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Sample records for hydrocephalic infant brain

  1. Differences in distribution and regulation of astrocytic aquaporin-4 in human and rat hydrocephalic brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Anders Daehli; Holst, Anders Vedel; Broholm, Helle

    2013-01-01

    in human hydrocephalic cortex relative to controls was quantified by western blotting (n=28). A second biopsy (n=13) was processed for immunohistochemistry (GFAP, CD68, CD34 and aquaporin-4) and double immunofluorescence (aquaporin-4+GFAP and aquaporin-4+CD34). Brain tissue from human controls and kaolin...

  2. A case of double meningomyelocoele with hydrocephalous in a four months′ infant

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    Anuja A Goyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningomyelocoele is a developmental congenital disorder caused by failure of the neural tube to close during the first month of embryonic development thus presenting with herniation of neural elements along with meninges. Myelomeningocoeles most commonly occur in the lumbosacral region, but can also occur at any level in the neuraxis, including occipital/suboccipital areas or nasally (encephalocoele.We report a rare case of double meningomyelocoele in a 4-month-old infant (cervical as well as thoracic meningocele with weakness in the left lower limb (power grade 0 posted for resection with difficult intubation because of obstructive hydrocephalus, fear of rupture of neuroplaque, positioning and care of blood loss and temperature. The infant was discharged within 15 days, and his hospital stay was uneventful.

  3. Brain tumors in infants

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    Seyyed Mohammad Ghodsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12 were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16; bulge fontanel (15; vomiting (15; developmental regression (11; sunset eye (7; seizure (4; loss of consciousness (4; irritability (3; nystagmus (2; visual loss (2; hemiparesis (2; torticollis (2; VI palsy (3; VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2; and ptosis (1. Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7, followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6 and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%, from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%, 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%, and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary.

  4. Post-Operative Complications of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt in Hydrocephalic Pediatric Patients-Nursing Care

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    Efstratios Athanasakis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hydrocephalus is the most common congenital abnormality of the central nervous system ininfants. Many cases of hydrocephalic children are described since ancient times. It is characterized by excessiveaccumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. Its symptomatology during infanthood or earlychildhood is characterized by swelling of the head, protrusion of the forehead and brain atrophy. All thesesymptoms appear due to increased cerebrospinal fluid volume, increased intracranial pressure and dilatation ofthe ventricular walls.Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications in pediatrics patients andto point out the role of nursing stuff in the prevention of them.Methods: This include literature search on the database Medline and relevant with that issue internationalhydrocephalus organizations to identify studies regarding the complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunt and thenursing care for each complication.Results: Ventriculoperitoneal shunt is the treatment of hydrocephalic infants, rather than endoscopic thirdventriculostomy. Although the success of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt’s placement, the patients usually sufferfrom its afterwards complications. The complications involves postoperative shunt infection, shunt placementfailure, shunt obstruction – malfunction, abdominal complications – peritonitis, valve complications, slitventriclesyndrome and seizures. The role of the nursing stuff is vital, particularly in the postoperative weeks.Conclusion: A proper nursing assessment includes valid identification of complications and their prompttreatment. Also, nurses had to implement accurate nursing care, in order to prevent any complication. Finally,parental teaching from the nurses is crucial in the process of health outcomes for pediatric patient.

  5. Positional moulding in premature hydrocephalics.

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    Kumar R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven premature hydrocephalics presenting with lambdoid positional moulding (LPM were reviewed. All were treated for hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis, Dandy Walker Syndrome and infection. Parenchymal hemorrhage, intraventricular bleed, cortical atrophy, septal agenesis, cortical anomalies and subdural hygroma were the other common associations. These children did not show expected improvement in their higher mental functions at 6 months to 5.4 years of follow-up, following the management of hydrocephalus. It was not the LPM but associated intracranial anomalies, which were most probably responsible for their poor outcome. The differentiation from posterior plagiocephaly is also highlighted.

  6. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

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    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  7. Alterations in Cortical Thickness and White Matter Integrity in Mild-to-Moderate Communicating Hydrocephalic School-Aged Children Measured by Whole-Brain Cortical Thickness Mapping and DTI

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    Ye, Xinjian; Bai, Guanghui; Fu, Yuchuan; Mao, Chuanwan; Wu, Aiqin

    2017-01-01

    Follow-up observation is required for mild-to-moderate hydrocephalic patients because of the potential damage to brain. However, effects of mild-to-moderate hydrocephalus on gray and white matter remain unclear in vivo. Using structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), current study compared the cortical thickness and white matter integrity between children with mild-to-moderate communicating hydrocephalus and healthy controls. The relationships between cortical changes and intelligence quota were also examined in patients. We found that cortical thickness in the left middle temporal and left rostral middle frontal gyrus was significantly lower in the hydrocephalus group compared with that of controls. Fractional anisotropy in the right corpus callosum body was significantly lower in the hydrocephalus group compared with that of controls. In addition, there was no association of cortical thinning or white matter fractional anisotropy with intelligence quota in either group. Thus, our findings provide clues to that mild-to-moderate hydrocephalus could lead to structural brain deficits especially in the middle temporal and middle frontal gyrus prior to the behavior changes.

  8. Inferences about infants' visual brain mechanisms.

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    Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    We discuss hypotheses that link the measurements we can make with infants to inferences about their developing neural mechanisms. First, we examine evidence from the sensitivity to visual stimulus properties seen in infants' responses, using both electrophysiological measures (transient and steady-state recordings of visual evoked potentials/visual event-related potentials) and behavioral measures and compare this with the sensitivity of brain processes, known from data on mammalian neurophysiology and human neuroimaging. The evidence for multiple behavioral systems with different patterns of visual sensitivity is discussed. Second, we consider the analogies which can be made between infants' behavior and that of adults with identified brain damage, and extend these links to hypothesize about the brain basis of visual deficits in infants and children with developmental disorders. Last, we consider how these lines of data might allow us to form "inverse linking hypotheses" about infants' visual experience.

  9. The relationship between ventricular dilatation, neuropathological and neurobehavioural changes in hydrocephalic rats

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    Olopade Funmilayo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motor and cognitive deficits observed in hydrocephalus are thought to be due to axonal damage within the periventricular white matter. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between ventricular size, cellular changes in brain, and neurobehavioural deficits in rats with experimental hydrocephalus. Methods Hydrocephalus was induced in three-week old rats by intracisternal injection of kaolin. Behavioural and motor function were tested four weeks after hydrocephalus induction and correlated to ventricular enlargement which was classified into mild, moderate or severe. Gross brain morphology, routine histology and immunohistochemistry for oligodendrocytes (CNPase, microglia (Iba-1 and astrocytes (GFAP were performed to assess the cellular changes. Results Decreases in open field activity and forelimb grip strength in hydrocephalus correlated with the degree of ventriculomegaly. Learning in Morris water maze was significantly impaired in hydrocephalic rats. Gradual stretching of the ependymal layer, thinning of the corpus callosum, extracellular oedema and reduced cortical thickness were observed as the degree of ventriculomegaly increased. A gradual loss of oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum and cerebral cortex was most marked in the severely-hydrocephalic brains, whereas the widespread astrogliosis especially in the subependymal layer was most marked in the brains with mild hydrocephalus. Retraction of microglial processes and increase in Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the white matter was associated ventriculomegaly. Conclusions In hydrocephalic rats, oligodendrocyte loss, microglia activation, astrogliosis in cortical areas and thinning of the corpus callosum were associated with ventriculomegaly. The degree of ventriculomegaly correlated with motor and cognitive deficits.

  10. Brain ultrasonography in the premature infant.

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    Veyrac, Corinne; Couture, Alain; Saguintaah, Magali; Baud, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    Brain ultrasonography plays a central role in the detection and management of neonatal disease in the preterm infant. Although morphological study, using high-frequency transducers, remains the cornerstone of imaging, pulsed and colour Doppler scans provide additional information and improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of ultrasonography. Particular features of normal brain US in the extremely preterm infant are reported. Cerebral haemorrhage and its different patterns (intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction) are described. The value of Doppler techniques is emphasized, e.g. demonstration of coloured signal within the aqueduct of Sylvius, visualization of patency of the terminal veins, demonstration of Doppler spectrum fluctuations, recognition of low blood flow, and the detection of vasodilatation. The sonographic diagnosis of periventricular leucomalacia and its difficulties are documented. Some uncommon brain lesions of the premature infant are illustrated, e.g. gangliothalamic ischaemic damage, cortical necrosis, focal infarcts, etc. The importance of repeating the US examinations until near term is highlighted.

  11. Brain vein disorders in newborn infants

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    Raets, Marlou; Dudink, Jeroen; Raybaud, Charles; Ramenghi, Luca; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The brain veins of infants are in a complex phase of remodelling in the perinatal period. Magnetic resonance venography and susceptibility-weighted imaging, together with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound, have provided new tools to aid study of venous developmental anatomy and disease. This review

  12. Biomarkers of brain injury in the premature infant.

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    Douglas-Escobar, Martha; Weiss, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    The term "encephalopathy of prematurity" encompasses not only the acute brain injury [such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)] but also complex disturbance on the infant's subsequent brain development. In premature infants, the most frequent recognized source of brain injury is IVH and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Furthermore 20-25% infants with birth weigh less than 1,500 g will have IVH and that proportion increases to 45% if the birth weight is less than 500-750 g. In addition, nearly 60% of very low birth weight newborns will have hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore permanent lifetime neurodevelopmental disabilities are frequent in premature infants. Innovative approach to prevent or decrease brain injury in preterm infants requires discovery of biomarkers able to discriminate infants at risk for injury, monitor the progression of the injury, and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. In this article, we will review biomarkers studied in premature infants with IVH, Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD), and PVL including: S100b, Activin A, erythropoietin, chemokine CCL 18, GFAP, and NFL will also be examined. Some of the most promising biomarkers for IVH are S100β and Activin. The concentrations of TGF-β1, MMP-9, and PAI-1 in cerebrospinal fluid could be used to discriminate patients that will require shunt after PHVD. Neonatal brain injury is frequent in premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care and we hope to contribute to the awareness and interest in clinical validation of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  13. Infants' brain responses to speech suggest analysis by synthesis.

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    Kuhl, Patricia K; Ramírez, Rey R; Bosseler, Alexis; Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    Historic theories of speech perception (Motor Theory and Analysis by Synthesis) invoked listeners' knowledge of speech production to explain speech perception. Neuroimaging data show that adult listeners activate motor brain areas during speech perception. In two experiments using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated motor brain activation, as well as auditory brain activation, during discrimination of native and nonnative syllables in infants at two ages that straddle the developmental transition from language-universal to language-specific speech perception. Adults are also tested in Exp. 1. MEG data revealed that 7-mo-old infants activate auditory (superior temporal) as well as motor brain areas (Broca's area, cerebellum) in response to speech, and equivalently for native and nonnative syllables. However, in 11- and 12-mo-old infants, native speech activates auditory brain areas to a greater degree than nonnative, whereas nonnative speech activates motor brain areas to a greater degree than native speech. This double dissociation in 11- to 12-mo-old infants matches the pattern of results obtained in adult listeners. Our infant data are consistent with Analysis by Synthesis: auditory analysis of speech is coupled with synthesis of the motor plans necessary to produce the speech signal. The findings have implications for: (i) perception-action theories of speech perception, (ii) the impact of "motherese" on early language learning, and (iii) the "social-gating" hypothesis and humans' development of social understanding.

  14. Biomarkers of brain injury in the premature infant

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    Martha V. Douglas-Escobar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term encephalopathy of prematurity encompasses not only the acute brain injury (such as intraventricular hemorrhage but also complex disturbance on the infant’s subsequent brain development. In premature infants, the most frequent recognized source of brain injury is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL. Furthermore 20-25% infants with birth weigh less than 1,500 g will have IVH and that proportion increases to 45% if the birth weight is less than 500-750 g. In addition, nearly 60% of very low birth weight newborns will have hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore permanent lifetime neurodevelopmental disabilities are frequent in premature infants. Innovative approach to prevent or decrease brain injury in preterm infants requires discovery of biomarkers able to discriminate infants at risk for injury, monitor the progression of the injury and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. In this article, we will review biomarkers studied in premature infants with IVH, Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD and PVL including: S100b, Activin A, erythropoietin, chemokine CCL 18, GFAP and NFL will also be examined. Some of the most promising biomarkers for IVH are S100β and Activin. The concentrations of TGF-β1, MMP-9 and PAI-1 in cerebrospinal fluid could be used to discriminate patients that will require shunt after post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation. Neonatal brain injury is frequent in premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care and we hope to contribute to the awareness and interest in clinical validation of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  15. Infant Auditory Processing and Event-related Brain Oscillations

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    Musacchia, Gabriella; Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia P.; Benasich, April A.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid auditory processing and acoustic change detection abilities play a critical role in allowing human infants to efficiently process the fine spectral and temporal changes that are characteristic of human language. These abilities lay the foundation for effective language acquisition; allowing infants to hone in on the sounds of their native language. Invasive procedures in animals and scalp-recorded potentials from human adults suggest that simultaneous, rhythmic activity (oscillations) between and within brain regions are fundamental to sensory development; determining the resolution with which incoming stimuli are parsed. At this time, little is known about oscillatory dynamics in human infant development. However, animal neurophysiology and adult EEG data provide the basis for a strong hypothesis that rapid auditory processing in infants is mediated by oscillatory synchrony in discrete frequency bands. In order to investigate this, 128-channel, high-density EEG responses of 4-month old infants to frequency change in tone pairs, presented in two rate conditions (Rapid: 70 msec ISI and Control: 300 msec ISI) were examined. To determine the frequency band and magnitude of activity, auditory evoked response averages were first co-registered with age-appropriate brain templates. Next, the principal components of the response were identified and localized using a two-dipole model of brain activity. Single-trial analysis of oscillatory power showed a robust index of frequency change processing in bursts of Theta band (3 - 8 Hz) activity in both right and left auditory cortices, with left activation more prominent in the Rapid condition. These methods have produced data that are not only some of the first reported evoked oscillations analyses in infants, but are also, importantly, the product of a well-established method of recording and analyzing clean, meticulously collected, infant EEG and ERPs. In this article, we describe our method for infant EEG net

  16. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

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    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  17. Mechanical response of infant brain to manually inflicted shaking.

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    Couper, Z; Albermani, F

    2010-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a contentious issue on both biomechanical and medical fronts, primarily due to a lack of understanding of the loading-injury relationship of infant shaking and the parameters that are deterministic to its nature. In order to address this lack, a finite element (FE) representation of a three month infant head was developed to apply kinematics derived from physical testing with an anthropomorphic infant surrogate. The FE mesh was derived from a three-dimensional geometric basis, allowing for mesh size grading in regions of high importance, and future patient-specific adaptation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was represented through static pressure equilibration in combination with a locally based squeezing resistance. The results of the simulation indicate that anteroposterior shaking will lead to specific patterns of brain matter motion, increased likelihood of focal axonal injury at contact locations and deep brain structures, and a capacity for the development of subdural hematomas (SDH) due to rupture of central bridging veins.

  18. Breastfeeding, Brain Activation to Own Infant Cry, and Maternal Sensitivity

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    Kim, Pilyoung; Feldman, Ruth; Mayes, Linda C.; Eicher, Virginia; Thompson, Nancy; Leckman, James F.; Swain, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the…

  19. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

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    Jessica L Montoya

    Full Text Available Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences

  20. Perinatal brain damage : The term infant

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    Hagberg, Henrik; David Edwards, A.; Groenendaal, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal brain injury at term is common and often manifests with neonatal encephalopathy including seizures. The most common aetiologies are hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy, intracranial haemorrhage and neonatal stroke. Besides clinical and biochemical assessment the diagnostic evaluation rely

  1. Theta Brain Rhythms Index Perceptual Narrowing in Infant Speech Perception

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    Alexis eBosseler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of speech perception shows a dramatic transition between infancy and adulthood. Between 6 and 12 months, infants’ initial ability to discriminate all phonetic units across the worlds’ languages narrows—native discrimination increases while nonnative discrimination shows a steep decline. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine whether brain oscillations in the theta band (4-8Hz, reflecting increases in attention and cognitive effort, would provide a neural measure of the perceptual narrowing phenomenon in speech. Using an oddball paradigm, we varied speech stimuli in two dimensions, stimulus frequency (frequent vs. infrequent and language (native vs. nonnative speech syllables and tested 6-month-old infants, 12-month-old infants, and adults. We hypothesized that 6-month-old infants would show increased relative theta power (RTP for frequent syllables, regardless of their status as native or nonnative syllables, reflecting young infants’ attention and cognitive effort in response to highly frequent stimuli (statistical learning. In adults, we hypothesized increased RTP for nonnative stimuli, regardless of their presentation frequency, reflecting increased cognitive effort for nonnative phonetic categories. The 12-month-old infants were expected to show a pattern in transition, but one more similar to adults than to 6-month-old infants. The MEG brain rhythm results supported these hypotheses. We suggest that perceptual narrowing in speech perception is governed by an implicit learning process. This learning process involves an implicit shift in attention from frequent events (infants to learned categories (adults. Theta brain oscillatory activity may provide an index of perceptual narrowing beyond speech, and would offer a test of whether the early speech learning process is governed by domain-general or domain-specific processes.

  2. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants exposed prenatally to buprenorphine

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    Kahila, H.; Kivitie-Kallio, S.; Halmesmaki, E.; Valanne, L.; Autti, T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dept. of Pediatrics, and Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. Material and Methods: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug abusers. Four mothers were hepatitis C positive, and all were HIV negative. All mothers smoked tobacco and used benzodiazepines. All pregnancies were full term, and no perinatal asphyxia occurred. All but one neonate had abstinence syndrome and needed morphine replacement therapy. Results: Neither structural abnormalities nor abnormalities in signal intensity were recorded. Conclusion: Buprenorphine replacement therapy does not seem to cause any major structural abnormalities of the brain, and it may prevent known hypoxic-ischemic brain changes resulting from uncontrolled drug abuse. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess possible abnormalities in the brain maturation process.

  3. Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain

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    Hebden, Jeremy C [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Gibson, Adam [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Yusof, Rozarina Md [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Everdell, Nick [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Hillman, Elizabeth M C [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Delpy, David T [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London (United Kingdom); Arridge, Simon R [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London (United Kingdom); Austin, Topun [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London (United Kingdom); Meek, Judith H [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London (United Kingdom); Wyatt, John S [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-07

    For the first time, three-dimensional images of the newborn infant brain have been generated using measurements of transmitted light. A 32-channel time-resolved imaging system was employed, and data were acquired using custom-made helmets which couple source fibres and detector bundles to the infant head. Images have been reconstructed using measurements of mean flight time relative to those acquired on a homogeneous reference phantom, and using a head-shaped 3D finite-element-based forward model with an external boundary constrained to match the measured positions of the sources and detectors. Results are presented for a premature infant with a cerebral haemorrhage predominantly located within the left ventricle. Images representing the distribution of absorption at 780 nm and 815 nm reveal an asymmetry consistent with the haemorrhage, and corresponding maps of blood volume and fractional oxygen saturation are generally within expected physiological values.

  4. Study of corpus callosum in experimental hydrocephalic wistar rats

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    Lopes Luiza da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus causes countless cerebral damages, especially on the structures around the ventricles. Hydrocephalic children present deficiencies in the nonverbal skills more than in the verbal skills, and not always revertible with an early treatment. As the corpus callosum has an important role in the nonverbal acquisition it is possible that the injuries in this structure are responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions of these children. This present study tries to establish the alterations caused by hydrocephalus on the corpus callosum of developing Wistar rats, induced by intracisternal injection of kaolin. METHODS : Seven, fourteen and twenty one days after the injection, the animals were killed, and the corpus callosum was dissected and prepared for the study of the axonal fibers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The seven-day old rats in hydrocephalus development presented a delay in myelination in relation to the control rats. With the fourteen-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the corpus callosum showed a recovery of myelin, but with the twenty one-day old rats in hydrocephalus development the axonal fibers were damaged and reduced in number.

  5. Inter-relationship between CSF dynamics and CSF to-and-fro movement in the cervical region as assessed by MR velocity imaging with phase encoding in hydrocephalic and normal patients

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    Kudo, Sumio (Hitachi General Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan)); Wachi, Akihiko; Sato, Kiyoshi; Sumie, Hirotoshi

    1992-04-01

    The to-and-fro velocity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at C-1 and C-2 spinal-cord levels was measured by means of MR velocity-imaging technique, and the correlation of changes in velocity and various biophysical factors influencing the intracranial pressure environment were analyzed. Eight hydrocephalic patients, male and female, of different ages (both infants and adults), and 11 normal volunteers with a similar age range were investigated. The to-and-fro CSF movement was measured by means of phase-shift techniques with a bipolar gradient pulse. The cerebrospinal opening pressure was also recorded in 6 of the 8 hydrocephalic patients, either through a ventricular catheter reservoir or a spinal catheter inserted in the lumbosacral subarachnoid space; the CSF pulse amplitude, the pressure volume index (PVI), and the CSF outflow resistance (Ro) were also evaluated during the procedure. CSF flowed towards caudally in the early systolic phase of a cardiac stroke, but the flow direction was reversed in the early diastolic phase when the maximum flow rate was reached. Although such a flow pattern was commonly observed in all normal and hydrocephalic subjects, whatever the age, there was a marked difference in flow rate between the infants and the pediatric-adults groups, -i.e., it was 5-10 mm/sec for the former and 10-20 mm/sec for the latter. An abnormally high flow rate (33.0 mm/sec) was observed in the hydrocephalic patients when there was a malfunction of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt. A close correlation was found to exist among the changes in the CSF flow velocity, the CSF pressure amplitude, and the CSF outflow resistance (Ro), but not in the PVI. The measurement of the CSF flow velocity by MR velocity imaging appears to have an important role not only in the investigation of CSF dynamics, but also in the diagnosis and treatment of such pathologies as hydrocephalus and ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction. (author).

  6. Functional and structural connectivity of the visual system in infants with perinatal brain injury.

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    Merhar, Stephanie L; Gozdas, Elveda; Tkach, Jean A; Harpster, Karen L; Schwartz, Terry L; Yuan, Weihong; Kline-Fath, Beth M; Leach, James L; Altaye, Mekibib; Holland, Scott K

    2016-07-01

    Infants with perinatal brain injury are at risk of later visual problems. Advanced neuroimaging techniques show promise to detect functional and structural alterations of the visual system. We hypothesized that infants with perinatal brain injury would have less brain activation during a visual functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task and reduced task-based functional connectivity and structural connectivity as compared with healthy controls. Ten infants with perinatal brain injury and 20 control infants underwent visual fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) during natural sleep with no sedation. Activation maps, functional connectivity maps, and structural connectivity were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Most infants in both groups had negative activation in the visual cortex during the fMRI task. Infants with brain injury showed reduced activation in the occipital cortex, weaker connectivity between visual areas and other areas of the brain during the visual task, and reduced fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts projecting to visual regions, as compared with control infants. Infants with brain injury sustained in the perinatal period showed evidence of decreased brain activity and functional connectivity during a visual task and altered structural connectivity as compared with healthy term neonates.

  7. Early oxygen-utilization and brain activity in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Tataranno

    Full Text Available The combined monitoring of oxygen supply and delivery using Near-InfraRed spectroscopy (NIRS and cerebral activity using amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG could yield new insights into brain metabolism and detect potentially vulnerable conditions soon after birth. The relationship between NIRS and quantitative aEEG/EEG parameters has not yet been investigated. Our aim was to study the association between oxygen utilization during the first 6 h after birth and simultaneously continuously monitored brain activity measured by aEEG/EEG. Forty-four hemodynamically stable babies with a GA < 28 weeks, with good quality NIRS and aEEG/EEG data available and who did not receive morphine were included in the study. aEEG and NIRS monitoring started at NICU admission. The relation between regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2 and cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE, and quantitative measurements of brain activity such as number of spontaneous activity transients (SAT per minute (SAT rate, the interval in seconds (i.e. time between SATs (ISI and the minimum amplitude of the EEG in μV (min aEEG were evaluated. rScO2 was negatively associated with SAT rate (β=-3.45 [CI=-5.76- -1.15], p=0.004 and positively associated with ISI (β=1.45 [CI=0.44-2.45], p=0.006. cFTOE was positively associated with SAT rate (β=0.034 [CI=0.009-0.059], p=0.008 and negatively associated with ISI (β=-0.015 [CI=-0.026- -0.004], p=0.007. Oxygen delivery and utilization, as indicated by rScO2 and cFTOE, are directly related to functional brain activity, expressed by SAT rate and ISI during the first hours after birth, showing an increase in oxygen extraction in preterm infants with increased early electro-cerebral activity. NIRS monitored oxygenation may be a useful biomarker of brain vulnerability in high-risk infants.

  8. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Huijuan; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio

    2007-08-01

    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  9. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; Yuan Xue; Huijuan Zhao; Takashi Kusaka; Masanori Ueno; Yukio Yamada

    2007-01-01

    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  10. Visual performance and brain structures in the developing brain of pre-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Ricci, Daniela; Mercuri, Eugenio; Groppo, Michela; De Carli, Agnese; Ometto, Alessandra; Fumagalli, Monica; Bassi, Laura; Pisoni, Silvia; Cioni, Giovanni; Mosca, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    The presence of abnormal visual function has been related to overt lesions in the thalami, peritrigonal white matter (such as cavitational-necrotic periventricular leucomalacia) and optic radiations, and also to the extent of occipital cortex involvement. The normal development of visual function seems to depend on the integrity of a network that includes not only optic radiations and the primary visual cortex but also other cortical and subcortical areas, such as the frontal or temporal lobes or basal ganglia, which have been found to play a topical role in the development of vision. Therefore, the complex functions and functional connectivity of the developing brain of premature infants can be studied only with highly sophisticated techniques such as diffusion tensor tractography. The combined use of visual tests and neonatal structural and functional neuroimaging, which have become available for newborn infants, provides a better understanding of the correlation between structure and function from early life. This appears to be particularly relevant considering the essential role of early visual function in cognitive development. The identification of early visual impairment is also important, as it allows for early enrolment in intervention programmes. The association of clinical and functional studies to newer imaging techniques, which are being increasingly used also in neonates, are likely to provide further information on early aspects of vision and the mechanisms underlying brain plasticity, which are still not fully understood. Early exposure to a difficult postnatal environment together with early and unexpected removal from a protective milieu are exclusive and peculiar factors of prematurity that interfere with the normal development of the visual system in pre-term babies. The problem is further compounded by the influence of different perinatal brain lesions affecting the developing brain of premature babies. Nevertheless, in the last few decades

  11. No laughing matter: intranasal oxytocin administration changes functional brain connectivity during exposure to infant laughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riem, Madelon M E; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A S; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2012-04-01

    Infant laughter is a rewarding experience. It activates neural reward circuits and promotes parental proximity and care, thus facilitating parent-infant attachment. The neuropeptide oxytocin might enhance the incentive salience of infant laughter by modulating neural circuits related to the perception of infant cues. In a randomized controlled trial with functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated the influence of intranasally administered oxytocin on functional brain connectivity in response to infant laughter. Blood oxygenation level-dependent responses to infant laughter were measured in 22 nulliparous women who were administered oxytocin and 20 nulliparous women who were administered a placebo. Elevated oxytocin levels reduced activation in the amygdala during infant laughter and enhanced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the hippocampus, the precuneus, the supramarginal gyri, and the middle temporal gyrus. Increased functional connectivity between the amygdala and regions involved in emotion regulation may reduce negative emotional arousal while enhancing the incentive salience of the infant laughter.

  12. Brain opioids and mother-infant social motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, J; Nelson, E; Siviy, S

    1994-06-01

    Brain opioids were the first neurochemical system to be implicated in the elaboration of social-bonding processes. Although a variety of neurochemical systems help elaborate social rewards and specific social behaviors, the role of opioids in the control of maternal behavior remains controversial. Although a great deal of data indicate that intermediate doses of morphine can reduce maternal behavior, the evidence, taken together, suggests that endogenous opioids promote the regulatory control of maternal behavior, probably by providing feedback concerning the satisfaction that can be had from indulging in various maternal behaviors. Thus opioid blockade with naltrexone can reduce maternal competence in animals, while at the same time increasing maternal motivation. Opiate blockade likewise appears to increase the social motivation of rat pups, but reduces the reinforcing quality of interaction with the mother, suggesting that opioids provide feedback concerning the pleasurable qualities of social interaction in both mothers and infants. The clinical implications of this knowledge are not straightforward, but they generally suggest that clinically deficient social bonding might be capable of being strengthened via manipulation of brain opioid systems.

  13. Longitudinal Associations between the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions and Brain Development across Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Annie; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if normative variations in parenting relate to brain development among typically developing children. A sample of 352 mother-infant dyads came to the laboratory when infants were 5, 10, and 24 months of age (final N = 215). At each visit, child resting electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded.…

  14. Brain diffusivity in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following whole body hypothermia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzi, Moran; Sira, Liat Ben; Bassan, Haim; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Berger, Irit; Marom, Ronella; Leitner, Yael; Bental, Yoram; Shiff, Yakov; Geva, Ronny; Weinstein, Maya; Bashat, Dafna Ben

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is an important cause of neuropsychological deficits. Little is known about brain diffusivity in these infants following cooling and its potential in predicting outcome. Diffusion tensor imaging was applied to 3 groups: (1) three infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: cooled; (2) three infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: noncooled; and (3) four controls. Diffusivity values at the corticospinal tract, thalamus, and putamen were correlated with Apgar scores and early neurodevelopmental outcome. While cooled infants exhibited lower Apgar scores than noncooled infants, their developmental scores at a mean age of 8 months were higher. All groups differed in their diffusivity values with the cooled infants showing better values compared with the noncooled, correlating with early neurodevelopmental outcome. These preliminary results indicate that diffusion tensor imaging performed at an early age in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy may forecast clinical outcome and support the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia treatment.

  15. Citrobacter freundii brain abscess in a preterm infant: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakkal, Nishad; Soraisham, Amuchou Singh; Amin, Harish

    2013-04-01

    Intracranial abscesses are serious conditions but uncommon in preterm neonates. Citrobacter species are an uncommon cause of bacterial meningitis in neonates, but are associated with brain abscesses in a majority of cases. We report a preterm infant who developed Citrobacter freundii meningitis with brain abscess, who was successfully treated with antibiotics and surgical drainage. The infant had normal neurological outcome at follow-up. We report this case to highlight the importance of serial neuroimaging in the diagnosis of cerebral abscess in infants with Citrobacter meningitis.

  16. Brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction due to adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su Mi; Chai, Jee Won [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD) due to adrenal insufficiency (AI) in preterm infants. Among the 257 preterm infants born at <33 weeks of gestation between December 2009 and February 2014 at our institution, 35 preterm infants were diagnosed with AI. Brain ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively analyzed before and after LCD in 14 preterm infants, after exclusion of the other 21 infants with AI due to the following causes: death (n=2), early AI (n=5), sepsis (n=1), and patent ductus arteriosus (n=13). Fourteen of 257 infants (5.4%) were diagnosed with LCD due to AI. The age at LCD was a median of 18.5 days (range, 9 to 32 days). The last ultrasonographic findings before LCD occurred showed grade 1 periventricular echogenicity (PVE) in all 14 patients and germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) with focal cystic change in one patient. Ultrasonographic findings after LCD demonstrated no significant change in grade 1 PVE and no new lesions in eight (57%), grade 1 PVE with newly appearing GMH in three (21%), and increased PVE in three (21%) infants. Five infants (36%) showed new development (n=4) or increased size (n=1) of GMH. Two of three infants (14%) with increased PVE developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia. LCD due to AI may be associated with the late development of GMH, increased PVE after LCD, and cystic PVL with rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia.

  17. The apparent diffusion coefficient of water in gray and white matter of the infant brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P B; Leth, H; Peitersen, Birgit;

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose was to obtain normal values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the infant brain and to compare ADC maps with T1- and T2-weighted images. METHOD: Diffusion was measured in nine infants with an ECG-gated SE sequence compensated for first-order motion. One axial slic...... of the ADC increased with age and approached 1 at the age of 30 weeks. CONCLUSION: ADC maps add information to the T1 and T2 images about the size and course of unmyelinated as well as myelinated tracts in the immature brain.......PURPOSE: The purpose was to obtain normal values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the infant brain and to compare ADC maps with T1- and T2-weighted images. METHOD: Diffusion was measured in nine infants with an ECG-gated SE sequence compensated for first-order motion. One axial slice...

  18. Pseudomonas Sepsis and Multiple Brain Abscesses in a Newborn Infant Following Neurosurgical Procedure for Meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgili Gökmen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postneurosurgical brain abscess carries a high risk of neurologic morbidity and mortality. Case Presentation: A newborn infant had Pseudomonas sepsis and multiple brain abscesses after meningocele repair, and was successfully treated medically. Conclusion: Prompt recognition of this life-threatening condition is crucial.

  19. Regional infant brain development: an MRI-based morphometric analysis in 3 to 13 month olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Myong-Sun; Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Makris, Nikos; Gregas, Matt; Bacic, Janine; Haehn, Daniel; Kennedy, David; Pienaar, Rudolph; Caviness, Verne S; Benasich, April A; Grant, P Ellen

    2013-09-01

    Elucidation of infant brain development is a critically important goal given the enduring impact of these early processes on various domains including later cognition and language. Although infants' whole-brain growth rates have long been available, regional growth rates have not been reported systematically. Accordingly, relatively less is known about the dynamics and organization of typically developing infant brains. Here we report global and regional volumetric growth of cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem with gender dimorphism, in 33 cross-sectional scans, over 3 to 13 months, using T1-weighted 3-dimensional spoiled gradient echo images and detailed semi-automated brain segmentation. Except for the midbrain and lateral ventricles, all absolute volumes of brain regions showed significant growth, with 6 different patterns of volumetric change. When normalized to the whole brain, the regional increase was characterized by 5 differential patterns. The putamen, cerebellar hemispheres, and total cerebellum were the only regions that showed positive growth in the normalized brain. Our results show region-specific patterns of volumetric change and contribute to the systematic understanding of infant brain development. This study greatly expands our knowledge of normal development and in future may provide a basis for identifying early deviation above and beyond normative variation that might signal higher risk for neurological disorders.

  20. UNC-Emory Infant Atlases for Macaque Brain Image Analysis: Postnatal Brain Development through 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yundi; Budin, Francois; Yapuncich, Eva; Rumple, Ashley; Young, Jeffrey T.; Payne, Christa; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaoping; Godfrey, Jodi; Howell, Brittany; Sanchez, Mar M.; Styner, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    Computational anatomical atlases have shown to be of immense value in neuroimaging as they provide age appropriate reference spaces alongside ancillary anatomical information for automated analysis such as subcortical structural definitions, cortical parcellations or white fiber tract regions. Standard workflows in neuroimaging necessitate such atlases to be appropriately selected for the subject population of interest. This is especially of importance in early postnatal brain development, where rapid changes in brain shape and appearance render neuroimaging workflows sensitive to the appropriate atlas choice. We present here a set of novel computation atlases for structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging as crucial resource for the analysis of MRI data from non-human primate rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) data in early postnatal brain development. Forty socially-housed infant macaques were scanned longitudinally at ages 2 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months in order to create cross-sectional structural and DTI atlases via unbiased atlas building at each of these ages. Probabilistic spatial prior definitions for the major tissue classes were trained on each atlas with expert manual segmentations. In this article we present the development and use of these atlases with publicly available tools, as well as the atlases themselves, which are publicly disseminated to the scientific community. PMID:28119564

  1. Brain Dysplasia Associated with Ciliary Dysfunction in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Lee, Vincent; Ceschin, Rafael; Zuccoli, Giulio; Beluk, Nancy; Khalifa, Omar; Votava-Smith, Jodie K; DeBrunner, Mark; Munoz, Ricardo; Domnina, Yuliya; Morell, Victor; Wearden, Peter; Sanchez De Toledo, Joan; Devine, William; Zahid, Maliha; Lo, Cecilia W

    2016-11-01

    To test for associations between abnormal respiratory ciliary motion (CM) and brain abnormalities in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) STUDY DESIGN: We recruited 35 infants with CHD preoperatively and performed nasal tissue biopsy to assess respiratory CM by videomicroscopy. Cranial ultrasound scan and brain magnetic resonance imaging were obtained pre- and/or postoperatively and systematically reviewed for brain abnormalities. Segmentation was used to quantitate cerebrospinal fluid and regional brain volumes. Perinatal and perioperative clinical variables were collected. A total of 10 (28.5%) patients with CHD had abnormal CM. Abnormal CM was not associated with brain injury but was correlated with increased extraaxial cerebrospinal fluid volume (P dysplasia including the hippocampus (P dysplasia score (P dysplasia. These findings suggest that ciliary defects may play a role in brain dysplasia in patients with CHD and have the potential to prognosticate neurodevelopmental risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Sachiko; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Robertson, Nicola J; Iwata, Osuke

    2014-10-01

    Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the

  3. Gestational age and neonatal brain microstructure in term born infants: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birit F P Broekman

    Full Text Available Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37-41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth.A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy.Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p<0.001, as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p<0.001.Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst 'term' infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb.

  4. Imaging hemodynamic changes in preterm infant brains with two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Ma, Yiwen; Yang, Fang; Zhao, Huijuan; Jiang, Jingying; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio

    2008-02-01

    We present our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2-D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes of two preterm infant brains in different ventilation settings conditions. The investigations use the established two-wavelength, 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection, and the generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography may be a potent and relatively simple way of investigating the functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  5. Early brain enlargement and elevated extra-axial fluid in infants who develop autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mark D; Nordahl, Christine W; Young, Gregory S; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Lee, Aaron; Liston, Sarah E; Harrington, Kayla R; Ozonoff, Sally; Amaral, David G

    2013-09-01

    Prospective studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder have provided important clues about the early behavioural symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, however, is not currently made until at least 18 months of age. There is substantially less research on potential brain-based differences in the period between 6 and 12 months of age. Our objective in the current study was to use magnetic resonance imaging to identify any consistently observable brain anomalies in 6-9 month old infants who would later develop autism spectrum disorder. We conducted a prospective infant sibling study with longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging scans at three time points (6-9, 12-15, and 18-24 months of age), in conjunction with intensive behavioural assessments. Fifty-five infants (33 'high-risk' infants having an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder and 22 'low-risk' infants having no relatives with autism spectrum disorder) were imaged at 6-9 months; 43 of these (27 high-risk and 16 low-risk) were imaged at 12-15 months; and 42 (26 high-risk and 16 low-risk) were imaged again at 18-24 months. Infants were classified as meeting criteria for autism spectrum disorder, other developmental delays, or typical development at 24 months or later (mean age at outcome: 32.5 months). Compared with the other two groups, infants who developed autism spectrum disorder (n = 10) had significantly greater extra-axial fluid at 6-9 months, which persisted and remained elevated at 12-15 and 18-24 months. Extra-axial fluid is characterized by excessive cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space, particularly over the frontal lobes. The amount of extra-axial fluid detected as early as 6 months was predictive of more severe autism spectrum disorder symptoms at the time of outcome. Infants who developed autism spectrum disorder also had significantly larger total cerebral volumes at both 12-15 and 18-24 months of age. This is the first magnetic

  6. Structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the first 3 months of infant brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Dominic; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Curran, Megan; Buchthal, Steven D; Alicata, Daniel; Skranes, Jon; Johansen, Heather; Hernandez, Antonette; Yamakawa, Robyn; Kuperman, Joshua M; Dale, Anders M

    2014-10-01

    The very early postnatal period witnesses extraordinary rates of growth, but structural brain development in this period has largely not been explored longitudinally. Such assessment may be key in detecting and treating the earliest signs of neurodevelopmental disorders. To assess structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the whole brain and regions of interest in infants during the first 3 months after birth. Serial structural T1-weighted and/or T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained for 211 time points from 87 healthy term-born or term-equivalent preterm-born infants, aged 2 to 90 days, between October 5, 2007, and June 12, 2013. We segmented whole-brain and multiple subcortical regions of interest using a novel application of Bayesian-based methods. We modeled growth and rate of growth trajectories nonparametrically and assessed left-right asymmetries and sexual dimorphisms. Whole-brain volume at birth was approximately one-third of healthy elderly brain volume, and did not differ significantly between male and female infants (347 388 mm3 and 335 509 mm3, respectively, P = .12). The growth rate was approximately 1%/d, slowing to 0.4%/d by the end of the first 3 months, when the brain reached just more than half of elderly adult brain volume. Overall growth in the first 90 days was 64%. There was a significant age-by-sex effect leading to widening separation in brain sizes with age between male and female infants (with male infants growing faster than females by 200.4 mm3/d, SE = 67.2, P = .003). Longer gestation was associated with larger brain size (2215 mm3/d, SE = 284, P = 4×10-13). The expected brain size of an infant born one week earlier than average was 5% smaller than average; at 90 days it will not have caught up, being 2% smaller than average. The cerebellum grew at the highest rate, more than doubling in 90 days, and the hippocampus grew at the slowest rate, increasing by 47% in 90 days. There was left

  7. Brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction due to adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Mi Shin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD due to adrenal insufficiency (AI in preterm infants. Methods: Among the 257 preterm infants born at <33 weeks of gestation between December 2009 and February 2014 at our institution, 35 preterm infants were diagnosed with AI. Brain ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively analyzed before and after LCD in 14 preterm infants, after exclusion of the other 21 infants with AI due to the following causes: death (n=2, early AI (n=5, sepsis (n=1, and patent ductus arteriosus (n=13. Results: Fourteen of 257 infants (5.4% were diagnosed with LCD due to AI. The age at LCD was a median of 18.5 days (range, 9 to 32 days. The last ultrasonographic findings before LCD occurred showed grade 1 periventricular echogenicity (PVE in all 14 patients and germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH with focal cystic change in one patient. Ultrasonographic findings after LCD demonstrated no significant change in grade 1 PVE and no new lesions in eight (57%, grade 1 PVE with newly appearing GMH in three (21%, and increased PVE in three (21% infants. Five infants (36% showed new development (n=4 or increased size (n=1 of GMH. Two of three infants (14% with increased PVE developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL and rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia. Conclusion: LCD due to AI may be associated with the late development of GMH, increased PVE after LCD, and cystic PVL with rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia.

