbers for PM6-DH+ implemented in MOPAC are 54, 17, 15, and 2. The PM6-D3H+ method as implemented in GAMESS offers an attractive alternative to PM6-DH+ in MOPAC in cases where the LBFGS optimizer must be used and a vibrational analysis is needed, e.g., when computing...... vibrational free energies. While the GAMESS implementation is up to 10 times slower for geometry optimizations of proteins in bulk solvent, compared to MOPAC, it is sufficiently fast to make geometry optimizations of small proteins practically feasible....

  5. Fluorinated cobalt for catalyzing hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdim, O.; Demirci, U.B.; Brioude, A.; Miele, P. [Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615 CNRS Universite Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-07-15

    The present paper reports preliminary results relating to a search for durable cobalt-based catalyst intended to catalyze the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). Fluorination of Co [Suda S, Sun YM, Liu BH, Zhou Y, Morimitsu S, Arai K, et al. Catalytic generation of hydrogen by applying fluorinated-metal hydrides as catalysts. Appl Phys A 2001; 72: 209-12.] has attracted our attention whereas the fluorination of Co boride has never been envisaged so far. Our first objective was to compare the reactivity of fluorinated Co with that of Co boride. We focused our attention on the formation of Co boride from fluorinated Co. Our second objective was to show the fluorination effect on the reactivity of Co. Our third objective was to find an efficient, durable Co catalyst. It was observed a limited stabilization of the Co surface by virtue of the fluorination, which made the formation of surface Co boride more difficult while the catalytic activity was unaltered. The fluorination did not affect the number of surface active sites. Nevertheless, it did not prevent the formation of Co boride. The fluorination of Co boride was inefficient. Hence, fluorination is a way to gain in stabilization of the catalytic surface but it is quite inefficient to hinder the boride formation. Accordingly, it did not permit to compare the reactivity of Co boride with that of Co. (author)

  6. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and 287 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application. PMID:23248745

  7. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO(2)/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H(2) generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 287 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) are obtained with TiO(2)/Ni(OH)(2) nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

  8. Dependable Hydrogen and Industrial Heat Generation from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson; Vincent C. Maio; Piyush Sabharwall

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy is working with industry to develop a next generation, high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) as a part of the effort to supply the US with abundant, clean and secure energy. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, led by the Idaho National Laboratory, will demonstrate the ability of the HTGR to generate hydrogen, electricity, and high-quality process heat for a wide range of industrial applications. Substituting HTGR power for traditional fossil fuel resources reduces the cost and supply vulnerability of natural gas and oil, and reduces or eliminates greenhouse gas emissions. As authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, industry leaders are developing designs for the construction of a commercial prototype producing up to 600 MWt of power by 2021. This paper describes a variety of critical applications that are appropriate for the HTGR with an emphasis placed on applications requiring a clean and reliable source of hydrogen. An overview of the NGNP project status and its significant technology development efforts are also presented.

  9. HTTR demonstration program for nuclear cogeneration of hydrogen and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Junya; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, Xing L.; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Yukio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency initiated a High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) demonstration program in accordance with recommendations of a task force established by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology according to the Strategic Energy Plan as of April 2014. The demonstration program is designed to complete helium gas turbine and hydrogen production system technologies aiming at commercial plant deployment in 2030s. The program begins with coupling a helium gas turbine in the secondary loop of the HTTR and expands by adding the H 2 plant to a tertiary loop to enable hydrogen cogeneration. Safety standards for coupling the helium gas turbine and H 2 plant to the nuclear reactor will be established through safety review in licensing. A system design and its control method are planned to be validated with a series of test operations using the HTTR-GT/H 2 plant. This paper explains the outline of HTTR demonstration program with a plant concept of the heat application system directed at establishing an HTGR cogeneration system with 950°C reactor outlet temperature for production of power and hydrogen as recommended by the task force. Commercial deployment strategy including a development plan for the helium gas turbine is also presented. (author)

  10. Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee annual report: Summary of DOE hydrogen programs for FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The HECC was established over 13 years ago to ensure that the many varied aspects of hydrogen technology within the Department are coordinated. Each year the committee brings together technical representative within the Department to coordinate activities, share research results and discuss future priorities and directions. This FY 1990 summary is the thirteenth consecutive yearly report. It provides an overview of the hydrogen-related programs of the DOE offices represented in the HECC for the fiscal year. For the purposes of this report, the research projects within each division have been organized into two categories: Fuels-related Research and Non-fuels-related Research. An historical summary of the hydrogen budgets of the several divisions is given. Total DOE funding in FY 1990 was $6.8 million for fuels-related research and $32.9 million for non-fuels-related research. The individual program elements are described in the body of this report, and more specific program information can be found in the Technology Summary Forms in Appendix A

  11. Radcalc for windows benchmark study: A comparison of software results with Rocky Flats hydrogen gas generation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCFADDEN, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Radcalc for Windows Version 2.01 is a user-friendly software program developed by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations for the U.S. Department of Energy (McFadden et al. 1998). It is used for transportation and packaging applications in the shipment of radioactive waste materials. Among its applications are the classification of waste per the US. Department of Transportation regulations, the calculation of decay heat and daughter products, and the calculation of the radiolytic production of hydrogen gas. The Radcalc program has been extensively tested and validated (Green et al. 1995, McFadden et al. 1998) by comparison of each Radcalc algorithm to hand calculations. An opportunity to benchmark Radcalc hydrogen gas generation calculations to experimental data arose when the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) Residue Stabilization Program collected hydrogen gas generation data to determine compliance with requirements for shipment of waste in the TRUPACT-II (Schierloh 1998). The residue/waste drums tested at RFETS contain contaminated, solid, inorganic materials in polyethylene bags. The contamination is predominantly due to plutonium and americium isotopes. The information provided by Schierloh (1 998) of RFETS includes decay heat, hydrogen gas generation rates, calculated G eff values, and waste material type, making the experimental data ideal for benchmarking Radcalc. The following sections discuss the RFETS data and the Radcalc cases modeled with the data. Results are tabulated and also provided graphically

  12. Darlington steam generator life assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinski, E.; Dymarski, M.; Maruska, C.; Cartar, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Darlington Nuclear Generating Station belonging to Ontario Hydro is one of the most modern and advanced nuclear generating stations in the world. Four reactor units each generate 881 net MW, enough to provide power to a major city, and representing approximately 20% of the Ontario grid. The nuclear generating capacity in Ontario represents approximately 60% of the grid. In order to look after this major asset, many proactive preventative and predictive maintenance programs are being put in place. The steam generators are a major component in any power plant. World wide experience shows that nuclear steam generators require specialized attention to ensure reliable operation over the station life. This paper describes the Darlington steam generator life assurance program in terms of degradation identification, monitoring and management. The requirements for chemistry control, surveillance of process parameters, surveillance of inspection parameters, and the integration of preventative and predictive maintenance programs such as water lancing, chemical cleaning, RIHT monitoring, and other diagnostics to enhance our understanding of life management issues are identified and discussed. We conclude that we have advanced proactive activities to avoid and to minimize many of the problems affecting other steam generators. An effective steam generator maintenance program must expand the knowledge horizon to understand life limiting processes and to analyze and synthesize observations with theory. (author)

  13. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  14. Program for parameter studies of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathisen, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    R2-GEN is a computer code for stationary thermal parameter studies of steam generators. The geometry and data are valid for Ringhals-2 generators. Subroutines and relevant calculations are included. The program is based on a heterogeneous flow model and some applications on tubes with varying contamination are presented. (G.B.)

  15. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  16. Steam generators of Phenix: Measurement of the hydrogen concentration in sodium for detecting water leaks in the steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambillard, E.; Lacroix, A.; Langlois, J.; Viala, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Phenix secondary circuits are provided with measurement systems of hydrogen concentration in sodium, that allow for the detection of possible water leaks in steam generators and the location of a faulty module. A measurement device consists of : a detector with nickel membranes of 0, 3 mm wall thickness, an ion pump with a 200 l/s flow rate, a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a calibrated hydrogen leak. The temperature correction is made automatically. The main tests carried out on the leak detection systems are reported. Since the first system operation (October 24, 1973), the measurements allowed us to obtain the hydrogen diffusion rates through the steam generator tube walls. (author)

  17. Hydrogen generation monitoring and mass gain analysis during the steam oxidation for Zircaloy using hydrogen and oxygen sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Michihisa; Hara, Motoi; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Sakuraba, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-4 at high temperatures in a flowing Ar-H_2O (saturated at 323 K) mixed gas was investigated using hydrogen and oxygen sensors installed at a gas outlet, and the utility of the gas sensing methods by using both sensors was examined. The generated amount of hydrogen was determined from the hydrogen partial pressure continuously measured by the hydrogen sensor, and the resultant calculated oxygen amount that reacted with the specimen was in close agreement with the mass gain gravimetrically measured after the experiment. This result demonstrated that the hydrogen partial pressure measurement using a hydrogen sensor is an effective method for examining the steam oxidation of this metal as well as monitoring the hydrogen evolution. The advantage of this method is that the oxidation rate of the metal at any time as a differential quantity is able to be obtained, compared to the oxygen amount gravimetrically measured as an integral quantity. When the temperature was periodically changed in the range of 1173 K to 1523 K, highly accurate measurements could be carried out using this gas monitoring method, although reasonable measurements were not gravimetrically performed due to the fluctuating thermo-buoyancy during the experiment. A change of the oxidation rate was clearly detected at a monoclinic tetragonal transition temperature of ZrO_2. From the calculation of the water vapor partial pressure during the thermal equilibrium condition using the hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures, it became clear that a thermal equilibrium state is maintained when the isothermal condition is maintained, but is not when the temperature increases or decreases with time. Based on these results, it was demonstrated that the gas monitoring system using hydrogen and oxygen sensors is very useful for investigating the oxidation process of the Zircaloy in steam. (author)

  18. Analysis of an Improved Solar-Powered Hydrogen Generation System for Sustained Renewable Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    hydrogen gas by electrolysis. In LT Aviles’ design , distilled water was collected from the ambient air using Peltier dehumidifiers, manufactured by...Figure 13 shows the shelfing along with the entire system. Figure 13. Reconfigured Hydrogen Production Facility Because the system was designed for...POWERED HYDROGEN GENERATION SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINED RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION by Sen Feng Yu December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Garth V. Hobson Co

  19. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  20. 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  1. 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 9-13, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  2. 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  3. 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 13-17, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  4. 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  5. 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-06-13

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 9-13, 2008, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; systems analysis; and manufacturing.

  6. 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 18-22, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; education; safety, codes, and standards; technology validation; systems analysis; and manufacturing R&D.

  7. 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R and D) Program is responsible for performing R and D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R and D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  10. Maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy regulates hydrogen sulfide-generating pathway and renal transcriptome to prevent prenatal NG-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Chan, Julie Y H; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time for fetal programming of hypertension. Nitric oxide deficiency during pregnancy causes hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy can prevent N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult offspring. Next, we aimed to identify potential gatekeeper pathways that contribute to N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester -induced programmed hypertension using the next generation RNA sequencing technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 groups: control, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester +melatonin, and N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester+N-acetylcysteine. Pregnant rats received N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester administration at 60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously during pregnancy alone, with additional 0.01% melatonin in drinking water, or with additional 1% N-acetylcysteine in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (n=8/group) were killed at 12 weeks of age. N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester exposure during pregnancy induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which was prevented by maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy. Protective effects of melatonin and N-acetylcysteine against N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension were associated with an increase in hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes and hydrogen sulfide synthesis in the kidneys. Nitric oxide inhibition by N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester in pregnancy caused >2000 renal transcripts to be modified during nephrogenesis stage in 1-day-old offspring kidney. Among them, genes belong to the renin-angiotensin system, and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways were potentially involved in the N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension. However, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine reprogrammed the renin-angiotensin system and arachidonic acid pathway

  11. Investment in hydrogen tri-generation for wastewater treatment plants under uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharieh, Kaveh; Jafari, Mohsen A.; Guo, Qizhong

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present a compound real option model for investment in hydrogen tri-generation and onsite hydrogen dispensing systems for a wastewater treatment plant under price and market uncertainties. The ultimate objective is to determine optimal timing and investment thresholds to exercise initial and subsequent options such that the total savings are maximized. Initial option includes investment in a 1.4 (MW) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) fed by mixture of waste biogas from anaerobic digestion and natural gas, along with auxiliary equipment. Produced hydrogen in MCFC via internal reforming, is recovered from the exhaust gas stream using Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) purification technology. Therefore the expansion option includes investment in hydrogen compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) systems which creates additional revenue by selling hydrogen onsite in retail price. This work extends current state of investment modeling within the context of hydrogen tri-generation by considering: (i) Modular investment plan for hydrogen tri-generation and dispensing systems, (ii) Multiple sources of uncertainties along with more realistic probability distributions, (iii) Optimal operation of hydrogen tri-generation is considered, which results in realistic saving estimation.

  12. Selective Electrochemical Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide from Water Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Hansen, Heine Anton; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2015-01-01

    evolution and form hydrogen peroxide. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that the free energy of adsorbed OH* can be used to determine selectivity trends between the 2e(-) water oxidation to H2O2 and the 4e(-) oxidation to O2. We show that materials which bind oxygen intermediates...... sufficiently weakly, such as SnO2, can activate hydrogen peroxide evolution. We present a rational design principle for the selectivity in electrochemical water oxidation and identify new material candidates that could perform H2O2 evolution selectively....

  13. Automatic mesh generation with QMESH program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Takeharu; Tsutsui, Tsuneo

    1977-05-01

    Usage of the two-dimensional self-organizing mesh generation program, QMESH, is presented together with the descriptions and the experience, as it has recently been converted and reconstructed from the NEACPL version to the FACOM. The program package consists of the QMESH code to generate quadrilaterial meshes with smoothing techniques, the QPLOT code to plot the data obtained from the QMESH on the graphic COM, and the RENUM code to renumber the meshes by using a bandwidth minimization procedure. The technique of mesh reconstructuring coupled with smoothing techniques is especially useful when one generates the meshes for computer codes based on the finite element method. Several typical examples are given for easy access to the QMESH program, which is registered in the R.B-disks of JAERI for users. (auth.)

  14. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen

  15. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented

  16. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... The main goals of this research were to use E. aerogenes ADH-43 for fermentation in order to decide the best carbon sources and ... by converting to electricity using fuel cells in 50 ml vial bottle, 2% total ... evolution compared with other biological hydrogen .... Erlenmeyer containing a solution of Ca (OH) 2.

  17. Solar-hydrogen generation and solar concentration (Conference Presentation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulima, Oleg V.; Chinello, Enrico; Conibeer, Gavin; Modestino, Miquel A.; Schüttauf, Jan-Willem; Lambelet, David; Delfino, Antonio; Domine, Didier; Faes, Antonin; Despeisse, Matthieu; Bailat, Julien; Psaltis, Demetri; Fernandez Rivas, David; Ballif, Christophe; Moser, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We successfully demonstrated and reported the highest solar-to-hydrogen efficiency with crystalline silicon cells and Earth-abundant electrocatalysts under unconcentrated solar radiation. The combination of hetero-junction silicon cells and a 3D printed Platinum/Iridium-Oxide electrolyzer has been

  18. Solar photocatalytic generation of hydrogen under ultraviolet-visible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    solar energy has been regarded as an attractive solution to resolve the global energy ... simultaneous hydrogen production and H2S decomposi- tion is a highly ... of CdCO3 and ZnCO3 in dilute acetic acid at 60–70°C. Mixing slowly the hot ...

  19. Hydrogen generation from aluminium corrosion in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.; Karlberg, G.; Sundvall, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    The aluminium corrosion experiments in reactor containment spray solutions, under the conditions expected to prevail during LOCA in BWR and PWR, were performed in order to investigate relationships between temperature, pH and hydrogen production rates. In order to simulate the conditions in a BWR containment realistic ratios between aluminium surface and water volume and between aluminium surface and oxygen volume were used. Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to spray solutions: AA 1050, AA 5052 and AA 6082. The corrosion rates were measured for BWR solutions (deaerated and aerated) with pH 5 and 9 at 50, 100 and 150 0 C. The pressure was constantly 0.8 MPa. The hydrogen production rate was measured by means of gas chromatography. In deionized BWR water the corrosion rates did not exceed about 0.05 mm/year in all cases, i.e. were practically independent of temperature and pH. Hydrogen concentrations were less than 0.1 vol.% in cooled dry gas. Corrosion rates and hydrogen production in PWR alkaline solution measured at pH 9.7 and 150 0 C were very high. AA 5052 alloy was the best material

  20. Operation of the cryotron relaxation generator in solid argon and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhubvsky, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    The research results of the cryotron relaxation generator (CRG) operation in solid argon, normal hydrogen and parahydrogen have been given. The frequency transition times for CRG at different values of cooling the solid gas have been measured

  1. Workshop on Hydrogen Storage and Generation for Medium-Power and -Energy Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the Workshop on Hydrogen Storage and Generation Technologies for Medium-Power and -Energy Applications which was held on April 8-10, 1997 at the Radisson Hotel Orlando Airport in Orlando, Florida...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: BIOQUELL, INC. CLARIS C HYDROGEN PEROXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Clarus C Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Generator, a biological decontamination device manufactured by BIOQUELL, Inc. The unit was tested by evaluating its ability to decontaminate seven types...

  3. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data through Quarter 4 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-31

    This publication includes 86 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the fourth quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  4. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data through Quarter 2 of 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This publication includes 92 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the second quarter of 2017. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  5. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  6. Hydrogen generation and storage from hydrolysis of sodium borohydride in batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, A.M.F.R.; Falcao, D.S. [Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Silva, R.A.; Rangel, C.M. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia e Inovacao, Paco do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    The catalytic hydrolysis of alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution was studied using a non-noble; nickel-based powered catalyst exhibiting strong activity even after long time storage. This easy-to-prepare catalyst showed an enhanced activity after being recovered from previous use. The effects of temperature, NaBH{sub 4} concentration, NaOH concentration and pressure on the hydrogen generation rate were investigated. Particular importance has the effect of pressure, since the maximum reached pressure of hydrogen is always substantially lower than predictions (considering 100% conversion) due to solubility effects. The solubility of hydrogen is greatly enhanced by the rising pressure during reaction, leading to storage of hydrogen in the liquid phase. This effect can induce new ways of using this type of catalyst and reactor for the construction of hydrogen generators and even containers for portable and in situ applications. (author)

  7. Maintaining a Technology-Neutral Approach to Hydrogen Production Process Development through Conceptual Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael W. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project was authorized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), tasking the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with demonstrating High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology. The demonstration is to include the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of HTGR technology for the production of electricity and hydrogen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), a component of the DOE Hydrogen Program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy, is also investigating multiple approaches to cost effective hydrogen production from nuclear energy. The objective of NHI is development of the technology and information basis for a future decision on commercial viability. The initiatives are clearly intertwined. While the objectives of NGNP and NHI are generally consistent, NGNP has progressed to the project definition phase and the project plan has matured. Multiple process applications for the NGNP require process heat, electricity and hydrogen in varied combinations and sizes. Coupling these processes to the reactor in multiple configurations adds complexity to the design, licensing and demonstration of both the reactor and the hydrogen production process. Commercial viability of hydrogen production may depend on the specific application and heat transport configuration. A component test facility (CTF) is planned by the NGNP to support testing and demonstration of NGNP systems, including those for hydrogen production, in multiple configurations. Engineering-scale demonstrations in the CTF are expected to start in 2012 to support scheduled design and licensing activities leading to subsequent construction and operation. Engineering-scale demonstrations planned by NHI are expected to start at least two years later. Reconciliation of these schedules is recommended to successfully complete both initiatives. Hence, closer and earlier integration of hydrogen process development and heat transport systems is sensible

  8. Impact of different metal turbidities on radiolytic hydrogen generation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbhar, A.G.; Belapurkar, A.D.; Venkateswaran, G.; Kishore, K.

    2005-01-01

    Radiolytic hydrogen generation on γ irradiation of turbid solutions containing metal turbidities such as titanium, nickel, iron, chromium, copper, indium, and aluminium was studied. It is suggested that the chemical reactivity of the metal in the turbid solution with e aq -/H/OH produced by radiolysis of water interferes with the recombination reactions which destroy H 2 and H 2 O 2 , thus leading to higher yield of hydrogen. The rate of generation of hydrogen and the G(H 2 ) value is related to the reactivity of the metal ion/hydroxylated species with the free radicals. (orig.)

  9. Hydrogen generation through static-feed water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, F. C.; Schubert, F. H.

    1975-01-01

    A static-feed water electrolysis system (SFWES), developed under NASA sponsorship, is presented for potential applicability to terrestrial hydrogen production. The SFWES concept uses (1) an alkaline electrolyte to minimize power requirements and materials-compatibility problems, (2) a method where the electrolyte is retained in a thin porous matrix eliminating bulk electrolyte, and (3) a static water-feed mechanism to prevent electrode and electrolyte contamination and to promote system simplicity.

  10. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric survey is made of a high-density tandem two-chamber hydrogen negative ion system. The optimum extracted negative ion current densities are sensitive to the atom concentration in the discharge and to the system scale length. For scale lengths ranging from 10 cm to 0.1 cm optimum current densities range from of order 1 to 100 mA cm -2 , respectively

  11. DIGRD: an interactive grid generating program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, H.P.; Rice, W.A.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed the development and documentation of an interactive grid generating program (DIGRD, digitize grid). This program is designed to rapidly generate or modify grids necessary for the unsaturated flow code TRUST. In addition to the code, a user's manual was prepared. Unfortunately, the computer hardware that comprises the PNL interactive graphics capability is unique. Direct technology transfer is not possible, therefore, this report is intended to convey the utility of interactive graphics in supplying a grid generating capability. DIGRD has already been effectively used in the preparation of grids for the analysis of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings. The principal conclusion is that the interactive graphics employed in DIGRD are useful and economical in the development of complex grids. Grid generation activities that previously took between a half- and a full-man month can now be completed in less than a week. DIGRD users have recommended development of an uniform grid of either rectangles or equilateral triangles, which could be superimposed on any domain and then adjusted through the DIGRD program to match the boundaries of a tailings disposal facility. This improvement to the DIGRD package could further reduce the effort in grid generation while providing more optimal grids

  12. Intergenerational Learning Program: A Bridge between Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Aemmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of education can be considered the transfer of knowledge, skills, competencies, wisdom, norms and values between generations. Intergenerational learning program provide this goal and opportunities for lifelong learning and sharing knowledge and experience between generations. This review aimed to investigate the benefits of this program for the children and older adult and its application in health care systems. An extensive literature search was conducted in some online databases such as Magiran, SID, Scopus, EMBASE, and Medline via PubMed until July 2016 and Persian and English language publications studied that met inclusion criteria. The review concluded that this program can be provided wonderful resources for the social and emotional growth of the children and older adults and can be used for caring, education and follow-up in health care systems especially by nurses. Also, this review highlighted the need for research about this form of learning in Iran.

  13. Hydrogen generation using silicon nanoparticles and their mixtures with alkali metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gauri Dilip

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, for use in fuel cells, engines, and turbines for transportation or mobile applications. Hydrogen is desirable as an energy carrier, because its oxidation by air releases substantial energy (thermally or electrochemically) and produces only water as a product. In contrast, hydrocarbon energy carriers inevitably produce CO2, contributing to global warming. While CO2 capture may prove feasible in large stationary applications, implementing it in transportation and mobile applications is a daunting challenge. Thus a zero-emission energy carrier like hydrogen is especially needed in these cases. Use of H2 as an energy carrier also brings new challenges such as safe handling of compressed hydrogen and implementation of new transport, storage, and delivery processes and infrastructure. With current storage technologies, hydrogen's energy per volume is very low compared to other automobile fuels. High density storage of compressed hydrogen requires combinations of high pressure and/or low temperature that are not very practical. An alternative for storage is use of solid light weight hydrogenous material systems which have long durability, good adsorption properties and high activity. Substantial research has been conducted on carbon materials like activated carbon, carbon nanofibers, and carbon nanotubes due to their high theoretical hydrogen capacities. However, the theoretical values have not been achieved, and hydrogen uptake capacities in these materials are below 10 wt. %. In this thesis we investigated the use of silicon for hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation via water oxidation of silicon had been ignored due to slow reaction kinetics. We hypothesized that the hydrogen generation rate could be improved by using high surface area silicon nanoparticles. Our laser-pyrolysis-produced nanoparticles showed surprisingly rapid hydrogen generation and high hydrogen yield, exceeding the theoretical maximum of two moles of H2 per

  14. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2017-12-19

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  15. International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen: Book of Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.; Hayden, H.

    2005-05-01

    The International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen provides an opportunity to learn about current significant research on solar concentrators for generating electricity or hydrogen. The conference will emphasize in-depth technical discussions of recent achievements in technologies that convert concentrated solar radiation to electricity or hydrogen, with primary emphasis on photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Very high-efficiency solar cells--above 37%--were recently developed, and are now widely used for powering satellites. This development demands that we take a fresh look at the potential of solar concentrators for generating low-cost electricity or hydrogen. Solar electric concentrators could dramatically overtake other PV technologies in the electric utility marketplace because of the low capital cost of concentrator manufacturing facilities and the larger module size of concentrators. Concentrating solar energy also has advantages for th e solar generation of hydrogen. Around the world, researchers and engineers are developing solar concentrator technologies for entry into the electricity generation market and several have explored the use of concentrators for hydrogen production. The last conference on the subject of solar electric concentrators was held in November of 2003 and proved to be an important opportunity for researchers and developers to share new and crucial information that is helping to stimulate projects in their countries.

  16. Proceedings of the 1992 DOE/NREL hydrogen program review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Gao, Q.H.; Miller, E. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1992-07-01

    These proceedings contain 18 papers presented at the meeting. While the majority of the papers (11) had to do with specific hydrogen production methods, other papers were related to hydrogen storage systems, evaluations of and systems analysis for a hydrogen economy, and environmental transport of hydrogen from a pipeline leak.

  17. Overview of the U.S. DOE Hydrogen Safety, Codes and Standards Program. Part 4: Hydrogen Sensors; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J.; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Brosha, Eric; Mukundan, Rangachary; James, C. Will; Keller, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen sensors are recognized as a critical element in the safety design for any hydrogen system. In this role, sensors can perform several important functions including indication of unintended hydrogen releases, activation of mitigation strategies to preclude the development of dangerous situations, activation of alarm systems and communication to first responders, and to initiate system shutdown. The functionality of hydrogen sensors in this capacity is decoupled from the system being monitored, thereby providing an independent safety component that is not affected by the system itself. The importance of hydrogen sensors has been recognized by DOE and by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Safety and Codes Standards (SCS) program in particular, which has for several years supported hydrogen safety sensor research and development. The SCS hydrogen sensor programs are currently led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The current SCS sensor program encompasses the full range of issues related to safety sensors, including development of advance sensor platforms with exemplary performance, development of sensor-related code and standards, outreach to stakeholders on the role sensors play in facilitating deployment, technology evaluation, and support on the proper selection and use of sensors.

  18. Zircaloy-oxidation and hydrogen-generation rates in degraded-core accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Thomas, G.R.

    1983-02-01

    Oxidation of Zircaloy cladding is the primary source of hydrogen generated during a degraded-core accident. In this paper, reported Zircaloy oxidation rates, either measured at 1500 to 1850 0 C or extrapolated from the low-temperature data obtained at 0 C, are critically reviewed with respect to their applicability to a degraded-core accident situation in which the high-temperature fuel cladding is likely to be exposed to and oxidized in mixtures of hydrogen and depleted steam, rather than in an unlimited flux of pure steam. New results of Zircaloy oxidation measurements in various mixtures of hydrogen and steam are reported for >1500 0 C. The results show significantly smaller oxidation and, hence, hydrogen-generation rates in the mixture, compared with those obtained in pure steam. It is also shown that a significant fraction of hydrogen, generated as a result of Zircaloy oxidation, is dissolved in the cladding material itself, which prevents that portion of hydrogen from reaching the containment building space. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to a more realistic method of quantifying the hydrogen source term for a degraded-core accident analysis

  19. Defects generation by hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honda, Shinya; Mates, Tomáš; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan; Yamazaki, T.; Uraoka, Y.; Fuyuki, T.; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Macková, Anna; Peřina, Vratislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, - (2006), s. 653-657 ISSN 0038-092X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/300/1/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SN/3/172/05; GA AV ČR IAA1010413; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA AV ČR IAA1010316 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : hydrogen passivation * ERDA * photoluminescence * Raman spectroscopy * Si-H 2 bonding * H 2 molecules * grain size. Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2006

  20. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  1. Hydrogen Temperature-Programmed Desorption (H2 TPD) of Supported Platinum Catalysts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Miller, J.T.; Meyers, B.L.; Modica, F.S.; Lane, G.S.; Vaarkamp, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of supported platinum catalysts, Pt/KLTL, Pt/H-LTL, Pt/K-MAZ, Pt/H-MAZ, Pt/-Al2O3, and Pt/SiO2, was performed after hydrogen reduction at 300, 450, or 650°C. For all catalysts, reversible desorption of chemisorbed hydrogen occurred at approximately

  2. Proceedings of the 1995 U.S. DOE hydrogen program review. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 US DOE Hydrogen Program Review was held April 18-21, 1995 in Coral Gables, FL. Volume II of the Proceedings contains 8 papers presented under the subject of hydrogen storage and 17 papers presented on hydrogen production. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Proceedings of the 1999 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    2000-08-28

    The Proceedings of the 1999 US Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program Review serve as an important technology reference for the DOE Hydrogen Program. This document contains technical progress reports on 60 research and technology validation projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program in Fiscal Year 1999, in support of its mission to make hydrogen a cost-effective energy carrier for utility, building, and transportation applications. Each year, the Program conducts a rigorous review of its portfolio of projects, utilizing teams of experts to provide vital feedback on the progress of research.

  4. Hydrogen generation by nuclear power for sustainable development in the 21-st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif Constantin; Pall, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main non-polluting fuel. It is produced by natural gas steam reforming, water electrolysis and thermonuclear processes. Currently, 4% of the hydrogen world production is obtained by water electrolysis. The use of nuclear power for hydrogen production avoids the generation of greenhouse gases and the dependence of primary external energy sources. The US is currently developing a modular reactor for hydrogen production and water desalination, STAR - H 2 (Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor for Hydrogen production) with fast neutrons, lead cooling and passive safety systems operating at a temperature of 780 deg C. Also, a Russian reactor of the same type is operated at 540 deg C. China and India joint industrial countries like France, Japan, Russia and US in recognizing that any strategies aiming at a future with clean energy implies the nuclear energy

  5. InP nanopore arrays for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zheng, Maojun; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Faze; Song, Jingnan; Zhong, Miao; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-02-19

    We report a facile and large-scale fabrication of highly ordered one-dimensional (1D) indium phosphide (InP) nanopore arrays (NPs) and their application as photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production. These InP NPs exhibit superior PEC performance due to their excellent light-trapping characteristics, high-quality 1D conducting channels and large surface areas. The photocurrent density of optimized InP NPs is 8.9 times higher than that of planar counterpart at an applied potential of +0.3 V versus RHE under AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). In addition, the onset potential of InP NPs exhibits 105 mV of cathodic shift relative to planar control. The superior performance of the nanoporous samples is further explained by Mott-Schottky and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy ananlysis.

  6. Empirical rate equation model and rate calculations of hydrogen generation for Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HU, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical rate equations are derived to estimate hydrogen generation based on chemical reactions, radiolysis of water and organic compounds, and corrosion processes. A comparison of the generation rates observed in the field with the rates calculated for twenty eight tanks shows agreement within a factor of two to three

  7. Fast Breaking Detergents: Their Role in the Generation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Oily-Water Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    acid (Dwyer & Tiedje, 1983) and Desulfowibrio desulfitricans to produce ethanol and acetic acid (Dwyer & Tiedje, 1986). Under anaerobic conditions, the...glycol, glycolic acid, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and a number of intermediates. The acetic acid and ethylene glycol are utilised by some species of SRB...are consequently being introduced. Hydrogen sulfide generation by anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a concern for the RAN because it can

  8. Identification of intrinsic catalytic activity for electrochemical reduction of water molecules to generate hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient hydronium ion activities at near-neutral pH and under unbuffered conditions induce diffusion-limited currents for hydrogen evolution, followed by a reaction with water molecules to generate hydrogen at elevated potentials. The observed constant current behaviors at near neutral pH reflect the intrinsic electrocatalytic reactivity of the metal electrodes for water reduction. This journal is © the Owner Societies.

  9. Electroless Nickel-Based Catalyst for Diffusion Limited Hydrogen Generation through Hydrolysis of Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon P. Anderson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts based on electroless nickel and bi-metallic nickel-molybdenum nanoparticles were synthesized for the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen generation. The catalysts were synthesized by polymer-stabilized Pd nanoparticle-catalyzation and activation of Al2O3 substrate and electroless Ni or Ni-Mo plating of the substrate for selected time lengths. Catalytic activity of the synthesized catalysts was tested for the hydrolyzation of alkaline-stabilized NaBH4 solution for hydrogen generation. The effects of electroless plating time lengths, temperature and NaBH4 concentration on hydrogen generation rates were analyzed and discussed. Compositional analysis and surface morphology were carried out for nano-metallized Al2O3 using Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis (EDAX. The as-plated polymer-stabilized electroless nickel catalyst plated for 10 min and unstirred in the hydrolysis reaction exhibited appreciable catalytic activity for hydrolysis of NaBH4. For a zero-order reaction assumption, activation energy of hydrogen generation using the catalyst was estimated at 104.6 kJ/mol. Suggestions are provided for further work needed prior to using the catalyst for portable hydrogen generation from aqueous alkaline-stabilized NaBH4 solution for fuel cells.

  10. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hillard, L. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Requirements for the ITRF have increased dramatically since the 1980s. The most stringent requirement comes from critical sea level monitoring programs: a global accuracy of 1.0 mm, and 0.1mm/yr stability, a factor of 10 to 20 beyond current capability. Other requirements for the ITRF coming from ice mass change, ground motion, and mass transport studies are similar. Current and future satellite missions will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of these and other changes in the Earth system. Ground space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting the ITRF requirements and properly interpreting the satellite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation of the observed geophysical signals. NASA has embarked on a Space Geodesy Program with a long-range goal to build, deploy and operate a next generation NASA Space Geodetic Network (SGN). The plan is to build integrated, multi-technique next-generation space geodetic observing systems as the core contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Phase 1 of this project has been funded to (1) Establish and demonstrate a next-generation prototype integrated Space Geodetic Station at Goddard's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO), including next-generation SLR and VLBI systems along with modern GNSS and DORIS; (2) Complete ongoing Network Design Studies that describe the appropriate number and distribution of next-generation Space Geodetic Stations for an improved global network; (3) Upgrade analysis capability to handle the next-generation data; (4) Implement a modern

  11. Lessons learned from hydrogen generation and burning during the TMI-2 event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrie, J.O.; Postma, A.K.

    1987-05-01

    This document summarizes what has been learned from generation of hydrogen in the reactor core and the hydrogen burn that occurred in the containment building of the Three Mile Island Unit No. 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant on March 28, 1979. During the TMI-2 loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), a large quantity of hydrogen was generated by a zirconium-water reaction. The hydrogen burn that occurred 9 h and 50 min after the initiation of the TMI-2 accident went essentially unnoticed for the first few days. Even through the burn increased the containment gas temperature and pressure to 1200 0 F (650 0 C) and 29 lb/in 2 (200 kPa) gage, there was no serious threat to the containment building. The processes, rates, and quantities of hydrogen gas generated and removed during and following the LOCA are described in this report. In addition, the methods which were used to define the conditions that existed in the containment building before, during, and after the hydrogen burn are described. The results of data evaluations and engineering calculations are presented to show the pressure and temperature histories of the atmosphere in various containment segments during and after the burn. Material and equipment in reactor containment buildings can be protected from burn damage by the use of relatively simple enclosures or insulation

  12. Hydrogen generation behaviors of NaBH4-NH3BH3 composite by hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Wu, Chaoling; Chen, Yungui; Huang, Zhifen; Luo, Linshan; Wu, Haiwen; Liu, Peipei

    2014-09-01

    In this work, NH3BH3 (AB) is used to induce hydrogen generation during NaBH4 (SB) hydrolysis in order to reduce the use of catalysts, simplify the preparation process, reduce the cost and improve desorption kinetics and hydrogen capacity as well. xNaBH4-yNH3BH3 composites are prepared by ball-milling in different proportions (from x:y = 1:1 to 8:1). The experimental results demonstrate that all composites can release more than 90% of hydrogen at 70 °C within 1 h, and their hydrogen yields can reach 9 wt% (taking reacted water into account). Among them, the composites in the proportion of 4:1 and 5:1, whose hydrogen yields reach no less than 10 wt%, show the best hydrogen generation properties. This is due to the impact of the following aspects: AB additive improves the dispersibility of SB particles, makes the composite more porous, hampers the generated metaborate from adhering to the surface of SB, and decreases the pH value of the composite during hydrolysis. The main solid byproduct of this hydrolysis system is NaBO2·2H2O. By hydrolytic kinetic simulation of the composites, the fitted activation energies of the complexes are between 37.2 and 45.6 kJ mol-1, which are comparable to the catalytic system with some precious metals and alloys.