  8. Differences in quantitative characteristics of intracranial pressure in hydrocephalic children treated surgically or conservatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per Kristian; Due-Tønnessen, Bernt; Helseth, Eirik; Lundar, Tryggve

    2002-06-01

    This study reports the results of quantitative analysis of continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) recordings in 33 hydrocephalic children. The aim of the study was to compare the exact numbers of increases in ICP during sleep or the awake state in hydrocephalic children who were treated either surgically or conservatively. At the time of ICP monitoring, the ICP curves were assessed by the calculation of mean ICP and visual inspection for the detection of plateau waves. Quantitative analysis was performed with the software Sensometrics Pressure Analyser, which presented the ICP curve as a matrix of numbers of ICP elevations of different levels (20-40 mm Hg) and durations (0.5-20 min). In each case, the numbers of ICP elevations were standardized to 10 h of recording time, providing the opportunity for comparisons of ICP curves between individuals. Compared to the surgery group, there was a rather high number of ICP elevations of 20 mm Hg of various durations in the nonsurgery group, e.g. ICP elevations of 20 mm Hg lasting 10 min occurred in 13 of 19 children (68%) in the nonsurgery group. There was no apparent relationship between ICP and age or between the size of the cerebral ventricles and ICP. In children with hydrocephalus, the presentation of the ICP data as a matrix of ICP elevations of different levels and durations may enhance the informative value of continuous ICP monitoring, as compared to the calculation of mean ICP and visual detection of plateau waves. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. The effect of color priming on infant brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Hawkins, Laura; Boas, David A

    2014-01-15

    Behavioral studies have identified select experiences that can prime infants to attend to color information as the basis for individuating objects prior to the time they do so spontaneously. For example, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts the function in which it will engage leads 9-month-olds (who typically do not attend to color differences) to demonstrate increased sensitivity to color information in a subsequent individuation task (Wilcox and Chapa, 2004). In contrast, viewing pretest events in which the color of an object predicts distinct object motions, but the motions are not functionally relevant, does not produce color priming. The purpose of the present research was to identify the cortical underpinnings of these behavioral effects. Infants aged 8 and 9 months viewed function or motion pretest events and then their capacity to individuate-by-color was assessed in an object individuation task. Behavioral and neuroimaging data were collected. Two main findings emerged. First, as predicted, the infants who viewed the function but not the motion pretest events showed prolonged looking to the test event, a behavioral indicator of object individuation. In addition, they evidenced increased activation in anterior temporal cortex, thought to be a cortical signature of object individuation. A second and unexpected finding was that viewing either type of pretest events led to increased activation in the posterior temporal cortex, as compared to infants who did not see pretest events, revealing that prior exposure to the motion pretest events does influence infants' processing of the test event, even though it is not evident in the behavioral results. The cognitive processes involved, and the cortical structures that mediate these processes, are discussed.

  10. The prognostic value of brain CT scan in infants with periventricular leukomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Akihisa; Hayakawa, Fumio; Kuno, Kuniyoshi (Anjo Kosei Hospital, Aichi (Japan)); Natsume, Jun; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

    1994-11-01

    Brain CT scan was performed at 40 weeks of conceptional age in 17 preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). The finding of periventricular low density was not useful in differentiating patients with PVL from normal infants, because this finding was seen in 40% of normal infants. The following findings were characteristic of PVL : (1) a marked low density area in centrum semioval, (2) an irregular outline of ventricular wall, and (3) low density spots in periventricular white matter. The findings of ventricular dilation with irregular wall and marked low density area in centrum semioval were correlated with a finding of volume loss on MRI during late infancy and the severity of neurological impairment, especially in severely affected patients. Marked low density area in centrum semioval was characteristic of severe PVL as demonstrated on brain CT scan. (author).

  11. Overexpression of nestin and vimentin in the ependyma of spinal cords from hydrocephalic infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, T; Becker, L E

    1997-02-01

    The ependyma of the spinal central canal in cases of hydrocephalus shows abnormalities which vary with the aetiology of ventricular dilatation. To determine whether these ependymal changes are developmental or reactive in nature, immunohistochemical findings were compared between nine normal controls and 12 cases of hydrocephalus (three each of congenital aqueductal stenosis. Dandy-Walker malformation, Chiari type II malformation, and post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus) using antisera to nestin, vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The main pathological findings were disruption of ependymal layer, apparent pseudostratification of ependyma, expansion, cleft or syrinx formation in relation to the central canal, and ependymal rosette formation. In normal developing fetal spinal cord, nestin and vimentin were expressed mainly in pseudostratified ependymal cells and radial fibres in the median septum. In cases with congenital hydrocephalus (congenital aqueductal stenosis. Dandy-Walker malformation, and Chiari type II malformation), nestin was overexpressed in immature ependymal cells, and strong vimentin immunoreactivity was detected in the long tract of radial fibres in the median septum. Nestin and vimentin were also expressed in small cells and their fibres which covered areas denuded of ependymal cells in cases of Chiari type II malformation and post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Two conclusions are suggested by this report. First, the ependyma of the spinal central canal in congenital hydrocephalus shows a delay in maturation of radial glial cells into mature astrocytes and ependymal cells. Second, areas of ependymal denudation may be repaired by the immature glial cells derived from subependymal cells.

  12. Fractal description and quantitative analysis of normal brain development in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hehong Li; Liangping Luo; Li Huang

    2011-01-01

    We examined the fractal pattern of cerebral computerized tomography images in 158 normal infants, aged 0-3 years, based on the quantitative analysis of chaotic theory. Results showed that the fractal dimension of cerebral computerized tomography images in normal infants remained stable from 1.86-1.91. The normal distribution range in the neonatal period, 1-2 months old infants, 1-2 year old infants, and of 2-3 year old infants was 1.88-1.90 (mean: 1.891 3 ± 0.006 4), 1.89-1.90 (mean: 1.892 7 ± 0.004 5), 1.86-1.90 (mean: 1.886 3 ± 0.008 5), and 1.88-1.91 (mean: 1.895 8 ± 0.008 3), respectively. The spectrum width of the multifractal spectrum (△α) in normal infants was 1.4618. These data suggest that the spectral width parameters of the multifractal spectrum and the fractal dimension criteria in normal children may be useful as a practical specific parameter for assessing the fractal mode of brain development in normal infants.

  13. Origin and timing of brain lesions in term infants with neonatal encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowan, F; Rutherford, M; Groenendaal, F; Eken, P; Mercuri, E; Bydder, GM; Meiners, LC; Dubowitz, LMS; de Vries, LS

    2003-01-01

    Background The role of intrapartum asphyxia in neonatal encephalopathy and seizures in term infants is not clear, and antenatal factors are being implicated in the causal pathway for these disorders. However, there is no evidence that brain damage occurs before birth. We aimed to test the hypothesis

  14. Local vascular CO2 reactivity in the infant brain assessed by functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P.B.; Leth, H; Lou, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    hyperventilated voluntarily, the vascular reactivity was homogeneously distributed predominantly over the grey matter. The experiments demonstrate that local impairment of vascular CO2 reactivity in the distressed infant brain can be detected by T2 sensitive gradient-echo MRI, which is also known as functional...

  15. Novel retinal findings in an infant with muscle-eye-brain disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mehnaz; Hamid, Rizwan; Recchia, Franco M

    2012-01-01

    To describe novel retinal findings in an infant with muscle-eye-brain disease and suggest a novel mechanism for congenital retinal detachment. Case report. A 7-week-old, white, female infant presented with total retinal detachment, peripheral retinal avascularity, and neovascularization of the right eye. In the left eye, there was hypoplastic optic nerve, no identifiable foveal avascular zone, and a small area of avascularity in the temporal peripheral retina. Genetic testing ultimately confirmed the diagnosis of muscle-eye-brain disease, a disorder of aberrant neuronal migration. This case describes retinal findings that, to our knowledge, have not been reported in previous cases of muscle-eye-brain disease: peripheral avascularity, leading to retinal detachment in one eye, and foveal dysplasia. It is speculated that aberrant retinal vasculogenesis arose from disordered migration and patterning of retinal neurons.

  16. Scans Show Range of Zika-Linked Infant Brain Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain stem abnormalities, calcifications, and a condition called ventriculomegaly, where the ventricles (fluid filled spaces in the ... the confirmed or suspected Zika infection groups had ventriculomegaly, the researchers said. Most fetuses also had at ...

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be used to explore tactile and nociceptive processing in the infant brain

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, G.; Fabrizi, L.; Meek, J; Jackson, D.; Tracey, I.; Robertson, N; Slater, R; Fitzgerald, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Despite the importance of neonatal skin stimulation, little is known about activation of the newborn human infant brain by sensory stimulation of the skin. We carried out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the feasibility of measuring brain activation to a range of mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of neonatal infants. Methods We studied 19 term infants with a mean age of 13 days. Brain activation was measured in response to brushing, von Frey hair (vFh) punctate ...

  18. The effect of gaze direction on three-dimensional face recognition in infant brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Wakayo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2012-09-12

    In three-dimensional face recognition studies, it is well known that viewing rotating faces enhance face recognition. For infants, our previous study indicated that 8-month-old infants showed recognition of three-dimensional rotating faces with a direct gaze, and they did not learn with an averted gaze. This suggests that gaze direction may affect three-dimensional face recognition in infants. In this experiment, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to measure infants' hemodynamic responses to averted gaze and direct gaze. We hypothesized that infants would show different neural activity for averted and direct gazes. The responses were compared with the baseline activation during the presentation of non-face objects. We found that the concentration of oxyhemoglobin increased in the temporal cortex on both sides only during the presentation of averted gaze compared with that of the baseline period. This is the first study to show that infants' brain activity in three-dimensional face processing is different between averted gaze and direct gaze.

  19. Auditory brain stem responses of premature infants to bone-conducted stimuli: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, R G; Weber, B A

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of bone conduction auditory brain stem response (ABR) audiometry in intensive care nursery neonates was investigated. Forty premature infants were tested with both air- and bone-conducted stimuli. Bone-conducted stimuli resulted in more identifiable ABRs and a greater number of subjects passing the hearing screening. The findings of this study suggest that bone conduction ABR audiometry is a feasible technique with premature infants. Due to the lower frequency composition of the bone-conducted click, it may be more effective than an air-conducted click when the immature cochlea is being evaluated.

  20. Dentate gyrus abnormalities in sudden unexplained death in infants: morphological marker of underlying brain vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Hannah C; Cryan, Jane B; Haynes, Robin L; Paterson, David S; Haas, Elisabeth A; Mena, Othon J; Minter, Megan; Journey, Kelley W; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Goldstein, Richard D; Armstrong, Dawna D

    2015-01-01

    Sudden unexplained death in infants, including the sudden infant death syndrome, is likely due to heterogeneous causes that involve different intrinsic vulnerabilities and/or environmental factors. Neuropathologic research focuses upon the role of brain regions, particularly the brainstem, that regulate or modulate autonomic and respiratory control during sleep or transitions to waking. The hippocampus is a key component of the forebrain-limbic network that modulates autonomic/respiratory control via brainstem connections, but its role in sudden infant death has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that a well-established marker of hippocampal pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy-focal granule cell bilamination in the dentate, a variant of granule cell dispersion-is associated with sudden unexplained death in infants. In a blinded study of hippocampal morphology in 153 infants with sudden and unexpected death autopsied in the San Diego County medical examiner's office, deaths were classified as unexplained or explained based upon autopsy and scene investigation. Focal granule cell bilamination was present in 41.2% (47/114) of the unexplained group compared to 7.7% (3/39) of the explained (control) group (p infants with sudden unexplained death may represent a developmental vulnerability that leads to autonomic/respiratory instability or autonomic seizures, and sleep-related death when the infants are challenged with homeostatic stressors. Importantly, these lesions can be recognized in microscopic sections prepared in current forensic practice. Future research is needed to determine the relationship between hippocampal and previously reported brainstem pathology in sudden infant death.

  1. Devastating metabolic brain disorders of newborns and young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Kim, Ji Hye; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Yoo, So-Young; Eo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic disorders of the brain that manifest in the neonatal or early infantile period are usually associated with acute and severe illness and are thus referred to as devastating metabolic disorders. Most of these disorders may be classified as organic acid disorders, amino acid metabolism disorders, primary lactic acidosis, or fatty acid oxidation disorders. Each disorder has distinctive clinical, biochemical, and radiologic features. Early diagnosis is important both for prompt treatment to prevent death or serious sequelae and for genetic counseling. However, diagnosis is often challenging because many findings overlap and may mimic those of more common neonatal conditions, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and infection. Ultrasonography (US) may be an initial screening method for the neonatal brain, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for evaluating metabolic brain disorders. Although nonspecific imaging findings are common in early-onset metabolic disorders, characteristic patterns of brain involvement have been described for several disorders. In addition, diffusion-weighted images may be used to characterize edema during an acute episode of encephalopathy, and MR spectroscopy depicts changes in metabolites that may help diagnose metabolic disorders and assess response to treatment. Imaging findings, including those of advanced MR imaging techniques, must be closely reviewed. If one of these rare disorders is suspected, the appropriate biochemical test or analysis of the specific gene should be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

  2. Early Oxygen-Utilization and Brain Activity in Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tataranno, ML; Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris; Toet, MC; Lemmers, Petra M A; van de Vosse, R.; Van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon J N L

    2015-01-01

    The combined monitoring of oxygen supply and delivery using Near-InfraRed spectroscopy (NIRS) and cerebral activity using amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) could yield new insights into brain metabolism and detect potentially vulnerable conditions soon after birth. The relationship between NIRS and qu

  3. Prognostic value of gradient echo T2* sequences for brain MR imaging in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruine, Francisca T. de; Berg-Huysmans, Annette A. van den; Buchem, Mark A. van; Grond, Jeroen van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, PO Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Steggerda, Sylke J.; Leijser, Lara M.; Rijken, Monique [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, subdivision of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Wezel-Meijler, Gerda van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, subdivision of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2014-03-15

    Gradient echo T2*-W sequences are more sensitive than T2-W spin-echo sequences for detecting hemorrhages in the brain. The aim of this study is to correlate presence of hemosiderin deposits in the brain of very preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks) detected by T2*-W gradient echo MRI to white matter injury and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years. In 101 preterm infants, presence and location of hemosiderin were assessed on T2*-W gradient echo MRI performed around term-equivalent age (range: 40-60 weeks). White matter injury was defined as the presence of >6 non-hemorrhagic punctate white matter lesions (PWML), cysts and/or ventricular dilatation. Six infants with post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation detected by US in the neonatal period were excluded. Infants were seen for follow-up at 2 years. Univariate and regression analysis assessed the relation between presence and location of hemosiderin, white matter injury and neurodevelopmental outcome. In 38/95 (40%) of the infants, hemosiderin was detected. Twenty percent (19/95) of the infants were lost to follow-up. There was a correlation between hemosiderin in the ventricular wall with >6 PWML (P < 0.001) and cysts (P < 0.001) at term-equivalent age, and with a lower psychomotor development index (PDI) (P=0.02) at 2 years. After correcting for known confounders (gestational age, gender, intrauterine growth retardation and white matter injury), the correlation with PDI was no longer significant. The clinical importance of detecting small hemosiderin deposits is limited as there is no independent association with neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  4. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  5. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-09-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  6. Visual function in preterm infants: visualizing the brain to improve prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Vann; Taylor, Margot J; Miller, Steven P

    2013-08-01

    Considerable development of the visual system occurs in the third trimester of life, a time when very preterm-born infants are in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Their very early birth during a period of rapid and marked neurodevelopment and their clinical course makes them a very high-risk population. A range of different events impacts brain development and the visual system, leading to significant long-term visual dysfunction. Improved neuroimaging techniques provide an important window on the early brain and visual system development of these vulnerable infants. Greater understanding of the etiology of visual impairment subsequent to preterm birth and the timing of critical processes will allow early recognition and the earlier implementations of interventions. In the longer term, this will help clinicians optimize NICU practice to reduce the incidence of visual dysfunction in these children.

  7. Development of visual motion perception for prospective control: Brain and behavioural studies in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Agyei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioural and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioural data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control.

  8. Early Nutritional Interventions for Brain and Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nora; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.

    2017-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother’s breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants’ neurodevelopment compared to infant formula. The differences in methodologies make it difficult to conclude any effects of interventions with individual nutrients. Only protein and iron level studies showed some consistent findings regarding optimal doses; however, confirmatory studies are needed. This review does not support some widely accepted associations, such as that between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and visual development. Clear nutritional recommendations cannot be made based on this review. However, the type of infant nutrition (i.e., breast milk versus formula or donor milk), the timing of the nutritional intervention, and the dose of the nutrient/supplement have been found to be relevant factors in determining the success of nutritional intervention studies in preterm infants. PMID:28241501

  9. Neonatal Pain in Very Preterm Infants: Long-Term Effects on Brain, Neurodevelopment and Pain Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Eckstein Grunau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of early life psychosocial adversity have received a great deal of attention, such as maternal separation in experimental animal models and abuse/neglect in young humans. More recently, long-term effects of the physical stress of repetitive procedural pain have begun to be addressed in infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care. Preterm infants are more sensitive to pain and stress, which cannot be distinguished in neonates. The focus of this review is clinical studies of long-term effects of repeated procedural pain-related stress in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in relation to brain development, neurodevelopment, programming of stress systems, and later pain sensitivity in infants born very preterm (24–32 weeks’ gestational age. Neonatal pain exposure has been quantified as the number of invasive and/or skin-breaking procedures during hospitalization in the NICU. Emerging studies provide convincing clinical evidence for an adverse impact of neonatal pain/stress in infants at a time of physiological immaturity, rapidly developing brain microstructure and networks, as well as programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Currently it appears that early pain/stress may influence the developing brain and thereby neurodevelopment and stress-sensitive behaviors, particularly in the most immature neonates. However, there is no evidence for greater prevalence of pain syndromes compared to children and adults born healthy at full term. In addressing associations between pain/stress and outcomes, careful consideration of confounding clinical factors related to prematurity is essential. The need for pain management for humanitarian care is widely advocated. Non-pharmacological interventions to help parents reduce their infant’s stress may be brain-protective.

  10. Intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage and remote soft tissue arteriovenous malformation in a newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H; Grow, Jennifer L; Faix, Roger G

    2002-12-01

    Congenital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) often present with congestive heart failure. Such pathologic vascular structures typically occur in cranial, hepatic, or pulmonary locations and are usually associated with overlying external visible, tactile, or audible abnormalities. These vascular anomalies may also be associated with such complications as thromboembolic events, coagulopathy, and localized hemorrhage. We present a newborn infant with an occult but hemodynamically significant parascapular AVM who presented with an intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage, which we suspect to be a remote complication of the AVM.

  11. Early Brain Activity Relates to Subsequent Brain Growth in Premature Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, Manon J.; Palmu, Kirsi; Menache, Caroline; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Lazeyras, Francois; Sizonenko, Stephane; Dubois, Jessica; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown that early brain activity is crucial for neuronal survival and the development of brain networks; however, it has been challenging to assess its role in the developing human brain. We employed serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to measure the rate o

  12. Energetic and nutritional constraints on infant brain development: implications for brain expansion during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Crawford, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    The human brain confronts two major challenges during its development: (i) meeting a very high energy requirement, and (ii) reliably accessing an adequate dietary source of specific brain selective nutrients needed for its structure and function. Implicitly, these energetic and nutritional constraints to normal brain development today would also have been constraints on human brain evolution. The energetic constraint was solved in large measure by the evolution in hominins of a unique and significant layer of body fat on the fetus starting during the third trimester of gestation. By providing fatty acids for ketone production that are needed as brain fuel, this fat layer supports the brain's high energy needs well into childhood. This fat layer also contains an important reserve of the brain selective omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), not available in other primates. Foremost amongst the brain selective minerals are iodine and iron, with zinc, copper and selenium also being important. A shore-based diet, i.e., fish, molluscs, crustaceans, frogs, bird's eggs and aquatic plants, provides the richest known dietary sources of brain selective nutrients. Regular access to these foods by the early hominin lineage that evolved into humans would therefore have helped free the nutritional constraint on primate brain development and function. Inadequate dietary supply of brain selective nutrients still has a deleterious impact on human brain development on a global scale today, demonstrating the brain's ongoing vulnerability. The core of the shore-based paradigm of human brain evolution proposes that sustained access by certain groups of early Homo to freshwater and marine food resources would have helped surmount both the nutritional as well as the energetic constraints on mammalian brain development.

  13. Effect of mouse nerve growth factor on brain development in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ban; Zhong-He Wan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of application of mouse nerve growth factor in neonatal period on brain development in premature infants.Methods:A total of 37 cases of premature infants given birth in our hospital from 1st January, 2015 to 30th December, 2015 were selected as research subjects and divided into observation group (n=18) and control group (n=19) according to different ways of intervention. Control group didn’t receive exogenous drugs, observation group received mouse nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment in neonatal period, and then differences in results of brain magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, brainstem auditory evoked potential, scores of Gesell developmental scale, levels of NSE, S-100β, 8-OHdG and 8-I-PGF2α and levels of TLR-4, TNF-α, IL-18 and so on of two groups after intervention were compared.Results:Proportions of normal MRI, EEG and BAEP of observation group were higher than those of control group, and proportions of severely abnormal were significantly lower than those of control group; scores of Gesell developmental scale motor, adaptive behavior, language and social skills of observation group in 3 months and 6 months of corrected gestational age were higher than those of control group; serum NSE, S-100β, 8-OHdG and 8-I-PGF2α levels of observation group after 3 months and 6 months of corrected gestational age were lower than those of control group ; serum TLR-4, TNF-α, IL-18, NF-κB and MMP-9 levels of observation group after 6 months of corrected gestational age were lower than those of control group, and levels of EGF and SOD were higher than those of control group.Conclusion: Application of mouse nerve growth factor in neonatal period of premature infants helps to promote nerve cell growth and development and optimize brain function of premature infants, and it has active clinical significance.

  14. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with differences in infants' brain responses to emotional body expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Kathleen M; Rajhans, Purva; Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Much research has recognized the general importance of maternal behavior in the early development and programing of the mammalian offspring's brain. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration, the amount of time in which breastfed meals are the only source of sustenance, plays a prominent role in promoting healthy brain and cognitive development in human children. However, surprisingly little is known about the influence of breastfeeding on social and emotional development in infancy. In the current study, we examined whether and how the duration of EBF impacts the neural processing of emotional signals by measuring electro-cortical responses to body expressions in 8-month-old infants. Our analyses revealed that infants with high EBF experience show a significantly greater neural sensitivity to happy body expressions than those with low EBF experience. Moreover, regression analyses revealed that the neural bias toward happiness or fearfulness differs as a function of the duration of EBF. Specifically, longer breastfeeding duration is associated with a happy bias, whereas shorter breastfeeding duration is associated with a fear bias. These findings suggest that breastfeeding experience can shape the way in which infants respond to emotional signals.

  15. Deep convolutional neural networks for multi-modality isointense infant brain image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Li, Rongjian; Deng, Houtao; Wang, Li; Lin, Weili; Ji, Shuiwang; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-03-01

    The segmentation of infant brain tissue images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role in studying early brain development in health and disease. In the isointense stage (approximately 6-8 months of age), WM and GM exhibit similar levels of intensity in both T1 and T2 MR images, making the tissue segmentation very challenging. Only a small number of existing methods have been designed for tissue segmentation in this isointense stage; however, they only used a single T1 or T2 images, or the combination of T1 and T2 images. In this paper, we propose to use deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for segmenting isointense stage brain tissues using multi-modality MR images. CNNs are a type of deep models in which trainable filters and local neighborhood pooling operations are applied alternatingly on the raw input images, resulting in a hierarchy of increasingly complex features. Specifically, we used multi-modality information from T1, T2, and fractional anisotropy (FA) images as inputs and then generated the segmentation maps as outputs. The multiple intermediate layers applied convolution, pooling, normalization, and other operations to capture the highly nonlinear mappings between inputs and outputs. We compared the performance of our approach with that of the commonly used segmentation methods on a set of manually segmented isointense stage brain images. Results showed that our proposed model significantly outperformed prior methods on infant brain tissue segmentation. In addition, our results indicated that integration of multi-modality images led to significant performance improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: mwmcdona@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Chang, Andrew L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  17. The naturally occurring α-tocopherol stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol is predominant in the human infant brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuchan, J M; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Johnson, E J

    2016-01-01

    infant death syndrome or other conditions. RRR-α-tocopherol was the predominant stereoisomer in all brain regions (P...α-Tocopherol is the principal source of vitamin E, an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy brain function. Infant formula is routinely supplemented with synthetic α-tocopherol, a racaemic mixture of eight stereoisomers with less bioactivity than the natural...... stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol stereoisomer profiles have not been previously reported in the human brain. In the present study, we analysed total α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol stereoisomers in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampus (HPC) and visual cortex (VC) of infants (n 36) who died of sudden...

  18. A developmental study of bone conduction auditory brain stem response in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E Y; Rupert, A L; Moushegian, G

    1987-08-01

    Two studies, vibrator placement and masking, were performed to evaluate the developmental aspect of bone conduction auditory brain stem response (ABR) in human infants. Subject groups included newborns, 1-yr-olds, and adults. In the vibrator studies, ABRs were obtained from placements of the bone conduction vibrator on the frontal, occipital, and temporal bones. Results showed that temporal placements in neonates and 1-yr-olds produce significantly shorter wave V latencies of ABR than frontal or occipital placements. In adults, differences of wave V latencies from various vibrator placements were comparatively small. In the masking studies, ABRs were acquired from vibrator placements at the temporal bone in the presence of ipsilateral air conducted masking noise from the experimental groups. Results showed that interaural attenuations of bone conduction click stimuli are the largest in neonates, somewhat smaller from 1-yr-olds, and the smallest in adults. The findings of this research strongly suggest that temporal placements for bone conduction ABR should be used, in some instances, when testing infants and 1-yr-olds. The results of this study support the proposition that bone conduction ABR is a feasible and reliable diagnostic tool in testing infants.

  19. Three-dimensional optical topography of brain activity in infants watching videos of human movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Teresa; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Everdell, Nick; Blasi, Anna; Elwell, Clare; Hebden, Jeremy C.; Gibson, Adam

    2012-03-01

    We present 3D optical topography images reconstructed from data obtained previously while infants observed videos of adults making natural movements of their eyes and hands. The optical topography probe was placed over the temporal cortex, which in adults is responsible for cognitive processing of similar stimuli. Increases in oxyhaemoglobin were measured and reconstructed using a multispectral imaging algorithm with spatially variant regularization to optimize depth discrimination. The 3D optical topography images suggest that similar brain regions are activated in infants and adults. Images were presented showing the distribution of activation in a plane parallel to the surface, as well as changes in activation with depth. The time-course of activation was followed in the pixel which demonstrated the largest change, showing that changes could be measured with high temporal resolution. These results suggest that infants a few months old have regions which are specialized for reacting to human activity, and that these subtle changes can be effectively analysed using 3D optical topography.

  20. Glial differentiation in the germinal layer of fetal and preterm infant brain: an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, S J; Howard, S

    1988-01-01

    The germinal layer in preterm infants is a common site of intracerebral hemorrhage that is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in survivors. This matrix is composed of a mass of immature cells containing many thin-walled blood vessels. A major factor in the occurrence of hemorrhage at this site is the absence of a network of fibers to support these vessels. This immunocytochemical study has examined glial differentiation within the germinal layer of brains from fetuses and preterm infants of gestational ages 18 to 35 weeks. Progressive glial differentiation with gestation is described. This process is not uniform and the more posterior germinal layer, lying over the body of the caudate nucleus, demonstrates more rapid maturation than that lying anteriorly near the head of the caudate nucleus. Anteriorly, even at 35 weeks of gestation, a central core of germinal layer cells remains immature with little evidence of glial differentiation. These changes may be related to the occurrence and distribution of germinal layer hemorrhages in preterm infants of varying gestations.

  1. Assessment of quantitative cortical biomarkers in the developing brain of preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeskops, Pim; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Pearlman, Paul C.; Kersbergen, Karina J.; Leemans, Alexander; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2013-02-01

    The cerebral cortex rapidly develops its folding during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. In preterm birth, this growth might be disrupted and influence neurodevelopment. The aim of this work is to extract quantitative biomarkers describing the cortex and evaluate them on a set of preterm infants without brain pathology. For this study, a set of 19 preterm - but otherwise healthy - infants scanned coronally with 3T MRI at the postmenstrual age of 30 weeks were selected. In ten patients (test set), the gray and white matter were manually annotated by an expert on the T2-weighted scans. Manual segmentations were used to extract cortical volume, surface area, thickness, and curvature using voxel-based methods. To compute these biomarkers per region in every patient, a template brain image has been generated by iterative registration and averaging of the scans of the remaining nine patients. This template has been manually divided in eight regions, and is transformed to every test image using elastic registration. In the results, gray and white matter volumes and cortical surface area appear symmetric between hemispheres, but small regional differences are visible. Cortical thickness seems slightly higher in the right parietal lobe than in other regions. The parietal lobes exhibit a higher global curvature, indicating more complex folding compared to other regions. The proposed approach can potentially - together with an automatic segmentation algorithm - be applied as a tool to assist in early diagnosis of abnormalities and prediction of the development of the cognitive abilities of these children.

  2. Probing Intrinsic Resting-State Networks in the Infant Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajic, Dusica; Craig, Michael M.; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain. In this study, we hypothesized that large-scale intrinsic networks would be easily detectable but not fully established as specific patterns of activity in lightly anesthetized 2-week-old rats (N = 11). Independent component analysis (ICA) identified 8 networks in 2-week-old-rats. These included Default mode, Sensory (Exteroceptive), Salience (Interoceptive), Basal Ganglia-Thalamic-Hippocampal, Basal Ganglia, Autonomic, Cerebellar, as well as Thalamic-Brainstem networks. Many of these networks consisted of more than one component, possibly indicative of immature, underdeveloped networks at this early time point. Except for the Autonomic network, infant rat networks showed reduced connectivity with subcortical structures in comparison to previously published adult networks. Reported slow fluctuations in the BOLD signal that correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks in 2-week-old rats can serve as an important tool for future studies of brain development in the settings of different pharmacological applications or disease. PMID:27803653

  3. The assessment of General Movements is a valuable technique for the detection of brain dysfunction in young infants. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HaddersAlgra, M

    1996-01-01

    Recently, a new assessment technique by which to evaluate brain function in the fetus and newborn infant has been developed. The method is based on the assessment of the quality of General Movements (GMs). GMs are complex movements involving all parts of the body. They are present throughout fetal l

  4. Practitioner Review: Beyond Shaken Baby Syndrome--What Influences the Outcomes for Infants following Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infancy is relatively common, and is likely to lead to poorer outcomes than injuries sustained later in childhood. While the headlines have been grabbed by infant TBI caused by abuse, often known as shaken baby syndrome, the evidence base for how to support children following TBI in infancy is thin.…

  5. Brain responses to audiovisual speech mismatch in infants are associated with individual differences in looking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnerenko, Elena; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Ballieux, Haiko; Ribeiro, Helena; Potton, Anita; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Moore, Derek G

    2013-11-01

    Research on audiovisual speech integration has reported high levels of individual variability, especially among young infants. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this variability results from individual differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech processing during infancy. A developmental shift in selective attention to audiovisual speech has been demonstrated between 6 and 9 months with an increase in the time spent looking to articulating mouths as compared to eyes (Lewkowicz & Hansen-Tift. (2012) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 1431-1436; Tomalski et al. (2012) Eur. J. Dev. Psychol., 1-14). In the present study we tested whether these changes in behavioural maturational level are associated with differences in brain responses to audiovisual speech across this age range. We measured high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to videos of audiovisually matching and mismatched syllables /ba/ and /ga/, and subsequently examined visual scanning of the same stimuli with eye-tracking. There were no clear age-specific changes in ERPs, but the amplitude of audiovisual mismatch response (AVMMR) to the combination of visual /ba/ and auditory /ga/ was strongly negatively associated with looking time to the mouth in the same condition. These results have significant implications for our understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of audiovisual speech processing in infants, suggesting that they are not strictly related to chronological age but instead associated with the maturation of looking behaviour, and develop at individual rates in the second half of the first year of life.

  6. Brain lesions in preterm infants: initial diagnosis and follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    Children surviving premature birth present with a wide spectrum of motor, sensory and cognitive disabilities, ranging from slight motor deficits, school difficulties and behavioural problems to cerebral palsy and mental retardation. The anatomic and functional substrate of these problems can be investigated using a variety of imaging techniques. Cranial US coupled with colour Doppler is a well-established method for the initial diagnosis of intraventricular haemorrhage, parenchymal haemorrhagic infarct and periventricular leukomalacia. MRI is useful for the follow-up study of brain maturation. Conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences, magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor imaging coupled with sophisticated tools of tissue segmentation and analysis at a voxel level offer substantial anatomic and functional information on pathological conditions that define the prognosis of preterm infants. (orig.)

  7. Becoming musically enculturated: effects of music classes for infants on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Gerry, David; Whiskin, Elaine; Unrau, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Musical enculturation is a complex, multifaceted process that includes the development of perceptual processing specialized for the pitch and rhythmic structures of the musical system in the culture, understanding of esthetic and expressive norms, and learning the pragmatic uses of music in different social situations. Here, we summarize the results of a study in which 6-month-old Western infants were randomly assigned to 6 months of either an active participatory music class or a class in which they experienced music passively while playing. Active music participation resulted in earlier enculturation to Western tonal pitch structure, larger and/or earlier brain responses to musical tones, and a more positive social trajectory. Furthermore, the data suggest that early exposure to cultural norms of musical expression leads to early preferences for those norms. We conclude that musical enculturation begins in infancy and that active participatory music making in a positive social setting accelerates enculturation.

  8. Brain empyema due to Escherichia coli in a 5 month-old infant: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Madrid Gómez Tagle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brain empyema in children is a rare intracranial infection that may result from meningitis, sinusitis, or mechanisms such as head trauma, neurological surgery or hematogenous spread from a remote site. Objective: To describe a case of brain empyema caused by Escherichia coli in an infant. Methodology: A case report is presented with isolation of Escherichia coli arising after the overlap period of meningitis (1-3 months. A literature review of the risk factors, etiology and treatment of brain empyema in children is conducted. Results: The case report is about a 5 month-old male infant with no history of immunodeficiency, plagiocephalic, and with a 3 week-long history of otitis prior to admission. The patient had fever, seizures and rostro-caudal deterioration, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and hypoglycorrhachia. The tomographic images revealed brain empyema. It was posible to isolate Escherichia coli from culture and surgical drainage was required plus systemic antibiotic therapy for 4 weeks. Conclusions: Brain empyema caused by Escherichia coli in infants after the overlap period are very rare. Treatment consists in prompt surgical evacuation, eradication of the primary infection and proper administration of systemic antimicrobials.

  9. FULLY CONVOLUTIONAL NETWORKS FOR MULTI-MODALITY ISOINTENSE INFANT BRAIN IMAGE SEGMENTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Dong; Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    The segmentation of infant brain tissue images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role in studying early brain development. In the isointense phase (approximately 6-8 months of age), WM and GM exhibit similar levels of intensity in both T1 and T2 MR images, resulting in extremely low tissue contrast and thus making the tissue segmentation very challenging. The existing methods for tissue segmentation in this isointense phase usually employ patch-based sparse labeling on single T1, T2 or fractional anisotropy (FA) modality or their simply-stacked combinations without fully exploring the multi-modality information. To address the challenge, in this paper, we propose to use fully convolutional networks (FCNs) for the segmentation of isointense phase brain MR images. Instead of simply stacking the three modalities, we train one network for each modality image, and then fuse their high-layer features together for final segmentation. Specifically, we conduct a convolution-pooling stream for multimodality information from T1, T2, and FA images separately, and then combine them in high-layer for finally generating the segmentation maps as the outputs. We compared the performance of our approach with that of the commonly used segmentation methods on a set of manually segmented isointense phase brain images. Results showed that our proposed model significantly outperformed previous methods in terms of accuracy. In addition, our results also indicated a better way of integrating multi-modality images, which leads to performance improvement.

  10. Vojta and Bobath combined treatment for high risk infants with brain damage at early period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyan Wu; Xiaohui Peng; Xuesong Li; Qingling Niu; Hong Guo; Huitao Huang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the process of early screening and interventions to high risk infants with brain damage,the occasion and choosing methods of interventions and the combined application of different interventions are still at the exploratory phase.OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of early intervention using Vojta and Bobath combined treatment in high risk infants with brain damage, and investigate the effect of early rehabilitation on the prognosis.DESIGN: A randomized controlled comparative observation.SETTING: Daqing Oil Field General Hospital of Heilongjiang Province.PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-four high risk infants younger than 1 year were selected from the Department of Pediatrics, Daqing Oil Field General Hospital of Heilongjiang Province from October 2005 to October 2006,including 52 boys (62%) and 32 girls (38%). The treatment started at the age of 0 - 3 months in 11 cases (13%), 4 - 6 months in 28 cases (33%), 7 - 9 months in 35 cases (42%), and 10 - 12 months in 10 cases (12%). Infants with at least two of the followings were enrolled, including 7 Vojta abnormal postural reflexes,slow or disorder of motor development, increase of muscular tension, postural abnormality, primary reflection residual and CT/MRI abnormalities. Informed consents were obtained from their guardians. The 84 infants were randomly divided into treatment group (n =42) and control group (n =42).METHODS: All the children were intravenously injected with cerebroprotein hydrolysate injection or cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin injection, 10 times as a course for 2 - 5 courses; Besides, the infants in the treatment group also received early rehabilitative training of Vojta and Bobath combined treatment, once a day, 40 minutes per time, 5 times a week followed by a 2-day rest, 1 month as a course, and totally 2 - 5 courses. The Vojta method was to facilitate the automatic regulation by reflexlocomotion. Bobath method was to inhibit abnormal posture but facilitate the normal one, thus it is

  11. Computational model of an infant brain subjected to periodic motion simplified modelling and Bayesian sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterbee, D C; Sims, N D; Becker, W; Worden, K; Rowson, J

    2011-11-01

    Non-accidental head injury in infants, or shaken baby syndrome, is a highly controversial and disputed topic. Biomechanical studies often suggest that shaking alone cannot cause the classical symptoms, yet many medical experts believe the contrary. Researchers have turned to finite element modelling for a more detailed understanding of the interactions between the brain, skull, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and surrounding tissues. However, the uncertainties in such models are significant; these can arise from theoretical approximations, lack of information, and inherent variability. Consequently, this study presents an uncertainty analysis of a finite element model of a human head subject to shaking. Although the model geometry was greatly simplified, fluid-structure-interaction techniques were used to model the brain, skull, and CSF using a Eulerian mesh formulation with penalty-based coupling. Uncertainty and sensitivity measurements were obtained using Bayesian sensitivity analysis, which is a technique that is relatively new to the engineering community. Uncertainty in nine different model parameters was investigated for two different shaking excitations: sinusoidal translation only, and sinusoidal translation plus rotation about the base of the head. The level and type of sensitivity in the results was found to be highly dependent on the excitation type.

  12. Infant brain responses associated with reading-related skills before school and at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, P H T; Hämäläinen, J A; Guttorm, T K; Eklund, K M; Salminen, H; Tanskanen, A; Torppa, M; Puolakanaho, A; Richardson, U; Pennala, R; Lyytinen, H

    2012-01-01

    In Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia, we have investigated neurocognitive processes related to phonology and other risk factors of later reading problems. Here we review studies in which we have investigated whether dyslexic children with familial risk background would show atypical auditory/speech processing at birth, at six months and later before school and at school age as measured by brain event-related potentials (ERPs), and how infant ERPs are related to later pre-reading cognitive skills and literacy outcome. One half of the children came from families with at least one dyslexic parent (the at-risk group), while the other half belonged to the control group without any familial background of dyslexia. Early ERPs were correlated to kindergarten age phonological processing and letter-naming skills as well as phoneme duration perception, reading and writing skills at school age. The correlations were, in general, more consistent among at-risk children. Those at-risk children who became poor readers also differed from typical readers in the infant ERP measures at the group level. ERPs measured before school and at the 3rd grade also differed between dyslexic and typical readers. Further, speech perception at behavioural level differed between dyslexic and typical readers, but not in all dyslexic readers. These findings suggest persisting developmental differences in the organization of the neural networks sub-serving auditory and speech perception, with cascading effects on later reading related skills, in children with familial background for dyslexia. However, atypical auditory/speech processing is not likely a sufficient reason by itself for dyslexia but rather one endophenotype or risk factor. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  13. Brain Basis of Early Parent-Infant Interactions: Psychology, Physiology, and "in vivo" Functional Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, James E.; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P.; Kose, Samet; Strathearn, Lane

    2007-01-01

    Parenting behavior critically shapes human infants' current and future behavior. The parent-infant relationship provides infants with their first social experiences, forming templates of what they can expect from others and how to best meet others' expectations. In this review, we focus on the neurobiology of parenting behavior, including our own…

  14. Safety and Efficacy of Cerebrolysin in Infants with Communication Defects due to Severe Perinatal Brain Insult: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanein, Sahar M.A.; Deifalla, Shaymaa M.; El-Houssinie, Moustafa; Mokbel, Somaia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The neuroregenerative drug Cerebrolysin has demonstrated efficacy in improving cognition in adults with stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of Cerebrolysin in the treatment of communication defects in infants with severe perinatal brain insult. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in which 158 infants (age 6-21 months) with communication defects due to severe perinatal brain insul...

  15. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C Lieblein-Boff

    Full Text Available Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510 were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2 or those driven by single outliers (3 were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region-specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development.

  16. VERP and brain imaging for identifying levels of visual dorsal and ventral stream function in typical and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddick, Oliver; Atkinson, Janette; Wattam-Bell, John

    2011-01-01

    Visual development is a key area for understanding and assessing early brain development. Different levels in the hierarchy of visual processing, from the initial response to flashes of light, through selective responses to contour orientation and motion in primary visual cortex (V1), to global processing in extrastriate of large-scale patterns of form and motion, can each be assessed using stimuli designed to isolate specific neural activity in visual event-related potentials (VERPs). This approach has been used to reveal the sequence of emergence of different visual cortical functions in the first 6 months of typical human development, and to provide early indicators of anomalies in brain development. Delayed or absent onset of orientation-reversal (OR-)VERPs, as a measure of cortical development, has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of perinatal brain damage in both term-born and prematurely born infants. Direction-reversal (DR-)VERPs appear a few weeks later than OR-VERPs in typical development, and are further delayed in even healthy children born preterm, reflecting possible early vulnerability of the motion (dorsal stream) system. High-density recordings of responses to global motion and global form patterns show that these extrastriate systems are typically functional by 5 months of age, but the topography of the activity distributions shows that the brain systems underlying these responses are radically reorganized between infancy and adulthood. In prematurely born infants whose structural brain MRI was evaluated at birth, the onset of the response is absent or delayed in those with severe brain injury, while in those with mild/moderate brain injury the response is present but its spatial organization is further from the adult pattern than those in controls. These findings are related to the development of distinct networks of brain areas in the dorsal and ventral cortical streams, and the apparent vulnerability of the dorsal-stream network in a wide

  17. Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy values in the developing infant brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, James M; Isaacson, Jared; Chen, Steven; Stinnett, Sandra; Liu, Chunlei

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to correlate decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) in various white matter (WM) regions using diffusion tenor imaging (DTI) within the first year of life. We performed DTI on 53 infants and measured FA and ADC within 10 WM regions important in brain development. For each region, we calculated the slope of ADC as a function of FA, the correlation coefficient (r) and correlation of determination (r(2)). We performed a group analysis of r values and r(2)values for six WM regions primarily composed of crossing fibers and four regions primarily having parallel fibers. Upon finding that a strong correlation of FA with age existed, we adjusted for age and calculated partial correlation coefficients. Slopes of FA versus ADC ranged from -1.00711 to -1.67592 (p correlation coefficients ranged from -0.49 to 0.03 and r(2) values from 0.31 to 0.79. The highest partial correlation coefficients were then relatively equally distributed between the two types of WM regions. In various regions, FA and ADC evolved with differing degrees of correlation. We found a strong influence of age on the relationship between FA and ADC.