  13. Proceedings of the 2000 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    2000-11-01

    The 2000 US Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program Review was sponsored by the Office of Power Delivery Systems, Office of Power Technologies, US Department of Energy. The proceedings from this meeting serve as an important technology reference for the DOE Hydrogen Program. This document contains technical progress reports on research and technology validation projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program in Fiscal Year 2000. The growth of fuel cell technology will provide a basis for the establishment of the hydrogen option into both transportation and electricity supply markets.

  14. Stabilization of Wind Energy Conversion System with Hydrogen Generator by Using EDLC Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Seiji; Takahashi, Rion; Murata, Toshiaki; Tamura, Junji; Sugimasa, Masatoshi; Komura, Akiyoshi; Futami, Motoo; Ichinose, Masaya; Ide, Kazumasa

    The spread of wind power generation is progressed hugely in recent years from a viewpoint of environmental problems including global warming. Though wind power is considered as a very prospective energy source, wind power fluctuation due to the random fluctuation of wind speed has still created some problems. Therefore, research has been performed how to smooth the wind power fluctuation. This paper proposes Energy Capacitor System (ECS) for the smoothing of wind power which consists of Electric Double-Layer Capacitor (EDLC) and power electronics devices and works as an electric power storage system. Moreover, hydrogen has received much attention in recent years from a viewpoint of exhaustion problem of fossil fuel. Therefore it is also proposed that a hydrogen generator is installed at the wind farm to generate hydrogen. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed system is verified by the simulation analyses using PSCAD/EMTDC.

  15. Dye-Sensitized Photocatalytic Water Splitting and Sacrificial Hydrogen Generation: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chowdhury

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, global warming and green energy are important topics of discussion for every intellectual gathering all over the world. The only sustainable solution to these problems is the use of solar energy and storing it as hydrogen fuel. Photocatalytic and photo-electrochemical water splitting and sacrificial hydrogen generation show a promise for future energy generation from renewable water and sunlight. This article mainly reviews the current research progress on photocatalytic and photo-electrochemical systems focusing on dye-sensitized overall water splitting and sacrificial hydrogen generation. An overview of significant parameters including dyes, sacrificial agents, modified photocatalysts and co-catalysts are provided. Also, the significance of statistical analysis as an effective tool for a systematic investigation of the effects of different factors and their interactions are explained. Finally, different photocatalytic reactor configurations that are currently in use for water splitting application in laboratory and large scale are discussed.

  16. Hydrogen-oxygen steam generator applications for increasing the efficiency, maneuverability and reliability of power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Borzenko, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The comparative feasibility study of the energy storage technologies showed good applicability of hydrogen-oxygen steam generators (HOSG) based energy storage systems with large-scale hydrogen production. The developed scheme solutions for the use of HOSGs for thermal power (TPP) and nuclear power plants (NPP), and the feasibility analysis that have been carried out have shown that their use makes it possible to increase the maneuverability of steam turbines and provide backup power supply in the event of failure of the main steam generating equipment. The main design solutions for the integration of hydrogen-oxygen steam generators into the main power equipment of TPPs and NPPs, as well as their optimal operation modes, are considered.

  17. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer

    2012-05-03

    % total sugar concentration of sugar ... 107 cfu/ml, pH was nearly constant at 6.0, and finally the H2 was drifted to fuel cell to generate electrical power until 4 V ..... hybrid system, reverse micelles and by metabolic engi- neering.

  18. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2010 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held June 7-11, 2010 in Washington, D.C.

  19. DOE Hydrogen Program 2004 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-10-01

    This document summarizes the project evaluations and comments from the DOE Hydrogen Program 2004 Annual Program Review. Hydrogen production, delivery and storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; and education R&D projects funded by DOE in FY2004 are reviewed.

  20. Chemical Plant Accidents in a Nuclear Hydrogen Generation Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Revankar, Shripad T.

    2011-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear reactor (HTR) could be used to drive a steam reformation plant, a coal gasification facility, an electrolysis plant, or a thermochemical hydrogen production cycle. Most thermochemical cycles are purely thermodynamic, and thus achieve high thermodynamic efficiency. HTRs produce large amounts of heat at high temperature (1100 K). Helium-cooled HTRs have many passive, or inherent, safety characteristics. This inherent safety is due to the high design basis limit of the maximum fuel temperature. Due to the severity of a potential release, containment of fission products is the single most important safety issue in any nuclear reactor facility. A HTR coupled to a chemical plant presents a complex system, due primarily to the interactive nature of both plants. Since the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the nuclear reactor, it important to understand the interaction and feedback between the two systems. Process heat plants and HTRs are generally very different. Some of the major differences include: time constants of plants, safety standards, failure probability, and transient response. While both the chemical plant and the HTR are at advanced stages of testing individually, no serious effort has been made to understand the operation of the integrated system, especially during accident events that are initiated in the chemical plant. There is a significant lack of knowledge base regarding scaling and system integration for large scale process heat plants coupled to HTRs. Consideration of feedback between the two plants during time-dependent scenarios is absent from literature. Additionally, no conceptual studies of the accidents that could occur in either plant and impact the entire coupled system are present in literature

  1. Revalidation program for nuclear standby diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muschick, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the program which Duke Power Company carried out to revalidate the diesel engines used in diesel generators for nuclear standby service at Unit 1 of the Catawba Nuclear Station. The diesels operated satisfactorily during the tests, and only relatively minor conditions were noted during the test and inspections, with one exception. This exception was that cracks were detected in the piston skirts. The piston skirts have been replaced with improved design skirts. The diesels have been fully revalidated for their intended service, and have been declared operable

  2. Hydrogen Generation in Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis Cells Using a Heat-Regenerated Salt Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn

    2012-05-01

    Hydrogen gas can be electrochemically produced in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) using current derived from organic matter and salinity-gradient energy such as river water and seawater solutions. Here, it is shown that ammonium bicarbonate salts, which can be regenerated using low-temperature waste heat, can also produce sufficient voltage for hydrogen gas generation in an MREC. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 1.6 m3 H2/m3·d, with a hydrogen yield of 3.4 mol H2/mol acetate at a salinity ratio of infinite. Energy recovery was 10% based on total energy applied with an energy efficiency of 22% based on the consumed energy in the reactor. The cathode overpotential was dependent on the catholyte (sodium bicarbonate) concentration, but not the salinity ratio, indicating high catholyte conductivity was essential for maximizing hydrogen production rates. The direction of the HC and LC flows (co- or counter-current) did not affect performance in terms of hydrogen gas volume, production rates, or stack voltages. These results show that the MREC can be successfully operated using ammonium bicarbonate salts that can be regenerated using conventional distillation technologies and waste heat making the MREC a useful method for hydrogen gas production from wastes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Availability of steam generator against thermal disturbance of hydrogen production system coupled to HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Taiju; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Hada, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Shusaku

    1996-01-01

    One of the safety issues to couple a hydrogen production system to an HTGR is how the reactor coolability can be maintained against anticipated abnormal reduction of heat removal (thermal disturbance) of the hydrogen production system. Since such a thermal disturbance is thought to frequently occur, it is desired against the thermal disturbance to keep reactor coolability by means other than reactor scram. Also, it is thought that the development of a passive cooling system for such a thermal disturbance will be necessary from a public acceptance point of view in a future HTGR-hydrogen production system. We propose a SG as the passive cooling system which can keep the reactor coolability during a thermal disturbance of a hydrogen production system. This paper describes the proposed steam generator (SG) for the HTGR-hydrogen production system and a result of transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of the total system, showing availability of the SG against a thermal disturbance of the hydrogen production system in case of the HTTR-steam reforming hydrogen production system. (author)

  4. Coupling a PEM fuel cell and the hydrogen generation from aluminum waste cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Albanil Sanchez, Loyda; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. CP 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad, UPCH, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    High purity hydrogen was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide. The aluminum used in this study was obtained from empty soft drink cans and treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove the paint and plastic film. One gram of aluminum was reacted with a solution of 2moldm{sup -3} of sodium hydroxide to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen produced from aluminum cans and oxygen obtained from a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer or air, was fed to a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. Yields of 44 mmol of hydrogen contained in a volume of 1.760dm{sup 3} were produced from one gram of aluminum in a time period of 20 min. (author)

  5. Understanding oscillatory phenomena in molecular hydrogen generation via sodium borohydride hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budroni, M A; Biosa, E; Garroni, S; Mulas, G R C; Marchettini, N; Culeddu, N; Rustici, M

    2013-11-14

    The hydrolysis of borohydride salts represents one of the most promising processes for the generation of high purity molecular hydrogen under mild conditions. In this work we show that the sodium borohydride hydrolysis exhibits a fingerprinting periodic oscillatory transient in the hydrogen flow over a wide range of experimental conditions. We disproved the possibility that flow oscillations are driven by supersaturation phenomena of gaseous bubbles in the reactive mixture or by a nonlinear thermal feedback according to a thermokinetic model. Our experimental results indicate that the NaBH4 hydrolysis is a spontaneous inorganic oscillator, in which the hydrogen flow oscillations are coupled to an "oscillophor" in the reactive solution. The discovery of this original oscillator paves the way for a new class of chemical oscillators, with fundamental implications not only for testing the general theory on oscillations, but also with a view to chemical control of borohydride systems used as a source of hydrogen based green fuel.

  6. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  7. Mixing of radiolytic hydrogen generated within a containment compartment following a LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.; Gido, R.G.

    1978-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine hydrogen concentration variations with position and time in a closed containment compartment with radiolytic hydrogen generation in the water on the compartment floor following a Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA). One application is to determine the potential difference between the compartment maximum hydrogen concentration and a hydrogen detector reading, due to the detector location. Three possible mechanisms for hydrogen transport in the compartment were investigated: (1) molecular diffusion, (2) possible bubble formation and motion, and (3) natural convection flows. A base case cubic compartment with 6.55-m (21.5-ft) height was analyzed. Parameter studies were used to determine the sensitivity of results to compartment size, hydrogen generation rates, diffusion coefficients, and the temperature difference between the floor and the ceiling and walls of the compartment. Diffusion modeling indicates that if no other mixing mechanism is present for the base case, the maximum hydrogen volume percent (vol percent) concentration difference between the compartment floor and ceiling will be 4.8 percent. It will be 24.5 days before the maximum concentration difference is less than 0.5 percent. Bubbles do not appear to be a potential source of hydrogen pocketing in a containment compartment. Compartment natural convection circulation rates for a 2.8 K (5 0 F) temperature difference between the floor and the ceiling and walls are estimated to be at least the equivalent of 1 compartment volume per hour and probably in the range of 4 to 9 compartment volumes per hour. Related natural convection studies indicate there will be turbulent mixing in the compartment for a 2.8 K (5 0 F) temperature difference between the floor and the ceiling and walls

  8. Generation of oxy-hydrogen gas and its effect on performance of spark ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, N. N.; Chavan, C. B.; More, A. S.; Baskar, P.

    2017-11-01

    Considering the current scenario of petroleum fuels, it has been observed that, they will last for few years from now. On the other hand, the ever increasing cost of a gasoline fuels and their related adverse effects on environment caught the attention of researchers to find a supplementary source. For commercial fuels, supplementary source is not about replacing the entire fuel, instead enhancing efficiency by simply making use of it in lesser amount. From the recent research that has been carried out, focus on the use of Hydrogen rich gas as a supplementary source of fuel has increased. But the problem related to the storage of hydrogen gas confines the application of pure hydrogen in petrol engine. Using oxy-hydrogen gas (HHO) generator the difficulties of storing the hydrogen have overcome up to a certain limit. The present study highlights on performance evaluation of conventional petrol engine by using HHO gas as a supplementary fuel. HHO gas was generated from the electrolysis of water. KOH solution of 3 Molar concentration was used which act as a catalyst and accelerates the rate of generation of HHO gas. Quantity of gas to be supplied to the engine was controlled by varying amount of current. It was observed that, engine performance was improved on the introduction of HHO gas.

  9. Hydrogen generation in SRAT with nitric acid and late washing flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Melter feed preparation processes, incorporating a final wash of the precipitate slurry feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and a partial substitution of the SRAT formic acid requirement with nitric acid, should not produce peak hydrogen generation rates during Cold Chemical Runs (CCR's) and radioactive operation greater than their current, respective hydrogen design bases of 0.024 lb/hr and 1.5 lb/hr. A single SRAT bench-scale process simulation for CCR-s produced a DWPF equivalent peak hydrogen generation rate of 0.004 lb/hr. During radioactive operation, the peak hydrogen generation rate will be dependent on the extent DWPF deviates from the nominal precipitate hydrolysis and melter feed preparation process operating parameters. Two actual radioactive sludges were treated according to the new flowsheets. The peak hydrogen evolution rates were equivalent to 0.038 and 0.20 lb/hr (DWPF scale) respectively. Compared to the formic acid -- HAN hydrolysis flowsheets, these peak rates were reduced by a factor of 2.5 and 3.4 for Tank 15 and Tank 11 sludges, respectively

  10. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Hydrogen Generation Rate Measurement Apparatus Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    The generation rate of hydrogen gas in the Hanford tank waste will be measured during the qualification of the staged tank waste for processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Based on a review of past practices in measurement of the hydrogen generation, an apparatus to perform this measurement has been designed and tested for use during waste feed qualification. The hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus (HGRMA) described in this document utilized a 100 milliliter sample in a continuously-purged, continuously-stirred vessel, with measurement of hydrogen concentration in the vent gas. The vessel and lid had a combined 220 milliliters of headspace. The vent gas system included a small condenser to prevent excessive evaporative losses from the sample during the test, as well as a demister and filter to prevent particle migration from the sample to the gas chromatography system. The gas chromatograph was an on line automated instrument with a large-volume sample-injection system to allow measurement of very low hydrogen concentrations. This instrument automatically sampled the vent gas from the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus every five minutes and performed data regression in real time. The fabrication of the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus was in accordance with twenty three (23) design requirements documented in the conceptual design package, as well as seven (7) required developmental activities documented in the task plan associated with this work scope. The HGRMA was initially tested for proof of concept with physical simulants, and a remote demonstration of the system was performed in the Savannah River National Laboratory Shielded Cells Mockup Facility. Final verification testing was performed using non-radioactive simulants of the Hanford tank waste. Three different simulants were tested to bound the expected rheological properties expected during waste feed qualification testing. These

  11. Thermonuclear generation program: risks and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the fundamental concepts of risk and safety related to nuclear power generation. In the first chapter, a general evaluation of the various systems for energy generation and their environmental impacts is made. Some definitions for safety and risk are suggested, based on the already existing regulatory processes and also on the current tendencies of risk management. Aspects regarding the safety culture are commented. The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), a coherent and clear mechanism of communication between nuclear specialists and the general public, is analyzed. The second chapter examines the thermonuclear generation program in Brazil and the role of the National Nuclear Energy Commission. The third chapter presents national and international scenarios in terms of safety and risks, available policies and the main obstacles for future development of nuclear energy and nuclear engineering, and strategies are proposed. In the last chapter, comments about possible trends and recommendations related to practical risk management procedures, taking into account rational criteria for resources distribution and risk reduction are made, envisaging a closer integration between nuclear specialists and the society as a whole, thus decreasing the conflicts in a democratic decision-making process

  12. Start up system for hydrogen generator used with an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A hydrogen generator provides hydrogen rich product gases which are mixed with the fuel being supplied to an internal combustion engine for the purpose of enabling a very lean mixture of that fuel to be used, whereby nitrous oxides emitted by the engine are minimized. The hydrogen generator contains a catalyst which must be heated to a pre-determined temperature before it can react properly. To simplify the process of heating up the catalyst at start-up time, either some of the energy produced by the engine such as engine exhaust gas, or electrical energy produced by the engine, or the engine exhaust gas may be used to heat up air which is then used to heat the catalyst.

  13. Modeling the reaction kinetics of a hydrogen generator onboard a fuel cell -- Electric hybrid motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Karthik

    Owing to the perceived decline of the fossil fuel reserves in the world and environmental issues like pollution, conventional fuels may be replaced by cleaner alternative fuels. The potential of hydrogen as a fuel in vehicular applications is being explored. Hydrogen as an energy carrier potentially finds applications in internal combustion engines and fuel cells because it is considered a clean fuel and has high specific energy. However, at 6 to 8 per kilogram, not only is hydrogen produced from conventional methods like steam reforming expensive, but also there are storage and handling issues, safety concerns and lack of hydrogen refilling stations across the country. The purpose of this research is to suggest a cheap and viable system that generates hydrogen on demand through a chemical reaction between an aluminum-water slurry and an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to power a 2 kW fuel cell on a fuel cell hybrid motorcycle. This reaction is essentially an aluminum-water reaction where sodium hydroxide acts as a reaction promoter or catalyst. The Horizon 2000 fuel cell used for this purpose has a maximum hydrogen intake rate of 28 lpm. The study focuses on studying the exothermic reaction between the reactants and proposes a rate law that best describes the rate of generation of hydrogen in connection to the surface area of aluminum available for the certain reaction and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Further, the proposed rate law is used in the simulation model of the chemical reactor onboard the hybrid motorcycle to determine the hydrogen flow rate to the fuel cell with time. Based on the simulated rate of production of hydrogen from the chemical system, its feasibility of use on different drive cycles is analyzed. The rate of production of hydrogen with a higher concentration of sodium hydroxide and smaller aluminum powder size was found to enable the installation of the chemical reactor on urban cycles with frequent stops and starts

  14. Sizing Hydrogen Energy Storage in Consideration of Demand Response in Highly Renewable Generation Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubbashir Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From an environment perspective, the increased penetration of wind and solar generation in power systems is remarkable. However, as the intermittent renewable generation briskly grows, electrical grids are experiencing significant discrepancies between supply and demand as a result of limited system flexibility. This paper investigates the optimal sizing and control of the hydrogen energy storage system for increased utilization of renewable generation. Using a Finnish case study, a mathematical model is presented to investigate the optimal storage capacity in a renewable power system. In addition, the impact of demand response for domestic storage space heating in terms of the optimal sizing of energy storage is discussed. Finally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to observe the impact of a small share of controllable baseload production as well as the oversizing of renewable generation in terms of required hydrogen storage size.

  15. Hydrogen generation comparison between lead-calcium and lead-antimony batteries in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongjun; Qi Suoni; Shen Yan; Li Jia

    2014-01-01

    Battery type selection is performed with the help of technical information supplied by vendors, and according to relevant criteria. Analysis and comparison of the hydrogen generation differences between two different lead-acid battery types are carried out through calculation. The analysis result may provide suggestions for battery type selection in nuclear power plant. (authors)

  16. Transport of high fluxes of hydrogen plasma in a linear plasma generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijvers, W.A.J.; Al, R.S.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Goedheer, W.J.; Groot, de B.; Kleyn, A.W.; Meiden, van der H.J.; Peppel, van de R.J.E.; Schram, D.C.; Shumack, A.E.; Westerhout, J.; Rooij, van G.J.; Schmidt, J.; Simek, M.; Pekarek, S.; Prukner, V.

    2007-01-01

    A study was made to quantify the losses during the convective hydrogen plasma transport in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI due to volume recombination. A transport efficiency of 35% was achieved at neutral background pressures below ~7 Pa in a magnetic field of 1.2 T. This efficiency decreased

  17. Low-level hydrogen peroxide generation by unbleached cotton nonwovens: implications for wound healing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greige cotton is an intact plant fiber. The cuticle and primary cell wall near the outer surface of the cotton fiber contains pectin, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and trace metals, which are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation during cotton fiber development. The compon...

  18. Turning the wind into hydrogen: The long-run impact on electricity prices and generating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Richard; Hu, Helen; Vasilakos, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen production via electrolysis has been proposed as a way of absorbing the fluctuating electricity generated by wind power, potentially allowing the use of cheap electricity at times when it would otherwise be in surplus. We show that large-scale adoption of electrolysers would change the shape of the load-duration curve for electricity, affecting the optimal capacity mix. Nuclear power stations will replace gas-fired power stations, as they are able to run for longer periods of time. Changes in the electricity capacity mix will be much greater than changes to the pattern of prices. The long-run supply price of hydrogen will thus tend to be insensitive to the amount produced. - Research Highlights: → Hydrogen production from electrolysis may offset intermittent wind generation. → The generation capacity mix will change in response to changed demand patterns. → The long-run equilibrium supply curve for hydrogen will be quite flat. → The production cost will be very sensitive to fuel prices paid by generators.

  19. Porous layered double hydroxides synthesized using oxygen generated by decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, P.; de Ruiter, M.P.; Wijnands, Tom; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2017-01-01

    Porous magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH) were prepared through intercalation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This process generates oxygen gas nano-bubbles that pierce holes in the layered structure of the material by local pressure build-up. The decomposition of the

  20. ZIF-8 immobilized nickel nanoparticles: highly effective catalysts for hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of ammonia borane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Zhou; Aranishi, Kengo; Xu, Qiang

    2012-03-28

    Highly dispersed Ni nanoparticles have been successfully immobilized by the zeolitic metal-organic framework ZIF-8 via sequential deposition-reduction methods, which show high catalytic activity and long durability for hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of aqueous ammonia borane (NH(3)BH(3)) at room temperature. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  1. Microbial Photoelectrosynthesis for Self-Sustaining Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Williams, Nicholas B; Turner, John A; Maness, Pin-Ching; Gu, Jing; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2017-11-21

    Current artificial photosynthesis (APS) systems are promising for the storage of solar energy via transportable and storable fuels, but the anodic half-reaction of water oxidation is an energy intensive process which in many cases poorly couples with the cathodic half-reaction. Here we demonstrate a self-sustaining microbial photoelectrosynthesis (MPES) system that pairs microbial electrochemical oxidation with photoelectrochemical water reduction for energy efficient H 2 generation. MPES reduces the overall energy requirements thereby greatly expanding the range of semiconductors that can be utilized in APS. Due to the recovery of chemical energy from waste organics by the mild microbial process and utilization of cost-effective and stable catalyst/electrode materials, our MPES system produced a stable current of 0.4 mA/cm 2 for 24 h without any external bias and ∼10 mA/cm 2 with a modest bias under one sun illumination. This system also showed other merits, such as creating benefits of wastewater treatment and facile preparation and scalability.

  2. Fuel processor and method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir [Naperville, IL; Lee, Sheldon H. D. [Willowbrook, IL; Carter, John David [Bolingbrook, IL; Krumpelt, Michael [Naperville, IL; Myers, Deborah J [Lisle, IL

    2009-07-21

    A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

  3. Evaluation of the pressure loads generated by hydrogen explosion in auxiliary nuclear building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Bentaib; Alexandre Bleyer; Pierre Pailhories; Jean-Pierre L'heriteau; Bernard Chaumont; Jerome Dupas; Jerome Riviere

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of nuclear safety, a hydrogen leaks in the auxiliary nuclear building would raise a explosion hazard. A local ignition of the combustible mixture would give birth initially to a slow flame, rapidly accelerated by obstacles. This flame acceleration is responsible for high pressure loads that can damage the auxiliary building and destroy safety equipments in it. In this paper, we evaluate the pressure loads generated by an hydrogen explosion for both bounding and realistic explosion scenarios. The bounding scenarios use stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures and the realistic scenarios correspond to hydrogen leaks with mass flow rate varying between 1 g/s and 9 g/s. For every scenario, the impact of the ignition location and ignition time are investigated. The hydrogen dispersion and explosion are computed using the TONUS code. The dispersion model used is based on a finite element solver and the explosion is simulated by a structured finite volumes EULER equation solver and the combustion model CREBCOM which simulates the hydrogen/air turbulent flame propagation, taking into account 3D complex geometry and reactants concentration gradients. The pressure loads computed are then used to investigate the occurrence of a mechanical failure of the tanks located in the auxiliary nuclear building and containing radioactive fluids. The EUROPLEXUS code is used to perform 3D mechanical calculations because the loads are non uniform and of rather short deviation. (authors)

  4. Investigation of Iron Oxide Morphology in a Cyclic Redox Water Splitting Process for Hydrogen Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Bobek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A solar fuels generation research program is focused on hydrogen production by means of reactive metal water splitting in a cyclic iron-based redox process. Iron-based oxides are explored as an intermediary reactive material to dissociate water molecules at significantly reduced thermal energies. With a goal of studying the resulting oxide chemistry and morphology, chemical assistance via CO is used to complete the redox cycle. In order to exploit the unique characteristics of highly reactive materials at the solar reactor scale, a monolithic laboratory scale reactor has been designed to explore the redox cycle at temperatures ranging from 675 to 875 K. Using high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, the oxide morphology and the oxide state are quantified, including spatial distributions. These images show the change of the oxide layers directly after oxidation and after reduction. The findings show a significant non-stoichiometric O/Fe gradient in the atomic ratio following oxidation, which is consistent with a previous kinetics model, and a relatively constant, non-stoichiometric O/Fe atomic ratio following reduction.

  5. Hydrogen generation from natural gas for the fuel cell systems of tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Andrew L.

    In most cases hydrogen is the preferred fuel for use in the present generation of fuel cells being developed for commercial applications. Of all the potential sources of hydrogen, natural gas offers many advantages. It is widely available, clean, and can be converted to hydrogen relatively easily. When catalytic steam reforming is used to generate hydrogen from natural gas, it is essential that sulfur compounds in the natural gas are removed upstream of the reformer and various types of desulfurisation processes are available. In addition, the quality of fuel required for each type of fuel cell varies according to the anode material used, and the cell temperature. Low temperature cells will not tolerate high concentrations of carbon monoxide, whereas the molten fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes contain nickel on which it is possible to electrochemically oxidise carbon monoxide directly. The ability to internally reform fuel gas is a feature of the MCFC and SOFC. Internal reforming can give benefits in terms of increased electrical efficiency owing to the reduction in the required cell cooling and therefore parasitic system losses. Direct electrocatalysis of hydrocarbon oxidation has been the elusive goal of fuel cell developers over many years and recent laboratory results are encouraging. This paper reviews the principal methods of converting natural gas into hydrogen, namely catalytic steam reforming, autothermic reforming, pyrolysis and partial oxidation; it reviews currently available purification techniques and discusses some recent advances in internal reforming and the direct use of natural gas in fuel cells.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide generation in shipboard oily-water waste. Part 3. Ship factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgeman, D.K.; Fletcher, L.E.; Upsher, F.J.

    1995-04-01

    The chemical and microbiological composition of bilge-water in ships of the Royal Australian Navy has been investigated in relation to the formation of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were found in most ships in populations up to 800,000 per mL. Sulfate in the wastes is provided by sea-water. Sea-water constitutes up to 60% (median 20%) of the wastes analysed. Evidence for generation of hydrogen sulfide in the ships was found directly as sulfide or indirectly as depressed sulfate concentrations. The low levels of sulfide found in bilge-water from machinery spaces suggested the ventilation systems were effectively removing the gas from the working area. The effect of storage of the wastes under conditions which simulated the oily- water holding tanks of ships were also investigated. Some wastes were found to produce large quantities of hydrogen sulfide on storage. The wastes that failed to produce hydrogen sulfide were investigated to identify any specific nutritional deficiencies. Some organic substances present in bilge-water, such as lactate or biodegradable cleaning agents, and phosphate strongly influenced the generation of hydrogen sulfide in stored oily-water wastes.

  7. Origin of excess heat generated during loading Pd-impregnated alumina powder with deuterium and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriyeva, O., E-mail: olga.dmitriyeva@colorado.edu [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0425 (United States); Coolescence LLC, 2450 Central Ave Ste F, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Cantwell, R.; McConnell, M. [Coolescence LLC, 2450 Central Ave Ste F, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Moddel, G. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0425 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied heat produced by hydrogen and deuterium in Pd-impregnated alumina powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples were fabricated using light and heavy water isotopes and varied the gas used for loading. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of hydrogen and deuterium influenced the amount of heat released or consumed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pd nanoparticles appear to catalyze hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange chemical reactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous heating can be accounted for by chemical rather than nuclear reactions. - Abstract: We studied heat production in Pd-impregnated alumina powder in the presence of hydrogen and deuterium gases, investigating claims of anomalous heat generated as a result of nuclear fusion, usually referred to as a low energy nuclear reaction (LENR). By selecting the water isotope used to fabricate the material and then varying the gas used for loading, we were able to influence the amount of heat released or consumed. We suggest that Pd in its nanoparticle form catalyzes hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions in the material. This hypothesis is supported by heat measurements, residual gas analysis (RGA) data, and calculations of energy available from H/D exchange reactions. Based on the results we conclude that the origin of the anomalous heat generated during deuterium loading of Pd-enriched alumina powder is chemical rather than nuclear.

  8. Origin of excess heat generated during loading Pd-impregnated alumina powder with deuterium and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriyeva, O.; Cantwell, R.; McConnell, M.; Moddel, G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied heat produced by hydrogen and deuterium in Pd-impregnated alumina powder. ► Samples were fabricated using light and heavy water isotopes and varied the gas used for loading. ► Incorporation of hydrogen and deuterium influenced the amount of heat released or consumed. ► Pd nanoparticles appear to catalyze hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange chemical reactions. ► Anomalous heating can be accounted for by chemical rather than nuclear reactions. - Abstract: We studied heat production in Pd-impregnated alumina powder in the presence of hydrogen and deuterium gases, investigating claims of anomalous heat generated as a result of nuclear fusion, usually referred to as a low energy nuclear reaction (LENR). By selecting the water isotope used to fabricate the material and then varying the gas used for loading, we were able to influence the amount of heat released or consumed. We suggest that Pd in its nanoparticle form catalyzes hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions in the material. This hypothesis is supported by heat measurements, residual gas analysis (RGA) data, and calculations of energy available from H/D exchange reactions. Based on the results we conclude that the origin of the anomalous heat generated during deuterium loading of Pd-enriched alumina powder is chemical rather than nuclear.

  9. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Definition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.

  10. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The fuel cell is the most efficient device for the conversion of hydrogen fuel to electric power. As such, the fuel cell represents a key element in efforts to demonstrate and implement hydrogen fuel utilization for electric power generation. The low temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has recently been identified as an attractive option for stationary power generation, based on the relatively simple and benign materials employed, the zero-emission character of the device, and the expected high power density, high reliability and low cost. However, a PEMFC stack fueled by hydrogen with the combined properties of low cost, high performance and high reliability has not yet been demonstrated. Demonstration of such a stack will remove a significant barrier to implementation of this advanced technology for electric power generation from hydrogen. Work done in the past at LANL on the development of components and materials, particularly on advanced membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs), has contributed significantly to the capability to demonstrate in the foreseeable future a PEMFC stack with the combined characteristics described above. A joint effort between LANL and an industrial stack manufacturer will result in the demonstration of such a fuel cell stack for stationary power generation. The stack could operate on hydrogen fuel derived from either natural gas or from renewable sources. The technical plan includes collaboration with a stack manufacturer (CRADA). It stresses the special requirements from a PEMFC in stationary power generation, particularly maximization of the energy conversion efficiency, extension of useful life to the 10 hours time scale and tolerance to impurities from the reforming of natural gas.

  11. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2011-09-29

    The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector

  12. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    In the past year, the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program (the Program) made substantial progress toward its goals and objectives. The Program has conducted comprehensive and focused efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. With emphasis on applications that will effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment, the Program engages in research, development, and demonstration of critical improvements in the technologies. Highlights of the Program's accomplishments can be found in the sub-program chapters of this report.

  13. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation over Eosin Y-Sensitized TS-1 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaojie; Jin Zhiliang; Li Yuexiang; Li Shuben; Lu Gongxuan

    2008-01-01

    Eosin Y-sensitized TS-1 zeolite was studied for the photo-reduction of water into hydrogen driven by visible light (λ ≥ 420 nm). The optimal pH and weight ratio between Eosin Y and TS-1 zeolite is 7 and 1/8, respectively. In the presence of triethanolamine (TEA) as an electron donor, the highest rate of hydrogen generation and apparent quantum efficiency are 34 μmol h -1 and 9.4%, respectively, under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). Short-term stability test indicates that the catalyst is rather stable during 50 h photoreaction

  14. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation over Eosin Y-Sensitized TS-1 zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaojie [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Zhong Road 18, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Jin Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Zhong Road 18, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li Yuexiang [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanjing Road 245, Nanchang 330047 (China); Li Shuben [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Zhong Road 18, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lu Gongxuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianshui Zhong Road 18, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: gxlu@lzb.ac.cn

    2008-05-30

    Eosin Y-sensitized TS-1 zeolite was studied for the photo-reduction of water into hydrogen driven by visible light ({lambda} {>=} 420 nm). The optimal pH and weight ratio between Eosin Y and TS-1 zeolite is 7 and 1/8, respectively. In the presence of triethanolamine (TEA) as an electron donor, the highest rate of hydrogen generation and apparent quantum efficiency are 34 {mu}mol h{sup -1} and 9.4%, respectively, under visible light irradiation ({lambda} {>=} 420 nm). Short-term stability test indicates that the catalyst is rather stable during 50 h photoreaction.

  15. Carbon-supported cobalt catalyst for hydrogen generation from alkaline sodium borohydride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongyan; Liu, Xinmin; Cao, Changqing; Guo, Qingjie [College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Dai, Ping [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2008-08-01

    Low cost transition metal catalysts with high performance are attractive for the development of on-board hydrogen generation systems by catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) in fuel cell fields. In this study, hydrogen production from alkaline NaBH{sub 4} via hydrolysis process over carbon-supported cobalt catalysts was studied. The catalytic activity of the supported cobalt catalyst was found to be highly dependent on the calcination temperatures. The hydrogen generation rate increases with calcination temperatures in the range of 200-400 C, but a high calcination temperature above 500 C led to markedly decreased activity. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the catalysts experience phase transition from amorphous Co-B to crystalline cobalt hydroxide with increase in calcination temperatures. The reaction performance is also dependent on the concentration of NaBH{sub 4}, and the hydrogen generation rate increases for lower NaBH{sub 4} concentrations and decreases after reaching a maximum at 10 wt.% of NaBH{sub 4}. (author)

  16. Comparative study of the hydrogen generation during short term station blackout (STSBO) in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo-Labarrios, M.A.; Espinosa-Paredes, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparative study of generation in a simulated STSBO severe accident. • MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 codes were used to understanding the main phenomena. • Both codes present similar thermal-hydraulic behavior for pressure and boil off. • SCDAP/RELAP5 predicts 15.8% lower hydrogen production than MELCOR. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the comparative study of hydrogen generation and the associated parameters in a simulated severe accident of a short-term station blackout (STSBO) in a typical BWR-5 with Mark-II containment. MELCOR (v.1.8.6) and SCDAP/RELAP5 (Mod.3.4) codes were used to understand the main phenomena in the STSBO event through the results comparison obtained from simulations with these codes. Due that the simulation scope of SCDAP/RELAP5 is limited to failure of the vessel pressure boundary, the comparison was focused on in-vessel severe accident phenomena; with a special interest in the vessel pressure, boil of cooling, core temperature, and hydrogen generation. The results show that at the beginning of the scenario, both codes present similar thermal-hydraulic behavior for pressure and boil off of cooling, but during the relocation, the pressure and boil off, present differences in timing and order of magnitude. Both codes predict in similar time the beginning of melting material drop to the lower head. As far as the hydrogen production rate, SCDAP/RELAP5 predicts 15.8% lower production than MELCOR

  17. Ultra slow muon generation and thermionic emission of hydrogen isotopes from tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuhiro

    2000-01-01

    To generate ultra slow muon, we developed Lyman α light (Lα light) resonance ionization method using 1s-2p-unbound transition. By this method, the desorption process of hydrogen isotope and hydrogen atom generation were studied. In order to generate T atom, the laser resonance ionization of hydrogen nucleus was investigated. When wavelength of VUV light was fixed to 121.52 nm, 1s-2p resonance frequency of T, and VUV light agreed with 355 nm ionization laser in space and time, promising event was observed. The fact showed the resonance ionization method could isolate and detect T atom. By the same method, the experiment of H and D atom were carried out under the condition of the same wavelength of VUV light of 121.57 and 121.53 nm of Lα light, respectively, and the same results were obtained. On the Mu resonance ionization experiment, the light wavelength of VUV was 122.09 nm of Lα of muonium. The results showed the promising event was observed on the expected position of TOF and Mass. The resonance ionization method using Lα light of hydrogen isotope on tungsten film is a very useful method to separate Mu, H, D and T under the same experiment conditions without wavelength of VUV light. (S.Y.)

  18. Modeling of hydrogen/deuterium dynamics and heat generation on palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Tanabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium adsorbed on palladium nanoparticles including the heat generation induced by the chemical adsorption and desorption, as well as palladium-catalyzed reactions. Our calculations based on the proposed model reproduce the experimental time-evolution of pressure and temperature with a single set of fitting parameters for hydrogen and deuterium injection. The model we generated with a highly generalized set of formulations can be applied for any combination of a gas species and a catalytic adsorbent/absorbent. Our model can be used as a basis for future research into hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion technologies.

  19. Modeling of hydrogen/deuterium dynamics and heat generation on palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    We modeled the dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium adsorbed on palladium nanoparticles including the heat generation induced by the chemical adsorption and desorption, as well as palladium-catalyzed reactions. Our calculations based on the proposed model reproduce the experimental time-evolution of pressure and temperature with a single set of fitting parameters for hydrogen and deuterium injection. The model we generated with a highly generalized set of formulations can be applied for any combination of a gas species and a catalytic adsorbent/absorbent. Our model can be used as a basis for future research into hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion technologies.

  20. Large area imaging of hydrogenous materials using fast neutrons from a DD fusion generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, J.T., E-mail: ted@adelphitech.com [Adelphi Technology Inc., 2003 East Bayshore Road, Redwood City, California 94063 (United States); Williams, D.L.; Gary, C.K.; Piestrup, M.A.; Faber, D.R.; Fuller, M.J.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Apodaca, M. [Adelphi Technology Inc., 2003 East Bayshore Road, Redwood City, California 94063 (United States); Pantell, R.H.; Feinstein, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2012-05-21

    A small-laboratory fast-neutron generator and a large area detector were used to image hydrogen-bearing materials. The overall image resolution of 2.5 mm was determined by a knife-edge measurement. Contact images of objects were obtained in 5-50 min exposures by placing them close to a plastic scintillator at distances of 1.5 to 3.2 m from the neutron source. The generator produces 10{sup 9} n/s from the DD fusion reaction at a small target. The combination of the DD-fusion generator and electronic camera permits both small laboratory and field-portable imaging of hydrogen-rich materials embedded in high density materials.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar-based multi-generation system with hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Murat; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of a renewable-based multi-generation energy production system which produces a number of outputs, such as power, heating, cooling, hot water, hydrogen and oxygen is conducted. This solar-based multi-generation system consists of four main sub-systems: Rankine cycle, organic Rankine cycle, absorption cooling and heating, and hydrogen production and utilization. Exergy destruction ratios and rates, power or heat transfer rates, energy and exergy efficiencies of the system components are carried out. Some parametric studies are performed in order to examine the effects of varying operating conditions (e.g., reference temperature, direct solar radiation and receiver temperature) on the exergy efficiencies of the sub-systems as well as the whole system. The solar-based multi-generation system which has an exergy efficiency of 57.35%, is obtained to be higher than using these sub-systems separately. The evaluation of the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction for the sub-systems and the overall system show that the parabolic dish collectors have the highest exergy destruction rate among constituent parts of the solar-based multi-generation system, due to high temperature difference between the working fluid and collector receivers. -- Highlights: ► Development of a new multi-generation system for solar-based hydrogen production. ► Investigation of exergy efficiencies and destructions in each process of the system. ► Evaluation of varying operating conditions on the exergy destruction and efficiency

  2. Hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of sodium borohydride using Ru(0) nanoclusters as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkar, S.; Zahmakiran, M.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium borohydride is stable in aqueous alkaline solution, however, it hydrolyses in water to hydrogen gas in the presence of suitable catalyst. By this way hydrogen can be generated safely for the fuel cells. Generating H 2 catalytically from NaBH 4 solutions has many advantages: NaBH 4 solutions are nonflammable, reaction products are environmentally benign, rate of H 2 generation is easily controlled, the reaction product NaBO 2 can be recycled, H 2 can be generated even at low temperatures. All of the catalysts that has been used in hydrolysis of sodium borohydride are bulk metals and they act as heterogeneous catalysts. The limited surface area of the heterogeneous catalysts causes lower catalytic activity as the activity of catalyst is directly related to its surface area. Thus, the use of metal nanoparticles with large surface area provides potential route to increase the catalytic activity. Here, we report, for the first time, the use of ruthenium(0) nanoclusters as catalyst in the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride liberating hydrogen gas. The ruthenium nanoparticles are generated from the reduction of ruthenium(III) chloride by sodium borohydride in water and stabilized by specific ligand. The ruthenium(0) nanoclusters are found to be highly active catalyst for the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride

  3. Alkali free hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen generation under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.J.F.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Gales, L. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto and Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, V.R.; Rangel, C.M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia - LNEG, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit Estrada do Paco do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-09-15

    The present study is related with the production of hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}), at elevated pressures and with high gravimetric storage density, to supply a PEM fuel cell on-demand. To achieve this goal, solid sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) was mixed with a proper amount of a powder reused nickel-ruthenium based catalyst (Ni-Ru based/NaBH{sub 4}: 0.2 and 0.4 g/g; {approx}150 times reused) inside the bottom of a batch reactor. Then, a stoichiometric amount of pure liquid water (H{sub 2}O/NaBH{sub 4}: 2-8 mol/mol) was added and the catalyzed NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis evolved, in the absence of an alkali inhibitor. In this way, this research work is designated alkali free hydrolysis of NaBH{sub 4} for H{sub 2} generation. This type of hydrolysis is excellent from an environmental point of view because it does not involve strongly caustic solutions. Experiments were performed in three batch reactors with internal volumes 646, 369 and 229 cm{sup 3}, and having different bottom geometries (flat and conical shapes). The H{sub 2} generated was a function of the added water and completion was achieved with H{sub 2}O/NaBH{sub 4} = 8 mol/mol. The results show that hydrogen yields and rates increase remarkably increasing both system temperature and pressure. Reactor bottom shape influences deeply H{sub 2} generation: the conical bottom shape greatly enhances the rate and practically eliminates the reaction induction time. Our system of compressed hydrogen generation up to 1.26 MPa shows 6.3 wt% and 70 kg m{sup -3}, respectively, for gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities (materials-only basis) and therefore is a viable hydrogen storage candidate for portable applications. (author)

  4. Stand alone solution for generation and storage of hydrogen and electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gany, Alon; Elitzur, Shani; Valery

    2015-01-01

    A novel method enabling safe, simple, and controllable production, storage, and use of hydrogen as well as compact electric energy storage and generation via hydrogen- oxygen fuel cells has been developed. The technology indicates, in our opinion, a significant milestone in the search for practical utilization of hydrogen as an alternative energy source. It consists of an original thermal-chemical treatment / activation of aluminum powders to react spontaneously with water to produce hydrogen at regular conditions according to the reaction Al+3H 2 O=Al (OH) 3 +3/2H 2 . Only about 1-2% of lithium, based activator is applied, and any type of water including tap water, sea water and waste water may be used, making the method attractive for variety of applications. 11% of hydrogen compared to the aluminum mass can be obtained, and our experiments reveal 90% reaction yield and more. The technology has a clear advantage over batteries, providing specific electric energy of over 2 kW h/kg Al, 5-10 times greater than that of commonly used lithium-ion batteries. Combined with a fuel cell it may be particularly beneficial for stand-alone electric power generators, where there is no access to the grid. Such applications include emergency generators (e.g., in hospitals), electricity backup systems, and power generation in remote communication posts. Automotive applications may be considered as well. The technology provides green electric energy and quiet operation as well as additional heat energy resulting mainly from the exothermic aluminum-water reaction. (full text)

  5. Hydrogen Generation by Koh-Ethanol Plasma Electrolysis Using Double Compartement Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksono, Nelson; Sasiang, Johannes; Dewi Rosalina, Chandra; Budikania, Trisutanti

    2018-03-01

    This study has successfully investigated the generation of hydrogen using double compartment reactor with plasma electrolysis process. Double compartment reactor is designed to achieve high discharged voltage, high concentration, and also reduce the energy consumption. The experimental results showed the use of double compartment reactor increased the productivity ratio 90 times higher compared to Faraday electrolysis process. The highest hydrogen production obtained is 26.50 mmol/min while the energy consumption can reach up 1.71 kJ/mmol H2 at 0.01 M KOH solution. It was shown that KOH concentration, addition of ethanol, cathode depth, and temperature have important effects on hydrogen production, energy consumption, and process efficiency.

  6. Development of a low-cost oxy-hydrogen bio-fuel cell for generation of electricity using Nostoc as a source of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeeta Dawar; Behera, B.K. [Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (India). Dept. of Biosciences; Prasanna Mohanty [Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences

    1998-10-10

    An oxy-hydrogen bio-fuel cell, based on a carbon-carbon electrode has been fabricated. The electrode pellets were prepared by taking carbon powder mixed with polyvinylalcohol as a binder. The anode was charged with Co-Al spinel mixed oxide at 700{sup o}C, 30% KOH acted as an electrolyte. For the cyanobacterial bioreactor, a potential heterocystous blue green alga of Nostoc spp. has been used for hydrogen production and electrical energy generation. Various nutrient enrichment techniques are employed to increase the hydrogen generation efficiency of the algae. One litre free cell algal reactor attached to the fuel cell, at the anode end for hydrogen gas input, generated about 300 mV of voltage and 100 mA of current. Our present findings on the development of a low cost fuel cell with high efficiency of current output may be helpful in commercializing this technology. (author)

  7. Ratio of tritiated water and hydrogen generated in mercury through a nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: manabe.kentaro@jaea.go.jp; Yokoyama, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    Tritium generated in a mercury target is a source of potential exposure of personnel at high-energy accelerator facilities. Knowledge of the chemical form of tritium is necessary to estimate the internal doses. We studied the tritium generation upon thermal neutron irradiation of a mercury target modified into liquid lithium amalgam to examine the ratio of tritiated water ([{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}O) and tritiated hydrogen ([{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}). The ratio between [{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}O and [{sup 3}H]H{sub 2} generated in lithium amalgam was 4:6 under these experimental conditions.

  8. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2007 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2007, in Washington, D.C. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  9. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2006 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2006-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 16-19, 2006, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  10. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2005 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S. G.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 23-26, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  11. The hydrogen and the fuel cells in the world. Programs and evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchese, P.

    2008-01-01

    HyPac is a french platform on the hydrogen and fuel cells, created in 2008. The author presents the opportunity of such a platform facing the world research programs and other existing platforms. (A.L.B.)

  12. CRYOCOL a computer program to calculate the cryogenic distillation of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes the computer model and mathematical method coded into the AECL Research computer program CRYOCOL. The purpose of CRYOCOL is to calculate the separation of hydrogen isotopes by cryogenic distillation. (Author)

  13. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from water under visible light using core/shell nano-catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Shih, K; Li, X Y

    2010-01-01

    A microemulsion technique was employed to synthesize nano-sized photocatalysts with a core (CdS)/shell (ZnS) structure. The primary particles of the photocatalysts were around 10 nm, and the mean size of the catalyst clusters in water was about 100 nm. The band gaps of the catalysts ranged from 2.25 to 2.46 eV. The experiments of photocatalytic H(2) generation showed that the catalysts (CdS)(x)/(ZnS)(1-x) with x ranging from 0.1 to 1 were able to produce hydrogen from water photolysis under visible light. The catalyst with x=0.9 had the highest rate of hydrogen production. The catalyst loading density also influenced the photo-hydrogen production rate, and the best catalyst concentration in water was 1 g L(-1). The stability of the nano-catalysts in terms of size, morphology and activity was satisfactory during an extended test period for a specific hydrogen production rate of 2.38 mmol g(-1) L(-1) h(-1) and a quantum yield of 16.1% under visible light (165 W Xe lamp, lambda>420 nm). The results demonstrate that the (CdS)/(ZnS) core/shell nano-particles are a novel photo-catalyst for renewable hydrogen generation from water under visible light. This is attributable to the large band-gap ZnS shell that separates the electron/hole pairs generated by the CdS core and hence reduces their recombinations.

  14. Hydrogen generation from deliquescence of ammonia borane using Ni-Co/r-GO catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chang-Chen; Chen, Bing-Hung

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen generation from the catalyzed deliquescence/hydrolysis of ammonia borane (AB) using the Ni-Co catalyst supported on the graphene oxide (Ni-Co/r-GO catalyst) under the conditions of limited water supply was studied with the molar feed ratio of water to ammonia borane (denoted as H2O/AB) at 2.02, 3.97 and 5.93, respectively. The conversion efficiency of ammonia borane to hydrogen was estimated both from the cumulative volume of the hydrogen gas generated and the conversion of boron chemistry in the hydrolysates analyzed by the solid-state 11B NMR. The conversion efficiency of ammonia borane could reach nearly 100% under excess water dosage, that is, H2O/AB = 3.97 and 5.93. Notably, the hydrogen storage capacity could reach as high as 6.5 wt.% in the case with H2O/AB = 2.02. The hydrolysates of ammonia borane in the presence of Ni-Co/r-GO catalyst were mainly the mixture of boric acid and metaborate according to XRD, FT-IR and solid-state 11B NMR analyses.

  15. Rapid hydrogen gas generation using reactive thermal decomposition of uranium hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Van Blarigan, Peter; Robinson, David B.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Buffleben, George M.; James, Scott Carlton; Mills, Bernice E.

    2011-09-01

    Oxygen gas injection has been studied as one method for rapidly generating hydrogen gas from a uranium hydride storage system. Small scale reactors, 2.9 g UH{sub 3}, were used to study the process experimentally. Complimentary numerical simulations were used to better characterize and understand the strongly coupled chemical and thermal transport processes controlling hydrogen gas liberation. The results indicate that UH{sub 3} and O{sub 2} are sufficiently reactive to enable a well designed system to release gram quantities of hydrogen in {approx} 2 seconds over a broad temperature range. The major system-design challenge appears to be heat management. In addition to the oxidation tests, H/D isotope exchange experiments were performed. The rate limiting step in the overall gas-to-particle exchange process was found to be hydrogen diffusion in the {approx}0.5 {mu}m hydride particles. The experiments generated a set of high quality experimental data; from which effective intra-particle diffusion coefficients can be inferred.

  16. Hydrogen generation from water using Mg nanopowder produced by arc plasma method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Uda, Hideo Okuyama, Tohru S Suzuki and Yoshio Sakka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that hydrogen gas can be easily produced from water at room temperature using a Mg nanopowder (30–1000 nm particles, average diameter 265 nm. The Mg nanopowder was produced by dc arc melting of a Mg ingot in a chamber with mixed-gas atmosphere (20% N2–80% Ar at 0.1 MPa using custom-built nanopowder production equipment. The Mg nanopowder was passivated with a gas mixture of 1% O2 in Ar for 12 h in the final step of the synthesis, after which the nanopowder could be safely handled in ambient air. The nanopowder vigorously reacted with water at room temperature, producing 110 ml of hydrogen gas per 1 g of powder in 600 s. This amount corresponds to 11% of the hydrogen that could be generated by the stoichiometric reaction between Mg and water. Mg(OH2 flakes formed on the surface of the Mg particles as a result of this reaction. They easily peeled off, and the generation of hydrogen continued until all the Mg was consumed.

  17. A strategy for automatically generating programs in the lucid programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for automatically generating and verifying simple computer programs is described. The programs are specified by a precondition and a postcondition in predicate calculus. The programs generated are in the Lucid programming language, a high-level, data-flow language known for its attractive mathematical properties and ease of program verification. The Lucid programming is described, and the automatic program generation strategy is described and applied to several example problems.

  18. Double-side illuminated titania nanotubes for high volume hydrogen generation by water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Susanta K.; Mahajan, Vishal K.; Misra, Mano

    2007-11-01

    A sonoelectrochemical anodization method is proposed to synthesize TiO2 nanotubular arrays on both sides of a titanium foil (TiO2/Ti/TiO2). Highly ordered TiO2 nanotubular arrays of 16 cm2 area with uniform surface distribution can be obtained using this anodization procedure. These double-sided TiO2/Ti/TiO2 materials are used as both photoanode (carbon-doped titania nanotubes) and cathode (Pt nanoparticles dispersed on TiO2 nanotubes; PtTiO2/Ti/PtTiO2) in a specially designed photoelectrochemical cell to generate hydrogen by water splitting at a rate of 38 ml h-1. The nanomaterials are characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, STEM, EDS, FFT, SAED and XPS techniques. The present approach can be used for large-scale hydrogen generation using renewable energy sources.

  19. Safety operation of chromatography column system with discharging hydrogen radiolytically generated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S; Sano, Y.; Nomura, K.; Koma, Y.; Okamoto, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The extraction chromatography technology is one of the promising methods for the partitioning of minor actinides (Am and Cm) from spent nuclear fuels. In the extraction chromatography system, the accumulation of hydrogen gas in the chromatography column is suspected to lead to fire or explosion. In order to prevent hazardous accidents, it is necessary to evaluate behaviors of gas radiolytically generated inside the column. In this study, behaviors of gas inside the extraction chromatography column were investigated through experiments and Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. N_2 gas once accumulated as bubbles in the packed bed was hardly discharged by the flow of mobile phase. However, the CFD simulation and X-ray imaging on γ-ray irradiated column revealed that during operation the hydrogen gas generated in the column was dissolved into the mobile phase without accumulation and then discharged. (authors)

  20. Hydrogen generation in SRAT with nitric acid and late washing flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, SRTC recommended two process changes: (1) a final wash of the tetraphenylborate precipitate feed slurry and (2) the use of nitric acid to neutralize the sludge in the SRAT. The first change produced an aqueous hydrolysis product (PHA) with higher formic acid/formate and copper concentration, and reduced the nitrate content in the PHA by an order of magnitude. The second change is to substitute part of formic acid added to the SRAT with nitric acid, and therefore may reduce the hydrogen generated in the SRAT as well as provide nitrate as an oxidant to balance the redox state of the melter feed. The purpose of this report is to determine the pertinent variables that could affect the hydrogen generation rate with these process changes

  1. Photo-driven autonomous hydrogen generation system based on hierarchically shelled ZnO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heejin; Yong, Kijung

    2013-01-01

    A quantum dot semiconductor sensitized hierarchically shelled one-dimensional ZnO nanostructure has been applied as a quasi-artificial leaf for hydrogen generation. The optimized ZnO nanostructure consists of one dimensional nanowire as a core and two-dimensional nanosheet on the nanowire surface. Furthermore, the quantum dot semiconductors deposited on the ZnO nanostructures provide visible light harvesting properties. To realize the artificial leaf, we applied the ZnO based nanostructure as a photoelectrode with non-wired Z-scheme system. The demonstrated un-assisted photoelectrochemical system showed the hydrogen generation properties under 1 sun condition irradiation. In addition, the quantum dot modified photoelectrode showed 2 mA/cm 2 current density at the un-assisted condition

  2. HYSOLAR an overview on the German-Saudi Arabian program on solar hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steeb, H.; Seeger, W.

    1993-01-01

    The first phase of HYSOLAR, which ended in 1991, was focusing mainly on investigation, test and improvement of hydrogen production technologies. This paper shortly reviews the most important results: a 2 kW test and research facility in Jeddah; fundamental research in the fields of photo-electrochemistry, advanced alkaline electrolysis and alkaline fuel cells; system studies and decentralized hydrogen utilization; program for education. An outlook into the second phase program, where more emphasis is laid on hydrogen utilization technologies, is also included. 1 tab., 93 refs

  3. Graphene sheets/cobalt nanocomposites as low-cost/high-performance catalysts for hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fei; Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang

    2012-01-01

    The production of clean and renewable hydrogen through the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride has received much attention owing to increasing global energy demands. Graphene sheets/cobalt (GRs/Co) nanocomposites, which are highly efficient catalysts, have been prepared using a one-step solvothermal method in ethylene glycol. Co 2+ salts were converted to Co nanoparticles, which were simultaneously inserted into the graphene layers with the reduction of graphite oxide sheets to GRs. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The maximum saturation magnetization value reached 80.8 emu g −1 , meaning they are more suitable for magnet-controlled generation of H 2 than noble metal catalysts. The catalytic activity of the composite was investigated by the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride in aqueous solution both with and without a GRs support. It was found that the high electronic conductive GRs support increased the hydrogen generation rate (about two times) compared with pure cobalt. The improved hydrogen generation rate, low cost and uncomplicated recycling makes the GRs/Co nanocomposites promising candidates as catalysts for hydrogen generation. Highlights: ► Graphene sheets/cobalt nanocomposites were prepared by a one-step solvothermal method. ► The maximum saturation magnetization value of the composites reached 80.8 emu g −1 . ► The graphene support greatly increased the catalytic activity of cobalt. ► An easily removed, recycled and controlled functional filter was obtained.

  4. Generation of hydrogen peroxide in the developing rat heart: the role of elastin metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, J.; Ošťádalová, Ivana; Vytášek, R.; Vajner, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 358, 1-2 (2011), s. 215-220 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0298 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat heart * ontogenetic development * hydrogen peroxide * elastin * fluorescence Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.057, year: 2011

  5. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  6. Prediction of the amount of hydrogen generated during a molten fuel-coolant interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthern, G.E.; Neuman, J.E.; Madsen, W.W.; Close, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The model in development predicts the production of hydrogen as a result of a molten fuel-coolant interaction in a water-cooled nuclear reactor. It has three interrelated modules: kinetics, heat transfer, and hydrodynamics. Second and third order rates are assumed for uranium and aluminum respectively, the chosen fuel and cladding. Heat is generated by chemical reaction and radioactive decay and dissipated through radiation and convection. Dispersion of the melt as it descends through a pool of water is modeled using the Weber number, which ratios the shear forces due to the relative velocities of the fluid and the metal to the surface tension of the metal. Hydrogen generation is sensitive to the initial melt temperature and to the assumptions made about the modes of heat transfer, but not the the impact velocity of the metal particle. The hydrogen generation per unit mass of uranium generally increases as the initial particle size decreases suggesting that the kinetics rather than the heat transfer controls the energy balance

  7. Investigation of thermolytic hydrogen generation rate of tank farm simulated and actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-15

    To support resolution of Potential Inadequacies in the Safety Analysis for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm, Savannah River National Laboratory conducted research to determine the thermolytic hydrogen generation rate (HGR) with simulated and actual waste. Gas chromatography methods were developed and used with air-purged flow systems to quantify hydrogen generation from heated simulated and actual waste at rates applicable to the Tank Farm Documented Safety Analysis (DSA). Initial simulant tests with a simple salt solution plus sodium glycolate demonstrated the behavior of the test apparatus by replicating known HGR kinetics. Additional simulant tests with the simple salt solution excluding organics apart from contaminants provided measurement of the detection and quantification limits for the apparatus with respect to hydrogen generation. Testing included a measurement of HGR on actual SRS tank waste from Tank 38. A final series of measurements examined HGR for a simulant with the most common SRS Tank Farm organics at temperatures up to 140 °C. The following conclusions result from this testing.

  8. Hydrocarbon reforming catalysts and new reactor designs for compact hydrogen generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A.; Schwab, E.; Urtel, H. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Farrauto, R. [BASF Catalysts LLC, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2010-12-30

    A hydrogen based future energy scenario will use fuel cells for the conversion of chemically stored energy into electricity. Depending upon the type of fuel cell, different specifications will apply for the feedstock which is converted in the cell, ranging from very clean hydrogen for PEM-FC's to desulfurized methane for SOFC and MCFC technology. For the foreseeable future, hydrogen will be supplied by conventional reforming, however operated in compact and dynamic reformer designs. This requires that known catalyst formulations are offered in specific geometries, giving flexibility for novel reactor design options. These specific geometries can be special tablet shapes as well as monolith structures. Finally, also nonhydrocarbon feedstock might be used in special applications, e.g. bio-based methanol and ethanol. BASF offers catalysts for the full process chain starting from feedstock desulfurization via reforming, high temperature shift, low temperature shift to CO fine polishing either via selective oxidation or selective methanation. Depending upon the customer's design, most stages can be served either with precious metal based monolith solutions or base metal tablet solutions. For the former, we have taken the automobile catalyst monolith support and extended its application to the fuel cell hydrogen generation. Washcoats of precious metal supported catalysts can for example be deposited on ceramic monoliths and/or metal heat exchangers for efficient generation of hydrogen. Major advantages are high through puts due to more efficient heat transfer for catalysts on metal heat exchangers, lower pressure drop with greater catalyst mechanical and thermal stability compared to particulate catalysts. Base metal tablet catalysts on the other hand can have intrinsic cost advantages, larger fractions of the reactor can be filled with active mass, and if produced in unconventional shape, again novel reactor designs are made possible. Finally, if it comes to

  9. Cuboid Ni2 P as a Bifunctional Catalyst for Efficient Hydrogen Generation from Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane and Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yeshuang; Liu, Chao; Cheng, Gongzhen; Luo, Wei

    2017-11-16

    The design of high-performance catalysts for hydrogen generation is highly desirable for the upcoming hydrogen economy. Herein, we report the colloidal synthesis of nanocuboid Ni 2 P by the thermal decomposition of nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl 2 ⋅6 H 2 O) and trioctylphosphine. The obtained nanocuboid Ni 2 P was characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. For the first time, the as-synthesized nanocuboid Ni 2 P is used as a bifunctional catalyst for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane and electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Owing to the strong synergistic electronic effect between Ni and P, the as-synthesized Ni 2 P exhibits catalytic performance that is superior to its counterpart without P doping. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Assessment study of devices from the generation of electricity from stored hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Barghusen, J.J.; Link, L.E.

    1975-12-01

    A study was performed to evaluate alternative methods for the generation of electricity from stored hydrogen. The generation systems considered were low-temperature and high-temperature fuel cells, gas turbines and steam turbines. These systems were evaluated in terms of present-day technology and future (1995) technology. Of primary interest were the costs and efficiencies of the devices, the versatility of the devices toward various types of gaseous feeds, and the likelihood of commercial development. On the basis of these evaluations, recommendations were made describing the areas of technology which should be developed

  11. Proceedings of the 1994 DOE/NREL Hydrogen Program Review, April 18--21, 1994, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The US Department of Energy has conducted programs of research and development in hydrogen and related technologies since 1975. The current program, conducted in accordance with the DOE Hydrogen Program Plan FY 1993--FY 1997 published in June 1992, establishes program priorities and guidance for allocating funding. The core program, currently under the Office of Energy Management, supports projects in the areas of hydrogen production, storage, and systems research. At an annual program review, each research project is evaluated by a panel of technical experts for technical quality, progress, and programmatic benefit. This Proceedings of the April 1994 Hydrogen Program Review compiles all research projects supported by the Hydrogen Program during FY 1994. For those people interested in the status of hydrogen technologies, we hope that the Proceedings will serve as a useful technical reference. Individual reports are processed separately.

  12. Cost Evaluation with G4-ECONS Program for SI based Nuclear Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-ho; Lee, Ki-young; Kim, Yong-wan

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary hydrogen is production is primarily based on fossil fuels, which is not considered as environments friendly and economically efficient. To achieve the hydrogen economy, it is very important to produce a massive amount of hydrogen in a clean, safe and efficient way. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow massive production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding environments pollution reducing the release of carbon dioxide. Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The economic assessment was performed for nuclear hydrogen production plant consisting of VHTR coupled with SI cycle. For the study, G4-ECONS developed by EMWG of GIF was appropriately modified to calculate the LUHC, assuming 36 months of plant construction time, 5 % of annual interest rate and 12.6 % of fixed charge rate. In G4-ECONS program, LUHC is calculated by the following formula; LUHC = (Annualized TCIC + Annualized O-M Cost + Annualized Fuel Cycle Cost + Annualized D-D Cost) / Annual Hydrogen Production Rate

  13. Study of the chemisorption and hydrogenation of propylene on platinum by temperature-programed desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, S.; Nakamura, M.; Yoshioka, N.

    1978-01-01

    Temperature-programed desorption (TPD) chromotograms of propylene adsorbed on platinum black in the absence or presence of hydrogen preadsorbed, admitted simultaneously, or admitted later, all showed four peaks at about 260/sup 0/ (A), 380/sup 0/ (B), 570/sup 0/ (C), and higher than 720/sup 0/K (D). Peaks A and B were identified as mixtures of propylene and propane, and peaks C and D were methane formed by thermal decomposition of the chemisorbed propylene during desorption. When nitrogen rather than helium was used as the carrier gas for the TPD, only delta-hydrogen was observed; this suggested that propylene was more strongly adsorbed on the platinum than hydrogen. Studies of the reactivities with propylene of the various types of chemisorbed hydrogen previously detected by TPD showed that propylene reacted with ..gamma..-hydrogen present on the surface in the form of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on top of platinum atoms and with ..beta..-hydrogen, molecular hydrogen chemisorbed in a bridged form, but did not react with delta-hydrogen. Tables and graph.

  14. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-09-02

    Waste acid streams produced at industrial sites are often co-located with large sources of waste heat (e.g., industrial exhaust gases, cooling water, and heated equipment). Reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems can be used to generate electrical power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen production, while capturing energy from excess waste heat. The rate of acid neutralization was dependent on stack flow rate and increased 50× (from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 3.0 ± 0.32 pH units min -1 m-2 membrane), as the flow rate increased 6× (from 100 to 600 mL min-1). Acid neutralization primarily took place due to ammonium electromigration (37 ± 4%) and proton diffusion (60 ± 5%). The use of a synthetic waste acid stream as a catholyte (pH ≈ 2) also increased hydrogen production rates by 65% (from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 8.7 ± 0.1 m3 H2 m-3 catholyte day -1) compared to an AmB electrolyte (pH ≈ 8.5). These findings highlight the potential use of dissimilar electrolytes (e.g., basic anolyte and acidic catholyte) for enhanced power and hydrogen production in RED stacks. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. Development of Hydrogen Education Programs for Government Officials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Shannon [South Carolina Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Alliance, Columbia, SC (United States); Keller, Russ [Advanced Technology International, Cedarburg, WI (United States)

    2016-03-08

    1. Subcontractor/Technical Subject Matter Expert (Tasks 1-3) 2. Technical lead for LFG cleanup and hydrogen production systems Support for Feasibility Study 3. Technical Lead for Feasibility Study Coordination of site preparation activities for all project equipment 4. Host site

  16. The ASACUSA antihydrogen and hydrogen program: results and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbrunot, C.; Amsler, C.; Arguedas Cuendis, S.; Breuker, H.; Dupre, P.; Fleck, M.; Higaki, H.; Kanai, Y.; Kolbinger, B.; Kuroda, N.; Leali, M.; Mäckel, V.; Mascagna, V.; Massiczek, O.; Matsuda, Y.; Nagata, Y.; Simon, M. C.; Spitzer, H.; Tajima, M.; Ulmer, S.; Venturelli, L.; Widmann, E.; Wiesinger, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zmeskal, J.

    2018-03-01

    The goal of the ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration at the Antiproton Decelerator of CERN is to measure the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using an atomic spectroscopy beamline. A milestone was achieved in 2012 through the detection of 80 antihydrogen atoms 2.7 m away from their production region. This was the first observation of `cold' antihydrogen in a magnetic field free region. In parallel to the progress on the antihydrogen production, the spectroscopy beamline was tested with a source of hydrogen. This led to a measurement at a relative precision of 2.7×10-9 which constitutes the most precise measurement of the hydrogen hyperfine splitting in a beam. Further measurements with an upgraded hydrogen apparatus are motivated by CPT and Lorentz violation tests in the framework of the Standard Model Extension. Unlike for hydrogen, the antihydrogen experiment is complicated by the difficulty of synthesizing enough cold antiatoms in the ground state. The first antihydrogen quantum states scan at the entrance of the spectroscopy apparatus was realized in 2016 and is presented here. The prospects for a ppm measurement are also discussed. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'.

  17. Multi-Generation Concentrating Solar-Hydrogen Power System for Sustainable Rural Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krothapalli, A.; Greska, B.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes an energy system that is designed to meet the demands of rural populations that currently have no access to grid-connected electricity. Besides electricity, it is well recognized that rural populations need at least a centralized refrigeration system for storage of medicines and other emergency supplies, as well as safe drinking water. Here we propose a district system that will employ a multi-generation concentrated solar power (CSP) system that will generate electricity and supply the heat needed for both absorption refrigeration and membrane distillation (MD) water purification. The electricity will be used to generate hydrogen through highly efficient water electrolysis and individual households can use the hydrogen for generating electricity, via affordable proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and as a fuel for cooking. The multi-generation system is being developed such that its components will be easy to manufacture and maintain. As a result, these components will be less efficient than their typical counterparts but their low cost-to-efficiency ratio will allow for us to meet our installation cost goal of $1/Watt for the entire system. The objective of this paper is to introduce the system concept and discuss the system components that are currently under development. (auth)

  18. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2012-06-20

    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  19. Commercial Optimization of a 100 kg/day PEM based Hydrogen Generator For Energy and Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulthrop, L.; Anderson, E.; Chow, O.; Friedland, R.; Maloney, T.; Schiller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial hydrogen generators using PEM water electrolysis are well proven, serving industrial applications worldwide in over 50 countries. Now, market and environmental requirements are converging to demand larger on-site hydrogen generators. North American liquid H 2 shortages, increasing trucking costs, developing economies with no liquid infrastructure, utilities, and forklift fuel cell fueling applications are all working to increase market demand for commercial on-site H 2 generation. These commercial applications may be satisfied by a 100 kg H 2 /day module; this platform can be the pathway towards a 500 kg H 2 /day generator desired for small fore-court hydrogen vehicle fueling stations. This paper discusses the steps necessary and activities already underway to develop a 100 to 500 kg H 2 /day PEM hydrogen generator platform to meet commercial market cost targets and approach US DoE transportation fueling cost targets. (authors)

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  1. Very High Efficiency Reactor (VHER) Concepts for Electrical Power Generation and Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARMA JR, EDWARD J.; PICKARD, PAUL S.; SUO-ANTTILA, AHTI JORMA

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Very High Efficiency Reactor study was to develop and analyze concepts for the next generation of nuclear power reactors. The next generation power reactor should be cost effective compared to current power generation plant, passively safe, and proliferation-resistant. High-temperature reactor systems allow higher electrical generating efficiencies and high-temperature process heat applications, such as thermo-chemical hydrogen production. The study focused on three concepts; one using molten salt coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry, the other two using high-pressure helium coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry and a fuel-pebble element design. Peak operating temperatures, passive-safety, decay heat removal, criticality, burnup, reactivity coefficients, and material issues were analyzed to determine the technical feasibility of each concept

  2. Proton-coupled electron transfer versus hydrogen atom transfer: generation of charge-localized diabatic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirjoosingh, Andrew; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-03-24

    The distinction between proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanisms is important for the characterization of many chemical and biological processes. PCET and HAT mechanisms can be differentiated in terms of electronically nonadiabatic and adiabatic proton transfer, respectively. In this paper, quantitative diagnostics to evaluate the degree of electron-proton nonadiabaticity are presented. Moreover, the connection between the degree of electron-proton nonadiabaticity and the physical characteristics distinguishing PCET from HAT, namely, the extent of electronic charge redistribution, is clarified. In addition, a rigorous diabatization scheme for transforming the adiabatic electronic states into charge-localized diabatic states for PCET reactions is presented. These diabatic states are constructed to ensure that the first-order nonadiabatic couplings with respect to the one-dimensional transferring hydrogen coordinate vanish exactly. Application of these approaches to the phenoxyl-phenol and benzyl-toluene systems characterizes the former as PCET and the latter as HAT. The diabatic states generated for the phenoxyl-phenol system possess physically meaningful, localized electronic charge distributions that are relatively invariant along the hydrogen coordinate. These diabatic electronic states can be combined with the associated proton vibrational states to generate the reactant and product electron-proton vibronic states that form the basis of nonadiabatic PCET theories. Furthermore, these vibronic states and the corresponding vibronic couplings may be used to calculate rate constants and kinetic isotope effects of PCET reactions.

  3. Ultrahigh figure-of-merit for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride using ternary metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lunghao; Ceccato, R.; Raj, R.