  18. [Clinical observation: A safe alternative to radiology in infants with mild traumatic brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Santanach, David; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Maya Gallego, Sara; Cuaresma González, Adriana; Luaces Cubells, Carles

    2017-09-01

    The protocol for the management of mild cranioencephalic trauma in the emergency department was changed in July 2013. The principal innovation was the replacement of systematic X-ray in infants with clinical observation. The aims of this study were to determine whether there was, 1) a reduction in the ability to detect traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the initial visit to Emergency, and 2) a change in the number of requests for imaging tests and hospital admissions. This was a retrospective, descriptive, observational study. Two periods were established for the study: Period 1 (1/11/2011-30/10/2012), prior to the implementing of the new protocol, and Period 2 (1/11/2013-30/10/2014), following its implementation. The study included visits to the emergency department by children≤2 years old for mild cranioencephalic trauma (Glasgow Scale modified for infants≥14) of ≤24hours onset. A total of 1,543 cases were included, of which 807 were from Period 1 and 736 from Period 2. No significant differences were observed as regards sex, age, mechanism, or risk of TBI. More cranial fractures were detected in Period 1 than in Period 2 (4.3% vs 0.5%; P<.001), without significant changes in the detection of TBI (0.4% vs 0.3%; P=1). However, there were more cranial X-rays (49.7% vs 2.7%; P<.001) and more ultrasounds (2.1% vs 0.4%; P<.001) carried out, and also fewer hospital admissions (8.3% vs 3.1%; P<.001). There were no significant differences in the number of computerised tomography scans carried out (2% vs 3%; P=.203). The use of clinical observation as an alternative to cranial radiography leads to a reduction in the number of imaging tests and hospital admissions of infants with mild cranioencephalic trauma, without any reduction in the reliability of detecting TBI. This option helps to lower the exposure radiation by the patient, and is also a more rational use of hospital resources. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier Espa

  19. The early development of brain white matter: a review of imaging studies in fetuses, newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, J; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Kulikova, S; Poupon, C; Hüppi, P S; Hertz-Pannier, L

    2014-09-12

    Studying how the healthy human brain develops is important to understand early pathological mechanisms and to assess the influence of fetal or perinatal events on later life. Brain development relies on complex and intermingled mechanisms especially during gestation and first post-natal months, with intense interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Although the baby's brain is organized early on, it is not a miniature adult brain: regional brain changes are asynchronous and protracted, i.e. sensory-motor regions develop early and quickly, whereas associative regions develop later and slowly over decades. Concurrently, the infant/child gradually achieves new performances, but how brain maturation relates to changes in behavior is poorly understood, requiring non-invasive in vivo imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two main processes of early white matter development are reviewed: (1) establishment of connections between brain regions within functional networks, leading to adult-like organization during the last trimester of gestation, (2) maturation (myelination) of these connections during infancy to provide efficient transfers of information. Current knowledge from post-mortem descriptions and in vivo MRI studies is summed up, focusing on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and quantitative mapping of T1/T2 relaxation times, myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer ratio.

  20. Brain and personality bases of insensitivity to infant cues in neglectful mothers: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María José; León, Inmaculada; Quiñones, Ileana; Lage, Agustín; Byrne, Sonia; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2011-02-01

    This investigation examined the neural and personality correlates of processing infant facial expressions in mothers with substantiated neglect of a child under 5 years old. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 14 neglectful and 14 control mothers as they viewed and categorized pictures of infant cries, laughs, and neutral faces. Maternal self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also completed. Early (negative occipitotemporal component peaking at around 170 ms on the scalp [N170] and positive electrical potential peaking at about 200 ms [P200]) and late positive potential (LPP) components were selected. Both groups of mothers showed behavioral discrimination between the different facial expressions via reaction time and accuracy measures. Neglectful mothers did not exhibit increased N170 amplitude at temporal leads in response to viewing crying versus laughing and neutral expressions compared to control mothers. Both groups had greater P200 and LPP amplitudes at centroparietal leads in response to viewing crying versus neutral facial expressions. However, neglectful mothers displayed an overall attenuated brain response in LPP that was related to their higher scores in social anhedonia but not to their empathy scores. The ERP data suggest that the brain's failures in the early differentiation of cry stimuli and in the sustained processing of infant expressions related to social anhedonia may underlie the insensitive responding in neglectful mothers. The implications of these results for the design and evaluation of preventive interventions are discussed.

  1. Neural Coding of Formant-Exaggerated Speech in the Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Koerner, Tess; Miller, Sharon; Grice-Patil, Zach; Svec, Adam; Akbari, David; Tusler, Liz; Carney, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Speech scientists have long proposed that formant exaggeration in infant-directed speech plays an important role in language acquisition. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech in 6-12-month-old infants. Two synthetic /i/ vowels were presented in alternating blocks to test the effects of…

  2. Neural Coding of Formant-Exaggerated Speech in the Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Koerner, Tess; Miller, Sharon; Grice-Patil, Zach; Svec, Adam; Akbari, David; Tusler, Liz; Carney, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Speech scientists have long proposed that formant exaggeration in infant-directed speech plays an important role in language acquisition. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech in 6-12-month-old infants. Two synthetic /i/ vowels were presented in alternating blocks to test the effects of…

  3. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  4. The Relationship of Intelligence and Cerebral Mantle in Treated Infantile Hydrocephalus (IQ Potential in Hydrocephalic Children)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Harold F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Analyzed were 147 patients (between 3 and 20 years) with hydrocephalus (an accumulation of fluid in the brain) who had been treated by valve regulated ventriculovenous shunt to determine the relationship between early surgical intervention and later IQ. (DB)

  5. Brain iron accumulation in unexplained fetal and infant death victims with smoker mothers-The possible involvement of maternal methemoglobinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corna Melissa F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is involved in important vital functions as an essential component of the oxygen-transporting heme mechanism. In this study we aimed to evaluate whether oxidative metabolites from maternal cigarette smoke could affect iron homeostasis in the brain of victims of sudden unexplained fetal and infant death, maybe through the induction of maternal hemoglobin damage, such as in case of methemoglobinemia. Methods Histochemical investigations by Prussian blue reaction were made on brain nonheme ferric iron deposits, gaining detailed data on their localization in the brainstem and cerebellum of victims of sudden death and controls. The Gless and Marsland's modification of Bielschowsky's was used to identify neuronal cell bodies and neurofilaments. Results Our approach highlighted accumulations of blue granulations, indicative of iron positive reactions, in the brainstem and cerebellum of 33% of victims of sudden death and in none of the control group. The modified Bielschowsky's method confirmed that the cells with iron accumulations were neuronal cells. Conclusions We propose that the free iron deposition in the brain of sudden fetal and infant death victims could be a catabolic product of maternal methemoglobinemia, a biomarker of oxidative stress likely due to nicotine absorption.

  6. Frontal Brain Electrical Activity (EEG) and Heart Rate in Response to Affective Infant-Directed (ID) Speech in 9-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown that infants prefer infant-directed (ID) speech to adult-directed (AD) speech. ID speech functions to aid language learning, obtain and/or maintain an infant's attention, and create emotional communication between the infant and caregiver. We examined psychophysiological responses to ID speech that varied in affective…

  7. Altered small-world topology of structural brain networks in infants with intrauterine growth restriction and its association with later neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalle, Dafnis; Eixarch, Elisenda; Figueras, Francesc; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Bargallo, Nuria; Illa, Miriam; Acosta-Rojas, Ruthy; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Gratacos, Eduard

    2012-04-02

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency affects 5-10% of all pregnancies and it is associated with a wide range of short- and long-term neurodevelopmental disorders. Prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in IUGR is among the clinical challenges of modern fetal medicine and pediatrics. In recent years several studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate differences in brain structure in IUGR subjects, but the ability to use MRI for individual predictive purposes in IUGR is limited. Recent research suggests that MRI in vivo access to brain connectivity might have the potential to help understanding cognitive and neurodevelopment processes. Specifically, MRI based connectomics is an emerging approach to extract information from MRI data that exhaustively maps inter-regional connectivity within the brain to build a graph model of its neural circuitry known as brain network. In the present study we used diffusion MRI based connectomics to obtain structural brain networks of a prospective cohort of one year old infants (32 controls and 24 IUGR) and analyze the existence of quantifiable brain reorganization of white matter circuitry in IUGR group by means of global and regional graph theory features of brain networks. Based on global and regional analyses of the brain network topology we demonstrated brain reorganization in IUGR infants at one year of age. Specifically, IUGR infants presented decreased global and local weighted efficiency, and a pattern of altered regional graph theory features. By means of binomial logistic regression, we also demonstrated that connectivity measures were associated with abnormal performance in later neurodevelopmental outcome as measured by Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, Third edition (BSID-III) at two years of age. These findings show the potential of diffusion MRI based connectomics and graph theory based network characteristics for estimating differences in the

  8. An ERP Study of Emotional Face Processing in the Adult and Infant Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, Jukka M.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the ontogeny of emotional face processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults and 7-month-old infants while viewing pictures of fearful, happy, and neutral faces. Face-sensitive ERPs at occipital-temporal scalp regions differentiated between fearful and neutral/happy faces in both adults (N170 was larger for fear) and infants (P400 was larger for fear). Behavioral measures showed no overt attentional bias toward fearful faces in adults, but in infants, the du...

  9. Morinda citrifolia L.(noni) and memantine attenuate periventricular tissue injury of the fourth ventricle in hydrocephalic rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sibel K(o)ktürk; Süreyya Ceylan; Volkan Etus; Nezih Yasa; Sava(s) Ceylan

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni, and memantine (a N-methy-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor) on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders. Kaolin was injected into the cistern magna of male adult New Zealand rabbits to establish a hydrocephalus animal model. Memantine (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally; memantine-treated group) or noni (5 mL/kg, intragastrically; noni-treated group) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Microtubule-associated protein-2 and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed to detect neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle of rabbits. Microtubule-associated protein-2 staining density was significantly decreased in the hydrocephalic group, while the staining density was significantly increased in the memantine- and noni-treated groups, especially in the noni-treated group. Noni treatment decreased the number of caspase-3-positive cells in rabbits with hydrocephalus, while memantine had no effect. These findings suggest that noni exhibits more obvious inhibitory effects on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders than memantine in periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle.

  10. Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) and memantine attenuate periventricular tissue injury of the fourth ventricle in hydrocephalic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köktürk, Sibel; Ceylan, Süreyya; Etus, Volkan; Yasa, Nezih; Ceylan, Savaş

    2013-03-25

    This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni, and memantine (a N-methy-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor) on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders. Kaolin was injected into the cistern magna of male adult New Zealand rabbits to establish a hydrocephalus animal model. Memantine (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally; memantine-treated group) or noni (5 mL/kg, intragastrically; noni-treated group) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Microtubule-associated protein-2 and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed to detect neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle of rabbits. Microtubule-associated protein-2 staining density was significantly decreased in the hydrocephalic group, while the staining density was significantly increased in the memantine- and noni-treated groups, especially in the noni-treated group. Noni treatment decreased the number of caspase-3-positive cells in rabbits with hydrocephalus, while memantine had no effect. These findings suggest that noni exhibits more obvious inhibitory effects on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders than memantine in periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle.

  11. 婴幼儿颅脑MRI扫描技术的探讨%Study on Infant Brain MRI Scan Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宪淼; 郑晓林; 肖利华; 张坤林; 吴凤英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate infant brain MRI scan techniques and the diagnostic value in displaying focuses.Methods Brain MRI scanning were performed to 55 infants.The adopted sequences were T1WI Sag,T2WI Tra,T1WI Tra,FLAIR Cor and DWI Tra.The total time of examination was 8 minutes and 30 seconds.The contrast of gray matter and white matter of brain was evaluated and manifestations of various diseases were observed.Results Of 55 cases,images of 52 cases met the qualification to diagnose,and the successful rate was 92%.The brain stem,thalamus and basal ganglia of 15 normal mature infants were showed high signal in T 1WI and low signal in T2WI.Flatten gyrus and shoal brain channel was showed in 13 immature infant.In 15 cases with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy,newborns with white matter bleeding showed focal high signal in T1WI and low signal in T2WI,and newborns with brain soften focus showed focal low signal in T1WI and high signal in T2WI sub cortex,in white matter and subependymal.The focuses of trauma and malformation of brain could be displayed in MRI.Conclusions Brain MRI scan techniques could display brain structure,myelinization and various diseases.It had important clinical application values.%目的 探讨婴幼儿颅脑MRI扫描技术及其显示病变的诊断价值.方法 对5 5例婴幼儿进行颅脑MRI检查,所用序列为T1WI Sag,T2WI Tra,T1WITra,FLAIR Cor,DWI Tra,全部检查时间为8分30秒.评价图像显示灰白质等结构的对比,观察不同病变的MRI表现.结果 55例患儿52例图像达到诊断要求,成功率为92%.正常足月婴儿1 5例表现为脑干、丘脑、基底节T1WI高信号,T2WI低信号.早产儿13例表现为脑回变平,脑沟浅而不清.新生儿缺血缺氧性脑病15例中,脑白质出血灶表现为局灶性T1WI高信号、T2WI低信号,脑软化灶表现为皮质下、白质、室管膜下T2WI低信号,T2WI高信号.外伤、脑发育畸形等均可显示其病变.结论 颅脑MRI扫描技术能显示婴幼

  12. A histopathological study of premature and mature infants with pontosubicular neuron necrosis: neuronal cell death in perinatal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Yuji; Takashima, Sachio; Itoh, Masayuki

    2006-06-20

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is a major cause of neuronal and behavior deficits, in which the onset of injury can be before, at or after birth, and the effects may be delayed. Pontosubicular neuron necrosis (PSN) is one of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and its pathological peculiarity is neuronal apoptosis. In this study, we investigated whether apoptotic cascade of PSN used a caspase-pathway or not, and whether hypoglycemia activated apoptosis or not. Sections of the pons of PSN with and without hypoglycemia were stained using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) and immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Bcl-2, Bcl-x and activated caspase 3. Additionally, we performed immunoblot analysis of Bcl-2, Bcl-x and activated caspase 3. TUNEL-positive cell was closely associated with the presence of karyorrhexis. Under combination of karyorrhectic and TUNEL-positive cells, number of apoptotic cells in premature brains was significantly more than in mature brains. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury was considered to easily lead to apoptosis in premature infants. Moreover, as this pathophysiology, caspase-pathway activation contributed to neuronal death from caspase-immunoexpression analyses. PSN with hypoglycemia showed large number of apoptotic cells and higher expression of activated caspase 3. The result may be more severe with the background of hypoglycemia and prematurity complicated by hypoxia and/or ischemia.

  13. B-Amyloid Precursor Protein Staining of the Brain in Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisbeth Lund; Banner, Jytte; Ulhøi, Benedicte Parm

    2013-01-01

    To develop and validate a scoring method for assessing β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) staining in cerebral white matter and to investigate the occurrence, amount and deposition pattern based on the cause of death in infants and young children.......To develop and validate a scoring method for assessing β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) staining in cerebral white matter and to investigate the occurrence, amount and deposition pattern based on the cause of death in infants and young children....

  14. Emotional Incongruence of Facial Expression and Voice Tone Investigated with Event-Related Brain Potentials of Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Arai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human emotions are perceived from multi-modal information including facial expression and voice tone. We aimed to investigate development of neural mechanism for cross-modal perception of emotions. We presented congruent and incongruent combinations of facial expression (happy and voice tone (happy or angry, and measured EEG to analyze event-related brain potentials for 8-10 month-old infants and adults. Ten repetitions of 10 trials were presented in random order for each participant. Half of them performed 20% congruent (happy face with happy voice and 80% incongruent (happy face with angry voice trials, and the others performed 80% congruent and 20% incongruent trials. We employed the oddball paradigm, but did not instruct participants to count a target. The odd-ball (infrequent stimulus increased the amplitude of P2 and delayed its latency for infants in comparison with the frequent stimulus. When the odd-ball stimulus was also emotionally incongruent, P2 amplitude was more increased and its latency was more delayed than for the odd-ball and emotionally congruent stimulus. However, we did not find difference of P2 amplitude or latency for adults between conditions. These results suggested that the 8–10 month-old infants already have a neural basis for detecting emotional incongruence of facial expression and voice tone.

  15. Effect of Hearing Aids on Auditory Function in Infants with Perinatal Brain Injury and Severe Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Aguirre, Alma Janeth; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Harmony, Thalía; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 2–4% of newborns with perinatal risk factors present with hearing loss. Our aim was to analyze the effect of hearing aid use on auditory function evaluated based on otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), auditory brain responses (ABRs) and auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in infants with perinatal brain injury and profound hearing loss. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective, longitudinal study of auditory function in infants with profound hearing loss. Right side hearing before and after hearing aid use was compared with left side hearing (not stimulated and used as control). All infants were subjected to OAE, ABR and ASSR evaluations before and after hearing aid use. The average ABR threshold decreased from 90.0 to 80.0 dB (p = 0.003) after six months of hearing aid use. In the left ear, which was used as a control, the ABR threshold decreased from 94.6 to 87.6 dB, which was not significant (p>0.05). In addition, the ASSR threshold in the 4000-Hz frequency decreased from 89 dB to 72 dB (p = 0.013) after six months of right ear hearing aid use; the other frequencies in the right ear and all frequencies in the left ear did not show significant differences in any of the measured parameters (p>0.05). OAEs were absent in the baseline test and showed no changes after hearing aid use in the right ear (p>0.05). Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that early hearing aid use decreases the hearing threshold in ABR and ASSR assessments with no functional modifications in the auditory receptor, as evaluated by OAEs. PMID:22808289

  16. Early Brain changes May Help Predict Autism Among High-Risk Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Early brain changes may help predict autism among high-risk ... Share this: Page Content NIH-funded researchers link brain changes at 6 and 12 months of age ...

  17. Acute and massive bleeding from placenta previa and infants' brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Ken; Tokunaga, Shuichi; Furukawa, Seishi; Sameshima, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Among the causes of third trimester bleeding, the impact of placenta previa on cerebral palsy is not well known. To clarify the effect of maternal bleeding from placenta previa on cerebral palsy, and in particular when and how it occurs. A descriptive study. Sixty infants born to mothers with placenta previa in our regional population-based study of 160,000 deliveries from 1998 to 2012. Premature deliveries occurring atplacenta accreta were excluded. Prevalence of cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy (CP). Five infants had PVL and 4 of these infants developed CP (1/40,000 deliveries). Acute and massive bleeding (>500g within 8h) occurred at around 30-31 weeks of gestation, and was severe enough to deliver the fetus. None of the 5 infants with PVL underwent antenatal corticosteroid treatment, and 1 infant had mild neonatal hypocapnia with a PaCO2 placenta previa at around 30 weeks of gestation may be a risk factor for CP, and requires careful neonatal follow-up. The underlying process connecting massive placental bleeding and PVL requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain Inflammation in an Infant With Hemimegalencephaly, Escalating Seizures, and Epileptic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Se Hee; Millichap, John J.; Koh, Sookyong

    2016-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly, a congenital brain malformation typically characterized by enlargement of one hemisphere, is frequently associated with intractable epilepsy. The authors report a case of a 12-month-old girl with hemimegalencephaly who underwent semiurgent hemispherectomy because of rapidly escalating seizures, arrested development, and associated encephalopathy. The brain tissue was examined and evaluated for neuroinflammation. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brain tissue revealed the...

  19. Brain reorganization as a function of walking experience in 12-month-old infants: implications for the development of manual laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Daniela; Friedman, Denise R; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Hand preference in infancy is marked by many developmental shifts in hand use and arm coupling as infants reach for and manipulate objects. Research has linked these early shifts in hand use to the emergence of fundamental postural-locomotor milestones. Specifically, it was found that bimanual reaching declines when infants learn to sit; increases if infants begin to scoot in a sitting posture; declines when infants begin to crawl on hands and knees; and increases again when infants start walking upright. Why such pattern fluctuations during periods of postural-locomotor learning? One proposed hypothesis is that arm use practiced for the specific purpose of controlling posture and achieving locomotion transfers to reaching via brain functional reorganization. There has been scientific support for functional cortical reorganization and change in neural connectivity in response to motor practice in adults and animals, and as a function of crawling experience in human infants. In this research, we examined whether changes in neural connectivity also occurred as infants coupled their arms when learning to walk and whether such coupling mapped onto reaching laterality. Electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence data were collected from 43 12-month-old infants with varied levels of walking experience. EEG was recorded during quiet, attentive baseline. Walking proficiency was laboratory assessed and reaching responses were captured using small toys presented at mid-line while infants were sitting. Results revealed greater EEG coherence at homologous prefrontal/central scalp locations for the novice walkers compared to the prewalkers or more experienced walkers. In addition, reaching laterality was low in prewalkers and early walkers but high in experienced walkers. These results are consistent with the interpretation that arm coupling practiced during early walking transferred to reaching via brain functional reorganization, leading to the observed developmental changes in

  20. Brain reorganization as a function of walking experience in 12 month-old infants: Implications for the development of manual laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eCorbetta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hand preference in infancy is marked by many developmental shifts in hand use and arm coupling as infants reach for and manipulate objects. Research has linked these early shifts in hand use to the emergence of fundamental postural-locomotor milestones. Specifically, it was found that bimanual reaching declines when infants learn to sit; increases if infants begin to scoot in a sitting posture; declines when infants begin to crawl on hands-and-knees; and increases again when infants start walking upright. Why such pattern fluctuations during periods of postural-locomotor learning? One proposed hypothesis is that arm use practiced for the specific purpose of controlling posture and achieving locomotion transfers to reaching via brain functional reorganization. There has been scientific support for functional cortical reorganization and change in neural connectivity in response to motor practice in adults and animals, and as a function of crawling experience in human infants. In this research, we examined whether changes in neural connectivity also occurred as infants coupled their arms when learning to walk and whether such coupling mapped onto reaching laterality. EEG coherence data were collected from 43 12-month-olds infants with varied levels of walking experience. EEG was recorded during quiet, attentive baseline. Walking proficiency was laboratory assessed and reaching responses were captured using small toys presented at midline while infants were sitting. Results revealed greater EEG coherence at homologous prefrontal/central scalp locations for the novice walkers compared to the pre-walkers or more experienced walkers. In addition, reaching laterality was low in pre-walkers and early walkers, but high in experienced walkers. These results are consistent with the interpretation that arm coupling practiced during early walking transferred to reaching via brain functional reorganization, leading to the observed developmental changes in

  1. Brain Inflammation in an Infant With Hemimegalencephaly, Escalating Seizures, and Epileptic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Hee; Millichap, John J; Koh, Sookyong

    2016-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly, a congenital brain malformation typically characterized by enlargement of one hemisphere, is frequently associated with intractable epilepsy. The authors report a case of a 12-month-old girl with hemimegalencephaly who underwent semiurgent hemispherectomy because of rapidly escalating seizures, arrested development, and associated encephalopathy. The brain tissue was examined and evaluated for neuroinflammation. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brain tissue revealed the presence of abundant activated CD68-positive microglia and reactive astrogliosis. Detection of active inflammatory changes in the brain of a patient with hemimegalencephaly complicated by intractable epilepsy suggests a potential role of ongoing brain inflammation in seizure exacerbation and epileptic encephalopathy.

  2. Comparing brain white matter on sequential cranial ultrasound and MRI in very preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijser, Lara M.; Veen, Sylvia; Boer, Inge P. de; Walther, Frans J.; Wezel-Meijler, Gerda van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Liauw, Lishya [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    Periventricular white matter (WM) echodensities, frequently seen in preterm infants, can be associated with suboptimal neurodevelopment. Major WM injury is well detected on cranial ultrasound (cUS). cUS seems less sensitive for diffuse or more subtle WM injury. Our aim was to assess the value of cUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating WM changes and the predictive value of cUS and/or MRI findings for neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm infants with normal to severely abnormal WM on sequential high-quality cUS. Very preterm infants (<32 weeks) who had sequential cUS and one MRI within the first three postnatal months were included. Periventricular WM on cUS and MRI was compared and correlated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected age. Forty preterm infants were studied; outcome data were available in 32. WM changes on sequential cUS were predictive of WM changes on MRI. Severely abnormal WM on cUS/MRI was predictive of adverse outcome, and normal-mildly abnormal WM of favorable outcome. Moderately abnormal WM on cUS/MRI was associated with variable outcome. Additional MRI slightly increased the predictive value of cUS in severe WM changes. Sequential cUS in preterm infants is reliable for detecting WM changes and predicting favorable and severely abnormal outcome. Conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI sequences before term equivalent age in very preterm infants, suggested on cUS to have mild to moderately abnormal WM, do not seem to be warranted. (orig.)

  3. Relationship between cerebrospinal fluid flow through the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt and computed tomographic images of hydrocephalic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kiyonobu; Itoh, Haruhide; Someya, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Shinjiro

    1988-04-01

    Quantitative measurements of cerebrospinal fluid flow through the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt using radioisotope were carried out on 34 hydrocepalic patients (18 children and 16 adults) and the relationship between the flow rates and the computed tomographic (CT) images was studied. 1) The flow rates in the prone position was 0.04 - 0.20(mean +- SD, 0.10 +- 0.05) ml/min in 13 patients whose shunt systems were functioning adequately. There was a good correlation between the flow rates and closing pressures of the shunt valves. 2) The 21 patients with malfunctioning shunt systems were devided into two groups as follows; the obstruction or lower flow group in which the shunt flow was in 0 approx. 0.05 ml/min and the over-flow groups with rates over 0.20 ml/min. In the former group, there were 3 cases in which the shunt flow in a sitting position was very low and the cause of the malfunction was thought to be placement of an inadequate system with a higher pressure valve. 3) In 4 cases of 5 children in which the ventricles were of normal size during shunt malfunction, their ventricular sizes on CT images changed to small or slit-like ventricles after shunt revision. 4) A few cases of hydrocephalic adults, in which the shunt-catheters were thought to be obstructed with no shunt flow in the prone and sitting positions showing no progressive dilatation of the ventricles on CT images, were diagnosed with the added findings of RI cisternography as shunt-dependent arrested hydrocephalus. In the diagnosis of shunt malfunction and selection of the most adequate system in shunt revision, it is necessary to analyze together the data on CT images, quantitative measurement of shunt flow rates and RI cisternography as well as the clinical manifestations.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging--Insights into Brain Injury and Outcomes in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Amit; Inder, Terrie

    2009-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major public-health issue because of its increasing incidence combined with the frequent occurrence of subsequent behavioral, neurological, and psychiatric challenges faced by surviving infants. Approximately 10-15% of very preterm children (born less than 30 weeks gestational age) develop cerebral palsy, and 30-60% of them…

  5. An ERP Study of Emotional Face Processing in the Adult and Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppanen, Jukka M.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the ontogeny of emotional face processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults and 7-month-old infants while viewing pictures of fearful, happy, and neutral faces. Face-sensitive ERPs at occipital-temporal scalp regions differentiated between fearful and neutral/happy faces in both adults (N170 was larger for fear)…

  6. Brain Responses Reveal That Infants' Face Discrimination Is Guided by Statistical Learning from Distributional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Jessen, Sarah; Grossmann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Infants' perception of faces becomes attuned to the environment during the first year of life. However, the mechanisms that underpin perceptual narrowing for faces are only poorly understood. Considering the developmental similarities seen in perceptual narrowing for faces and speech and the role that statistical learning has been shown to play…

  7. Growth status related to brain responses, nutrition, home environment, and behavior in infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate whether growth status in infants and toddlers affects processes involved in speech perception and discrimination, cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) to consonant-vowel syllables were recorded from 48 healthy babies: 26 low in growth status (LGS, <25th percentile in growth measur...

  8. Routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Term-Equivalent Age Detects Brain Injury in 25% of a Contemporary Cohort of Very Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevic, Tanja; Griesmaier, Elke; Biermayr, Marlene; Gizewski, Elke Ruth; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, significant investigation has been undertaken by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to identify preterm infants at risk for adverse outcome. The primary objective is to provide a comprehensive characterization of cerebral injury detected by conventional MRI at term-equivalent age in an unselected, consecutive, contemporary cohort of preterm infants born <32 gestational weeks. Secondly, this study aims to identify risk factors for the different injury types in this population. Methods Data for all preterm infants born <32 gestational weeks and admitted to Innsbruck Medical University Hospital were prospectively collected (October 2010 to December 2015). Cerebral MRI was evaluated retrospectively using a validated scoring system that incorporates intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), white matter disease (WMD) and cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH). Results 300 infants were included in the study. MRI showed 24.7% of all infants to have some form of brain injury. The most common injury type was IVH (16.0%). WMD and CBH were seen in 10.0% and 8.0%. The prevalence of common neonatal risk factors was greater within the group of infants with CBH. In particular indicators for respiratory disease were observed more often: longer ventilation duration, more frequent need for supplemental oxygen at day 28, higher rates of hydrocortisone treatment. Catecholamine treatment was the only neonatal risk factor that was overrepresented in infants with WMD Discussion Cerebral MRI at term-equivalent age, as addition to cranial ultrasound, detected brain injury in 25% of preterm survivors. The diagnosis of IVH was already made by neonatal ultrasound in most cases. In contrast, only a minority of the CBH and none of the non-cystic WMD have been detected prior to MRI. Decreasing gestational age and neonatal complications involved with immaturity have been identified as risk factors for CBH, whereas WMD was found in relatively mature infants with

  9. Neuroprotective effect of developmental docosahexaenoic acid supplement against excitotoxic brain damage in infant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogyes, E; Nyakas, C; Kiliaan, A; Farkas, T; Penke, B; Luiten, PGM; Högyes, E.

    2003-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) composition of neural membranes is a key factor for brain development, in chemical communication of neurons and probably also their survival in response to injury. Viability of cholinergic neurons was tested during brain development following dietary s

  10. Neuroprotective effect of developmental docosahexaenoic acid supplement against excitotoxic brain damage in infant rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogyes, E.; Nyakas, C.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Farkas, T.; Penke, B.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) composition of neural membranes is a key factor for brain development, in chemical communication of neurons and probably also their survival in response to injury. Viability of cholinergic neurons was tested during brain development following dietary s

  11. Foster Mother-Infant Bonding: Associations between Foster Mothers' Oxytocin Production, Electrophysiological Brain Activity, Feelings of Commitment, and Caregiving Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Grasso, Damion; Simons, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads ("N" = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers' oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to images of…

  12. Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation Infant and Childhood Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Quinn T; de Blank, Peter M; Kruchko, Carol; Petersen, Claire M; Liao, Peter; Finlay, Jonathan L; Stearns, Duncan S; Wolff, Johannes E; Wolinsky, Yingli; Letterio, John J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    The CBTRUS Statistical Report: Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation Infant and Childhood Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2007–2011 comprehensively describes the current population-based incidence of primary malignant and non-malignant brain and CNS tumors in children ages 0–14 years, collected and reported by central cancer registries covering approximately 99.8% of the United States population (for 2011 only, data were available for 50 out of 51 registries). Overall, brain and CNS tumors are the most common solid tumor, the most common cancer, and the most common cause of cancer death in infants and children 0–14 years. This report aims to serve as a useful resource for researchers, clinicians, patients, and families.

  13. Altered Brain Functional Activity in Infants with Congenital Bilateral Severe Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study under Sedation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jing; Li, Qiang; Chai, Chao; Zheng, Meizhu; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Early hearing deprivation could affect the development of auditory, language, and vision ability. Insufficient or no stimulation of the auditory cortex during the sensitive periods of plasticity could affect the function of hearing, language, and vision development. Twenty-three infants with congenital severe sensorineural hearing loss (CSSHL) and 17 age and sex matched normal hearing subjects were recruited. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the auditory, language, and vision related brain areas were compared between deaf infants and normal subjects. Compared with normal hearing subjects, decreased ALFF and ReHo were observed in auditory and language-related cortex. Increased ALFF and ReHo were observed in vision related cortex, which suggest that hearing and language function were impaired and vision function was enhanced due to the loss of hearing. ALFF of left Brodmann area 45 (BA45) was negatively correlated with deaf duration in infants with CSSHL. ALFF of right BA39 was positively correlated with deaf duration in infants with CSSHL. In conclusion, ALFF and ReHo can reflect the abnormal brain function in language, auditory, and visual information processing in infants with CSSHL. This demonstrates that the development of auditory, language, and vision processing function has been affected by congenital severe sensorineural hearing loss before 4 years of age.

  14. Altered Brain Functional Activity in Infants with Congenital Bilateral Severe Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study under Sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early hearing deprivation could affect the development of auditory, language, and vision ability. Insufficient or no stimulation of the auditory cortex during the sensitive periods of plasticity could affect the function of hearing, language, and vision development. Twenty-three infants with congenital severe sensorineural hearing loss (CSSHL and 17 age and sex matched normal hearing subjects were recruited. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF and regional homogeneity (ReHo of the auditory, language, and vision related brain areas were compared between deaf infants and normal subjects. Compared with normal hearing subjects, decreased ALFF and ReHo were observed in auditory and language-related cortex. Increased ALFF and ReHo were observed in vision related cortex, which suggest that hearing and language function were impaired and vision function was enhanced due to the loss of hearing. ALFF of left Brodmann area 45 (BA45 was negatively correlated with deaf duration in infants with CSSHL. ALFF of right BA39 was positively correlated with deaf duration in infants with CSSHL. In conclusion, ALFF and ReHo can reflect the abnormal brain function in language, auditory, and visual information processing in infants with CSSHL. This demonstrates that the development of auditory, language, and vision processing function has been affected by congenital severe sensorineural hearing loss before 4 years of age.

  15. Assessment of brain maturation in the preterm infants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and enhanced T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Xueying, E-mail: lingxuey@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Wen [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Guosheng [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Li [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Bingxiao [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Sirun [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Jing [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the brain maturation of preterm infants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and enhanced T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN). Materials and methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), DTI and ESWAN were performed in 60 preterm infants and 21 term controls. 60 preterm infants were subgrouped to two groups according to the age at imaging: before and at term-equivalent age (TEA). Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map from DTI, T{sub 2}* and R{sub 2}* maps from ESWAN were post-processed at an off-line workstation. The values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}* and R{sub 2}* from the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital white matter (OWM) and lentiform nuclei (LN) were determined. These parameters were compared between preterm and term infants. Correlations of DTI and ESWAN parameters with the gestational age, postmenstrual age and postnatal age were analyzed. Results: ADCs of FWM, OWM and LN, and T{sub 2}* values of the PLIC and LN were higher in the preterm infants at TEA compared with the term controls. The correlations were existed between the postmenstrual age and the values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}*, R{sub 2}* from the PLIC, values of ADC, T{sub 2}*, R{sub 2}* from the LN, T{sub 2}* value from the OWM. The correlations were also found between the postnatal age and the values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}* from the PLIC, and T{sub 2}* value from the LN. Conclusion: The maturity of preterm brain around TEA was different from that of term controls and appeared to be independent of the prematurity at birth. T{sub 2}* was one of valuable indices to evaluate brain maturation in preterm infants.

  16. Does β-APP staining of the brain in infant bed-sharing deaths differentiate these cases from sudden infant death syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisbeth Lund; Banner, Jytte; Byard, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Archival cerebral tissue from infants whose deaths were attributed to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) from South Australia and Western Denmark were stained for β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) and graded according to a simple scoring chart. The resulting APP scores were correlated...

  17. A neonatal piglet model for investigating brain and cognitive development in small for gestational age human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Lezmi, Stephane; Dilger, Ryan N; Sutton, Brad; Larsen, Ryan; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    The piglet was investigated as a potential model for studying brain and cognitive deficits associated with being born small for gestational age (SGA). Naturally farrowed SGA (0.7-1.0 kg BW) and average for gestational age (AGA, 1.3-1.6 kg BW) piglets were obtained on postnatal day (PD) 2, placed in individual cages, and provided a nutritionally adequate milk replacer diet (285 ml/kg/d). Beginning at PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, piglets were anesthetized for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assess brain structure (voxel-based morphometry), connectivity (diffusion-tensor imaging) and metabolites in the hippocampus and corpus callosum (proton MR spectroscopy). Piglets born SGA showed compensatory growth such that BW of SGA and AGA piglets was similar (P>0.05), by PD15. Birth weight affected maze performance, with SGA piglets taking longer to reach criterion than AGA piglets (pdevelopment and connectivity. None of the metabolites measured were different between groups. Collectively, the results show that SGA piglets have spatial learning deficits and abnormal development of white matter. As learning deficits and abnormalities in white matter are common in SGA human infants, the piglet is a tractable translational model that can be used to investigate SGA-associated cognitive deficits and potential interventions.

  18. Visualisation of the intact dura mater and brain surface in infant autopsies: a minimally destructive technique for the post-mortem assessment of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Emma C; Malcomson, Roger D G; Rutty, Guy N; James, Deryk S

    2015-03-01

    During the post-mortem examination of babies and young children, it is important to be able to visualise the brain and its coverings, particularly in cases where a head injury is likely to have occurred. In this paper, we present an improved method for removal of the calvarial bones in infant autopsies to enable viewing of the dura mater and brain. In contrast to the standard post-mortem procedure for observing and removing the brain, this novel technique is minimally disruptive, allowing the dura mater to remain undamaged. Specialised paediatric neurosurgical tools were used to remove the skull bones from 23 neonates, infants and young children during post-mortem examination. In 21 of our 23 cases, the calvarial bones were removed successfully with the dura mater remaining intact. In one case, there was a thickening of the dura mater which created a strong adherence of this membrane to the bone. In another case, the dura mater was slightly damaged due to the inexperience of the operator in using the neurosurgical tools. This method of calvarial bone removal reduces the degree of post-mortem artefact and enhances the ability to observe and photographically document autopsy findings, including the artefact-free detection of signs of injury such as epidural or subdural haematoma, and brain swelling. This technique has now become a routine practise in both of our units to remove the skull bones in infant/young children post-mortem examinations.

  19. Early specialization for voice and emotion processing in the infant brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasi, A.; Mercure, E.; Lloyd-Fox, S.; Thomson, A.; Brammer, M.; Sauter, D.; Deeley, Q.; Barker, G.J.; Renvall, V.; Deoni, S.; Gasston, D.; Williams, S.C.R.; Johnson, M.H.; Simmons, A.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Human voices play a fundamental role in social communication, and areas of the adult "social brain" show specialization for processing voices and their emotional content (superior temporal sulcus, inferior prefrontal cortex, premotor cortical regions, amygdala, and insula) [ [1], [2], [3], [4], [5],

  20. Infants' Emerging Sensitivity to Emotional Body Expressions: Insights from Asymmetrical Frontal Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive responding to others' emotional body expressions is an essential social skill in humans. Using event-related brain potentials, it has recently been shown that the ability to discriminate between emotional body expressions develops between 4 and 8 months of age. However, it is not clear whether the perception of emotional body expressions…

  1. Brain tumors and CT scan in infants and children, (1). The impact on pediatric neuroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, S.; Velasco, J.M. (Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (USA). Medical School)

    1980-10-01

    The dramatic change in the neuroradiological procedures have been noted after CT scan was introduced in the last several years. Remarkable decreasing numbers of angiographic, pneumoencephalographic and other invasive neuroradiologic studies as well as nuclear brain scan were also found in the pediatric neuroradiology. The authors analyzed the total numbers of these studies performed in the last several years in pediatric neurological/neurosurgical practice in the light of the impact of CT scan especially in the diagnostic procedures and treatments of brain tumor in children. Although the number of these procedures decreased up to 49% in plain skull X-ray, 54% in cerebral angiography, 70% in pneumoencephalography/ventriculography and 79% in nuclear brain scan after CT scan was installed in our results, it is extremely important to renew understanding of those characteristics in each special procedures. Cerebral angiography as well as pneumoencephalography may give the surgeon more precise ideas of the anatomical relationship between the lesion and other normal structures, especially in the posterior fossa tumor in which CT scan occassionally demonstrates only a gross finding. A case with false negative result and another case with a complicated anatomical structure in CT scan were presented. The significance of cerebral angiography and other invasive studies in the diagnosis and follow up of brain tumor in CT scan were discussed.

  2. Infants' Emerging Sensitivity to Emotional Body Expressions: Insights from Asymmetrical Frontal Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive responding to others' emotional body expressions is an essential social skill in humans. Using event-related brain potentials, it has recently been shown that the ability to discriminate between emotional body expressions develops between 4 and 8 months of age. However, it is not clear whether the perception of emotional body expressions…

  3. Severe cell reduction in the future brain cortex in human growth-restricted fetuses and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Grethe B; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bogdanović, Nenad;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the total number of cells in the cortical part of the cerebral wall is the same in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses, compared with normally grown fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: The total cell number in the cerebral wall...... with controls. The daily increase in brain cells in the future cortex was only half of that of the controls. In the 3 other developmental zones, no significant differences in cell numbers could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR in humans is associated with a severe reduction in cortical growth...

  4. Comparison of detection results of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at different degrees in infant patients between brain electrical activity mapping, transcranial Doppler sonography and computer tomography examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongruo He; Xiaoying Xu; Yinghui Zhang; Guochao Han

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND; It has been proved that brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) detection can reflect the function of brain cell and its diseased degree of infant patients with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).OBJECTIVE: To observe the abnormal results of HIE at different degrees detected with BEAM and TCD in infant patients, and compare the detection results at the same time point between BEAM, TCD and computer tomography (CT) examinations.DESTGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Departments of Neuro-electrophysiology and Pediatrics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College.PARTICTPANTS: Totally 416 infant patients with HIE who received treatment in the Department of Newborn Infants, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College during January 2001 and December 2005. The infant patients, 278 male and 138 female, were at embryonic 37 to 42 weeks and weighing 2.0 to 4.1 kg, and they were diagnosed with CT and met the diagnostic criteria of HIE of newborn infants compiled by Department of Neonatology, Pediatric Academy, Chinese Medical Association. According to diagnostic criteria, 130patients were mild abnormal, 196 moderate abnormal and 90 severe abnormal. The relatives of all the infant patients were informed of the experiment.METHODS: BEAM and TCD examinations were performed in the involved 416 infant patients with HIE at different degrees with DYD2000 16-channel BEAM instrument and EME-2000 ultrasonograph before preliminary diagnosis treatment (within 1 month after birth) and 1,3,6,12 and 24 months after birth, and detected results were compared between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of detection results of HIE at different time points in infant patients between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations. RESULTS: All the 416 infant patients with HIE participated in the result analysis. ① Comparison of the detected results in infant patients with mild HIE at different

  5. 晚期早产儿脑损伤的常见发病因素%Risk factors of brain injury in late preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽华; 孔祥永; 孔令凯

    2011-01-01

    晚期早产儿又称近足月儿.该胎龄的早产儿外表接近成熟,由于器官发育不成熟,比足月儿存在更大发病风险,脑损伤与足月儿相比发病风险明显增加,脑性瘫痪的发病率增加3倍,生长发育/心理发育迟缓也有明显增多,这主要与晚期早产儿脑发育不成熟有关.晚期早产儿其他系统的常见病发生率也比较高,如窒息、低血糖、高胆红素血症、呼吸窘迫综合征、喂养困难等,这些疾病也可不同程度地影响脑发育,造成脑损伤.%Late preterm is labeled near term. As developmental immaturity, there was higher morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants. Especially brain injury, a 3-fold increased risk of cerebralpalsy and significantly higher rates of developmental delay and mental retardation for late preterm infants compared with term infants. In addition, a higher rates of neonatal complications had been documented on late preterm infants. These problems included apnea, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress syndome, and poor feeding. It was known that long-term impact of these diseases will result in brain injury.

  6. Does vitamin C deficiency result in impaired brain development in infants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Scurvy, the rare but potentially mortal manifestation of severe and prolonged lack of vitamin C, is often confused with hypovitaminosis C, i.e. the mere definition of vitamin C deficiency. While the latter condition can be diagnosed in millions, the clinical consequences-if they exist-remain larg......Scurvy, the rare but potentially mortal manifestation of severe and prolonged lack of vitamin C, is often confused with hypovitaminosis C, i.e. the mere definition of vitamin C deficiency. While the latter condition can be diagnosed in millions, the clinical consequences-if they exist......-remain largely unknown, since only a tiny fraction of those deficient in vitamin C actually develop clinical scurvy. Is hypovitaminosis C itself a problem at all then? Yes, it may well be in some cases. Recent data by us suggest that the neonatal brain is particularly susceptible to vitamin C deficiency...

  7. Overrepresentation of males in traumatic brain injury of infancy and in infants with macrocephaly: further evidence that questions the existence of shaken baby syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rubin; Miller, Marvin

    2010-06-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) has been thought to be caused by violent shaking of an infant and is characterized by the triad of findings: subdural hematoma (SDH), retinal hemorrhages, and neurologic abnormalities. The triad is not specific for SBS and can be seen in accidental trauma and in certain medical conditions. Recent observations, however, question whether SBS exists. Herein, we review the gender differences in 3 groups of infants with traumatic brain injury: (1) neonates with SDH from birth trauma, (2) infants with SDH from accidental trauma, and (3) infants with SDH from SBS. Gender differences are also presented in a fourth group of infants with macrocephaly related to increased extra-axial fluid spaces (IEAFS). Compared with the expected male frequency of 51.4% in newborns, there was a statistically significant overrepresentation of males in each of the 4 groups-65.3%, 62.2%, 62.6%, and 68.8%, respectively. We believe that the most likely explanation for these findings relates to the larger head size of the male compared with the female which has several relevant consequences. First, the larger head circumference of a male newborn compared with a female newborn may increase the likelihood that a male newborn will incur a small SDH from the minor trauma of the birthing process that can later rebleed and present with a symptomatic SDH that could be misdiagnosed as SBS and child abuse. Second, a short fall would have a greater likelihood of causing a SDH in a male infant than a female infant who could subsequently become symptomatic from hours to weeks later and could thus present as an unexplained SDH. Third, infants with macrocephaly related to IEAFS may be at increased risk for developing a SDH from the larger head size and greater tautness of the bridging vessels in the extra-axial fluid spaces. We believe that many infants who have been diagnosed with SBS have been given incorrect diagnoses of child abuse. Rather, their SDH may occur as a result of a

  8. Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin D and Iodine on Foetal and Infant Brain Development and Function Following Maternal Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Morse

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. Purpose: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function. Methods: English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies were obtained through searches on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2000 through to February 2012 and reference lists of retrieved articles. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal supplementation of DHA, vitamin D, folic acid or iodine supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation. Results: Maternal DHA intake during pregnancy and/or lactation can prolong high risk pregnancies, increase birth weight, head circumference and birth length, and can enhance visual acuity, hand and eye co-ordination, attention, problem solving and information processing. Vitamin D helps maintain pregnancy and promotes normal skeletal and brain development. Folic acid is necessary for normal foetal spine, brain and skull development. Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production necessary for normal brain and nervous system development during gestation that impacts childhood function. Conclusion: Maternal supplementation within recommended safe intakes in populations with dietary deficiencies may prevent many brain and central nervous system malfunctions and even enhance brain development and function in their offspring.

  9. Brain activity and infant attachment history in young men during loss and reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Karina; Waters, Theodore E A; Scott, Hannah; Roisman, Glenn I; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2017-05-01

    There is now ample evidence that the quality of early attachment experiences shapes expectations for supportive and responsive care and ultimately serves to scaffold adaptation to the salient tasks of development. Nonetheless, few studies have identified neural mechanisms that might give rise to these associations. Using a moderately large sample of low-income male participants recruited during infancy (N = 171), we studied the predictive significance of attachment insecurity and disorganization at age 18 months (as measured in the Strange Situation Procedure) for patterns of neural activation to reward and loss at age 20 years (assessed during a reward-based task as part of a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan). Results indicated that individuals with a history of insecure attachment showed hyperactivity in (a) reward- and emotion-related (e.g., basal ganglia and amygdala) structures and (b) emotion regulation and self-referential processing (cortical midline structures) in response to positive and negative outcomes (and anticipation of those outcomes). Further, the neural activation of individuals with a history of disorganized attachment suggested that they had greater emotional reactivity in anticipation of reward and employed greater cognitive control when negative outcomes were encountered. Overall, results suggest that the quality of early attachments has lasting impacts on brain function and reward processing.

  10. Neuro-developmental outcome at 18 months in premature infants with diffuse excessive high signal intensity on MR imaging of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Anthony [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neonatology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Sheffield, Department of Academic Radiology, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Whitby, Elspeth; Paley, Martyn [University of Sheffield, Department of Academic Radiology, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Stuart; Smith, Michael [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neonatology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Alladi, Sathya [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Child Development, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) may represent damage to the white matter in preterm infants, but may be best studied alongside quantitative markers. Limited published data exists on its neuro-developmental implications. The purpose of this study was to assess whether preterm children with DEHSI at term-corrected age have abnormal neuro-developmental outcome. This was a prospective observational study of 67 preterm infants with MRI of the brain around term-equivalent age, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Images were reported as being normal, overtly abnormal or to show DEHSI. A single observer placed six regions of interest in the periventricular white matter and calculated the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC). DEHSI was defined as (1) high signal on T2-weighted images alone, (2) high signal with raised ADC values or (3) raised ADC values independent of visual appearances. The neuro-development was assessed around 18 months' corrected age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd Edition). Standard t tests compared outcome scores between imaging groups. No statistically significant difference in neuro-developmental outcome scores was seen between participants with normal MRI and DEHSI, regardless of which definition was used. Preterm children with DEHSI have similar neuro-developmental outcome to those with normal brain MRI, even if the definition includes objective markers alongside visual appearances. (orig.)

  11. 早产儿颅脑CT表现及临床意义%Brain CT findings and clinical significance of preterm infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时正义; 陈红云; 熊文明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨早产儿颅脑CT表现及临床意义.方法 选择2011年1月~2012年3月我院妇产及康复科执行"婴幼儿感觉统合训练对早产脑损伤儿智能发育的研究"项目期间被排除的正常早产儿28例,采用低射线剂量多层扫描方法 观察、测量其脑组织密度、形态.结果 早产儿脑皮层灰质薄,脑回少,脑沟浅,额颞部尤其明显.脑白质CT平均值随胎龄增大而增高,平均值为(15.3±2.0)Hu;28~30周早产儿有5例、31~33周有2例出现生发层;侧脑室随胎龄增大而变小,而第三、四脑室变化不大;23例可见透明隔间腔;27例均表现硬膜窦增高密度影,呈边缘清楚锐利化.结论 充分了解早产儿正常颅脑CT表现和脑损伤特征,可有效提高判断早产儿颅脑CT正常(或)异常的准确率,减少或避免误诊、漏诊.%Objective To investigate the brain CT findings and clinical significance of preterm infant. Methods To choose 28 cases of excluded normal preterm infant from the project "infant sensory system integration training taking effect on the intellectual development of the brain injured preterm infant" in department of gynaecology and department of rehabilitation from January 2011 to March 2012. By the use of low-ray dose and multi-layer scanning method to observe and measure the brain tissue density and shape. Results Preterm infant's cerebral cortical gray matter were thin, gyri were less, sulci were shallow, especially the frontotemporal. The average white matter CT increased with the increasing of gestational age, average (15.3±2.0) Hu; 5 cases of 28-30 weeks preterm children, 2 cases of 31-33 weeks had germinal layer; lateral ventricle decreased with the increasing of gestational age. Little changes in the third and fourth ventricle; 23 cases of visible transparent compartment chamber; 27 cases showed higher density of dural sinus opacity with a clear edge sharpening. Conclusion To fully understand normal brain CT findings

  12. Social Interaction in Infants' Learning of Second-Language Phonetics: An Exploration of Brain-Behavior Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Barbara T; Brooks, Rechele; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-01-01

    Infants learn phonetic information from a second language with live-person presentations, but not television or audio-only recordings. To understand the role of social interaction in learning a second language, we examined infants' joint attention with live, Spanish-speaking tutors and used a neural measure of phonetic learning. Infants' eye-gaze behaviors during Spanish sessions at 9.5-10.5 months of age predicted second-language phonetic learning, assessed by an event-related potential measure of Spanish phoneme discrimination at 11 months. These data suggest a powerful role for social interaction at the earliest stages of learning a new language.

  13. Enhanced reactivity of Alz-50 antibody in brains of sudden infant death syndrome victims versus brains with lethal hypoxic/ischemic injury. Diagnostic significance after application of the ImmunoMax technique on routine paraffin material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Bajanowski, T; Merz, H; Meissner, C

    1998-03-01

    Alz-50 antibody is immunoreactive with brain tissue of subjects with Alzheimer's disease and can also be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry in neurons of vibratome-prepared brain tissue of victims of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The application of a slightly modified ImmunoMax method enabled us to demonstrate Alz-50 immunoreactivity in paraffin-embedded material. The Alz-50 epitope was detected in the hippocampus region and in nuclei of the medulla oblongata at the level of the inferior olivary protuberance in three diagnostic groups: victims of SIDS (n = 10), infants dying of subacute hypoxia/ischemia with subsequent (re-)perfusion (n = 9), and infants dying of acute ischemia without (re-) perfusion (n = 7). Quantitative evaluation of the hippocampal cortex and the nucleus olivaris inferior disclosed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher percentage of Alz-50-reactive neurons in SIDS cases than in the control groups (hippocampal cortex and the nucleus olivaris; SIDS victims: median = 100%; subacute hypoxia/ischemia: median = 33.6-81%; acute ischemia: median = 89.2-99%). Semiquantitative analysis revealed an equally pronounced preponderance of Alz-50-reactive neurons in SIDS victims versus the control groups. This greater expression in SIDS victims may be due to an ongoing hypoxia/ischemia during agony, but the present paucity of knowledge prohibits definitive elucidation. Nevertheless, the method described here appears to offer the realistic possibility of distinguishing SIDS cases from cases of sudden death in infants due to other causes, i.e., it offers for the first time a positive criterion for the diagnosis of SIDS.

  14. Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

  15. Parental Brain: Cerebral Areas Activated By Infant Cries And Faces. A Comparison Between Different Populations Of Parents And Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia ePiallini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature about parenting traditionally focused on caring behaviors and parental representations. Nowadays, an innovative line of researches, interested in evaluating the neural areas and hormones implicated in the nurturing and caregiving responses, has developed. The only way to permit a newborn to survive and grow up is to respond to his needs and in order to succeed it is necessary, first of all, that the adults around him understand what his needs are. That’s why adults’ capacity of taking care of infants cannot disregard from some biological mechanisms, which allow them to be more responsive to the progeny and to infants in general. Many researches have proved that exist specific neural basis activating in response to infant evolutionary stimuli, such as infant cries and infant emotional facial expression. There is a sort of innate predisposition in human adults to respond to infants’ signals, in order to satisfy their need and allow them to survive and become young adults capable of taking care of themselves. This article focuses on those researches that have investigated, in the last decade, which are the neural circuits underlying parental behavioral responses.Moreover, the paper compares the results of those studies that investigated the neural responses to infant stimuli under different conditions: familiar versus unknown children, parents versus non-parents and normative versus clinical samples (depression, addiction, adolescence and PTSD.

  16. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  17. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB receptor in the sudden infant death syndrome brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Samantha; Machaalani, Rita; Waters, Karen A

    2012-01-15

    This study compared the expression of BDNF (proBDNF and rhBDNF forms) and its receptor TrkB, in the medulla of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants and infants who died from known causes (non-SIDS). This study also evaluated these markers in association with SIDS clinical risk factors including, sleep position, cigarette smoke exposure and gender. Brainstem tissue was immunohistochemically stained and quantitative analyses were made for eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla. Compared to non-SIDS, SIDS infants had lower rhBDNF in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract and higher TrkB in the caudal dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Within the SIDS cohort, prone sleep position was associated with lower rhBDNF in the caudal arcuate nucleus, and cigarette smoke exposure was associated with lower rhBDNF and TrkB in the inferior olivary nucleus. Abnormal expression of BDNF and TrkB suggests that neuroprotective functions of the BDNF/TrkB system may be reduced in respiratory-related nuclei of SIDS infants.

  18. Brain imaging and neurodevelopmental outcome at school age in preterm-born infants: Effects of neonatal hydrocortisone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A 2-year cohort of 236 preterm-born infants (gestational age < 32 weeks and/or birth weight < 1500 grams), born between March 1, 1991 and March 1, 1993 and admitted to the NICU of the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, was evaluated at school age. This cohort represented 83.4% of the surviving

  19. Changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging patterns for preterm infants after introduction of a magnetic resonance-compatible incubator coil system: 5-year experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Hae; Kim, In-One; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Choi, Young Hun; Lee, So Mi; Kim, Woo Sun

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the changes in using patterns of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preterm infants after introduction of a MR-compatible incubator coil system. Brain MRIs for preterm infants with the MR-compatible incubator coil from March 2010 to July 2014 (n=154, group A) were compared with MRIs prior to the introduction of the incubator coil, from March 2005 to February 2010 (n=65, group B). Clinical data, MRI findings, acquisition time, and incidence of adverse events during the study were retrospectively reviewed. For the qualitative analysis of the examinations, the presence of motion artefact, spatial resolution, and overall image quality were assessed. Signal uniformity of each sequence was evaluated for a quantitative comparison. Comparing with group B, Group A was significantly younger (36+3 vs. 38+3 weeks, p<0.001), had a significantly lower body weight (2006.6 and 2390.3g respectively; p<0.001) at the time of MRI, and had shorter time interval (54.3±2.6 vs. 70.5±4.4days, p=0.002) between birth and examination. Abnormal findings were noted more frequently in group A (n=100, 65%) than in B (n=24, 37%. p=0.001) with a significantly higher incidence of diffusion restriction (n=21, 13.6% vs. n=4, 6.2%, p=0.034). Mean image acquisition time was significantly shorter in group A (21.4±4.5 vs. 25.4±5.5min, p<0.001) with significant lower adverse events during MRI (n=26, 40 vs. n=6, 3.9%, p<0.001). Group A exhibited significantly less motion artefact, better spatial resolution, and better overall image quality with decreased signal variation than group B (all p<0.001). Application of the MR-compatible incubator for preterm brain MRI evaluation is safer and provides more timely evaluation of preterm infants with better image quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occult intracranial injury in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, D S; Schutzman, S A

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to determine whether clinical symptoms and signs of brain injury are sensitive indicators of intracranial injury (ICI) in infants admitted with head trauma, (2) to describe the clinical characteristics of infants who have ICI in the absence of symptoms and signs of brain injury, and (3) to determine the clinical significance of those ICIs diagnosed in asymptomatic infants. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all infants younger than 2 years of age admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with acute ICI during a 6(1/2)-year period. Infants were considered symptomatic if they had loss of consciousness, history of behavior change, seizures, vomiting, bulging fontanel, retinal hemorrhages, abnormal neurologic examination, depressed mental status, or irritability. All others were considered to have occult ICI. Of 101 infants studied, 19 (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 12%, 28%) had occult ICI. Fourteen of 52 (27%) infants younger than 6 months of age had occult ICI, compared with 5 of 34 (15%) infants 6 months to 1 year, and none of 15 (0%) infants older than 1 year. Eighteen (95%) infants with occult ICI had scalp contusion or hematoma, and 18 (95%) had skull fracture. Nine (47%) infants with occult ICI received therapy for the ICI. No infants with occult ICI (0%) (95% CI 0, 14%) required surgery or medical management for increased intracranial pressure. Only 1 subject (5%) with occult ICI had any late symptoms or complications: a brief, self-limited convulsion. We found that 19 of 101 ICIs in infants admitted with head trauma were clinically occult. All 19 occult ICIs occurred in infants younger than 12 months of age, and 18 of 19 had skull fractures. None experienced serious neurologic deterioration or required surgical intervention. Physicians cannot depend on the absence of clinical signs of brain injury to exclude ICI in infants younger than 1 year of age.

  1. Parallels in stimulus-driven oscillatory brain responses to numerosity changes in adults and seven-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Melissa E; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Woldorff, Marty G

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provide indirect evidence for an ontogenetically continuous Approximate-Number System. We employed a rapid steady-state visual-presentation paradigm combined with electroencephalography to measure stimulus-driven neural oscillatory responses to numerosities in infants and adults. Steady-state repetition of the same numerosity across a 2.4-sec time block yielded an increase in the stimulus-locked neural entrainment in both groups. Entrainment changes following a numerosity switch varied by the ratio of the numerosities, consistent with Weber's Law. These similarities thus provide direct evidence for an ontogenetically continuous Approximate-Number System. Moreover, the degree of neural entrainment significantly predicted infants' number discrimination measured behaviorally two months later.

  2. A FreeSurfer-compliant Consistent Manual Segmentation of Infant Brains Spanning the 0-2 year Age Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyucia ede Macedo Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed description of a set of FreeSurfer compatible segmentation guidelines tailored to infant MRI scans, and a unique data set of manually segmented acquisitions, with subjects nearly evenly distributed between zero and two years of age. We believe that these segmentation guidelines and this dataset will have a wide range of potential uses in medicine and neuroscience.

  3. Occurrence of specific environmental risk factors in brain tissues of sudden infant death and sudden intrauterine unexpected death victims assessed with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termopoli, Veronica; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Magrini, Laura; Cappiello, Achille

    2015-03-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sudden intrauterine unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS) are an unresolved teaser in the social-medical and health setting of modern medicine and are the result of multifactorial interactions. Recently, prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants has been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes, and verification of their presence in fetal and newborn tissues is of crucial importance. A gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method, using a triple quadrupole analyzer, is proposed to assess the presence of 20 organochlorine pesticides, two organophosphate pesticides, one carbamate (boscalid), and a phenol (bisphenol A) in human brain tissues. Samples were collected during autopsies of infants and fetuses that died suddenly without any evident cause. The method involves a liquid-solid extraction using n-hexane as the extraction solvent. The extracts were purified with Florisil cartridges prior to the final determination. Recovery experiments using lamb brain spiked at three different concentrations in the range of 1-50 ng g(-1) were performed, with recoveries ranging from 79 to 106%. Intraday and interday repeatability were evaluated, and relative standard deviations lower than 10% and 18%, respectively, were obtained. The selectivity and sensitivity achieved in multiple reaction monitoring mode allowed us to achieve quantification and confirmation in a real matrix at levels as low as 0.2-0.6 ng g(-1). Two MS/MS transitions were acquired for each analyte, using the Q/q ratio as the confirmatory parameter. This method was applied to the analysis of 14 cerebral cortex samples (ten SIUDS and four SIDS cases), and confirmed the presence of several selected compounds.

  4. Relationship between Intrauterine Infection and Brain Injury in Preterm Infants%宫内感染与早产儿脑损伤的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘广赉; 杨明; 莫坤梅; 谢建红; 黄常健; 陈忠其; 曾婷

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship and mechanism between intrauterine infection and brain injury in preterm infants.Methods Eighty - five preterm infants who were born in Fogang People's Hospital from Jun. 2008 to Jun. 2010 were enrolled. All the placentas were collected and pathologically examined for the confirmation of intrauterine infection,and cord blood samples from each baby were collected and sent for the determination of cytokine IL- 1β ,IL -6, tumor necrosis factor(TNF) -α, IL- 10 levels by enzyme -linked immumosorbent assay;Brain injury was judged by the findings of cranial ultrasound or CT scan, the Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA) ,and early motor development index,which were done within 3 -7 days after birth in every baby. All the babies were divided into 2 groups by above evidence of brain injury. Results 1. Maternal chorioamnionifis occurred in 33% of all preterm mothers( 28/85 cases); Brain injury was showed in 46% of all preterm infants whose mothers suffered from maternal chorioamnionitis( 13/28 cases) ,while only in 7% of those babies whose mothers did not( 4/57 cases ), with the former being significant higher(x2 = 15.84, P < 0. 05 ). 2. Cord blood levels of IL - 1β, IL - 6, TNF - α in babies with brain injury were ( 6.53 ± 3.17 ) μg · L-1, (7.95±4.32)μg·L-1 and (5.43±1.82) μg·L-1,respectively, significantly higher than those without brain injury [ ( 1.53 ± 1.22) μg · L-1, ( 1.65 ± 2.10) μg · L-1 and ( 3.23 ± 0.83 ) μg ·L-1, respectively ]; IL - 10 level in babies with brain injury was ( 1.21 ± 0. 23 ) μg · L-1, much lower than that without brain injury [ ( 1.59 ±0.25 ) μg · L-1 ] ( Pa < 0.05 ). Conclusion Intrauterine infection may play a role in brain injury in preterm infants, and cytokines may be the key mediator of the injury.%目的 探讨宫内感染与早产儿脑损伤的关系及其发生机制.方法 选取2008年6月-2010年6月在佛冈县人民医院产科分娩的85例

  5. Brain reorganization as a function of walking experience in 12-month-old infants: implications for the development of manual laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela eCorbetta; Friedman, Denise R.; Martha Ann eBell

    2014-01-01

    Hand preference in infancy is marked by many developmental shifts in hand use and arm coupling as infants reach for and manipulate objects. Research has linked these early shifts in hand use to the emergence of fundamental postural–locomotor milestones. Specifically, it was found that bimanual reaching declines when infants learn to sit; increases if infants begin to scoot in a sitting posture; declines when infants begin to crawl on hands and knees; and increases again when infants start wal...

  6. Early Nutritional Interventions for Brain and  Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nora; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L

    2017-02-23

    Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother's breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants' neurodevelopment compared to infant formula. The differences in methodologies make it difficult to conclude any effects of interventions with individual nutrients. Only protein and iron level studies showed some consistent findings regarding optimal doses; however, confirmatory studies are needed. This review does not support some widely accepted associations, such as that between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and visual development. Clear nutritional recommendations cannot be made based on this review. However, the type of infant nutrition (i.e., breast milk versus formula or donor milk), the timing of the nutritional intervention, and the dose of the nutrient/supplement have been found to be relevant factors in determining the success of nutritional intervention studies in preterm infants.

  7. The ω-3-poly-unsaturated fatty acids and the function of the brain and retina in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Andersen, Anders Daniel

    2007-01-01

    LNA could meet the ¿-3 PUFA requirements. Moreover, the potential long-term implications of the early improvements in visual function are not known. ¿-3 PUFA intake in the first year of life is also believed to affect infant cognitive development, although this question remains unresolved. Breast......-feeding has been shown to confer a long-term advantage in cognitive performance of approximately 3 IQ-points relative to that in formula-fed subjects, but this difference could be due to confounding as well as specific components of human milk. The DHA-content of human milk depends on the maternal fish intake...

  8. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity parameters of the brain white matter tracts in preterm infants: reproducibility of region-of-interest measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepomäki, Virva K; Paavilainen, Teemu P; Hurme, Saija A M; Komu, Markku E; Parkkola, Riitta K

    2012-02-01

    Diffusion tensor parameters can be analysed by fitting regions of interest (ROIs) to selected brain structures. The clinical usefulness of these measurements is influenced by their reproducibility and validity. To investigate the reproducibility of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) measurements. Seventy-six infants were imaged once at term-equivalent age. We measured several brain regions. Reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. Intra-observer reproducibility was excellent for FA in the calcarine cortex (right) and frontal white matter (left), and for MD in the corpus callosum (anterior), internal capsule, corona radiata, putamen, frontal white matter, optic radiation (left), thalamus (right) and calcarine cortex (right). Inter-observer reproducibility was excellent for FA in the corpus callosum (posterior) and for MD in the internal capsule and corona radiata (right). Inter-observer reproducibility was poor for FA in frontal and posterior white matter (right) and for MD in the inferior colliculus (right). Reproducibility was fair to good in other areas. The Bland-Altman plots showed no considerable bias, and variance was independent of the mean value. Reproducibility of ROI measurement was fair to good for both FA and MD.

  9. Brain microstructural development at near-term age in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants: an atlas-based diffusion imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Guzman, Ximena Stecher; Stevenson, David K; Barnea-Goraly, Naama

    2014-02-01

    At near-term age the brain undergoes rapid growth and development. Abnormalities identified during this period have been recognized as potential predictors of neurodevelopment in children born preterm. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter (WM) microstructure in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants to better understand regional WM developmental trajectories at near-term age. DTI scans were analyzed in a cross-sectional sample of 45 VLBW preterm infants (BW≤1500g, GA≤32weeks) within a cohort of 102 neonates admitted to the NICU and recruited to participate prior to standard-of-care MRI, from 2010 to 2011, 66/102 also had DTI. For inclusion in this analysis, 45 infants had DTI, no evidence of brain abnormality on MRI, and were scanned at PMA ≤40weeks (34.7-38.6). White matter microstructure was analyzed in 19 subcortical regions defined by DiffeoMap neonatal brain atlas, using threshold values of trace 0.15. Regional fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated and temporal-spatial trajectories of development were examined in relation to PMA and brain region location. Posterior regions within the corona radiata (CR), corpus callosum (CC), and internal capsule (IC) demonstrated significantly higher mean FA values compared to anterior regions. Posterior regions of the CR and IC demonstrated significantly lower RD values compared to anterior regions. Centrally located projection fibers demonstrated higher mean FA and lower RD values than peripheral regions including the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), cerebral peduncle, retrolenticular part of the IC, posterior thalamic radiation, and sagittal stratum. Centrally located association fibers of the external capsule had higher FA and lower RD than the more peripherally-located superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). A significant relationship between PMA-at-scan and FA, MD, and RD was

  10. The development of sleep-wake rhythms and the search for elemental circuits in the infant brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S; Gall, Andrew J; Todd, William D

    2014-06-01

    Despite the predominance of sleep in early infancy, developmental science has yet to play a major role in shaping concepts and theories about sleep and its associated ultradian and circadian rhythms. Here we argue that developmental analyses help us to elucidate the relative contributions of the brainstem and forebrain to sleep-wake control and to dissect the neural components of sleep-wake rhythms. Developmental analysis also makes it clear that sleep-wake processes in infants are the foundation for those of adults. For example, the infant brainstem alone contains a fundamental sleep-wake circuit that is sufficient to produce transitions among wakefulness, quiet sleep, and active sleep. In addition, consistent with the requirements of a "flip-flop" model of sleep-wake processes, this brainstem circuit supports rapid transitions between states. Later in development, strengthening bidirectional interactions between the brainstem and forebrain contribute to the consolidation of sleep and wake bouts, the elaboration of sleep homeostatic processes, and the emergence of diurnal or nocturnal circadian rhythms. The developmental perspective promoted here critically constrains theories of sleep-wake control and provides a needed framework for the creation of fully realized computational models. Finally, with a better understanding of how this system is constructed developmentally, we will gain insight into the processes that govern its disintegration due to aging and disease.

  11. Resting and Task-Modulated High-Frequency Brain Rhythms Measured by Scalp Encephalography in Infants with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Degregorio, Geneva; Jeste, Shafali S.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of cognitive deficits in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are not well understood, and modulations of neural dynamics by neuroanatomical abnormalities that characterize the disorder remain elusive. Neural oscillations (rhythms) are a fundamental aspect of brain function, and have dominant frequencies in a wide…

  12. Cerebrovascular disease in newborn infants: report of three cases with clinical follow-up and brain SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana L. de; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria; Vale-Cavalcanti, Mariza; Etchebehere, Elba C.S.C.; Camargo, Edwaldo E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    1999-07-01

    The clinical and neurological findings of three neonates with the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease are reported. The neuropsychological evaluation disclosed impairment of fine motor function, coordination, language, perception and behavioral disturbances. Brain SPECT imaging revealed perfusional deficits in the three cases. (author)

  13. Exploratory metabolomic analyses reveal compounds correlated with lutein concentration in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex of human infant brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with...

  14. Infant Brain Structures, Executive Function, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems at Preschool Age. A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Herba, Catherine M.; Roza, Sabine J.; Govaert, Paul; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuroimaging findings have provided evidence for a relation between variations in brain structures and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, longitudinal neuroimaging studies are typically confined to children who have already been diagnosed with ADHD. In a population-based study, we aimed to characterize the…

  15. Resting and Task-Modulated High-Frequency Brain Rhythms Measured by Scalp Encephalography in Infants with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Degregorio, Geneva; Jeste, Shafali S.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of cognitive deficits in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are not well understood, and modulations of neural dynamics by neuroanatomical abnormalities that characterize the disorder remain elusive. Neural oscillations (rhythms) are a fundamental aspect of brain function, and have dominant frequencies in a wide…

  16. 早产儿血清促红细胞生成素水平与脑损伤的关系%Relationship between serum erythropoietin levels and brain injury in preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光福; 孔琦; 刘荣添; 李辉桃; 黄进洁; 王章星; 李赟; 杨传忠; 吴本清; 刘文兰; 刘丽辉

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨早产儿血清促红细胞生成素(EPO)水平与脑损伤的关系。方法选取2014年10月至2015年9月出生胎龄在28~34周的早产儿304例作为研究对象。采用颅脑B超和MRI检查诊断脑损伤, ELISA检测血清EPO、S100蛋白、神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)和髓鞘碱性蛋白(MBP)水平,比较不同血清EPO水平早产儿脑损伤的发生率,分析血清EPO水平与各指标的相关性;采用多因素Logistic回归分析研究血清EPO水平与脑损伤的关系。结果304例早产儿中发生脑损伤125例(41.1%);低水平EPO组缺血性脑损伤发生率明显高于中高水平EPO组(P<0.01);脑损伤早产儿血清S100蛋白、NSE、MBP水平均高于无脑损伤组(P<0.01);血清EPO水平与S100蛋白浓度、NSE水平均呈负相关(P<0.05,P<0.01);Logistic回归分析显示低胎龄、低出生体重、窒息复苏、机械通气时间延长、贫血和低血清EPO水平均是脑损伤发病的独立危险因素。结论血清EPO低水平的早产儿脑损伤发生率高,血清EPO水平与早产儿脑损伤密切相关。%ObjectiveTo study the relationship between the levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in serum and brain injury in preterm infants.MethodsThree hundred and four preterm infants (gestational age: 28-34 weeks) born between October 2014 and September 2015 were enrolled in this study. Brain injury was diagnosed using cerebral ultrasound and MRI. The levels of EPO, S100 protein, neuron-speciifc enolase (NSE) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in serum were detected using ELISA. To compare the incidence of brain injury in different serum EPO levels in preterm infants, and the relationship between brain injury and serum EPO levels was analyzed.ResultsThe incidence rate of brain injury in preterm infants was 41.1% (125/304). The incidence rate of brain injury in the low EPO level group was signiifcantly higher than that in the middle-high EPO level groups (P<0

  17. Early Nutritional Interventions for Brain and  Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Schneider

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm‐born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother’s breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants’ neurodevelopment compared to infant formula. The differences in methodologies make it difficult to conclude any effects of interventions with individual nutrients. Only protein and iron level studies showed some consistent findings regarding optimal doses; however, confirmatory studies are needed. This review does not support some widely accepted associations, such as that between long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and visual development. Clear nutritional recommendations cannot be made based on this review. However, the type of infant nutrition (i.e., breast milk versus formula or donor milk, the timing of the nutritional intervention, and the dose of the nutrient/supplement have been found to be relevant factors in determining the success of nutritional intervention studies in preterm infants.

  18. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...... in this period. The brain of the preterm infant is accessible for tissue oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral oximetry has the potential to improve the long-term outcome by helping to tailor the support of respiration and circulation to the individual infant's needs, but the evidence is still lacking...

  19. Disruption of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF immunoreactivity in the human Kölliker-Fuse nucleus in victims of unexplained fetal and infant death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Lavezzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have demonstrated that the neurotrophin brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF is required for the appropriate development of the central respiratory network, a neuronal complex in the brainstem of vital importance to sustaining life. The pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN is a fundamental component of this circuitry with strong implications in the pre- and postnatal breathing control. This study provides detailed account for the cytoarchitecture, the physiology and the BDNF behaviour of the human KFN in perinatal age. We applied immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brainstem samples (from 45 fetuses and newborns died of both known and unknown causes, to analyze BDNF, gliosis and apoptosis patterns of manifestation. The KFN showed clear signs of developmental immaturity, prevalently associated to BDNF altered expression, in high percentages of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS victims. Our results indicate that BDNF pathway dysfunctions can derange the normal KFN development so preventing the breathing control in the sudden perinatal death.The data presented here are also relevant to a better understanding of how the BDNF expression in the KFN can be involved in several human respiratory pathologies such as the Rett’s and the congenital central hypoventilation syndromes.

  20. Analysis of risk factors for brain injury in preterm infants after preterm premature rupture of membranes%未足月胎膜早破后早产儿脑损伤的相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢红艳; 常明; 吴丽华

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析未足月胎膜早破后早产儿脑损伤的高危因素.方法:对2008年1月~ 2010年10月在医院产科出生且生后即转入新生儿科的未足月胎膜早破后早产儿及母亲的临床资料进行回顾性分析,按早产儿生后有无脑损伤分为脑损伤组与无脑损伤组.对患儿胎龄、出生体质量、性别、母亲有无绒毛膜羊膜炎、羊水指数、母亲产前应用激素、破膜时间、分娩方式、胎儿宫内窘迫、窒息复苏10个项目进行分析.结果:137例早产儿符合研究标准,未足月胎膜早破后早产儿脑损伤发生率24.8%.早产儿脑损伤危险因素Logistic回归分析按OR值排序,依次为胎龄、出生体重、窒息复苏及母亲绒毛膜羊膜炎.破膜时间长短与脑损伤无关.结论:未足月胎膜早破后早产儿脑损伤的发生与多因素有关,胎龄越小、体重越低脑损伤发生率越高,母亲绒毛膜羊膜炎及患儿生后有窒息复苏史也为早产儿脑损伤高危因素.%Objective; To explore the high risk factors of brain injury in preterm infants after preterm premature rupture of membranes. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively among preterm infants after preterm premature rupture of membranes who were borne in obstetrics and admitted to neonatal intensive care unit in our hospital from Jan. 2008 to Oct. 2010. All subjects were divided into brain injury group and no brain injury group. Logistic regression was adopted to analyze 10 factors; gestational age, birth weigh, sex, mother chorio-amnionitis, amniotic fluid index, antenatal steroids therapy to mothers, latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes, delivery ways, fetal distress in uterus, asphyxiate resuscitation. Results: Among 137 preterm infants, 33 cases ( 24.8% ) were detected with brain injury. Risk factors for brain injury in preterm infants after preterm premature rupture of membranes were arranged as follows according to odds ratio (OR) value

  1. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation.

  2. [Infant botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  3. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  4. Explore of relationship between intrauterine infection and brain injury of preterm infants%宫内感染与早产儿脑损伤相关性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 张建君; 姜新华; 鲁卫明; 陈俭宏

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨早产儿脑损伤与宫内感染的关系。方法:将123例早产儿根据胎盘病理检查结果分成2组,有绒毛膜羊膜炎的48例作为研究组,无绒毛膜羊膜炎的75例作为对照组。新生儿生后3~7天进行头颅影像学检查,并在纠正胎龄40周时予新生儿行为神经测定( NBNA)。通过头颅影像学及NBNA评分观察2组脑损伤的发生情况。对脑损伤患儿进行早期干预。追踪随访至1周岁。结果:研究组脑损伤的发生率达31.25%(15/48),与对照组5.33%(4/75)相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001)。研究组NBNA评分<35分占39.58%(19/48),与对照组9.33%(7/75)相比,2组差异显著(P<0.001)。研究组NBNA得分35.17±3.61,与对照组36.92±2.37相比,差异显著(P<0.001)。结论:宫内感染与早产儿脑损伤的发生有一定关系。%Objective:To explore the relationship between intrauterine infection and the brain injury of preterm infants .Methods:123 preterm infants were divided into two groups according to the results of histological methods .Infants with maternal chorioamnionitis was 48,the control group was 75.Totally infants were checked by head imaging from 3~7 days after born and were scored by the Neo-natal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA) after correcting age 40 weeks.Early interventions were carried out in the infants with brain injury.All infants were followed up until one year old .Results: In the group with maternal chorioamnionitis ,the case rate of brain injury was 31.25%,NBNA score was 35.17 ±3.613,9 .58%was below 35 score,which are significantly higher than the control group , (P <0.001).Conclusion:The intrauterine infection might be associate with the brain injury of preterm infants .

  5. Infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, R A; Brown, L W

    1979-05-01

    Infant botulism is a unique neuromuscular disease affecting infants less than six months old. It is the result of intraintestinal toxin production by C. botulinum (toxi-infection). Characteristic symptoms include constipation, lethargy, and decreased feeding. Physical examination often reveals generalized hypotonia with cranial nerve impairment. Recovery is dependent on supportive care in an intensive care setting. The relationship of this disease to the sudden infant death syndrome requires further study.

  6. Logistic regression analysis on the risk factors for external hydrocephalus after traumatic brain injury in the infants and young children%婴幼儿颅脑创伤后外部性脑积水的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍永峰; 庄强; 肖龙海; 张宗才; 秦浩

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析婴幼儿颅脑损伤后外部性脑积水(EH)的危险因素.方法 回顾性分析我院2004年3月至2009年4月收治的178例颅脑损伤婴幼儿患者的临床资料,对婴幼儿脑损伤后EH的相关临床因素进行单因素和Logistic回归分析.结果 单因素分析结果 显示:年龄、伤后GCS评分、昏迷时间、脑挫裂伤、蛛网膜下腔出血和继发癫痫均是婴幼儿EH的危险因素(P均0.05),婴幼儿颅脑损伤后EH的发生率为14%(25/178),年龄(OR=0.5743)、伤后昏迷时间(OR=3.0628)、伤后GCS评分(OR=1.5628)、蛛网膜下腔出血(OR+3.7093)、脑挫裂伤(OR=4.7892)和外伤后癫痫(OR=2.9976)均是婴幼儿EH的危险因素(P均0. 05). The incidence of EH after traumatic brain injury in the infants and young children was 14% (25/178 ). Age ( OR = 0.5743 ) , coma duration after trauma (OR =3.0628) ,subarachnoid hemorrhage (OR =3.7093),brain contusion(OR = 4.7892) and post-trauma epilepsy (OR =2. 9976) were risk factors for EH (Ps < 0. 05). Conclusion Younger than 2 years old, low GCS score, long coma duration, brain contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage and epilepsy would increase the risk of EH after traumatic brain injury in the infants and young children. This study provides information for the prevention of EH after traumatic brain injury in the infants and young children.

  7. Optimizing Infant Development: Strategies for Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine

    This guide for infant day care providers examines the importance of early experience for brain development and strategies for providing optimal infant care. The introduction discusses the current devaluation of day care and idealization of maternal care and identifies benefits of quality day care experience for intellectual development, sleep…

  8. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  9. 早产儿脑损伤的108例早期治疗效果观察%To observe the effect of early treatment of 108 cases of brain injury in preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼玉

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the early treatment of premature infant brain injury treatment.Methods:From 2013 to 2014 in 108 cases of premature infants with brain injury in our hospital were randomly divided into control group and exper-imental group with 54 cases in each group, the control group received routine treatment of early intervention, the experimental group adopted early rehabilitation treatment on the basis of the control group, compared two groups of children with growth. Results: In the control group, the abnormal reflex sleep abnormalities, abnormal muscle tone, abnormal posture was significantly higher than the experimental group, the data contrast, comparative (P<0.05).Conclusion:Early rehabilitation therapy can pro-mote the development of the nervous system of brain injury in preterm infants, improve brain development, is worthy of promo-tion and use in clinical treatment.%目的:探讨早期治疗对早产儿脑损伤的治疗效果。方法将2013年到2014年在我院治疗的108例早产儿脑损伤患儿随机分为对照组和实验组各54例,其中对照组采取早期干预常规治疗,实验组在对照组的基础上采取早期康复治疗,对比两组患儿成长发育情况。结果对照组的反射异常、睡眠异常、肌张力异常、姿势异常的发生率明显高于实验组,数据对比明显,有比较意义(P<0.05)。结论早期康复治疗能够促进早产儿脑损伤的神经系统发育,完善脑部发育,值得在临床治疗中推广和使用。

  10. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  11. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  12. Application and evaluation of electroencephalographic background in premature infants with brain injuries%脑电图背景在早产儿脑损伤中的应用及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健平; 梁秀群; 廖虹; 欧阳小琳; 杨彤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical application value of Electroencephalographic (EEG) background in premature infants with brain injuries. Methods Totally 67 premature neonates with brain injuries admitted to our hospital NICU from Nov. 2008 to Oct. 2010 were enrolled. Patients were assigned into mild brain injury group [ ( grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or grade I - Ⅱ of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) ] , and severe brain injury group (grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ of IVH, or grade Ⅲ- Ⅳ of PVL) . Premature neonates without brain injury were recruited in the control group. EEG testing was carried out at 3 - 28 days of chronological age. Correlation between the severity of brain injuries and the results of EEG were analyzed. Results Comparing to the 93 patients in the controlgroup, the 67 patients with brain injuries ( including 11 in severe group and 56 in mild group) have prolonged Maximum Interburst Interval (IBI Max) , Trace Discontinue ( TD) outbreak interval, and the maximum interval of the Trace Alternant ( TA) phase; Infants with brain injuries also have higher mean amplitude of the TA Outbreak phase, amplitude of Continue Slow-spike Wave Sleep ( CSWS) during Quiet Sleep ( QS ) phase; and amplitude during the awakening phase ( all P values < 0. 05 ) . In addition, the degree of EEG abnormalities during neonatal period was positively related to the severity ofbrain injuries ( r = 0. 727 , P < 0. 05 ) . Among 53 patients whom were followed up at 3 months of age, 88. 4% of infants with mild brain injury and 50% infants with severe brain injury have recovered ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions The degree of EEG background changes has a positive correlation to the severity of brain insults in premature infants. EEG Background measurements may be used in clinical practice to evaluate the state of brain function objectively.%目的 探讨脑电图( EEG)背景活动在早产儿脑损伤中的应用价值.方法 选择2008年11月至2010年10月我院新生儿重

  13. One Nursing Case of Brain-stem Hemorrhage from Newborn Infant%1例新生儿脑干出血的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜爱红

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes a nursing case of infant patient who suffers from brainstem hemorrhage through an emergency cure and carefillly nursing of brainstem hemorrhage from newborn infant.%通过对l例新生儿脑干出血的急救治疗,并进行了精心细致的护理,患者康复出院,并安全度过新生儿期。本文对其护理进行总结介绍。

  14. 振幅整合脑电图在早产儿脑功能监护中的应用%The amplitude integrated electroencephalogram in application of preterm infants in brain function monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋

    2012-01-01

    The amplitude integrated electroencephalogram is a simplified form of electroencephalogram,which can monitor electroencephalogram background activity and analyze the figures' continuity,cycling,the amplitude of the lower border and bandwidth,evaluate the preterm infants' brain maturity prognosis.It has the advantages of simple operation,intuitive figure,small interference and other features.It is an important noninvasive assessment of functional state of the brain cortex in recent years.This paper reviews the amplitude integrated EEG principle,pattern analysis,clinical application of brain function monitoring in preterm infants.%振幅整合脑电图是脑电图技术的一种简化形式,可以通过监测脑电背景活动,分析振幅整合脑电图图形的连续性、周期性、下界振幅、带宽四方面,监测早产儿的脑成熟度及评估预后,具有操作简便、图形直观、受干扰小等特点,是近年来一种非侵袭皮层评估脑功能状态的重要工具.该文就振幅整合脑电图的原理、图形分析、临床应用等方面对早产儿脑功能监护的应用作一综述.