    We report further increase in the figure-of-merit (FOM) for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4 than reported in an earlier paper [1], where a sub-nanometer layer of metal catalysts are deposited on carbon nanotube paper (CNT paper) that has been functionalized with polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic film. Ternary, Ru-Pd-Pt, instead of the binary Pd-Pt catalyst used earlier, together with a thinner CNT paper is shown to increase the figure-of-merit by up to a factor of six, putting is above any other known catalyst for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4. The catalysts are prepared by first impregnating the functionalized CNT-paper with solutions of the metal salts, followed by reduction in a sodium borohydride solution. The reaction mechanism and the catalyst efficiency are described in terms of an electric charge transfer, whereby the negative charge on the BH 4 - ion is exchanged with hydrogen via the electronically conducting SiCN/CNT substrate [1].

  4. Assessment of Hydrogen Generation Potential from Biomass and its Application for Power Generation in Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya C. Mathad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Andaman and Nicobar Islands located southeast of Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean comprises of several small islands separated by sea over large distances which makes it impractical for electrifying all the islands by a single grid. A population of 380,581 (Census, 2011 living in these group of islands get their electricity demand catered through Diesel Generator Sets from 34 power houses with an aggregate capacity of 67.8 MW. Unavailability of any form of conventional fossil fuel reserves in the islands makes the diesel supplied in barges from southeastern coast of India as a sole lifeline for its power generation. Hence there is an urgent need for the development of a self sustainable model from non conventional energy resources to not only cater for the power demands but also to reduce the GHG emissions related with diesel powered generator sets. This paper discusses a self sustainable model for Andaman and Nicobar Islands that would cater the electrical demand through hydrogen produced from waste biomass resource which has a potential of replacing 86.65% of the diesel utilized in the diesel generator sets. The reduction in both the GHG emission and the cost of power generation would be evaluated to understand the impact of the self sustainable model on the environment and the livelihood of the local population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  5. The development of the Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Program (HEEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is developing software to perform economic analysis related to hydrogen production. The software is expected to analyse the economics of the four most promising processes for hydrogen production. These processes are: high and low temperature electrolysis, thermochemical processes including the S-I process, conventional electrolysis and steam reforming. The IAEA HEEP software is expected to be used for comparative studies between nuclear and fossil energy sources. Therefore, typical conventional methods are also to be included in HEEP to enable comparison with nuclear hydrogen production. The HEEP models will be based on some economic and technical data, and on cost modelling. Modelling will include various aspects of hydrogen economy including storage, transport and distribution with options to eliminate or include specific details as required by the users. Development of HEEP is based on the IAEA's successful programme during the development of DEEP. This IAEA DEEP software has been distributed free of charge to more than 500 scientists/engineers and researchers from 50 countries interested in cost estimation of desalination plants using nuclear/fossil energy sources. DEEP is not a design code. A number of member states engaged in nuclear desalination activities in their countries have used DEEP for conducting feasibility studies for establishing large nuclear desalination projects based on different nuclear reactors types and desalination processes. HEEP is expected to be similar to the IAEA software DEEP which is being used to perform economic analysis and feasibility studies related to nuclear desalination in the IAEA and other member states. It is expected that HEEP will have similar architecture to DEEP but with the possibility of easy update and future expansion. Various major processes and technologies are to be incorporated in the HEEP programme as the basis for modelling the performance and cost

  6. Improving Generation Y Volunteerism in Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kevin B.; Lockett, Landry L.

    2013-01-01

    Members of Generation Y have many positive attributes that make them attractive to Extension volunteer administrators as a potential source of labor. However, they think differently, have unique needs, require new management styles, and have less tolerance for unpleasant working conditions than previous generations. Additionally, they are engaged…

  7. Electro-catalytic conversion of ethanol in solid electrolyte cells for distributed hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, HyungKuk; Giddey, Sarbjit; Badwal, Sukhvinder P.S.; Mulder, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethanol assisted water electrolysis reduces electric energy input by more than 50%. • Partial oxidation of ethanol leads to formation of undesired chemicals. • Degradation occurs due to formation of by-products and poisoning of catalyst. • Better catalyst has the potential to increase ethanol to H_2 conversion efficiency. • A plausible ethanol electro-oxidation mechanism has been proposed - Abstract: The global interest in hydrogen/fuel cell systems for distributed power generation and transport applications is rapidly increasing. Many automotive companies are now bringing their pre-commercial fuel cell vehicles in the market, which will need extensive hydrogen generation, distribution and storage infrastructure for fueling of these vehicles. Electrolytic water splitting coupled to renewable sources offers clean on-site hydrogen generation option. However, the process is energy intensive requiring electric energy >4.2 kWh for the electrolysis stack and >6 kWh for the complete system per m"3 of hydrogen produced. This paper investigates using ethanol as a renewable fuel to assist with water electrolysis process to substantially reduce the energy input. A zero-gap cell consisting of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolytic cells with Pt/C and PtSn/C as anode catalysts were employed. Current densities up to 200 mA cm"−"2 at 70 °C were achieved at less than 0.75 V corresponding to an energy consumption of about 1.62 kWh m"−"3 compared with >4.2 kWh m"−"3 required for conventional water electrolysis. Thus, this approach for hydrogen generation has the potential to substantially reduce the electric energy input to less than 40% with the remaining energy provided by ethanol. However, due to performance degradation over time, the energy consumption increased and partial oxidation of ethanol led to lower conversion efficiency. A plausible ethanol electro-oxidation mechanism has been proposed based on the Faradaic conversion of ethanol and

  8. On-site SiH4 generator using hydrogen plasma generated in slit-type narrow gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Norihisa; Shinoda, Fumiya; Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Yasutake, Kiyoshi; Ohmi, Hiromasa

    2018-06-01

    We have been developing an on-site silane (SiH4) generator based on use of the chemical etching reaction between solid silicon (Si) and the high-density H atoms that are generated in high-pressure H2 plasma. In this study, we have developed a slit-type plasma source for high-efficiency SiH4 generation. High-density H2 plasma was generated in a narrow slit-type discharge gap using a 2.45 GHz microwave power supply. The plasma’s optical emission intensity distribution along the slit was measured and the resulting distribution was reflected by both the electric power distribution and the hydrogen gas flow. Because the Si etching rate strongly affects the SiH4 generation rate, the Si etching behavior was investigated with respect to variations in the experimental parameters. The weight etch rate increased monotonically with increasing input microwave power. However, the weight etch rate decreased with increasing H2 pressure and an increasing plasma gap. This reduction in the etch rate appears to be related to shrinkage of the plasma generation area because increased input power is required to maintain a constant plasma area with increasing H2 pressure and the increasing plasma gap. Additionally, the weight etch rate also increases with increasing H2 flow rate. The SiH4 generation rate of the slit-type plasma source was also evaluated using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy and the material utilization efficiencies of both Si and the H2 gas for SiH4 gas formation were discussed. The main etch product was determined to be SiH4 and the developed plasma source achieved a SiH4 generation rate of 10 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) at an input power of 900 W. In addition, the Si utilization efficiency exceeded 60%.

  9. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen

  10. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen

  11. Fractional Consumption of Liquid Hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen During the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle uses the propellants, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to meet part of the propulsion requirements from ground to orbit. The Kennedy Space Center procured over 25 million kilograms of liquid hydrogen and over 250 million kilograms of liquid oxygen during the 3D-year Space Shuttle Program. Because of the cryogenic nature of the propellants, approximately 55% of the total purchased liquid hydrogen and 30% of the total purchased liquid oxygen were used in the Space Shuttle Main Engines. The balance of the propellants were vaporized during operations for various purposes. This paper dissects the total consumption of liqUid hydrogen and liqUid oxygen and determines the fraction attributable to each of the various processing and launch operations that occurred during the entire Space Shuttle Program at the Kennedy Space Center.

  12. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  13. Adsorption and temperature-programmed desorption of hydrogen with dispersed platinum and platinum-gold catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.R.; Foger, K.; Breakspere, R.J.

    1979-05-01

    Adsorption and temperature-programmed desorption of hydrogen with dispersed platinum and platinum-gold catalysts was studied with 0.9-3Vertical Bar3< platinum on silica gel, aerosil, sodium and lanthanum Y zeolites, and ..gamma..-alumina, and on aerosil-supported gold-platinum alloys containing 2, 10, 24, 33, and 85Vertical Bar3< gold. Surface enrichment with gold in the alloy systems, as derived from hydrogen adsorption data and predicted from surface enrichment theory and electron microscopic measurements of particle size, were in good agreement, which indicated that equilibrium was achieved by the thermal treatment (oxygen at 573/sup 0/K, hydrogen at 620/sup 0/K, repeated cycles) used. Hydrogen spillover to gold was observed at the higher hydrogen pressures tested on the alloys with high gold content, and to the zeolite supports. The temperature-programed desorption profiles were independent of gold content, which indicated that gold acts only as diluent, and that isolated surface platinum atoms become populated with hydrogen atoms either by hydrogen atom spillover from platinum ensembles to gold and from the gold to the isolated platinum, and/or by adsorption of a molecule directly on the isolated platinum and chemisorption of one H atom at an adjacent gold atom. The distribution of surface platinum ensembles was evaluated by a computer simulation method.

  14. Systems analysis on the condition of market penetration for hydrogen technologies using linear programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.; Ihara, S.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be an important energy carrier, especially in the frame of global warming problem solution. The purpose of this study is to examine the condition of market penetration of hydrogen technologies in reducing CO 2 emissions. A multi-time-period linear programming model (MARKAL, Market Allocation)) is used to explore technology options and cost for meeting the energy demands while reducing CO 2 emissions from energy systems. The results show that hydrogen technologies become economical when CO 2 emissions are stringently constrained. 9 figs., 2 refs

  15. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2017 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-16

    The fiscal year 2017 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June June 5-9, 2017, in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  16. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-11-01

    The fiscal year 2016 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 6-10, 2016, in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  17. Automatic program generation: future of software engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    At this moment software development is still more of an art than an engineering discipline. Each piece of software is lovingly engineered, nurtured, and presented to the world as a tribute to the writer's skill. When will this change. When will the craftsmanship be removed and the programs be turned out like so many automobiles from an assembly line. Sooner or later it will happen: economic necessities will demand it. With the advent of cheap microcomputers and ever more powerful supercomputers doubling capacity, much more software must be produced. The choices are to double the number of programers, double the efficiency of each programer, or find a way to produce the needed software automatically. Producing software automatically is the only logical choice. How will automatic programing come about. Some of the preliminary actions which need to be done and are being done are to encourage programer plagiarism of existing software through public library mechanisms, produce well understood packages such as compiler automatically, develop languages capable of producing software as output, and learn enough about the whole process of programing to be able to automate it. Clearly, the emphasis must not be on efficiency or size, since ever larger and faster hardware is coming.

  18. Photocatalyst based on titanium or iron semiconductors for the generation of hydrogen from water upon solar irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present thesis is to prepare and evaluate photocatalyst for hydrogen generation from water methanol mixture using solar light. This general objective has been accomplished by applying different methodology in material preparation as well as exploring the photocatalytic activity of novel semiconductors. In this way after a general introduction to the feed showing the relevance of solar fuels and in particular hydrogen generation, the...

  19. Comparison of hydrogen production and electrical power generation for energy capture in closed-loop ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzell, Marta C; Ivanov, Ivan; Cusick, Roland D; Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-01-28

    Currently, there is an enormous amount of energy available from salinity gradients, which could be used for clean hydrogen production. Through the use of a favorable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cathode, the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis (RED) system approached 78 W h m(-3). However, if RED is operated with the less favorable (higher overpotential) hydrogen evolution electrode and hydrogen gas is harvested, the energy recovered increases by as much ~1.5× to 118 W h m(-3). Indirect hydrogen production through coupling an RED stack with an external electrolysis system was only projected to achieve 35 W h m(-3) or ~1/3 of that produced through direct hydrogen generation.

  20. Comparison of hydrogen production and electrical power generation for energy capture in closed-loop ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Ivanov, Ivan; D. Cusick, Roland; Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is an enormous amount of energy available from salinity gradients, which could be used for clean hydrogen production. Through the use of a favorable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cathode, the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis (RED) system approached 78 W h m-3. However, if RED is operated with the less favorable (higher overpotential) hydrogen evolution electrode and hydrogen gas is harvested, the energy recovered increases by as much ∼1.5× to 118 W h m-3. Indirect hydrogen production through coupling an RED stack with an external electrolysis system was only projected to achieve 35 W h m-3 or ∼1/3 of that produced through direct hydrogen generation.

  1. Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    ARL-TR-8134 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by...Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by Caleb M Carlin and Berend C Rinderspacher Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...

  2. A computer program for the pointwise functions generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, Alexandre D.

    1995-01-01

    A computer program that was developed with the objective of generating pointwise functions, by a combination of tabulated values and/or mathematical expressions, to be used as weighting functions for nuclear data is presented. This simple program can be an important tool for researchers involved in group constants generation. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  3. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass

  4. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass.

  5. Final Technical Report for GO15056 Millennium Cell: Development of an Advanced Chemical Hydrogen Storage and Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Oscar [Millennium Cell Inc., Eatontown, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-22

    The objectives of this project are to increase system storage capacity by improving hydrogen generation from concentrated sodium borohydride, with emphasis on reactor and system engineering; to complete a conceptual system design based on sodium borohydride that will include key technology improvements to enable a hydrogen fuel system that will meet the systembased storage capacity of 1.2 kWh/L (36 g H2/L) and 1.5 kWh/kg (45 g H2/kg), by the end of FY 2007; and to utilize engineering expertise to guide Center research in both off-board chemical hydride regeneration and on-board hydrogen generation systems.

  6. Vitamin K3 triggers human leukemia cell death through hydrogen peroxide generation and histone hyperacetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changjun; Kang, Jiuhong; Zheng, Rongliang

    2005-10-01

    Vitamin K3 (VK3) is a well-known anticancer agent, but its mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, VK3 was found to simultaneously induce cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, including superoxide anion (O2*-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation, and histone hyperacetylation in human leukemia HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme that specifically scavenges H2O2, could significantly diminish both histone acetylation increase and cell death caused by VK3, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that specifically eliminates O2*-, showed no effect on both of these, leading to the conclusion that H2O2 generation, but not O2*- generation, contributes to VK3-induced histone hyperacetylation and cell death. This conclusion was confirmed by the finding that enhancement of VK3-induced H2O2 generation by vitamin C (VC) could significantly promote both the histone hyperacetylation and cell death. Further studies suggested that histone hyperacetylation played an important role in VK3-induced cell death, since sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, showed no effect on ROS generation, but obviously potentiated VK3-induced histone hyperacetylation and cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the anticancer activity of VK3, i.e., VK3 induced tumor cell death through H2O2 generation, which then further induced histone hyperacetylation.

  7. Room temperature hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of ammonia-borane over an efficient NiAgPd/C catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    NiAgPd nanoparticles are successfully synthesized by in-situ reduction of Ni, Ag and Pd salts on the surface of carbon. Their catalytic activity was examined in ammonia borane (NH3BH3) hydrolysis to generate hydrogen gas. This nanomaterial exhibits a higher catalytic activity than those of monometallic and bimetallic counterparts and a stoichiometric amount of hydrogen was produced at a high generation rate. Hydrogen production rates were investigated in different concentrations of NH3BH3 solutions, including in the borates saturated solution, showing little influence of the concentrations on the reaction rates. The hydrogen production rate can reach 3.6-3.8 mol H2 molcat -1 min-1 at room temperature (21 °C). The activation energy and TOF value are 38.36 kJ/mol and 93.8 mol H2 molcat -1 min-1, respectively, comparable to those of Pt based catalysts. This nanomaterial catalyst also exhibits excellent chemical stability, and no significant morphology change was observed from TEM after the reaction. Using this catalyst for continuously hydrogen generation, the hydrogen production rate can be kept after generating 6.2 L hydrogen with over 10,000 turnovers and a TOF value of 90.3 mol H2 molcat -1 min-1.

  8. Integration of direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells for highly efficient power generation from hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Choi, Pyoungho; Smith, Franklyn; Bokerman, Gary [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    In view of impending depletion of hydrocarbon fuel resources and their negative environmental impact, it is imperative to significantly increase the energy conversion efficiency of hydrocarbon-based power generation systems. The combination of a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor with a direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells (FC) as a means for a significant increase in chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency is discussed in this paper. The data on development and operation of a thermocatalytic hydrocarbon decomposition reactor and its coupling with a proton exchange membrane FC are presented. The analysis of the integrated power generating system including a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor, direct carbon and hydrogen FC using natural gas and propane as fuels is conducted. It was estimated that overall chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of the integrated system varied in the range of 49.4-82.5%, depending on the type of fuel and FC used, and CO{sub 2} emission per kW{sub el}h produced is less than half of that from conventional power generation sources. (author)

  9. Hydrogen generator, via catalytic partial oxidation of methane for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Vincenzo; Pino, Lidia; Di Leonardo, Raffaele; Lagana', Massimo; Maggio, Gaetano

    It is well known that the most acknowledged process for generation of hydrogen for fuel cells is based upon the steam reforming of methane or natural gas. A valid alternative could be a process based on partial oxidation of methane, since the process is mildly exothermic and therefore not energy intensive. Consequently, great interest is expected from conversion of methane into syngas, if an autothermal, low energy intensive, compact and reliable process could be developed. This paper covers the activities, performed by the CNR Institute of Transformation and Storage of Energy (CNR-TAE), on theoretical and experimental studies for a compact hydrogen generator, via catalytic selective partial oxidation of methane, integrated with second generation fuel cells (EC-JOU2 contract). In particular, the project focuses the attention on methane partial oxidation via heterogeneous selective catalysts, in order to: demonstrate the basic catalytic selective partial oxidation of methane (CSPOM) technology in a subscale prototype, equivalent to a nominal output of 5 kWe; develop the CSPOM technology for its application in electric energy production by means of fuel cells; assess, by a balance of plant analysis, and a techno-economic evaluation, the potential benefits of the CSPOM for different categories of fuel cells.

  10. Enhanced Solar-to-Hydrogen Generation with Broadband Epsilon-Near-Zero Nanostructured Photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Yi

    2017-05-08

    The direct conversion of solar energy into fuels or feedstock is an attractive approach to address increasing demand of renewable energy sources. Photocatalytic systems relying on the direct photoexcitation of metals have been explored to this end, a strategy that exploits the decay of plasmonic resonances into hot carriers. An efficient hot carrier generation and collection requires, ideally, their generation to be enclosed within few tens of nanometers at the metal interface, but it is challenging to achieve this across the broadband solar spectrum. Here the authors demonstrate a new photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution based on metal epsilon-near-zero metamaterials. The authors have designed these to achieve broadband strong light confinement at the metal interface across the entire solar spectrum. Using electron energy loss spectroscopy, the authors prove that hot carriers are generated in a broadband fashion within 10 nm in this system. The resulting photocatalyst achieves a hydrogen production rate of 9.5 µmol h-1  cm-2 that exceeds, by a factor of 3.2, that of the best previously reported plasmonic-based photocatalysts for the dissociation of H2 with 50 h stable operation.

  11. A third-generation dispersion and third-generation hydrogen bonding corrected PM6 method: PM6-D3H+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy C. Kromann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present new dispersion and hydrogen bond corrections to the PM6 method, PM6-D3H+, and its implementation in the GAMESS program. The method combines the DFT-D3 dispersion correction by Grimme et al. with a modified version of the H+ hydrogen bond correction by Korth. Overall, the interaction energy of PM6-D3H+ is very similar to PM6-DH2 and PM6-DH+, with RMSD and MAD values within 0.02 kcal/mol of one another. The main difference is that the geometry optimizations of 88 complexes result in 82, 6, 0, and 0 geometries with 0, 1, 2, and 3 or more imaginary frequencies using PM6-D3H+ implemented in GAMESS, while the corresponding numbers for PM6-DH+ implemented in MOPAC are 54, 17, 15, and 2. The PM6-D3H+ method as implemented in GAMESS offers an attractive alternative to PM6-DH+ in MOPAC in cases where the LBFGS optimizer must be used and a vibrational analysis is needed, e.g., when computing vibrational free energies. While the GAMESS implementation is up to 10 times slower for geometry optimizations of proteins in bulk solvent, compared to MOPAC, it is sufficiently fast to make geometry optimizations of small proteins practically feasible.

  12. Effective regimes of runaway electron beam generation in helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Sorokin, D. A.; Shut'ko, Yu. V.

    2010-04-01

    Runaway electron beam parameters and current-voltage characteristics of discharge in helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen at pressures in the range of several Torr to several hundred Torr have been studied. It is found that the maximum amplitudes of supershort avalanche electron beams (SAEBs) with a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps are achieved in helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen at a pressure of ˜60, ˜30, and ˜10 Torr, respectively. It is shown that, as the gas pressure is increased in the indicated range, the breakdown voltage of the gas-filled gap decreases, which leads to a decrease in the SAEB current amplitude. At pressures of helium within 20-60 Torr, hydrogen within 10-30 Torr, and nitrogen within 3-10 Torr, the regime of the runaway electron beam generation changes and, by varying the pressure in the gas-filled diode in the indicated intervals, it is possible to smoothly control the current pulse duration (FWHM) from ˜100 to ˜500 ps, while the beam current amplitude increases by a factor of 1.5-3.

  13. Hydrolytic hydrogen generation using milled aluminum in water activated by Li, In, and Zn additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, M.Q.; Liu, S.; Wang, C.; Chen, D.; Shu, K.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-08-15

    A method for obtaining hydrogen through the hydrolytic reaction of highly activated aluminum (Al) alloy is investigated. The optimized Al-3 wt.% Li-4 wt.% In-7 wt.% Zn alloy significantly improves the maximum hydrogen generation rate and amount (137 mL g{sup -1} min{sup -1} and 1,243 mL g{sup -1}, respectively). An efficiency of 100% was reached within 1 h at 298 K. The synergistic catalytic effects of Li, In, and Zn, which stimulated Al hydrolysis through the formation of micro galvanic cells of In-Li and Al-In-Zn alloys in water, were observed. The reactions were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and hydrolytic experiments. The In-Li alloy functions as an initial active center and produces LiOH in water, which further stimulates and changes the hydrolytic process of the Al-In-Zn alloy. The effects of alloy composition, milling time, and hydrolytic temperature were considered and discussed. The results indicate that the hydrolytic reaction of Al-Li-In-Zn alloy in water might be feasible for the production of inexpensive, pure, and safe hydrogen for micro fuel cells. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Photo-electrocatalytic hydrogen generation at dye-sensitised electrodes functionalised with a heterogeneous metal catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogeveen, Dijon A.; Fournier, Maxime; Bonke, Shannon A.; Fang, Xi-Ya; Mozer, Attila J.; Mishra, Amaresh; Bäuerle, Peter; Simonov, Alexandr N.; Spiccia, Leone

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitised photocathodes promoting hydrogen evolution are usually coupled to a catalyst to improve the reaction rate. Herein, we report on the first successful integration of a heterogeneous metal particulate catalyst, viz., Pt aggregates electrodeposited from acidic solutions on the surface of a NiO-based photocathode sensitised with a p-type perylenemonoimid-sexithiophene-triphenylamine dye (PMI-6T-TPA). The platinised dye-NiO electrodes generate photocurrent density of ca −0.03 mA cm −2 (geom.) with 100% faradaic efficiency for the H 2 evolution at 0.059 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode under 1 sun visible light irradiation (AM1.5G, 100 mW cm −2 , λ > 400 nm) for more than 10 hours in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 (aq.). The Pt-free dye-NiO and dye-free Pt-modified NiO cathodes show no photo-electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution under these conditions. The performance of these Pt-modified PMI-6T-TPA-based photoelectrodes compares well to that of previously reported dye-sensitised photocathodes for H 2 evolution.

  15. A Program to Generate a Particle Distribution from Emittance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, DS; Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    We have written a program to generate a particle distribution based on emittance measurements in x-x’ and y-y’. The accuracy of this program has been tested using real and constructed emittance measurements. Based on these tests, the distribution generated by the program can be used to accurately simulate the beam in multi-particle tracking codes, as an alternative to a Gaussian or uniform distribution.

  16. Next Generation Drivetrain Development and Test Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan; Erdman, Bill; Blodgett, Doug; Halse, Chris; Grider, Dave

    2015-11-03

    This presentation was given at the Wind Energy IQ conference in Bremen, Germany, November 30 through December 2, 2105. It focused on the next-generation drivetrain architecture and drivetrain technology development and testing (including gearbox and inverter software and medium-voltage inverter modules.

  17. Next Generation Launch Technology Program Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen; Tyson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In November 2002, NASA revised its Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP) to evolve the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to serve as a theme for two emerging programs. The first of these, the Orbital Space Plane (OSP), was intended to provide crew-escape and crew-transfer functions for the ISS. The second, the NGLT Program, developed technologies needed for safe, routine space access for scientific exploration, commerce, and national defense. The NGLT Program was comprised of 12 projects, ranging from fundamental high-temperature materials research to full-scale engine system developments (turbine and rocket) to scramjet flight test. The Program included technology advancement activities with a broad range of objectives, ultimate applications/timeframes, and technology maturity levels. An over-arching Systems Engineering and Analysis (SE&A) approach was employed to focus technology advancements according to a common set of requirements. Investments were categorized into three segments of technology maturation: propulsion technologies, launch systems technologies, and SE&A.

  18. Proceedings of the 1998 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Review: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This document contains technical progress reports on 42 research projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program in Fiscal Year 1998, in support of its mission to make hydrogen a cost-effective energy carrier for utility, building, and transportation applications. Each year, the Program conducts a rigorous review of its portfolio of projects, utilizing teams of experts to provide vital feedback on the progress of research. These proceedings serve as an important technology reference for the DOE Hydrogen Program. The papers in Volume 2 are arranged under the following topical sections: Storage and separation systems; Thermal systems; and Transportation systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. The RANDOM computer program: A linear congruential random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The RANDOM Computer Program is a FORTRAN program for generating random number sequences and testing linear congruential random number generators (LCGs). The linear congruential form of random number generator is discussed, and the selection of parameters of an LCG for a microcomputer described. This document describes the following: (1) The RANDOM Computer Program; (2) RANDOM.MOD, the computer code needed to implement an LCG in a FORTRAN program; and (3) The RANCYCLE and the ARITH Computer Programs that provide computational assistance in the selection of parameters for an LCG. The RANDOM, RANCYCLE, and ARITH Computer Programs are written in Microsoft FORTRAN for the IBM PC microcomputer and its compatibles. With only minor modifications, the RANDOM Computer Program and its LCG can be run on most micromputers or mainframe computers.

  20. Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Surgar Alcohols via the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy Cortright

    2006-06-30

    This project involved the investigation and development of catalysts and reactor systems that will be cost-effective to generate hydrogen from potential sorbitol streams. The intention was to identify the required catalysts and reactors systems as well as the design, construction, and operation of a 300 grams per hour hydrogen system. Virent was able to accomplish this objective with a system that generates 2.2 kgs an hour of gas containing both hydrogen and alkanes that relied directly on the work performed under this grant. This system, funded in part by the local Madison utility, Madison, Gas & Electric (MGE), is described further in the report. The design and development of this system should provide the necessary scale-up information for the generation of hydrogen from corn-derived sorbitol.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide generation in simulated construction and demolition debris landfills: impact of waste composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenton; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation in construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills has been associated with the biodegradation of gypsum drywall. Laboratory research was conducted to observe H2S generation when drywall was codisposed with different C&D debris constituents. Two experiments were conducted using simulated landfill columns. Experiment 1 consisted of various combinations of drywall, wood, and concrete to determine the impact of different waste constituents and combinations on H2S generation. Experiment 2 was designed to examine the effect of concrete on H2S generation and migration. The results indicate that decaying drywall, even alone, leached enough sulfate ions and organic matter for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to generate large H2S concentrations as high as 63,000 ppmv. The codisposed wastes show some effect on H2S generation. At the end of experiment 1, the wood/drywall and drywall alone columns possessed H2S concentrations > 40,000 ppmv. Conversely, H2S concentrations were debris landfills are suggested.

  2. Point Lepreau Generating Station - 1995 SLAR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Pt. Lepreau SLAR Program began after the successful use of the SLAR MKIII Tool during the 1993 Pt. Lepreau G.S. Maintenance outage. Preparations began immediately to assemble staff and equipment to complete a full core SLAR starting in April 1995. Installation and commissioning of the SLAR System at site began on March 29/95 and on reactor operations started on April 15/95. A total of 372 channels were visited with SLAR and all but 4 were dispositioned to the target life of 241, 500 Effective Full Power Hours. SLAR operations were completed on October 5/95 and within 7 days the Fuel Handling System was returned to pre-SLAR configuration and functionally tested. The SLAR Program was completed on schedule and within budget. (author)

  3. Automatic generation of data merging program codes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyensook, Kim; Oussena, Samia; Zhang, Ying; Clark, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Data merging is an essential part of ETL (Extract-Transform-Load) processes to build a data warehouse system. To avoid rewheeling merging techniques, we propose a Data Merging Meta-model (DMM) and its transformation into executable program codes in the manner of model driven engineering. DMM allows defining relationships of different model entities and their merging types in conceptual level. Our formalized transformation described using ATL (ATLAS Transformation Language) enables automatic g...

  4. The hydrogen and the fuel cells in the world. Programs and evolutions; L'hydrogene et les piles a combustibles dans le monde. Programmes et evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchese, P. [CEA Saclay, Dir. des Nouvelles Technologies de l' Energie CEA, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    HyPac is a french platform on the hydrogen and fuel cells, created in 2008. The author presents the opportunity of such a platform facing the world research programs and other existing platforms. (A.L.B.)

  5. Status and Planning of South Africa's Nuclear Hydrogen Production Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenswaay, J. P.; Niekerk, F.; Kriek, R. J.; Blom, E.; Krieg, H. M.; Niekerk, W. M. K.; Merwe, F.; Vosloo, H. C. M. [North-West University, Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2009-05-15

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The Strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for (amongst others) by building on the existing knowledge in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production methods. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centers (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing Hydrogen Production, Storage, Distribution as well as Codes and Standards programs within the framework of the DST strategic objectives. A 700kW Heliostat field is to be constructed at the CSIR. It is planned that the following processes will be investigated there: Steam Methane Reforming, High Temperature Steam Electrolysis, Metal-oxide redox process. At the NWU the main focus will be on the large scale, CO{sub 2} free, hydrogen production through thermo-chemical water splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR. The following will be investigated: Plasma-arc reforming of methane, Investigating the integration of a HTGR with a coal-to-liquid process, steel manufacture and ammonia production, The Hybrid-Sulphur process for the production of hydrogen.

  6. Leak detection in steam generators with hydrogen monitors using diffusion membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hissink, M

    1975-07-01

    Large water leaks in steam-generators give rise to violent chemical reactions which can only be controlled by a pressure relief system. Smaller leaks do not pose direct safety hazards but wastage of pipes surrounding the leak should be prevented. Leak detection is best carried out by monitors recording the hydrogen in sodium content. For large leaks the specification of these monitors causes no problems, contrary to those for the timely detection of small leaks. Essential parameters are sensitivity and speed of response, specificity is less important. But apart from the instrument specification, a number of factors, related to the construction and operation of the steam-generator, determine the performance of the leak detection system. A discussion of these factors is given, with a view to the design of the SNR-300. Although tile results of many theoretical studies and experimental work are available, there seems to be room for further investigations on the growths of minor leaks. Also lacking a sufficient experience concerning the level and fluctuations of the hydrogen background in the sodium. A description is given of the hydrogen monitor developed at TNO, which is based on a combination of a nickel membrane and an ion getter pump. The parameters of this instrument have been evaluated in a test rig. Operational experience with the monitor is available from the 50 MW Test Facility at Hengelo. Especially for further studies the need for a calibrated instrument has become apparent. Test are going on with a modified design of a monitor meeting this requirement. (author)

  7. Thermal generation and mobility of charge carriers in collective proton transport in hydrogen-bonded chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrard, M.; Boesch, R.; Kourakis, I.

    1991-01-01

    The transport of protons in hydrogen-bonded systems is a long standing problem which has not yet obtained a satisfactorily theoretical description. Although this problem was examined first for ice, it is relevant in many systems and in particular in biology for the transport along proteins or for proton conductance across membranes, an essential process in cell life. The broad relevance makes the study of proton conduction very appealing. Since the original work of Bernal and Fowler on ice, the idea that the transport occurs through chains of hydrogen bonds has been well accepted. Such ''proton wires'' were invoked by Nagle and Morowitz for proton transport across membranes proteins and more recently across lipid bilayers. In this report, we assume the existence of such an hydrogen-bonded chain and discuss its consequences on the dynamics of the charge carriers. We show that this assumption leads naturally to the idea of soliton transport and we put a special emphasis on the role of the coupling between the protons and heavy ions motions. The model is presented. We show how the coupling affects strongly the dynamics of the charge carriers and we discuss the role it plays in the thermal generation of carriers. The work presented has been performed in 1986 and 87 with St. Pnevmatikos and N. Flyzanis and was then completed in collaboration with D. Hochstrasser and H. Buettner. Therefore the results presented in this part are not new but we think that they are appropriate in the context of this multidisciplinary workshop because they provide a rather complete example of the soliton picture for proton conduction. This paper discusses the thermal generation of the charge carriers when the coupling between the protons and heavy ions dynamics is taken into account. The results presented in this part are very recent and will deserve further analysis but they already show that the coupling can assist for the formation of the charge carriers

  8. Analysis of hydrogen generation according to the specific concrete composition during severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M. R.; Kim, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    The chemical composition of reactor cavity floor concrete affects the kind and amout of gases generated by MCCI and ablation of concrete. And if affects the physical and chemical characteristics of molten pool formed in the cavity. So, the specific concrete compostion is inputted in the MAAP Code used in the Level 2 PSA. and since Ulchin Unit 3 and 4 PSA, the analysis of concrete composition has been performed by the concrete mold prepared for this usage at the installation of cavity floor concrete. But, the composition of domestic concrete for construction of NPP is nearly the same as that of the standard basaltic concrete, and the effect of minor variation in composition is expected to be negligible. This report analyze the effect of the concrete composition to the generation of hydrogen due to MCCI, and discuss the necessity of analysis about the specific concrete composition for Level 2 PSA

  9. Nitrate removal from alkaline high nitrate effluent by in situ generation of hydrogen using zinc dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, S.; Chitra, S.; Paul, Biplob

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline radioactive low level waste generated in Nuclear Fuel Cycle contains substantial amount of nitrate and needs to be treated to meet Central Pollution Control Board discharge limits of 90 mg/L in marine coastal area. Several denitrification methods like chemical treatment, electrochemical reduction, biological denitrification, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, photochemical reduction etc are followed for removal of nitrate. In effluent treatment plants where chemical treatment is carried out, chemical denitrification can be easily adapted without any additional set up. Reducing agents like zinc and aluminum are suitable for reducing nitrate in alkaline solution. Study on denitrification with zinc dust was taken up in this work. Not much work has been done with zinc dust on reduction of nitrate to nitrogen in alkaline waste with high nitrate content. In the present work, nitrate is reduced by nascent hydrogen generated in situ, caused by reaction between zinc dust and sodium hydroxide

  10. The next generation of CANDU technologies: profiling the potential for hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses the Next-generation CANDU Power Reactor technologies currently under development at AECL. The innovations introduced into proven CANDU technologies include a compact reactor core design, which reduces the size by a factor of one third for the same power output; improved thermal efficiency through higher-pressure steam turbines; reduced use of heavy water (one quarter of the heavy water required for existing plants), thus reducing the cost and eliminating many material handling concerns; use of slightly enriched uranium to extend fuel life to three times that of existing natural uranium fuel and additions to CANDU's inherent passive safety. With these advanced features, the capital cost of constructing the plant can be reduced by up to 40 per cent compared to existing designs. The clean, affordable CANDU-generated electricity can be used to produce hydrogen for fuel cells for the transportation sector, thereby reducing emissions from the transportation sector

  11. Hydrogen and acoustic detection in steam generators of Super Phenix power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, N.; Le Bris, A.; Berthier, P.