  15. Moderate and late preterm infants exhibit widespread brain white matter microstructure alterations at term-equivalent age relative to term-born controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, Claire E.; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Gabra Fam, Lillian; Leemans, Alexander; Seal, Marc L.; Doyle, Lex W.; Anderson, Peter J.; Spittle, Alicia J.; Thompson, Deanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the many studies documenting cerebral white matter microstructural alterations associated with very preterm birth (<32 weeks’ gestation), there is a dearth of similar research in moderate and late preterm infants (born 32–36 weeks’ gestation), who experience higher rates of neurodevelopmenta

  16. 早产儿围生期脑损伤的危险因素及其防治策略%Risk factors and prevention strategies of perinatal brain injury in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军; 张婉娴

    2015-01-01

    Life quality of the premature babies after rescuing successfully was gained more attention by perina-tal medical field and society with the more success rate of premature rescue. The brain injury is one of the main factors affecting the long term prognosis of the premature infants. The major risk factors of brain damage include gestational age and birth weight,intrauterine hypoxia and infection,the mode of delivery and whether the resuscitation and later treat-ment skills proper and skilled,and so on. So the key point of preventing the brain injury is avoiding premature delivery and extending the gestational age as much as possible. If the premature delivery could not evitable,the obstetrician should use adrenal cortex hormones before delivery to promote fetal lungs maturition,since the increasing application of cortical hormone prenatally and decreasing using that after birth have been shown good effects on long term prognosis of the nervous system in the preterm infants. It is also confirmed that application of magnesium sulfate prenatally could prevent the premature brain injury. There are still no agreements on the relationship between the delivery modes and the brain injury of extremely low birth weight infants. But prolonging the stage of labor is sure to increase the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in the premature infants thereby affecting the long term prognosis. After birth,we should imple-ment the correct resuscitation processes by skilled and proper technical methods,in order to decrease the mortality and to improve the long term prognosis.%随着早产儿抢救成功率的日益提高,经抢救成活后的早产儿生命质量愈来愈受到围生医学界和社会的关注,其中脑损伤是影响早产儿远期愈后的主要因素之一。造成脑损伤的危险因素主要有出生时胎龄和体质量、宫内缺氧和感染、分娩方式的选择及后期复苏治疗技术方法是否恰当和熟练等。尽可能地避免早产和尽

  17. Brain responses and looking behaviour during audiovisual speech integration in infants predict auditory speech comprehension in the second year of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Kushnerenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of visual cues during the processing of audiovisual speech is known to be less efficient in children and adults with language difficulties and difficulties are known to be more prevalent in children from low-income populations. In the present study, we followed an economically diverse group of thirty-seven infants longitudinally from 6-9 months to 14-16 months of age. We used eye-tracking to examine whether individual differences in visual attention during audiovisual processing of speech in 6 to 9 month old infants, particularly when processing congruent and incongruent auditory and visual speech cues, might be indicative of their later language development. Twenty-two of these 6-9 month old infants also participated in an event-related potential (ERP audiovisual task within the same experimental session. Language development was then followed-up at the age of 14-16 months, using two measures of language development, the Preschool Language Scale (PLS and the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (CDI. The results show that those infants who were less efficient in auditory speech processing at the age of 6-9 months had lower receptive language scores at 14-16 months. A correlational analysis revealed that the pattern of face scanning and ERP responses to audio-visually incongruent stimuli at 6-9 months were both significantly associated with language development at 14-16 months. These findings add to the understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of audiovisual processing and associated looking behaviour in infants.

  18. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  19. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only ... Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  20. Infant Curiosity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication is one in a series that reviews tips parents can use to improve the relationships with their children and the learning that happens within the family. This publication deals in particular with infant development.

  1. Infant Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  2. Influence of hormonotherapy by different treatment courses on brain development of premature infant%产前不同疗程激素治疗对早产儿脑发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池美珠; 金芳芳; 邵浩然; 胡冠琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate influence of antenatal hormonotherapy by different treatment courses on brain development of premature infant. Methods A total of 107 premature infants aging 28~34 weeks were divided by antenatal dexamethasone administration status in mothers into control group (n=32), single course group (n=45) and multiple courses group (n=30). The control group received no dexamethasone;the single course group received 6 mg of dexamethasone by intramuscular injection twice a day for 1 course as 2 d;the multiple courses group received dexamethasone for more than 1 course. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) with 20 items was applied when corrected gestational age was at expected date of confinement. Infantile intelligent development evaluation was made by mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of Beylay infant development scale when corrected gestational age was at postnatal 6 and 12 months. Results The single course group had much higher NBNA score when corrected gestational age was at expected date of confinement than the control group and multiple courses group (P<0.05). The single course group also had higher MDI and PDI of Beylay infant development scale during corrected gestational age at postnatal 6 and 12 months than the control group and the multiple courses group (P<0.05). Conclusion Implement of antenatal dexamethasone for a single course can improve short and long-term prognosis of premature infant, while multiple courses of dexamethasone may have certain negative influence on brain development of premature infant. Thus it requires necessary caution in clinical application.%目的:探讨产前不同疗程激素治疗对早产儿脑发育的影响。方法28~34周的早产儿107例,按母亲产前应用地塞米松的情况分为对照组(n=32)、单疗程组(n=45)、多疗程组(n=30)。对照组未用地塞米松;单疗程组应用地塞米松6 mg,2次/d,肌内注射,2 d为1个疗程,仅用1

  3. Does gender matter? Differences in social-emotional behavior among infants and toddlers before and after mild traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldoja, Mari-Liis; Kolk, Anneli

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a common cause of acquired disability in childhood. While much is known about cognitive sequelae of brain trauma, gender-specific social-emotional problems in children with mild traumatic brain injury is far less understood. The aims of the study were to investigate gender differences in social-emotional behavior before and after mild traumatic brain injury. Thirty-five 3- to 65-month-old children with mild traumatic brain injury and 70 controls were assessed with Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional. Nine months later, 27 of 35 patients and 54 of 70 controls were reassessed. We found that before injury, boys had more self-regulation and autonomy difficulties and girls had problems with adaptive functioning. Nine months after injury, boys continued to struggle with self-regulation and autonomy and new difficulties with interaction had emerged, whereas in girls, problems in interaction had evolved. Even mild traumatic brain injury in early childhood disrupts normal social-emotional development having especially devastating influence on interaction skills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. ASPHYXIA AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN HIGH RISK INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia is a risk factor that is very often related to neuro-developmental issues in high risk infants and equally affects preterm and term infants, however its outcome on the developed brain differs from the outcome on the preterm brain.In preterm infants, asphyxia usually exerts a hemorrhagic or ischaemic event and periventricular leukomalacia.In term infants, asphyxia leads to cerebral edema and atrophy of the brain, which may later lead to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE.The number of term infants with HIE who have survived is lower than those of preterm infants, while the percentage of term infants with HIE who have neuro-developmental issues is higher. Preemies face more problems in their motor development as a result of the brain damage, while term infants suffer from encephalopathy and their cognitive abilities are more affected.We have conducted a study about the effects that asphyxia has on the developmental outcomes in high risk infants. In our study, we did a longitudinal developmental follow-up of 30 high risk infants and an evaluation of their developmental outcome using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, from the 4th month of life until the end of the 36th month. First, we found that high risk infants had a much lower developmental outcome than the control group during the trial. Finally, we found that asphyxia makes a difference in the developmental outcome of preterm infants without asphyxia who have a very low birth weight, the preterm infants with asphyxia, and the term infants with HIE-II.

  5. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  6. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  7. An interacting systems model of infant habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Sylvain; Mareschal, Denis

    2004-10-01

    Habituation and related procedures are the primary behavioral tools used to assess perceptual and cognitive competence in early infancy. This article introduces a neurally constrained computational model of infant habituation. The model combines the two leading process theories of infant habituation into a single functional system that is grounded in functional brain circuitry. The HAB model (for Habituation, Autoassociation, and Brain) proposes that habituation behaviors emerge from the opponent, complementary processes of hippocampal selective inhibition and cortical long-term potentiation. Simulations of a seminal experiment by Fantz [Visual experience in infants: Decreased attention familiar patterns relative to novel ones. Science, 146, 668-670, 1964] are reported. The ability of the model to capture the fine detail of infant data (especially age-related changes in performance) underlines the useful contribution of neurocomputational models to our understanding of behavior in general, and of early cognition in particular.

  8. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia R. Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  9. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Camilia R; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L

    2016-05-11

    Mothers' own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow's milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow's milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  10. No clinically relevant effect on cognitive outcomes after low-dose radiation to the infant brain: a population-based cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstrand, Malin; Holmberg, Erik; Aberg, Maria A I; Lundell, Marie; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Karlsson, Per; Blomgren, Klas

    2014-09-01

    While the detrimental effects of cranial radiotherapy on the developing brain are well known, the effects on cognitive performance of low doses of ionizing radiation is less studied. We performed a population-based cohort study to determine whether low doses of ionizing radiation to the brain in infancy affects cognitive function later in life. Further we hypothesized that the dose to the hippocampus predicts cognitive late side effects better than the anterior or the posterior brain doses. During 1950-1960 3860 boys were treated with radiation in Sweden for cutaneous hemangiomas before the age of 18 months. Of these, 3030 were analyzed for military test scores at the age of 18 years and 2559 for the highest obtained educational level. Logical, spatial and technical test scores were not affected by increasing irradiation doses. The verbal test scores displayed a significant trend for decreasing scores with increasing doses to the hippocampus (p = 0.005). However, the absolute mean difference between the zero dose and the highest dose category (median 680 mGy) was very small, only 0.64 stanine points, and the significance was dependent on the highest dose category, containing few subjects. The educational level was not affected by brain irradiation. Overall, the hippocampal dose was a better predictor of late cognitive side effects than the doses to the anterior or the posterior brain. In conclusion, there was no decrease in logical, spatial and technical verbal or global test scores after ionizing radiation doses up to 250 mGy, but a subtle decrease in verbal test scores if the highest dose category was included (median 680 mGy). However, the clinical relevance of this decline in the highest dose group is questionable, since we could not find any effect on the highest obtained educational level.

  11. Growth and development of very low birth weight infants aged 18-24 months at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangtawesin, Varaporn; Singarj, Yupayao; Kanjanapattanakul, Wiboon

    2011-08-01

    The number of very low birth weight (VLBW) births is increasing worldwide. Despite better care in recent years, they have a high incidence of delayed growth and development. There are no previous studies regarding the growth and development of these infants at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). To study growth and developmental outcome of VLBW infants, aged 18-24 months who were discharged from QSNICH. VLBW infants who were discharged from QSNICH during the year 2007 were recruited in the study. Patients with chromosomal abnormalities, major congenital anomalies, definite congenital infections and positive maternal anti-HIV tests were excluded. At the corrected age of 18-24 months, the parents were called upon to bring their infants for complete physical examination and developmental evaluation on 2 occasions, two months apart. There were 111 cases of VLBW infants who were discharged from QSNICH during the year 2007. Fifty-four patients were eligible for the present study. Thirty cases (55.56%) were contacted for the first examination. During this examination, there were 3 cases (10%) with low head circumference, 1 case (3.33%) with poor weight gain, 5 cases (16.67%) with visual defect, 1 case (3.33%) with moderately severe hearing loss, 1 case (3.33%) with cerebral palsy and 7 cases (23.33%) with delayed development. Twenty-one cases could be recalled for a second evaluation. Two of the 5 cases had delayed language development. There were no cases with hydrocephalous, blindness or profound hearing loss. VLBW infants at QSNICH had much better survival during recent years. Most of these survivors had normal growth and development. Those with delayed growth and development need aggressive intervention and long-term follow-up for enhancement of quality of their lives.

  12. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  13. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child. Does using infant formula increase risk for dental fluorosis? Because most infant formulas contain low levels of ... I use affect my child’s chance of getting dental fluorosis? Three types of infant formula are available in ...

  14. Nutritional recommendations for the late-preterm infant and the preterm infant after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; O'Connor, Deborah L; Wang, Danhua; Rigo, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    Early nutritional support of preterm infants is critical to life-long health and well being. Numerous studies have demonstrated that preterm infants are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity, including disturbances in brain development. To date, much attention has focused on enhancing the nutritional support of very low and extremely low birth weight infants to improve survival and quality of life. In most countries, preterm infants are sent home before their expected date of term birth for economic or other reasons. It is debatable whether these newborns require special nutritional regimens or discharge formulas. Furthermore, guidelines that specify how to feed very preterm infants after hospital discharge are scarce and conflicting. On the other hand, the late-preterm infant presents a challenge to health care providers immediately after birth when decisions must be made about how and where to care for these newborns. Considering these infants as well babies may place them at a disadvantage. Late-preterm infants have unique and often-unrecognized medical vulnerabilities and nutritional needs that predispose them to greater rates of morbidity and hospital readmissions. Poor or inadequate feeding during hospitalization may be one of the main reasons why late-preterm infants have difficulty gaining weight right after birth. Providing optimal nutritional support to late premature infants may improve survival and quality of life as it does for very preterm infants. In this work, we present a review of the literature and provide separate recommendations for the care and feeding of late-preterm infants and very preterm infants after discharge. We identify gaps in current knowledge as well as priorities for future research. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurologic Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants Undergoing Surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between surgery in very preterm infants and brain structure at term equivalent and 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 227 infants born at <30 weeks gestation or at a birth weight of <1250 g were prospectively enrolled into a longitudinal observational cohort for magnetic resonance imaging and developmental follow-up. The infants were categorized retrospectively into either a nonsurgical group (n=178) or a surgical group (n=30). Nineteen infants were excluded because of incomplete or unsuitable data. The surgical and nonsurgical groups were compared in terms of clinical demographic data, white matter injury, and brain volume at term. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at age 2 years. RESULTS: Compared with the nonsurgical group, the infants in the surgical group were smaller and more growth-restricted at birth, received more respiratory support and oxygen therapy, and had longer hospital stays. They also had smaller brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Infants who underwent bowel surgery had greater white matter injury. Mental Developmental Index scores were lower in the surgical group, whereas Psychomotor Developmental Index scores did not differ between the groups. The Mental Developmental Index difference became nonsignificant after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSION: Preterm infants exposed to surgery and anesthesia had greater white matter injury and smaller total brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Surgical exposure in the preterm infant should alert the clinician to an increased risk for adverse cognitive outcome.

  16. Pilot study of systemic and intrathecal mafosfamide followed by conformal radiation for infants with intracranial central nervous system tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study (PBTC-001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Susan M; Kocak, Mehmet; Gajjar, Amar; Chintagumpala, Murali; Merchant, Thomas; Kieran, Mark; Pollack, Ian F; Gururangan, Sri; Geyer, Russ; Phillips, Peter; McLendon, Roger E; Packer, Roger; Goldman, Stewart; Banerjee, Anu; Heideman, Richard; Boyett, James M; Kun, Larry

    2012-09-01

    A pilot study to investigate the feasibility of the addition of intrathecal (IT) mafosfamide to a regimen of concomitant multi-agent systemic chemotherapy followed by conformal radiation therapy (RT) for children systemic multi-agent chemotherapy commenced within 35 days of surgery. Patients without CSF flow obstruction (n = 71) received IT mafosfamide (14 mg) with chemotherapy. Localized (M(0)) patients with SD or better subsequently received RT followed by 20 additional weeks of chemotherapy. Second look surgery was encouraged prior to RT if there was an incomplete surgical resection at diagnosis. 71 evaluable patients with normal CSF flow received IT Mafosfamide with systemic chemotherapy; patients with M + disease were removed from protocol therapy at 20 weeks and those with PD at the time of progression. One and 5-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the cohort of 71 evaluable patients were 52 ± 6.5 % and 33 ± 13 %, and 67 ± 6.2 % and 51 ± 11 %, respectively. The 1-year Progression Free Survival (PFS) for M0 patients with medulloblastoma (MB, n = 20), supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET, n = 9), and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT, n = 12) was 80 ± 7 %, 67 ± 15 % and 27 ± 13 % and 5-year PFS was 65 ± 19 %, 37 ± 29 %, and 0 ± 0 %, respectively. The addition of IT mafosfamide to systemic chemotherapy in infants with embryonal CNS tumors was feasible. The PFS for M0 patients appears comparable to or better than most prior historical comparisons and was excellent for those receiving conformal radiotherapy.

  17. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  18. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages.The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, because therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve growth, and identify interventions focused on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways are now being evaluated. Thus, treating and preventing long-term deficits must be developed in the context of a "moving target."

  19. 早期护理干预对脑损伤早产儿预后的影响%Influence of Early Nursing Intervention on the Prognosis of Premature Infants With Brain Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新月; 徐清清

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨早期护理干预对脑损伤早产儿预后的影响。方法将我院2010年7月~2011年8月收治的脑损伤早产患儿中抽取46例作为本次研究对象,随机分为研究组与对照组,每组23例,对照组使用常规的护理方法对患儿进行治疗,研究组则使用早期护理干预的方法对患儿进行治疗。观察两组患儿的预后。结果使用不同护理措施对患儿干预过后,研究组患儿的运动发育指数为(96.2±3.3),智力发育指数为(95.3±3.4),比运动指数为(71.7±4.3),发育指数为(73.6±4.2)的对照组患儿高(P<0.05),组间比较差异具有统计学意义。结论本文所使用的早期护理干预不仅能增进脑损伤早产儿的智力发育,还能提升其自身的运动能力,从而改善了患儿的生活水平,能够减轻其家庭的负担。%ObjectiveTo probe into the influence of early nursing intervention on the prognosis of premature infants with brain injurys.Methods 46 children with premature brain injury and who accepted treatments in our hospital from July,2010 to August,2011 were taken as the research objects,and these patients were randomly divided into the control group and the study group,with 23 patients in each group. In the control group,they were treated with routine nursing methods,while in the observation group,they were treated with the early nursing intervention. Then,the prognosis of the two groups were observed.Results After the intervention of children with different nursing measures,the sports development index in the study group was(96.2±3.3), and the mental development index was(95.3±3.4),which was significantly higher than that in the control group of the sports development index of (71.7±4.3)and the the mental development index of(73.6±4.2)(P<0.05)and the difference between the two groups was statisticaly significant. Conclusion The early nursing intervention in this paper can not only improve

  20. Integrating neurocritical care approaches into neonatology: should all infants be treated equitably?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P C; Gospe, S M; Steinman, K J; Wilfond, B S

    2015-12-01

    To improve the neurologic outcomes for infants with brain injury, neonatal providers are increasingly implementing neurocritical care approaches into clinical practice. Term infants with brain injury have been principal beneficiaries of neurologically-integrated care models to date, as evidenced by the widespread adoption of therapeutic hypothermia protocols for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Innovative therapeutic and diagnostic support for very low birth weight infants with brain injury has lagged behind. Given that concern for significant future neurodevelopmental impairment can lead to decisions to withdraw life supportive care at any gestational age, providing families with accurate prognostic information is essential for all infants. Current variable application of multidisciplinary neurocritical care approaches to infants at different gestational ages may be ethically problematic and reflect distinct perceptions of brain injury for infants born extremely premature.

  1. Prognostic Accuracy of Electroencephalograms in Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Emilie Pi; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Greisen, Gorm;

    2017-01-01

    (267 infants). Any aEEG background abnormality was a predictor of abnormal outcome. For prediction of a developmental quotient ...CONTEXT: Brain injury is common in preterm infants, and predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome are relevant. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic test accuracy of the background activity of the EEG recorded as amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) or conventional EEG early in life in preterm infants...... for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. STUDY SELECTION: We included observational studies that had obtained an aEEG or EEG within 7 days of life in preterm infants and reported...

  2. Amplitude integrated electroencephalographic activity in infants with congenital heart disease before surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, H-J.; Mud, M.; Roofthooft, M. T. R.; Bos, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for brain injury. An accurate tool to monitor brain function is amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG). It records both background patterns and electrographic seizure activity (EA). Aims: Our aim was to determine aEEG patterns in infants w

  3. Speech Discrimination in 11-Month-Old Bilingual and Monolingual Infants: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjan Ramírez, Naja; Ramírez, Rey R.; Clarke, Maggie; Taulu, Samu; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2017-01-01

    Language experience shapes infants' abilities to process speech sounds, with universal phonetic discrimination abilities narrowing in the second half of the first year. Brain measures reveal a corresponding change in neural discrimination as the infant brain becomes selectively sensitive to its native language(s). Whether and how bilingual…

  4. Favorable outcome in cerebral abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri in a newborn infant

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Algubaisi; Christoph Bührer; Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale; Birgit Spors

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of brain abscesses in newborn infants is controversial. We report on a 6-week-old infant with multiple brain abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri that resolved after treatment with combined surgical drainage and intravenous therapy with meropenem and fosfomycin.

  5. Oxytocin and mutual communication in mother-infant bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho eNagasawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. In this review, we describe the manner in which reciprocal communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in rodents. In rats and mice, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups. Some evidence suggests that mother and infant can develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of their counterpart during this bonding process. Neurochemically, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each side of the mother-infant bonding process, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding, that is, deprivation of social stimuli from the mother, strongly influences offspring sociality, including maternal behavior toward their own offspring in their adulthood, implying a non-genomic transmission of maternal environment, even in rodents. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships.

  6. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  7. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  8. Cranial sonography in term and near-term infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yikilmaz, Ali [Gevher Nesibe Hospital and Erciyes Medical School, Department of Radiology, Talas, Kayseri (Turkey); Taylor, George A. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Sonographic patterns of brain injury in the term and near-term infant are quite different from those in the premature infant. Although periventricular leukomalacia and germinal matrix hemorrhage are rarely seen in term infants, selective neuronal injury, parasagittal infarction, focal stroke, diffuse hypoxic-ischemic injury, and deep parenchymal hemorrhages are more common lesions. In addition, congenital brain tumors, hamartomatous lesions, such as hemimegalencephaly, and tuberous sclerosis can mimic ischemic and hemorrhagic injury. Sonography remains an important tool in the initial evaluation of intracranial abnormalities in critically ill term and near-term infants. An understanding of the differences in etiology, sonographic patterns, and limitations of sonography in the term infant is essential for accurate and effective diagnoses in this age group. (orig.)

  9. Abnormal Neuroimaging in a Case of Infant Botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ryan J; Messacar, Kevin; Stence, Nicholas V; Press, Craig A; Carpenter, Todd C

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of abnormal neuroimaging in a case of infant botulism. The clinical findings of the patient with constipation, bulbar weakness, and descending, symmetric motor weakness are consistent with the classic findings of infant botulism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, revealed restricted diffusion in the brain and enhancement of the cervical nerve roots. Traditionally, normal neuroimaging was used to help differentiate infant botulism from other causes of weakness in infants. Abnormal neuroimaging is seen in other causes of weakness in an infant including metabolic disorders and hypoxic-ischemic injury, but these diagnoses did not fit the clinical findings in this case. The explanation for the MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots is unclear as botulinum toxin acts at presynaptic nerve terminals and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Possible explanations for the findings include inflammation from the botulinum toxin at the synapse, alterations in sensory signaling and retrograde transport of the botulinum toxin. The patient was treated with human botulism immune globulin and had rapid recovery in weakness. A stool sample from the patient was positive for Type A Clostridium botulinum toxin eventually confirming the diagnosis of infant botulism. The findings in this case support use of human botulism immune globulin when the clinical findings are consistent with infant botulism despite the presence of MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots.

  10. Lesões isquêmicas cerebrais no recém-nascido pré-termo de muito baixo peso Ischemic brain damage in very low birth weight preterm newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Silveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão crítica e atualizada sobre as lesões cerebrais isquêmicas no recém-nascido pré-termo de muito baixo peso. FONTES DE DADOS: As referências foram obtidas através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionadas as mais representativas a critério dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A hemorragia com evolução para lesão isquêmica cerebral, a leucomalácia periventricular cística e a lesão difusa da substância branca cerebral são as lesões isquêmicas mais freqüentes em recém-nascidos pré-termo de muito baixo peso. Todas são doenças de causas multifatoriais, em que podem estar envolvidos fatores vasculares, hemodinâmicos, inflamatórios e infecciosos. São doenças que podem causar seqüelas neuropsicomotoras importantes e levar à paralisia cerebral e/ou déficit cognitivo e comportamental. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico precoce e uma estratégia terapêutica adequada podem minimizar as seqüelas causadas por essas doenças. A prevenção da prematuridade é a principal medida preventiva a ser tomada.OBJECTIVE: To present a critical and up-to-date review of ischemic brain damage in premature, very low birth weight infants. SOURCES OF DATA: Articles were obtained by means of a search of the MEDLINE database, with those considered most representative by the authors being selected. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The most frequent ischemic injuries among preterm, very low birth weight neonates are hemorrhage progressing to with ischemic brain damage, cystic periventricular leukomalacia and diffuse lesions of the cerebral white matter. All of these conditions have multiple causative factors, which may include vascular, hemodynamic, inflammatory and infectious factors. These are disorders that can cause significant neuropsychomotor sequelae and lead to cerebral palsy and/or cognitive and behavioral deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and adequate management of the patient can minimize long-term problems caused

  11. 婴幼儿神经系统遗传代谢病的脑MRI研究%Brain imaging characteristics of inherited metabolic diseases in infants and young children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程爱兰; 冯赟; 侯亮; 曹雯君; 汪登斌; 金彪

    2016-01-01

    ; brain atrophy in 2 cases; one case showed hypointensity on T1 FLAIR, hyperintensity on T2 FLAIR, and hyperintensity on DWI atbilateral centrum-semiovale;and ventricular enlargement in 1 case.Among the 3 patients with urea cycle disorders, ventricular enlargement was seen in 2 cases, cerebral cortex showed diffuse hypeninternsity on DWI in 1 case. The case with metachromatic leukodystrophy showed hyperintensity on T2 FLAIR at bilateral preventricular white matter and centrum-semiovale. Conclusion The brain MRI is lack of specificity in infants and young children with inherited metabolic diseases.Different disease types show varied MRI manifestations,and the organic acidemia in children mainly shows basal ganglia involvement.

  12. The relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oligodendrocytes in periventricular white matter injury of premture infants%脑源性神经营养因子与早产儿脑白质损伤中少突胶质细胞的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许全梅

    2013-01-01

    It is characterized by periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) and the following failure of myelination in the brain injury of premature infants.Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL),the main form of PWMI,is mainly induced by the decrease of premyelinating oligodendrocytes.Therefore,it is critically important for the prognosis of brain injury of premature infants that oligodendrocytes are myelinated.Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the richest neurotrophic factor in the brain,and widely expressed in the brain.BDNF is connected with the tyrosine receptor kinase B (Trk B).It is convinced that BDNF influences the production and myelination of oligodendrocytes.This review focuses on the advances in the relationship between BDNF and oligodendrocytes in brain injury of premature infants.%早产儿脑损伤以脑室周围白质损伤及其髓鞘化障碍为特征,脑室周围白质损伤主要形式为脑室周围白质软化(periventricular leukolamacia,PVL),且主要是未成熟少突胶质细胞的消耗导致PVL.未成熟少突胶质细胞成熟、成髓鞘过程对于早产儿脑白质损伤的预后有重要影响.脑源性神经营养因子(brain-derived neurotrophic factor,BDNF)是脑中含量最丰富的神经营养因子,在脑中分布广泛.BDNF主要通过与特异性受体酪氨酸激酶B结合起作用,影响少突胶质细胞的发生及成髓鞘过程.该文主要讨论BDNF与早产儿缺氧缺血脑白质损伤中少突胶质细胞关系的研究进展.

  13. Self-Representation and Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Carmody, Dennis P.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between self-representation and brain development in infants and young children. Self-representation was assessed by mirror recognition, personal pronoun use, and pretend play. Structural brain images were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain development was assessed by a quantitative measure of…

  14. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding are good. This is due to immature abdominal muscles used for pushing and does not need to ... holding, rocking, or cuddling. The infant's growth or development does not appear normal. Your infant seems to ...

  15. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  16. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  17. Infant dreaming and fetal memory: a possible explanation of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christos, G A

    1995-04-01

    During rapid-eye-movement sleep, when we dream, the brain is thought to be processing stored memory. The memory of a newborn infant is dominated by its fetal experience, and the infant is likely to dream about its life in the womb. Research with lucid (or conscious) dreaming has shown that dream images are supported by the corresponding body actions, using those muscles which remain active during rapid-eye-movement sleep. We suggest that sudden infant death syndrome or cot death may be a result of an infant dreaming about its life (or memory) as a fetus. In the course of that dream, since a fetus does not breathe (in the usual sense) the infant may cease to breathe and may die. This simple hypothesis is consistent with all of the known facts about sudden infant death syndrome (pathological and epidemiological), such as the age at death curve (the observed exponential decay and possibly the peak at 2-3 months), the higher risk with the prone sleeping position (but not excluding the supine position), and the observed climatic variation (seasonal and regional) in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. Many of these well-established facts have no other known explanation and other theories can generally only account for a few of the known facts about sudden infant death syndrome. Our hypothesis is also supported by recent findings that, as a group, sudden infant death syndrome infants have a higher proportion of rapid-eye-movement sleep, and also that they have an average higher heart rate (corresponding to possible fetal dreams) but only during rapid-eye-movement sleep.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocytes of lactating mothers and their infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.H.; Nielsen, P.K.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in breastmilk, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important for infant brain development. Accretion of DHA in the infant brain is dependent on DHA-status, intake and metabolism. The aim of this study was to describe changes in maternal...... and infant erythrocyte (RBC) DHA-status during the first four months of lactation. We examined 17 mothers and their term infants at 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Milk samples and RBC from the mothers and infants were obtained and analysed for fatty acid composition. Comparative analysis of the results showed...... that the content of DHA in maternal RBC-phosphatidylcholine (PE) decreased over the four month period and this was not accompanied by a decrease in DHA in infant RBC-PE (P = 0.005). The ratio of n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA increased over time in maternal RBC-PE, but not in infant RBC-PE (P

  19. Prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas,Yvan; DE GREEF, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota ...

  20. Neurosonographic findings of bacterial meningitis in Infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Chul; Lee, Sung Sik; Lee, Hong Kue; Lee, Soon Il [Sowa Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    44 infants under 1 year were studied retrospectively during these illness and follow up after 1 week intervals. The spectrum of sonographic features of bacterial meningitis in acute stage included normal scan (20 patients), echogenic sulci (10 patients), echogenic lining of epandymas (8 patients), Abnormal parenchymal echogenecity (6 patients). On follow up examination with 1 week intervals, variety of complications was found in 14 patients (32%) of the infants. There were ventriculomegaly in 7 patients, extraaxial fluid collection in 4 patients, brain abscess in 2 patients and poor encephalic cyst in 1 patient. We conclude that ultrasound was an effective method for evaluation of progression and complications of bacterial meningitis.

  1. Every Day in The Womb Boosts Babies' Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at birth. They showed no signs of structural brain injury. The preterm babies were compared to 130 infants born full term at a mean age of 39 weeks of pregnancy. The mean birth weight was nearly 3,400 ... comparison of the infants' brains in the third trimester (the final 13 to ...

  2. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  3. Hip Problems in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hip problems later in life? ResourcesScreening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by LM French, M.D., and FR Dietz, ... 2014 Categories: Family Health, Infants and ToddlersTags: dislocation, dysplasia, external, femoral, hip, infants, internal, problems, socket, torsion Family Health, Infants ...

  4. Leptomeningeal neurons are a common finding in infants and are increased in sudden infant death syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, Christian H.; Gross, Oliver; Nolte, Kay W.; Vennemann, Mechtild; Bajanowski, Thomas; Brinkmann, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Developmental abnormalities of the brain, in particular, the brainstem potentially affecting centers for breathing, circulation and sleep regulation, are thought to be involved in the etiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In order to investigate whether leptomeningeal neurons could serve

  5. Leptomeningeal neurons are a common finding in infants and are increased in sudden infant death syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, Christian H.; Gross, Oliver; Nolte, Kay W.; Vennemann, Mechtild; Bajanowski, Thomas; Brinkmann, Bernd

    Developmental abnormalities of the brain, in particular, the brainstem potentially affecting centers for breathing, circulation and sleep regulation, are thought to be involved in the etiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In order to investigate whether leptomeningeal neurons could serve

  6. Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interaction: The Communicative Value of Infant-Directed Talking and Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Diana; Peña, Marcela

    Across culture, healthy infants show a high interest in infant-directed (ID) talking and singing. Despite ID talking and ID singing being very similar in physical properties, infants differentially respond to each of them. The mechanisms underpinning these different responses are still under discussion. This study explored the behavioral (n = 26) and brain (n = 14) responses from 6- to 8-month-old infants to ID talking and ID singing during a face-to-face mother-infant interaction with their own mother. Behavioral response was analyzed from offline video coding, and brain response was estimated from the analysis of electrophysiological recordings. We found that during ID talking, infants displayed a significantly higher number of visual contacts, vocalizations, and body movements than during ID singing. Moreover, only during ID talking were the number of visual contacts and vocalizations positively correlated with the number of questions and pauses in the mother's speech. Our results suggest that ID talking provides infants with specific cues that allow them not only to react to mother stimulation, but also to act toward them, displaying a rudimentary version of turn-taking behavior. Brain activity partially supported that interpretation. The relevance of our results for bonding is discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Simulation of hydrocephalus condition in infant head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, Erna; Arif, Idam

    2014-03-01

    Hydrocephalus is a condition of an excessive of cerebrospinal fluid in brain. In this paper, we try to simulate the behavior of hydrocephalus conditions in infant head by using a hydro-elastic model which is combined with orthotropic elastic skull and with the addition of suture that divide the skull into two lobes. The model then gives predictions for the case of stenosis aqueduct by varying the cerebral aqueduct diameter, time constant and brain elastic modulus. The hydrocephalus condition which is shown by the significant value of ventricle displacement, as the result shows, is occurred when the aqueduct is as resistant as brain parenchyma for the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. The decrement of brain elastic modulus causes brain parenchyma displacement value approach ventricle displacement value. The smaller of time constant value causes the smaller value of ventricle displacement.

  8. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) requirement for brain development: A personal view

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is known to accumulate in the infant brain and clinical trials have established that dietary DHA is associated with improvements in visual and neural function in preterm infants. Thus, an elevated DHA status is considered to be important throughout infancy for brain development. While DHA can be added directly to infant foods, there have been important studies to show that infants can partially meet ...

  9. Music therapy for improving premature infants' well-being and communication skills and enhancing mother-infant bonding : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakopoulou, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, mother-child attachment has received increasing attention in early intervention with prematurely born infants. In these early years, physical interactions constitute a crucial arena for early learning and brain development, and together with the strong emotional bonding between the mother and her infant, they build the foundation for later interaction relationships. Premature birth is a challenging experience for the mother-infant relationship and is always a risk f...

  10. Cardiorespiratory disorders of infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabovski Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the characteristics of modern era is the explosion of diabetes in the world. Today more than 400,000,000 people suffer from diabetes in the entire world. During the last decade the number of women with the disorder of glucose homeostasis is six to seven times greater than in the previous period. Therefore, the re-evaluation of the impact of glucose intolerance on the course and outcome of pregnancy is very current. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the data on the influence of mothers’ glucose homeostasis disturbances on the occurrence of cardiorespiratory disorders in newborns, as well as their influence on the perinatal outcome. Methods. Prospective examination included 102 newborns in total - 31 infants of mothers with glucose homeostasis disorder (Group I and 71 infants of healthy mothers (Group II. Average age, body height, body weight, body mass index, parity and illness duration of the pregnant women had been determined, as well as the delivery method. Every newborn was provided with physical examination, Apgar score was calculated, body weight and body length were measured. Also, electrocardiography and brain ultrasound, as well as the basic hematology biochemical and microbiological analysis, were performed within the examinations of the infants. Results. The average weight and obesity incidence with diabetic women was higher than in the control group and their infants were heavier and with lower gestational age. Heart failures were diagnosed in five (16.1% infants of diabetic mothers and in one (1.4% infant of a healthy woman (p<0.01. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 48.4% infants of diabetic mothers and in 12.6% of healthy mothers (p<0.01. Forty-two percent of infants of diabetic mothers and 19.7% infants of healthy mothers needed additional oxygen. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system and respiratory disorders in the infants of diabetic mothers were six to eight

  11. The role of taurine in infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, R W; Helms, R A; Christensen, M; Budreau, A M; Han, X; Sturman, J A

    1998-01-01

    The importance of taurine in the diet of pre-term and term infants has not always been clearly understood and is a topic of interest to students of infant nutrition. Recent evidence indicates that it should be considered one of the "conditionally essential" amino acids in infant nutrition. Plasma values for taurine will fall if infants are fed a taurine-free formula or do not have taurine provided in the TPN solution. Urine taurine values also fall, which is indicative of an attempt by the kidney to conserve taurine. The very-low-birth-weight infant, for a variety of reasons involving the maturation of tubular transport function, cannot maximally conserve taurine by enhancing renal reabsorption and, hence, is potentially at greater risk for taurine depletion than larger pre-term or term infants, and certainly more than older children who have taurine in their diet. Taurine has an important role in fat absorption in pre-term and possibly term infants and in children with cystic fibrosis. Because taurine-conjugated bile acids are better emulsifiers of fat than glycine-conjugated bile acids, the dietary (or TPN) intake has a direct influence on absorption of lipids. Taurine supplementation of formulas or TPN solutions could potentially serve to minimize the brain phospholipid fatty acid composition differences between formula-fed and human milk-fed infants. Taurine appears to have a role in infants, children, and even adults receiving most (> 75%) of their calories from TPN solutions in the prevention of granulation of the retina and electroencephalographic changes. Taurine has also been reported to improve maturation of auditory-evoked responses in pre-term infants, although this point is not fully established. Clearly, taurine is an important osmolyte in the brain and the renal medulla. At these locations, it is a primary factor in the cell volume regulatory process, in which brain or renal cells swell or shrink in response to osmolar changes, but return to their

  12. Reference range of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in early preterm infants%早期早产儿血浆N末端脑钠肽参考值范围

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜; 罗成汉; 时赞扬; 卢洁; 程欣茹; 徐千雅; 郭宏湘; 王丽; 程秀永

    2013-01-01

    .358,t1d与7 d=14.743,t3d与7d =11.105,P均=0.000).出生后1d、3d、7d早产儿血浆NT-proBNP水平分别为(1875 ±686) ng/L、(1615±574) ng/L、(1118 ±380) ng/L;均数95%置信区间分别为530~3220 ng/L、490~2740 ng/L、373~ 1863 ng/L.结论 早产儿血浆NT-proBNP水平出生第1天达高峰,之后随日龄增加而下降,二者呈负相关;血浆NT-proBNP水平不受胎龄、性别、出生体质量、分娩方式及营养方式的影响.%Objective To establish the reference range of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in early preterm infants.Methods 1.Inclusion criteria of the subjects:(1) preterm infants admitted to Neonatal Ward of First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between Oct.2009 and Aug.2012 within 24 hours after birth;(2) maternal health during pregnancy; (3) written informed consent obtained from parents;(4) normal laboratory examination results such as blood gas analysis,electrolyte,hepatorenal function,myocardial enzyme,routine blood count and infectious disease screening (hepatitis B,hepatitis C,syphilis and acquired immune deficiency syndrome) within 24 hours after birth.Plasma NT-proBNP levels were measured on day 1,day 3 and day 7 of life.Variable data was analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality test.Difference in plasma NT-proBNP levels on different days of life was analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance.A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the influencing factors for plasma NT-proBNP level,reference value interval:reference range containing 95 % of the reference population,namely(x-1.96 s)-(x-+ 1.96 s),with inspection level α =0.05.Results 1.A total of 204 preterm infants (104 cases were male and 100 cases were female) were included in the present study,with gestational age ranging from 27 + 1 to 36 +6 weeks(median 33 weeks) and birth weight ranging from 700 to 3050 g (median 1590 g).Of these preterm infants,vaginal delivery were 78

  13. Age-specific average head template for typically developing 6-month-old infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Akiyama

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid anatomical changes that occur within the brain structure in early human development and the significant differences between infant brains and the widely used standard adult templates, it becomes increasingly important to utilize appropriate age- and population-specific average templates when analyzing infant neuroimaging data. In this study we created a new and highly detailed age-specific unbiased average head template in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system for healthy, typically developing 6-month-old infants by performing linear normalization, diffeomorphic normalization and iterative averaging processing on 60 subjects' structural images. The resulting age-specific average templates in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system demonstrate sharper anatomical detail and clarity compared to existing infant average templates and successfully retains the average head size of the 6-month-old infant. An example usage of the average infant templates transforms magnetoencephalography (MEG estimated activity locations from MEG's subject-specific head coordinate space to the standard MNI152-like infant coordinate space. We also created a new atlas that reflects the true 6-month-old infant brain anatomy. Average templates and atlas are publicly available on our website (http://ilabs.washington.edu/6-m-templates-atlas.

  14. Cerebral ultrasound abnormalities in preterm infants caused by late-onset sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Dungen, F. A. M.; Vermeulen, R. J.; van Weissenbruch, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study describes cerebral ultrasound abnormalities caused by late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very preterm infants with a gestational age of < 32 weeks and/or birthweight < 1500 grams. Methods The prospective study (“INFANT study”) included 117 preterm infants with suspected LOS. Proven LOS was defined as a positive blood culture after 72 hours of life. In case of coagulase-negative staphylococci an elevated C-reactive protein was additionally required to establish proven LOS. Patients were identified as proven LOS and patients with only clinical symptoms of LOS. Cerebral ultrasound images were obtained in the first week after birth, during/after LOS and before discharge. Cerebral findings were divided in no/minor and major abnormalities. Results Eighty-six preterm infants had proven LOS and 31 preterm infants had only clinical signs of LOS. Four infants were excluded because pre-existing major brain abnormalities. No significant differences (p = 0.624) for incidence of major brain abnormalities on cerebral ultrasound were found. Conclusion No differences were revealed in prevalence of major brain abnormalities between the groups with proven LOS and with clinical signs of LOS. Both infants with a gram negative sepsis developed major brain abnormalities, whereas only two of 66 preterm infants coagulase-negative staphylococci sepsis developed major brain abnormalities. PMID:28301503

  15. Infant visual attention and object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D

    2015-05-15

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy.