    1986-05-01

    During the isothermal tests of Super-Phenix, two types of measurements were made on the steam generators with regard to the detection of water leaks into the sodium: - the first measurements enabled us to determine the characteristics (sensitivity, response time) of the hydrogen detectors that are already operational for the filling with water and the power operation of the steam generators. They also provided the basis for developing a prototype system for detecting very small water leaks (microleak phase). The other measurements concern the qualification tests of acoustic detectors which have been fitted for the first time to a major industrial installation. The results obtained are very satisfactory but final validation of the acoustic method will only occur after the full-power tests [fr

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of K-Ta Mixed Oxides for Hydrogen Generation in Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Zielińska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available K-Ta mixed oxides photocatalysts have been prepared by impregnation followed by calcination. The influence of the reaction temperature (450°C–900°C on the phase formation, crystal morphology, and photocatalytic activity in hydrogen generation of the produced materials was investigated. The detailed analysis has revealed that all products exhibit high crystallinity and irregular structure. Moreover, two different crystal structures of potassium tantalates such as KTaO3 and K2Ta4O11 were obtained. It was also found that the sample composed of KTaO3 and traces of unreacted Ta2O5 (annealed at 600°C exhibits the highest activity in the reaction of photocatalytic hydrogen generation. The crystallographic phases, optical and vibronic properties were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and diffuse reflectance (DR UV-vis and resonance Raman spectroscopic methods, respectively. Morphology and chemical composition of the produced samples were studied using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX as its mode.

  13. Hydrogen generation due to water splitting on Si - terminated 4H-Sic(0001) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfang; Li, Qiqi; Yang, Cuihong; Rao, Weifeng

    2018-02-01

    The chemical reactions of hydrogen gas generation via water splitting on Si-terminated 4H-SiC surfaces with or without C/Si vacancies were studied by using first-principles. We studied the reaction mechanisms of hydrogen generation on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface. Our calculations demonstrate that there are major rearrangements in surface when H2O approaches the SiC(0001) surface. The first H splitting from water can occur with ground-state electronic structures. The second H splitting involves an energy barrier of 0.65 eV. However, the energy barrier for two H atoms desorbing from the Si-face and forming H2 gas is 3.04 eV. In addition, it is found that C and Si vacancies can form easier in SiC(0001)surfaces than in SiC bulk and nanoribbons. The C/Si vacancies introduced can enhance photocatalytic activities. It is easier to split OH on SiC(0001) surface with vacancies compared to the case of clean SiC surface. H2 can form on the 4H-SiC(0001) surface with C and Si vacancies if the energy barriers of 1.02 and 2.28 eV are surmounted, respectively. Therefore, SiC(0001) surface with C vacancy has potential applications in photocatalytic water-splitting.

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Co-Ru Alloy Particle Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kurtinaitienė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of μm and sub-μm-sized Co, Ru, and Co-Ru alloy species by hydrothermal approach in the aqueous alkaline solutions (pH ≥ 13 containing CoCl2 and/or RuCl3, sodium citrate, and hydrazine hydrate and a study of their catalytic properties for hydrogen generation by hydrolysis of sodium borohydride solution. This way provides a simple platform for fabrication of the ball-shaped Co-Ru alloy catalysts containing up to 12 wt% Ru. Note that bimetallic Co-Ru alloy bowls containing even 7 at.% Ru have demonstrated catalytic properties that are comparable with the ones of pure Ru particles fabricated by the same method. This result is of great importance in view of the preparation of cost-efficient catalysts for hydrogen generation from borohydrides. The morphology and composition of fabricated catalyst particles have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

  15. Co3O4 nanowires as efficient catalyst precursor for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Cao, Xurong; Ma, Maixia; Lu, Yanhong; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Suling; Wang, Qian

    Hydrogen generation from the catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride has many advantages, and therefore, significant research has been undertaken on the development of highly efficient catalysts for this purpose. In our present work, Co3O4 nanowires were successfully synthesized as catalyst precursor by employing SBA-15 as a hard template. For material characterization, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and N2 adsorption isotherms were employed, respectively. To measure the catalyst activity, typical water-displacement method was carried out. Using a reaction solution comprising 10wt.% NaBH4 and 2wt.% NaOH, the hydrogen generation rate (HGR) was observed to be as high as 7.74L min-1 g-1 at 25∘C in the presence of Co3O4 nanowires, which is significantly higher than that of CoB nanoparticles and commercial Co3O4 powder. Apparent activation energy was calculated to be 50.9kJ mol-1. After recycling the Co3O4 nanowires six times, HGR was decreased to be 72.6% of the initial level.

  16. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries. Volume 1, Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, David S.; Lee, Leonine S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 3 - Volume I: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries of the program's operations.

  17. Optimization Research of Generation Investment Based on Linear Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Ge, Xueqian

    Linear programming is an important branch of operational research and it is a mathematical method to assist the people to carry out scientific management. GAMS is an advanced simulation and optimization modeling language and it will combine a large number of complex mathematical programming, such as linear programming LP, nonlinear programming NLP, MIP and other mixed-integer programming with the system simulation. In this paper, based on the linear programming model, the optimized investment decision-making of generation is simulated and analyzed. At last, the optimal installed capacity of power plants and the final total cost are got, which provides the rational decision-making basis for optimized investments.

  18. Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.C.; Funk, J.F.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study

  19. Hydrogen Temperature-Programmed Desorption in Platinum Catalysts: Decomposition and Isotopic Exchange by Spillover Hydrogen of Chemisorbed Ammonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Miller, J.T.; Meyers, B.L.; Barr, M.K.; Modica, F.S.

    1996-01-01

    H{2}-TPD of Pt/alumina catalysts display multiple hydrogendesorptions. In addition to chemisorbed hydrogen (Peak I) atapproximately 175}o{C, there is a small hydrogen desorption (PeakII) at about 250}o{C and a large, irreversible hydrogen desorption(Peak III) at 450}o{C. The quantity of hydrogen

  20. Noble metal catalyzed hydrogen generation from formic acid in nitrite-containing simulated nuclear waste media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1994-08-01

    Simulants for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) feed containing the major non-radioactive components Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Nd, Ni, Si, Zr, Na, CO 3 2- , NO 3 -, and NO 2 - were used as media to evaluate the stability of formic acid towards hydrogen evolution by the reaction HCO 2 H → H 2 + CO 2 catalyzed by the noble metals Ru, Rh, and/or Pd found in significant quantities in uranium fission products. Small scale experiments using 40-50 mL of feed simulant in closed glass reactors (250-550 mL total volume) at 80-100 degree C were used to study the effect of nitrite and nitrate ion on the catalytic activities of the noble metals for formic acid decomposition. Reactions were monitored using gas chromatography to analyze the CO 2 , H 2 , NO, and N 2 O in the gas phase as a function of time. Rhodium, which was introduced as soluble RhCl 3 ·3H 2 O, was found to be the most active catalyst for hydrogen generation from formic acid above ∼80 degree C in the presence of nitrite ion in accord with earlier observations. The inherent homogeneous nature of the nitrite-promoted Rh-catalyzed formic acid decomposition is suggested by the approximate pseudo first-order dependence of the hydrogen production rate on Rh concentration. Titration of the typical feed simulants containing carbonate and nitrite with formic acid in the presence of rhodium at the reaction temperature (∼90 degree C) indicates that the nitrite-promoted Rh-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid occurs only after formic acid has reacted with all of the carbonate and nitrite present to form CO 2 and NO/N 2 O, respectively. The catalytic activities of Ru and Pd towards hydrogen generation from formic acid are quite different than those of Rh in that they are inhibited rather than promoted by the presence of nitrite ion

  1. Dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurization over Ru promoted alumina based catalysts using in situ generated hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Yaseen; Lu Yingzhou; Shen Chong; Li Chunxi

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was carried out in a temperature range of 320-400 o C using in situ generated hydrogen coupled with the effect of selected organic additives for the first time. Four kinds of alumina based catalysts i.e. Co-Mo/Al 2 O 3 , Ni-Mo/Al 2 O 3 , Ru-Co-Mo/Al 2 O 3 and Ru-Ni-Mo/Al 2 O 3 were used for the desulfurization process, which were prepared following incipient impregnation method with fixed metal loadings (wt.%) of Co, Ni, Mo and Ru. The surface area, average pore diameter and pore volume distribution of the fresh and used catalysts were measured by N 2 adsorption using BET method. Catalytic activity was investigated in a batch autoclave reactor in the complete absence of external hydrogen gas. Addition and mutual reaction of specific quantities of water and ethanol provided the necessary in situ hydrogen for the desulfurization reaction. Organic additives like diethylene glycol (DEG), phenol, naphthalene, anthracene, o-xylene, tetralin, decalin and pyridine did impinge the HDS activity of the catalysts in different ways. Liquid samples from reaction products were quantitatively analyzed by HPLC technique while qualitative analyses were made using GC-MS. Both of these techniques showed that Ni-based catalysts were more active than Co-based ones at all conditions. Moreover, incorporation of Ru to both Co and Ni-based catalysts greatly promoted desulfurization activity of these catalysts. DBT conversion of up to 84% was achieved with Ru-Ni-Mo/Al 2 O 3 catalyst at 380 o C temperature for 11 h. Catalyst systems followed the HDS activity order as: Ru-Ni-Mo/Al 2 O 3 > Ni-Mo/Al 2 O 3 > Ru-Co-Mo/Al 2 O 3 > Co-Mo/Al 2 O 3 at all conditions. Cost effectiveness, mild operating conditions and reasonably high catalytic activity using in situ generated hydrogen mechanism proved our process to be useful for HDS of DBT.

  2. Dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurization over Ru promoted alumina based catalysts using in situ generated hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Yaseen; Shen, Chong; Li, Chunxi [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Lu, Yingzhou [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Catalytic hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was carried out in a temperature range of 320-400 C using in situ generated hydrogen coupled with the effect of selected organic additives for the first time. Four kinds of alumina based catalysts i.e. Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ru-Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru-Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were used for the desulfurization process, which were prepared following incipient impregnation method with fixed metal loadings (wt.%) of Co, Ni, Mo and Ru. The surface area, average pore diameter and pore volume distribution of the fresh and used catalysts were measured by N{sub 2} adsorption using BET method. Catalytic activity was investigated in a batch autoclave reactor in the complete absence of external hydrogen gas. Addition and mutual reaction of specific quantities of water and ethanol provided the necessary in situ hydrogen for the desulfurization reaction. Organic additives like diethylene glycol (DEG), phenol, naphthalene, anthracene, o-xylene, tetralin, decalin and pyridine did impinge the HDS activity of the catalysts in different ways. Liquid samples from reaction products were quantitatively analyzed by HPLC technique while qualitative analyses were made using GC-MS. Both of these techniques showed that Ni-based catalysts were more active than Co-based ones at all conditions. Moreover, incorporation of Ru to both Co and Ni-based catalysts greatly promoted desulfurization activity of these catalysts. DBT conversion of up to 84% was achieved with Ru-Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at 380 C temperature for 11 h. Catalyst systems followed the HDS activity order as: Ru-Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}> Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}> Ru-Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}> Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at all conditions. Cost effectiveness, mild operating conditions and reasonably high catalytic activity using in situ generated hydrogen mechanism proved our process to be useful for HDS of DBT. (author)

  3. Air-stable hydrogen generation materials and enhanced hydrolysis performance of MgH2-LiNH2 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Miaolian; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Liu, Jiangwen; Wang, Hui; Shao, Huaiyu; Zhu, Min

    2017-08-01

    Hydrolysis of materials in water can be a promising solution of onsite hydrogen generation for realization of hydrogen economy. In this work, it was the first time that the MgH2-LiNH2 composites were explored as air-stable hydrolysis system for hydrogen generation. The MgH2-LiNH2 composites with different composition ratios were synthesized by ball milling with various durations and the hydrogen generation performances of the composite samples were investigated and compared. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques were adopted to elucidate the performance improvement mechanisms. The hydrolysis properties of MgH2 were found to be significantly enhanced by the introduction of LiNH2. The 4MgH2-LiNH2 composite ball milled for 5 h can generate 887.2 mL g-1 hydrogen in 1 min and 1016 mL g-1 in 50 min, one of the best results so far for Mg based hydrolysis materials. The LiOH·H2O and NH4OH phases of hydrolysis products from LiNH2 may prevent formation of Mg(OH)2 passivation layer on the surface and supply enough channels for hydrolysis of MgH2. The MgH2-LiNH2 composites appeared to be very stable in air and no obvious negative effect on kinetics and hydrogen generation yield was observed. These good performances demonstrate that the studied MgH2-LiNH2 composites can be a promising and practicable hydrogen generation system.

  4. CIF2Cell: Generating geometries for electronic structure programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Torbjörn

    2011-05-01

    The CIF2Cell program generates the geometrical setup for a number of electronic structure programs based on the crystallographic information in a Crystallographic Information Framework (CIF) file. The program will retrieve the space group number, Wyckoff positions and crystallographic parameters, make a sensible choice for Bravais lattice vectors (primitive or principal cell) and generate all atomic positions. Supercells can be generated and alloys are handled gracefully. The code currently has output interfaces to the electronic structure programs ABINIT, CASTEP, CPMD, Crystal, Elk, Exciting, EMTO, Fleur, RSPt, Siesta and VASP. Program summaryProgram title: CIF2Cell Catalogue identifier: AEIM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 691 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 74 933 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Computer: Any computer that can run Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Operating system: Any operating system that can run Python (versions 2.4-2.7) Classification: 7.3, 7.8, 8 External routines: PyCIFRW [1] Nature of problem: Generate the geometrical setup of a crystallographic cell for a variety of electronic structure programs from data contained in a CIF file. Solution method: The CIF file is parsed using routines contained in the library PyCIFRW [1], and crystallographic as well as bibliographic information is extracted. The program then generates the principal cell from symmetry information, crystal parameters, space group number and Wyckoff sites. Reduction to a primitive cell is then performed, and the resulting cell is output to suitably named files along with documentation of the information source generated from any bibliographic information contained in the CIF

  5. FED, Geometry Input Generator for Program TRUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Elrod, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP (NESC 771). TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, or three dimensions. 2 - Method of solution: The region of interest must first be divided into areas which may consist of a common material. The boundaries of these areas are the required FED input. Each area is subdivided into volume nodes, and the geometrical properties are calculated. Finally, FED connects the adjacent nodes to one another, using the proper surface area, interface distance, and, if specified, radiation form factor and interface conductance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Rectangular bodies can only be approximated by using a very large radius of revolution compared to the total radial thickness and by considering only a small angular segment in the circumferential direction

  6. Photoelectrochemical study of nanostructured ZnO thin films for hydrogen generation from water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Abraham; Zhang, Jin Z. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz 1156 High St. Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Smith, Wilson A.; Zhao, Yiping [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Kuykendall, Tevye R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-06-23

    Photoelectrochemical cells based on traditional and nanostructured ZnO thin films are investigated for hydrogen generation from water splitting. The ZnO thin films are fabricated using three different deposition geometries: normal pulsed laser deposition, pulsed laser oblique-angle deposition, and electron-beam glancing-angle deposition. The nanostructured films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical techniques. Normal pulsed laser deposition produces dense thin films with ca. 200 nm grain sizes, while oblique-angle deposition produces nanoplatelets with a fishscale morphology and individual features measuring ca. 900 by 450 nm on average. In contrast, glancing-angle deposition generates a highly porous, interconnected network of spherical nanoparticles of 15-40 nm diameter. Mott-Schottky plots show the flat band potential of pulsed laser deposition, oblique-angle deposition, and glancing-angle deposition samples to be -0.29, -0.28 and +0.20 V, respectively. Generation of photocurrent is observed at anodic potentials and no limiting photocurrents were observed with applied potentials up to 1.3 V for all photoelectrochemical cells. The effective photon-to-hydrogen efficiency is found to be 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.6% for pulsed laser deposition, oblique-angle deposition and glancing-angle deposition samples, respectively. The photoelectrochemical properties of the three types of films are understood to be a function of porosity, crystal defect concentration, charge transport properties and space charge layer characteristics. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Proceedings of the 1995 U.S. DOE hydrogen program review, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document containes reports from the proceedings of the 1995 U.S. DOE hydrogen program review. Reports are organized under the topics of systems analysis, utilization, storage, and production. This volume, Volume I, contains the reports concerned with systems analysis and utilization. Individual reports were processed separately for the DOE data bases.

  8. Hydrogen generation from Al-NiCl2/NaBH4 mixture affected by lanthanum metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen Qiang; Fan, Mei-Qiang; Fei, Yong; Pan, Hua; Wang, Liang Liang; Yao, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The effect of La on Al/NaBH(4) hydrolysis was elaborated in the present paper. Hydrogen generation amount increases but hydrogen generation rate decreases with La content increasing. There is an optimized composition that Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl(2)/NaBH(4) mixture (Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl(2)/NaBH(4) weight ratio, 1 : 3) has 126 mL g(-1 )min(-1) maximum hydrogen generation rate and 1764 mL g(-1) hydrogen generation amount within 60 min. The efficiency is 88%. Combined with NiCl(2), La has great effect on NaBH(4) hydrolysis but has little effect on Al hydrolysis. Increasing La content is helpful to decrease the particle size of Al-La-NiCl(2) in the milling process, which induces that the hydrolysis byproduct Ni(2)B is highly distributed into Al(OH)(3) and the catalytic reactivity of Ni(2)B/Al(OH)(3) is increased therefore. But hydrolysis byproduct La(OH)(3) deposits on Al surface and leads to some side effect. The Al-La-NiCl(2)/NaBH(4) mixture has good stability in low temperature and its hydrolytic performance can be improved with increasing global temperature. Therefore, the mixture has good safety and can be applied as on board hydrogen generation material.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2011 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satypal, S.

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2011 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held May 9-13, 2011 in Arlington, Virginia

  10. Development program of hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water splitting is process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutaro Hino

    2005-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been conducting R and D on the HTGR and also on thermo-chemical water splitting hydrogen production by using a iodine-sulfur cycle (IS process) in the HTTR project. The continuous hydrogen production for one week was demonstrated with a bench-scale test apparatus made of glass, and the hydrogen production rare was about 31 NL/h. Based on the test results and know-how obtained through the bench-scale test, a pilot test plant, which has a hydrogen production performance of 30 Nm 3 /h and will be operated under the high pressure up to 2 MPa, is being designed conceptually as the next step of the IS process development aiming to realize a future nuclear hydrogen production coupled with the HTGR. In this paper, we will introduce one-week continuous hydrogen production conducted with the bench-scale test apparatus and the pilot test program including R and D and an analytical system necessary for designing the pilot test plant. MW. Figure 1 shows an overview of the HTTR-IS plant. In this paper, we will introduce latest test results obtained with the bench-scale test apparatus and concepts of key components of the IS process, a sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and a sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) decomposers working under high-temperature corrosive circumstance, are also introduced as well as relating R and D and an analytical system for the pilot plant design. (authors)

  11. Water electrolysis with a conducting carbon cloth: subthreshold hydrogen generation and superthreshold carbon quantum dot formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Mandakini; Deshpande, Aparna; Kelkar, Sarika; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2014-03-01

    A conducting carbon cloth, which has an interesting turbostratic microstructure and functional groups that are distinctly different from other ordered forms of carbon, such as graphite, graphene, and carbon nanotubes, was synthesized by a simple one-step pyrolysis of cellulose fabric. This turbostratic disorder and surface chemical functionalities had interesting consequences for water splitting and hydrogen generation when such a cloth was used as an electrode in the alkaline electrolysis process. Importantly, this work also gives a new twist to carbon-assisted electrolysis. During electrolysis, the active sites in the carbon cloth allow slow oxidation of its surface to transform the surface groups from COH to COOH and so forth at a voltage as low as 0.2 V in a two-electrode system, along with platinum as the cathode, instead of 1.23 V (plus overpotential), which is required for platinum, steel, or even graphite anodes. The quantity of subthreshold hydrogen evolved was 24 mL cm(-2)  h(-1) at 1 V. Interestingly, at a superthreshold potential (>1.23 V+overpotential), another remarkable phenomenon was found. At such voltages, along with the high rate and quantity of hydrogen evolution, rapid exfoliation of the tiny nanoscale (5-7 nm) units of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are found in copious amounts due to an enhanced oxidation rate. These CQDs show bright-blue fluorescence under UV light. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Studies on the permeation of hydrogen through steam generator tubes at high temperatures using an electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudeau, F.; Yang, L.; Steward, F.R.; DeBouvier, O.

    1998-01-01

    The permeation of hydrogen through steam generator tubes at high temperatures (∼ 300 degrees C) has been studied using an electrochemical technique. With this technique, hydrogen is generated on one side of the tube and monitored on the other side. The time for the hydrogen to reach the other side is used to determine the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the tube. Boundary conditions at the entry and exit sides have been investigated separately. Preliminary studies were performed on Stainless Steel 316 and Nickel Alloy 800 to better understand the influence of the solution chemistry on the electrochemical evolution of hydrogen. The surface phenomena effect and the trapping effect are discussed to account for differences observed in the permeation response. The hydrogen permeation through oxides at the exit side has been studied. Two nickel alloys (Alloy 800 and Alloy 600), materials widely used for steam generator tubes, have been investigated. The tubes were prefilmed using two different treatments. The oxides were formed in dry air at high temperatures (300 degrees C to 600 degrees C), or in humid gas at 300 degrees C. The diffusion coefficients at 300 degrees C in Stainless Steel 316 and Alloy 800 were determined to be of the order of 10 -6 - 10 -7 cm 2 /s for the bare metal. This is in agreement with results obtained by gas phase permeation techniques in the literature. (author)

  13. The influence of the water chemistry regime of the third circuit on the corrosion hydrogen burden to the secondary sodium circuit in the steam generator model of BN-800 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smykov, V.B.; Ermolaev, N.P.; Kolesnik, A.I.; Egorov, V.A.; Shevchenko, N.N.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to determine the influence of water chemistry on the corrosion hydrogen burden from the III circuit to the secondary sodium in sodium-heated rig of OTSG of NPP BN-800. Combined water chemistry has given the best passivative effect on steam-generating surfaces and smallest hydrogen burden to secondary sodium during start-up. Common hydrogen increasing in secondary sodium was less then 0.2 ppm. In case of AVT water chemistry (NH 3 +N 2 H 4 ) in III side of OTSG-rig the hydrogen level in secondary sodium was 1.0-1.2 ppm. It means that during first start-up at NPP BN-800 the common hydrogen level in secondary sodium may reaches 0.80-0.85 ppm. 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  14. Efficiency Evaluation of a Photovoltaic System Simultaneously Generating Solar Electricity and Hydrogen for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abermann S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct combination of a photovoltaic system with an energy storage component appears desirable since it produces and stores electrical energy simultaneously, enabling it to compensate power generation fluctuations and supply sufficient energy during low- or non-irradiation periods. A novel concept based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H triple-junction solar cells, as for example a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, and a solar water splitting system integrating a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM electrolyser is presented. The thin film layer-by-layer concept allows large-area module fabrication applicable to buildings, and exhibits strong cost-reduction potential as compared to similar concepts. The evaluation shows that it is possible to achieve a sufficient voltage of greater than 1.5 V for effective water splitting with the a-Si based solar cell. Nevertheless, in the case of grid-connection, the actual energy production cost for hydrogen storage by the proposed system is currently too high.

  15. Hydrogen generation from decomposition of hydrous hydrazine over Ni-Ir/CeO2 catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of highly active and selective catalysts is the central issue in the development of hydrous hydrazine (N2H4·H2O as a viable hydrogen carrier. Herein, we report the synthesis of bimetallic Ni-Ir nanocatalyts supported on CeO2 using a one-pot coprecipitation method. A combination of XRD, HRTEM and XPS analyses indicate that the Ni-Ir/CeO2 catalyst is composed of tiny Ni-Ir alloy nanoparticles with an average size of around 4 nm and crystalline CeO2 matrix. The Ni-Ir/CeO2 catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity and excellent selectivity towards hydrogen generation from N2H4·H2O at mild temperatures. Furthermore, in contrast to previously reported Ni-Pt catalysts, the Ni-Ir/CeO2 catalyst shows an alleviated requirement on alkali promoter to achieve its optimal catalytic performance.

  16. A direct recursive residue generation method: application to photoionization of hydrogen in static electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, H.O.; Goscinski, O.

    1994-01-01

    In studies of hydrogenic systems via the recursive residue generation method (RRGM) the major bottleneck is the matrix vector product HC, between the Hamiltonian matrix H and a Lanczos vector C. For highly excited states and/or strong perturbations the size of H grows fast leading to storage problems. By making use of direct methods, i.e. avoidance of explicit construction of large Hamiltonian matrices, such problems can be overcome. Utilizing the underlying analytical properties of the Laguerre basis e -λr L k 2l+2 (2λr) a direct RRGM (D-RRGM) for the unperturbed hydrogenic Hamiltonian is derived, changing the storage needs from scaling as N 2 to 4N where N is the number of radial functions for each factorized H o (l,m) block with the possibility of parallel processing. A further computational simplification is introduced by putting the expression for the photoionization (PI) cross section in the rational form conventionally used in the representation of density of states (DOS). This allows the construction of the PI cross section directly from the tridiagonal Lanczos matrix avoiding the explicit calculation of individual eigen values and eigenvectors. (Author)

  17. Exergoeconomic estimates for a novel zero-emission process generating hydrogen and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsatsaronis, George; Kapanke, Kerstin; Maria Blanco Marigorta, Ana

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the exergoeconomic analysis of a novel process generating electric energy and hydrogen. Coal and high-temperature heat are used as input energy to the process. The process is a true 'zero-emission process' because (a) no NO X is formed during coal combustion with sulfuric acid, and (b) the combustion products CO 2 and SO 2 are removed separately as compressed liquids from the overall process. The process cycle is based on two chemical reactions. The first reaction takes place in an electrolytic cell and delivers the hydrogen product. In the second step, coal reacts with sulfuric acid in a high-pressure combustion reactor. The combustion gas is expanded in a gas turbine to produce electric power. The combustion products are compressed and separated so that almost pure CO 2 can be removed from the cycle. The overall process is characterized by very high energetic and exergetic efficiencies. However, the overall process is very capital intensive. The electrolytic cell dominates the costs associated with the overall process. Detailed results of the thermodynamic simulation, the economic and the exergoeconomic analyses of the process including estimates of the product costs are presented

  18. A Computer Program for the Generation of ARIMA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Samuel B.; Noles, Keith O.

    1977-01-01

    The autoregressive integrated moving averages model (ARIMA) has been applied to time series data in psychological and educational research. A program is described that generates ARIMA data of a known order. The program enables researchers to explore statistical properties of ARIMA data and simulate systems producing time dependent observations.…

  19. Gas generation from radiolytic attack of TRU-contaminated hydrogenous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerwekh, A.

    1979-06-01

    In 1970, the Waste Management and Transportation Division of the Atomic Energy Commission ordered a segregation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated solid wastes. Those below a contamination level of 10 nCi/g could still be buried; those above had to be stored retrievably for 20 y. The possibility that alpha-radiolysis of hydrogenous materials might produce toxic, corrosive, and flammable gases in retrievably stored waste prompted an investigation of gas identities and generation rates in the laboratory and field. Typical waste mixtures were synthesized and contaminated for laboratory experiments, and drums of actual TRU-contaminated waste were instrumented for field testing. Several levels of contamination were studied, as well as pressure, temperature, and moisture effects. G (gas) values were determined for various waste matrices, and degradation products were examined

  20. Vibrational excitation of hydrogen molecules by two-photon absorption and third-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Hara, Hideaki; Hiraki, Takahiro; Masuda, Takahiko; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Koji; Yoshimura, Motohiko

    2018-01-01

    We report the coherent excitation of the vibrational state of hydrogen molecules by two-photon absorption and the resultant third-harmonic generation (THG). Parahydrogen molecules cooled by liquid nitrogen are irradiated by mid-infrared nanosecond pulses at 4.8 μm with a nearly Fourier-transform-limited linewidth. The first excited vibrational state of parahydrogen is populated by two-photon absorption of the mid-infrared photons. Because of the narrow linewidth of the mid-infrared pulses, coherence between the ground and excited states is sufficient to induce higher-order processes. Near-infrared photons from the THG are observed at 1.6 μm. The dependence of the intensity of the near-infrared radiation on mid-infrared pulse energy, target pressure, and cell length is determined. We used a simple formula for THG with consideration of realistic experimental conditions to explain the observed results.

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  2. Program pseudo-random number generator for microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ososkov, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Program pseudo-random number generators (PNG) intended for the test of control equipment and communication channels are considered. In the case of 8-bit microcomputers it is necessary to assign 4 words of storage to allocate one random number. The proposed economical algorithms of the random number generation are based on the idea of the ''mixing'' of such quarters of the preceeding random number to obtain the next one. Test results of the PNG are displayed for two such generators. A FORTRAN variant of the PNG is presented along with a program realizing the PNG made on the base of the INTEL-8080 autocode

  3. Hydrogen production in early generation fusion power plant and its socio-economic implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes technical possibility of high temperature blanket for the early generation of fusion power plant and its application to hydrogen production. Its anticipated implication and strategy from the socio-economic aspects will be also discussed. Material and energy balances, such as fuel supply and delivery of product energy from fusion plants, as well as waste discharge and accident scenario that lead to environmental impact, are characterized by blanket concepts. Thus blankets are considered to dominate the feature of fusion energy that should respond to the requirements of the sponsors, i.e., public and future market. Fusion blanket concept based on the combinations of LiPb and SiC materials are regarded as a candidate for ITER/TBM, and at the same time, applied in various DEMO designs encompassing high temperature output. Recent developments of SiC-LiPb blanket in Japan, EU, US or China suggests staged development paths starting from TBMs and targeting high temperature blanket and efficient energy output from early generation plants. These strategies are strongly affected by the views of these parties on fusion energy, from the aspects of socio-economics. Hydrogen production process with the high temperature blanket is one of the most important issues, because temperature range much higher than is possible with current or near future fission plants are needed, suggesting market possibility different from that of fission. Fuel cycles, particularly lithium supply and TBR control will be also important. Self-sustained fusion fuel cycle requires technical capability to maintain the lithium contents. Liquid blanket has an advantage in continuous and real-time control TBR in a plant, but large amount of lithium-6 and initial tritium supply remains as issues. As for the environmental effect, normal operation release, assumed accidental scenario, and rad-waste will be the key issue to dominate social acceptance of fusion. (author)

  4. Hydrogen production in early generation fusion power plant and its socio-economic implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes technical possibility of high temperature blanket for the early generation of fusion power plant and its application to hydrogen production. Its anticipated implication and strategy from the socio-economic aspects will be also discussed. Material and energy balances, such as fuel supply and delivery of product energy from fusion plants, as well as waste discharge and accident scenario that lead to environmental impact, are characterized by blanket concepts. Thus blankets are considered to dominate the feature of fusion energy that should respond to the requirements of the sponsors, i.e., public and future market. Fusion blanket concept based on the combinations of LiPb and SiC materials are regarded as a candidate for ITER/TBM, and at the same time, applied in various DEMO designs encompassing high temperature output. Recent developments of SiC-LiPb blanket in Japan, EU, US or China suggests staged development paths starting from TBMs and targeting high temperature blanket and efficient energy output from early generation plants. These strategies are strongly affected by the views of these parties on fusion energy, from the aspects of socio-economics. Hydrogen production process with the high temperature blanket is one of the most important issues, because temperature range much higher than is possible with current or near future fission plants are needed, suggesting market possibility different from that of fission. Fuel cycles, particularly lithium supply and TBR control will be also important. Self-sustained fusion fuel cycle requires technical capability to maintain the lithium contents. Liquid blanket has an advantage in continuous and real-time control TBR in a plant, but large amount of lithium-6 and initial tritium supply remains as issues. As for the environmental effect, normal operation release, assumed accidental scenario, and rad-waste will be the key issue to dominate social acceptance of fusion. (author)

  5. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Gas Generation Testing Program at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Program are to evaluate compliance with the limits on total gas generation rates, establish the concentrations of hydrogen and methane in the total gas flow, determine the headspace concentration of VOCs in each drum prior to the start of the test, and obtain estimates of the concentrations of several compounds for mass balance purposes. Criteria for the selection of waste containers at the INEL and the parameters that must be characterized prior to and during the tests are described. Collection of gaseous samples from 55-gallon drums of contact-handled transuranic waste for the gas generation testing is discussed. Analytical methods and calibrations are summarized. Administrative quality control measures described in this QAPjP include the generation, review, and approval of project documentation; control and retention of records; measures to ensure that personnel, subcontractors or vendors, and equipment meet the specifications necessary to achieve the required data quality for the project

  6. Review of EPRI's steam generator R and D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, P.J.; Welty, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    EPRI has carried out an extensive R and D program on SG technology since the mid 1970's. Very early efforts under the auspices of the Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG) focused on developing remedial actions for the critical SG corrosion issues of denting, wastage and pitting. Fundamental work was also carried out in the development of thermal hydraulic models for vibration and wear, chemical cleaning and tube repair techniques. In the late 1980's and continuing through today, the program has shifted emphasis towards management of steam generator degradation, primarily stress corrosion cracking of the SG tubes on both the primary and secondary sides. The current Steam Generator Management Program (SGMP) carries out R and D in four areas; materials, chemistry, thermal hydraulics and non-destructive testing. The strategic goals of this program and projects put in place to achieve these goals will be reviewed in detail in this paper. (author)

  7. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo mission. Reliability program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The reliability program plan for the Selenide Isotope Generator (SIG) program is presented. It delineates the specific tasks that will be accomplished by Teledyne Energy Systems and its suppliers during design, development, fabrication and test of deliverable Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), Electrical Heated Thermoelectric Generators (ETG) and associated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The Plan is formulated in general accordance with procedures specified in DOE Reliability Engineering Program Requirements Publication No. SNS-2, dated June 17, 1974. The Reliability Program Plan presented herein defines the total reliability effort without further reference to Government Specifications. The reliability tasks to be accomplished are delineated herein and become the basis for contract compliance to the extent specified in the SIG contract Statement of Work

  8. Modelling of windmill induction generators in dynamic simulation programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    with and without a model of the mechanical shaft. The reason for the discrepancies are explained, and it is shown that the phenomenon is due partly to the presence of DC offset currents in the induction machine stator, and partly to the mechanical shaft system of the wind turbine and the generator rotor......For AC networks with large amounts of induction generators-in case of e.g. windmills-the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after faults in weak networks, when comparing result obtained with dynamic stability programs and transient programs, respectively....... It is shown that it is possible to include a transient model in dynamic stability programs and thus obtain correct results also in dynamic stability programs. A mechanical model of the shaft system has also been included in the generator model...

  9. Generation of hydrogen peroxide from San Joaquin Valley particles in a cell-free solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM and adverse health effects. One proposed mechanism of PM-mediated health effects is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS – e.g., superoxide (O2, hydrogen peroxide (HOOH, and hydroxyl radical (OH – followed by oxidative stress. There are very few quantitative, specific measures of individual ROS generated from PM, but this information would help to more quantitatively address the link between ROS and the health effects of PM. To address this gap, we quantified the generation of HOOH by PM collected at an urban (Fresno and rural (Westside site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV of California during summer and winter from 2006 to 2009. HOOH was quantified by HPLC after extracting the PM in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc. Our results show that the urban PM generally generates much more HOOH than the rural PM but that there is no apparent seasonal difference in HOOH generation. In nearly all of the samples the addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of Asc greatly enhances HOOH formation, but a few of the coarse PM samples were able to generate a considerable amount of HOOH in the absence of added Asc, indicating the presence of unknown reductants. Normalized by air volume, the fine PM (PM2.5 generally makes more HOOH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 μm, primarily because the mass concentration of PM2.5 is much higher than that of PMcf. However, normalized by PM mass, the coarse PM typically generates more HOOH than the fine PM. The amount of HOOH produced by SJV PM is reduced on average by (78 ± 15% when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF is added to the extraction solution, indicating that transition metals play a dominant role in HOOH

  10. Catalytic hydrolysis of ammonia borane for hydrogen generation using cobalt nanocluster catalyst supported on polydopamine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Ernest Evans; Li, Fang; Momade, Francis W.Y.; Kim, Hern

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen was generated from ammonia borane complex by hydrolysis using cobalt nanocluster catalyst supported on polydopamine functionalized MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes). The impregnation-chemical reduction method was used for the preparation of the supported catalyst. The nanocluster catalyst support was formed by in-situ oxidative polymerization of dopamine on the MWCNTs in alkaline solution at room temperature. The structural and physical–chemical properties of the nanocluster catalyst were characterized by FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscope), XRD (X-ray diffraction) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy). The nanocluster catalyst showed good catalytic activity for the hydrogen generation from aqueous ammonia borane complex. A reusability test to determine the practical usage of the catalyst was also investigated. The result revealed that the catalyst maintained an appreciable catalytic performance and stability in terms of its reusability after three cycle of reuse for the hydrolysis reaction. Also, the activation energy for the hydrolysis of ammonia borane complex was estimated to be 50.41 kJmol −1 , which is lower than the values of some of the reported catalyst. The catalyst can be considered as a promising candidate in developing highly efficient portable hydrogen generation systems such as PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells). - Highlights: • Co/Pdop-o-MWCNT (Pdop functionalized MWCNT supported cobalt nanocluster) catalyst was synthesized for hydrogen generation. • It is an active catalyst for hydrogen generation via hydrolysis of ammonia borane. • It showed good stability in terms of reusability for the hydrogen generation

  11. Enhanced hydrogen generation by hydrolysis of Mg doped with flower-like MoS2 for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minghong; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Liu, Jiangwen; Wang, Hui; Shao, Huaiyu; Zhu, Min

    2017-10-01

    In this work, flower-like MoS2 spheres are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and the catalytic activity of the as-prepared and bulk MoS2 on hydrolysis of Mg is systematically investigated for the first time. The Mg-MoS2 composites are prepared by ball milling and the hydrogen generation performances of the composites are investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution. The experimental results suggest that the as-prepared MoS2 exhibits better catalytic effect on hydrolysis of Mg compared to bulk MoS2. In particular, Mg-10 wt% MoS2 (as-prepared) composite milled for 1 h shows the best hydrogen generation properties and releases 90.4% of theoretical hydrogen generation capacity within 1 min at room temperature. The excellent catalytic effect of as-prepared MoS2 may be attributed to the following aspects: three-dimensional flower-like MoS2 architectures improve its dispersibility on Mg particles; make the composite more reactive; hamper the generated Mg(OH)2 from adhering to the surface of Mg; and increase the galvanic corrosion of Mg. In addition, a hydrogen generator based on the hydrolysis reaction of Mg-0.2 wt% MoS2 composite is manufactured and it can supply a maximum hydrogen flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The findings here demonstrate the as-prepared flower-like MoS2 can be a promising catalyst for hydrogen generation from Mg.