  16. Intravenous Lipids for Preterm Infants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan S. A. Salama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW are born at a time when the fetus is undergoing rapid intrauterine brain and body growth. Continuation of this growth in the first several weeks postnatally during the time these infants are on ventilator support and receiving critical care is often a challenge. These infants are usually highly stressed and at risk for catabolism. Parenteral nutrition is needed in these infants because most cannot meet the majority of their nutritional needs using the enteral route. Despite adoption of a more aggressive approach with amino acid infusions, there still appears to be a reluctance to use early intravenous lipids. This is based on several dogmas that suggest that lipid infusions may be associated with the development or exacerbation of lung disease, displace bilirubin from albumin, exacerbate sepsis, and cause CNS injury and thrombocytopena. Several recent reviews have focused on intravenous nutrition for premature neonate, but very little exists that provides a comprehensive review of intravenous lipid for very low birth and other critically ill neonates. Here, we would like to provide a brief basic overview, of lipid biochemistry and metabolism of lipids, especially as they pertain to the preterm infant, discuss the origin of some of the current clinical practices, and provide a review of the literature, that can be used as a basis for revising clinical care, and provide some clarity in this controversial area, where clinical care is often based more on tradition and dogma than science.

  17. Acquired methemoglobinemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mutlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the etiologic factors of acquired methemoglobinemia in infants younger than three months in our region. Material and Methods: This study was carried out retrospectively in infants with methemoglobinemia admitted to Karadeniz Technical University, Pediatric Clinic, during the period 2000-2009. Infants with methemoglobinemia were identified according to the medical records or ICD-10 code. Results: Nine infants with acquired methemoglobinemia (8 male, 1 female were included in the study. Seven cases were associated with the use of prilocaine for circumcision, one case with the use of prilocaine-lidocaine for local pain therapy, and one case with neonatal sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion: Prilocaine should not be used in infants less than three months of age because of the risk of methemoglobinemia. Ascorbic acid is an effective therapy if methylene blue is not obtained. It should not be forgotten that sepsis caused by S. aureus may cause methemoglobinemia in infants.

  18. Cerebral candida abscess in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradkar V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess is uncommon in the pediatric population. Here, we report one such case due to Candida albicans in one-year-old infant, without any predisposing factors. The child presented with progressively increasing size of head circumference. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan of brain and microbiological investigations on the drained pus material. The patient responded to combination of surgery (drainage and intravenous amphotericin B. Neurological development six months after hospital discharge was normal. The organism being a rare cause of cerebral abscess in pediatric population is reported here.

  19. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Banner, Jytte

    2000-01-01

    in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome......Sudden infant death syndrome or "cot death" has until the late eighties been a significant cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year. Approximately two per 1000 children born alive dies of sudden infant death syndrome each year in Western Europe, North America, and Australia....... The vulnerability of the infant brain stem to ischemia has been suggested to be a conceivable cause of sudden infant death syndrome. This is compatible with a hypothesis that genetic risk factors for cerebral thrombosis could cause microinfarction in the brain stem during the first month of life, affecting vital...

  20. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, TB; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Lundemose, JB

    2000-01-01

    . The vulnerability of the infant brain stem to ischemia has been suggested to be a conceivable cause of sudden infant death syndrome. This is compatible with a hypothesis that genetic risk factors for cerebral thrombosis could cause microinfarction in the brain stem during the first month of life, affecting vital......Sudden infant death syndrome or "cot death" has until the late eighties been a significant cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year. Approximately two per 1000 children born alive dies of sudden infant death syndrome each year in Western Europe, North America, and Australia...... in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome...

  1. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  2. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  3. Caffeine citrate versus aminophylline in treatment of premature infant apnea and its influence on brain development%枸橼酸咖啡因与氨茶碱治疗早产儿呼吸暂停效果比较及其对脑神经发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小强; 雷日华; 蒋丽红; 叶贞志

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the curative effect of caffeine citrate versus aminophylline in the treatment of premature infant apnea and its influence on brain development.Methods 60 low birth weight infants with apnea were selected as study objects and were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group,30 cases for each group.The heart rate,blood oxygen saturation,and respiratory were regularly monitored.In the addition of basic treatment,the control group were treated with aminophylline and the observation group with caffeine citrate.The treatment effect,prognosis,and neural development were compared between these two groups.Results The apnea disappearing time and average medication time were significantly shorter and Gesell score was significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Caffeine citrate in the treatment of premature infant apnea is more effective than aminophylline and can promote premature infants' brain development.%目的 探讨比较枸橼酸咖啡因与氨茶碱治疗早产儿呼吸暂停的效果及其对脑神经发育的影响.方法 选取60例有呼吸暂停的低出生体重儿为研究对象,随机分为观察组与对照组,各30例;常规监测心率、血氧饱和度及呼吸,对照组在基础治疗的前提下加用氨茶碱治疗,观察组在基础治疗的加用枸橼酸咖啡因治疗,比较两组疗效、预后及神经发育情况.结果 观察组呼吸暂停消失时间、平均用药时间均明显低于对照组(P<0.05),Gesell评分明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 枸橼酸咖啡因治疗早产儿呼吸暂停较氨茶碱效果更显著,同时对于早产儿脑神经发育有明显的促进作用.

  4. Two-month-old infants at risk for dyslexia do not discriminate vertical bar bAk vertical bar from vertical bar dAk vertical bar : A brain-mapping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Been, Pieter; van Herten, Marieke; Zwarts, Frans; Maassen, Ben; Leij, Aryan van der

    2008-01-01

    Dyslexics have problems with categorization of speech sounds, in particular when rapid temporal processing is involved such as in formant transitions of stop-consonants. Infants are already sensitive to such auditory features, but here we show that precursors of impaired categorization are already p

  5. Two-month-old infants at risk for dyslexia do not discriminate vertical bar bAk vertical bar from vertical bar dAk vertical bar : A brain-mapping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Been, Pieter; van Herten, Marieke; Zwarts, Frans; Maassen, Ben; Leij, Aryan van der

    Dyslexics have problems with categorization of speech sounds, in particular when rapid temporal processing is involved such as in formant transitions of stop-consonants. Infants are already sensitive to such auditory features, but here we show that precursors of impaired categorization are already

  6. Infant intersubjectivity: research, theory, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, C; Aitken, K J

    2001-01-01

    We review research evidence on the emergence and development of active "self-and-other" awareness in infancy, and examine the importance of its motives and emotions to mental health practice with children. This relates to how communication begins and develops in infancy, how it influences the individual subject's movement, perception, and learning, and how the infant's biologically grounded self-regulation of internal state and self-conscious purposefulness is sustained through active engagement with sympathetic others. Mutual self-other-consciousness is found to play the lead role in developing a child's cooperative intelligence for cultural learning and language. A variety of preconceptions have animated rival research traditions investigating infant communication and cognition. We distinguish the concept of "intersubjectivity", and outline the history of its use in developmental research. The transforming body and brain of a human individual grows in active engagement with an environment of human factors--organic at first, then psychological or inter-mental. Adaptive, human-responsive processes are generated first by interneuronal activity within the developing brain as formation of the human embryo is regulated in a support-system of maternal tissues. Neural structures are further elaborated with the benefit of intra-uterine stimuli in the foetus, then supported in the rapidly growing forebrain and cerebellum of the young child by experience of the intuitive responses of parents and other human companions. We focus particularly on intrinsic patterns and processes in pre-natal and post-natal brain maturation that anticipate psychosocial support in infancy. The operation of an intrinsic motive formation (IMF) that developed in the core of the brain before birth is evident in the tightly integrated intermodal sensory-motor coordination of a newborn infant's orienting to stimuli and preferential learning of human signals, by the temporal coherence and intrinsic

  7. Xe enhanced CT in the human newborn infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuse, Yozen; Nemoto, Yuko; Shimizu, Mitsumasa; Uga, Naoki; Tada, Hiroshi; Fujii, Toshi (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Machida, Keiichi; Kikuchi, Hideo; Izumi, Shigemitsu

    1990-09-01

    With a cranial computed tomography (CT) using stable xenon gas as a diffusible tracer, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 6 newborn infants with a variety of neurological abnormalities. Gestational ages and birthweights were 35 to 43 weeks and 2436 to 3540 g, respectively. Four infants exhibited hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), one infant had subdural hemorrhage and the other one was the infant with hyponatremia. A baseline CT was done during denitrogenation by 100% oxygen breathing and then a mixture of 35% xenon and 65% oxygen was breathed for 6 minutes. Six scans were obtained during the inhalation period then the infant was returned to breathing 100% oxygen and additional 7 scans were taken. Four samples of arterial blood were collected every 2 minutes before and during inhalation of the xenon gas. A rCBF was calculated with the changes of Hounsfield units in brain tissue and arterial blood. Relatively high blood flows in the region of the basal nuclei as well as decreased flows in the occipital white matter were observed in the infants with HIE. In an infant with subdural hemorrhage, the blood flows were markedly reduced in the areas adjacent to the lesion, including the basal nuclei, and frontal white matter in the opposite hemisphere. Xenon-enhanced CT by inhaling low concentration of the xenon gas enables to measure rCBF in the human newborn infants without no obvious side effect. (author).

  8. Clinical indicators of intracranial injury in head-injured infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, D S; Schutzman, S A

    1999-10-01

    1) To determine whether clinical signs of brain injury are sensitive indicators of intracranial injury (ICI) in head-injured infants. 2) To determine whether radiographic imaging of otherwise asymptomatic infants with scalp hematoma is a useful means of detecting cases of ICI. 3) To determine whether head-injured infants without signs of brain injury or scalp hematoma may be safely managed without radiographic imaging. We performed a 1-year prospective study of all infants younger than 2 years of age presenting to a pediatric emergency department with head trauma. Data were collected on historical features, physical findings, radiographic findings, and hospital course. Follow-up telephone calls were made 2 weeks after discharge to assess for any late deterioration. Of 608 study subjects, 30 (5%) had ICI; 12/92 (13%) infants 0 to 2 months of age had ICI, compared with 13/224 (6%) infants 3 to 11 months of age, and 5/292 (2%) infants 12 months of age or older. Only 16/30 (52%) subjects with ICI had at least one of the following clinical symptoms or signs of brain injury: loss of consciousness, history of behavior change, seizures, emesis, depressed mental status, irritability, bulging fontanel, focal neurologic findings, or vital signs indicating increased intracranial pressure. Of the 14 asymptomatic subjects with ICI, 13 (93%) had significant scalp hematoma. Among subjects who had head computed tomography, significant scalp hematoma had an odds ratio of 2.78 (95% confidence interval: 1.15,6.70) for association with ICI. A total of 265 subjects (43%) were asymptomatic and had no significant scalp hematoma. None (95% confidence interval: 0,1.2%) required specific therapy or had any subsequent clinical deterioration. Clinical signs of brain injury are insensitive indicators of ICI in infants. A substantial fraction of infants with ICI will be detected through radiographic imaging of otherwise asymptomatic infants with significant scalp hematomas. Asymptomatic infants

  9. Pediatric brain death determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Mudit; Ashwal, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Clinical guidelines for the determination of brain death in children were first published in 1987. These guidelines were revised in 2011 under the auspices of the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Child Neurology Society, and provide the minimum standards that must be satisfied before brain death can be declared in infants and children. After achieving physiologic stability and exclusion of confounders, two examinations including apnea testing separated by an observation period (24 hours for term newborns up to 30 days of age, and 12 hours for infants and children from 31 days up to 18 years) are required to establish brain death. Apnea testing should demonstrate a final arterial PaCO2 20 mm Hg above the baseline and ≥ 60 mm Hg with no respiratory effort during the testing period. Ancillary studies (electroencephalogram and radionuclide cerebral blood flow) are not required to establish brain death and are not a substitute for the neurologic examination. The committee concluded that ancillary studies may be used (1) when components of the examination or apnea testing cannot be completed, (2) if uncertainty about components of the neurologic examination exists, (3) if a medication effect may be present, or (4) to reduce the interexamination observation period. When ancillary studies are used, a second clinical examination and apnea test should still be performed and components that can be completed must remain consistent with brain death.

  10. Clinical use of cerebral oximetry in extremely preterm infants is feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sørensen, Simon; Austin, Topun; van Bel, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The research programme Safeguarding the Brains of our smallest Children (SafeBoosC) aims to test the benefits and harms of cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry in infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. In a phase II trial, infants will be randomised to visible cerebral NIRS...

  11. Iron overload in very low birth weight infants: Serum Ferritin and adverse outcomes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, M

    2011-11-01

    Adequate iron isessential for growth and haematpoiesis. Oral iron supplementation is the standard of care in VLBW infants. Post mortem evidence has confirmed significant iron overload. Excessive free iron has been associated with free radical formation and brain injury in term infants.

  12. Construct Validity of the Infant Motor Profile: Relation with Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Kirsten R.; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Fidler, Vaclav; Middelburg, Karin J.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The Infant Motor Profile (IMP) is a qualitative assessment of motor behaviour of infants aged 3 to 18 months. The aim of this study was to investigate construct validity of the IMP through the relation of IMP scores with prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal variables, including the presence of brain pathology indicated by neonatal ultrasound…

  13. Preterm nutrition and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, Sara E; Georgieff, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The brain is the most highly metabolic organ in the preterm neonate and consumes the greatest amount of nutrient resources for its function and growth. As preterm infants survive at greater rates, neurodevelopment has become the primary morbidity outcome of interest. While many factors influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants, nutrition is of particular importance because the healthcare team has a great deal of control over its provision. Studies over the past 30 years have emphasized the negative neurodevelopmental consequences of poor nutrition and growth in the preterm infant. While all nutrients are important for brain development, certain ones including glucose, protein, fats (including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), iron, zinc, copper, iodine, folate and choline have particularly large roles in the preterm infant. They affect major brain processes such as neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis, all of which are proceeding at a rapid pace between 22 and 42 weeks' post-conception. At the macronutrient level, weight gain, linear growth (independent of weight gain) and head circumference growth are markers of nutritional status. Each has been associated with long-term neurodevelopment. The relationship of micronutrients to neurodevelopment in preterm infants is understudied in spite of the large effect these nutrients have in other young populations. Nutrients do not function alone to stimulate brain development, but rather in concert with growth factors, which in turn are dependent on adequate nutrient status (e.g. protein, zinc) as well as on physiologic status. Non-nutritional factors such as infection, corticosteroids, and inflammation alter how nutrients are accreted and distributed, and also suppress growth factor synthesis. Thus, nutritional strategies to optimize brain growth and development include assessment of status at birth, aggressive provision of nutrients that are critical in this time

  14. Development of Sucking Patterns in Pre-Term Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Costa, Saakje P.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Zweens, Mar J.; Boelema, Sarai R.; van der Meij, Eva; Boerman, Mieke A.; Bos, Arend F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pre-term infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are at risk of acquiring brain abnormalities. Combined with ongoing breathing difficulties, this may influence the development of their sucking patterns. Objective: To determine the longitudinal development of sucking patterns from

  15. Traumatic perforation of the lamina cribrosa during nasal intubation of a preterm infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Maaike J; Sival, Deborah A; van Doormaal-Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F; Ter Horst, Hendrik J

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic perforation of the lamina cribrosa and penetration of the brain occurred during nasotracheal intubation of a preterm infant requiring resuscitation. This rare complication is specifically associated with the nasal route of intubation. The complication resulted in significant morbidity. The

  16. Cramped synchronized general movements in preterm infants as an early marker for cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, F; Cioni, G; Einspieler, C; Roversi, MF; Bos, AF; Paolicelli, PB; Ranzi, A; Prechtl, HFR

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether specific abnormalities (ie, cramped synchronized general movements [GMs]) can predict cerebral palsy and the severity of later motor impairment in preterm infants affected by brain lesions. Design: Traditional neurological examination was performed, and GMs were seria

  17. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  18. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Infant Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Infant Hip A A A What's in this ... en los lactantes What It Is A hip ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  19. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  20. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  1. Cerebral Asymmetry in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Corballis, Michael C.

    This paper describes two experiments conducted to replicate the reported findings (Entus, 1975) that infants demonstrate a right ear advantage in the perception of dichotically presented syllables. Using the non-nutritive sucking paradigm, 48 infants 1-3 months of age were presented with verbal stimuli contingent upon criterion level sucking.…

  2. 通督醒脑益肾健脾按摩对脑损伤早产儿神经发育影响的观察%Observation of effect on neural development on massage of Tongduxingnao and Yishenjianpi in the brain damage in preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑丽婷; 刘振寰

    2012-01-01

    [Objectives] The effects of the two groups was compared to see whether there were superiority in early intervention of brain damage in preterm infants with the Massage of Tongduxingnao and Yishenjianpi. Whether to further established the important position of traditional Chinese medicine in the early intervention of brain damage in premature infants. [Methods] 82 infants with brain demage in preterm infants were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group received the treatment of Massage of Tongduxingnao and Yishenjianpi combined with routine intervention. The control group received Massage of Sensory Stimulation combined with routine intervention. The Gross Motor Function Measure, Bayley scales of infant development Ⅱ (MDI、PDI) and the Gesell Developmental Scales were tested before , right after and 3 months after the treatment designed. [Results] The experimental group had a significant superiority in improving the DQ of gross motor function by Gesell Developmental Scales and GMFM(B area)compared with the control group(P0. 05). [Conclusion] The Massage of Tongduxingnao and Yishenjianpi has a significant superiority in improving the DQ of gross motor function and sitting posi-tion(B area of GMFM) compare with the Massage of Sensory Stimulation.%[目的]探讨中医按摩法在促进早产儿脑损伤的神经发育方面是否存在优势,能否进一步的确立中医在早产儿脑损伤的早期干预中的重要地位. [方法]对纳入符合纳入标准病例82例随机分为两组,两组均在常规早期干预治疗(中药浴水疗、运动疗法)的基础上,试验组加通督醒脑益肾健脾按摩,对照组加婴儿抚触,分别于治疗前及治疗3个月后,用粗大运动功能评定量表(Gross Motor Function Measure,GMFM)、贝利婴幼儿发育量表Ⅱ及Gesell发育商数(DQ)进行评估. [结果]治疗后试验组大运动(DQ)发育商均数及GMFM的B区总体均数高于对照组,两

  3. A Case of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Located at Brain Stem in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is confined to the brain, eyes, and/or leptomeninges without evidence of a systemic primary tumor. Although the tumor can affect all age groups, it is rare in childhood; thus, its incidence and prognosis in children have not been well defined and the best treatment strategy remains unclear. A nine-year old presented at our department with complaints of diplopia, dizziness, dysarthria, and right side hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance image suggested a diffuse brain stem glioma with infiltration into the right cerebellar peduncle. The patient was surgically treated by craniotomy and frameless stereotactic-guided biopsy, and unexpectedly, the histopathology of the mass was consistent with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity for CD20 and CD79a. Accordingly, we performed a staging work-up for systemic lymphoma, but no evidence of lymphoma elsewhere in the body was obtained. In addition, she had a negative serologic finding for human immunodeficient virus, which confirmed the histopathological diagnosis of PCNSL. She was treated by radiosurgery at 12 Gy and subsequent adjuvant combination chemotherapy based on high dose methotrexate. Unfortunately, 10 months after the tissue-based diagnosis, she succumbed due to an acute hydrocephalic crisis. PMID:27867930

  4. Measuring Neural Entrainment to Beat and Meter in Infants: Effects of Music Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Laura K.; Spinelli, Christina; Nozaradan, Sylvie; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often engage in musical interactions with their infants. For example, parents across cultures sing lullabies and playsongs to their infants from birth. Behavioral studies indicate that infants not only extract beat information, but also group these beats into metrical hierarchies by as early as 6 months of age. However, it is not known how this is accomplished in the infant brain. An EEG frequency-tagging approach has been used successfully with adults to measure neural entrainment to auditory rhythms. The current study is the first to use this technique with infants in order to investigate how infants' brains encode rhythms. Furthermore, we examine how infant and parent music background is associated with individual differences in rhythm encoding. In Experiment 1, EEG was recorded while 7-month-old infants listened to an ambiguous rhythmic pattern that could be perceived to be in two different meters. In Experiment 2, EEG was recorded while 15-month-old infants listened to a rhythmic pattern with an unambiguous meter. In both age groups, information about music background (parent music training, infant music classes, hours of music listening) was collected. Both age groups showed clear EEG responses frequency-locked to the rhythms, at frequencies corresponding to both beat and meter. For the younger infants (Experiment 1), the amplitudes at duple meter frequencies were selectively enhanced for infants enrolled in music classes compared to those who had not engaged in such classes. For the older infants (Experiment 2), amplitudes at beat and meter frequencies were larger for infants with musically-trained compared to musically-untrained parents. These results suggest that the frequency-tagging method is sensitive to individual differences in beat and meter processing in infancy and could be used to track developmental changes. PMID:27252619

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ...

  9. A young infant with musicogenic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuang-Lin; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Kao, Pan-Fu

    2003-05-01

    Musicogenic epilepsy is a relatively rare form of epilepsy. In its pure form, it is characterized by epileptic seizures that are provoked exclusively by listening to music. The usual type of seizure is partial complex or generalized tonic-clonic. Precipitating factors are quite specific, such as listening to only one composition or the actual playing of music on an instrument. However, simple sound also can be a trigger. We report a 6-month-old infant with musicogenic epilepsy. She manifested right-sided focal seizures with occasional generalization. The seizures were frequently triggered by loud music, especially that by the Beatles. The interictal electroencephalography results were normal. Ictal spikes were present throughout the left temporal area during continuous electroencephalograpic monitoring. Brain magnetic resonance imaging results were normal, whereas single-photon emission computed tomography of the brain revealed hypoperfusion of the left temporal area. The young age and epileptogenic left temporal lobe lesion in this patient with musicogenic epilepsy were unusual characteristics. Theoretically, three levels of integration are involved in music processing in the brain. The involved integration of this infant's brain may be the sensory level rather than the emotional level. Nevertheless, the personal musicality and musical style of the Beatles might play an important role in this patient's epilepsy.

  10. Variation in infant EEG power across social and nonsocial contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Ashley M; Kao, Katie; Choksi, Maitreyi; Liederman, Jacqueline; Grieve, Philip G; Tarullo, Amanda R

    2016-12-01

    To understand the infant social brain, it is critical to observe functional neural activation during social interaction. Yet many infant electroencephalography (EEG) studies on socioemotional development have recorded neural activity only during a baseline state. This study investigated how infant EEG power (4-6Hz and 6-9Hz) varies across social and nonsocial contexts. EEG was recorded in 12-month-olds across controlled conditions to disentangle the neural bases of social interactions. Four conditions-nonsocial, joint attention, language-only, and social engagement-were designed to tease apart how different environmental inputs relate to infant EEG power. We analyzed EEG power in frontal, central, temporal, and parietal regions. During the joint attention condition compared with the other conditions, 4-6Hz frontal, central, and parietal power was lowest, indexing greater neural activation. There was lower 4-6Hz and 6-9Hz power in the temporal region in both the joint attention and social engagement conditions compared with the nonsocial condition. In 6-9Hz, the pattern was consistent with 4-6Hz findings for the frontal region such that 6-9Hz frontal power was lower, indexing greater neural activation, in the joint attention condition compared with the nonsocial condition. There were no differences between conditions in central and parietal regions in 6-9Hz. Findings highlight the methodological importance of recording functional brain activity in multiple controlled contexts to explicate the neural bases of the infant social brain.

  11. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  12. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...... indicating that some of the excess risk may have a placental origin. To further understand the associations between maternal obesity and late fetal and infant death, we need better and more detailed clinical data, which is difficult to obtain on a population level given the rarity of the outcomes. The best...

  13. Characteristics and its risk fastors of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in the early brain development of preterm infant%早产儿生后早期振幅整合脑电图特点及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国玉; 侯新琳; 周丛乐; 刘黎黎; 汤泽中; 姜毅; 王红梅; 周燕霞; 闫欢

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics and its risk fastors of brain development of the preterm infant early after birth in amplitude-integrated electroencephalography(aEEG). Methods The 153 preterm infants who had seen a doctor in Peking University First Hospital from April 2009 to August 2013 accepted the aEEG check at term of corrected gestational age ( ≥ 38 weeks but < 42 weeks of corrected gestational age). The risk factors of brain development, such as gestational age ( < 30, 30 ≤ - ≤ 33+6 and 34≤-≤36+6 weeks), clinical informations [relatively stable group including 104 cases without any serious complications or brain injury, the group only suffering from a serious brain injury (19 cases), and the group only suffering from severe systemic disease (30 cases)] and nutrition (good or malnutrition), were analyzed. Also the relationship between the aEEG and the cranial ultrasound detected at the same time and the Gesell Developmental Scale at six months of corrected gestational age. Theχ2 test, two independent samples t-test and Logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results The aEEG of 52%(79/153) cases reached the level of normal full-term newborn at term of corrected gestational age, only 48% (74/153) were abnormal. The abnormal rate of aEEG results in relatively stable preterm infants decreased from 3/6 (<30 weeks) to 35%(13/37) at 34 ≤ - ≤ 36+6 weeks, but the difference was not statistically significant (χ2=1.998, P=0.353). The abnormal rate of aEEG results in the group suffering from a serious brain injury was higher than the relatively stable preterm infants [14/19 vs 44%(46/104) ,χ2=5.578, P=0.024]. In relatively stable preterm infants, there was no difference of the abnormal rate of the aEEG results between intrauterine malnutrition group and good nutrition group [46%(19/41) vs 43%(27/63),χ2=0.122, P=0.727]. Neither was between extrauterine malnutrition group and good nutrition group [52%(13/25) vs 42

  14. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of neuroinfections in the newborn and infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippkin, M A; Kal'naia, T V; Kal'noĭ, A M

    1993-01-01

    The authors discuss the potentialities of the ultrasonic method in the diagnosis of brain involvement in the newborns and infants with neuroinfections. Ultrasonic examination was carried out in 75 infants aged 4 days to 15 months. Fifteen infants suffered from specific neuroinfections that developed in utero (toxoplasmosis, cytomegalia, listerosis), the rest 60 developed inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (meningitis, meningoencephalitis, ventriculitis). The examinations were performed in the real time regimen with a frequency of 3.5-7.5 MHz. In all the cases the diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and laboratory findings. Specific changes in the brain morphology were detected at the early stages of inflammatory processes of various origins. Ultrasonic examinations help identify the type of the pathologic process, its dissemination and complications (dislocation, cerebral ventricles dilatation, abscesses, hygromas).

  15. BrainNetCNN: Convolutional neural networks for brain networks; towards predicting neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Jeremy; Brown, Colin J; Miller, Steven P; Booth, Brian G; Chau, Vann; Grunau, Ruth E; Zwicker, Jill G; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2017-02-01

    We propose BrainNetCNN, a convolutional neural network (CNN) framework to predict clinical neurodevelopmental outcomes from brain networks. In contrast to the spatially local convolutions done in traditional image-based CNNs, our BrainNetCNN is composed of novel edge-to-edge, edge-to-node and node-to-graph convolutional filters that leverage the topological locality of structural brain networks. We apply the BrainNetCNN framework to predict cognitive and motor developmental outcome scores from structural brain networks of infants born preterm. Diffusion tensor images (DTI) of preterm infants, acquired between 27 and 46 weeks gestational age, were used to construct a dataset of structural brain connectivity networks. We first demonstrate the predictive capabilities of BrainNetCNN on synthetic phantom networks with simulated injury patterns and added noise. BrainNetCNN outperforms a fully connected neural-network with the same number of model parameters on both phantoms with focal and diffuse injury patterns. We then apply our method to the task of joint prediction of Bayley-III cognitive and motor scores, assessed at 18 months of age, adjusted for prematurity. We show that our BrainNetCNN framework outperforms a variety of other methods on the same data. Furthermore, BrainNetCNN is able to identify an infant's postmenstrual age to within about 2 weeks. Finally, we explore the high-level features learned by BrainNetCNN by visualizing the importance of each connection in the brain with respect to predicting the outcome scores. These findings are then discussed in the context of the anatomy and function of the developing preterm infant brain.

  16. Mode of delivery and neurosonographic findings in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fetal and preterm infant brain is especially vulnerable to hemorrhagic and ischemic damage at the end of the second and at the beginning of the third trimester. This is due to vascular, cellular and anatomic characteristics of the brain during development. In premature babies, there is a physiological instability and limited autoregulation of cerebral circulation. Hemorrhagic and ischemic damages often occur together, though pathophysiological processes leading to lesions are different. Material and methods The paper deals with a detailed analysis of 860 ultrasound brain scans of prematurely born children. The examinations were performed at the Ultrasound Department of the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care in Novi Sad. 707 vaginally born premature infants and 153 premature infants born by Cesarean section were examined. The bleeding was graded according to the Papile classification. Results and Discussion Out of 384 children with diagnosed grade I hemorrhage, 75 premature infants (19.5% were born by Cesarean section. In the group of children with grade II hemorrhage, operative deliveries account for 14.7%. From the total of 85 children with grade III hemorrhage, (intraventricular bleeding with chamber dilatation, only 6 premature infants were born by Cesarean section (7%. Intra-parenchymal bleeding was diagnosed in a very small number of premature infants; 0.32% of all diagnosed hemorrhages were grade IV hemorrhages. In this group there were no children born by Cesarean section. The increase of hemorrhage grade is accompanied by a greater rate of pelvic presentation and manual assistance by Bracht. There were 240 prematurely born children with no echosonographically diagnosed hemorrhage, 38% of all examined premature infants. From this number, 13.3% of neonates were born by Cesarean section. Conclusion In the etiology of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage, especially prematurely born ones, apart from the trauma, which plays a

  17. Neonatal morbidity and early outcome of very preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heljić Suada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the mortality rate for preterm infants and the gestational age-specific mortality rate have dramatically improved over the last 3 to 4 decades, infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, a compromised immune system, cardiovascular disorders, hearing and vision problems, and brain lesions. The aim is to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for preterm infant’s grade 3 IVH or PVL 16.6%, NEC Bell stages II or III 9.8%, BPD 25/72 (33.3% of infants who survived to 36 weeks postmenstrual age. In 38 (37.2% infants, episodes of infections were noticed (one or more episodes in 25 infants, half of them were caused by Gram positive bacteria, most frequent coagulasa negative staphylococci. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent organism among Gram negative bacteria. One patient had invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. In 5 infants (4.9% early onset of sepsis was documented. Conclusion: Very preterm infants remain very vulnerable group of population, and interventions to reduce the morbidity and mortality of preterm babies include tertiary interventions such as regionalized care, transportation in uterus, and treatment with antenatal steroids.

  18. Mothers' unresolved trauma blunts amygdala response to infant distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Fonagy, Peter; Allen, Jon; Strathearn, Lane

    2014-01-01

    While the neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder has been extensively researched, much less attention has been paid to the neural mechanisms underlying more covert but pervasive types of trauma (e.g., those involving disrupted relationships and insecure attachment). Here, we report on a neurobiological study documenting that mothers' attachment-related trauma, when unresolved, undermines her optimal brain response to her infant's distress. We examined the amygdala blood oxygenation level-dependent response in 42 first-time mothers as they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, viewing happy- and sad-face images of their own infant, along with those of a matched unknown infant. Whereas mothers with no trauma demonstrated greater amygdala responses to the sad faces of their own infant as compared to their happy faces, mothers who were classified as having unresolved trauma in the Adult Attachment Interview (Dynamic Maturational Model) displayed blunted amygdala responses when cued by their own infants' sadness as compared to happiness. Unknown infant faces did not elicit differential amygdala responses between the mother groups. The blunting of the amygdala response in traumatized mothers is discussed as a neural indication of mothers' possible disengagement from infant distress, which may be part of a process linking maternal unresolved trauma and disrupted maternal caregiving.

  19. Assessment of Infant Cry: Acoustic Cry Analysis and Parental Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Neal, A. Rebecca; Lester, Barry M.

    2005-01-01

    Infant crying signals distress to potential caretakers who can alleviate the aversive conditions that gave rise to the cry. The cry signal results from coordination among several brain regions that control respiration and vocal cord vibration from which the cry sounds are produced. Previous work has shown a relationship between acoustic…

  20. Cranial ultrasound and CT findings in infants with hypernatremic dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bokyung K. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Samsung Medical Centre, 50 Irwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-230 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Munhyang [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Samsung Medical Centre, 50 Irwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-230 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Samsung Medical Centre, 50 Irwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-230 (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    We present two newborn infants with hypernatremic dehydration with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Both patients showed similar imaging findings, demonstrating generalized brain parenchymal abnormality and multifocal areas of hemorrhage or hemorrhagic infarction. These findings are compatible with previously described CNS pathologic findings in hypernatremia. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  1. The influence of septicaemia on spontaneous motility in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, AF; van Asperen, RM; de Leeuw, DM; Prechtl, HFR

    1997-01-01

    The qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) in preterm infants is a sensitive method to investigate the integrity of the central nervous system. The question arises whether systemic infections affect the quality of GMs in a similar fashion to brain lesions. We were able to provide an answe

  2. Diet Management of PKU for Infants and Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Phyllis B.; Wenz, Elizabeth

    The report focuses on the diet management of infant and preschool children with phenylketonuria (PKU), a congenital deficiency resulting in brain damage. The effective methods for rapidly lowering serum phenylalanine levels following diagnosis are discussed, a method for prescribing and calculating the phenylalanine-restricted diet is described,…

  3. Impaired oligodendrocyte maturation in preterm infants : Potential therapeutic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Erik; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Benders, Manon J.; van Bel, Frank; Fleiss, Bobbi; Gressens, Pierre; Nijboer, Cora H.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is an evolving challenge in neonatal health care. Despite declining mortality rates among extremely premature neonates, morbidity rates remain very high. Currently, perinatal diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is the most commonly observed type of brain injury in preterm infants and has

  4. [Home falls in infants before walking acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, I; Gurrera, E; Honorat, R; Rekhroukh, H; Casasoprana, A; Grouteau, E

    2013-05-01

    Minor head trauma is frequent among infants and leads to numerous visits to emergency departments for neurological assessment to evaluate the value of cerebral CT scan with the risk for traumatic brain injuries (TBI). To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of nonwalking infants admitted after falling at home and to analyze associated factors for skull fractures and TBI. Between January 2007 and December 2011, all children aged 9 months or younger and admitted after a home fall to the pediatric emergency unit of a tertiary children's hospital were included. The data collected were age, sex, weight and height, body mass index; geographic origin, referral or direct admission, mode of transportation; month, day and time of admission; causes of the fall, alleged fall height, presence of an eyewitness, type of landing surface; Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, application of the head trauma protocol, location and type of injuries, cerebral CT scan results, length of hospital stay, progression, and neglect or abuse situations. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS: within the study period, 1910 infants were included. Fifty-four percent of children were aged less than 6 months with a slight male prevalence (52%). Falls from parental bed and infant carriers accounted for the most frequent fall circumstances. GCS score on admission was equal to 14 or 15 in 99% of cases. A cerebral CT scan was performed in 34% of children and detected 104 skull fractures and 55 TBI. Infants aged less than 1 month had the highest rate of TBI (8.5%). Eleven percent of patients were hospitalized. A situation of abuse was identified in 51 infants (3%). UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS: Male children and infants aged less than 3 months had a higher risk of skull fractures (P = 0.03 and P = 0.0003, respectively). In the TBI group, children were younger (3.8 ± 2.6 months versus 5.4 ± 2.5 months, P walking acquisition, children are particularly vulnerable and have the highest rate of TBI after a vertical fall. In this age

  5. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for it until their first birthdays. Spores of Clostridium botulinum bacteria, found in dirt and dust, can contaminate ... from the illness. Prevention Like many germs, the Clostridium botulinum spores that cause botulism in infants are everywhere ...

  6. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  7. CPR - infant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series—Check for responsiveness To use the ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  8. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  9. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based formulas. These formulas are made with cow's milk protein that has been changed to be more like ... be helpful for infants who have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or wheezing ...

  10. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  11. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  12. Reflux in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 14 months. What causes reflux and GERD in infants? There is a muscle (the lower esophageal ... contents don't flow back into the esophagus. In babies who have reflux, the lower esophageal sphincter ...

  13. CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY FOR INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti S. Christian (M.P.T Cardiopulmonary Conditions

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the normal lung, secretions are removed by Mucociliary activity, normal breathing cycles, and cough. In disease, increased secretion viscosity and volume, dyskinesia of the cilia, and ineffective cough combine to reduce the ability to clear secretions, and may increase exacerbations and infections. Many chest physiotherapy techniques like postural drainage, percussion and vibration are used since many years. These techniques are derived from adult studies but these techniques are quite stressful for the infants as the infant respiratory system is different from the adult respiratory system. Advance chest physiotherapy techniques were developed specifically for infants; in accordance with their physiological characteristics. So this review is to introduce some new chest physiotherapy helpful for newborn infants.

  14. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  15. Effects of intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide and maternal betamethasone on brain inflammation in fetal sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kuypers (Elke); R.K. Jellema (Reint); D.R.M.G. Ophelders (Daan); J. Dudink (Jeroen); M. Nikiforou (Maria); T.G.A.M. Wolfs (Tim); I. Nitsos (Ilias); J.J. Pillow (Jane); G.R. Polglase (Graeme); M.W. Kemp (Matthew); M. Saito (Masatoshi); J.P. Newnham (John); A.H. Jobe (Alan); S.G. Kallapur (Suhas); B.W. Kramer (Boris)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRationale: Chorioamnionitis and antenatal glucocorticoids are common exposures for preterm infants and can affect the fetal brain, contributing to cognitive and motor deficits in preterm infants. The effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on the brain in the setting of chorioamnionitis are

  16. Evidence for a Caregiving Instinct: Rapid Differentiation of Infant from Adult Vocalizations Using Magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Katherine S; Parsons, Christine E; Jegindoe Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Woolrich, Mark W; van Hartevelt, Tim J; Stevner, Angus B A; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2016-03-01

    Crying is the most salient vocal signal of distress. The cries of a newborn infant alert adult listeners and often elicit caregiving behavior. For the parent, rapid responding to an infant in distress is an adaptive behavior, functioning to ensure offspring survival. The ability to react rapidly requires quick recognition and evaluation of stimuli followed by a co-ordinated motor response. Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated early specialized activity in response to infant faces. Using magnetoencephalography, we found similarly early (100-200 ms) differences in neural responses to infant and adult cry vocalizations in auditory, emotional, and motor cortical brain regions. We propose that this early differential activity may help to rapidly identify infant cries and engage affective and motor neural circuitry to promote adaptive behavioral responding, before conscious awareness. These differences were observed in adults who were not parents, perhaps indicative of a universal brain-based "caregiving instinct."

  17. [Prebiotics in infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdo, Fernando G; Menéndez, Ana M; Pita Martín de Portela, María L; Sosa, Patricia; Toca, María del C; Trifone, Liliana; Vecchiarelli, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    The composition of human milk is the main base for the development of infant formulas concerning its macronutrients and micronutrients contents and bioactive compounds. Technological advances in the composition of human milk have identified a great number of bioactive compounds such as prebiotics which are responsible for immunological protection and the prevention of different pathologies. In order to achieve similar benefits, they are part of the contents of infant formulas.

  18. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  19. Newborn infants detect the beat in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, István; Háden, Gábor P; Ladinig, Olivia; Sziller, István; Honing, Henkjan

    2009-02-17

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus, our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate.

  20. Relationship of plasma S100B and myelin basic protein level with brain damage in preterm infants%血浆S100B蛋白和髓鞘碱性蛋白与早产儿脑损伤的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珊; 李薇; 瞿柳红; 唐娟; 荣箫; 周伟

    2014-01-01

    .早产儿出生后血浆S100B、MBP蛋白的增高对判断是否发生早期脑损伤及PVL具有一定的临床意义.%Objective To study the relationships of plasma myelin basic protein (MBP) and S100B level with periventricular hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (PVH-IVH) and periventricular leucumalacia (PVL) in preterm infants.Methods There were 385 cases of preterm infants whose gestational age was less than 34 weeks and were admitted in NICUs of Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center of Guangzhou Medical University,Guangzhou Huadu District Maternal and Child Health Hospital and Dongguan Hospital Affiliated to Jinan University from Jan.2010 to Jun.2013,enrolled in the study.The plasma levels of S100B and MBP protein were detected within 24 hours and on the 3rd,7th,14th day after birth.Cranial ultrasound (US) was preformed 2-3 d,1 week,2 weeks,3 weeks and 4 weeks after birth.They also received Cranial MRI examination before discharge or when the correct gestational age reached 40 weeks.According to the exclusion standard 73 cases were excluded.The included 312 cases were divided into 3 groups (no brain damage group,PVH-IVH group and PVL group) according to the result of cranial US and MRI.The differences of the plasma levels of S100B and MBP protein among each groups were compared,and the relationship of the plasma levels of S100B and MBP protein in no brain damage group with gestational age were analyzed.Results The results of cranial ultrasound and/or MRI showed:204 cases had no brain damage (put in no brain damage group),69 cases had PVH-IVH (put in PVH-IVH group),and 27 cases had PVL,12 cases had PVL and PVH-IVH (both put in PVL group).The plasma level of S100B:within 24h and 3 d after birth,the serum levels of S100B in PVH-IVH group were significantly higher than those in no brain damage group (P < 0.05) ; and the plasma levels of S100B in PVL group were significantly higher than those in no brain damage group and PVH-IVH group (all P < 0.05).On 7 d and 14 d after

  1. Construction of 4D high-definition cortical surface atlases of infants: Methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-10-01

    In neuroimaging, cortical surface atlases play a fundamental role for spatial normalization, analysis, visualization, and comparison of results across individuals and different studies. However, existing cortical surface atlases created for adults are not suitable for infant brains during the first two postnatal years, which is the most dynamic period of postnatal structural and functional development of the highly-folded cerebral cortex. Therefore, spatiotemporal cortical surface atlases for infant brains are highly desired yet still lacking for accurate mapping of early dynamic brain development. To bridge this significant gap, leveraging our infant-dedicated computational pipeline for cortical surface-based analysis and the unique longitudinal infant MRI dataset acquired in our research center, in this paper, we construct the first spatiotemporal (4D) high-definition cortical surface atlases for the dynamic developing infant cortical structures at seven time points, including 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months of age, based on 202 serial MRI scans from 35 healthy infants. For this purpose, we develop a novel method to ensure the longitudinal consistency and unbiasedness to any specific subject and age in our 4D infant cortical surface atlases. Specifically, we first compute the within-subject mean cortical folding by unbiased groupwise registration of longitudinal cortical surfaces of each infant. Then we establish longitudinally-consistent and unbiased inter-subject cortical correspondences by groupwise registration of the geometric features of within-subject mean cortical folding across all infants. Our 4D surface atlases capture both longitudinally-consistent dynamic mean shape changes and the individual variability of cortical folding during early brain development. Experimental results on two independent infant MRI datasets show that using our 4D infant cortical surface atlases as templates leads to significantly improved accuracy for spatial normalization

  2. Anatomical configurations associated with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus among premature infants with intraventricular hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Hannah M; Wenger, Tara L; Kukull, Walter A; Doherty, Dan; Dobyns, William B

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a complication of prematurity often associated with ventricular dilation, which may resolve over time or progress to posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). This study investigated anatomical factors that could predispose infants with IVH to PHH. METHODS The authors analyzed a cohort of premature infants diagnosed with Grade III or IV IVH between 2004 and 2014. Using existing ultrasound and MR images, the CSF obstruction pattern, skull shape, and brain/skull ratios were determined, comparing children with PHH to those with resolved ventricular dilation (RVD), and comparing both groups to a set of healthy controls. RESULTS Among 110 premature infants with Grade III or IV IVH, 65 (59%) developed PHH. Infants with PHH had more severe ventricular dilation compared with those with RVD, although ranges overlapped. Intraventricular CSF obstruction was observed in 36 (86%) of 42 infants with PHH and 0 (0%) of 18 with RVD (p < 0.001). The distribution of skull shapes in infants with PHH was similar to those with RVD, although markedly different from controls. No significant differences in supratentorial brain/skull ratio were observed; however, the mean infratentorial brain/skull ratio of infants with PHH was 5% greater (more crowded) than controls (p = 0.006), whereas the mean infratentorial brain/skull ratio of infants with RVD was 8% smaller (less crowded) than controls (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS Among premature infants with IVH, intraventricular obstruction and infratentorial crowding are strongly associated with PHH, further underscoring the need for brain MRI in surgical planning. Prospective studies are required to determine which factors are cause and which are consequence, and which can be used to predict the need for surgical intervention.