  12. Hydrogen and water reactor safety: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for papers presented in the following areas of interest: 1) hydrogen research programs; 2) hydrogen behavior during light water reactor accidents; 3) combustible gas generation; 4) hydrogen transport and mixing; 5) combustion modeling and experiments; 6) accelerated flames and detonations; 7) combustion mitigation and control; and 8) equipment survivability

  13. Hydrogen and water reactor safety: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for papers presented in the following areas of interest: 1) hydrogen research programs; 2) hydrogen behavior during light water reactor accidents; 3) combustible gas generation; 4) hydrogen transport and mixing; 5) combustion modeling and experiments; 6) accelerated flames and detonations; 7) combustion mitigation and control; and 8) equipment survivability.

  14. Is your residency program ready for Generation Y?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitzkus, Lisa L; Schenarts, Kimberly D; Schenarts, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Current residency applicants are members of Generation Y and are significantly different from previous generations of trainees as well as the faculty who attract, recruit, and manage them. Generation Y has been affected by globalization, diversification, terrorism, and international crisis. They are products of the self-esteem movement in child rearing, education, and extracurricular activities where they were all declared winners. Children's activities no longer had winners and losers or first, second, and third place; every child received a participation trophy. Even though they were raised to be a team player, their parents always told them they are special. Technology is ingrained into their daily lives, and they expect its use to be effective and efficient. Generation Y-ers desire to impact the world and give back to their communities and demand immediate access to leadership. This generation poses a challenge to residency programs that will need to attract, recruit, and manage them effectively. This article will provide an overview of Generation Y, contrast Generation Y with Generation X, and discuss how to use generation-specific strategies to attract, recruit, and manage a Generation Y resident. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation with Ag-loaded LiNbO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    rhodamine B decomposition under solar illumination was also reported (Stock ... photocatalytic hydrogen production. ... lytic hydrogen production from a methanol aqueous solu- .... estimated bandgap energy of Nb2O5 and LiNbO3 samples.

  16. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen

  17. Generation IV nuclear energy systems and hydrogen economy. New progress in the energy field in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang Mingchang

    2004-01-01

    The concept of hydrogen economy was initiated by the United States and other developed countries in the turn of the century to mitigate anxiety of national security due to growing dependence on foreign sources of energy and impacts on air quality and the potential effects of greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen economy integrates the primary energy used to produce hydrogen as a future energy carrier, hydrogen technologies including production, delivery and storage, and various fuel cells for transportation and stationary applications. A new hydrogen-based energy system would created as an important solution in the 21st century, flexible, affordable, safe, domestically produced, used in all sectors of the economy and in all regions of the country, if all the R and D plans and the demonstration come to be successful in 20-30 years. Among options of primary energy. Generation IV nuclear energy under development is particularly well suited to hydrogen production, offering the competitive position of large-scale hydrogen production with near-zero emissions. (author)

  18. An appealing photo-powered multi-functional energy system for the poly-generation of hydrogen and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tiantian; Li, Kan; Shen, Zhemin; Sun, Tonghua; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2015-10-01

    This paper focuses on a photo-powered poly-generation system (PPS) that is powered by the photocatalytic oxidation of organic substrate to produce hydrogen energy and electrical energy synchronously. This particular device runs entirely on light energy and chemical energy of substrate without external voltage. The performance measurements and optimization experiments are all investigated by using the low concentration of pure ethanol (EtOH) solution. Compared with the conventional submerged reactor for the photogeneration of hydrogen, the hydrogen and the electric current obtained in the constructed PPS are all relatively stable in experimental period and the numerical values detected are many times higher than that of the former by using various simulated ethanol waste liquid. When using Chinese rice wine as substrate at the same ethanol content level (i.e., 0.1 mol L-1), the production of hydrogen is close to that of the pure ethanol solution in the constructed PPS, but no hydrogen is detected in the conventional submerged reactor. These results demonstrate that the constructed PPS could effectively utilize light energy and perform good capability in poly-generation of hydrogen and electricity.

  19. Guidelines for developing certification programs for newly generated TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Ostenak, C.A.; Pillay, K.K.S.; Geoffrion, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    These guidelines were prepared with direction from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Management Program in support of the DOE effort to certify that newly generated TRU wastes meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. The guidelines provide instructions for generic Certification Program preparation for TRU-waste generators preparing site-specific Certification Programs in response to WIPP requirements. The guidelines address all major aspects of a Certification Program that are necessary to satisfy the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria and their associated Compliance Requirements and Certification Quality Assurance Requirements. The details of the major element of a Certification Program, namely, the Certification Plan, are described. The Certification Plan relies on supporting data and control documentation to provide a traceable, auditable account of certification activities. Examples of specific parts of the Certification Plan illustrate the recommended degree of detail. Also, a brief description of generic waste processes related to certification activities is included

  20. Hydrogen generation from formic acid catalyzed by a metal complex under amine-free and aqueous conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2018-01-04

    The present invention provides a class of catalyst compounds that can safely and effectively release hydrogen gas from a chemical substrate without producing either noxious byproducts or byproducts that will deactivate the catalyst. The present invention provides catalysts used to produce hydrogen that has a satisfactory and sufficient lifespan (measured by turnover number (TON)), that has stability in the presence of moisture, air, acid, or impurities, promote a rapid reaction rate, and remain stable under the reaction conditions required for an effective hydrogen production system. Described herein are compounds for use as catalysts, as well as methods for producing hydrogen from formic acid and/or a formate using the disclosed catalysts. The methods include contacting formic acid and/or a formate with a catalyst as described herein, as well as methods of producing formic acid and/or a formate using the disclosed catalyst and methods for generating electricity using the catalysts described herein.

  1. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide generation from disposed gypsum drywall using chemical inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qiyong [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); School of Environment and Energy, Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, 518055, (China); Townsend, Timothy, E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Bitton, Gabriel [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Disposal of gypsum drywall in landfills has been demonstrated to elevate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) concentrations in landfill gas, a problem with respect to odor, worker safety, and deleterious effect on gas-to-energy systems. Since H{sub 2}S production in landfills results from biological activity, the concept of inhibiting H{sub 2}S production through the application of chemical agents to drywall during disposal was studied. Three possible inhibition agents - sodium molybdate (Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}), ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}), and hydrated lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}) - were evaluated using flask and column experiments. All three agents inhibited H{sub 2}S generation, with Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} reducing H{sub 2}S generation by interrupting the biological sulfate reduction process and Ca(OH){sub 2} providing an unfavorable pH for biological growth. Although FeCl{sub 3} was intended to provide an electron acceptor for a competing group of bacteria, the mechanism found responsible for inhibiting H{sub 2}S production in the column experiment was a reduction in pH. Application of both Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and FeCl{sub 3} inhibited H{sub 2}S generation over a long period (over 180 days), but the impact of Ca(OH){sub 2} decreased with time as the alkalinity it contributed was neutralized by the generated H{sub 2}S. Practical application and potential environmental implications need additional exploration.

  2. Experimental researches on hydrogen generation by aluminum with adding lithium at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Weijuan; Zhang, Tianyou; Liu, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhihua; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-01-01

    In order to recover the released heat of Al–H_2O reaction and promote the reaction itself, the hydrogen production processes of aluminum with lithium addition in molten state are investigated. Experiments are conducted by both a thermogravimetric analyzer and a special experimental facility at high temperature. The results on both apparatuses show that the addition of Li can promote the reactivity of aluminum with water. Compared with pure aluminum, only 5% of Li content can achieve a great improvement: the H_2 yield increases from 8.7% to 53% and the average H_2 generation rate from 15 to 112 mL min"−"1 g"−"1. With the increase of Li content, H_2 yield is improved distinctly and the period with a high H_2 generation rate is prolonged. In the Al–20%Li case, the H_2 yield of 88% is obtained, and it appears a stable period in which the H_2 generation rate keeps high. When adding lithium, LiAlO_2 appears in the products and the products are made of columnar crystals. The pores with an average size of 17–33 nm in the LiAlO_2 products are manyfold bigger than the pores of alumina, which takes an important role in improving the reactivity of aluminum and water. - Highlights: • The Al–H_2O reaction with Li addition in molten state was researched. • Li addition can achieve a great promotion of H_2 yield and H_2 generation rate. • The Al–20%Li case achieved a H_2 yield of 88%. • With Li addition, LiAlO_2 was detected in the reaction products. • XRD and TEM-EDS results indicated the promoting mechanism of Li.

  3. A fuzzy analytic hierarchy/data envelopment analysis approach for measuring the relative efficiency of hydrogen R and D programs in the sector of developing hydrogen energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seongkon; Kim, Jongwook [Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea, Republic of). Energy Policy Research Center; Mogi, Gento [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Hui, K.S. [Hong Kong City Univ. (China). Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management

    2010-07-01

    Korea takes 10th place of largest energy consuming nations in the world since it spends 222 million ton of oil equivalent per year and depends on the most amount of consumed energy resources, which account for 96% import in 2008 with the 5.6% selfsufficiency ratio of energy resources. The interest of energy technology development has increased due to its poor energy environments. Specifically, the fluctuation of oil prices has been easily affecting Korean energy environments and economy. Considering its energy environments, energy technology development can be one of the optimal solution and breakthrough to solve Korea's energy circumstances, energy security, and the low carbon green growth with Korea's sustainable development. Moreover, energy and environment issues are the key factors for leading the future sustainable competitive advantage and green growth of one nation over the others nations. Lots of advanced nations have been trying to develop the energy technologies with the establishment of the strategic energy technology R and D programs for creating and maintain a competitive advantage and leading the global energy market. In 2005, we established strategic hydrogen energy technology roadmap in the sector of developing hydrogen energy technologies for coping with next 10 years from 2006 to 2015 as an aspect of hydrogen energy technology development. Hydrogen energy technologies are environmentally sound and friendly comparing with conventional energy technologies. Hydrogen energy technologies can play a key role and is the one of the best alternatives getting much attentions coping with UNFCCC and the hydrogen economy. Hydrogen energy technology roadmap shows meaningful guidelines for implementing the low carbon green growth society. We analyzed the world energy outlook to make hydrogen ETRM and provide energy policy directions in 2005. It focuses on developing hydrogen energy technology considering Korea's energy circumstance. We make a

  4. Modulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide Generated through Heme in L. amazonensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Rocco-Machado

    Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in many areas of Brazil and causes skin lesions. Using this parasite, our group showed the activation of Na+/K+ ATPase through a signaling cascade that involves the presence of heme and protein kinase C (PKC activity. Heme is an important biomolecule that has pro-oxidant activity and signaling capacity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS can act as second messengers, which are required in various signaling cascades. Our goal in this work is to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generated in the presence of heme in the Na+/K+ ATPase activity of L. amazonensis. Our results show that increasing concentrations of heme stimulates the production of H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 2.5 μM heme. To confirm that the effect of heme on the Na+/K+ ATPase is through the generation of H2O2, we measured enzyme activity using increasing concentrations of H2O2 and, as expected, the activity increased in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 0.1 μM H2O2. To investigate the role of PKC in this signaling pathway, we observed the production of H2O2 in the presence of its activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and its inhibitor calphostin C. Both showed no effect on the generation of H2O2. Furthermore, we found that PKC activity is increased in the presence of H2O2, and that in the presence of calphostin C, H2O2 is unable to activate the Na+/K+ ATPase. 100 μM of Mito-TEMPO was capable of abolishing the stimulatory effect of heme on Na+/K+ ATPase activity, indicating that mitochondria might be the source of the hydrogen peroxide production induced by heme. The modulation of L. amazonensis Na+/K+ ATPase by H2O2 opens new possibilities for understanding the signaling pathways of this parasite.

  5. Heat Balance Study on Integrated Cycles for Hydrogen and Electricity Generation in VHTR - Part 2 -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae; Heo, Gyunyoung; Park, Soyoung; Kang, Yeon Kwan

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, reverse engineering was performed on SCMHR proposed by NGNP to reconstruct it into PEPSE. This model was used to analyze sensitivity of key variables. The paper also presented a concept design of thermal cycle, where heat of nuclear reactor is partially used for hydrogen production and remaining heat is used to generate power through IHX. This study introduces the results of concept designs on thermal cycle constructed using methods that are somewhat different from the previous results. As for the first method, efficiency under main steam condition proposed by NGNP was analyzed using ultra supercritical steam cycle, which exhibits highest efficiency among commercial technologies available. Another method was to prepare heat balance using supercritical CO 2 cycle, which has recently been commercialized in small scale and is undergoing R and D efforts for scale-up. As a part of concept design for high temperature gas reactor, this paper attempts different types of electricity generation cycle design and compares their advantages and disadvantages. A reference model was developed to change original design of NGNP. Sensitivity analysis can be performed according to changing performance of facility and external conditions. A Rankine cycle model operated under SC or USC condition was created by adding to a previous study to carry out key sensitivity analysis. Data for future design will be prepared through supplementary study, and the ultimate objective is to make contribution to optimal design of high temperature gas reactor

  6. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzai Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.

  7. Heat Balance Study on Integrated Cycles for Hydrogen and Electricity Generation in VHTR - Part 2 -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae [Hyundai Engineering Company Ltd., Seouul (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung; Park, Soyoung; Kang, Yeon Kwan [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In the paper, reverse engineering was performed on SCMHR proposed by NGNP to reconstruct it into PEPSE. This model was used to analyze sensitivity of key variables. The paper also presented a concept design of thermal cycle, where heat of nuclear reactor is partially used for hydrogen production and remaining heat is used to generate power through IHX. This study introduces the results of concept designs on thermal cycle constructed using methods that are somewhat different from the previous results. As for the first method, efficiency under main steam condition proposed by NGNP was analyzed using ultra supercritical steam cycle, which exhibits highest efficiency among commercial technologies available. Another method was to prepare heat balance using supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle, which has recently been commercialized in small scale and is undergoing R and D efforts for scale-up. As a part of concept design for high temperature gas reactor, this paper attempts different types of electricity generation cycle design and compares their advantages and disadvantages. A reference model was developed to change original design of NGNP. Sensitivity analysis can be performed according to changing performance of facility and external conditions. A Rankine cycle model operated under SC or USC condition was created by adding to a previous study to carry out key sensitivity analysis. Data for future design will be prepared through supplementary study, and the ultimate objective is to make contribution to optimal design of high temperature gas reactor.

  8. Study of the acceleration of ammonia generation process from poultry residues aiming at hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    environment. The possibility of ammonia emission increment observed in this study, and its use in a system of ammonia generation - hydrogen production - fuel cell might produce electricity in the enterprise, reducing the expenses of the farms and providing a properly destination for these residues. (author)

  9. Investigation of advanced nanostructured multijunction photoanodes for enhanced solar hydrogen generation via water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hidetaka

    As the worldwide demand for fossil-based fuel increases every day and the fossil reserve continues to be depleted, the need for alternative/renewable energy sources has gained momentum. Electric, hybrid, and hydrogen cars have been at the center of discussion lately among consumers, automobile manufacturers, and politicians, alike. The development of a fuel-cell based engine using hydrogen has been an ambitious research area over the last few decades-ever since Fujishima showed that hydrogen can be generated via the solar-energy driven photo-electrolytic splitting of water. Such solar cells are known as Photo-Electro-Chemical (PEC) solar cells. In order to commercialize this technology, various challenges associated with photo-conversion efficiency, chemical corrosion resistance, and longevity need to be overcome. In general, metal oxide semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO 2, titania) are excellent candidates for PEC solar cells. Titania nanotubes have several advantages, including biocompatibility and higher chemical stability. Nevertheless, they can absorb only 5-7% of the solar spectrum which makes it difficult to achieve the higher photo-conversion efficiency required for successful commercial applications. A two-prong approach was employed to enhance photo-conversion efficiency: 1) surface modification of titania nanotubes using plasma treatment and 2) nano-capping of the titania nanotubes using titanium disilicide. The plasma surface treatment with N2 was found to improve the photo-current efficiency of titania nanotubes by 55%. Similarly, a facile, novel approach of nano-capping titania nanotubes to enhance their photocurrent response was also investigated. Electrochemically anodized titania nanotubes were capped by coating a 25 nm layer of titanium disilicide using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The optical properties of titania nanotubes were not found to change due to the capping; however, a considerable increase (40%) in the photocurrent

  10. Study on the combustion behavior of radiolytically generated hydrogen explosion in small scale annular vessels at the reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Tatsuya; Tamauchi, Yoshikazu; Arai, Nobuyuki; Dai, Wenbin; Sakaihara, Motohiro; Kanehira, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water, etc. in process vessels in reprocessing plant. Usually, the hydrogen is scavenged by compressed air into vessels to prevent hydrogen explosion. When an earthquake beyond design based occurs, for example, the compressed air may stop and the hydrogen starts accumulating in the vessels, and under this condition, an ignition source might set off hydrogen explosion. Therefore, the explosion derived by the radiolytically generated hydrogen is designated as one of severe accidents on Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant in new regulatory requirements. It is important to understand the combustion behavior of hydrogen explosion inside a vessel for consideration of safety measures against the severe accident, because the influences of detonation are not considered in the design basis of vessels. Especially, the investigations about the combustion behavior which considered influence of interior obstacles inside the vessel are not performed yet. In order to investigate the combustion behavior comprehensively, explosion experiment, combustion analysis and structural analysis are carried out using the representative vessels (small scale annular vessel, small scale plate vessel, large scale annular vessel and large scale cylindrical vessel) selected from Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. In this paper, the results of experiments and analysis of small scale annular vessel (as one of representative vessel, imitated a pulsed column in the reprocessing plant) are reported. As imitated vessels, three vessels are manufactured with different interior obstacle arrangements as follows, A) cylindrical obstacles are faithfully reproduced and are arranged based on the actual vessel, B) cylindrical obstacles are arranged more densely than the actual vessel, and C) there are no obstacles inside the vessel. Experiments of hydrogen explosion are performed under condition of stoichiometric hydrogen-air ratio (premixed hydrogen-air is used). As a result of

  11. Steam generator deposit control program assessment at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.; Fellers, B.; Orbon, S.

    2002-01-01

    Comanche Peak has employed a variety of methods to assess the effectiveness of the deposit control program. These include typical methods such as an extensive visual inspection program and detailed corrosion product analysis and trending. In addition, a recently pioneered technique, low frequency eddy current profile analysis (LFEC) has been utilized. LFEC provides a visual mapping of the magnetite deposit profile of the steam generator. Analysis of the LFEC results not only provides general area deposition rates, but can also provide local deposition patterns, which is indicative of steam generator performance. Other techniques utilized include trending of steam pressure, steam generator hideout-return, and flow assisted corrosion (FAC) results. The sum of this information provides a comprehensive assessment of the deposit control program effectiveness and the condition of the steam generator. It also provides important diagnostic and predictive information relative to steam generator life management and mitigative strategies, such as special cleaning procedures. This paper discusses the techniques employed by Comanche Peak Chemistry to monitor the effectiveness of the deposit control program and describes how this information is used in strategic planning. (authors)

  12. A Monte Carlo program for generating hadronic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, L.; Pellicoro, M.; Nitti, L.; Preparata, G.; Valenti, G.

    1991-01-01

    FIRST is a computer program to generate final states from high energy hadronic interactions using the Monte Carlo technique. It is based on a theoretical model in which the high degree of universality in such interactions is related with the existence of highly excited quark-antiquark bound states, called fire-strings. The program handles the decay of both fire-strings and unstable particles produced in the intermediate states. (orig.)

  13. NNSA Program Develops the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Disney, Maren V.

    2015-09-02

    NNSA is fostering the next generation of nuclear security experts is through its successful NNSA Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP). NGFP offers its Fellows an exceptional career development opportunity through hands-on experience supporting NNSA mission areas across policy and technology disciplines. The one-year assignments give tomorrow’s leaders in global nuclear security and nonproliferation unparalleled exposure through assignments to Program Offices across NNSA.

  14. Hydrogen Village : creating hydrogen and fuel cell communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a collaborative public-private partnership administered through Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada and funded by the Governments of Canada and Ontario. This end user-driven, market development program accelerates the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell (FC) technologies throughout the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The program targets 3 specific aspects of market development, notably deployment of near market technologies in community based stationary and mobile applications; development of a coordinated hydrogen delivery and equipment service infrastructure; and societal factors involving corporate policy and public education. This presentation focused on lessons learned through outreach programs and the deployment of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) heat and power generation; indoor and outdoor fuel cell back up power systems; fuel cell-powered forklifts, delivery vehicles, and utility vehicles; hydrogen internal combustion engine powered shuttle buses, sedans, parade float; hydrogen production/refueling stations in the downtown core; and temporary fuel cell power systems

  15. Generation of core–shell nanoparticles Al@Ti by laser ablation in liquid for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, “Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)”, 9, Institutsky lane, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barmina, E.V.; Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, P.G., E-mail: qzzzma@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoye highway, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Core–shell Al@Ti NPs are generated by laser ablation in isopropanol. • Isopropanol was saturated with molecular hydrogen. • The composite metallic Al-Ti target was used. • HR TEM characterization shows that Ti core is covered by epitaxial Al shell. • Al@Ti NPs are promising for hydrogen storage. - Abstract: Core–shell Al@Ti nanoparticles are generated by ablation of a composite Ti–Al target in liquid isopropanol saturated with molecular hydrogen using a Nd:YAG laser with pulse duration of 10 ps and repetition rate of 200 kHz. The target is made of two plates of corresponding metals stacked together and placed into a flowing cell reactor. Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis of generated NPs reveals their core–shell structure with Ti core and Al shell. Average size of NPs determined by means of measuring disk centrifuge is around 40 nm. Saturation of NPs by hydrogen is due to sharp dependence of its solubility in these metals on temperature. XRD studies of generated NPs show the peaks of both metallic Ti and Al with some amount of TiO{sub 2}. No peaks of Ti–Al alloys are observed.

  16. Solar generation of hydrogen; Wasserstofferzeugung auf solarer Basis. Thermische Dissoziation des Wassers mit dem Licht-Kraft-Werk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemba, G.

    2003-04-01

    Solar generation of hydrogen. The ''Licht-Kraft-Werke'' (LKW) is described. Due to this it will be possible to supply solid-state-lasers directly by sunlight. Supplied by lasers water should be split in a highest-temperature-reactor. An efficiency of more than 21% is supposed to be reached. (orig.)

  17. Hydrogen generation and foaming during tests in the GFPS simulating DWPF operations with Tank 42 sludge and CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    1999-12-08

    This report summarizes the pilot-scale research requested by the salt disposition team to examine the effect of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin with adsorbed noble metals on the maximum hydrogen generation rate produced during the DWPF melter feed preparation processes.

  18. Effect of addition of water-soluble salts on the hydrogen generation of aluminum in reaction with hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi-Tousi, S.S.; Szpunar, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum powder was ball milled for different durations of time with different weight percentages of water-soluble salts (NaCl and KCl). The hydrogen generation of each mixture in reaction with hot water was measured. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the morphology, surfaces and cross sections of the produced particles. The results show that the presence of salts in the microstructure of the aluminum considerably increases the hydrogen generation rate. At shorter milling times, the salt covers the aluminum particles and becomes embedded in layers within the aluminum matrix. At higher milling durations, salt and aluminum phases form composite particles. A higher percentage of the second phase significantly decreases the milling time needed for activation of the aluminum particles. Based on the EDS results from cross sections of the milled particles, a mechanism for improvement of the hydrogen generation rate in the presence of salts is suggested. - Highlights: • Milling and water soluble salts have a synergic effect on hydrogen generation. • Salt and aluminum form composite particles by milling. • Salt is dissolved in water leaving aluminum with much fresh surfaces for the reaction. • The chemical effect of salt on the reaction is negligible compared to its structural effect.

  19. Hydrogen generation and foaming during tests in the GFPS simulating DWPF operations with Tank 42 sludge and CST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the pilot-scale research requested by the salt disposition team to examine the effect of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin with adsorbed noble metals on the maximum hydrogen generation rate produced during the DWPF melter feed preparation processes

  20. Co-generation of hydrogen from nuclear and wind: the effect on costs of realistic variations in wind generation. Paper no. IGEC-1-094

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Can electricity from high-capacity nuclear reactors be blended with the variable output of wind turbines to produce electrolytic hydrogen competitively? To be competitive with alternative sources, hydrogen produced by conventional electrolysis requires low-cost electricity (likely <2.5 cents US/kW.h). One approach is to operate interruptibly, allowing an installation to sell electricity when the grid price is high and to make hydrogen when it is low. Our previous studies show that this could be cost-competitive using nuclear power generator producing electricity around 3 cents US/kW.h. Although similar unit costs are projected for wind-generated electricity, idleness of the electrolysis facility due to the variability of wind-generated electricity imposes a significant cost penalty. This paper reports on ongoing work on the economics of blending electricity from nuclear and wind sources by using wind-generated power, when available, to augment the current through electrolysis equipment that is primarily nuclear-powered - a concept we call NuWind. A voltage penalty accompanies the higher current. A 10% increase in capital cost for electrolysis equipment to enable it to accommodate the higher rate of hydrogen generation is still substantially cheaper than the capital cost of wind-dedicated electrolysis. Real-time data for electricity costs have been combined with real-time wind variability. The variability in wind fields between sites was accommodated by assigning average wind speeds that produced an average electricity generation from wind of between 32 and 42% of peak capacity, which is typical of the expectations for superior wind-generation sites. (author)

  1. Hydrogen highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2008-01-01

    The USA Administration would like to consider the US power generating industry as a basis ensuring both the full-scale production of hydrogen and the widespread use of the hydrogen related technological processes into the economy [ru

  2. Hydrogen water chemistry for BWRs: A status report on the EPRI development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.L.; Nelson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Many BWRs have experienced extensive intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in their austenitic stainless steel coolant system piping, resulting in serious adverse impacts on plant capacity factors, O and M costs, and personnel radiation exposures. A major research program to provide remedies for BWR pipe cracking was co-funded by EPRI, GE, and the BWR Owners Group for IGSCC Research between 1979 and 1988. Results from this program show that the likelihood of IGSCC depends on reactor water chemistry (particularly on the concentrations of ionic impurities and oxidizing radiolysis products) as well as on material condition and the level of tensile stress. Tests have demonstrated that the concentration of oxidizing radiolysis products in the recirculating water of a BWR can be reduced substantially by injecting hydrogen into the feedwater. Recent plant data show that the use of hydrogen injection can reduce the rate of IGSCC to insignificant levels if the concentration of ionic impurities in the reactor water is kept sufficiently low. This approach to the control of BWR pipe cracking is called hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). This paper presents a review of the results of EPRI's HWC development program from 1980 to the present. In addition, plans for additional work to investigate the feasibility of adapting HWC to protect the BWR vessel and major internal components from potential stress corrosion cracking problems are summarized. (orig.)

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of SCW NPP cycles with thermo-chemical co-generation of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidin, N.; Mokry, S.; Monichan, R.; Chophla, K.; Pioro, I.; Naterer, G.; Gabriel, K.

    2009-01-01

    Research activities are currently conducted worldwide to develop Generation IV nuclear reactor concepts with the objective of improving thermal efficiency and increasing economic competitiveness of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) compared to modern thermal power plants. The Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) concept is one of the six Generation IV options chosen for further investigation and development in several countries including Canada and Russia. Water-cooled reactors operating at subcritical pressures (10 - 16 MPa) have provided a significant amount of electricity production for the past 50 years. However, the thermal efficiency of the current NPPs is not very high (30 - 35%). As such, more competitive designs, with higher thermal efficiencies, which will be close to that of modern thermal power plants (45 - 50%), need to be developed and implemented. Super-Critical Water (SCW) NPPs will have much higher operating parameters compared to current NPPs (i.e., steam pressures of about 25 MPa and steam outlet temperatures up to 625 o C). Furthermore, SCWRs operating at higher temperatures can facilitate an economical co-generation of hydrogen through thermochemical cycles (particularly, the copper-chlorine cycle) or direct high-temperature electrolysis. The two SCW NPP cycles proposed by this paper are based on direct, regenerative, no-reheat and single-reheat configurations. As such, the main parameters and performance in terms of thermal efficiency of the SCW NPP concepts mentioned above are being analyzed. The cycles are generally comprised of: an SCWR, a SC turbine, one deaerator, ten feedwater heaters, and pumps. The SC turbine of the no-reheat cycle consists of one High-Pressure (HP) cylinder and two Low-Pressure (LP) cylinders. Alternatively, the SC turbine for the single-reheat cycle is comprised of one High-Pressure (HP) cylinder, one Intermediate-Pressure (IP) cylinder and two Low-Pressure (LP) cylinders. Since the single-reheat option

  4. Hydrogen Generation from Al-NiCl2/NaBH4 Mixture Affected by Lanthanum Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Qiang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of La on Al/NaBH4 hydrolysis was elaborated in the present paper. Hydrogen generation amount increases but hydrogen generation rate decreases with La content increasing. There is an optimized composition that Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl2/NaBH4 mixture (Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl2/NaBH4 weight ratio, 1 : 3 has 126 mL g−1 min−1 maximum hydrogen generation rate and 1764 mL g−1 hydrogen generation amount within 60 min. The efficiency is 88%. Combined with NiCl2, La has great effect on NaBH4 hydrolysis but has little effect on Al hydrolysis. Increasing La content is helpful to decrease the particle size of Al-La-NiCl2 in the milling process, which induces that the hydrolysis byproduct Ni2B is highly distributed into Al(OH3 and the catalytic reactivity of Ni2B/Al(OH3 is increased therefore. But hydrolysis byproduct La(OH3 deposits on Al surface and leads to some side effect. The Al-La-NiCl2/NaBH4 mixture has good stability in low temperature and its hydrolytic performance can be improved with increasing global temperature. Therefore, the mixture has good safety and can be applied as on board hydrogen generation material.

  5. Laboratory Studies of Hydrogen Gas Generation Using the Cobalt Chloride Catalyzed Sodium Borohydride-Water Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    already use hydrogen for weather balloons . Besides cost, hydrogen has other advantages over helium. Hydrogen has more lift than helium, so larger...of water vapor entering the gas stream, and avoid damaging the balloon /aerostat (aerostats typically have an operational temperature range of -50 to...Aerostats: “Gepard” Tethered Aerostats with Mobile Mooring Systems. Available at http://rosaerosystems.com/aero/obj7. Accessed June 4, 2015. 11

  6. Optimizing a High-Temperature Hydrogen Co-generation Reactor for Both Economic and Environmental Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Wood, Thomas W.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Johnson, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes outcomes for a 3000 MWt High Temperature Gas Reaction nuclear power plant, given price and cost assumptions, and determined what level of hydrogen and electricity production would optimize the plant economically and environmentally (carbon reduction). The tradeoff between producing hydrogen through steam methane reformation and producing electricity is so disproportionate, that advanced reactors will likely be used only as peaking plants for electricity unless policymakers intervene with incentives to change the mix of electricity and hydrogen. The magnitude of the increase in electric prices or decrease in hydrogen prices required to allow electricity production indicate that substantial error in cost estimates would be required to change our analysis.

  7. Defect generation/passivation by low energy hydrogen implant for silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopori, B.L.; Zhou, T.Q.; Rozgonyi, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Low energy ion implant is shown to produce defects in silicon. These defects include surface damage, hydrogen agglomeration, formation of platelets with (111) habit plane and decoration of dislocations. Hydrogen also produces an inversion type of surface on boron doped silicon. These effects indicate that a preferred approach for passivation is to incorporate hydrogen from the back side of the cell. A backside H + implant technique is described. The results show that degree of passivation differs for various devices. A comparison of the defect structures of hydrogenated devices indicates that the structure and the distribution of defects in the bulk of the material plays a significant role in determining the degree of passivation

  8. Automatic generation of pictorial transcripts of video programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraray, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

    1995-03-01

    An automatic authoring system for the generation of pictorial transcripts of video programs which are accompanied by closed caption information is presented. A number of key frames, each of which represents the visual information in a segment of the video (i.e., a scene), are selected automatically by performing a content-based sampling of the video program. The textual information is recovered from the closed caption signal and is initially segmented based on its implied temporal relationship with the video segments. The text segmentation boundaries are then adjusted, based on lexical analysis and/or caption control information, to account for synchronization errors due to possible delays in the detection of scene boundaries or the transmission of the caption information. The closed caption text is further refined through linguistic processing for conversion to lower- case with correct capitalization. The key frames and the related text generate a compact multimedia presentation of the contents of the video program which lends itself to efficient storage and transmission. This compact representation can be viewed on a computer screen, or used to generate the input to a commercial text processing package to generate a printed version of the program.

  9. Brazilian program on science, technology and innovation for hydrogen economy - ProH{sub 2}; Programa brasileiro de ciencia, tecnologia e inovacao para a economia do hidrogenio - ProH{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Filho, Adriano

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents in a generic way the Brazilian Program of Science, Technology and Innovation for the economy of hydrogen - ProH{sub 2}, comprehending the following global objectives: consolidation of a brazilian technology of the fuel cell and hydrogen production from renewable energies, in particular the ethanol; technological and scientific innovation resulting in the cost reduction according to the brazilian reality; obtention of stationary power modules with the greatest possible nationalization index; clean and distributed energy generation.

  10. Converting Chemical Energy to Electricity through a Three-Jaw Mini-Generator Driven by the Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Wang, Lei; Ji, Fanqin; Shi, Feng

    2016-05-11

    Energy conversion from a mechanical form to electricity is one of the most important research advancements to come from the horizontal locomotion of small objects. Until now, the Marangoni effect has been the only propulsion method to produce the horizontal locomotion to induce an electromotive force, which is limited to a short duration because of the specific property of surfactants. To solve this issue, in this article we utilized the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to provide the propulsion for a sustainable energy conversion from a mechanical form to electricity. We fabricated a mini-generator consisting of three parts: a superhydrophobic rotator with three jaws, three motors to produce a jet of oxygen bubbles to propel the rotation of the rotator, and three magnets integrated into the upper surface of the rotator to produce the magnet flux. Once the mini-generator was placed on the solution surface, the motor catalyzed the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. This generated a large amount of oxygen bubbles that caused the generator and integrated magnets to rotate at the air/water interface. Thus, the magnets passed under the coil area and induced a change in the magnet flux, thus generating electromotive forces. We also investigated experimental factors, that is, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the turns of the solenoid coil, and found that the mini-generator gave the highest output in a hydrogen peroxide solution with a concentration of 10 wt % and under a coil with 9000 turns. Through combining the stable superhydrophobicity and catalyst, we realized electricity generation for a long duration, which could last for 26 000 s after adding H2O2 only once. We believe this work provides a simple process for the development of horizontal motion and provides a new path for energy reutilization.