  3. Brain stem evoked response audiometry A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2015-01-01

    Brain stem evoked response audiometry (BERA) is a useful objective assessement of hearing. Major advantage of this procedure is its ability to test even infants in whom conventional audiometry may not be useful. This investigation can be used as a screening test for deafness in high risk infants. Early diagnosis and rehabilitation will reduce disability in these children. This article attempts to review the published literature on this subject. Methadology: Internet search using goog...

  4. Recurrent Wheezing in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, Manon; De Blic, Jacques; Laforest, Laurent; Laigle, Valérie; Chanut-Vogel, Céline; Lamezec, Liliane; Brouard, Jacques; Fauroux, Brigitte; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ginoux, Marine; Van Ganse, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent wheezing (RW) has a significant impact on infants, caregivers, and society, but morbidity and related medical resource utilization (MRU) have not been thoroughly explored. The burden of RW needs to be documented with population-based data. The objective was to assess the characteristics, medical management, and MRU of RW infants identified from national claims data. Infants aged from 6 to 24 months, receiving ≥2 dispensations of respiratory drugs within 3 months, and presenting a marker of poor control (index date), were selected. During the 6 months after index date, MRU was described in the cohort and among 3 subgroups with more severe RW, defined as ≥4 dispensations of respiratory drugs, ≥3 dispensations of oral corticosteroids (OCS), or ≥1 hospitalization for respiratory symptoms. A total of 115,489 infants had RW, corresponding to 8.2% of subjects in this age group. During follow-up, 68.7% of infants received inhaled corticosteroids, but only 1.8 U (unit) were dispensed over 6 months, suggesting discontinuous use. Control was mostly inadequate: 61.7% of subjects received OCS, 80.2% antibiotics, and 71.2% short-acting beta-agonists, and medical/paramedical visits were numerous, particularly for physiotherapy. Severe RW concerned 39.0% of the cohort; 32.8% and 11.7% of infants had repeated use of respiratory drugs and OCS, respectively, and 5.5% were hospitalized for respiratory symptoms. In this real-life nation-wide study, RW was common and infants had poor control and high MRU. Interventions are needed to support adequate use of controller therapy, and to improve medical care. PMID:27082618

  5. Modeling premature brain injury and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafidi, Joey; Fagel, Devon M.; Ment, Laura R.; Vaccarino, Flora M.

    2009-01-01

    Premature birth is a growing and significant public health problem because of the large number of infants that survive with neurodevelopmental sequelae from brain injury. Recent advances in neuroimaging have shown that although some neuroanatomical structures are altered, others improve over time. This review outlines recent insights into brain structure and function in these preterm infants at school age and relevant animal models. These animal models have provided scientists with an opportunity to explore in depth the molecular and cellular mechanisms of injury as well as the potential of the brain for recovery. The endogenous potential that the brain has for neurogenesis and gliogenesis, and how environment contributes to recovery, are also outlined. These preclinical models will provide important insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms responsible for variable degrees of injury and recovery, permitting the exploration of targeted therapies to facilitate recovery in the developing preterm brain. PMID:19482072

  6. Relationships between nurse care-giving behaviours and preterm infant responses during bathing: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Yang, Luke; Chou, Hsiu-Ling; Yang, Meei-Horng; Chao, Shih-Ching

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between specific nurse care-giving behaviours and preterm infant behavioural responses during bathing and to identify nurse behaviours associated with infant 'stress'. Although recent advances in medical technology have improved neonatal intensive care, the high mortality and morbidity rates in preterm infants have not decreased proportionally. As caregivers strive to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, a factor for consideration is which caregiver behaviours are associated with preterm infant well-being. A descriptive correlational design. Convenience samples of 24 preterm infants and 12 nurses were recruited. A total of 120 baths were videotaped. Infant and nurse behaviours were measured using the coding schemes developed by the researchers. Pearson coefficient correlation, non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and generalised linear models were methods for data analysis. As nurses provided more support, stress was reduced in the infants, and their self-regulation during the bath was enhanced especially by the use of 'containment' and 'positional support'. Conversely, non-therapeutic caregiver behaviours including 'rapid and rough handling' of the baby, 'chatting with other people' and 'inappropriate handling' increased infant 'stress' during the bath. The findings provide new information about the link between care-giving and infant responses and how caregivers can better interact with preterm infants during a very sensitive period of brain development. How nurses take care of the preterm infants influences their responses to care-giving stimuli. To interact better with the infant during care-giving procedures, nurses need to provide more supportive care-giving behaviours especially 'position support' and 'containment' based on the infant's needs, and avoid care-giving that may be too rough and occur too quickly without attending the baby's stressful signals, positioning the baby in

  7. Nonlinear Control of Heart Rate Variability in Human Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, George; Allan, Walter; Sobel, Daniel; Allan, Kenneth D.

    1996-03-01

    Nonlinear analyses of infant heart rhythms reveal a marked rise in the complexity of the electrocardiogram with maturation. We find that normal mature infants (gestation >= 35 weeks) have complex and distinctly nonlinear heart rhythms (consistent with recent reports for healthy adults) but that such nonlinearity is lacking in preterm infants (gestation parasympathetic-sympathetic interaction and function are presumed to be less well developed. Our study further shows that infants with clinical brain death and those treated with atropine exhibit a similar lack of nonlinear feedback control. These three lines of evidence support the hypothesis championed by Goldberger et al. [Goldberger, A. L., Rigney, D. R. & West, B. J. (1990) Sci. Am. 262, 43-49] that autonomic nervous system control underlies the nonlinearity and possible chaos of normal heart rhythms. This report demonstrates the acquisition of nonlinear heart rate dynamics and possible chaos in developing human infants and its loss in brain death and with the administration of atropine. It parallels earlier work documenting changes in the variability of heart rhythms in each of these cases and suggests that nonlinearity may provide additional power in characterizing physiological states.

  8. Application of MRI T1 weighted inversion recovery sequence in evaluation of brain development in infants%磁共振成像 T1加权反转恢复序列在评价婴儿颅脑发育中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白万晶; 宁刚; 李学胜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI)T1 weighted inversion recovery(T1WIR)sequence in evaluation of brain development in infants.Methods A total of 28 infants who accepted MRI examination of brain in West China Second University Hospital,Sichuan University from March to June 2014 were chosen as study subjects.Every infant was underwent both T1WIR and T1 weighted spin echo (T1WSE)sequence in brain transverse axial scanning to evaluate brain development.All MR images were evaluated and scored (0-3 )about myelination by two roentgenologists independently.Images with score of 3 can clearly display myelination.Consistency test was made for the scores between these two roentgenologists.Kappa value was calculated and all scores were underwent rank sum test.Contrast ratio (CR)of grey matter-to-white matter was calculated in both T1WIR and T1WSE sequence.Intensity decreased ratio of T1WIR-to-T1WSE was also calculated in both grey matter and white matter.CR of the two sequences,intensity decreased ratios of grey matter and white matter were all underwent paired t-test.Results ① MR image scores about myelination between the two doctors was consistent(u= 7.887,P = 0.000 )and with a comparatively satisfactory consistent degree (Kappa value =0.792).MR image score about myelination of T1WIR sequence in 28 infants was higher than that of T1WSE sequence,and the difference was significantly (3 points vs 2 points,Z =3.64,P =0.000).② CR of T1WIR sequence was higher than that of T1WSE sequence,and the difference was significantly[(0.26 ±0.06 )vs (0.05 ± 0.02 ),t = 1 6.544,P = 0.000].According to T1WSE sequence,intensity decreased ratio of grey matter in T1WIR sequence was lower than that of white matter,and the difference was significantly[(2.03± 0.83)vs (2.25±1.26),t=2.61 6,P =0.014].Conclusion T1WIR sequence of MRI can substitute T1WSE sequence in evaluation of brain development in infants.%目的:探讨磁共振成像(MRI)采用 T1

  9. Pain assessment in human fetus and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio

    2012-09-01

    In humans, painful stimuli can arrive to the brain at 20-22 weeks of gestation. Therefore several researchers have devoted their efforts to study fetal analgesia during prenatal surgery, and during painful procedures in premature babies. Aim of this paper is to gather from scientific literature the available data on the signals that the human fetus and newborns produce, and that can be interpreted as signals of pain. Several signs can be interpreted as signals of pain. We will describe them in the text. In infants, these signs can be combined to create specific and sensible pain assessment tools, called pain scales, used to rate the level of pain.

  10. Cardiovascular dysfunction in infants with neonatal encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Armstrong, Katey

    2012-04-01

    Severe perinatal asphyxia with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy occurs in approximately 1-2\\/1000 live births and is an important cause of cerebral palsy and associated neurological disabilities in children. Multiorgan dysfunction commonly occurs as part of the asphyxial episode, with cardiovascular dysfunction occurring in up to a third of infants. This narrative paper attempts to review the literature on the importance of early recognition of cardiac dysfunction using echocardiography and biomarkers such as troponin and brain type natriuretic peptide. These tools may allow accurate assessment of cardiac dysfunction and guide therapy to improve outcome.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Rosemary [Leeds General Infirmary, Radiology Department, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    MR imaging of the premature infant poses a number of challenges with regard to safety, sequence optimization and recognition of the normal appearances of the developing brain. In this paper we discuss these challenges, and review the common intracerebral abnormalities associated with premature birth. Although the outcome for very-low-birth-weight babies has improved over the last decade, there remains a significant risk of subsequent development of neurological disability. The relationship between MRI abnormalities and long-term outcome is considered. (orig.)

  12. Hemispherotomy in an infant with hemimegalencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shilpa D; Deopujari, Chandrashekhar E; Patil, Varsha A; Sayed, Rafat J

    2015-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a rare hamartomatous congenital malformation of the brain. The epilepsy pattern in HME can be partial seizures or may present as spasms as in epileptic encephalopathy. Epilepsy associated with HME is usually resistant to antiepileptic drugs and requires surgical intervention. Hemispheric disconnection has been reported to be efficient in seizure control and prevents further cognitive injury and developmental delay. We report a case of HME, who underwent a two-stage hemispherotomy due to complications in the first surgery. She had more than 90% reduction of seizures with good developmental outcome on follow-up. Thus, despite risks of the procedure, early surgery should be preferred in infants with HME.

  13. Maternal cortisol slope at 6 months predicts infant cortisol slope and EEG power at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Ashley M; Kao, Katie; Liederman, Jacqueline; Grieve, Philip G; Tarullo, Amanda R

    2017-09-01

    Physiological stress systems and the brain rapidly develop through infancy. While the roles of caregiving and environmental factors have been studied, implications of maternal physiological stress are unclear. We assessed maternal and infant diurnal cortisol when infants were 6 and 12 months. We measured 12-month infant electroencephalography (EEG) 6-9 Hz power during a social interaction. Steeper 6-month maternal slope predicted steeper 12-month infant slope controlling for 6-month infant slope and breastfeeding. Steeper 6-month maternal slope predicted lower 6-9 Hz power. Six-month maternal area under the cuve (AUCg) was unrelated to 12-month infant AUCg and 6-9 Hz power. Psychosocial, caregiving, and breastfeeding variables did not explain results. At 6 months, maternal and infant slopes correlated, as did maternal and infant AUCg. Twelve-month maternal and infant cortisol were unrelated. Results indicate maternal slope is an informative predictor of infant physiology and suggest the importance of maternal physiological stress in this developmental period. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  15. Sound symbolism scaffolds language development in preverbal infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    A fundamental question in language development is how infants start to assign meaning to words. Here, using three Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based measures of brain activity, we establish that preverbal 11-month-old infants are sensitive to the non-arbitrary correspondences between language sounds and concepts, that is, to sound symbolism. In each trial, infant participants were presented with a visual stimulus (e.g., a round shape) followed by a novel spoken word that either sound-symbolically matched ("moma") or mismatched ("kipi") the shape. Amplitude increase in the gamma band showed perceptual integration of visual and auditory stimuli in the match condition within 300 msec of word onset. Furthermore, phase synchronization between electrodes at around 400 msec revealed intensified large-scale, left-hemispheric communication between brain regions in the mismatch condition as compared to the match condition, indicating heightened processing effort when integration was more demanding. Finally, event-related brain potentials showed an increased adult-like N400 response - an index of semantic integration difficulty - in the mismatch as compared to the match condition. Together, these findings suggest that 11-month-old infants spontaneously map auditory language onto visual experience by recruiting a cross-modal perceptual processing system and a nascent semantic network within the first year of life.

  16. Audiovisual temporal fusion in 6-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate neural dynamics of audiovisual temporal fusion processes in 6-month-old infants using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In a habituation-test paradigm, infants did not show any behavioral signs of discrimination of an audiovisual asynchrony of 200 ms, indicating perceptual fusion. In a subsequent EEG experiment, audiovisual synchronous stimuli and stimuli with a visual delay of 200 ms were presented in random order. In contrast to the behavioral data, brain activity differed significantly between the two conditions. Critically, N1 and P2 latency delays were not observed between synchronous and fused items, contrary to previously observed N1 and P2 latency delays between synchrony and perceived asynchrony. Hence, temporal interaction processes in the infant brain between the two sensory modalities varied as a function of perceptual fusion versus asynchrony perception. The visual recognition components Pb and Nc were modulated prior to sound onset, emphasizing the importance of anticipatory visual events for the prediction of auditory signals. Results suggest mechanisms by which young infants predictively adjust their ongoing neural activity to the temporal synchrony relations to be expected between vision and audition.

  17. Cerebellar Volume and Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at Term, and Neurodevelopment at 2 Years of Age in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooij, Britt J. M.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Anbeek, Petronella; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the relation between cerebellar volume and spectroscopy at term equivalent age, and neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age in preterm infants. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed around term equivalent age in 112 preterm infants (mean gestational age 28wks 3d [SD 1wk 5d]; birthweight 1129g [SD 324g]).…

  18. Cerebellar Volume and Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at Term, and Neurodevelopment at 2 Years of Age in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooij, Britt J. M.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Anbeek, Petronella; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the relation between cerebellar volume and spectroscopy at term equivalent age, and neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age in preterm infants. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed around term equivalent age in 112 preterm infants (mean gestational age 28wks 3d [SD 1wk 5d]; birthweight 1129g [SD 324g]).…

  19. Extremely Preterm-Born Infants Demonstrate Different Facial Recognition Processes at 6-10 Months of Corrected Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frie, Jakob; Padilla, Nelly; Ådén, Ulrika; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Bartocci, Marco

    2016-05-01

    To compare cortical hemodynamic responses to known and unknown facial stimuli between infants born extremely preterm and term-born infants, and to correlate the responses of the extremely preterm-born infants to regional cortical volumes at term-equivalent age. We compared 27 infants born extremely preterm (infrared spectroscopy. In the preterm group, we also performed structural brain magnetic resonance imaging and correlated regional cortical volumes to hemodynamic responses. The preterm-born infants demonstrated different cortical face recognition processes than the term-born infants. They had a significantly smaller hemodynamic response in the right frontotemporal areas while watching their mother's face (0.13 μmol/L vs 0.63 μmol/L; P recognition process compared with term-born infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Infants' Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Zarin koob

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a study performed following the study between the years 1980 to 1982 to investigate risk factors and diagnostic and rehabilitative patterns in a group of newborns suffered hearing loss in a city centre. The current findings which have been attained from 1983 to 1988 manifested that just one third of the deaf newborns can be tracked by means of common auditory evaluation tests in the Neonatal Intense Care Unit (NICU. Although these newborns have been followed sooner than the infants in the Well Baby Nursery (WBN. The age for enrolling in the Parent-Infant Program for both groups is approximately 20 month. During these 8 years it has been detected that the common age for taking part in the rehabilitative programs for newborns is 1 year or more greater than that recommended by Joint Committee on infant hearing

  1. Infant death scene investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations.

  2. The Essentiality of Arachidonic Acid in Infant Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Hadley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6 is an n-6 polyunsaturated 20-carbon fatty acid formed by the biosynthesis from linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6. This review considers the essential role that ARA plays in infant development. ARA is always present in human milk at a relatively fixed level and is accumulated in tissues throughout the body where it serves several important functions. Without the provision of preformed ARA in human milk or infant formula the growing infant cannot maintain ARA levels from synthetic pathways alone that are sufficient to meet metabolic demand. During late infancy and early childhood the amount of dietary ARA provided by solid foods is low. ARA serves as a precursor to leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes, collectively known as eicosanoids which are important for immunity and immune response. There is strong evidence based on animal and human studies that ARA is critical for infant growth, brain development, and health. These studies also demonstrate the importance of balancing the amounts of ARA and DHA as too much DHA may suppress the benefits provided by ARA. Both ARA and DHA have been added to infant formulas and follow-on formulas for more than two decades. The amounts and ratios of ARA and DHA needed in infant formula are discussed based on an in depth review of the available scientific evidence.

  3. Lipid infusion and intravenous access in newborn infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominique Haumont

    2010-01-01

    @@ The spectacular development of neonatal intensive care since the 1960s allowed a drop in neonatal mortality of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants from 50% to less than 15% in the last decade.1 However 15% to 25% of the VLBW infants will present neurodevelopment impairment in the following fields: motor function,vision, auditory function, cognition, behaviour, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, visual-motor integration and language.2,3 Compared to their term pairs there is substantial scientific evidence of altered early brain development.

  4. 重组促红细胞生成素早期防治早产儿脑损伤的临床观察%Clinical observation of recombinant erythropoietin in early prevention and treatment of brain injury in preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖金花; 宋燕燕; 孙黎; 于兆丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察早期对早产儿使用重组促红细胞生成素(rhEPO)和相应的护理对脑损伤的防治效果。方法选取2010年1月~2013年9月93例早产儿根据家属意愿分成观察组48例和对照组45例。观察组早期给予rhEPO并实施相应护理;对照组给予常规对症处理和常规护理。对比纠正胎龄40周时的神经检测(NBNA)情况及纠正胎龄1个月、3个月、6个月时脑干诱发电位(ABR)检查异常率。结果纠正胎龄40周时NBNA评分观察组较对照组高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组纠正胎龄1个月时ABR异常率差别不明显(P>0.05);纠正胎龄3、6个月时ABR异常率观察组均较对照组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对早产儿早期使用rhEPO并施以相应护理可有效的防治脑损伤的发生及减轻脑损伤的程度。%Objective To observe the clinical effect of recombinant erythropoietin in early prevention and treatment of brain injury in preterm infants, and summarize the nursing experience.Methods 93 cases of premature infants were divided into observation group with 48 cases and control group with 45 cases according to the parents’ wishes. Observation group was treated with rhEPO and implement the corresponding nursing, while babies in the control group were being given routine symptomatic treatment and routine nursing care. Compared to score of Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment(NBNA) at rectify 40 weeks of gestational age and abnormality rate of Auditory Brainstem Response(ABR) at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months.Results The NBNA score of observation group at 40 weeks corrected gestational age was higher than that of the control group(P0.05), and the abnormal rate of ABR of observation group was lower than that in the control group at 3, 6 months(P<0.05).Conclusion Early use of rhEPO in premature infants with damage corresponding nursing care can effectively prevent and alleviate the severity

  5. Description of 13 Infants Born During October 2015-January 2016 With Congenital Zika Virus Infection Without Microcephaly at Birth - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Vanessa; Pessoa, André; Dobyns, William; Barkovich, A James; Júnior, Hélio van der Linden; Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques; Leal, Mariana de Carvalho; Coimbra, Pablo Picasso de Araújo; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Verçosa, Islane; Ventura, Camila; Ramos, Regina Coeli; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Mota, Vivian Maria Ribeiro; Dott, Mary; Hillard, Christina; Moore, Cynthia A

    2016-12-02

    Congenital Zika virus infection can cause microcephaly and severe brain abnormalities (1). Congenital Zika syndrome comprises a spectrum of clinical features (2); however, as is the case with most newly recognized teratogens, the earliest documented clinical presentation is expected to be the most severe. Initial descriptions of the effects of in utero Zika virus infection centered prominently on the finding of congenital microcephaly (3). To assess the possibility of clinical presentations that do not include congenital microcephaly, a retrospective assessment of 13 infants from the Brazilian states of Pernambuco and Ceará with normal head size at birth and laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection was conducted. All infants had brain abnormalities on neuroimaging consistent with congenital Zika syndrome, including decreased brain volume, ventriculomegaly, subcortical calcifications, and cortical malformations. The earliest evaluation occurred on the second day of life. Among all infants, head growth was documented to have decelerated as early as 5 months of age, and 11 infants had microcephaly. These findings provide evidence that among infants with prenatal exposure to Zika virus, the absence of microcephaly at birth does not exclude congenital Zika virus infection or the presence of Zika-related brain and other abnormalities. These findings support the recommendation for comprehensive medical and developmental follow-up of infants exposed to Zika virus prenatally. Early neuroimaging might identify brain abnormalities related to congenital Zika infection even among infants with a normal head circumference (4).

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of early brain magnetic resonance imaging for predicting cerebral palsy in premature infants : a meta-analysis%早产儿生后早期头颅磁共振成像结果预测远期脑性瘫痪价值的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄胜; 黄托夫; 娄普; 潘秋飞; 陈翔

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过meta分析定量评价早产儿生后早期头颅磁共振成像结果预测远期发生脑性瘫痪的临床价值. 方法 计算机检索PubMed、Embase、Cochrane、中国生物医学文献数据库、中国期刊全文数据库、维普数据库和万方数据库中关于早产儿头颅磁共振成像结果预测脑性瘫痪的相关文献.纳入标准:(1)研究目的为评价早产儿生后早期头颅磁共振成像结果预测远期神经预后的价值;(2)研究类型为前瞻性的队列研究与随机对照试验以及回顾性的病例分析与病例对照研究;(3)头颅磁共振成像的检查时间窗为小于纠正年龄3个月;(4)脑性瘫痪诊断金标准为随访结果,且诊断标准明确.采用Stata11.0统计软件进行meta分析,计算敏感性、特异性、阳性和阴性似然比.结果 共纳入7篇英文文献,772例早产儿,发生脑性瘫痪92例.早产儿生后早期头颅磁共振成像结果预测远期发生脑性瘫痪的合并敏感性为0.93(95%CI:0.65~0.99),特异性为0.89(95%CI:0.81~0.93),阳性似然比为8.19(95%CI:4.48~14.94),阴性似然比为0.08(95%CI:0.01~0.52),总受试者工作特性曲线下面积为0.95(95%CI:0.92~0.96).合并值存在明显异质性,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).排除1篇回顾性研究与1篇低发病率文献后异质性显著降低(P>0.10),预测精确性相应有所降低,合并敏感性为0.81(95%CI:0.58~0.93),特异性为0.82 (95% CI:0.76~0.87). 结论 早产儿生后早期头颅磁共振成像结果预测远期脑性瘫痪的发生可能具有较高的精确性,尤其是对阴性结果,排除价值较高.而对于具有高危因素的早产儿,头颅磁共振成像的阳性结果,预测效率可能更高.%Objective To evaluate the value of early brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting future cerebral palsy in premature infants. Methods Searching the related literatures in PubMed,Embase,Cochrane,China Biological Medical

  7. Maternal Attachment Representation and Neurophysiological Processing during the Perception of Infants' Emotional Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Leyh

    Full Text Available The perception of infant emotions is an integral part of sensitive caregiving within the mother-child relationship, a maternal ability which develops in mothers during their own attachment history. In this study we address the association between maternal attachment representation and brain activity underlying the perception of infant emotions. Event related potentials (ERPs of 32 primiparous mothers were assessed during a three stimulus oddball task presenting negative, positive and neutral emotion expressions of infants as target, deviant or standard stimuli. Attachment representation was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview during pregnancy. Securely attached mothers recognized emotions of infants more accurately than insecurely attached mothers. ERPs yielded amplified N170 amplitudes for insecure mothers when focusing on negative infant emotions. Secure mothers showed enlarged P3 amplitudes to target emotion expressions of infants compared to insecure mothers, especially within conditions with frequent negative infant emotions. In these conditions, P3 latencies were prolonged in insecure mothers. In summary, maternal attachment representation was found associated with brain activity during the perception of infant emotions. This further clarifies psychological mechanisms contributing to maternal sensitivity.

  8. Extraordinary intelligence and the care of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Kidd, Celeste

    2016-06-21

    We present evidence that pressures for early childcare may have been one of the driving factors of human evolution. We show through an evolutionary model that runaway selection for high intelligence may occur when (i) altricial neonates require intelligent parents, (ii) intelligent parents must have large brains, and (iii) large brains necessitate having even more altricial offspring. We test a prediction of this account by showing across primate genera that the helplessness of infants is a particularly strong predictor of the adults' intelligence. We discuss related implications, including this account's ability to explain why human-level intelligence evolved specifically in mammals. This theory complements prior hypotheses that link human intelligence to social reasoning and reproductive pressures and explains how human intelligence may have become so distinctive compared with our closest evolutionary relatives.

  9. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions.

  10. Epileptic Encephalopathy in Children with Risk Factors for Brain Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Ricardo-Garcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of 887 new born infants with prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage, 11 children with West syndrome that progressed into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and another 4 children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome that had not been preceded by West syndrome were found. In this study we present the main findings of these 15 subjects. In all infants multifactor antecedents were detected. The most frequent risk factors were prematurity and severe asphyxia; however placenta disorders, sepsis, and hyperbilirubinemia were also frequent. In all infants MRI direct or secondary features of periventricular leukomalacia were observed. Followup of all infants showed moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay as well as cerebral palsy. It is concluded that prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage are very important antecedents that should be taken into account to follow up those infants from an early age in order to detect and treat as early as possible an epileptic encephalopathy.

  11. Epileptic Encephalopathy in Children with Risk Factors for Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Harmony, Thalía; Porras-Kattz, Eneida; Colmenero-Batallán, Miguel J.; Barrera-Reséndiz, Jesús E.; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio; Cruz-Rivero, Erika

    2012-01-01

    In the study of 887 new born infants with prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage, 11 children with West syndrome that progressed into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and another 4 children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome that had not been preceded by West syndrome were found. In this study we present the main findings of these 15 subjects. In all infants multifactor antecedents were detected. The most frequent risk factors were prematurity and severe asphyxia; however placenta disorders, sepsis, and hyperbilirubinemia were also frequent. In all infants MRI direct or secondary features of periventricular leukomalacia were observed. Followup of all infants showed moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay as well as cerebral palsy. It is concluded that prenatal and perinatal risk factors for brain damage are very important antecedents that should be taken into account to follow up those infants from an early age in order to detect and treat as early as possible an epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:22957240

  12. Choline and polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm infants' maternal milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Christoph; Franz, Axel R; Shunova, Anna; Mathes, Michaela; Bleeker, Christine; Poets, Christian F; Schleicher, Erwin; Bernhard, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Choline, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) are essential to fetal development, particularly of the brain. These components are actively enriched in the fetus. Deprivation from placental supply may therefore result in impaired accretion in preterm infants. To determine choline, choline metabolites, DHA, and ARA in human breast milk (BM) of preterm infants compared to BM of term born infants. We collected expressed BM samples from 34 mothers (N = 353; postnatal day 6-85), who had delivered 35 preterm infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (postmenstrual age 30 weeks, range 25.4-32.0), and from mothers after term delivery (N = 9; postnatal day 6-118). Target metabolites were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography and reported as medians and 25th/75th percentiles. In BM, choline was mainly present in the form of phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine, followed by free choline, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and lyso-phosphatidylcholine. In preterm infants' BM total choline ranged from 61 to 360 mg/L (median: 158 mg/L) and was decreased compared to term infants' BM (range 142-343 mg/L; median: 258 mg/L; p preterm BM lipids, whereas term BM values were 0.68 (0.52-0.88) and 0.35 (0.18-0.75) %, respectively. Concentrations of all target parameters decreased after birth, and frequently 150 ml/kg/d BM did not meet the estimated fetal accretion rates. Following preterm delivery, BM choline concentrations are lower, whereas ARA and DHA levels are comparable versus term delivery. Based on these findings we suggest a combined supplementation of preterm infants' BM with choline, ARA and DHA combined to improve the nutritional status of preterm infants. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01773902.

  13. Cerebral hypoxia and ischemia in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ravarino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth is a major public health issue internationally affecting 13 million babies worldwide. Hypoxia and ischemia is probably the commonest type of acquired brain damage in preterm infants. The clinical manifestations of hypoxic-ischemic injury in survivors of premature birth include a spectrum of cerebral palsy and intellectual disabilities. Until recently, the extensive brain abnormalities in preterm neonates appeared to be related mostly to destructive processes that lead to substantial deletion of neurons, axons, and glia from necrotic lesions in the developing brain. Advances in neonatal care coincide with a growing body of evidence that the preterm gray and white matter frequently sustain less severe insults, where tissue destruction is the minor component. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the major form of white matter injury and consists classically of focal necrotic lesions, with subsequent cyst formation, and a less severe but more diffuse injury to cerebral white mater, with prominent astrogliosis and microgliosis but without overt necrosis. With PVL a concomitant injury occurs to subplate neurons, located in the subcortical white matter. Severe hypoxic-ischemic insults that trigger significant white matter necrosis are accompanied by neuronal degeneration in cerebral gray and white matter. This review aims to illustrate signs of cerebral embryology of the second half of fetal life and correlate hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the premature infant. This should help us better understand the symptoms early and late and facilitate new therapeutic strategies. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  14. Atlas-free surface reconstruction of the cortical grey-white interface in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Leroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The segmentation of the cortical interface between grey and white matter in magnetic resonance images (MRI is highly challenging during the first post-natal year. First, the heterogeneous brain maturation creates important intensity fluctuations across regions. Second, the cortical ribbon is highly folded creating complex shapes. Finally, the low tissue contrast and partial volume effects hamper cortex edge detection in parts of the brain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present an atlas-free method for segmenting the grey-white matter interface of infant brains in T2-weighted (T2w images. We used a broad characterization of tissue using features based not only on local contrast but also on geometric properties. Furthermore, inaccuracies in localization were reduced by the convergence of two evolving surfaces located on each side of the inner cortical surface. Our method has been applied to eleven brains of one- to four-month-old infants. Both quantitative validations against manual segmentations and sulcal landmarks demonstrated good performance for infants younger than two months old. Inaccuracies in surface reconstruction increased with age in specific brain regions where the tissue contrast decreased with maturation, such as in the central region. CONCLUSIONS: We presented a new segmentation method which achieved good to very good performance at the grey-white matter interface depending on the infant age. This method should reduce manual intervention and could be applied to pathological brains since it does not require any brain atlas.

  15. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain.

  16. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  18. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  19. Colic in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Peter

    2010-02-05

    Colic in infants causes one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for colic in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase carrying, advice to reduce stimulation, casein hydrolysate milk, cranial osteopathy, crib vibrator device, focused counselling, gripe water, infant massage, low-lactose milk, simethicone, soya-based infant feeds, spinal manipulation, and whey hydrolysate milk.

  20. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a ...

  1. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  2. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  3. Lactose intolerance in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cathy

    Cathy Taylor describes the pathophysiology and aetiology of lactose intolerance and how to diagnose and treat it. Management of the infant by the primary health care team is discussed, with emphasis on advice and nutritional support that can be recommended to parents.

  4. Bromoderma in an infant*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefel, Isadora da Rosa; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Hagemann, Laura Netto; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Kiszewski, Ana Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Bromoderma is a cutaneous eruption caused by the absorption of bromide. Clinical manifestations include acneiform and vegetative lesions. We report the case of an infant with bromoderma caused by the use of syrup for abdominal colic containing calcium bromide. The lesions regressed after discontinuation of the drug.

  5. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a system

  6. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  7. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  8. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  9. P50 sensory gating in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Anne Spencer; Hunter, Sharon Kay; Groth, Mark A; Ross, Randal Glenn

    2013-12-26

    Attentional deficits are common in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar mood disorder, and schizophrenia. There has been increasing interest in the neurodevelopmental components of these attentional deficits; neurodevelopmental meaning that while the deficits become clinically prominent in childhood or adulthood, the deficits are the results of problems in brain development that begin in infancy or even prenatally. Despite this interest, there are few methods for assessing attention very early in infancy. This report focuses on one method, infant auditory P50 sensory gating. Attention has several components. One of the earliest components of attention, termed sensory gating, allows the brain to tune out repetitive, noninformative sensory information. Auditory P50 sensory gating refers to one task designed to measure sensory gating using changes in EEG. When identical auditory stimuli are presented 500 ms apart, the evoked response (change in the EEG associated with the processing of the click) to the second stimulus is generally reduced relative to the response to the first stimulus (i.e. the response is "gated"). When response to the second stimulus is not reduced, this is considered a poor sensory gating, is reflective of impaired cerebral inhibition, and is correlated with attentional deficits. Because the auditory P50 sensory gating task is passive, it is of potential utility in the study of young infants and may provide a window into the developmental time course of attentional deficits in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The goal of this presentation is to describe the methodology for assessing infant auditory P50 sensory gating, a methodology adapted from those used in studies of adult populations.

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits ... tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ... grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons ... affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. ...

  15. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  16. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits ... tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  20. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez, Mónica; Born, A Peter; Nagy, Zoltan;

    2008-01-01

    stratum. While some earlier findings in preterm infants have suggested developmental delays, the results of this study are more consistent with accelerated white matter development, possibly as a result of increased sensorimotor stimulation in the extrauterine environment. These results are the first......Twenty-seven preterm infants were compared to 10 full-term infants at term equivalent age using a voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Preterm infants exhibited higher fractional anisotropy values, which may suggest accelerated maturation, in the location of the sagittal...

  1. Behavioral consequences of developmental iron deficiency in infant rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Mari S.; Hogrefe, Casey E.; Germann, Stacey L.; Capitanio, John P.; Lozoff, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    Human studies have shown that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in infants are associated with behavioral impairment, but the periods of brain development most susceptible to iron deficiency have not been established. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were deprived of iron by dietary iron restriction during prenatal (n = 14, 10 μg Fe/g diet) or early postnatal (n = 12, 1.5 mg Fe/L formula) brain development and compared to controls (n = 12, 100 μg Fe/g diet, 12 mg Fe/L formula) in behavioral evaluations conducted during the first four months of life in the nonhuman primate nursery. Iron deficiency anemia was detected in the pregnant dams in the third trimester and compromised iron status was seen in the prenatally iron-deprived infants at birth, but no iron deficiency was seen in either the prenatally or postnatally iron-deprived infants during the period of behavioral evaluation. Neither prenatal nor postnatal iron deprivation led to significant delays in growth, or gross or fine motor development. Prenatally deprived infants demonstrated a 20% reduced spontaneous activity level, lower inhibitory response to novel environments, and more changes from one behavior to another in weekly observation sessions. Postnatally deprived infants demonstrated poorer performance of an object concept task, and greater emotionality relative to controls. This study indicates that different syndromes of behavioral effects are associated with prenatal and postnatal iron deprivation in rhesus monkey infants and that these effects can occur in the absence of concurrent iron deficiency as reflected in hematological measures. PMID:16343844

  2. Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Raghavan, Renitha; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-05-01

    Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite.

  3. Status epilepticus results in reversible neuronal injury in infant rat hippocampus: novel use of a marker

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Daniel; Tallie Z. Baram

    1994-01-01

    Despite ready induction of severe limbic status epilepticus by systemic kainic acid (KA) in infant rats, excitotoxic neuronal injury has not been observed. The mechanisms of this resistance of the immature hippocampus to excitotoxicity are unknown. Acid fuchsin stain has been used as a marker of irreversibly injured neurons in the adult brain. We speculated that the dye might map reversibly injured neurons in the infant. Subsequent to KA-induced status epilepticus in 11-day-old rats, acid fuc...

  4. Dorsal stream vulnerability in preterm infants – A longitudinal EEG study of visual motion perception

    OpenAIRE

    Zotcheva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    High-density electroencephalogram (EEG) was used to longitudinally investigate evoked and induced brain electrical activity as a function of visual motion in full-term and preterm infants at 4-5 and 12 months of age. The infants were presented with two visual motion paradigms, optic flow and looming. The optic flow experiment simulated structured forwards and reversed optic flow and random visual motion, while the looming experiment simulated a looming object approaching on a direct collision...

  5. US and MR imaging of candidiasis of the nervous system in premature infants: two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Nam; Woo, Joung Joo; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Soon Yong; Kim, Eun Ryoung [Sungae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Candidiasis of central nervous system (CNS) is rare condition and like other opportunistic fungal infections, most commonly occurs in immune-compromised patients. Because of the increasing use of antibiotics and the improving survival rate of premature infants requiring intensive care, the incidence of fungal infection in the brain has increased. We report the findings of ultrasonography and MR imaging in two cases of candidiasis of the CNS in premature infants.

  6. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Full Text Available Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  7. Newborn predictors of infant irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, M R; Froese-Fretz, A; Kotzer, A M

    1998-01-01

    To identify newborn infant behaviors that may predict infant irritability, commonly referred to as colic. A prospective, correlational design, with data collection occurring the first 4 days of life and again at 1 month of age. This study was conducted in a private hospital in a large metropolitan city in the Midwest. Sixty infants who were at low risk and full term and whose weight was appropriate for gestational age were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay. Infants with congenital anomalies, signs of illness, or high-risk factors were excluded from the study. During infants' 1-4-day hospital stays, their crying was assessed and reported by the nurses, and a Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was completed on each infant. At 1 month of age, irritability was measured using the Fussiness Rating Scale. Only two components of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were related to development of colic or infant irritability at 1 month of age. These were the cluster of variables representing motor activity and the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale supplemental item measuring the persistence necessary on the part of the examiner to get the infant to attend to stimuli presented. The infants who were classified by parents as irritable at 1 month of age were more active and more attentive to stimuli in the first few days of life. Of interest was that the newborn nursery nurses cry ratings were not related to the later development of colic in these infants. Active infants who are sensitive to stimuli may be predisposed to infant irritability; however, further work is needed to understand the relationships of these infant characteristics to the human interactions and physical environments they encounter

  8. Lumbar cisternography in evaluation of hydrocephalus in the preterm infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donn, S.M.; Roloff, D.W.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.

    1983-10-01

    Radionuclide lumbar cisternography using indium 111-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (111In-DTPA) and a mobile gamma-camera with a converging collimator was utilized as a bedside procedure to evaluate CSF dynamics and the patency of the cerebral ventricular system in 30 preterm infants with hydrocephalus. Serial images of the brain were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 6, 24, and 48 hours after instillation of the isotope in the lumbar subarachnoid space. Three distinct patterns were seen. Infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus displayed prompt ventricular filling but markedly delayed emptying with minimal flow over the cerebral convexities. Infants with ventriculomegaly secondary to suspected brain atrophy or periventricular leukomalacia demonstrated a pattern of prompt ventricular filling, delayed emptying, but with flow present over the convexities. An infant with noncommunicating hydrocephalus secondary to an Arnold-Chiari malformation showed a pattern of complete obstruction with no ventricular filling. Radionuclide lumbar cisternography appears to be a safe, well-tolerated procedure which produces images of sufficient resolution to provide valuable information about CSF dynamics, delineating basal cisternae, ventricles, and subarachnoid flow paths.

  9. 早产儿生后早期头颅磁共振成像表现与智力及心理运动发育预后的关系%Relationship between early brain damage in preterm infants detected by magnetic resonance imaging and neurodevelopmental outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 李淑兰; 冯子鉴

    2013-01-01

    扩大程度越重,智力发育障碍的发生率越高(H分别为16.23和14.33,P均<0.05),心理运动发育障碍的发生率也越高(H分别为18.63和12.69,P均<0.05). 结论 脑白质损伤在早产儿中较为常见,早产儿脑白质损伤及脑室扩大程度越重,其智力及心理运动发育预后越差.%Objective To investigate the relationship between early brain menifestation such as white matter damage and ventriculomegaly detected by magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants.Methods From March 15,2007 to April 12,2011,122 preterm infants accepted MRI examination 8-14 days after birth in Chinese People's Liberation Army 202 Hospital.Totally,115 preterm infants were followed up at 12 months old and mental development index(MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) score were measured.MDI<70 was as mental dysfunction,-84 as borderline dysfunction and-114 as normal; PDI<70 was as psychomotor dysfunction,-84 as borderline dysfunction and-114 as normal.The relationship between clinical characteristics of preterm infants,MRI abnormalities and neurodevelopmental outcome were analyzed by analysis of variance,LSD and Kruskal-Wallis H test.Results The 122 premature infants included 69 males and 53 females with the median gestational age of 32 weeks(28-36 weeks)and the median birth weight of 2050 g (1270-3110 g).In 24 premature infants with mentaldysfunction,the average gestational age [(28.7 ± 1.7) weeks],birth weight[(1520.1-44.8) g] and 1 min Apgar score (5.5 ± 0.8) were all lower than those in normal infants [n =59,(33.5 ± 2.2)weeks,(2240.4 ± 47.1) g and 7.1 ± 0.8],while the average mechanical ventilation time was longer [(20.4±5.8) dvs (5.6±2.7) d](t=2.37,2.49,2.13 and 2.44,P<0.05).In 20 premature infants with psychomotor dysfunction,the average gestational age [(27.9 ±± 1.4) weeks],birth weight [(1515.6±43.7) g],1 min Apgar score (5.6t0.5) were lower than those in normal infants [n=62

  10. Energy conservation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  11. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  12. Neonatal pain control and neurologic effects of anesthetics and sedatives in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Christopher; Grunau, Ruth E

    2014-03-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the adverse consequences of untreated pain and stress on brain development in the preterm infant. Sucrose has widely been implemented as standard therapy for minor procedural pain. Anesthetics are commonly utilized in preterm infants during major surgery. Pharmacologic agents (benzodiazepines and opioids) have been examined in clinical trials of preterm infants requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Controversy exists regarding the safety and long-term impact of these interventions. Ongoing multidisciplinary research will help define the impact of these agents and identify potential alternative therapies.

  13. EEG maturation and stability of cerebral oxygen extraction in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dib, M; Govindan, R; Aly, S; Mohamed, M; du Plessis, A; Aly, H

    2016-04-01

    Fractional cerebral tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) can be continuously monitored by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and pulse oximetry. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, the more mature EEG activity is, the less variable FTOE is. A prospective study was conducted on VLBW infants (transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension. Increased maturation of EEG activity is associated with decreased variability in cerebral oxygen extraction. The implications of increased variability in FTOE on brain injury in premature infants need further exploration.

  14. [Continuous spectrum analysis during anesthesia and the recovery period in infants under 1 year of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P; Bensouda, A; Mayer, M N; Barrier, G

    1989-01-01

    Continuous spectral EEG activity monitoring has been used in adults as a monitor of brain activity during anesthesia. It has not been used in infants. We studied 22 infants less than 7 months old undergoing minor surgery. Halothane alone or minimal Halothane anesthesia associated with caudal epidural anesthesia were used. Life-Scan analysis, in spite of wide individual variations, allowed us to detect infraclinical hypoxia episodes, it provided informations about operative confort, depth of anesthesia and added in the post-operative period an objective criteria to clinical evaluation of pain. A wide use of such a monitoring is warranted in infants.

  15. Neuroendocrine Inflammatory Responses in Overweight/Obese Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Camila Alves; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Neves, Camila Danielle Cunha; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Oliveira, Murilo Xavier; Júnior, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to a cascade of neuroendocrine inflammatory changes. However, there remains a gap in the current literature regarding the possible occurrence of these changes in overweight/obese infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate adipokines, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and redox status in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants (25 in the overweight/obese group and 25 in the normal-weight group) between 6 and 24 months. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors, chemokines, BDNF, serum cortisol and redox status were measured. Unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze the results and a probability of p<0.05 was acceptable for rejection of the null hypothesis. The Pearson correlation was used to verify the association between the biomarkers analyzed in each group. Plasma levels of leptin (p = 0.0001), adiponectin (p = 0.0007) and BDNF (p = 0.003), and serum cortisol (p = 0.048) were significantly higher in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight infants. In contrast, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (p = 0.004), and catalase (p = 0.045) and superoxide dismutase activity (p = 0.02) were lower in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight peers. All the results together indicate neuroendocrine inflammatory response changes in overweight/obese infants between 6 and 24 months. Although there is already an environment that predisposes for a subsequent pro-inflammatory response, neuroendocrine secretion changes that permit the control of the inflammatory process in this age interval can be observed. PMID:27907172

  16. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Pereira, Suzette L.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Erdman, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group). All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions. PMID:28075370

  17. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookyoung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group. All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  18. Mothers’ Unresolved Trauma Blunts Amygdala Response to Infant Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S.; Fonagy, P; Allen, J.; Strathearn, L.

    2014-01-01

    While the neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder has been extensively researched, much less attention has been paid to the neural mechanisms underlying more covert but pervasive types of trauma (e.g., those involving disrupted relationships and insecure attachment). Here, we report on a neurobiological study documenting that mothers' attachment-related trauma, when unresolved, undermines her optimal brain response to her infant's distress. We examined the amygdala blood oxygenation le...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  20. Anatomy of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ... form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ...

  1. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Zhu; Tao Liu; Guangyi Li; Tong Li; Yoshio Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such sys...

  2. Event-Related Potentials to an English/Spanish Syllabic Contrast in Mexican 10–13-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Gaxiola, Maritza; Garcia-Sierra, Adrian; Lara-Ayala, Lourdes; Cadena, Cesar; Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2012-01-01

    We report brain electrophysiological responses from 10- to 13-month-old Mexican infants while listening to native and foreign CV-syllable contrasts differing in Voice Onset Time (VOT). All infants showed normal auditory event-related potential (ERP) components. Our analyses showed ERP evidence that Mexican infants are capable of discriminating their native sounds as well as the acoustically salient (aspiration) foreign contrast. The study showed that experience with native language influences VOT perception in Spanish learning infants. The acoustic salience of aspiration is perceived by both Spanish and English learning infants, but exposure provides additional phonetic status to this native-language feature for English learning infants. The effects of early experience and neural commitment as well as the impact of acoustic salience are further discussed. PMID:22577579

  3. Challenges in the Management of Hydrocephalic Children in Northern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Sérgio; Henriques, João Carlos; Munguambe, Missael; Vaz, Rui M C; Barros, Henrique P

    2015-09-01

    Hydrocephalus in sub-Saharan Africa, including Mozambique, is still a significant health care problem. Retrospective data from a previous study were used to determine patient provenance, referral patterns, and lost to follow-up rates. Many children with hydrocephalus in this region are not taken to health care facilities for treatment. Reasons include poverty, difficult access, lack of transportation, and erroneous cultural interpretations. Resource limitations in terms of poorly equipped health care facilities and a lack of trained health professionals also contribute. Efforts to improve prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up are of utmost importance in Mozambique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-pressure valves in hydrocephalic children : a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breimer, G. E.; Sival, Deborah; Hoving, E. W.

    2012-01-01

    A series of 100 children under 2 years of age treated for hydrocephalus is described. All patients received a standard differential low-pressure (SD low) valve as the first cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt treatment. The performance of this group during follow-up is analysed. A retrospective cohort s

  5. Low-pressure valves in hydrocephalic children : a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breimer, G. E.; Sival, Deborah; Hoving, E. W.

    2012-01-01

    A series of 100 children under 2 years of age treated for hydrocephalus is described. All patients received a standard differential low-pressure (SD low) valve as the first cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt treatment. The performance of this group during follow-up is analysed. A retrospective cohort s

  6. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  7. Premature birth and diseases in premature infants: common genetic background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Mikko

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that during human evolution, development of obligate bipedalism, narrow birth canal cross-sectional area and the large brain have forced an adjustment in duration of pregnancy (scaling of gestational age; Plunkett 2011). Children compared to other mammals are born with proportionally small brains (compared to adult brains), suggesting shortening of pregnancy duration during recent evolution. Prevalence of both obstructed delivery and premature birth is still exceptionally high. In near term infants, functional maturity and viability is high, and gene variants predisposing to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are rare. Advanced antenatal and neonatal treatment practices during the new era of medicine allowed survival of also very preterm infants (gestation premature birth. Specific genes associating with diseases in preterm infants may also contribute to the susceptibility to preterm birth. Understanding and applying the knowledge of genetic interactions in normal and abnormal perinatal-neonatal development requires large, well-structured population cohorts, studies involving the whole genome and international interdisciplinary collaboration.

  8. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  9. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  10. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin ... infants has only been available in a stronger concentration that doesn’t require giving the infants as ...

  11. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Infant Sleep Positioner Example See more images of Infant Sleep ...

  12. Infant Massage: Understand This Soothing Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand when and how to give an infant massage. By Mayo Clinic Staff Infant massage is a way for you to gently nurture ... Find out about the possible benefits of infant massage and know how to get started. Research suggests ...

  13. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Infant development begins at birth. Consider major infant development milestones from birth to 3 months — and know what to do when something's not right. By ...

  14. 早期护理干预对脑损伤早产儿预后的影响%Effect of Early Nursing Intervention on the Prognosis of Brain Injury in Preterm Infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of brain injury in preterm children accepted early nursing intervention.Methods Research and analysis received 130 cases of brain injury with preterm children in our hospital from 2012 to 2014,these patients were randomly divided into a control group and observation group,each with 65 cases. Control group received usual care,observation group to take care of early intervention,clinical care outcomes compared two groups of effect.Results Through different nursing intervention,children with mental development index in the observation group(MDI)and psychomotor development index(PDI)index was(96.7 ± 3.2)points,(95.4 ± 3.5)points,the control group of children with MDI and PDI index were(71.3±4.4)points,(73.4±4.8)points; the difference was statisticaly significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Early nursing intervention can promote brain injury in preterm children's intelectual development,has the effect of improving their athletic ability,the quality of life,it can ease the burden on families,should be introduced.%目的:研究分析脑损伤早产儿接受早期护理干预的效果。方法入选2012~2014年我院接收的130例脑损伤早产儿进行研究分析,将这些患者随机分为对照组和观察组,各有65例,对照组采取常规护理,观察组采取早期护理干预,对比两组的临床护理预后效果。结果经过不同护理干预,观察组患儿智力发育指数(MDI)及运动发育指数(PDI)指数分别为(96.7±3.2)分、(95.4±3.5)分,对照组患儿MDI及PDI指数分别为(71.3±4.4)分、(73.4±4.8)分,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论早期护理干预能够促进脑损伤早产儿的智力发育,对其运动能力具有提升效果,患儿的生活质量也有很大的改善,可以缓解患儿的家庭负担。

  15. Traumatic brain lesions in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícollas Nunes Rabelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant. The high neonatal morbidity and mortality rates attest to the fragility of life during this period. The incidence of birth trauma is 0.8%, varying from 0.2-2 per 1,000 births. The aim of this study is to describe brain traumas, and their mechanism, anatomy considerations, and physiopathology of the newborn traumatic brain injury. Methods A literature review using the PubMed data base, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, The Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, and clinical trials. Selected papers from 1922 to 2016 were studied. We selected 109 papers, through key-words, with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Discussion This paper discusses the risk factors for birth trauma, the anatomy of the occipito-anterior and vertex presentation, and traumatic brain lesions. Conclusion Birth-related traumatic brain injury may cause serious complications in newborn infants. Its successful management includes special training, teamwork, and an individual approach.

  16. Prefrontal activation associated with social attachment: facial-emotion recognition in mothers and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Matsuoka, Sunao; Dan, Ippeita; Naoi, Nozomi; Nakamura, Katsuki; Kojima, Shozo

    2009-02-01

    Attachment between mothers and infants is the most primitive and primary form of human social relationship. Many reports have suggested that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a significant role in this attachment; however, only a select few provide experimental neurophysiological evidence. In the present study, to determine the neural substrates underlying the social and emotional attachment between mothers and infants, we measured their prefrontal activation by using near-infrared spectroscopy. We used movie stimuli that could robustly induce a positive affect, and the results for viewing own versus unfamiliar infants showed that own-infant viewing elicited increased activations around the anterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the mothers. Their response magnitude in that area was also correlated with the behavioral rating of the pleasant mood of infants. Furthermore, our study revealed that the infants' prefrontal activation around the anterior OFC is specific to viewing their mothers' smile. These results suggest the OFC's role in regulating and encoding the affect in attachment system and also show that infants share similar neuronal functions with mothers, associated with their bonds at 1 year of age. We further discussed infants' prefrontal activations and their implications for the development of the social brain network.

  17. Evaluation of non-verbal cognitive function in infants with severe hearing impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyu Wang; Xiaoming Li; Li Zhao; Jianhong Li; Yuxia Pan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between hearing impairment and verbal developmental deficits in infants has become a hotspot in research, focusing on improving hearing and promoting verbal development. However, language is only one element of cognition. There are other elements of non-verbal cognitive deficits in infants with hearing impairment.OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the differences in gross motor, fine motor, adaptability, and behavioral development between infants with severe hearing impairment and ordinary children of the same age. DESIGN: Case-control observation.SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology-Head Surgery, Bethune International Peace Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two infants with hearing impairment, who received treatment in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head Surgery, Bethune International Peace Hospital from February to December 2007, were confirmed to suffer from severe (or extremely severe) sensorineural deafness by auditory brain-stem response (ABR) and were recruited for this study. The infants comprised 30 males and 22 females. Among them, 18 were aged 0-1 year, 18 were aged 1-2 years, and 16 were aged 2-3 years. An additional 60 individuals, aged 0-3 years, who received developmental monitoring simultaneously, and were confirmed to have normal hearing and verbal ability, were included as controls. Among the control subjects, there were 31 males and 29 females: 20 were 0.05). The behavioral developmental quotient was significantly less in hearing-impaired infants compared to control infants, who were between 1 and 2 years of age (P < 0.05). The development quotients of fine motor and behavioral development were significantly less in hearing-impaired infants than in control infants, who were 2-3 years of age (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Compared to control infants, severe hearing-impaired infants have a lower behavioral developmental quotient after 1 year and a lower fine motor developmental quotient after 2 years of age.

  18. Enhancement of gamma oscillations indicates preferential processing of native over foreign phonemic contrasts in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Musacchia, Gabriella; Benasich, April A

    2013-11-27

    Young infants discriminate phonetically relevant speech contrasts in a universal manner, that is, similarly across languages. This ability fades by 12 months of age as the brain builds language-specific phonemic maps and increasingly responds preferentially to the infant's native language. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie the development of infant preference for native over non-native phonemes remain unclear. Since gamma-band power is known to signal infants' preference for native language rhythm, we hypothesized that it might also indicate preference for native phonemes. Using high-density electroencephalogram/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) recordings and source-localization techniques to identify and locate the ERP generators, we examined changes in brain oscillations while 6-month-old human infants from monolingual English settings listened to English and Spanish syllable contrasts. Neural dynamics were investigated via single-trial analysis of the temporal-spectral composition of brain responses at source level. Increases in 4-6 Hz (theta) power and in phase synchronization at 2-4 Hz (delta/theta) were found to characterize infants' evoked responses to discrimination of native/non-native syllable contrasts mostly in the left auditory source. However, selective enhancement of induced gamma oscillations in the area of anterior cingulate cortex was seen only during native contrast discrimination. These results suggest that gamma oscillations support syllable discrimination in the earliest stages of language acquisition, particularly during the period in which infants begin to develop preferential processing for linguistically relevant phonemic features in their environment. Our results also suggest that by 6 months of age, infants already treat native phonemic contrasts differently from non-native, implying that perceptual specialization and establishment of enduring phonemic memory representations have been initiated.

  19. Deciphering infant mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  20. Diet and gender are important factors modulating low frequency EEG activity during processing of language sounds in 3 month old infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about how early postnatal diet affects brain processes related to cognitive function in healthy infants. To address this question we examined EEG activity recorded from 3 month old infants [breastfed (BF: n = 104, 55 males), milk-based formula fed (MF: n = 114, 57 males) or soy for...

  1. Feasibility of Undertaking Off-Site Infant Eye-Tracking Assessments of Neuro-Cognitive Functioning in Early-Intervention Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballieux, Haiko; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Kushnerneko, Elena; Johnson, Mark H.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Moore, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work suggests that differences in functional brain development are already identifiable in 6- to 9-month-old infants from low socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. Investigation of early SES-related differences in neuro-cognitive functioning requires the recruitment of large and diverse samples of infants, yet it is often difficult to…

  2. Gestational age dependent changes of the fetal brain, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions in a population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There are no data on the intrauterine fatty acid (FA) compositions of brain, liver and adipose tissue of infants born to women with high fish intakes. Subjects and methods: We analyzed the brain (n = 18), liver (n = 14) and adipose tissue (n = 11) FA compositions of 20 stillborn infant

  3. Voxel-based morphometry and fMRI revealed differences in brain gray matter in breastfed and milk formula–fed children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Purpose: Infant diets may have significant impact on brain development in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain grey matter structure and function in 8-year-old children who were predominantly breastfed (BF) or fed cow’s milk formula (MF) as infants. Materials and Me...

  4. Optical tomography of the neonatal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebden, Jeremy C. [University College London, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Austin, Topun [University College London, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    A new method of assessing neurological function and pathology in the newborn infant is being developed based on the transmission of near-infrared light across the brain. Absorption by blood over a range of wavelengths reveals a strong dependency on oxygenation status, and measurements of transmitted light enable the spatial variation in the concentrations of the oxygenated and de-oxygenated forms of hemoglobin to be derived. Optical tomography has so far provided static three-dimensional maps of blood volume and oxygenation as well as dynamic images revealing the brain's response to sensory stimulation and global hemodynamic changes. The imaging modality is being developed as a safe and non-invasive tool that can be utilized at the cotside in intensive care. Optical tomography of the healthy infant brain is also providing a means of studying neurophysiological processes during early development and the potential consequences of prematurity. (orig.)

  5. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  6. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  7. Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.

    1971-01-01

    Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)

  8. Selectivity in Infant Social Referencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    In laboratory studies of social referencing, infants as young as 12 months have been reported to prefer looking at the experimenter over the caregiver for clarifying information. From an expertise perspective, such behavior could be interpreted as if the infant seeks information from others and can discriminate between persons who have or do not…

  9. Learning and Memory in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses important recent strides in the documentation and understanding of the infant's learning and memory capacity. Focuses on the psychobiology of learning, hedonic mediation of approach-avoidance and learned behavior, infant memory, and critical conditions of infancy and behavioral misadventures. (RJC)

  10. Recovery of Habituation in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Charity N.; Cohen, Leslie B.

    1970-01-01

    Male infants habituated their fixation time over trials and differentiated between the novel and familiar stimuli when the posthabituation interval was 15 seconds, but neither male nor female infants did so when the interval was 5 minutes. This paper is based upon a thesis submitted by the first author in partial fulfillment of the requirements…

  11. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  12. Heated indoor swimming pools, infants, and the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a neurogenic hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMaster Marianne E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a case-control study a statistically significant association was recorded between the introduction of infants to heated indoor swimming pools and the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. In this paper, a neurogenic hypothesis is formulated to explain how toxins produced by chlorine in such pools may act deleteriously on the infant's immature central nervous system, comprising brain and spinal cord, to produce the deformity of AIS. Presentation of the hypothesis Through vulnerability of the developing central nervous system to circulating toxins, and because of delayed epigenetic effects, the trunk deformity of AIS does not become evident until adolescence. In mature healthy swimmers using such pools, the circulating neurotoxins detected are chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. Cyanogen chloride and dichloroacetonitrile have also been detected. Testing the hypothesis In infants, the putative portals of entry to the blood could be dermal, oral, or respiratory; and entry of such circulating small molecules to the brain are via the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and circumventricular organs. Barrier mechanisms of the developing brain differ from those of adult brain and have been linked to brain development. During the first 6 months of life cerebrospinal fluid contains higher concentrations of specific proteins relative to plasma, attributed to mechanisms continued from fetal brain development rather than immaturity. Implications of the hypothesis The hypothesis can be tested. If confirmed, there is potential to prevent some children from developing AIS.

  13. Network analysis of perception-action coupling in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eRotem-Kohavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The functional networks that support action observation are of great interest in understanding the development of social cognition and motor learning. How infants learn to represent and understand the world around them remains one of the most intriguing questions in developmental cognitive neuroscience. Recently, mathematical measures derived from graph theory have been used to study connectivity networks in the developing brain. Thus far, this type of analysis in infancy has only been applied to the resting state. In this study, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG from infants (ages 4-11 months of age and adults while they observed three types of actions: a reaching for an object, b walking and c object motion. Graph theory based analysis was applied to these data to evaluate changes in brain networks. Global metrics that provide measures of the structural properties of the network (characteristic path, density, global efficiency, and modularity were calculated for each group and for each condition. We found statistically significant differences in measures for the observation of walking condition only. Specifically, in comparison to adults, infants showed increased density and global efficiency in combination with decreased modularity during observation of an action that is not within their motor repertoire (i.e. independent walking, suggesting a less structured organization. There were no group differences in global metric measures for observation of object motion or for observation of actions that are within the repertoire of infants (i.e. reaching. These preliminary results suggest that infants and adults may share a basic functional network for action observation that is sculpted by experience. Motor experience may lead to a shift towards a more efficient functional network.

  14. Slow pupillary light responses in infants at high risk of cerebral palsy were associated with periventricular leukomalacia and neurological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Elisa G; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Dijkstra, Linze J; Hielkema, Tjitske; Kos, Claire; Bos, Arend F; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-12-01

    Having observed slow pupillary light responses (PLRs) in infants at high risk of cerebral palsy, we retrospectively evaluated whether these were associated with specific brain lesions or unfavourable outcomes. We carried out neurological examinations on 30 infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy five times until the corrected age of 21 months, classifying each PLR assessment as normal or slow. The predominant reaction during development was determined for each infant. Neonatal brain scans were classified based on the type of brain lesion. Developmental outcome was evaluated at 21 months of corrected age with a neurological examination, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Second Edition and the Infant Motor Profile. Of the 30 infants, 16 developed cerebral palsy. Predominantly slow PLRs were observed in eight infants and were associated with periventricular leukomalacia (p = 0.007), cerebral palsy (p = 0.039), bilateral cerebral palsy (p = 0.001), poorer quality of motor behaviour (p cerebral palsy were associated with periventricular leukomalacia and poorer developmental outcome. Slow PLR might be an expression of white matter damage, resulting in dysfunction of the complex cortico-subcortical circuitries. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Brain vascular and hydrodynamic physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Protecting the brain in vulnerable infants undergoing surgery is a central aspect of perioperative care. Understanding the link between blood flow, oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption leads to a more informed approach to bedside care. In some cases, we need to consider how high can we let the partial pressure of carbon dioxide go before we have concerns about risk of increased cerebral blood volume and change in intracranial hydrodynamics? Alternatively, in almost all such cases, we have to address the question of how low can we let the blood pressure drop before we should be concerned about brain perfusion? This review, provides a basic understanding of brain bioenergetics, hemodynamics, hydrodynamics, autoregulation and vascular homeostasis to changes in blood gases that is fundamental to our thinking about bedside care and monitoring. PMID:24331089

  16. Metabolite concentrations in the developing brain estimated with proton MR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P B; Leth, H; Lou, H C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate absolute concentrations and relaxation time constants of metabolites that were detectable with proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in the healthy preterm, term, and infant brain. Five MR spectra were recorded for each infant by using STEAM ...

  17. [Developmental amnesia in the premature infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouron, V; Hays, S; Gonzalez-Monge, S

    2010-02-01

    All types of memory disorders have been observed in children, although these reports are rare. Developmental amnesia selectively involves episodic daily life memory while semantic learning is respected and general intelligence is not affected. Daily life is severely disturbed by this cognitive disorder usually occurring after hypoxic ischemic injury with bilateral hippocampal atrophy on MRI. Memory disorders are underdiagnosed in at-risk patients and rarely reported. We report on a former small-for-gestational-age preterm infant with no obvious hypoxic event during perinatal life. The follow-up was normal until elementary school. He had to spend 2 years in 1st grade and exhibited some behavioral troubles. At the age of 9, he was suspected of suffering from dyspraxia and was referred to a pediatrics rehabilitation center. IQ and neuropsychological tests were administered and showed selective autobiographical memory impairment defining developmental amnesia. Despite a typical clinical presentation, brain MRI was normal, including the hippocampal area. This observation underlines the need for a prolonged follow-up until school age to assess the outcome of preterm infants. Otherwise, the evaluation will be limited to motor impairment. Particular attention should be paid to memory during the follow-up to avoid misdiagnoses and to plan and adapt these children's educational strategies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dudek

    Full Text Available The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1 or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2. To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200 and increased conflict processing (larger N450, albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is

  19. A seven-year study on head injury in infants, Iran —— the changing pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakharian Esmaeil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Head injury (HI is the leading cause of mortality and life-long disability in infants. Infants have different anatomical and pathophysiological brain structures from other age groups. The aim of this study was to survey infant HI patients admitted to Shahid Behest Hospital in Kashan, Iran from 2004 to 2010, and to identify the causes of HIs in this age group. Methods: In this retrospective study, all HI patients under the age of two who were hospitalized for more than 24 hours between January 2004 and January 2010 were enrolled in the study. Demographic, etiologic, and injury data were collected and a descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Infants comprised 20.8% of all children (under 15 years old with HIs and 65.1% of the injuries occurred in the home. Falls were the most common cause of injury (63.4%. In hospital mortality was 6.6 per 100 000 infants. A decreasing trend was seen in home events, but HIs caused by traffic accidents were increasing during the study period. The amount of HI infants resulting from car accidents has tripled from the years 2004 to 2010. Conclusion: Although home events and falling are the main causes of infant HIs and need attention, our study showed an increase of HIs caused by road traffic accidents, especially by car accidents, thus legislation for the implementation of protective equipment such as child safety seats and programs is urgently needed. Key words: Infant; Brain injuries; Epidemiology

  20. Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis in an Iranian Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Movahedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Naegleria fowleri, a free living amoeba, can cause devastating and deadly diseases in humans. This is the first report of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis from Iran. Case report. A five-month-old male infant presented with the history of fever and eye gaze for three days, after beginning of bacterial meningitis, a plain and contrast CT revealed communicated hydrocephalus. In the repeat of CSF analysis on microscopic examination of wet preparation of CSF, Naegleria Fowleri was seen. Then, Amphotericin B and Rifampin were started. On followup, two months later, the patient was totally asymptomatic. Conclusion. Though occurrence of PAM is rare, this unusual disease has grave prognosis, so infection with free living amoebas must be considered in differential diagnosis of pediatric patients of purulent meningitis without evidence of bacteria on Gram’s stain and imaging findings, nonspecific brain edema on CT or hydrocephalus even without history of contact.

  1. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  2. Screening of Inherited Metabolic Disorders in Infants with Infantile Spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Rui; Chen, Sheng-Zhi; Sang, Yan; Chen, Jiao; Fan, Cong-Hai

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the incidence of inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) in infants with infantile spasms (IS), with an attempt to improve the early diagnosis and etiological and symptomatic treatment. Urine and blood samples were collected from 60 IS patients and analyzed for the quantification of amino acids, organic acids, and fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrum. Routine urine tests, hepatic function tests, blood biochemistry, brain imaging, as well as examinations of the brain stem auditory/visual evoked potentials were also examined. In addition to antiepileptic therapy, etiological and symptomatic treatments were also conducted in infants with confirmed IMD and the follow-up lasted for 6 months in these pediatric patients. Metabolic disorders were found in 28 (46.67 %) of 60 IS infants, among them 13 (21.67 %) were confirmed to be with IMD. Twelve of these 13 IS patients with definite IMD diagnoses (92.31 %) experienced varying degrees of delayed development of intelligence and motor function, 8 patients (61.54 %) had abnormal cranial CT or MRI findings, 11 patients (84.61 %) had abnormal brain stem evoked potentials, 4 patients (30.77 %) had abnormal hepatic functions, 3 patients (23.07 %) had abnormal blood biochemistry, 2 patients (15.38 %) had positive (+ to ++) results for routine urine ketones, and 2 patients (15.38 %) had skin lesions. After treatment in children who were diagnosed IMD, the well controlled epileptic seizures and the satisfactory developments in mental and motor were found in 4 cases of methylmalonic acidemia, 2 cases of classical phenylketonuria, and one case of biotin deficiency disease, glutaric acidemia type I, and 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria in each. IMD is a key biological cause in IS. Early screening for IMD is warranted in IS infants to facilitate the improvement for the prognosis and an early etiological treatment.

  3. Brain Basics

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  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or MEG, can ...

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  19. Brain Diseases

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    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

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    Full Text Available ... experienced long periods of deep sadness throughout her teenage years, but had never seen a doctor about ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

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  7. Brain Basics

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  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on neurons ... Using MEG, some scientists have found a specific pattern of brain activity that may help predict who ...

  10. Brain Basics

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  17. [Soluble brain proteins in autosomal trisomy syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhneva, L M; Baryshevskaia, V D

    1981-01-01

    The authors examined the soluble proteins of the brain frontal lobes in the newborn with trisomias of the 13th, 18th, and 21st chromosomes (Down's, Patau's, and Edwards' syndromes). The examinations were carried out on autopsy material (the post-mortem period not exceeding 24 hours) by the method of disc electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. The brain tissue was taken from 17 newborn infants with Down's syndrome; 9 infants with Patau's syndrome; and 7 infants with Edwards' syndrome. For the control the brain of 21 newborn infants without defects of the CNS development (the death cause being analogous) was taken. In all the syndromes studied diversely directed but relatively specific shifts were revealed on the proteinograms. It was the albumin section which appeared to be the most sensitive to the chromosomal pathology: in cases of Down's and Patau's syndromes the protein content in it was reduced, whereas in cases of Edwards' syndrome it was increased. In the latter syndrome the relative amount of neuronines S-5 and S-6, and in Patau's syndrome the amount of neuronine S-6 were lowered, this lowering being statistically significantly. In all the trisomias a tendency to a diminution of the zone of the acidic neurospecific cerebral proteins was noted. This is, possibly, due to the lower level of the CNS functional activity in chromosomal pathologies.

  18. The Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  19. Brain Basics

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  20. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  3. Effects of Motor Development Stimulation on Anthropometric Indices of Infants Aged 1-12 Months in Foster Care Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezou NikNezhad Jalali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first three years of life have a pivotal role in growth and development of infants. Extra-uterine environment largely affects brain development of infants during the first year of life.However,no specific programs are available for brain development stimulation in foster homes. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of motor development stimulation package on anthropometric indices of infants staying in foster homes. Method: This experimental study was conducted on 50 infants aged 1-12 months at Ali Asghar foster home of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Infants were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=25 and control (n=25. Motor development stimulation packages were used for intervention group three times a week for eight consecutive weeks (24 sessions, two hours each. Anthropometric indices of infants were evaluated using standard instruments before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.11.5 using independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In this study, mean age of infants in intervention and control groups was 6.04±3.48 and 4.3±3.70 months, respectively. In total, 68% of infants were male, and 32% were female. After intervention, Mann-Whitney test results showed no statistically significant difference in height (P=0.47 and head circumference (P=0.11 of infants between the groups. However, independent T-test showed a statistically significant difference in body weight of infants (P=0.007 between the groups after intervention with the stimulation care package. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, use of evidence-based motor development stimulation package for eight weeks resulted in increased weight of infants, while it had no effect on height and head circumference. Therefore, it is recommended that complementary studies be conducted in this regard.

  4. Effects of white matter injury on resting state fMRI measures in prematurely born infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Smyser

    Full Text Available The cerebral white matter is vulnerable to injury in very preterm infants (born prior to 30 weeks gestation, resulting in a spectrum of lesions. These range from severe forms, including cystic periventricular leukomalacia and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction, to minor focal punctate lesions. Moderate to severe white matter injury in preterm infants has been shown to predict later neurodevelopmental disability, although outcomes can vary widely in infants with qualitatively comparable lesions. Resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging has been increasingly utilized in neurodevelopmental investigations and may provide complementary information regarding the impact of white matter injury on the developing brain. We performed resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent postmenstrual age in fourteen preterm infants with moderate to severe white matter injury secondary to periventricular hemorrhagic infarction. In these subjects, resting state networks were identifiable throughout the brain. Patterns of aberrant functional connectivity were observed and depended upon injury severity. Comparisons were performed against data obtained from prematurely-born infants with mild white matter injury and healthy, term-born infants and demonstrated group differences. These results reveal structural-functional correlates of preterm white matter injury and carry implications for future investigations of neurodevelopmental disability.

  5. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  6. Sleep Apnoea in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dario Galante

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available For nearly 3,000 years, it has been recognized that apparently healthy infants could die suddenly and unexpectedly during their sleep .Throughout most of history, it was believed that these infants somehow suffocated, implying that these babies died a respiratory death. Nearly one infant per thousand live births continues to die suddenly and unexpectedly from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS

  7. Fulminant citrobacter meningitis with multiple periventricular abscesses in a three-month-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anoop

    Full Text Available Citrobacter, a Gram-negative enteric bacillus, is a rare cause of septicemia and meningitis, seldom reported beyond the neonatal period. It is characterized by a fulminant clinical course and a high incidence of complications, including brain abscesses. We studied a three-month-old infant with Citrobacter meningitis, who developed acute communicating hydrocephalus and multiple periventricular brain abscesses while on treatment. The patient died, despite intensive antibiotic treatment directed towards the causative organism, C. diversus.

  8. Fulminant citrobacter meningitis with multiple periventricular abscesses in a three-month-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anoop

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrobacter, a Gram-negative enteric bacillus, is a rare cause of septicemia and meningitis, seldom reported beyond the neonatal period. It is characterized by a fulminant clinical course and a high incidence of complications, including brain abscesses. We studied a three-month-old infant with Citrobacter meningitis, who developed acute communicating hydrocephalus and multiple periventricular brain abscesses while on treatment. The patient died, despite intensive antibiotic treatment directed towards the causative organism, C. diversus.

  9. Neuroimaging identifies increased manganese deposition in infants receiving parenteral nutrition12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Judy L; Anderson, Adam; Slaughter, James Christopher; Aschner, Michael; Steele, Steven; Beller, Amy; Mouvery, Amanda; Furlong, Heather M; Maitre, Nathalie L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manganese, an essential metal for normal growth and development, is neurotoxic on excessive exposure. Standard trace element–supplemented neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) has a high manganese content and bypasses normal gastrointestinal absorptive control mechanisms, which places infants at risk of manganese neurotoxicity. Magnetic resonance (MR) relaxometry demonstrating short T1 relaxation time (T1R) in the basal ganglia reflects excessive brain manganese accumulation. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that infants with greater parenteral manganese exposure have higher brain manganese accumulation, as measured by MR imaging, than do infants with lower parenteral manganese exposure. Design: Infants exposed to parenteral manganese were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Infants classified as having high manganese exposure received >75% of their nutrition in the preceding 4 wk as PN. All others were classified as having low exposure. Daily parenteral and enteral manganese intakes were calculated. Whole-blood manganese was measured by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Brain MR relaxometry was interpreted by a masked reviewer. Linear regression models, adjusted for gestational age (GA) at birth, estimated the association of relaxometry indexes with total and parenteral manganese exposures. Results: Seventy-three infants were enrolled. High-quality MR images were available for 58 infants, 39 with high and 19 with low manganese exposure. Four infants with a high exposure had blood manganese concentrations >30 μg/L. After controlling for GA, higher parenteral and total manganese intakes were associated with a lower T1R (P = 0.01) in the globus pallidus and putamen but were not associated with whole-blood manganese (range: 3.6–56.6 μg/L). Elevated conjugated bilirubin magnified the association between parenteral manganese and decreasing T1R. Conclusion: A short T1R for GA identifies infants at risk of

  10. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work well and may die. Your baby may not grow properly. Many of the developing organs, including the brain and heart, may be injured. Too much oxygen can also cause injury. Breathing too much oxygen can damage the lung. ...

  11. Fear of heights in infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.

  12. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  13. A graphical user interface for infant ERP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatiala, Jussi; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Forssman, Linda; Perdue, Katherine; Leppänen, Jukka

    2014-09-01

    Recording of event-related potentials (ERPs) is one of the best-suited technologies for examining brain function in human infants. Yet the existing software packages are not optimized for the unique requirements of analyzing artifact-prone ERP data from infants. We developed a new graphical user interface that enables an efficient implementation of a two-stage approach to the analysis of infant ERPs. In the first stage, video records of infant behavior are synchronized with ERPs at the level of individual trials to reject epochs with noncompliant behavior and other artifacts. In the second stage, the interface calls MATLAB and EEGLAB (Delorme & Makeig, Journal of Neuroscience Methods 134(1):9-21, 2004) functions for further preprocessing of the ERP signal itself (i.e., filtering, artifact removal, interpolation, and rereferencing). Finally, methods are included for data visualization and analysis by using bootstrapped group averages. Analyses of simulated and real EEG data demonstrated that the proposed approach can be effectively used to establish task compliance, remove various types of artifacts, and perform representative visualizations and statistical comparisons of ERPs. The interface is available for download from http://www.uta.fi/med/icl/methods/eeg.html in a format that is widely applicable to ERP studies with special populations and open for further editing by users.

  14. Computed tomography of herpes simplex encephalitis in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Shinro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Shoji, Hiroshi; Kato, Eiji; Yamamoto, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna

    1987-12-01

    CT-scan findings in four patients with three definite and one possible HSE showed low-density lesions in the temporal lobe, without any involvement of the brain stem or the basal ganglia. In two infants, low-density areas were bilaterally observed in the temporal lobe and frontal lobes, together with rapid and progressive vasculitis. Two months later, one of them exhibited strong gyral calcification. In the remaining two infants, a localized low-density area with atrophic processes was unilaterally recognized. From our experience, CT can be said to be useful for the analysis of precise clinico-pathological changes including focal lesions with intracranial infectious diseases, especially HSE, so that adequate therapy can be selected. Moreover, CT is also useful for the examination of the brain in order to exclude the possibility of a temporal lobe tumor or an abscess in those patients with suspected HSE. The CT findings in our infant with USE suggest that these changes are more rapid, progressive, and extensive than in the case of adult HSE.

  15. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  16. Deficits in Top-Down Sensory Prediction in Infants At Risk due to Premature Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Lauren L; Boldin, Alex M; Riccio, Julie E; Guillet, Ronnie; Aslin, Richard N

    2017-02-06

    A prominent theoretical view is that the brain is inherently predictive [1, 2] and that prediction helps drive the engine of development [3, 4]. Although infants exhibit neural signatures of top-down sensory prediction [5, 6], in order to establish that prediction supports development, it must be established that deficits in early prediction abilities alter trajectories. We investigated prediction in infants born prematurely, a leading cause of neuro-cognitive impairment worldwide [7]. Prematurity, independent of medical complications, leads to developmental disturbances [8-12] and a broad range of developmental delays [13-17]. Is an alteration in early prediction abilities the common cause? Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we measured top-down sensory prediction in preterm infants (born identification of infants at risk and could guide early intervention regimens.

  17. Sudden Infant Death With Area Postrema Lesion Likely Due to Wrong Use of Insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzi, Anna M; Cappiello, Achille; Termopoli, Veronica; Bonoldi, Emanuela; Matturri, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    We report a noteworthy case of a 7-month-old infant who suddenly and unexpectedly died during her sleep. After a complete postmortem examination, review of the clinical history, and detailed death scene investigation, the death remained unexplained, leading to a diagnosis of sudden infant death syndrome. However, an extensive review of the brainstem neuropathology revealed a severe alteration in the area postrema (a highly vascular structure lying at the base of the fourth ventricle outside of the blood-brain barrier). The alteration was likely due to massive and repeated to a common household insecticide in the last few weeks of life. These results provide an explanation for this sudden infant death, allowing a differential diagnosis from sudden infant death syndrome.

  18. Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Furtado, Andre [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lepore, Natasha [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Paquette, Lisa [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Center for Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bluml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Southern California, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    For typically developing infants, the last trimester of fetal development extending into the first post-natal months is a period of rapid brain development. Infants who are born premature face significant risk of brain injury (e.g., intraventricular or germinal matrix hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia) from complications in the perinatal period and also potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities because these early injuries can interrupt normal brain maturation. Neuroimaging has played an important role in the diagnosis and management of the preterm infant. Both cranial US and conventional MRI techniques are useful in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of preterm brain development and injury. Cranial US is highly sensitive for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and provides prognostic information regarding cerebral palsy. Data are limited regarding the utility of MRI as a routine screening instrument for brain injury for all preterm infants. However, MRI might provide diagnostic or prognostic information regarding PVL and other types of preterm brain injury in the setting of specific clinical indications and risk factors. Further development of advanced MR techniques like volumetric MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, metabolic imaging (MR spectroscopy) and functional connectivity are necessary to provide additional insight into the molecular, cellular and systems processes that underlie brain development and outcome in the preterm infant. The adult concept of the ''connectome'' is also relevant in understanding brain networks that underlie the preterm brain. Knowledge of the preterm connectome will provide a framework for understanding preterm brain function and dysfunction, and potentially even a roadmap for brain plasticity. By combining conventional imaging techniques with more advanced techniques, neuroimaging findings will likely be used not only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but also as biomarkers for long

  19. Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Furtado, Andre; Lepore, Natasha; Paquette, Lisa; Bluml, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    For typically developing infants, the last trimester of fetal development extending into the first post-natal months is a period of rapid brain development. Infants who are born premature face significant risk of brain injury (e.g., intraventricular or germinal matrix hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia) from complications in the perinatal period and also potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities because these early injuries can interrupt normal brain maturation. Neuroimaging has played an important role in the diagnosis and management of the preterm infant. Both cranial US and conventional MRI techniques are useful in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of preterm brain development and injury. Cranial US is highly sensitive for intraventricular hemorrhage IVH and provides prognostic information regarding cerebral palsy. Data are limited regarding the utility of MRI as a routine screening instrument for brain injury for all preterm infants. However, MRI might provide diagnostic or prognostic information regarding PVL and other types of preterm brain injury in the setting of specific clinical indications and risk factors. Further development of advanced MR techniques like volumetric MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, metabolic imaging (MR spectroscopy) and functional connectivity are necessary to provide additional insight into the molecular, cellular and systems processes that underlie brain development and outcome in the preterm infant. The adult concept of the “connectome” is also relevant in understanding brain networks that underlie the preterm brain. Knowledge of the preterm connectome will provide a framework for understanding preterm brain function and dysfunction, and potentially even a roadmap for brain plasticity. By combining conventional imaging techniques with more advanced techniques, neuroimaging findings will likely be used not only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but also as biomarkers for long-term neurodevelopmental

  20. Characterization of infant mu rhythm immediately before crawling: A high-resolution EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Qi, Xiao; Patino, Alejandro; Fagg, Andrew H; Kolobe, Thubi H A; Miller, David P; Ding, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Crawling is an important milestone in infant motor development. However, infants with developmental motor disorders can exhibit delays, or even miss, in the acquisition of crawling skill. And little information is available from the neurodevelopmental domain about the changes in brain function with intervention. The mu rhythm can potentially play a substantial role in understanding human motor development at early ages in infants, as it has in adults. Studies about the mu rhythm in infants were in coarse temporal resolution with longitudinal samples taken months or years apart. Details about the infant mu rhythm at a fine age resolution has not been fully revealed, which leads to contradictory evidence about its formulation and developmental changes of its spectral origins and, therefore, impedes the full understanding of motor brain development before crawling skill acquisition. The present study aims to expand knowledge about the infant mu rhythm and its spatio-spectral pattern shifts along maturation immediately before crawling. With high-density EEG data recorded on a weekly basis and simultaneous characterization of spatio-spectral patterns of the mu rhythm, subtle developmental changes in its spectral peak, frequency range, and scalp topography are revealed. This mu rhythm further indicates a significant correlation to the crawling onset while powers from other frequency bands do not show such correlations. These details of developmental changes about the mu rhythm provide an insight of rapid changes in the human motor cortex in the first year of life. Our results are consistent with previous findings about the peak frequency shifting of the mu rhythm and further depict detailed developmental curves of its frequency ranges and spatial topographies. The infant mu rhythm could potentially be used to assess motor brain deficiencies at early ages and to evaluate intervention effectiveness in children with neuromotor disorders.