  11. Effect of microwave double absorption on hydrogen generation from methanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Bo-Jhih [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Hydrogen generation from steam reforming of methanol (SRM) with a CuO/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was investigated in the study; particular emphasis was placed on the reactions of SRM exposed to an environment with microwave irradiation. By virtue of the double absorption of microwaves by both the reagents and the catalyst, the experiments suggested that the SRM could be heated and triggered rapidly within a short time, and the methanol conversion from SRM with microwave heating was high compared to that with conventional heating. The obtained results also indicated that, when the reaction temperature was as high as 250 C, thermodynamic equilibrium governed the SRM, whereas the reaction was kinetically controlled for the temperature lower than 250 C. Contrary to Le Chatelier's principle, it was noted that an increase in S/C ratio decreased methanol conversion. This can be explained by the fact that water absorbs microwave irradiation stronger than methanol. The performance of the SRM was evaluated based on the carbon conservation method and the nitrogen tracer method. It was found that the latter was also capable of providing an accurate prediction on methanol conversion, even though the flow rate of the product gas was not measured. (author)

  12. Minimum Entropy Generation Theorem Investigation and Optimization of Metal Hydride Alloy Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to carry out numerical simulation of the hydrogen storage on exothermic reaction of metal hydride LaNi5 alloy container. In addition to accelerating the reaction speed of the internal metal hydride by internal control tube water-cooled mode, analyze via the application of second law of thermodynamics the principle of entropy generation. Use COMSOL Mutilphysics 4.3 a to engage in finite element method value simulation on two-dimensional axisymmetric model. Also on the premise that the internal control tube parameters the radius ri, the flow rate U meet the metal hydride saturation time, observe the reaction process of two parameters on the tank, entropy distribution and the results of the accumulated entropy. And try to find the internal tube parameter values of the minimum entropy, whose purpose is to be able to identify the reaction process and the reaction results of internal tank’s optimum energy conservation.

  13. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in

  14. Generative design visualize, program, and create with processing

    CERN Document Server

    Bohnacker, Hartmut; Laub, Julia; Lazzeroni, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    Generative design is a revolutionary new method of creating artwork, models, and animations from sets of rules, or algorithms. By using accessible programming languages such as Processing, artists and designers are producing extravagant, crystalline structures that can form the basis of anything from patterned textiles and typography to lighting, scientific diagrams, sculptures, films, and even fantastical buildings. Opening with a gallery of thirty-five illustrated case studies, Generative Design takes users through specific, practical instructions on how to create their own visual experiments by combining simple-to-use programming codes with basic design principles. A detailed handbook of advanced strategies provides visual artists with all the tools to achieve proficiency. Both a how-to manual and a showcase for recent work in this exciting new field, Generative Design is the definitive study and reference book that designers have been waiting for.

  15. Development of HyPEP, A Hydrogen Production Plant Efficiency Calculation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Jin; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Won Jae; Shin, Young Joon; Kim, Jong Ho; Hong, Sung Deok; Lee, Seung Wook; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2007-12-01

    Development of HyPEP program for assessing the steady-state hydrogen production efficiency of the nuclear hydrogen production facilities was carried out. The main developmental aims of the HyPEP program are the extensive application of the GUI for enhanced user friendliness and the fast numerical solution scheme. These features are suitable for such calculations as the optimisation calculations. HyPEP was developed with the object-oriented programming techniques. The components of the facility was modelled as objects in a hierarchical structure where the inheritance property of the object oriented program were extensively applied. The Delphi program language which is based on the Object Pascal was used for the HyPEP development. The conservation equations for the thermal hydraulic flow network were setup and the numerical solution scheme was developed and implemented into HyPEP beta version. HyPEP beta version has been developed with working GUI and the numerical solution scheme implementation. Due to the premature end of this project the fully working version of HyPEP was not produced

  16. Design and Control of Integrated Systems for Hydrogen Production and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgis, Dimitrios

    Growing concerns on CO2 emissions have led to the development of highly efficient power plants. Options for increased energy efficiencies include alternative energy conversion pathways, energy integration and process intensification. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) constitute a promising alternative for power generation since they convert the chemical energy electrochemically directly to electricity. Their high operating temperature shows potential for energy integration with energy intensive units (e.g. steam reforming reactors). Although energy integration is an essential tool for increased efficiencies, it leads to highly complex process schemes with rich dynamic behavior, which are challenging to control. Furthermore, the use of process intensification for increased energy efficiency imposes an additional control challenge. This dissertation identifies and proposes solutions on design, operational and control challenges of integrated systems for hydrogen production and power generation. Initially, a study on energy integrated SOFC systems is presented. Design alternatives are identified, control strategies are proposed for each alternative and their validity is evaluated under different operational scenarios. The operational range of the proposed control strategies is also analyzed. Next, thermal management of water gas shift membrane reactors, which are a typical application of process intensification, is considered. Design and operational objectives are identified and a control strategy is proposed employing advanced control algorithms. The performance of the proposed control strategy is evaluated and compared with classical control strategies. Finally SOFC systems for combined heat and power applications are considered. Multiple recycle loops are placed to increase design flexibility. Different operational objectives are identified and a nonlinear optimization problem is formulated. Optimal designs are obtained and their features are discussed and compared

  17. Decreased Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Generation in Penile Tissues of Diabetic Rats with Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shao-Gang; Liu, Ji-Hong; Yin, Chun-Ping; Ye, Zhang-Qun

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter. The levels of H2S-generating enzyme expression and endogenous H2S production in diabetic rats with erectile dysfunction (ED) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the H2S-generating enzymes and endogenous production of H2S in penile tissues of diabetic ED rats. Experimental rats were randomly divided into normal control group, apomorphine (APO)-positive group and APO-negative group. Primary rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) and aortic endothelial cells (AECs) were isolated and cultured in vitro under 3 different conditions: normal glucose (NG) condition, high glucose (HG) condition, and osmotic control (OC) condition. Erectile function; H2S concentrations in plasma or penile tissues; expression of H2S-generating enzymes and endogenous H2S production in penile tissues, CCSMCs, and AECs. Erectile function was significantly decreasedin the APO-negative group. In addition to significantly decreased expression of cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), the H2S concentrations in plasma and penile tissues and endogenous H2S production were significantly decreased in the APO-negative group. Endogenous H2S production by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) decreased to the same levels in the APO-negative and APO-positive groups as that in the normal control group. However, CBS and CSE expression remained unchanged in the 3 groups. Under HG conditions, H2S-generating enzyme expression in AECs did not change, while CAT, DAO, and 3-MST expression in CCSMCs was significantly decreased. In both cell types, H2S production by these enzymes was decreased in the HG group. Endogenous H2S production was significantly decreased in the diabetic ED rats' penile tissues due to downregulated expression of the CAT/3-MST and DAO/3-MST pathways and low activities of CBS and CSE

  18. Hydrogen generation during melter feed preparation of Tank 42 sludge and salt washed loaded CST in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of these scoping tests was to measure the rate of hydrogen generation in a series of experiments designed to duplicate the expected SRAT and SME processing conditions in laboratory scale vessels. This document details the testing performed to determine the maximum hydrogen generation expected with a coupled flowsheet of sludge, loaded CST [crystalline silicotitanate], and frit

  19. Breaking through the hydrogen cost barrier by using electrolysis loads to access ancillary services and demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; McGillivray, R.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation described the use of hydrogen electrolysis as a load resource for handling grid instability resulting from the increased penetration of intermittent renewable power. In particular, it focused on Hydrogenics, the leading global supplier of industrial scale electrolysis equipment and fuel cells. The presentation included an overview of the current incentive and market value of ancillary services provided by the company and demand responses in a number of grids around the world. There is a link between the amount of ancillary services required by the grid and the penetration level of renewable energy power such as wind and solar. The ability of hydrogen generation from electrolysis to satisfy all the requirements of ancillary services markets was also demonstrated. The economic analysis of hydrogen generation was discussed with particular reference to the cost of hydrogen fully loading all capital, energy and operating costs. The resulting reduction in the cost of hydrogen was compared to the existing markets for hydrogen, including use of hydrogen as a fuel for municipal bus fleets relative to the existing cost of fossil fuel fleets. Current industrial hydrogen merchant and bulk market prices were also compared

  20. Proceedings of the 1997 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Review, May 21-23, 1997, Herndon, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-10-01

    The research and development supported by the DOE Hydrogen Program focuses on near-term transitional strategies involving fossil fuels, and on the exploration of long-term, high-risk, renewable and sustainable concepts.

  1. Automatic generation of computer programs servicing TFTR console displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, H.

    1983-01-01

    A number of alternatives were considered in providing programs to support the several hundred displays required for control and monitoring of TFTR equipment. Since similar functions were performed, an automated method of creating programs was suggested. The complexity of a single program servicing as many as thirty consoles mitigated against that approach. Similarly, creation of a syntactic language while elegant, was deemed to be too time consuming, and had the disadvantage of requiring a working knowledge of the language on a programming level. It was elected to pursue a method of generating an individual program to service a particular display. A feasibility study was conducted and the Control and Monitor Display Generator system (CMDG) was developed. A Control and Monitor Display Service Program (CMDS) provides a means of performing monitor and control functions for devices associated with TFTR subsystems, as well as other user functions, via TFTR Control Consoles. This paper discusses the specific capabilities provided by CMDS in a usage context, as well as the mechanics of implementation

  2. Second generation biofuels, an accelerator of the transition toward an economy driven by energy drawn from hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delabroy, O.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of the bio economy, especially in transportation, involves developing a bio-fuel industry. First generation bio-fuels were produced from plant sugars like starch or from plant oils. Second generation bio fuels use as raw materials the whole plant and especially agricultural and forestry wastes which extend the resource considerably and limit the competition between food use and fuel use. Second generation bio-fuels can be made with not only biological methods but also biomass-to-liquid processes borrowed from thermochemistry. Players in this field, including 'Air Liquide' company, are drawing up a technical and economic road-map for competitiveness in this emerging branch of industry. Since the thermochemical approach for gasifying a biomass also yields large quantities of hydrogen, the industrialization of this branch and concomitant production of bio-hydrogen at competitive prices provide leverage for accelerating the transition toward using H 2 for transportation

  3. Volcano Plot for Bimetallic Catalysts in Hydrogen Generation by Hydrolysis of Sodium Borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Anais; Toshikj, Nikola; Hoett, Sandra; Bernaud, Laurent; Demirci, Umit B.

    2017-01-01

    In the field of "hydrogen energy", sodium borohydride (NaBH[subscript 4]) is a potential hydrogen carrier able to release H[subscript 2] by hydrolysis in the presence of a metal catalyst. Our laboratory experiment focuses on this. It is intended for thirdyear undergraduate students in order to have hands-on laboratory experience through…

  4. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  5. Hail hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, D.

    1996-01-01

    After years of being scorned and maligned, hydrogen is finding favor in environmental and process applications. There is enormous demand for the industrial gas from petroleum refiners, who need in creasing amounts of hydrogen to remove sulfur and other contaminants from crude oil. In pulp and paper mills, hydrogen is turning up as hydrogen peroxide, displacing bleaching agents based on chlorine. Now, new technologies for making hydrogen have the industry abuzz. With better capabilities of being generated onsite at higher purity levels, recycled and reused, hydrogen is being prepped for a range of applications, from waste reduction to purification of Nylon 6 and hydrogenation of specialty chemicals. The paper discusses the strong market demand for hydrogen, easier routes being developed for hydrogen production, and the use of hydrogen in the future

  6. Bio-hydrogen production based on catalytic reforming of volatiles generated by cellulose pyrolysis: An integrated process for ZnO reduction and zinc nanostructures fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, Adriana Veloso; Job, Aldo Eloizo; Nova Mussel, Wagner da; Brito, Walter de; Duarte Pasa, Vanya Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a process of cellulose thermal degradation with bio-hydrogen generation and zinc nanostructures synthesis. Production of zinc nanowires and zinc nanoflowers was performed by a novel processes based on cellulose pyrolysis, volatiles reforming and direct reduction of ZnO. The bio-hydrogen generated in situ promoted the ZnO reduction with Zn nanostructures formation by vapor-solid (VS) route. The cellulose and cellulose/ZnO samples were characterized by thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The hydrogen was detected by TPR (Temperature Programmed Reaction) tests. The results showed that in the presence of ZnO the cellulose thermal degradation produced larger amounts of H 2 when compared to pure cellulose. The process was also carried out in a tubular furnace with N 2 atmosphere, at temperatures up to 900 o C, and different heating rates. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction, at temperatures lower than those required in the carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of zinc nanostructures that are crystalline, were obtained without significant re-oxidation and whose morphologies are dependent on the heating rates of the process. This route presents a potential use as an industrial process taking into account the simple operational conditions, the low costs of cellulose and the importance of bio-hydrogen and nanostructured zinc.

  7. Quality Assurance Program Plan for TRUPACT-II Gas Generation Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Generation Test Program (GGTP), referred to as the Program, is designed to establish the concentration of flammable gases and/or gas generation rates in a test category waste container intended for shipment in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II). The phrase 'gas generationtesting' shall refer to any activity that establishes the flammable gas concentration or the flammable gas generation rate. This includes, but is not limited to, measurements performed directly on waste containers or during tests performed on waste containers. This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) documents the quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) requirements that apply to the Program. The TRUPACT-II requirements and technical bases for allowable flammable gas concentration and gas generation rates are described in the TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC).

  8. An Attempt of Making Program-Generated Animation in a Beginners’ Programming Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Chieko; Nakashima, Toyoshiro; Ishii, Naohiro

    In general, mathematical subjects are used for programming education in universities. In this case, many students lose the interest in the programming because the students have the preconception that is difficult to program by using the mathematical expressions. Especially beginners of the programming are a tendency to lose the interest. Therefore it is pointed out to use the subjects which do not need mathematical knowledge as much as possible. In this paper the authors have tried to make animation that are generated by programs instead of the mathematical subjects in a beginners’ programming class using C language used in a wide-ranging field. The authors discuss about improvements of the interest of students for programming by the try that is to make animation by programs in a programming class and refer to its effects.

  9. Steam generator tube integrity program. Phase I report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Clark, R.A.; Morris, C.J.; Vagins, M.

    1979-09-01

    The results are presented of the pressure tests performed as part of Phase I of the Steam Generator Tube Integrity (SGTI) program at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. These tests were performed to establish margin-to-failure predictions for mechanically defected Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing under operating and accident conditions. Defect geometries tested were selected because they simulate known or expected defects in PWR steam generators. These defect geometries are Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) slots, elliptical wastage, elliptical wastage plus through-wall slot, uniform thinning, denting, denting plus uniform thinning, and denting plus elliptical wastage. All defects were placed in tubing representative of that currently used in PWR steam generators

  10. Overview of the United States steam generator development programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspar, P W; Lowe, P A

    1975-07-01

    The LMFBR steam generator development program of the USA was initiated to support the development of reliable designs and meaningful performance data for these critical components. Since the steam generators include the structural boundary between heated sodium and water, the consequences of small flaws in the materials that form the boundary are significant. Successful development and demonstration of commercial LMFBR power plants requires the consideration of many factors in addition to the design, construction and operation of a particular plant. Additional factors which must be assessed include: economics, reliability, safety, environment, operability, maintainability and conservation of the resources. In terms of the steam generator these items led to the selection of a single wall tube design using a forced recirculating system for the present Clinch River Breeder Reactor. There are strong economic incentives to use a once-through steam generating system in future designs.

  11. Structure analysis in algorithms and programs. Generator of coordinates of equivalent points. (Collected programs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyushenko, N.N.; Titov, Yu.G.

    1982-01-01

    Programs of atom coordinate generation and space symmetry groups in a form of equivalent point systems are presented. Programs of generation and coordinate output from an on-line storage are written in the FORTRAN language for the ES computer. They may be used in laboratories specialized in studying atomic structure and material properties, in colleges and by specialists in other fields of physics and chemistry

  12. Automatic generation of Fortran programs for algebraic simulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopf, W.; Rexer, G.; Ruehle, R.

    1978-04-01

    This report documents a generator program by which econometric simulation models formulated in an application-orientated language can be transformed automatically in a Fortran program. Thus the model designer is able to build up, test and modify models without the need of a Fortran programmer. The development of a computer model is therefore simplified and shortened appreciably; in chapter 1-3 of this report all rules are presented for the application of the generator to the model design. Algebraic models including exogeneous and endogeneous time series variables, lead and lag function can be generated. In addition, to these language elements, Fortran sequences can be applied to the formulation of models in the case of complex model interrelations. Automatically the generated model is a module of the program system RSYST III and is therefore able to exchange input and output data with the central data bank of the system and in connection with the method library modules can be used to handle planning problems. (orig.) [de

  13. Program generator for the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo-Petravic, G.; Petravic, M.

    1978-04-01

    The Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method has been found very effective for the solution of sparse systems of linear equations. Its implementation on a computer, however, requires a considerable amount of careful coding to achieve good machine efficiency. Furthermore, the resulting code is necessarily inflexible and cannot be easily adapted to different problems. We present in this paper a code generator GENIC which, given a small amount of information concerning the sparsity pattern and size of the system of equations, generates a solver package. This package, called SOLIC, is tailor made for a particular problem and can be easily incorporated into any user program

  14. Tegen - an onedimensional program to calculate a thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, M.A.P.; Ferreira, P.A.; Castro Lobo, P.D. de.

    1990-01-01

    A computer program for the solution of the one-dimensional, steady-state temperature equation in the arms of a thermoelectric generator. The discretized equations obtained through a finite difference scheme are solved by Gaussian Elimination. Due to nonlinearities caused by the temperature dependence of the coefficients of such equations, an iterative procedure is used to obtain the temperature distribution in the arms. Such distributions are used in the calculation of the efficiency, electric power, load voltage and other relevant parameters for the design of a thermoelectric generator. (author)

  15. Root cause study on hydrogen generation and explosion through radiation-induced electrolysis in the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Genn, E-mail: sajig@bd5.so-net.ne.jp

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Reviewed how LWRs have coped with “water radiolysis”, during normal operation to severe accidents. • Concluded “water radiolysis” is not likely a route course of the hydrogen explosions at Fukushima. • Performed modeling studies based on “radiation-induced electrolysis” on Unit 1–Unit 4. • Generation of several tens of thousands cubic meters hydrogen gas is predicted before the hydrogen explosions. • Upon SBO, early safe disposal of hydrogen from RPVs is indispensable in BWRs. - Abstract: Since the scientific cause for a series of hydrogen explosions during the Fukushima accident has not been established, the author investigated his basic theory named “radiation-induced electrolysis (RIE)” by applying the estimation of the amounts of H{sub 2} generation during the active phase of the Fukushima accident. The author's theory was originally developed by including Faraday's law of electrolysis into the basic time-dependent material balance equation of radiation-chemical species for his study on accelerated corrosion phenomena which is widely observed in aged plants. As such this theory applies to the early phase of the accident before the loss of water levels in the reactor cores, although the simulations were performed from the time of seismic reactor trip to the hydrogen explosions in this paper. Through this mechanism as much as 29,400 m{sup 3}-STP of hydrogen gas is estimated to be accumulated inside the PCV just prior to the hydrogen explosion which occurred one day after the reactor trip in 1F1. With this large volume of hydrogen gas the explosion was a viable possibility upon the “venting” operation. In view of this observation, hydrogen generation from the spent fuel pools was also investigated. For the investigation of the 1F4 SFP, the pool water temperature and flow velocity due to natural circulation were changed widely to identify conditions of large hydrogen generation. During the trial calculations

  16. Methane Formation by Flame-Generated Hydrogen Atoms in the Flame Ionization Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1996-01-01

    , and conceivably all hydrocarbons are quantitatively converted into methane at temperatures below 600 C, that is, before the proper combustion has started. The splitting of the C-C bonds is preceded by hydrogenation of double and triple bonds and aromatic rings. The reactions, no doubt, are caused by hydrogen...... atoms, which are formed in the burning hydrogen and which diffuse into the inner core of the flame. The quantitative formation of methane appears to explain the "equal per carbon" rule for the detector response of hydrocarbons, since all carbons are "exchanged" for methane molecules....

  17. The generation of molecular hydrogen by cyanobacteria. Die Gewinnung von molekularem Wasserstoff durch Cyanobakterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kentemich, T.; Haverkamp, G.; Bothe, H. (Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Botanisches Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Currently there is renewed interest in projects on solar-energy conversion by microorganisms. Among all organisms, cyanobacteria are first choice for such projects. Hydrogen production by cyanobacteria is light-dependent and catalyzed by the enzyme complex nitrogenase which concomitantly catalyzes the reduction of N{sub 2} to ammonia. The cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis can express an alternative, vanadium-containing nitrogenase which produces more hydrogen than the conventional, molybdenum-containing enzyme. In intact cells, most of the H{sub 2} produced by nitrogenase is immediatley reutilized by the hydrogenase enzymes. Maximal hydrogen production requires the genetic blockage of H{sub 2} utilization by the hydrogenases. (orig.).

  18. Hydrogen energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okken, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    For the Energy and Material consumption Scenarios (EMS), by which emission reduction of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases can be calculated, calculations are executed by means of the MARKAL model (MARket ALlocation, a process-oriented dynamic linear programming model to minimize the costs of the energy system) for the Netherlands energy economy in the period 2000-2040, using a variable CO 2 emission limit. The results of these calculations are published in a separate report (ECN-C--92-066). The use of hydrogen can play an important part in the above-mentioned period. An overview of several options to produce or use hydrogen is given and added to the MARKAL model. In this report techno-economical data and estimates were compiled for several H 2 -application options, which subsequently also are added to the MARKAL model. After a brief chapter on hydrogen and the impact on the reduction of CO 2 emission attention is paid to stationary and mobile applications. The stationary options concern the mixing of natural gas with 10% hydrogen, a 100% substitution of natural gas by hydrogen, the use of a direct steam generator (combustion of hydrogen by means of pure oxygen, followed by steam injection to produce steam), and the use of fuel cells. The mobile options concern the use of hydrogen in the transportation sector. In brief, attention is paid to a hydrogen passenger car with an Otto engine, and a hydrogen passenger car with a fuel cell, a hybrid (metal)-hydride car, a hydrogen truck, a truck with a methanol fuel cell, a hydrogen bus, an inland canal boat with a hydrogen fuel cell, and finally a hydrogen airplane. 2 figs., 15 tabs., 1 app., 26 refs

  19. Photocatalytic properties of PbS/graphene oxide/polyaniline electrode for hydrogen generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Mohamed; Rabia, Mohamed; El-Sayed, Asmaa M Abd; Ahmed, Aya; Sayed, Somaya

    2017-10-26

    In this work, roll-graphene oxide (Ro-GO), polyaniline (PANI) nano/microparticles, and PbS nanoparticles were prepared by modified Hammer, oxidative polymerization, and chemical bath deposition methods, respectively. These nano/microstructures were characterized, optimized, and designed to form PbS/Ro-GO/PANI nano/microcomposite. Also, the ratios of PbS and Ro-GO were optimized, and the optimized composition of the used composite was 0.4 g PANI, 0.125 g Ro-GO, and 0.075 g PbS. The band gap values for PANI, PbS, Ro-GO, and PbS/Ro-GO/PANI rocomposite were 3, 1.13, 2.86, (1.16, 2) eV, respectively. Two photoelectrode assemblies, Au/PbS/Ro-GO/PANI and PbS/Ro-GO/PANI/ITO/glass were used for the photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation. In the first assembly 45 nm- Au layer was sputtered on the surface of a disk of PbS/Ro-GO/PANI composite. For the second assembly, a disk of PbS/Ro-GO/PANI composite was glued on ITO glass using Ag-THF paste. The lifetime efficiency values were 64.2 and 43.4% for the first and second electrode for 2 h, respectively. Finally, the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) and photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) were calculated under monochromatic illumination conditions. The optimum IPCE efficiency at 390 nm was 9.4% and 16.17%, whereas ABPE % efficiency was 1.01% and 1.75% for Au/PbS/Ro-GO/PANI and PbS/Ro-GO/PANI/ITO/glass, respectively.

  20. Steam generator tube integrity program: Phase II, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Bickford, R.L.; Clark, R.A.; Morris, C.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1988-08-01

    The Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program (SGTIP) was a three phase program conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The first phase involved burst and collapse testing of typical steam generator tubing with machined defects. The second phase of the SGTIP continued the integrity testing work of Phase I, but tube specimens were degraded by chemical means rather than machining methods. The third phase of the program used a removed-from-service steam generator as a test bed for investigating the reliability and effectiveness of in-service nondestructive eddy-current inspection methods and as a source of service degraded tubes for validating the Phase I and Phase II data on tube integrity. This report describes the results of Phase II of the SGTIP. The object of this effort included burst and collapse testing of chemically defected pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing to validate empirical equations of remaining tube integrity developed during Phase I. Three types of defect geometries were investigated: stress corrosion cracking (SCC), uniform thinning and elliptical wastage. In addition, a review of the publicly available leak rate data for steam generator tubes with axial and circumferential SCC and a comparison with an analytical leak rate model is presented. Lastly, nondestructive eddy-current (EC) measurements to determine accuracy of defect depth sizing using conventional and alternate standards is described. To supplement the laboratory EC data and obtain an estimate of EC capability to detect and size SCC, a mini-round robin test utilizing several firms that routinely perform in-service inspections was conducted.

  1. Steam generator tube integrity program: Phase II, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Bickford, R.L.; Clark, R.A.; Morris, C.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1988-08-01

    The Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program (SGTIP) was a three phase program conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The first phase involved burst and collapse testing of typical steam generator tubing with machined defects. The second phase of the SGTIP continued the integrity testing work of Phase I, but tube specimens were degraded by chemical means rather than machining methods. The third phase of the program used a removed-from-service steam generator as a test bed for investigating the reliability and effectiveness of in-service nondestructive eddy-current inspection methods and as a source of service degraded tubes for validating the Phase I and Phase II data on tube integrity. This report describes the results of Phase II of the SGTIP. The object of this effort included burst and collapse testing of chemically defected pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing to validate empirical equations of remaining tube integrity developed during Phase I. Three types of defect geometries were investigated: stress corrosion cracking (SCC), uniform thinning and elliptical wastage. In addition, a review of the publicly available leak rate data for steam generator tubes with axial and circumferential SCC and a comparison with an analytical leak rate model is presented. Lastly, nondestructive eddy-current (EC) measurements to determine accuracy of defect depth sizing using conventional and alternate standards is described. To supplement the laboratory EC data and obtain an estimate of EC capability to detect and size SCC, a mini-round robin test utilizing several firms that routinely perform in-service inspections was conducted

  2. Relations between oxygen and hydrogen generated by radiolysis in the systems of a CANDU 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Christian; Chocron, Mauricio; Urrutia, Guillermo

    1999-01-01

    The water that constitutes the coolant of the primary heat transport system, the moderator and the liquid control zones, decomposed under radiation producing as stable products oxygen, hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide throughout a complex mechanisms of radiolysis that involves ions and free radicals. These compound formed in different proportions alters the chemical control established for each system which purpose is to minimize the corrosion of the structural materials. In the present paper have been presented results of the modelling of the mentioned processes and it has been found that in the absence of a vapor phase, a relatively low concentration of hydrogen added to the water would be sufficient to control the formation of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The last species however, would remain in relatively high values inside a coolant fuel channel in the reactor core. (author)

  3. Hydrogen Generation in Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis Cells Using a Heat-Regenerated Salt Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Cusick, Roland D.; Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen gas can be electrochemically produced in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) using current derived from organic matter and salinity-gradient energy such as river water and seawater solutions. Here, it is shown

  4. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.; Becker, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The U.S. Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration close-quote s Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent major changes in the U.S. Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The US Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent ma or changes in the US Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined

  6. Pd/C Synthesized with Citric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid/Sodium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Li; Yan, Jun-Min; Wang, Hong-Li; Ping, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate aqueous solution catalyzed by in situ synthesized Pd/C with citric acid has been successfully achieved at room temperature. Interestingly, the presence of citric acid during the formation and growth of the Pd nanoparticles on carbon can drastically enhance the catalytic property of the resulted Pd/C, on which the conversion and turnover frequency for decomposition of formic acid/sodium formate system can reach the highest values ever reported of 85% within 160 min and 64 mol H2 mol−1 catalyst h−1, respectively, at room temperature. The present simple, low cost, but highly efficient CO-free hydrogen generation system at room temperature is believed to greatly promote the practical application of formic acid system on fuel cells. PMID:22953041

  7. All-Vanadium Dual Circuit Redox Flow Battery for Renewable Hydrogen Generation and Desulfurisation

    OpenAIRE

    Peljo, Pekka Eero; Vrubel, Heron; Amstutz, Veronique; Pandard, Justine; Morgado, Joana; Santasalo-Aarnio, Annukka; Lloyd, David; Gumy, Frederic; Dennison, C R; Toghill, Kathryn; Girault, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    An all-vanadium dual circuit redox flow battery is an electrochemical energy storage system capable to function as a conventional battery, but also to produce hydrogen and perform desulfurization when surplus of electricity is available by chemical discharge of the battery electrolytes. The hydrogen reactor chemically discharging the negative electrolyte has been designed and scaled up to kW scale, while different options to discharge the positive electrolyte have been evaluated, including ox...

  8. 1 kWe sodium borohydride hydrogen generation system Part II: Reactor modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinsong; Zheng, Yuan; Gore, Jay P; Mudawar, Issam; Fisher, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrogen storage systems offer many advantages for hydrogen storage applications. The physical processes inside a NaBH4 packed bed reactor involve multi-component and multi-phase flow and multi-mode heat and mass transfer. These processes are also coupled with reaction kinetics. To guide reactor design and optimization, a reactor model involving all of these processes is desired. A onedimensional numerical model in conjunction with the assumption of homogeneous cata...

  9. Aging mitigation and improved programs for nuclear service diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Zaloudek, F.R.

    1989-12-01

    Recent NRC sponsored aging research work on nuclear service diesel generators has resulted in a recommendation that an improved engine management program should be adopted for aging mitigation and reliability improvement. The center of attention should be to ensure diesel-generator operational readiness. This report emphasizes a ''healthy engine concept'' and recommends parameters to be monitored to determine engine condition. The proposed program and approach recommended in this report represent balanced management where diesel generator testing, inspections, monitoring, trending, training, and maintenance all have appropriate importance. Fast-starting and fast-loading test of nuclear service diesels causes very rapid wear of certain engine components. This report documents this aging and wear mechanism and recommends ways to largely eliminate this unique aging stressor. Current periodic intrusive maintenance and engine overhaul practice have been found to be less favorable for safety assurance than engine overhauls based on monitoring and trending results or on a need to correct specific engine defects. This report recommends that the periodic overhaul requirements be re-evaluated. Diesel generator research on aging and wear is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The research reported in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle Memorial Institute. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  10. CdS/TiO2 photoanodes via solution ion transfer method for highly efficient solar hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Karuturi, Siva; Yew, Rowena; Reddy Narangari, Parvathala; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Li, Li; Vora, Kaushal; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is a unique semiconducting material for solar hydrogen generation applications with a tunable, narrow bandgap that straddles water redox potentials. However, its potential towards efficient solar hydrogen generation has not yet been realized due to low photon-to-current conversions, high charge carrier recombination and the lack of controlled preparation methods. In this work, we demonstrate a highly efficient CdS/TiO2 heterostructured photoelectrode using atomic layer deposition and solution ion transfer reactions. Enabled by the well-controlled deposition of CdS nanocrystals on TiO2 inverse opal (TiIO) nanostructures using the proposed method, a saturation photocurrent density of 9.1 mA cm-2 is realized which is the highest ever reported for CdS-based photoelectrodes. We further demonstrate that the passivation of a CdS surface with an ultrathin amorphous layer (˜1.5 nm) of TiO2 improves the charge collection efficiency at low applied potentials paving the way for unassisted solar hydrogen generation.

  11. PVP-stabilized Ru–Rh nanoparticles as highly efficient catalysts for hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of ammonia borane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakap, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the utilization of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-protected ruthenium–rhodium nanoparticles (3.4 ± 1.4 nm) as highly efficient catalysts in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane for hydrogen generation is reported. They are prepared by co-reduction of ruthenium and rhodium metal ions in ethanol/water mixture by an alcohol reduction method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They are durable and highly efficient catalysts for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane even at very low concentrations and temperature, providing average turnover frequency of 386 mol H 2 (mol cat) −1 min −1 and maximum hydrogen generation rate of 10,680 L H 2 min −1 (mol cat) −1 . Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-protected ruthenium–rhodium nanoparticles also provide activation energy of 47.4 ± 2.1 kJ/mol for the hydrolysis of ammonia borane. - Highlights: • Ru-Rh@PVP NPs provide a TOF of 386 mol H 2 (mol cat) −1 min −1 for hydrolysis of AB. • Maximum HG rate is 9680 L H 2 min −1 (mol cat) −1 for the hydrolysis of AB. • Activation energy is 47.4 ± 2.1 kJ mol −1 for the hydrolysis of AB

  12. Law proposal aiming at imposing the domestic consumption tax to the natural gas used for hydrogen generation for petroleum refining purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    In France, natural gas benefits from tax exemptions in several situations and in particular when used as raw material for hydrogen generation, which in turn, is used for crude oil refining and fuels generation. However, crude oil is cheaper when it is heavier but more hydrogen, and thus more natural gas, is needed to refine it and more CO 2 is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, refining cheap crude oil increases the refining margins of oil companies but their environmental impact as well. The aim of this law proposal is to impose the domestic consumption tax to natural gas when used in oil refining processes in order to finance the development of the renewable hydrogen industry through the creation of a High Council of Hydrogen Industry. This High Council would be in charge of promoting the development of renewable hydrogen production facilities and distribution circuits, of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and of fuel cells. (J.S.)

  13. Optimal energy management of the smart parking lot under demand response program in the presence of the electrolyser and fuel cell as hydrogen storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannati, Jamil; Nazarpour, Daryoosh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management of IPL is considered in the presence of wind turbine and PV system. • The optimal charge and discharge powers of EVs, dispatch power of LDG are determined. • Charging/discharging decisions of electrolyser and fuel cell are determined. • Demand response program is used to manage the peak load to reduce the operation cost. • Global optimal is guaranteed in proposed model by mixed-integer linear programming. - Abstract: Nowadays, utilization of distributed generation sources and electric vehicles (EVs) are increased to reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Also, intelligent parking lots (IPL) are increased in response to the increase in the number of EVs. Therefore, optimal operation of distributed generation sources and IPL in the power market without technical scheduling will follow some economic problems for the owner of IPL and some technical problems for the operator of distribution network. Therefore, in this paper, an optimal energy management has been proposed for an IPL which includes renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic system) and local dispatchable generators (micro-turbines). Also, determination of optimal charge and discharge powers of hydrogen storage system (HSS) containing electrolyser, hydrogen storage tanks and fuel cell has been considered in the proposed model. Furthermore, the time-of-use rates of demand response program are proposed to flatten the load curve to reduce the operation cost of IPL. The objective function includes minimizing the operation costs of upstream grid and local dispatchable generators as well as charging and discharging cost of IPL subject to the technical and physical constraints under demand response program in the presence of HSS. The proposed model is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming and solved using GAMS optimization software under CPLEX solver. Four case studies are investigated to validate the proposed model to show the positive

  14. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.E. Mizia; W.E. Windes; W.R. Corwin; T.D. Burchell; C.E. Duty; Y. Katoh; J.W. Klett; T.E. McGreevy; R.K. Nanstad; W. Ren; P.L. Rittenhouse; L.L. Snead; R.W. Swindeman; D.F. Wlson

    2006-01-01

    This is the 2006 update (Revision 3) of the NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan. This law established that the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary of Energy shall establish a ''Next Generation Nuclear Plant'' (NGNP) project. The NGNP project named in the Act was given the following attributes and guiding principles to manage its development: (1) The NGNP consists of research, development, design (R and DD), construction, and operation of a prototype reactor to generate electricity and hydrogen; (2) The project shall be managed by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy; (3) The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shall be the lead DOE laboratory for the NGNP; (4) The INL shall establish collaborations with selected institutions of higher education, other research institutes and international researchers; (5) The INL shall organize an industrial consortium of partners for cost-shared R and DD, construction; (6) The project shall be sited at the INL; (7) The project shall be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by July, 2008 the NRC and DOE shall jointly submit a licensing strategy to Congress; (8) The project shall be organized to maximize technical interchange with the nuclear power industry, nuclear power plant construction firms, the chemical process industry and to seek international cooperation, participation and contributions; (9) The Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) shall review all program plans for the NGNP; (10) Phase 1 of the project (selection of hydrogen production technology, conduct R and DD and initial design activities) shall be completed no later than September 30, 2011; (11) Phase 2 of the project (continue R and DD, develop final design, apply for a license, construct and start operations) shall be completed by September 30, 2021; and (12) Provision for authorization of appropriations was made. As a result of the direction provided, the INL and the DOE issued an NGNP Preliminary Project Management

  15. An assessment of post-LOCA radiolytic generation of hydrogen in reactor containment of Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, H.; Shah, G.C.; Dutta, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: An event-wise assessment has been carried out for the 220 MWe Indian PHWRs of standardized design, to estimate the post-LOCA release of radiolytic hydrogen inside reactor containment, in absence of steam-zirconium reaction. The assessment is based on (i) the dissolved hydrogen concentration build-up in water corresponding to the decaying gamma dose profile and (ii) the rate of concentration dependent mass-transfer of hydrogen from water to gas-space. It is observed that the total radiolytic hydrogen released is about three times less than that obtained by the conventional method of calculation which assumes the radiolytic yield of hydrogen to be equal to the primary yield G(H 2 ) = 0.44 molecules per 100 eV. It is also seen that a major part (∼90 %) of the total release is due to the spillage of fission product irradiated suppression pool water flowing through the core, followed by moderator and suppression pool surface releases respectively

  16. Nano-design of quantum dot-based photocatalysts for hydrogen generation using advanced surface molecular chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili; Noureldine, Dalal; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.; Lin, Bin; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Abulikemu, Mutalifu; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation in a suspension system requires a sophisticated nano-device that combines a photon absorber with effective redox catalysts. This study demonstrates an innovative molecular linking strategy for fabricating photocatalytic materials that allow effective charge separation of excited carriers, followed by efficient hydrogen evolution. The method for the sequential replacement of ligands with appropriate molecules developed in this study tethers both quantum dots (QDs), as photosensitizers, and metal nanoparticles, as hydrogen evolution catalysts, to TiO2 surfaces in a controlled manner at the nano-level. Combining hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions on the surface, CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs and an Au-Pt alloy were attached to TiO2 without overlapping during the synthesis. The resultant nano-photocatalysts achieved substantially high-performance visible-light-driven photocatalysis for hydrogen evolution. All syntheses were conducted at room temperature and in ambient air, providing a promising route for fabricating visible-light-responsive photocatalysts.

  17. Promon's participation in the Brasilsat program: first & second generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaiva, Ricardo N.

    This paper presents an overview of the Brasilsat program, space and ground segments, developed by Hughes and Promon. Promon is a Brazilian engineering company that has been actively participating in the Brasilsat Satellite Telecommunications Program since its beginning. During the first generation, as subcontractor of the Spar/Hughes/SED consortium, Promon had a significant participation in the site installation of the Ground Segment, including the antennas. During the second generation, as partner of a consortium with Hughes, Promon participated in the upgrade of Brasilsat's Ground Segment systems: the TT&C (TCR1, TCR2, and SCC) and the COCC (Communications and Operations Control Center). This upgrade consisted of the design and development of hardware and software to support the second generation requirements, followed by integration and tests, factory acceptance tests, transport to site, site installation, site acceptance tests and warranty support. The upgraded systems are distributed over four sites with remote access to the main ground station. The solutions adopted provide a high level of automation, and easy operator interaction. The hardware and software technologies were selected to provide the flexibility to incorporate new technologies and services from the demanding satellite telecommunications market.

  18. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  19. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Halsey, William [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hayner, George [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.

  20. Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Human Exploration Program: Benchmarking with "The Hydrogen Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The theoretically high efficiency and low temperature operation of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells has motivated them to be the subject of much study since their invention in the 19th Century, but their relatively high life cycle costs kept them as a "solution in search of a problem" for many years. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a truly cost effective solution was that of providing a power source for NASA's human spaceflight vehicles in the 1960 s. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. This development program continues to place its highest priorities on requirements for minimum system mass and maximum durability and reliability. These priorities drive fuel cell power plant design decisions at all levels, even that of catalyst support. However, since the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of commercial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but, as these development efforts place their highest priority on requirements for minimum life cycle cost and field safety, these advances are yielding design solutions quite different at almost every level from those needed for spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's Human Exploration Program

  1. Reducibility of ceria-lanthana mixed oxides under temperature programmed hydrogen and inert gas flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, S.; Blanco, G.; Cifredo, G.; Perez-Omil, J.A.; Pintado, J.M.; Rodriguez-Izquierdo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper deals with the preparation and characterization of La/Ce mixed oxides, with La molar contents of 20, 36 and 57%. We carry out the study of the structural, textural and redox properties of the mixed oxides, comparing our results with those for pure ceria. For this aim we use temperature programmed reduction (TPR), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), nitrogen physisorption at 77 K, X-ray diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy. The mixed oxides are more easy to reduce in a flow of hydrogen than ceria. Moreover, in an inert gas flow they release oxygen in higher amounts and at lower temperatures than pure CeO 2 . The textural stability of the mixed oxides is also improved by incorporation of lanthana. All these properties make the ceria-lanthana mixed oxides interesting alternative candidates to substitute ceria in three-way catalyst formulations. (orig.)

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2017 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-18

    The fiscal year 2017 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June June 5-9, 2017, in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  3. Preliminary analysis of an hydrogen generator system based on nuclear energy in the Laguna Verde site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores y Flores, A.; Francois L, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The shortage of fossil fuels in the next future, as well as the growing one demand of energetics and the high cost of the production of alternating fuels, it forces us to take advantage of to the maximum the fossil fuel with the one which we count and to look for the form of producing alternating fuels at a low cost and better even if these supply sources are reliable and non pollutants. It is intended a solution to the shortage of fuel; to use the thermal energy liberated of some appropriate nuclear reactor to be able to obtain a fuel but clean and relatively cheap as it is the hydrogen. In the first place the methods were looked for to produce hydrogen using thermal energy, later it was analyzed the temperature liberated by the existent nuclear reactors as well as the advanced designs, according to this liberated temperature settled down that the methods but feasible to produce hydrogen its were the one of reformed with water stream of the natural gas (methane) and the other one of the S-I thermochemical cycle, and the nuclear reactors that give the thermal energy for this production they are those of gas of high temperature. Once established the processes and the appropriate reactors, it was analyzed the site of Laguna Verde, with relationship to the free space to be able to place the reactor and the plant producer of hydrogen, as well as the direction in which blow the dominant winds and the near towns to the place, it was carried out an analysis of some explosion of tanks that could store hydrogen and the damage that its could to cause depending from the distance to which its were of the fire. Finally it was carried out an evaluation of capital and of operation costs for those two methods of hydrogen production. (Author)

  4. Power generation in fuel cells using liquid methanol and hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is directed to an encapsulated fuel cell including a methanol source that feeds liquid methanol (CH.sub.3 OH) to an anode. The anode is electrical communication with a load that provides electrical power. The fuel cell also includes a hydrogen peroxide source that feeds liquid hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2 O.sub.2) to the cathode. The cathode is also in communication with the electrical load. The anode and cathode are in contact with and separated by a proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membrane.

  5. Visual programming for next-generation sequencing data analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicchio, Franco; Rose, Rebecca; Bian, Jiang; Min, Jae; Prosperi, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput or next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have become an established and affordable experimental framework in biological and medical sciences for all basic and translational research. Processing and analyzing NGS data is challenging. NGS data are big, heterogeneous, sparse, and error prone. Although a plethora of tools for NGS data analysis has emerged in the past decade, (i) software development is still lagging behind data generation capabilities, and (ii) there is a 'cultural' gap between the end user and the developer. Generic software template libraries specifically developed for NGS can help in dealing with the former problem, whilst coupling template libraries with visual programming may help with the latter. Here we scrutinize the state-of-the-art low-level software libraries implemented specifically for NGS and graphical tools for NGS analytics. An ideal developing environment for NGS should be modular (with a native library interface), scalable in computational methods (i.e. serial, multithread, distributed), transparent (platform-independent), interoperable (with external software interface), and usable (via an intuitive graphical user interface). These characteristics should facilitate both the run of standardized NGS pipelines and the development of new workflows based on technological advancements or users' needs. We discuss in detail the potential of a computational framework blending generic template programming and visual programming that addresses all of the current limitations. In the long term, a proper, well-developed (although not necessarily unique) software framework will bridge the current gap between data generation and hypothesis testing. This will eventually facilitate the development of novel diagnostic tools embedded in routine healthcare.

  6. Generation of an electromotive force by hydrogen-to-water oxidation with Pt-coated oxidized titanium foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schierbaum, Klaus; El Achhab, Mhamed [Department of Materials Science, Institute for Experimental Condensed Matter Physics, Heinrich-Heine University, 40225 Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1 (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We show that chemically induced current densities up to 20 mA cm{sup -2} and an electromotive force (EMF) up to 465 mV are generated during the hydrogen-to-water-oxidation over Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Ti devices. We prepare the samples by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of titanium foils and deposition of Pt contact paste. This process yields porous structures and, depending on the anodization voltage, Schottky diode-type current-voltage curves of various ideality parameters. Our experiments demonstrate that Pt coated anodized titanium can also be utilized as hydrogen sensor; the system offers a number of advantages such as a wide temperature range of operation from -40 to 80 C, quick response and decay times of signals, and good electrical stability. Idealized sketch of the Pt coated anodized Ti foil and application as hydrogen sensor and electric generator. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Electric generating capacity planning: A nonlinear programming approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakin, M.Z.; McFarland, J.W.

    1987-02-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear programming approach for long-range generating capacity expansion planning in electrical power systems. The objective in the model is the minimization of total cost consisting of investment cost plus generation cost for a multi-year planning horizon. Reliability constraints are imposed by using standard and practical reserve margin requirements. State equations representing the dynamic aspect of the problem are included. The electricity demand (load) and plant availabilities are treated as random variables, and the method of cumulants is used to calculate the expected energy generated by each plant in each year of the planning horizon. The resulting model has a (highly) nonlinear objective function and linear constraints. The planning model is solved over the multiyear planning horizon instead of decomposing it into one-year period problems. This approach helps the utility decision maker to carry out extensive sensitivity analysis easily. A case study example is provided using EPRI test data. Relationships among the reserve margin, total cost and surplus energy generating capacity over the planning horizon are explored by analyzing the model.

  8. Technology Innovations from NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.; Tyson, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program has been on the cutting edge of technology, improving the safety, affordability, and reliability of future space-launch-transportation systems. The array of projects focused on propulsion, airframe, and other vehicle systems. Achievements range from building miniature fuel/oxygen sensors to hot-firings of major rocket-engine systems as well as extreme thermo-mechanical testing of large-scale structures. Results to date have significantly advanced technology readiness for future space-launch systems using either airbreathing or rocket propulsion.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.E. Mizia; W.E. Windes; W.R. Corwin; T.D. Burchell; C.E. Duty; Y. Katoh; J.W. Klett; T.E. McGreevy; R.K. Nanstad; W. Ren; P.L. Rittenhouse; L.L. Snead; R.W. Swindeman; D.F. Wlson

    2007-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Some of the general and administrative aspects of the R&D Plan include: • Expand American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards in support of the NGNP Materials R&D Program. • Define and develop inspection needs and the procedures for those inspections. • Support selected university materials related R&D activities that would be of direct benefit to the NGNP Project. • Support international materials related collaboration activities through the DOE sponsored Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Materials and Components (M&C) Project Management Board (PMB). • Support document review activities through the Materials Review Committee (MRC) or other suitable forum.

  12. Surface decontamination of Type 304L stainless steel with electrolytically generated hydrogen: Design and operation of the electrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The surface of tritiated Type 304L stainless steel is decontaminated by isotopic exchange with the hydrogen generated in an electrolyzer. This steel had previously been exposed to tritium in a tritium gas facility for several years. The electrolyzer for the decontamination uses a conducting solid polymer electrolyte made of a Nafion membrane. The cathode where the hydrogen is formed is nickel deposited on one of the polymer surfaces. This cathode is placed next to the region of the steel to be decontaminated. The decontamination involves, essentially, the tritiated oxide layers of which the initial radioactivity is ∼ 5 kBq/cm 2 . After treatment for 1 h, the decontamination factor is 8. 9 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Metal alloys for the new generation of compressors at hydrogen stations: Parametric study of corrosion behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arjomand Kermani, Nasrin; Petrushina, Irina; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich

    2017-01-01

    , consequently, significantly reduce the final cost of hydrogen production. The correct choice of ionic liquid and construction materials is critical for avoiding significant corrosion problems. Hence, the objective of this study is to evaluate the compatibility of various austenitic stainless steels and nickel...

  14. Renewable Bio-Solar Hydrogen Production: The Second Generation (Part B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-20

    SUBJECT TERMS Biohydrogen, biofuels, cyanobacteria, photosynthesis, fermentation , transcription profiling, metabolic engineering, TCA cycle...transcription regulators, including RbcR, Fur, and ChlR, were identified and characterized, and a global model of the transcription network was...enhance hydrogen production. These data have recently been analyzed to produce a global transcription network model for this cyanobacterium [17]. At

  15. A two-stage bio hydrogen process for energy generation from municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo-Benitez, J. a.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Energy supply and disposal of solid wastes are two big challenges that great cities face at the present time. Several experts have shown that hydrogen is the fuel of the future, due to their high energy content (three times more than that of the gasoline) and its clean combustion. (Author)

  16. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: Fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of

  17. Influence of hydrogen bonding on the generation and stabilization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Induction and stabilization of liquid crystallinity through hydrogen bonding (HB) are now well-established. Interesting observations made on the influence of HB on LC behaviour of amido diol-based poly(esteramide)s, poly(esteramide)s containing nitro groups and azobenzene mesogen-based polyacrylates will be ...

  18. Water leak detection in sodium heated steam generators through measurement of hydrogen concentration in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambillard, E.; Lacroix, A.; Martin, P.; Viala, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report includes a description of apparatus for measuring hydrogen concentration in the secondary sodium system of the PHENIX reactor. The calibration method and results obtained since the commissioning of the reactor are also described. Mention is made of improvements to be built into SUPER PHENIX [fr

  19. EU program fuel cells in 2012 - FCH JU Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking; EU-program braensleceller 2012 - FCH JU Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridell, Bengt

    2013-03-15

    An EU activity in fuel cell and hydrogen field are gathered since 2008 in a so called JU, Joint Undertaking, or as it is also referred to as JTI Joint Technology Initiative. The program will run 2008 - 2013 and covers in total 940 MEUR of which the EU Commission is funding 470 MEUR. The activities of the FCH JU are governed by a Governing Board which has 12 members, five from the Commission, one of the research group and 5 from the Industrial Group. The current agreement for the FCH JU / JTI is coming to an end, and the sixth and final call was released in January 2013 with the deadline of 22 May 2013. Funding from the Commission is made through the Seventh Framework Programme FP7, which ends in 2013. Next the Eighth Framework Programme called Horizon 2020 shall continue for the years 2014 - 2020. Five of the six calls are completed. From the four first calls there are 61 projects started which 6 have been completed. From the fifth announcement is further 27 projects selected for negotiation with the Commission and they will start soon. It is now working intensively to plan Horizon 2020. There are plans to continue the new FCH JU but nothing is decided either for this or for the budget for Horizon 2020. If the FCH Joint Undertaking shall continue in its present form as a Joint Undertaking it will require clear long-term commitments from the private sector and also from the Member States. Another issue is that the long-term research should also get space it has not been the case in the present FCH JU. There are several Swedish participants in the projects and in the working groups of the program. There are Swedish participants in 11 of the 68 projects launched so far. It is in the areas of Stationary systems, Transportation and Early Markets. Project manager for the project FCGEN is Volvo Technology AB. FCH JU has its own website, www.fch-ju.eu, which opened in 2010 when the organization of the program was taken over from the Commission to permanent organisation

  20. NEW MATERIAL NEEDS FOR HYDROCARBON FUEL PROCESSING: Generating Hydrogen for the PEM Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrauto, R.; Hwang, S.; Shore, L.; Ruettinger, W.; Lampert, J.; Giroux, T.; Liu, Y.; Ilinich, O.

    2003-08-01

    The hydrogen economy is fast approaching as petroleum reserves are rapidly consumed. The fuel cell promises to deliver clean and efficient power by combining hydrogen and oxygen in a simple electrochemical device that directly converts chemical energy to electrical energy. Hydrogen, the most plentiful element available, can be extracted from water by electrolysis. One can imagine capturing energy from the sun and wind and/or from the depths of the earth to provide the necessary power for electrolysis. Alternative energy sources such as these are the promise for the future, but for now they are not feasible for power needs across the globe. A transitional solution is required to convert certain hydrocarbon fuels to hydrogen. These fuels must be available through existing infrastructures such as the natural gas pipeline. The present review discusses the catalyst and adsorbent technologies under development for the extraction of hydrogen from natural gas to meet the requirements for the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The primary market is for residential applications, where pipeline natural gas will be the source of H2 used to power the home. Other applications including the reforming of methanol for portable power applications such as laptop computers, cellular phones, and personnel digital equipment are also discussed. Processing natural gas containing sulfur requires many materials, for example, adsorbents for desulfurization, and heterogeneous catalysts for reforming (either autothermal or steam reforming) water gas shift, preferential oxidation of CO, and anode tail gas combustion. All these technologies are discussed for natural gas and to a limited extent for reforming methanol.

  1. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and Kinetic Study of 2-Methylfuran and 2,5-Dimethylfuran Hydrogenation over 7 nm Platinum Cubic Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Aliaga, Cesar; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Alayoglu, Selim; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2011-01-01

    Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements obtained from gas chromatography were used to study the adsorption and hydrogenation of 2-methylfuran (MF) and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) over cubic Pt nanoparticles of 7 nm

  2. System approach on solar hydrogen generation and the gas utilization; Taiyo energy ni yoru suiso no seisei oyobi sono riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Hirooka, N; Deguchi, Y; Narita, D [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    An apparatus is developed to establish a system which allows utilization of hydrogen safely and easily, and its applicability to a hydrogen system for domestic purposes is tested. The system converts solar energy by the photovoltaic cell unit into power, which is used to generate hydrogen by electrolysis of water at the hydrogen generator, stores hydrogen in a metal hydride , and sends stored hydrogen to the burner and fuel cell units. It is found that a hydrogen occluding alloy of LaNi4.8Al0.2 stores hydrogen to approximately 80% when cooled to 20 to 25degC, and releases it to 10% when heated to 40degC. The fuel cell uses a solid polymer as the electrolyte. The hydrogen gas burner is a catalytic combustion burner with a Pt catalyst carried by expanded Ni-Al alloy. The optimum distance between the burner and object to be heated is 22mm. High safety and fabrication simplicity are confirmed for use for domestic purposes. The system characteristics will be further investigated. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  3. A reliability program for emergency diesel generators at nuclear power plants: Program structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.; DeMoss, G.M.; Fragola, J.R.; Appignani, P.L.; Delarche, G.; Boccio, J.

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide technical guidelines for NRC staff use in the development of positions for evaluating emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability programs. Such reviews will likely result following resolution of USI A-44 and GSI B-56. The diesel generator reliability program is a management system for achieving and maintaining a selected (or target) level of reliability. This can be achieved by: (1) understanding the factors that control the EDG reliability and (2) then applying reliability and maintenance techniques in the proper proportion to achieve selected performance goals. The concepts and guidelines discussed in this report are concepts and approaches that have been successful in applications where high levels of reliability must be maintained. Both an EDG reliability program process and a set of review items for NRC use are provided. The review items represent a checklist for reviewing EDG reliability programs. They do not, in themselves, constitute a reliability program. Rather, the review items are those distinctive features of a reliability program that must be present for the program to be effective

  4. Chemistry technician performance evaluation program Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawver, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP), a three-reactor site located 50 miles west of Phoenix, Arizona, has developed and implemented a program for evaluating individual chemistry technician analytical performance on a routine basis. About 45 chemistry technicians are employed at the site, 15 at each operating unit. The technicians routinely perform trace level analyses for impurities of concern to PWRs. Each month a set of blind samples is provided by an outside vendor. The blind samples contain 16 parameters which are matrixed to approximate the PWR's primary and secondary cycles. Nine technicians receive the samples, three from each operating unit, and perform the required analyses. Acceptance criteria for successful performance on the blind parameters is based on the values found in the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Document 83-016, Revision 2, August 1989, Chemistry Quality Control Program. The goal of the program is to have each technician demonstrate acceptable performance on each of 16 analytical parameters. On completion of each monthly set, a summary report of all of the analytical results for the sample set is prepared. From the summary report, analytical bias can be detected, technician performance is documented, and overall laboratory performance can be evaluated. The program has been very successful at satisfying the INPO requirement that the analytical performance of each individual technician should be checked on at least a six-month frequency for all important parameters measured. This paper describes the program as implemented at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station and provides a summary report and trend and bias graphs for illustrative purposes

  5. British Association of Plastic Surgeons Program from another generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, M Felix

    2010-05-01

    To Compare the Association's Summer Programs of 1971 and 2008. I attended the 1971 meeting of BAPS that was held in London and kept the program. I compared the content of that meeting with the 2008 Provisional Program. A blow-up of that 1971 program will be the highlight of the poster. The 1971 meeting's registration fee was 10 pounds for me as an overseas non-member registering at the desk compared to the current fee of 500 pounds. The meeting was three day long, but only one day was devoted to papers. The first and third days of the meeting were devoted to watching live cranio-facial surgery performed by Tessier at the Hospital for Sick Children. To make the length of these televised sessions more tolerable, a cash bar was available and lunch including beer and squash were served from noon until 4 pm followed by tea from 4 pm to 6 pm Dinner Jackets were required for the 1971 Association dinner compared with dark lounge suits in 2008. In contrast to 2008, the 1971 scientific program consisted of only 13 papers of which all but five were written by single authors. Seven of the papers were published in the British Journal of Plastic Surgery. There were no cosmetic and no breast papers. There were no poster sessions. There were no panel discussions. There were no exhibits. The 1971 meeting was truly from another generation in both its form and content. Copyright (c) 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Building generation four: results of Canadian research program on generation IV energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.; Leung, L.K.H.; Guzonas, D.; Brady, D.; Poupore, J.; Zheng, W.

    2014-01-01

    A collaborative grant program has been established between Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada, Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to support research and development (R&D) for the Canadian SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) concept, which is one of six advanced nuclear reactor systems being studied under the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF). The financial support for this grant program is provided by NSERC and NRCan. The grant fund has supported university research investigating the neutronic, fuel, thermal-hydraulics, chemistry and material properties of the Canadian SCWR concept. Twenty-two universities have actively collaborated with experts from AECL Nuclear Laboratories and NRCan's CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) Laboratory to advance the technologies, enhance their infrastructure, and train highly qualified personnel. Their R&D findings have been contributed to GIF fulfilling Canada's commitments. The unique collaborative structure and the contributions to Canada's nuclear science and technology of the NSERC/NRCan/AECL Generation IV Energy Technologies Program are presented. (author)

  7. Development of Al2O3 carrier-Ru composite catalyst for hydrogen generation from alkaline NaBH4 hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yao-Hui; Su, Chia-Chi; Wang, Shu-Ling; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2012-01-01

    A recyclable and reusable Ru/Al 2 O 3 catalyst is prepared for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis process of alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) solution. The hydrogen generation rate by the hydrolysis and methanolysis of alkaline NaBH 4 was explored as a function of NaOH concentration. Meantime, the byproducts derived from the spent alkaline NaBH 4 solution were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electro microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The effect of NaOH concentration on the hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 significantly depends on the type of catalysts. With increasing NaOH concentration, the hydrogen generation rates decrease when using ruthenium (Ru) composite as a catalyst. The hydrogen generation rate of the methanolysis of NaBH 4 is significantly inhibited in the presence of NaOH as compared with the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 . The durability test of the Ru/Al 2 O 3 catalyst shows that the hydrogen generation rate decreases with recycling and reuse. The XRD and NMR analysis results show that the borate hydrate (NaBO 2 H 2 O) was derived from the hydrolysis of 20 wt% and 30 wt% NaBH 4 . -- Highlights: ► A recyclable Ru/Al 2 O 3 catalyst was synthesized for hydrogen generation. ► Ru/Al 2 O 3 significantly promotes the hydrogen generation rate from alkaline NaBH 4 solution. ► The prepared Ru/Al 2 O 3 catalyst can easily collect from the spent alkaline NaBH 4 solution.

  8. Toward enhanced hydrogen generation from water using oxygen permeating LCF membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    © the Owner Societies. Hydrogen production from water thermolysis can be enhanced by the use of perovskite-type mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes, through which oxygen permeation is driven by a chemical potential gradient. In this work, water thermolysis experiments were performed using 0.9 mm thick La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ (LCF-91) perovskite membranes at 990 °C in a lab-scale button-cell reactor. We examined the effects of the operating conditions such as the gas species concentrations and flow rates on the feed and sweep sides on the water thermolysis rate and oxygen flux. A single step reaction mechanism is proposed for surface reactions, and three-resistance permeation models are derived. Results show that water thermolysis is facilitated by the LCF-91 membrane especially when a fuel is added to the sweep gas. Increasing the gas flow rate and water concentration on the feed side or the hydrogen concentration on the sweep side enhances the hydrogen production rate. In this work, hydrogen is used as the fuel by construction, so that a single-step surface reaction mechanism can be developed and water thermolysis rate parameters can be derived. Both surface reaction rate parameters for oxygen incorporation/dissociation and hydrogen-oxygen reactions are fitted at 990 °C. We compare the oxygen fluxes in water thermolysis and air separation experiments, and identify different limiting steps in the processes involving various oxygen sources and sweep gases for this 0.9 mm thick LCF-91 membrane. In the air feed-inert sweep case, the bulk diffusion and sweep side surface reaction are the two limiting steps. In the water feed-inert sweep case, surface reaction on the feed side dominates the oxygen permeation process. Yet in the water feed-fuel sweep case, surface reactions on both the feed and sweep sides are rate determining when hydrogen concentration in the sweep side is in the range of 1-5 vol%. Furthermore, long term studies show that the surface

  9. U.S. Advanced Materials Development Program for steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarca, P.; Harkness, S.D.; Duke, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The selection of construction materials for LMFBR steam generators is reviewed, presenting the advantages and limitations of 2 1 / 2 Cr-1 Mo steel selected for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant. These limitations indicate that further development of high-strength ferritic steels containing 9 to 12 percent Cr and the high-nickel Alloy 800 could lead to superior materials, and programs to develop these materials have been started. Combustion Engineering has surveyed the experience with the high-strength ferritic steels and prepared ingots of 26 selected compositions. Charpy V-notch tests and metallography have been used to characterize these alloys, and optimum welding rod compositions for these alloys are under development. Westinghouse-Tampa is undertaking a program to gain code acceptance of Alloy 800. A program has been set up to provide the information required for design, justification, and fabrication of reliable components. Progress has been made on characterization, the role of tertiary creep in failure, and the development of welding processes. (U.S.)

  10. Combustion of hydrogen-air jets in local chemical equilibrium: A guide to the CHARNAL computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, D. B.; Launder, B. E.; Morse, A. P.; Maples, G.

    1974-01-01

    A guide to a computer program, written in FORTRAN 4, for predicting the flow properties of turbulent mixing with combustion of a circular jet of hydrogen into a co-flowing stream of air is presented. The program, which is based upon the Imperial College group's PASSA series, solves differential equations for diffusion and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and also of the R.M.S. fluctuation of hydrogen concentration. The effective turbulent viscosity for use in the shear stress equation is computed. Chemical equilibrium is assumed throughout the flow.

  11. The hydrogen generated as a gas and storage in Zircaloy during water quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Eduardo A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional diffusion model has been developed for the complex process of Zircaloy oxidation during water quenching, calculating the hydrogen liberated as a gas and the hydrogen stored in the metal. The model was developed on the basis of small-scale separate-effects quench experiments performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The new oxide surface and the new metallic surface produced by cracking of the oxide during quenching are calculated for each experiment performed at 1200 , 1400 and 1600 C degrees using as-received Zircaloy-4 (no pre oxidation) and with Zircaloy specimens pre oxidised to give oxide thicknesses of 100μm and 300μm. The results are relevant to accident management in light water reactors. (author)

  12. Electrodeposited synthesis of self-supported Ni-P cathode for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixian Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key challenges for electrochemical water splitting is the development of low-cost and efficient hydrogen evolution cathode. In this work, a self-supported Ni-P cathode was synthesized by a facile electrodeposition method. The composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The Ni-P cathode performed low onset over-potential, good catalytic activity and long-term stability under neutral and alkaline conditions. The mechanism of Ni-P electrode for hydrogen production was discussed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The excellent performance of Ni-P cathode was mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of phosphate anions and the self-supported feature.

  13. The hydrogen generated as a gas and storage in Zircaloy during steam quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Eduardo A.

    2000-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional diffusion model has been developed for the complex process of Zircaloy oxidation during steam quenching, calculating the hydrogen liberated as a gas and the hydrogen stored in the metal. The model was developed on the basis of small-scale separate-effects quench experiments performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The new oxide surface and the new metallic surface produced by cracking of the oxide during quenching are calculated for each experiment performed at 1200 centigrade, 1400 centigrade and 1600 centigrade using as-received Zircaloy-4 (no pre-oxidation) and with Zircaloy specimens pre-oxidized to give oxide thickness of 100μm and 300μm. The results are relevant to accident management in nuclear power plants. (author)

  14. Process for Generation of Hydrogen Gas from Various Feedstocks Using Thermophilic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooteghem Van, Suellen

    2005-09-13

    A method for producing hydrogen gas is provided comprising selecting a bacteria from the Order Thermotogales, subjecting the bacteria to a feedstock and to a suitable growth environment having an oxygen concentration below the oxygen concentration of water in equilibrium with air; and maintaining the environment at a predetermined pH and at a temperature of at least approximately 45 degrees C. for a time sufficient to allow the bacteria to metabolize the feedstock.

  15. Reforming of natural gas—hydrogen generation for small scale stationary fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, A.; Vogel, B.; Hübner, P.

    The reforming of natural gas to produce hydrogen for fuel cells is described, including the basic concepts (steam reforming or autothermal reforming) and the mechanisms of the chemical reactions. Experimental work has been done with a compact steam reformer, and a prototype of an experimental reactor for autothermal reforming was tested, both containing a Pt-catalyst on metallic substrate. Experimental results on the steam reforming system and a comparison of the steam reforming process with the autothermal process are given.

  16. Study of the controllable reactivity of aluminum alloys and their promising application for hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Meiqiang; Sun Lixian; Xu Fen

    2010-01-01

    The hydrolysis performances of two aluminum alloys are investigated as their reactivity can be controlled via the different additives. The additive of NaCl has the positive effect to improve the hydrolysis properties of the aluminum alloys with quicker hydrolysis kinetic and lower hydrolysis temperature. For examples, in 6 min of hydrolysis reaction, the Al-5 wt%Hg-5 wt%NaCl can produce 971 mL g -1 hydrogen, higher than 917 mL g -1 hydrogen from Al-10 wt%Hg alloy. The Al-In-NaCl alloy has lower hydrolysis temperature about 10 K than that of Al-In alloy. Meanwhile, the reactivity of Al alloys can be improved or reduced via the additive metals. It can be found that the additive cadmium can reduce the reactivity of Al-Hg alloy. The Al-Hg-Cd alloys can keep good stability at the moist atmosphere below 343 K and have excellent hydrolysis performance around 343-373 K. The debased reactivity of Al-Hg-Cd composite comes from the formation of CdHg 2 compounds in the milling process. But the additive Zn and Ga doped into the Al-In-NaCl alloys can quickly increase the reactivity of the alloy which can quickly react with water at room temperature and have high hydrogen yield up to the theoretic value. Therefore, it is a promising possibility that the controllable reactivity of aluminum alloys can be obtained through the different additive according to the practical request, and the Al alloys can produce pure hydrogen for the fuel cell via the hydrolysis reaction.

  17. Performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system: Hydrogen and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutichai, Bhawasut; Authayanun, Suthida; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2013-01-01

    The PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is expected to play a significant role in next-generation energy systems. Because most hydrogen that is used as a fuel for PEMFCs is derived from the reforming of natural gas, the use of renewable energy sources such as biomass to produce this hydrogen offers a promising alternative. This study is focused on the performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC system. The combined heat and power generation output of this integrated system is designed for residential applications, taking into account thermal and electrical demands. A flowsheet model of the integrated PEMFC system is developed and employed to analyze its performance with respect to various key operating parameters. A purification process consisting of a water–gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor is also necessary in order to reduce the concentration of CO in the synthesis gas to below 10 ppm for subsequent use in the PEMFC. The effect of load level on the performance of the PEMFC system is investigated. Based on an electrical load of 5 kW, it is found that the electrical efficiency of the PEMFC integrated system is 22%, and, when waste heat recovery is considered, the total efficiency of the PEMFC system is 51%. - Highlights: • Performance of a biomass gasification and PEMFC integrated system is analyzed. • A flowsheet model of the PEMFC integrated system is developed. • Effect of biomass sources and key parameters on hydrogen and power generation is presented. • The PEMFC integrated system is designed for small-scale power demand. • Effect of load changes on the performance of PEMFC is investigated

  18. Fabrication of A/R-TiO2 composite for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance: Solar hydrogen generation and dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadik, Mahadeo A.; An, Gil Woo; David, Selvaraj; Choi, Sun Hee; Cho, Min; Jang, Jum Suk

    2017-12-01

    Anatase/rutile TiO2 nanorods composites were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method followed by dip coating method using titanium isopropoxide in acetic acid and ethanol solvent. The effects of the titanium isopropoxide precursor concentration, on the formation of dip coated anatase/rutile TiO2 nanorods composite were systematically explored. The growth of anatase on rutile TiO2 nanorods can be controlled by varying the titanium isopropoxide concentration. The morphological study reveals that anatase TiO2 nanograins formed on the surface of rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays through dip coating method. Photoelectrochemical analyses showed that the enhancement of the photocatalytic activities of the samples is affected by the anatase nanograins present on the rutile TiO2 nanorods, which can induce the separation of electrons and holes. To interpret the photoelectrochemical behaviors, the prepared photoelectrodes were applied in photoelectrochemical solar hydrogen generation and orange II dye degradation. The optimized photocurrent density of 1.8 mA cm-2 and the 625 μmol hydrogen generation was observed for 10 mM anatase/rutile TiO2 NRs composites. Additionally, 96% removal of the orange II dye was achieved within 5 h during oxidative degradation under solar light irradiation. One of the benefits of high specific surface area and the efficient photogenerated charge transport in the anatase/rutile TiO2 nanorod composite improves the photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation and orange dye degradation compared to the rutile TiO2. Thus, our strategy provides a promising, stable, and low cost alternative to existing photocatalysts and is expected to attract considerable attention for industrial applications.

  19. PVP-stabilized Ru–Rh nanoparticles as highly efficient catalysts for hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of ammonia borane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakap, Murat, E-mail: mrtrakap@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Herein, the utilization of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-protected ruthenium–rhodium nanoparticles (3.4 ± 1.4 nm) as highly efficient catalysts in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane for hydrogen generation is reported. They are prepared by co-reduction of ruthenium and rhodium metal ions in ethanol/water mixture by an alcohol reduction method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They are durable and highly efficient catalysts for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane even at very low concentrations and temperature, providing average turnover frequency of 386 mol H{sub 2} (mol cat){sup −1} min{sup −1} and maximum hydrogen generation rate of 10,680 L H{sub 2} min{sup −1} (mol cat){sup −1}. Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-protected ruthenium–rhodium nanoparticles also provide activation energy of 47.4 ± 2.1 kJ/mol for the hydrolysis of ammonia borane. - Highlights: • Ru-Rh@PVP NPs provide a TOF of 386 mol H{sub 2} (mol cat){sup −1} min{sup −1} for hydrolysis of AB. • Maximum HG rate is 9680 L H{sub 2} min{sup −1} (mol cat){sup −1} for the hydrolysis of AB. • Activation energy is 47.4 ± 2.1 kJ mol{sup −1} for the hydrolysis of AB.

  20. Potential Applications of Friction Stir Welding to the Hydrogen Economy. Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program In Pennsylvania, Materials Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendlinger, Jennifer [Concurrent Technologies Corporation, Johnstown, PA (United States)

    2009-07-17

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique developed by The Welding Institute (TWI) of Cambridge, UK in the early 1990’s. The process uses a non-consumable rotating tool to develop frictional heat and plastically deform workpieces to be joined, resulting in a solid-state weld on the trailing side of the advancing tool. Since the materials to be joined are not melted, FSW results in a finer grain structure and therefore enhanced properties, relative to fusion welds. And unlike fusion welding, a relatively small number of key process parameters exist for FSW: tool rotational speed, linear weld velocity and force perpendicular to the joining surface. FSW is more energy efficient than fusion welding and can be accomplished in one or two passes, versus many more passes required of fusion welding thicker workpieces. Reduced post-weld workpiece distortion is another factor that helps to reduce the cost of FSW relative to fusion welding. Two primary areas have been identified for potential impact on the hydrogen economy: FSW of metallic pipes for hydrogen transmission and FSW of aluminum pressure vessels for hydrogen storage. Both areas have been under active development and are explored in this paper.